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Sample records for central india studied

  1. Visual impairment and blindness in rural central India: the Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    PubMed

    Nangia, Vinay; Jonas, Jost B; Gupta, Rajesh; Khare, Anshu; Sinha, Ajit

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate prevalence of visual impairment in rural central India. The population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study included 4711 subjects with an age of 30+ years. Presenting visual acuity (PRVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded. Visual impairment and blindness were defined using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and United States (US) standard. On the basis of PRVA and using WHO and US standards, 1049 [22%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 21.1, 23.5] subjects and 1290 (27%; 95% CI: 26.1, 28.7) subjects, respectively, were visually impaired, and 35 (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.0) subjects and 116 (2.5%; 95% CI: 2.0, 2.9) subjects, respectively, were blind. The corresponding age-standardized prevalence figures were 17%, 21%, 0.5% and 2%, respectively. Using best-correcting glasses could eliminate PRVA-visual impairment/blindness in 729 subjects (67% of all subjects with visual impairment/blindness). On the basis of BCVA and using WHO and US standards, 333 (7%; 95% CI: 6.3, 7.8) subjects and 473 (10%; 95% CI: 9.2, 10.9) subjects, respectively, had visual impairment, and 22 (0.5%; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.7) and 31 (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.4, 0.9) subjects, respectively, were blind. Corresponding age-standardized prevalence figures were 5%, 8%, 0.4% and 0.5%, respectively. Causes for BCVA-visual impairment/blindness were cataract (75%), postoperative posterior capsular opacification (4%), surgical complications (2%), corneal opacifications (2%), age-related macular degeneration (2%), other macular diseases (1%), and glaucoma (1%). Age-standardized prevalence of PRVA-visual impairment/blindness (WHO definition) in the adult population of rural central India was 17%. Most frequent cause was undercorrected refractive error. Supply of correct glasses is the most efficient way to improve vision in the rural central India. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  2. Prevalence of Depression, Suicidal Ideation, Alcohol Intake and Nicotine Consumption in Rural Central India. The Central India Eye and Medical Study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Torsten; Behere, Prakash; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the prevalence of depression, suicidal ideations, alcohol and nicotine consumption in adults in an agrarian society mostly unchanged by the effects of urbanization. Methods The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study in rural Central India close to the tribal belt and included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years). Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD), suicidal ideation by six standardized questions, nicotine use by the Fagerstroem Nicotine Tolerance Questionnaire (FTNQ), and alcohol consumption by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results Mild to moderate depression (CESD sum score: 15–21) was detected in 1862 (39.6%) individuals (33.5% of men, 44.8 of women), and major depression (CESD sum score >21) in 613 (13.0%) individuals (8.1 of men, 17.3% of women). Suicide attempt was reported by 199 (4.2%) participants and suicidal thoughts during the last 6 months by 238 (5.1%) individuals. There were 887 (18.9%) smokers and smokeless tobacco was consumed by 1968 (41.8%) subjects. Alcohol consumption was reported by 1081 (23.0%) participants; 283 (6.0%) subjects had an AUDIT score ≥8 (hazardous drinking), and 108 (4.63%) subjects a score ≥13 (women) or ≥15 (men) (alcohol dependence). Conclusions In rural Central India, prevalence of major depression was comparable to figures reported from other developing countries. Prevalence of smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption was higher than as reported from urban regions. Measures should be taken to address the relatively high prevalence of suicide attempts and thoughts on suicide in rural Central India. PMID:25409441

  3. Epidemiological Study of Insect Bite Reactions from Central India

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Sumit; Dongre, Atul; Krishnan, Ajay; Godse, Swati; Singh, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The physical effects of the arthropod bites on human skin receive less attention, especially in the rural areas where the per capita income is less. Ours is a rural-based hospital, the vicinity having more of plants, trees, and forests; we undertook the study to find out the relation of insect bite dermatitis in a rural area. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Dermatology outpatient department of our institute on 100 subjects of insect bite dermatitis who were questioned retrospectively about the sequence of events besides their environmental and living conditions. They were examined thoroughly and the relevant clinical findings were noted, also taking into account the prior treatment taken by them, if any. Results and Conclusions: It was found that insect bite dermatitis has no age or gender preponderance, and the protective factors for the same are use of full sleeve clothes and keeping the doors and windows closed at night. On the contrary, the risk factors are residence in areas of heavy insect infestation, use of perfumes and colognes, warm weather in spring and summer and the lack of protective measures. However, there was no direct association of atopy with increased risk of developing insect bite dermatitis. PMID:24082174

  4. Central corneal thickness and its association with ocular and general parameters in Indians: the Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    PubMed

    Nangia, Vinay; Jonas, Jost B; Sinha, Ajit; Matin, Arshia; Kulkarni, Maithili

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the distribution of central corneal thickness (CCT) and its associations in an adult Indian population. Population-based study. The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study performed in a rural region close to Nagpur in Central India; it included 4711 subjects (ages 30+ years) of 5885 eligible subjects (response rate, 80.1%). The participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic and medical examination, including 200 standardized questions on socioeconomic background, lifestyle, social relations, and psychiatric depression. This study was focused on CCT as measured by sonography and its associations. Intraocular pressure was measured by applanation tonometry. Central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure. Central corneal thickness measurement data were available on 9370 (99.4%) eyes. Mean CCT was 514+/-33 microm (median, 517 microm; range, 290-696 microm). By multiple regression analysis, CCT was associated significantly with younger age (P<0.001), male gender (P<0.001), higher body mass index (P = 0.006), lower corneal refractive power (P<0.001), deeper anterior chamber (P = 0.02), thicker lens (P = 0.02), and shorter axial length (P = 0.006). Central corneal thickness was not associated significantly with refractive error (P = 0.54) or cylindrical refractive error (P = 0.20). If eyes with a corneal refractive power of 45 or more diopters were excluded, the relationship between CCT and axial length was no longer statistically significant (P>0.05), whereas all other relationships remained significant. Intraocular pressure readings increased significantly (P<0.001) with both higher CCT and higher corneal refractive power. Indians from rural Central India have markedly thinner corneas than do Caucasians or Chinese, and, as in other populations, CCT is greater in men. CCT was associated with younger age, higher body mass index, lower corneal refractive power, deeper anterior chamber, thicker lens, and shorter axial length

  5. Risk Factors for Farmers' Suicides in Central Rural India: Matched Case–control Psychological Autopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhise, Manik Changoji; Behere, Prakash Balkrushna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite more than two decades since recognition of suicides by farmers in India, systematic studies comparing various risk factors are lacking. This is major hurdle for the formulation of strategies for farmers' suicide prevention. Objective: To identify socioeconomic and psychological risk factors and their relative contribution in suicides by farmers. Materials and Methods: A matched case–control psychological autopsy was done on 98 farmers' suicide victims and 98 controls in Central India. Results: Economic problems, psychiatric illness, and stressful life events were found to be important contributors to farmers' suicides. Important economic risk factors were procurement of debt, especially from multiple sources and for nonagricultural reasons and leasing out farms. Psychiatric illness was present significantly in higher proportion among cases than controls. Crop failure, interpersonal problems, medical illness, and marriage of female family member were significant stressful life events. Conclusions: There are socioeconomic and psychological risk factors for suicide by farmers which can be targets of prevention policy. PMID:28031593

  6. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEP)- A Pilot Study Conducted on Young Healthy Adults from Central India

    PubMed Central

    Gandhe, Mahendra Bhauraoji; Gandhe, Swapnali Mahendra; Puttewar, A.N.; Saraf, Chhaya; Singh, Ramji

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To Evaluate I, II, III, IV, V wave latencies and I-III, III-V, I-V inter-peak latencies and V/I wave amplitude ratio in Normal subjects in Central India. Methods: We recorded BAEP from 50 healthy normal subjects from the community of same sex and geographical setup. The absolute, interpeak and wave V/I amplitude ratio were measurement and recording was done using RMS EMG EP MARK II machine manufactured by RMS recorders and Medicare system, Chandigarh. Result: Absolute, interpeak and wave V/I amplitude ratio were measured in normal subjects and compared with other previous studies. Conclusion: This study was conducted as exploratory pilot study only on male healthy controls. Since, the study conducted in different regions, there are some differences in the latencies and interpeak latencies and amplitude ratio but they are within range, so reference range of this study can be used for future studies in this Wardha region of Central India. PMID:25120971

  7. Ocular axial length and its associations in an adult population of central rural India: the Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    PubMed

    Nangia, Vinay; Jonas, Jost B; Sinha, Ajit; Matin, Arshia; Kulkarni, Maithili; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the normal distribution of axial length of the globe, which is a major measurement of the eye, and its associations with other ocular and systemic parameters. Population-based study. The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study performed in a rural region of central India. The study comprised 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years) of 5885 eligible individuals (response rate, 80.1%). A detailed ophthalmic and medical examination was performed. The axial length was measured sonographically. Axial length. Axial length measurements were available on 4698 study participants (99.7%). Their mean age was 49.4+/-13.4 years (range, 30-100 years), and the mean refractive error was -0.18+/-1.48 diopters (range, -20.0 to +7.25 diopters). Mean axial length was 22.6+/-0.91 mm (range, 18.22-34.20 mm). In multivariate analysis, axial length was significantly (P<0.001) associated with the systemic parameters of increased age, taller body height, greater body mass index, and higher level of education, and with the ocular parameters of lower best-corrected visual acuity, lower corneal refractive power, deeper anterior chamber, thicker lens, and more myopic spherical power and cylindrical refractive power. Within the highly myopic group, as defined by an axial length that exceeded 26.5 mm, none of these associations (except for the association between axial length and spherical refractive power) were statistically significant (P>0.15) in univariate or multivariate analysis. In a rural population of central India, the mean ocular axial length was 22.6+/-0.91 mm, which was shorter than that of other populations. Axial length was associated with the systemic parameters of increased age, taller body height, greater body mass index, and a higher level of education, and with the ocular parameters of lower best-corrected visual acuity, lower corneal refractive power, deeper anterior chamber, thicker lens, and more myopic spherical and cylindrical refractive power

  8. Awareness and Knowledge of Glaucoma in Central India: A Hospital-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Prafulla K; Rai, Vaishali G; Pattebahadur, Rajesh; Singhi, Shipra; Chauhan, Ashish K

    2017-01-01

    To assess the awareness and knowledge of glaucoma among people attending the ophthalmology outpatient department at a tertiary care hospital in central India. A prospective observational study. A questionnaire-based study was conducted, involving persons aged 18 and above attending the ophthalmology outpatient department from October 2014 to September 2015. Data on awareness and knowledge of glaucoma was collected through a face-to-face interview. Fourteen hundred people participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 43 ± 15 years (range, 18-85). The study participants included 53% men and 47% women. Only 27% (n = 380/1400) of the participants were aware of glaucoma. Age, sex, and presence or type of refractive error had no impact on glaucoma awareness. Awareness level was greater in individuals with higher education levels and those belonging to an upper socioeconomic class (SEC). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher levels of glaucoma awareness among participants belonging to the upper 2 SECs (P = 0.05) and those educated above the high school level (P = 0.001). The most common source of awareness was close acquaintance with relatives, famly members, and friends of glaucoma patients. Awareness of glaucoma in India is low. Lack of education and lower socioeconomic status are the major risk factors for late preentation of glaucoma. Continuous presence of a low level of awareness and the same factors accounting for it warrants the need for an aggressive and refined approach to increase awareness of glaucoma to prevent glaucoma-related blindness. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  9. A central storage facility to reduce pesticide suicides--a feasibility study from India.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Devika, Shanmugasundaram; Manikandan, Sarojini

    2013-09-16

    Pesticide suicides are considered the single most important means of suicide worldwide. Centralized pesticide storage facilities have the possible advantage of delaying access to pesticides thereby reducing suicides. We undertook this study to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a centralized pesticide storage facility as a preventive intervention strategy in reducing pesticide suicides. A community randomized controlled feasibility study using a mixed methods approach involving a household survey; focus group discussions (FGDs) and surveillance were undertaken. The study was carried out in a district in southern India. Eight villages that engaged in floriculture were identified. Using the lottery method two were randomized to be the intervention sites and two villages constituted the control site. Two centralized storage facilities were constructed with local involvement and lockable storage boxes were constructed. The household survey conducted at baseline and one and a half years later documented information on sociodemographic data, pesticide usage, storage and suicides. At baseline 4446 individuals (1097 households) in the intervention and 3307 individuals (782 households) in the control sites were recruited while at follow up there were 4308 individuals (1063 households) in the intervention and 2673 individuals (632 households) in the control sites. There were differences in baseline characteristics and imbalances in the prevalence of suicides between intervention and control sites as this was a small feasibility study.The results from the FGDs revealed that most participants found the storage facility to be both useful and acceptable. In addition to protecting against wastage, they felt that it had also helped prevent pesticide suicides as the pesticides stored here were not as easily and readily accessible. The primary analyses were done on an Intention to Treat basis. Following the intervention, the differences between sites in changes in combined

  10. Morphometric analysis in basaltic Terrain of Central India using GIS techniques: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Nisha; Obi Reddy, G. P.; Kumar, Nirmal; Nagaraju, M. S. S.; Srivastava, Rajeev; Singh, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometric analysis is significant for investigation and management of the watershed. This study depicts the morphometric analysis of Miniwada Watershed in Nagpur district, Maharashtra, Central India using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, which has been carried out through measurement of various aspects like linear, aerial and relief aspects of watershed. The drainage network of the watershed was generated from Cartosat-I DEM (10 m) using ESRI Software ArcGIS (ver.10.2). The analysis reveals that drainage pattern is dendritic and the stream order in the watershed varies from 1 to 4. The total number of stream segments of all orders counted as 37, out of which the majority of orders (70.27 %) was covered by 1st order streams and 4th order stream segments covers only 2.70 %. The bifurcation ratio reflects the geological and tectonic characteristics of the watershed and estimated as 3.08. The drainage density of the watershed is 3.63 km/sq km and it indicates the closeness of spacing of channels. The systematic analysis of various parameters in GIS helps in better understanding the soil resources distribution, watersheds prioritization, planning and management.

  11. Morphometric analysis in basaltic Terrain of Central India using GIS techniques: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Nisha; Obi Reddy, G. P.; Kumar, Nirmal; Nagaraju, M. S. S.; Srivastava, Rajeev; Singh, S. K.

    2017-09-01

    Morphometric analysis is significant for investigation and management of the watershed. This study depicts the morphometric analysis of Miniwada Watershed in Nagpur district, Maharashtra, Central India using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, which has been carried out through measurement of various aspects like linear, aerial and relief aspects of watershed. The drainage network of the watershed was generated from Cartosat-I DEM (10 m) using ESRI Software ArcGIS (ver.10.2). The analysis reveals that drainage pattern is dendritic and the stream order in the watershed varies from 1 to 4. The total number of stream segments of all orders counted as 37, out of which the majority of orders (70.27 %) was covered by 1st order streams and 4th order stream segments covers only 2.70 %. The bifurcation ratio reflects the geological and tectonic characteristics of the watershed and estimated as 3.08. The drainage density of the watershed is 3.63 km/sq km and it indicates the closeness of spacing of channels. The systematic analysis of various parameters in GIS helps in better understanding the soil resources distribution, watersheds prioritization, planning and management.

  12. Offshore Extension of Deccan Traps in Kachchh, Central Western India: Implications for Geological Sequestration Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, D. K.; Pandey, A.; Rajan, S.

    2011-03-15

    The Deccan basalts in central western India are believed to occupy large onshore-offshore area. Using geophysical and geological observations, onshore sub-surface structural information has been widely reported. On the contrary, information about offshore structural variations has been inadequate due to scarcity of marine geophysical data and lack of onshore-offshore lithological correlations. Till date, merely a few geophysical studies are reported that gauge about the offshore extent of Deccan Traps and the Mesozoic sediments (pre-Deccan). To fill this gap in knowledge, in this article, we present new geophysical evidences to demonstrate offshore continuation of the Deccan volcanics and the Mesozoic sediments. The offshore multi-channel seismic and onshore-offshore lithological correlations presented here confirm that the Mesozoic sedimentary column in this region is overlain by 0.2-1.2-km-thick basaltic cover. Two separate phases of Mesozoic sedimentation, having very distinctive physical and lithological characteristics, are observed between overlying basaltic rocks and underlying Precambrian basement. Using onshore-offshore seismic and borehole data this study provides new insight into the extent of the Deccan basalts and the sub-basalt structures. This study brings out a much clearer picture than that was hitherto available about the offshore continuation of the Deccan Traps and the Mesozoic sediments of Kachchh. Further, its implications in identifying long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} within sub-basalt targets are discussed. The carbon sequestration potential has been explored through the geological assessment in terms of the thickness of the strata as well as lithology.

  13. Integrated hydrochemical and geophysical studies for assessment of groundwater pollution in basaltic settings in Central India.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Paras R; Padmakar, C; SuriNaidu, L; Vaijnath, V U; Kachawe, Bhusan; Gurunadha Rao, V V S; Labhasetwar, P K

    2012-05-01

    The Pithampur Industrial sectors I, II, and III, located approximately, 45 km from Indore in Central India have emerged as one of the largest industrial clusters in the region. Various types of industries ranging from automobiles to chemicals and pharmaceuticals have been set up in the region since 1990. Most of the industries have effluent treatment plants (ETP) for treating wastewater before its disposal on land and/or in water body. The present study is an attempt to assess the groundwater quality in the watersheds surrounding these industrial sectors to develop the baseline groundwater quality in order to enable the policy makers to facilitate decisions on the development of industries in this region. The industries are located in two sub-watersheds, namely, Gambhir river sub-watershed and Chambal river sub-watershed. Geologically, the study area is located in the Deccan traps of Cretaceous to Paleocene age. The different basaltic flow units underlie clayey soils varying in thickness from 2-3 m. The aquifer is mostly of unconfined nature. Samples have been collected from a network of observation wells set up in the watersheds. The water quality analysis of the groundwater samples has been carried out six times during three hydrological cycles of 2004, 2005, and 2006. The results indicate that a few observation wells in the vicinity of the industrial clusters have very high TDS concentration and exceed the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) guideline for TDS concentration. The contamination of groundwater has been more severe in the Gambhir watershed as compared to the Chambal watershed. The presence of the impermeable clay layers has resulted in a slow migration of contaminants from the sources. The findings reveal that there is no significant groundwater contamination in the Pithampur industrial sectors except in the vicinity of the industrial clusters, which indicates that there is good environmental space available for the expansion of industrial units in

  14. Profile of adults seeking voluntary HIV testing and counseling in rural Central India: results from a hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Pai, Nitika Pant; Joshi, Rajnish; Moodie, Erica E M; Taksande, Bharati; Kalantri, S P; Pai, Madhukar; Tulsky, Jacqueline P; Reingold, Arthur

    2009-03-01

    Rural India has an undetected load of HIV-positive individuals. Few rural adults present for HIV testing and counseling due to stigma, discrimination, and fear of social ostracization. In this rural hospital clinic-based study, we document profiles of rural adults seeking voluntary testing and counseling, and analyze correlates of HIV seropositivity. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 450 participants presenting to the outpatient clinics of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Central India. After informed consent, pre- and post-test counseling, HIV testing, and face-to-face interviews were conducted. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The median age of the 450 study participants was 34 years (range 18-88 years); the majority (74%) was married. The overall proportion of HIV seropositivity was 32% [95% CI 28%, 37%]. The proportions of HIV seropositivity in married women, married men, and single men were 41%, 37%, 18%, respectively. No single woman was found seropositive in the study. Very few married women were aware of their husbands' HIV status. In a multivariate analysis, correlates of HIV seropositivity in men were: age 30-39 years, being married, having sex with multiple partners, use of alcohol before sex, and testing positive for HIV in the past. In married women, the only predictor of seropositivity was being married. Although limited by the non-random nature of the sampling method, this pilot study is unique in that it is the first from this rural region of Central India. It provides baseline data on marginalized, largely unstudied populations that may aid in designing probabilistic community-based surveys in this neglected population.

  15. Comparative Study of Local Magnitude Scales for Central U.S. and Western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Q.; Langston, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    Seismic waveform data from 816 aftershocks of 2001 Bhuj Mw 7.7 earthquake, recorded by CERI/STAR aftershock deployment, including eight K2 6-channel dataloggers with 3-component episensor accelerometers and 3-component L-28 geophones, were used to develop a local magnitude scale for Kachchh basin of western India. Results show that the distance correction curve can be expressed as -logA0=1.8286*(r/100.0)-0.0052*(r-100.0)+3.0, displaying weak distance attenuation. This result is much like that of the local magnitude scale for the Central U.S. Both scales show weak distance attenuation, compared with the local magnitude scales for southern California or Tanzania, East Africa, and display a negative K parameter, implying similar patterns of seismic wave spreading in these two regions. These results for local magnitude scales give support to the assertion that the Kachchh basin and New Madrid Seismic Zone are geological analogs inasmuch that ground motion and other seismological results from one area can shed light on similar problems in the other area.

  16. Drinking Water Quality Assessment Studies for an Urbanized Part of the Nagpur District, Central India.

    PubMed

    Varade, Abhay M; Yenkie, Rajshree; Shende, Rahul; Kodate, Jaya

    2014-01-01

    The water quality of Hingna area of Nagpur district, Central India was assessed for its suitability as drinking water. 22 water samples, representing both the surface and groundwater sources, were collected and analysed for different inorganic constituents by using the standard procedures. The result depicted abundance of major ions; Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+ = HCO3- > Cl- > SO4(2-) > NO3-. The concentrations of different elements in water were compared with the drinking water standards defined by World Health Organization (WHO). The hydro-chemical results reveal that most of the samples were within the desirable limits of the drinking water quality. However, few samples of the area, showed higher values of total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), and magnesium (Mg) indicating their 'hard water type' nature and found to be unfit for the drinking purpose. Such poor water quality of these samples is found due to the combined effect of urbanization and industrial activities. The potential health risks associated with various water parameters have also been documented in this paper.

  17. Morphological and Dimensional Characteristics of Dental Arch among Tribal and Non-tribal Population of Central India: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Naveen S; Saxena, Vrinda; Vyas, Rajesh; Sharma, Rohit; Sharva, Vijayta; Dwivedi, Ashish; Jain, Manish

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differences in the dental arch among Bhil Aboriginals were investigated and compared with non-tribal individuals residing in a tribal zone of Central India. Plaster models (120) were made with the help of alginate impression of tribal adults as well as non-tribal adults residing in the same area. The supposition as aboriginals being primitive due to dietary practices maxillary arch size and mandibular arch size is distended in comparison to the non-tribal population as adaptation of soft refined diet has disrupted the growth of the jaws. Hence, an attempt was made to evaluate the arch widths of tribal population and to associate it with non-tribe population in the same area of Central India. Materials and Methods: Difference in morphology and dimension of the maxillary and mandibular arches was aimed at Bhil tribes as well as non-tribal residents of tribe rich zone of Central India. The study was steered amid 120 individuals both tribal and non-tribe equally around 60 each through a well-organized out-reach program intermittently. Study models were made of dental arches of all participants. All measurements of the arch dimension were patent on the study casts using an electronic digital sliding caliper. Pair t-test was applied by using SPSS software version-19.0. Results: In the maxillary arch, on appraisal the non-tribal and Bhil tribe’s subjects, it showed a statistically significant difference in inter-incisor width (2.95 mm), inter-canine width (2.60 mm), arch depth (3.25 mm). While inter premolar width (0.20 mm) and inter molar width (0.80 mm) anterior arch length (0.60 mm), and posterior arch length (0.10 mm) showed statistically not significant difference between non-tribal population and Bhil tribe subjects. In the mandibular arch, it showed a statistically significant difference in inter-canine width (1.00 mm). Although, inter-incisor width (0.72 mm), inter-molar width (0.80 mm), arch depth (0.90 mm), anterior arch length (0.30 mm), posterior

  18. Corneal refractive power and its associations with ocular and general parameters: the Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Jost B; Nangia, Vinay; Sinha, Ajit; Gupta, Rajesh

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the normal distribution of corneal refractive power (CRP) and its associations with other ocular and systemic parameters in the Central Indian population. Population-based study. The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study performed in a rural region of Central India. The study comprised 4711 subjects aged 30+ years. A detailed ophthalmic and medical examination was performed. Horizontal and vertical CRP were measured using a non-automatic keratometer. Corneal refractive power. After excluding pseudophakic or aphakic eyes, keratometric measurements were available on 9024 eyes of 4617 study participants (98.0%) with a mean age of 49.1±13.2 years (range, 30-100 years) and a mean refractive error of -0.20±1.52 diopters (D). Mean horizontal CRP was 44.60±1.68 D (mean ± standard deviation; range, 36.5-52.0 D), and vertical CRP was 44.62±1.74 D (range, 37.75-52.0 D) with no significant difference between both parameters (P=0.27). In multivariate analysis, CRP was significantly (P < 0.001) associated with the systemic parameters of increasing age (P < 0.001), lower level of education (P=0.02), and lower body height (P < 0.001), and with the ocular parameters of thinner central corneal thickness (P < 0.001), deeper anterior chamber (P < 0.001), shorter axial length (P < 0.001), and myopic refractive error (P < 0.001). The results remained unchanged if eyes with CRP ≥48 D were excluded. Horizontal CRP increased with higher age, lower level of education, lower body height, thinner central cornea, deeper anterior chamber, shorter axial length, and myopic refractive error. The association with age may be of importance for refractive surgery. The association of a steeper cornea with a shorter body stature and a shorter axial length parallels an association between shorter body length and shorter axial length without association with refractive error. The association among steeper cornea, shorter body length, and lower educational

  19. Effect of ENSO on regional monsoonal rains -- a case study for central India

    SciTech Connect

    Sastri, A.S.R.A.S.

    1996-12-31

    The regular onset of warm ocean temperatures off Peru during the calendar months of December and January has long been known as El Nino. Years with abnormally warm ocean surface temperatures along the Peruvian coast are associated with abnormally warm ocean surface temperatures up and down the Pacific coast. The changes in the equatorial Pacific ocean surface temperatures influence the distribution of precipitation and give rise to a pattern of abnormal surface pressures that spans the tropics, the Southern Oscillation. These two phenomena, i.e., El Nino and Southern oscillation combined are known as ENSO which emphasize the importance of the interaction between the oceans and atmosphere. It has been found that ENSO has a great influence on Indian summer monsoons. However, there are several studies to examine the influence of ENSO and sea surface temperatures (SST) on the quantum and distribution of monsoonal rainfall. It was observed that during the El Nino years the monsoonal rainfall gets reduced and causes drought conditions in some parts of India.

  20. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: a clinicopathological and cytomorpholgical study from a tertiary care centre in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Ambroise, M Moses; Ghosh, Mitra; Mallikarjuna, Vs; Annapurneswari, S; Kurian, Ann; Chakravarthy, Ranjani

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) cases occurring in Indian patients and also study the utility of the crush smear preparation in intraoperative diagnosis. The immune status, clinical, radiological details, immunohistochemical profile, histopathological findings and cytological features in smear preparation of 32 cases of PCNSL were analyzed. Patients with systemic NHL and skull-base lymphomas were excluded. The mean age of our patients was 52 years with a male: female ratio 1:1. A periventricular location was found in 62.5% of patients. None of our PCNSL cases were associated with AIDS. All cases except one were diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Intraoperative diagnosis using crush smears allowed correct prediction in 93% of cases. Our study shows that PCNSL is seen predominantly in immunocompetent patients in India .The age of presentation is relatively young as compared to the West. Our study also stresses the utility of crush smear preparation in establishing an intraoperative diagnosis.

  1. Clinical and epidemiological study of stress hyperglycemia among medical intensive care unit patients in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jitendra; Chittawar, Sachin; Maniram, Ram Singh; Dubey, T. N.; Singh, Ambrish

    2017-01-01

    Background: Stress hyperglycemia is common in patients presenting at the emergency medical ward and is associated with poor prognosis and increased risk of mortality. Aims and Objective: To study and determine the prevalence and factors associated with stress hyperglycemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was performed on 536 nondiabetic patients presented to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at Gandhi Medical College and allied Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal, between March 31, 2015, and May 28, 2015. A detailed history including demographic profile, presence of chronic disease, history of hospitalization and ICU admission, surgical status, and major reason for ICU admission (i.e., predominant diagnostic category) was collected. Hematological and other parameters based on profile of study population were also analyzed. Results: Out of 536 patients, 109 (20.33%) had stress hyperglycemia. Out of 109 patients with stress hyperglycemia, 87 (16.23%) patients had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <5.7% and 22 (4.10%) patients had HbA1c between 5.7% and 6.4%. Mean age of the study population was 40.27 ± 1.44 years, with male dominance. Mean random blood glucose level was 181.46 ± 3.80 mg/dl. Frequency of stress hyperglycemia was 24.13% in stroke, 19.54% in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), 17.24% in chronic kidney disease (CKD), 12.64% in central nervous system (CNS) infection, 8.05% in chronic liver disease (CLD), and 8.05% in seizure patients. Association between stroke and stress hyperglycemia was significant (P = 0.036). Association between hospital stay more than 7 days and stress hyperglycemia was significant in stroke patients (P = 0.0029), CKD patients (P = 0.0036), CLD (P = 0.0099), and MODS patients (P = 0.0328). Conclusions: The factors associated with stress hyperglycemia were stroke, MODS, CKD, CNS infection, CLD, seizure patients, with prolonged hospital stay and expected proportion. PMID:28217513

  2. An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of livestock diseases in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhand, Central India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore and document the information regarding usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants utilized by rural farmers and traditional herbal healers for livestock healthcare in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhnad, Central India. Methods The remote villages of Tikamgarh district were regularly visited from July 2011 to June 2012. Following the methods of Jain and Goel (1995) information regarding the usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was collected. Results A total of 41 plant species in 39 genera and 25 families were used traditionally with various plant parts and their combinations for the treatment of more than 36 diseases in the studied area. Trees (17 species) were found to be the most used Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants followed by herbs (15 species), shrubs (6 species) and grasses (3) in descending order. The most common diseases cough, diarrhoea and fever were treated by 04 ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species. Conclusions The present study recommended that the crop and medicinal plant genetic resources cannot be conserved and protected without conserving/managing of the agro-ecosystem or natural habitat of medicinal plants and the socio-cultural organization of the local people. The same may be applied to protect indigenous knowledge, related to the use of medicinal and other wild plants. Introduction of medicinal plants in degraded government and common lands could be another option for promoting the rural economy together with environmental conservation, but has not received attention in the land rehabilitation programs in this region. PMID:25183130

  3. Male perceptions on female sterilization: a community-based study in rural Central India.

    PubMed

    Char, Arundhati; Saavala, Minna; Kulmala, Teija

    2009-09-01

    Use of modern contraceptive methods has increased fourfold in India since the 1970s, characterized by a predominance of female sterilization. There has been considerable investigation about women's choice of female sterilization, but little from the male perspective. Seven focus group discussions were conducted among 58 men currently married to women aged 15-45, followed by a cross-sectional survey among 793 men currently married to same-aged women. Bivariate analysis was used for the survey data, and content analysis was used for the qualitative data. Men's primary source of reproductive health information was mass media, although they expressed interest in getting information through discussion with knowledgeable sources. Men understood family planning and contraception to be two separate issues: Men viewed "family planning" as synonymous with female sterilization, whereas they saw "contraception" as referring to spacing methods, knowledge of which was limited. Thirty-four percent of men reported that their wives had been sterilized; 79% of men who did not rely on any permanent method said they wanted their wives to be sterilized. In focus group discussions, most men reported themselves as their family's sole decision maker about reproductive health; however, only one-third of survey respondents did so. Men are interested in acquiring family planning information, but lack knowledge about available information sources, which hampers their ability to make informed family planning choices. Family planning service providers and program planners need to be aware of males' knowledge and perceptions pertaining to family planning, and make appropriate modifications to communication strategies.

  4. Caregiving for children with type 1 diabetes and clinical outcomes in central India: The IDREAM study.

    PubMed

    Friedemann-Sánchez, Greta; Capistrant, Benjamin D; Ron, James; Novak, Lindsey; Zuijdwijk, Caroline; Ogle, Graham D; Anderson, Barbara; Moran, Antoinette; Pendsey, Sharad

    2017-08-15

    Parental care influences outcomes for children's type 1 diabetes (T1D). There is little evidence about the impact of parental caregiving in developing countries, where fixed dose human insulin (conventional) therapy and limited self-monitoring of blood glucose are common. This article investigates whether performance of key T1D management tasks by children or their caregivers impacts hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). We surveyed the caregivers of 179 children with T1D routinely treated in a specialized diabetes clinic in Maharashtra, India to determine who performs key diabetes care tasks: child or parent. We used linear regression to estimate the relationship between parental caregiving and HbA1c, and how this association varies by child age and time since diagnosis. Caregivers of older children were less involved in care tasks, though caregivers of 11- to 18-year olds performed more care for children diagnosed for a longer duration. Parental involvement in key insulin delivery tasks was associated with lower HbA1c levels for all children. These reductions were greatest among children 11 to 14 years old and diagnosed for less than 2 years: mean HbA1c levels were 8.5% (69 mmol/mol) if the caregiver, and 14.4% (134 mmol/mol) if the child, performed the tasks (P < .05). Parents of children diagnosed with T1D early in life remain involved in care throughout the child's adolescence. Parents of children diagnosed in late childhood and early adolescence are significantly less involved in care, and this is associated with worse glycemic control. Clinics must know who performs care tasks and tailor diabetes education appropriately. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Sickle cell anemia from central India: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Dipty; Italia, Khushnooma; Sarathi, Vijaya; Ghoshand, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan

    2012-11-01

    Although sickle cell anemia in India is believed to have a mild clinical presentation, few studies report severe disease in many patients from central India. Hence, we have retrospectively studied 316 children with SCA who were followed up for a period of 5.8±5.7 years. There were 55.4 blood transfusions, 43.3 episodes of vaso-occlusive crises requiring hospitalization, and 108.9 hospitalizations per 100 person years. Ninety six (30%) patients had severe disease whereas 74 patients also fulfilled the criteria for hydroxyurea therapy. Significant proportion of children with sickle cell anemia from central India present with severe clinical presentation and require regular medical attention.

  6. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal tuberculosis: Using cytomorphological, microbiological, immunological and molecular techniques - A study from Central India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Pradyumna Kumar; Bhargava, A; Punde, R P; Pathak, N; Desikan, P; Jain, A; Varshney, S; Maudar, K K

    2010-04-01

    The present study included three groups: (A) age and gender matched control (n=24) with no previous signs of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infection, (B) patients (n=28) diagnosed with gastro-intestinal TB (GITB), (C) patients (n=50) with clinical and histo-pathological signs of GITB, but were culture and AFB negative. Real time assay performed using fluorescence resonance energy transfer hybridization probes showed a positivity index of 36 % in group C, i.e. 18 were found reactive from the total 50 cases studied. In addition, immune characterization of these 18 cases showed depleted CD(4) (+) count and increased levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokines. No positive case was found in group A, while in group B, out of total 28 cases studied 27 were found positive. A combinatorial diagnostic approach for rapid detection and characterization of GITB might provide specific therapeutic strategies for prevention and treatment of the infection in future.

  7. A study of morbidity pattern among iron and steel workers from an industry in central India

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Manish J.; Koparkar, Anil R.; Joshi, Mohan P.; Hajare, Shilpa T.; Kasturwar, Nandakishor B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Iron is the world's most commonly used metal and can usually be found with other elements in the form of steel. In this era of machines, it is the inevitable part in production of various materials like eyeglass frames, jet aircraft, the space shuttle, automobiles, and surgical instruments. Occupational factors make an important contribution to the global burden of disease, but the reliable data on occupational disease are much more difficult to obtain. Hence, the current study was carried out to find out the morbidity pattern among iron and steel workers Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study. was carried out after obtaining permission from Institutional Ethics Committee in an iron and steel factory. Worker's detailed information regarding profile was taken in pretested questionnaire format after obtaining the informed written consent and explaining the purpose of study. Workers were also interviewed regarding their years of job, job satisfaction, usage of protective devices, and history of injuries during work. Worker's detailed general and systemic examination was conducted. Results: The overall prevalence of morbidities among the workers was 60%. It was observed that commonest morbidity in the workers was lumbago (musculoskeletal pain), that is, 33.25%which was more in Group B (49.73%) than Group A (18.78%), followed by occupational dermatitis (27%) which more common in Group A (33.33%) than Group B (19.79%). It was seen that occupation-related morbidities were more prevalent in Group A, i.e. Exposed group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: It was observed that occupation-related morbidities were more common in exposed group (EG) than that of nonexposed group (NEG) and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). PMID:25598617

  8. Anatomical Variations in the Branching Pattern of Human Aortic Arch: A Cadaveric Study from Central India

    PubMed Central

    Budhiraja, Virendra; Rastogi, Rakhi; Jain, Vaishali; Bankwar, Vishal; Raghuwanshi, Shiv

    2013-01-01

    Variations of the branches of aortic arch are due to alteration in the development of certain branchial arch arteries during embryonic period. Knowledge of these variations is important during aortic instrumentation, thoracic, and neck surgeries. In the present study we observed these variations in fifty-two cadavers from Indian populations. In thirty-three (63.5%) cadavers, the aortic arch showed classical branching pattern which includes brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery. In nineteen (36.5%) cadavers it showed variations in the branching pattern, which include the two branches, namely, left subclavian artery and a common trunk in 19.2% cases, four branches, namely, brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, left vertebral artery, and left subclavian artery in 15.3% cases, and the three branches, namely, common trunk, left vertebral artery, and left subclavian artery in 1.9% cases. PMID:25938106

  9. Characteristic Features of Hanging: A Study in Rural District of Central India.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Vipul Namdeorao; Kolpe, Dayanand; Tumram, Nilesh; Meshram, Satin; Pawar, Mohan; Kukde, Hemant

    2015-09-01

    The ligature mark is the most relevant feature of hanging. This study was undertaken with a view to determine the characteristic features of hanging and its association with ligature material or mode of suspension. Of a total medicolegal deaths reported at an Apex Medical Centre, hanging was noted in 4.1% cases, all suicidal with mortality rate of 1.5 per 100,000 population per year. The hanging was complete in 67.7% with nylon rope as the commonest type of ligature material used for ligation. The hanging mark was usually single, situated above thyroid cartilage, incomplete, prominent, and directed toward nape of neck. The mark of dribbling of saliva was seen in 11.8% cases. Facial congestion, petechial hemorrhage, and cyanosis were significantly seen in partial hanging. Though occasionally reported, the argent line was noted in 78.7% hanging deaths with neck muscle hemorrhage in 23.6% cases. Fracture of neck structure was predominant in complete hanging. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Assessment of village-wise groundwater draft for irrigation: a field-based study in hard-rock aquifers of central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, R. K.; Syed, T. H.; Saha, Dipankar; Sarkar, B. C.; Patre, A. K.

    2017-07-01

    Extracted groundwater, 90% of which is used for irrigated agriculture, is central to the socio-economic development of India. A lack of regulation or implementation of regulations, alongside unrecorded extraction, often leads to over exploitation of large-scale common-pool resources like groundwater. Inevitably, management of groundwater extraction (draft) for irrigation is critical for sustainability of aquifers and the society at large. However, existing assessments of groundwater draft, which are mostly available at large spatial scales, are inadequate for managing groundwater resources that are primarily exploited by stakeholders at much finer scales. This study presents an estimate, projection and analysis of fine-scale groundwater draft in the Seonath-Kharun interfluve of central India. Using field surveys of instantaneous discharge from irrigation wells and boreholes, annual groundwater draft for irrigation in this area is estimated to be 212 × 106 m3, most of which (89%) is withdrawn during non-monsoon season. However, the density of wells/boreholes, and consequent extraction of groundwater, is controlled by the existing hydrogeological conditions. Based on trends in the number of abstraction structures (1982-2011), groundwater draft for the year 2020 is projected to be approximately 307 × 106 m3; hence, groundwater draft for irrigation in the study area is predicted to increase by ˜44% within a span of 8 years. Central to the work presented here is the approach for estimation and prediction of groundwater draft at finer scales, which can be extended to critical groundwater zones of the country.

  11. Clinical and cytological features in diagnosis of peripheral tubercular lymphadenitis - A hospital-based study from central India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vivek; Bhake, Arvind

    2017-10-01

    Tuberculosis lymphadenitis is difficult to diagnose clinically, and often the laboratory confirmation is not available in resource-poor countries. We describe here the symptoms, clinical characteristics, and results of cytological analysis in peripheral tuberculous lymphadenitis patients. One hundred and fifty-six patients with peripheral lymph node for cytological evaluation presenting to Department of Pathology, Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Wardha, India were included in this study. Sixty-nine cases were tuberculous lymphadenitis, with female to male ratio of 1.3:1. One or more constitutional symptoms were present in 59.4% of patients, with 89.9% of lymph nodes ≥2×2cm and the most common site of involvement was cervical lymph node (70.3%). The lymph nodes were multiple (85.5%), either discrete or matted. Cytomorphologically, hemorrhagic aspirate was observed in 29 cases, well-formed epithelioid cell granuloma with caseous necrosis was seen in 34 cases, and Zeihl Neelsen staining was positive in 45 cases. Correlation between character of aspirate and cytomorphological pattern was found highly significant. These data suggest that constitutional symptoms and clinical and cytological features help in diagnosing cases of peripheral tubercular lymphadenitis and also open new frontiers to further research that affects the cytological features of these cases. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms for strain localization within Archaean craton: A structural study from the Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone, north-central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Saheli; Patole, Vishal; Saha, Lopamudra; Pati, Jayanta Kumar; Nasipuri, Pritam

    2015-04-01

    The transformation of palaeo-continents involve breakup, dispersal and reassembly of cratonic blocks by collisional suturing that develop a network of orogenic (mobile) belts around the periphery of the stable cratons. The nature of deformation in the orogenic belt depends on the complex interaction of fracturing, plastic deformation and diffusive mass transfer. Additionally, the degree and amount of melting during regional deformation is critical as the presence of melt facilitates the rate of diffusive mass transfer and weakens the rock by reducing the effective viscosity of the deformed zone. The nature of strain localization and formation of ductile shear zones surrounding the cratonic blocks have been correlated with Proterozoic-Palaeozoic supercontinent assembly (Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana reconstruction). Although, a pre-Columbia supercontinent termed as Kenorland has been postulated, there is no evidence that supports the notion due to lack of the presence of shear zones within the Archaean cratonic blocks. In this contribution, we present the detailed structural analysis of ductile shear zones within the Bundelkhand craton. The ductlile shear zone is termed as Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone (BTZ) that extends east-west for nearly 300 km throughout the craton with a width of two-three kilometer . In the north-central India, the Bundelkhand craton is exposed over an area of 26,000 sq. The craton is bounded by Central Indian Tectonic zone in the south, the Great Boundary fault in the west and by the rocks of Lesser Himalaya in the north. A series of tonalite-trondjhemite-granodiorite gneiss are the oldest rocks of the Bundelkhand craton that also contains a succession of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks comprising of banded iron formation, quartzite, calc-silicate and ultramafic rocks. K-feldspar bearing granites intrude the tonalite-trondjhemite-granodiorite and the supracrustal rocks during the time span of 2.1 to 2.5 Ga. The TTGs near Babina, in central

  13. Finger Length Ratio (2D:4D) in Central India and an Attempt to Verify Fraternal Birth Order Effect: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Arjun; Maitra, Chaitali; Jha, Dilip Kumar; Biswas, Rakesh

    2016-12-01

    A normal physiology of a human being is not mere a series of functions occurring with specific intensities and timing. There are lot of factors that may change the normal physiological activity within normal limits. Finger length ratio is one of the markers of intrauterine androgen exposure and it is debated and contradicted by many authors. Digit ratio varies among the ethnicities. Many Indian studies show that there is considerable difference in finger length ratio in different population. Data regarding Central India was not found on extensive search. To find out the finger length ratio and explore the birth order effect on finger length ratio among the first two successive born in the said population. We conducted a survey on 1500 volunteer persons (800 male and 700 female) over two years of time. We measured the length of the index finger (2D) and ring finger (4D) of both the hands and asked about their birth order history to find out the digit ratio for Central India population and any existing correlation of the same with birth order. T Test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used for the measure of significance and difference among the groups. The p< 0.05 was considered to be significant. Our study reports that, study population mean for right hand 2D:4D ratio was 0.976 (SD±0.031) and for left hand it was found to be 0.969 (SD±0.035). For males, mean finger length ratio for right hand was 0.967 (SD±0.033) and 0.963 (SD±0.037) for left hand. In females the mean Finger length ratio was 0.982 (SD±0.027) for right hand and 0.974 (SD±0.034) for the left hand respectively. Finger length ratio was found to be significantly less (p=0.03) in males for right hand. No significant (p=0.24) difference was observed for left hand. When assessed fraternal birth order effect among the eldest, second born with elder brother and second born with elder sister groups, no significant (p>0.05) variation for finger length ratio of right and left hands observed in both

  14. Finger Length Ratio (2D:4D) in Central India and an Attempt to Verify Fraternal Birth Order Effect: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Maitra, Chaitali; Jha, Dilip Kumar; Biswas, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A normal physiology of a human being is not mere a series of functions occurring with specific intensities and timing. There are lot of factors that may change the normal physiological activity within normal limits. Finger length ratio is one of the markers of intrauterine androgen exposure and it is debated and contradicted by many authors. Digit ratio varies among the ethnicities. Many Indian studies show that there is considerable difference in finger length ratio in different population. Data regarding Central India was not found on extensive search. Aim To find out the finger length ratio and explore the birth order effect on finger length ratio among the first two successive born in the said population. Materials and Methods We conducted a survey on 1500 volunteer persons (800 male and 700 female) over two years of time. We measured the length of the index finger (2D) and ring finger (4D) of both the hands and asked about their birth order history to find out the digit ratio for Central India population and any existing correlation of the same with birth order. T Test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used for the measure of significance and difference among the groups. The p< 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results Our study reports that, study population mean for right hand 2D:4D ratio was 0.976 (SD±0.031) and for left hand it was found to be 0.969 (SD±0.035). For males, mean finger length ratio for right hand was 0.967 (SD±0.033) and 0.963 (SD±0.037) for left hand. In females the mean Finger length ratio was 0.982 (SD±0.027) for right hand and 0.974 (SD±0.034) for the left hand respectively. Finger length ratio was found to be significantly less (p=0.03) in males for right hand. No significant (p=0.24) difference was observed for left hand. When assessed fraternal birth order effect among the eldest, second born with elder brother and second born with elder sister groups, no significant (p>0.05) variation for finger length

  15. Carotid intima-media thickness and apolipoproteins in patients of ischemic stroke in a rural hospital setting in central India: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Jyoti; Lathia, Tejal; Gupta, Om Prakash; Jain, Vishakha

    2012-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and apolipoproteins have been found as a risk factor for ischemic stroke The objective was to study the carotid intima-media thickness, apolipoproteins, and their relation in patients of ischemic stroke in central rural India. A cross-sectional study was performed in a rural hospital in central India. In all patients of ischemic stroke proven by computerized tomography (CT), CIMT, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), and apolipoprotein B(ApoB) were measured. We used Student's t-test to compare means, a chi-square test to compare proportions, and a Mann-Whitney test to compare medians. A P value <0.05 was considered significant. The mean age of our study population (N=106) was 61 years. The mean CIMT was 0.83 mm ranging from a minimum of 0.45 mm to a maximum of 1.096 mm. Mean CIMT was significantly higher than expected 0.67 values, which was calculated according to the age of the study population. The association of decreased ApoA-I < 100 mg/dl and increased ApoB > 90 mg/dl with CIMT > 0.7 mm was statistically significant with P<0.001. The CIMT in computerized tomography-proven ischemic stroke was significantly higher than expected for the age of the study population. The relation of decreased ApoA-I and increased ApoB with CIMT > 0.7 mm was also statistically significant.

  16. Space-based long-term observation of shrinking grassland habitat: A case-study from central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lele, N.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, R. P.; Chauhan, J. S.; Parihar, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Grassland ecosystem is critical for survival of herbivores and plays an important role in conservation and management of wildlife. These habitats are widely studied for various issues, including biodiversity, biomass assessment, carrying capacity, etc. Woody species ingression in grasslands is one such important aspect that needs critical attention in protected area as this leads to shrinking of grasslands habitat. This study presents a case of Ronda grassland in Kanha National Park - a well-known protected area in India, known for its herbivore diversity and hard-ground Barasingha (Rucervus duvaceli branderi), in particular. Long-term satellite observation for five decades was carried out to understand spatio-temporal changes. Declassified Corona satellite data, aerial photographs along with satellite datasets in the subsequent period were utilised for this study. The study revealed that 88 ha (16% of Ronda and surrounding) have been ingressed during 1962-2011, in and around Ronda grassland of Kanha National Park. Rates of ingression on linear transects were found to be 60-120 m per decade. Field studies and NDVI analysis along the edge of grassland pixels as well as inside region using 1972 as baseline data, indicated woody vegetation replacing area of grassland. It was noted that Butea monosperma is invading more than other species in Ronda grassland, particularly along the stream where moisture availability is higher. Grassland habitats in Kanha are thus shrinking and thus leading to reduction in the area available for herbivore population which has increased in recent years. This can lead to severe impact on carrying capacity of these grasslands.

  17. Retrospective study of root canal configurations of maxillary third molars in Central India population using cone beam computed tomography Part- I.

    PubMed

    Rawtiya, Manjusha; Somasundaram, Pavithra; Wadhwani, Shefali; Munuga, Swapna; Agarwal, Manish; Sethi, Priyank

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of maxillary third molars in Central India population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) analysis. CBCT images of 116 maxillary third molars were observed, and data regarding the number of roots, the number of canals, and Vertucci's Classification in each root was statistically evaluated. Majority of Maxillary third molars had three roots (55.2%) and three canals (37.9%). Most MB root (43.8%), DB root (87.5%), and palatal root (100%) of maxillary third molars had Vertucci Type I. Mesiobuccal root of three-rooted maxillary third molars had Vertucci Type I (43.8%) and Type IV (40.6%) configuration. Overall prevalence of C-shaped canals in maxillary third molars was 3.4%. There was a high prevalence of three-rooted maxillary molars with three canals.

  18. Retrospective study of root canal configurations of maxillary third molars in Central India population using cone beam computed tomography Part- I

    PubMed Central

    Rawtiya, Manjusha; Somasundaram, Pavithra; Wadhwani, Shefali; Munuga, Swapna; Agarwal, Manish; Sethi, Priyank

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of maxillary third molars in Central India population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) analysis. Materials and Methods: CBCT images of 116 maxillary third molars were observed, and data regarding the number of roots, the number of canals, and Vertucci's Classification in each root was statistically evaluated. Results: Majority of Maxillary third molars had three roots (55.2%) and three canals (37.9%). Most MB root (43.8%), DB root (87.5%), and palatal root (100%) of maxillary third molars had Vertucci Type I. Mesiobuccal root of three-rooted maxillary third molars had Vertucci Type I (43.8%) and Type IV (40.6%) configuration. Overall prevalence of C-shaped canals in maxillary third molars was 3.4%. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of three-rooted maxillary molars with three canals. PMID:27011747

  19. Intraseasonal Variability of Summer Monsoon Rainfall and Droughts over Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Sourabh; Kar, Sarat C.; Sharma, Anu Rani

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall over Madhya Pradesh (MP) in central India has large intra-seasonal variability causing droughts and floods in many years. In this study, rainfall variability in daily and monthly scale over central India has been examined using observed data. Consistency among various datasets such as rainfall, surface temperature, soil moisture and evapotranspiration has been examined. These parameters are from various different sources and critical for drought monitoring and prediction. It is found that during weak phases of monsoon, central India receives deficit rainfall with weaker monsoon circulation. This phase is characterized by an anticyclonic circulation at 850 hPa centered on MP. The EOF analysis of daily rainfall suggests that the two leading modes explain about 23-24% of rainfall variability in intraseasonal timescale. These two modes represent drought/flood conditions over MP. Relationship of weak phases of rainfall over central India with real-time multivariate (RMM) indices of Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) has been examined. It is found that RMM-6, RMM-7, RMM-1 and RMM-2 describe the weak monsoon conditions over central India. However, frequency of drought occurrence over MP is more during RMM-7 phase. Surface temperature increases by about 0.5°-1° during weak phases of rainfall over this region. Soil moisture and evapotranspiration gradually reduce when rainfall reduces over the study region. Soil moisture and evapotranspiration anomalies have positive pattern during good rainfall events over central India and gradually reduce and become negative anomalies during weak phases.

  20. Intraseasonal Variability of Summer Monsoon Rainfall and Droughts over Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Sourabh; Kar, Sarat C.; Sharma, Anu Rani

    2017-02-01

    Rainfall over Madhya Pradesh (MP) in central India has large intra-seasonal variability causing droughts and floods in many years. In this study, rainfall variability in daily and monthly scale over central India has been examined using observed data. Consistency among various datasets such as rainfall, surface temperature, soil moisture and evapotranspiration has been examined. These parameters are from various different sources and critical for drought monitoring and prediction. It is found that during weak phases of monsoon, central India receives deficit rainfall with weaker monsoon circulation. This phase is characterized by an anticyclonic circulation at 850 hPa centered on MP. The EOF analysis of daily rainfall suggests that the two leading modes explain about 23-24% of rainfall variability in intraseasonal timescale. These two modes represent drought/flood conditions over MP. Relationship of weak phases of rainfall over central India with real-time multivariate (RMM) indices of Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) has been examined. It is found that RMM-6, RMM-7, RMM-1 and RMM-2 describe the weak monsoon conditions over central India. However, frequency of drought occurrence over MP is more during RMM-7 phase. Surface temperature increases by about 0.5°-1° during weak phases of rainfall over this region. Soil moisture and evapotranspiration gradually reduce when rainfall reduces over the study region. Soil moisture and evapotranspiration anomalies have positive pattern during good rainfall events over central India and gradually reduce and become negative anomalies during weak phases.

  1. Estimating the Impact of Reducing Under-Nutrition on the Tuberculosis Epidemic in the Central Eastern States of India: A Dynamic Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Oxlade, Olivia; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Murray, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) and under-nutrition are widespread in many low and middle-income countries. Momentum to prioritize under-nutrition has been growing at an international level, as demonstrated by the "Scaling Up Nutrition" movement. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for developing TB disease. The objective of this study was to project future trends in TB related outcomes under different scenarios for reducing under-nutrition in the adult population in the Central Eastern states of India. Methods A compartmental TB transmission model stratified by body mass index was parameterized using national and regional data from India. We compared TB related mortality and incidence under several scenarios that represented a range of policies and programs designed to reduce the prevalence of under-nutrition, based on the experience and observed trends in similar countries. Results The modeled nutrition intervention scenarios brought about reductions in TB incidence and TB related mortality in the Central Eastern Indian states ranging from 43% to 71% and 40% to 68% respectively, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Modest reductions in under-nutrition averted 4.8 (95% UR 0.5, 17.1) million TB cases and 1.6 (95% UR 0.5, 5.2) million TB related deaths over a period of 20 years of intervention, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Complete elimination of under-nutrition in the Central Eastern states averted 9.4 (95% UR 1.5, 30.6) million TB cases and 3.2 (95% UR 0.7-, 10.1) million TB related deaths, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Conclusion Our study suggests that intervening on under-nutrition could have a substantial impact on TB incidence and mortality in areas with high prevalence of under-nutrition, even if only small gains in under-nutrition can be achieved. Focusing on under-nutrition may be an effective way to reduce both rates of TB and other diseases associated with under

  2. Seismological Evidence of mafic underplating beneath Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Kuntal; Borah, Kajaljyoti; Goyal, Ayush

    2016-04-01

    Crustal shear velocity structure across the Narmada Son Lineament (NSL), a major tectonic feature through Central India, and the adjoining regions have been investigated by the joint inversion of receiver function and Rayleigh wave group velocity data at 17 locations in the study region. The results show significant variations of crustal thickness and average crust shear wave velocity (avg. Vs) in the region, viz. 38-42 km thick crust with avg. Vs ~3.7 km/s under Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP); 38-42 km thick crust with lower avg. Vs ~3.5 km/s in the Vindyan Basin; 44 km thick crust with avg. Vs ~3.7 km/s beneath Bundelkhand craton. Thicker crust (~56 km) with avg. Vs ~3.8 km/s is observed beneath Narmada South Fault (NSF), north of DVP. Observed ~4 km thick layer with average Vs ~2.7-2.9 km/s corresponds to Vindhayan sediment. Presence of High velocity layer(Vs > 4.1 km/s) at lower crust beneath most part of the study region suggest the existence of a mafic underplated layer at the base of the crust. The mafic underplated layer is charecterized by a high Vs and Vp/Vs ratio, suggesting a mafic rock type at the base of the crust which might have been emplaced at some volcanic episodes in the past. The region also shows no major topographic expression suggesting that it is isostatically compensated by high density, high velocity rocks in the lowermost part of the crust. Upper mantle shear velocity beneath the study region varies between 4.4-4.5 km/s. Majority of the earthquakes in the central part of India occur at the lower crust having a depth of greater than 30 km, suggesting a zone of weakness at the lower crust especially in the southern part of the NSL (NSF).

  3. Children's Moral Reasoning about Illness in Chhattisgarh, Central India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froerer, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    This article is about children's moral reasoning about illness and supernatural retribution in a rural tribal community in Chhattisgarh, central India. Detailed ethnographic analysis is devoted to the norms and experiences within which conceptions about illness causality and morality are formed. The author is principally interested in the…

  4. Children's Moral Reasoning about Illness in Chhattisgarh, Central India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froerer, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    This article is about children's moral reasoning about illness and supernatural retribution in a rural tribal community in Chhattisgarh, central India. Detailed ethnographic analysis is devoted to the norms and experiences within which conceptions about illness causality and morality are formed. The author is principally interested in the…

  5. Earthquake risk mitigation projects in central asia and india

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausler, E.; Petal, M.; Tobin, T.; Tucker, B.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, A.; Shaw, R.

    2003-04-01

    In the fall of 2002, GeoHazards International (GHI), a California-based nonprofit organization, launched two 3-year projects, each funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, to improve the earthquake risk management of 23 cities in Central Asia and India. The objectives of these projects are to: * Assess the earthquake risk of each city, * Identify the most effective risk mitigation options for each city, * Raise awareness of that risk and those mitigation options, and * Initiate mitigation activities in some of these cities. A critical characteristic of these projects is that leaders of each local community will be deeply involved in realizing all four objectives. GHI will work with, in addition to local authorities, national government, academic and non-governmental organizations. In India, GHI’s partners are the Disaster Management Planning Hyogo Office, United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) of Kobe, Japan, and the Sustainable Environment and Ecological Development Society (SEEDS), of Delhi, India. In India, we will work in 20 cities that were chosen, in a February 1, 2002 workshop (sponsored by Munich Reinsurance Company) in Delhi; the cities were selected by Indian earthquake professionals on the basis of the cities’ population, hazard, and economic, cultural and political significance. In Central Asia, we will focus on Tashkent, Uzbekistan; Dushanbe, Tadzhikistan; and Almaty, Kazakstan. GHI and its partners are looking for other organizations that would like to collaborate on these projects.

  6. DELTAMETHRIN IMPREGNATED MOSQUITO NETS : AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN AN AIR FORCE STATION IN CENTRAL INDIA (DELTAMETHRIN TRIAL).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Nayak, B

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to determine the efficacy of deltamethrin impregnated mosquito nets in reducing malaria incidence under field conditions in an Air Force Station. Out of the total study population of 748 airmen and DSC personnel, 320 got their mosquito nets impregnated with deltamethrin, while 428 used unimpregnated mosquito nets. During the three months observation period, there was no significant difference in malaria incidence among the two groups (Yates Chi Sq=0.05, p=0.829405, Relative risk = 0.96 with 95% CI between 031 and 2.98). In view of study findings, it was concluded that in the station, use of deltamethrin impregnated mosquito nets will not reduce incidence of malaria appreciably, the stress has to be on outdoor personal protective measures.

  7. Decadorial of a burn center in Central India.

    PubMed

    Bain, Jayanta; Lal, Shyam; Baghel, Vijay Singh; Yedalwar, Vinod; Gupta, Rachna; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Burn injuries are a serious public health problem. In our study we have identified different epidemiological factors based on 10 years of our experience at a burn unit in central India and recommend some strategies to prevent burn injuries. This is a retrospective analysis (2001-2010) of database from burn unit of S.S. Medical College, Rewa, India. 2499 patients with burn injury were analysed. 66.8% and 38.2% patients were females and males respectively, with a median age of 25 years. Flame (80.1%) was most common cause, home (96%) was most common place, traditional Indian stove (28.8%), kerosene lamp (26.7%), hot liquid (12.2%) and kerosene stove (10.4%) were common causes. Median Total Body Surface Area (TBSA) burn was 40.0%; females had significantly greater (P < 0.001) burn than males (median 50% vs 26.0%). High mortality (40.3%) seen; female sex (OR 3.22, 95% CI 2.65-3.92); young age (15-29 year) (OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.45-4.94); flame burn (OR 12.9, 95% CI 1.69-98.32); suicidal burn OR 6.82 95%CI 4.44-10.48) and TBSA > 76% (OR 3099, 95%CI 1302-7380) were significant risk factors for death. Median hospital stays was 8 days; shorter hospital stays seen among TBSA burn > 76% (2 days), suicidal intent (4 days), and those who expired (4 days). Septicemia (45.8%) and burn shock (41%) were the major cause for death. Cooking and lighting equipments are major cause of burn injury among females and young age group. Equipment modification to improve safety features and public awareness programs are necessary to reduce burn incidents.

  8. Chemical composition of runoff water in Raipur city, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambade, Balram

    2015-03-01

    Runoff water is an important transporting medium for various pollutants from land to surface water. Several mobiles and stationary sources such as vehicles, steel cement and thermal power plants, cooking, street, construction debris, etc. are emitting effluents in the environment of the central India. The rain runoff water washes out the air as well as land pollutants and flushes out into water bodies. Therefore, rain runoff water pollution in most urbanized and industrialized city of central India, i.e., Raipur during rainy season (May-September 2012) is analyzed statistically using cluster and principal component analysis to assess sources. The cluster analysis grouped runoff water samples into two clusters based on the similarity of runoff water quality characteristics of the total variance. The factor analysis differentiated the diffused sources of runoff water contaminants. The enrichment factors and runoff fluxes of the contaminants are discussed.

  9. Association of Sleep Disordered Breathing with Mono-Symptomatic Nocturnal Enuresis: A Study among School Children of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Pakhare, Abhijit P.; Goyal, Abhishek; P, Aswin; Dhingra, Bhavna; Tamaria, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of primary monosymptopomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) in children aged 5–10 year and to find its association with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) by using a 22 item pediatric sleep related breathing disorder (SRBD) scale. Methods This was a school based cross sectional epidemiological study from July 2015 to November 2015. A questionnaire seeking information on socio-demographic variables, nocturnal enuresis (NE) frequency, school performance and a validated 22 item pediatric sleep related breathing disorder scale (SRBDs) was distributed to 1820 pupils in three primary schools. Results A total of 1528(83.95%) questionnaires were retrieved. Out of 1528 forms, 182(11.9%) forms were incomplete for requested information and hence 1346 (73.9%) questionnaires were finally analyzed. The prevalence of NE was found to be 12.7% (95% CI; 11–14.6), whereas prevalence of primary nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) was 8.2% (95% CI; 7.1–10.1). SRBD scale score >0.33 (adjusted OR: 2.87; 95%CI: 1.67–4.92), paternal history of enuresis in childhood (adjusted OR:4.96; 95% CI: 2.36–10.45), and inappropriate toilet training (adjusted OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.01–2.66) were independently associated with PMNE. Conclusion Sleep disordered breathing, inappropriate toilet training and a history of childhood NE in father were found to be significant risk factors for PMNE in the present study. Thus, these findings suggest that it is imperative to rule out SDB in PMNE patients as they may require different therapeutic interventions. PMID:27191620

  10. Village environs as source of nitrate contamination in groundwater: a case study in basaltic geo-environment in central India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, D V; Nagabhushanam, P; Peters, Edward

    2011-03-01

    Nitrate is one of the common contaminants in the present day groundwaters resulting from increased population associated with poor sanitary conditions in the habitat area and increased agricultural activity. The hydrochemical measurements on water samples from a virgin watershed, situated in the basaltic geo-environment, have become necessary as the groundwater is the only source of drinking water for the villagers of the area. High preferential recharge conditions prevail in the area due to fractures in the solid basaltic lava flows. Instead of dilution due to fresh recharge, the post-monsoon hydrochemical concentrations in the groundwater are observed to have increased probably due to fast migration of pollutants to the aquifer through preferential recharge. As a result, the deep aquifer waters are more contaminated with hazardous nitrate than the shallow waters. Further, the village environ wells are more polluted with nitrate than the agriculture areas which could be attributed to the unhygienic sanitary conditions and livestock waste dump pits in the villages. This study suggests proper management of the sewage system and creation of suitable dump yard for the livestock and household waste to minimize the level of nitrate pollution in the well waters of village environs.

  11. Assessment of thymus size in healthy term neonates using sonography - A study from tertiary care hospital of Central India.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was done to assess the size of thymus in term healthy infants using sonography and to assess its variation in size, shape, location, echogenicity and echotexture for both male and female reference population. A total of 250 term healthy neonates of either sex were subjected to thymic sonography. The shape, size in maximal anteroposterior, longitudinal, and transverse dimensions of both right and left lobes of thymus was evaluated. Their echotexture and echogenicity were determined and standards for reference population were calculated. The results were statistically evaluated. According to the shape; the thymus was quadrilateral in 156 neonates (62%), round in 37 (15%), bilobate in 32 (13%), and crescent shaped in 25 (10%) in transverse scan. According to the echo texture, the thymus echogenicity was homogeneous and almost similar or slightly less to that of the liver and spleen in most cases 200 [80%] and was coarse in 50 (20%). In all subjects, the echogenicity of the thymus was less than that of the thyroid gland. Variations in location of the thymus were found in 70 (28%) neonates. The range of mean AP diameter was 0.39-2.36 cm (mean 1.43 ± 0.3), that of transverse 1.4 - 4.3 cm (mean 2.16 ± 0.54) and that of thymic index 1.2-5.1 cm2 (mean 2.98 ± 0.64). A normative range was calculated for standard population, which can be used as a reference for comparing thymus size for both normal and diseased neonates for various immunological diseases.

  12. Impact of Using Information Technology in Central University Libraries in India: Results of a Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyala, Venkataramana

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the results of a research study conducted to assess the perceptions and opinions of 100 staff working in libraries on the impact of using IT on library housekeeping operations and information services, in eight central university libraries in India. Design/methodology/approach: Data gathering…

  13. Impact of Using Information Technology in Central University Libraries in India: Results of a Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyala, Venkataramana

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the results of a research study conducted to assess the perceptions and opinions of 100 staff working in libraries on the impact of using IT on library housekeeping operations and information services, in eight central university libraries in India. Design/methodology/approach: Data gathering…

  14. A Comparative Evaluation of Different Diagnostic Modalities in the Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever Using a Composite Reference Standard: A Tertiary Hospital Based Study in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Kaore, Navinchandra Motiram; Ramnani, Vijay Kumar; Sarda, Sheil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella spp. is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and endemic in many developing countries including India and other South-East Asian countries. Blood culture is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis. Currently, the standard serological method is tube agglutination with moderate sensitivity and specificity. Dot blot assay detecting IgM and IgG antibodies to a specific 50kD Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) antigen of Salmonella spp. is a simple, reliable, affordable and rapid test which can help in the early diagnosis of typhoid fever. Aim To systematically evaluate the different diagnostic modalities against a composite reference standard for the better diagnosis of typhoid fever in clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional, prospective analytical study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital attached to Medical College in central India from November 2011 to June 2013. A total of 163 blood samples, collected aseptically from patients clinically diagnosed of enteric fever, were tested using various component tests like blood culture, Tube Widal and Dot Enzyme Immuno Assay (Dot EIA) for IgG and/or IgM. Composite Reference Standard (CRS) was created for defining the confirmed cases of typhoid fever using the component tests, wherein culture positive and in absence of culture positivity any two component test positive patients were taken as confirmed cases. All the component tests were evaluated against the CRS for sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV and their significance in relation to the duration of illness using statistical tests of significance. Results Blood culture was positive in 16 (9.81%) whereas, Tube Widal, IgM, IgG and IgM+IgG in combination were positive in 88(54%), 58(35.58%), 30 (18.40%) and 75 (46.01%) respectively. Using a two test criteria of CRS framed, a total of 104 patients were considered as confirmed cases. Though specificity of

  15. A Comparative Evaluation of Different Diagnostic Modalities in the Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever Using a Composite Reference Standard: A Tertiary Hospital Based Study in Central India.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Veena; Kaore, Navinchandra Motiram; Ramnani, Vijay Kumar; Sarda, Sheil

    2016-10-01

    Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella spp. is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and endemic in many developing countries including India and other South-East Asian countries. Blood culture is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis. Currently, the standard serological method is tube agglutination with moderate sensitivity and specificity. Dot blot assay detecting IgM and IgG antibodies to a specific 50kD Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) antigen of Salmonella spp. is a simple, reliable, affordable and rapid test which can help in the early diagnosis of typhoid fever. To systematically evaluate the different diagnostic modalities against a composite reference standard for the better diagnosis of typhoid fever in clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever. This cross-sectional, prospective analytical study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital attached to Medical College in central India from November 2011 to June 2013. A total of 163 blood samples, collected aseptically from patients clinically diagnosed of enteric fever, were tested using various component tests like blood culture, Tube Widal and Dot Enzyme Immuno Assay (Dot EIA) for IgG and/or IgM. Composite Reference Standard (CRS) was created for defining the confirmed cases of typhoid fever using the component tests, wherein culture positive and in absence of culture positivity any two component test positive patients were taken as confirmed cases. All the component tests were evaluated against the CRS for sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV and their significance in relation to the duration of illness using statistical tests of significance. Blood culture was positive in 16 (9.81%) whereas, Tube Widal, IgM, IgG and IgM+IgG in combination were positive in 88(54%), 58(35.58%), 30 (18.40%) and 75 (46.01%) respectively. Using a two test criteria of CRS framed, a total of 104 patients were considered as confirmed cases. Though specificity of blood culture was 100%, the sensitivity was low

  16. Comparative geochemical, magnetic susceptibility, and fluid inclusion studies on the Paleoproterozoic Malanjkhand and Dongargarh granitoids, Central India and implications to metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Dinesh; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.; Moriyama, Takeru; Ishihara, Shunso

    2014-10-01

    The Malanjkhand granodiorite (MG) hosting economic copper mineralization and the hitherto barren Dongargarh granitoids (DG) have subtle differences in their petrographic and bulk geochemical features. The two plutons are contiguous and occur in the northern part of the Bhandara Craton in Central India with intervening volcanosedimentary sequence of the Dongargarh Supergroup amidst older gneisses. The Dongargarh granitoids studied in two smaller units have higher bulk magnetic susceptibility than the Cu-bearing MG; the majority of samples studied from the latter being ilmenite-series rocks. DG crystallized at higher pressures compared to MG. Plagioclase composition ranges from albite to high bytownite in MG, whereas its compositional range is restricted to high andesine in DG. However, both intrusions give identical temperature ranges estimated by binary feldspar thermometry. Biotite in MG shows higher Fe/Mg ratios, as well as a greater range of compositional variation, than that in DG. MG has a moderately fractionated rare earth element distribution pattern without any significant Eu anomaly, showing depletion in mid-range rare earth elements (REE) and no depletion in heavy REE. DG is characterized by a prominent negative Eu anomaly. Geochemical features indicate subtle differences in the nature of source rocks and/or melting processes responsible for the generation of the two granitoids. MG displays more consistent bulk chemical features and is possibly a result of crystallization from a homogeneous granodioritic melt. DG displays a greater diversity and possibly incorporated a significant felsic crustal component that contributed to the parent melt. A fluid inclusion study of quartz grains from the granitoids and barren quartz veins occurring in MG indicates identical low-temperature nature of the fluid in both cases. They differ from the fluid in the mineralized zone in MG in the absence of a high-temperature component and CO2 in the fluid. Late-stage fluids in

  17. Ocular Perfusion Pressure vs Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Difference in Glaucoma: The Central India Eye and Medical Study (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    PubMed

    Jonas, Jost B; Wang, Ningli; Nangia, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that taking translamina pressure difference into consideration changes associations between ocular perfusion pressure and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study included 4711 subjects. Ocular perfusion pressure was calculated as follows: ⅔ [diastolic blood pressure + ⅓ × (systolic blood pressure - diastolic blood pressure)] - IOP. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure (mm Hg) was estimated as follows: 0.44 body mass index (kg/m(2)) + 0.16 diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) - 0.18 × age (years) - 1.91. Translamina pressure difference was IOP minus cerebrospinal fluid pressure. In multivariate analysis, higher open-angle glaucoma prevalence was associaed with higher IOP (P<.001; odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% CI, 1.15, 1.24) or with higher translamina pressure difference (P<.001; OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10, 1.19), but not with ocular perfusion pressure (P<.37). A smaller neuroretinal rim area was correlated with higher IOP (P<.001; standardized coefficient beta -0.09) or larger translamina pressure difference (P<.001; β -0.10), but not with ocular perfusion pressure (P=.26). Greater prevalence of angle-closure glaucoma was associated with higher IOP (P<.001; OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.15, 1.28) or higher translamina pressure difference (P<.001; OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.13, 1.25) or lower ocular perfusion pressure (P<.04; OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90, 0.996). Correlation coefficients were highest for the association with IOP and lowest for ocular perfusion pressure. A smaller rim area was correlated with higher IOP (P<.001; beta -0.08) and higher translamina pressure difference (P<.001; beta -0.08); rim area and ocular perfusion pressure were not significantly associated (P=.25). The present study provides information on the relationship of translamina pressure difference to the development of optic nerve damage in what is presently called glaucoma. It does not provide support of the idea that ocular perfusion pressure plays a

  18. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India.

    PubMed

    Marathe, Rr; Yogesh, As; Pandit, Sv; Joshi, M; Trivedi, Gn

    2010-01-01

    Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from various Medical colleges of Central India. They were analyzed for gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones. Gross incidence of Inca bones was found to be 1.315 %. Incidence rate was higher in male skulls than female skulls (male: 1.428%; female: 1.176%). The Inca bones frequently occurred signally. Out of the five observed Inca ossicles, two were fragmented. This data gives idea regarding gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones in neurocranium of human skulls from Central India. The knowledge of this variable is useful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and radiologists.

  19. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, RR; Yogesh, AS; Pandit, SV; Joshi, M; Trivedi, GN

    2010-01-01

    Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. Objectives: To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from various Medical colleges of Central India. They were analyzed for gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones. Results: Gross incidence of Inca bones was found to be 1.315 %. Incidence rate was higher in male skulls than female skulls (male: 1.428%; female: 1.176%). The Inca bones frequently occurred signally. Out of the five observed Inca ossicles, two were fragmented. Conclusions: This data gives idea regarding gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones in neurocranium of human skulls from Central India. The knowledge of this variable is useful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and radiologists. PMID:21799611

  20. Understanding Changes in frequency of extreme rainfall over Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, C. B.; Lall, U.

    2010-12-01

    There has been much recent interest in examining changes in rainfall extremes of the Indian Monsoon, especially over the so-called core monsoon (Central Indian) region. Few such studies however consider the attribution to climatic variables (indices) of the observed variability. Using gridded daily rainfall data from 1901-2004, an attempt is made here to understand the evolution of frequency of extreme rainfall over the core monsoon region, and its relationship to relevant climatic indices(Equatorial India Ocean SST, an index of the Indian Ocean Dipole, NINO indices (NINO 3.4 and 1.2)). Using an objective definition of "extreme rainfall"( such that the thresholds chosen vary with grids but not overtime), two types of analyses are carried out. First, using spectral analyses (Wavelet and Multi-Taper), the relationship between climate indices and frequency of extremes are investigated. Subsequently, in a very general framework of quantile regression for count data, the existence of time trends are analyzed jointly with significance of climate indices at distinct quantiles. This approach allows for separate effects of the climate indices at different quanitles, thereby allowing for a more detailed investigation of the various relationships of interest postulated in the literature.

  1. Epidemiology of malaria in pregnancy in central India.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, N.; Shukla, M. M.; Sharma, V. P.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of three years of data from a malaria clinic operated by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in the Government Medical College Hospital in Jabalpur, central India, showed a high malaria prevalence among pregnant women, which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.0001) compared with the situation among nonpregnant women. Cerebral malaria was a common complication of severe Plasmodium falciparum infection, with a high mortality during pregnancy, requiring immediate attention. The study also showed that malaria infection was more frequent in primigravidae, falling progressively with increasing parity. Mean parasite densities were significantly higher in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women for both P. falciparum (P < 0.001; df = 137) and P. vivax (P < 0.05; df = 72) infection. Pregnant women with falciparum or vivax malaria were significantly more anaemic than noninfected pregnant women or infected nonpregnant women. The average weight of 155 neonates from infected mothers was 350 g less than that of 175 neonates from noninfected mothers. This difference in birth weight was statistically significant for both P. falciparum (P < 0.0001; df = 278) and P. vivax (P < 0.0001; df = 223) infection. Congenital malaria was not recorded. We conclude that pregnant women from this geographical area require systematic intervention owing to their high susceptibility to malaria during pregnancy and the puerperium. PMID:10444880

  2. Reduction in the occurrence of uterine rupture in Central India.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S; Bhagwat, N; Chakravorty, Anupama

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram in Central India. In the 12 years between 1989 and 2000 a total of 16 cases of ruptured uterus were managed, the incidence of rupture of the pregnant uterus being 0.62 per 1000 births. One-quarter of the cases occurred between 1983 and 1988. No teenager or elderly woman (over 40) or grandmultipara sustained a uterine rupture. Four women had a rupture of a previous scar. In five rupture had occurred in association with malpresentations, one was a case of hydrocephalus, two had a morbidly adherent placenta praevia and four had a normal presentation, with lack of progress in labour. Two of these 16 women had twins. One had come with a retained second twin with transverse lie and the other was a booked case with multiple problems, including a previous caesarean section, present twin pregnancy and placenta praevia accreta and she died. This was the only maternal death. Perinatal mortality was 77.77% compared to 5.88% maternal and 100% perinatal mortality in the cases reported previously between 83 and 88, from the same institution. Overall, there is some improvement in perinatal survival and one-quarter incidence of rupture of the pregnant uterus.

  3. Cerebrovascular Diseases in West Central India

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, P. M.; Shah, P. M.; Aiyar, R. R.; Kikani, B. J.

    1968-01-01

    Cerebral angiographic findings in ischaemic stroke are described and discussed in detail. Though the Indian patients studied had altogether different social customs, living standards, and dietary habits from Western people, the relative incidence of various cerebral vascular lesions did not differ significantly. Irrespective of the poor nutritional status of the patients, thrombosis associated with atherosclerosis was chiefly responsible for a non-embolic cerebral infarction. Atherothrombosis in the young normotensive persons not showing any evidence of arteritis, diabetes mellitus, or hypercholesterolaemia was also identified. The grave risks involved in cerebral angiography in cases of acute stroke are re-emphasized. As to prognosis, the nutritional status, the type and territory of an ictal lesion, and the blood levels of sugar and cholesterol had no significant influence on the immediate survival-after a non-embolic cerebral infarction. However, a significantly greater number of deaths were encountered in the hypertensive patients. Female patients and patients with a large cerebral infarction had a poor prognosis. PMID:5676713

  4. Soil moisture variations in remotely sensed and reanalysis datasets during weak monsoon conditions over central India and central Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Sourabh; Kar, Sarat C.; Sharma, Anu Rani

    2016-03-01

    Variation of soil moisture during active and weak phases of summer monsoon JJAS (June, July, August, and September) is very important for sustenance of the crop and subsequent crop yield. As in situ observations of soil moisture are few or not available, researchers use data derived from remote sensing satellites or global reanalysis. This study documents the intercomparison of soil moisture from remotely sensed and reanalyses during dry spells within monsoon seasons in central India and central Myanmar. Soil moisture data from the European Space Agency (ESA)—Climate Change Initiative (CCI) has been treated as observed data and was compared against soil moisture data from the ECMWF reanalysis-Interim (ERA-I) and the climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) for the period of 2002-2011. The ESA soil moisture correlates rather well with observed gridded rainfall. The ESA data indicates that soil moisture increases over India from west to east and from north to south during monsoon season. The ERA-I overestimates the soil moisture over India, while the CFSR soil moisture agrees well with the remotely sensed observation (ESA). Over Myanmar, both the reanalysis overestimate soil moisture values and the ERA-I soil moisture does not show much variability from year to year. Day-to-day variations of soil moisture in central India and central Myanmar during weak monsoon conditions indicate that, because of the rainfall deficiency, the observed (ESA) and the CFSR soil moisture values are reduced up to 0.1 m3/m3 compared to climatological values of more than 0.35 m3/m3. This reduction is not seen in the ERA-I data. Therefore, soil moisture from the CFSR is closer to the ESA observed soil moisture than that from the ERA-I during weak phases of monsoon in the study region.

  5. Soil moisture variations in remotely sensed and reanalysis datasets during weak monsoon conditions over central India and central Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Sourabh; Kar, Sarat C.; Sharma, Anu Rani

    2017-07-01

    Variation of soil moisture during active and weak phases of summer monsoon JJAS (June, July, August, and September) is very important for sustenance of the crop and subsequent crop yield. As in situ observations of soil moisture are few or not available, researchers use data derived from remote sensing satellites or global reanalysis. This study documents the intercomparison of soil moisture from remotely sensed and reanalyses during dry spells within monsoon seasons in central India and central Myanmar. Soil moisture data from the European Space Agency (ESA)—Climate Change Initiative (CCI) has been treated as observed data and was compared against soil moisture data from the ECMWF reanalysis-Interim (ERA-I) and the climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) for the period of 2002-2011. The ESA soil moisture correlates rather well with observed gridded rainfall. The ESA data indicates that soil moisture increases over India from west to east and from north to south during monsoon season. The ERA-I overestimates the soil moisture over India, while the CFSR soil moisture agrees well with the remotely sensed observation (ESA). Over Myanmar, both the reanalysis overestimate soil moisture values and the ERA-I soil moisture does not show much variability from year to year. Day-to-day variations of soil moisture in central India and central Myanmar during weak monsoon conditions indicate that, because of the rainfall deficiency, the observed (ESA) and the CFSR soil moisture values are reduced up to 0.1 m3/m3 compared to climatological values of more than 0.35 m3/m3. This reduction is not seen in the ERA-I data. Therefore, soil moisture from the CFSR is closer to the ESA observed soil moisture than that from the ERA-I during weak phases of monsoon in the study region.

  6. Newborn screening shows a high incidence of sickle cell anemia in Central India.

    PubMed

    Jain, Dipty L; Sarathi, Vijaya; Upadhye, Dipty; Gulhane, Rohini; Nadkarni, Anita H; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan B

    2012-01-01

    There is limited data on the incidence of sickle cell anemia in Central India; we therefore conducted a study to estimate the incidence of this disease in Central India. Mothers who delivered a live baby at the Government Medical College, Nagpur, India were screened for the presence of the sickle cell hemoglobin {Hb S: [β6 (A3) Glu→Val, GAG>GTG]} using the solubility test within 48 hours of delivery. Infants of mothers who showed the presence of Hb S then underwent Hb analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 8243 mothers was screened, 1178 of whom were positive. One thousand, one hundred and sixty-two infants of mothers with a positive solubility test underwent Hb analysis by HPLC; 530 infants were normal, while 536 were heterozygous for Hb S (sickle cell trait), 88 babies were homozygous for Hb S (sickle cell anemia), while another eight babies had other Hb abnormalities. The incidence of sickle cell anemia was highest in the Scheduled caste group (1:50). We concluded that the incidence of sickle cell anemia is high in central India.

  7. Sickle Cell Disease in Central India: A Potentially Severe Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jain, Dipty; Warthe, Vinit; Dayama, Paridhi; Sarate, Dilip; Colah, Roshan; Mehta, Pallavi; Serjeant, Graham

    2016-10-01

    To explore clinical, hematological and molecular features of homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease in central India. Focusing on the pediatric age group attending a clinic at the Akola Government Medical College, Akola, Maharashtra State, India, a cross-sectional assessment of 91 patients with sickle cell disease was performed during one week in March 2015. Of the 91 patients, there were 49 with SS disease, 36 with sickle cell-beta thalassemia, and 6 with sickle cell-HbD Punjab. Alpha globin gene deletions occurred in only 8/49 (16 %) SS disease but fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels were markedly elevated with mean and median of 24.4 %; all except 3 SS disease patients had the Xmn1(+/+) polymorphism consistent with the Asian haplotype. Among the 36 patients with sickle cell-beta thalassemia, 25 (69 %) had the severe beta(+) mutation, IVS1-5 G > C, and seven other molecular mutations, all beta(o) occurred in the other 11 patients. Many patients had a relatively severe clinical course. Comparison of SS disease and sickle cell-beta thalassemia showed no differences in the prevalence of dactylitis, bone pain crisis, acute chest syndrome, hemoglobin level, reticulocyte counts or hydroxyurea usage but patients with sickle cell-beta thalassemia had significantly more blood transfusions, and greater frequencies of splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Many patients in central India have relatively severe manifestations. This may result from lower frequencies of alpha thalassemia and more frequent severe sickle cell-beta(+) thalassemia. There is a need for assessment of the indications and policies for blood transfusion and for hydroxyurea.

  8. Role of west Asian surface pressure in summer monsoon onset over central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Arindam; Agrawal, Shubhi

    2017-07-01

    Using rain-gauge measurements and reanalysis data sets for 1948-2015, we propose a mechanism that controls the interannual variation of summer monsoon onset over central India. In May, about a month before the onset, the low level jet over the Arabian Sea is about 40% stronger and about 2.5 degrees northward during years of early onset as compared to years of late onset. A stronger and northward shifted low level jet carries about 50% more moisture in early onset years, which increases low level moist static energy over central India in the pre-monsoon season. The increase in low level moist static energy decreases the stability of the atmosphere and makes it conducive for convection. The strength and position of the low level jet are determined by surface pressure gradient between western Asia and the west-equatorial Indian Ocean. Thus, an anomalous surface pressure low over western Asia in the pre-monsoon season increases this gradient and strengthens the jet. Moreover, a stronger low level jet increases the meridional shear of zonal wind and supports the formation of an onset vortex in a stronger baroclinic atmosphere. These developments are favourable for an early onset of the monsoon over the central Indian region. Our study postulates a new physical mechanism for the interannual variation of onset over central India, the core of the Indian monsoon region and relevant to Indian agriculture, and could be tested for real-time prediction.

  9. Coastal upwelling activity along the central east coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, K. Muni

    2009-01-01

    High primary productivity along the central east coast of India is usually related to coastal upwelling activity that injects nutrients into the euphotic zone in response to prevailing longshore winds. The upwelling process has maximum intensity during March and August-September, with the coastal upwelling index varying from 10 to 150 m3/s per 100 m of coastline. Along the entire coast of the peninsula, the upwelling intensity changes in accordance with local wind conditions. I have identified the seasonal and synoptic variability of upwelling signatures on the central east coast of India, using averaged monthly and weekly sea surface temperature (SST) distributions obtained from remote sensing imagery from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer in the period from 2000 to 2003. Analyse the seasonal mean variability of the upwelling-forced conditions, the average monthly PFEL coastal upwelling index (CUI) for 1990 through 2003 have been calculated for the entire central east coast with latitude resolution of 0.5°, attending to the local coastline orientation for each point. The index also shows a near-perfect confirmation of both the upwelling intensification during March, and the decrease of upwelling-favorable conditions towards the south. Spectra calculated using entire time series of from 2000 to 2003 wind data show that the frequency ranges from 0.1 to 0.2 cycles/day (corresponding to periods of 5 to 10 days) and has a number of significant energy peaks. The presence of energy frequency ranges from 0.1 to 0.2 cycles/day became evident, especially for the Visakhapatnam and Chennai stations.

  10. Diamondiferous kimberlites in central India synchronous with Deccan flood basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Bernd; Burgess, Ray; Frei, Dirk; Belyatsky, Boris; Mainkar, Datta; Rao, Nittala V. Chalapathi; Heaman, Larry M.

    2010-02-01

    Recently discovered diamondiferous kimberlite (Group-II) pipes in central India have surprisingly young 40Ar/ 39Ar whole rock and U-Pb perovskite ages around 65 million years. These ages overlap with the main phase of the Deccan flood basalt magmatism, and suggest a common tectonomagmatic control for both flood basalts and kimberlites. The occurrence of macrodiamonds in the pipes implies the presence of a thick subcratonic lithosphere at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, significantly different from the present-day thickness of the Indian lithosphere. About one third of the Indian lithosphere was lost during or after the Deccan flood basalt event. The superfast northward motion of the Indian plate prior to the collision with Eurasia cannot be related to lithospheric thinning during the Gondwana break-up at 130 Ma, as previously thought.

  11. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  12. Isolation and Seroprevalence of Aeromonas spp. Among Common Food Animals Slaughtered in Nagpur, Central India.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Tanuja K G M; Reddy, Vishwanatha R A P; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Zade, Nandkishor N; Chaudhari, Sandeep P; Khan, Waqar A; Shinde, Shilpa V; Patil, Archana R

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonads are ubiquitous foodborne pathogens with a global distribution. Animal-origin foods and contaminated animals are the main sources of Aeromonas infection to humans. So far little is known about the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in food-producing animals in India. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and seroprevalence of Aeromonas species from 50 each of meat, blood, and sera samples collected from cattle, buffaloes, goats, and pigs slaughtered in and around Nagpur, Central India. Alkaline peptone water and ampicillin dextrin agar were used to isolate Aeromonas spp. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized by use of whole-cell antigen (WC) and outer membrane protein (OMP) of Aeromonas hydrophila (MTCC 646). Aeromonads were isolated from 44 (22%) of the meat samples, and 1 (0.5%) from the blood samples. Seroprevalence by indirect ELISA-based WC antigen was estimated as 68% in cattle, 44% in buffaloes, 60% in goats, and 30% in pigs. OMP-based ELISA yielded a seroprevalence of 56%, 48%, 52%, and 22% in cattle, buffaloes, goats, and pigs, respectively. The results revealed that OMP-based ELISA and WC-based ELISA were in agreement with one another. Isolation along with high seropositivity demonstrates the presence of foodborne Aeromonas spp. in the Nagpur city of Central India.

  13. Pseudotachylite Breccia Veins from Dhala Impact Structure, North Central India: Texture, Mineralogy and Geochemical Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, J. K.; Reimold, W. U.; Greshake, A.; Koeberl, C. K.; Pati, P.

    2013-08-01

    This is the first report of pseudotachylitic breccia veins (PTB)in basement granitoids from the Dhala structure, north central India.The host granitoids and PTB show similar REE pattern despite extensive alteration and major element concentration.

  14. Childhood Leprosy in an Endemic Area of Central India.

    PubMed

    Gitte, Sunil Vilasrao; Sabat, Ramanath N; Kamble, K M

    2016-03-01

    To study clinical-epidemiological aspects of children affected with leprosy in a high-endemicity area. Hospital-based study (April 2010 to March 2015) of newly diagnosed children (=18 years) with leprosy, from a leprosy research institute in Chhattisgarh, India. 551 new childhood cases were diagnosed constituting 16% of the total newly leprosy cases examined; 221 (40.1%) were multibacillary cases with 11.2% smear positivity. 243 (44.1%) had known contact history of leprosy, 17.6% of children developed Lepra reaction, and 17.4% had visible deformity. 68% of subjects completed treatment within the prescribed time. Transmission of leprosy is still continuing in the area, and high disability and deformity rates are seen in children.

  15. Dietary patterns in India and their association with obesity and central obesity.

    PubMed

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B; Bowen, Liza; Bharathi, Ankalmadugu V; Vaz, Mario; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Davey Smith, George; Kinra, Sanjay; Ebrahim, Shah

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is a growing problem in India, the dietary determinants of which have been studied using an 'individual food/nutrient' approach. Examining dietary patterns may provide more coherent findings, but few studies in developing countries have adopted this approach. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in an Indian population and assess their relationship with anthropometric risk factors. FFQ data from the cross-sectional sib-pair Indian Migration Study (IMS; n 7067) were used to identify dietary patterns using principal component analysis. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to examine associations with obesity and central obesity. The IMS was conducted at four factory locations across India: Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore. The participants were rural-to-urban migrant and urban non-migrant factory workers, their rural and urban resident siblings, and their co-resident spouses. Three dietary patterns were identified: 'cereals-savoury foods' (cooked grains, rice/rice-based dishes, snacks, condiments, soups, nuts), 'fruit-veg-sweets-snacks' (Western cereals, vegetables, fruit, fruit juices, cooked milk products, snacks, sugars, sweets) and 'animal-food' (red meat, poultry, fish/seafood, eggs). In adjusted analysis, positive graded associations were found between the 'animal-food' pattern and both anthropometric risk factors. Moderate intake of the 'cereals-savoury foods' pattern was associated with reduced odds of obesity and central obesity. Distinct dietary patterns were identified in a large Indian sample, which were different from those identified in previous literature. A clear 'plant food-based/animal food-based pattern' dichotomy emerged, with the latter being associated with higher odds of anthropometric risk factors. Longitudinal studies are needed to further clarify this relationship in India.

  16. Diamondiferous kimberlites in Central India synchronous with Deccan flood basalt volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, B.; Burgess, R.; Frei, D.; Belyatsky, B. V.; Mainkar, D.; Chalapathi Rao, N. V.

    2009-12-01

    India is known for its historic diamonds from alluvial gravels. The source rocks for these diamonds are thought to be among the so far nearly 100 identified kimberlitic/lamproitic pipes and dikes which occur mostly in the Dharwar craton (Andhra Pradesh) and the Bundelkhand craton (Madhya Pradesh), and which all have Mesoproterozoic ages with a peak at 1.1 Ga. However, diamondiferous kimberlite pipes in the recently discovered Mainpur kimberlite field in central India have surprisingly young 40Ar/39Ar whole-rock ages of 66.5 ±2.0 and 62.4 ±2.9 million years (2σ), confirmed by more precise laser ablation ICP-MS 206Pb/238U perovskite data of 65.1 ±0.8 and 62.3 ±0.8 Ma (2 σ). These ages overlap with the main phase of the Deccan flood basalt magmatism at 65 million years, and suggest a common tectonomagmatic control for both flood basalts (including carbonatite-alkaline rock variants) and kimberlites. The kimberlites were studied in drill core and have textural, bulk and mineral chemical composition typical of orangeite (African kimberlite Group 2), confirmed by Sr and Nd isotope data. The Mainpur kimberlite field is in the Archean Bastar craton with felsic rocks as old as 3.6 Ga. The presence of macrodiamonds in the pipes implies that Central India had a cool and thick lithospheric mantle root at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, significantly different from the modern Indian lithosphere of about 80-100 km thickness only. The loss of India's cratonic roots must have taken place in the Tertiary, i.e. after much of the superfast northward motion of the Indian plate from Gondwana break-up at about 130 million years until the collision with Eurasia at about 50 million years ago. India's unique plate-tectonic behaviour in the Cretaceous cannot be related to a plume-eroded lithosphere. About one third of the Indian lithosphere was lost during or after the Deccan flood basalt event.

  17. Sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters among the rural agrarian community of central India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kshirod Kumar; Gupta, Neha; Bhabulkar, Sneha

    2015-01-01

    Suicides, attempted suicides and different form of suicidal behaviors are on the rise in most part of the world. It is generally assumed that official suicidal rate are underestimated from the true rate by 20-100 % due to prevailing socio-cultural issues, religious attitude, stigma attached, and legal process involved. Attempted suicides occur 8-20 times more frequently than complete suicide. Statistics on attempted suicide or deliberate self harm are not usually available officially. All the cases of attempted suicide who were admitted and referred for psychiatric evaluation and management to a rural medical college of central India during a period of one Year (April 13-March-14), following initial recovery they were evaluated on a semi-structured performa on socio demographic profile, mode of attempt and reason for attempt. Data collected was analyzed using suitable statistical methods. Total 68 cases were evaluated during the study period. 43% of the cases were involved in farming. Among 85% of the study population pesticide consumption was the common mode of attempt, which is easily available among the agrarian community of rural India. Interpersonal conflict in the family due to indebtedness, financial loss due to crop failure was the commonest reason for attempt. Though there is reduced reporting in the incidents of suicide cases in media from this region, still quite a number of people attempt suicide due to financial constraint from crop failure, ongoing indebtedness, and poor socioeconomic condition culminating into poor mental health among the rural agrarian community of central Maharashtra.

  18. Evaluation of telemedicine centres in Madhya Pradesh, Central India.

    PubMed

    Bali, Surya; Gupta, Arti; Khan, Asif; Pakhare, Abhijit

    2016-04-01

    In a developing country such as India, there is substantial inequality in health care distribution. Telemedicine facilities were established in Madhya Pradesh in 2007-2008. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the infrastructure, equipment, manpower, and functional status of Indian Space and Research Organisation (ISRO) telemedicine nodes in Madhya Pradesh. All district hospitals and medical colleges with nodes were visited by a team of three members. The study was conducted from December 2013-January 2014. The team recorded the structural facility situation and physical conditions on a predesigned pro forma. The team also conducted interviews with the nodal officers, data entry operator and other relevant people at these centres. Of the six specialist nodes, four were functional and two were non-functional. Of 10 patient nodes, two nodes were functional, four were semi-functional and four were non-functional. Most of the centres were not working due to a problem with their satellite modem. The overall condition of ISRO run telemedicine centres in Madhya Pradesh was found to be poor. Most of these centres failed to provide telemedicine consultations. We recommend replacing this system with another cost effective system available in the state wide area network (SWAN). We suggest the concept of the virtual out-patient department.

  19. Neonatal Screening and the Clinical Outcome in Children with Sickle Cell Disease in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhye, Dipti S.; Jain, Dipty L.; Trivedi, Yogesh L.; Nadkarni, Anita H.; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a major health burden in India. The objective of the study was to establish a neonatal screening program and to understand the clinical course of children with SCD in central India. Methods and Findings Pregnant mothers were screened for sickle hemoglobin using the solubility test. Babies were screened by high performance liquid chromatography if the mother was positive for sickle hemoglobin. The diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis. They received early prophylactic treatment and vaccination. Of 2134 newborns screened, 104 were sickle homozygous (SS), seven had sickle β-thalassemia (S-β thal) and 978 were sickle heterozygous (AS). The other hemoglobin abnormalities detected included HbS -δβ thalassemia-1, HbSD disease-2, HbE traits-5, β-thalassemia traits-4, alpha chain variants-3 and HbH disease-1.These babies were followed up regularly for hematological and clinical evaluation. Pain, severe anemia requiring blood transfusions and acute febrile illness were the major complications with 59.7, 45.1 and 42.6 cases per 100 person years. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels were inversely associated with vaso-oclussive crisis (VOC) and severe anemia while presence of alpha thalassemia increased the rate of painful events and sepsis. Six early deaths occurred among the SS babies. Conclusion A systematic follow up of this first newborn SCD cohort in central India showed that 47% of babies presented within 1 year of age. In spite of the presence of the Arab-Indian haplotype many babies had severe manifestations. PMID:26785407

  20. India.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology.

  1. Assessment of fluoride level in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Arif, M; Husain, I; Hussain, J; Kumar, S

    2013-10-01

    In India, for the high concentration of fluoride in groundwater, people are at risk of dental fluorosis. The problem is common in various states of India. The condition in Rajasthan is worse where all districts have such a problem. To study the fluoride concentration in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India. The fluoride concentration in water of 54 villages was measured electrochemically, using fluoride ion selective electrode. Dental fluorosis was assessed in 1136 people residing in study area by Dean's classification for dental fluorosis. The fluoride concentration in groundwater in studied sites ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/L. The concentration of fluoride was more than the maximum permissible limit set by WHO and Bureau of Indian Standards (1 mg/L) in 48 groundwater sources. Of 1136 people studied, 788 (69.4%; 95% CI: 66.7%-72.1%) had dental fluoros---252 had mild and 74 had severe dental fluorosis. High level of fluoride in drinking water of Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India, causes dental fluorosis in most people in the region and is an important health problem that needs prompt attention.

  2. Comparison of large central and small decentralized power generation in India

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This reports evaluates two options for providing reliable power to rural areas in India. The benefits and costs are compared for biomass based distributed generation (DG) systems versus a 1200-MW central grid coal-fired power plant. The biomass based DG systems are examined both as alternatives to grid extension and as supplements to central grid power. The benefits are divided into three categories: those associated with providing reliable power from any source, those associated specifically with biomass based DG technology, and benefits of a central grid coal plant. The report compares the estimated delivered costs of electricity from the DG systems to those of the central plant. The analysis includes estimates for a central grid coal plant and four potential DG system technologies: Stirling engines, direct-fired combustion turbines, fuel cells, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles. The report also discusses issues affecting India`s rural electricity demand, including economic development, power reliability, and environmental concerns. The results of the costs of electricity comparison between the biomass DG systems and the coal-fired central grid station demonstrated that the DG technologies may be able to produce very competitively priced electricity by the start of the next century. The use of DG technology may provide a practical means of addressing many rural electricity issues that India will face in the future. Biomass DG technologies in particular offer unique advantages for the environment and for economic development that will make them especially attractive. 58 refs., 31 figs.

  3. A Multi-sensor Approach to Identify Crop Sensitivity Related to Climate Variability in Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, P.; DeFries, R. S.; Jain, M.; Robertson, A. W.; Galford, G. L.; Small, C.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture is a primary source of livelihood for over 70% of India's population, with staple crops (e.g. winter wheat) playing a pivotal role in satisfying an ever-increasing food-demand of a growing population. Agricultural yield in India has been reported to be highly correlated with the timing and total amount of monsoon rainfall and/or temperature depending on crop type. With expected change in future climate (temperature and precipitation), significant fluctuations in crop yields are projected for near future. To date, little work has identified the sensitivity of cropping intensity, or the number of crops planted in a given year, to climate variability. The objective of this study is to shed light on relative importance of different climate parameters through a statistical analysis of inter-annual variations in cropping intensity at a regional scale, which may help identify adaptive strategies in response to future climate anomalies. Our study focuses on a highly human-modified landscape in central India, and uses a multi-sensor approach to determine the sensitivity of agriculture to climate variability. First, we assembled the 16-day time-series of 250m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and applied a spline function-based smoothing algorithm to develop maps of monsoon and winter crops in Central India for a decadal time-span. A hierarchical model involving moderate resolution Landsat (30m) data was used to estimate the heterogeneity of the spectral signature within the MODIS dataset (250m). We then compared the season-specific cropping patterns with spatio-temporal variability in climate parameters derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. Initial data indicates that the existence of a monsoon crop has moderate to strong correlation with wet season end date (ρ = .522), wet season length (ρ = .522), and the number of rainy days during wet season (ρ = .829). Existence of a winter

  4. Chlorinated pesticide residues in sediments from the Arabian Sea along the central west coast of India

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, A.; Gupta, R.S.

    1987-12-01

    The problem of environmental contamination by persistent chlorinated pesticides still evokes major concern due to the presence of their residues in the environment and in human tissues. In developing countries like India organochlorine insecticides, especially DDT are extensively being used in agriculture and vector control programs. Few data are available on their levels of concentration from the seas around India. Persistent pesticides residues can be expected to accumulate in marine sediments. However, very little data on this are available along the Indian coast. An attempt has been made in the present communication to identify and quantify some of the chlorinated pesticides residues in the marine sediments collected from different region along the central west coast of India. This is a part of our ongoing project to monitor and map pollutants within the exclusive economic zone of India.

  5. Traditional zootherapeutic studies in India: a review

    PubMed Central

    Mahawar, Madan Mohan; Jaroli, DP

    2008-01-01

    The present study aims to review the zootherapeutic practices of the different ethnic communities of India. This work is also an attempt to present a list of animals' use for medicinal purposes by different communities of India. Data were gathered from 15 published research papers of various authors on zootherapeutic studies in India from 2000 to 2007. Approximately 109 animals and their 270 uses are reported in traditional medicine in different parts of India. Of these, the highest numbers of animal species (42, 38.5%) with 50 (18.5%) uses have been reported for the treatment of Respiratory system related problems. Rheumatic and other pains are treated with 32 species (29.4%) in 34 (12.9%) uses. Gastric problems are reported to be treated with 22 (20.2%) species in 26 (9.9%) uses. The mammals constitute the highest number of animals used for medicinal purposes. 44 (40%) mammals, 24 (22%) invertebrates, 18 (17%) birds, 12 (11%) reptiles, nine (8%) fishes and two (2%) amphibians have been reported for medicinal purposes. Of the total 109 animal species reported, 76(70%) are included in IUCN red data list and 36 (33%) animal species are listed in CITES appendix I, II, and III. This work will be helpful in biodiversity conservation in India and also give a clue to investigate bio-active compound in these animal raw materials. PMID:18634551

  6. Comparison of Opinion Referendum of Medical and Dental Postgraduates Towards Plagiarism in Bhopal - Central India.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shubham; Saxena, Vrinda; Hongal, Sudheer; Jain, Manish; Torwane, Nilesh; Sharva, Vijayta

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate awareness and attitude towards plagiarism of postgraduates of health fraternity in Bhopal, Central India. Across-sectional survey. People's University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, from January to March 2014. A total of 164 postgraduates, medical (n = 80) and dental postgraduates (n = 84) were included in the study. A standard pre-tested self-administered questionnaire assessing positive, negative and subjective norms towards plagiarism was the assessing tool. Data was captured through distribution of the instrument and collected as scheduled from the study participants. The distribution of scores based on the responses to the individual questions in each dimension between the groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Among dental and medical postgraduates the median values for the questions under positive attitude was 34.0 and 32.0, negative attitude was 21.5 and 19, subjective norms was 29.0 and 27.5 respectively. The difference in the opinion regarding positive attitude was found to be statistically significant in between the groups (p < 0.05). Overall plagiarism was favored more by dental students as compared to medical students. Moreover, inadequate level of knowledge and awareness was observed in both the streams. Efforts should be undertaken to motivate health professionals to instill honest behavior in order to preserve the intellectual property right.

  7. Global oral health course: Perception among dental students in central India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi

    2012-07-01

    A questionnaire study was conducted among dental students in Central India. The study population included 264 dental students, who voluntarily completed a questionnaire, comprising of 16 close ended questions. There were 9 questions to judge knowledge and 5 questions for attitude assessment towards global oral health course. Two additional questions were included to assess the willingness to volunteer in international setting; and also, to assess dental student's perspection on global oral health course. Chi Square test was used to compare between categorical variables. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare mean of knowledge and attitude scores. P value of ⩽.05 was considered significant for all statistical analysis. Eighty seven percent of the surveyed students (222) stated that they would consider volunteering their dental skills as a future dentist in international setting. Majority of the students in the present study were not aware about the global oral health status (99.2%) and theoral health care systems of industrialized and emerging economies (99.2%), had not been trained to serve underserved population (68%), had not been trained in global health ethics (70.1%) and none of the students had been trained for cultural competence in addressing international oral health issues (100%). Most of the dental students were not aware, that, WHO created basic package of oral care (63%) about the primary health care strategy (59.5%) and about the role and functions of FDI (66.7%). The majority of students expressed a desire to volunteer their professional services in international settings. However few students knew about WHO's BPOC or FDI'S role in global oral health. The findings indicate a need for global oral health course among dental students in Central India.

  8. Global oral health course: Perception among dental students in central India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi

    2012-01-01

    A questionnaire study was conducted among dental students in Central India. The study population included 264 dental students, who voluntarily completed a questionnaire, comprising of 16 close ended questions. There were 9 questions to judge knowledge and 5 questions for attitude assessment towards global oral health course. Two additional questions were included to assess the willingness to volunteer in international setting; and also, to assess dental student’s perspection on global oral health course. Chi Square test was used to compare between categorical variables. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare mean of knowledge and attitude scores. P value of ⩽.05 was considered significant for all statistical analysis. Eighty seven percent of the surveyed students (222) stated that they would consider volunteering their dental skills as a future dentist in international setting. Majority of the students in the present study were not aware about the global oral health status (99.2%) and theoral health care systems of industrialized and emerging economies (99.2%), had not been trained to serve underserved population (68%), had not been trained in global health ethics (70.1%) and none of the students had been trained for cultural competence in addressing international oral health issues (100%). Most of the dental students were not aware, that, WHO created basic package of oral care (63%) about the primary health care strategy (59.5%) and about the role and functions of FDI (66.7%). The majority of students expressed a desire to volunteer their professional services in international settings. However few students knew about WHO’s BPOC or FDI’S role in global oral health. The findings indicate a need for global oral health course among dental students in Central India. PMID:22904658

  9. Learning, Livelihoods, and Social Mobility: Valuing Girls' Education in Central India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froerer, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    This article is concerned with the relationship between education, aspiration, and social mobility in Chhattisgarh, central India. I am interested in how the ideology of education as an intrinsic "social good" squares with the everyday experiences of marginalized "adivasi" (tribal) girls. My aim is to understand why education…

  10. Prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension in a community-based primary health care program villages at central India.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Ramaswamy; Pothen, John; Rima, Jeeva; Arole, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of a community-based effort in a rural area of central India to decrease the prevalence of hypertension among the middle-aged and older population by using multiple blood pressure measurements. With a prevalence of 16.8% (error of 3.36, and 95% confidence interval) from a recent study in a nearby district, the sample size required for this study was 495 subjects. A proportionally stratified random sample design was used. With maps of ten villages, where in a community-based health project had been in place for many years, 20 households and 20 backups were randomly selected from a list of all households. Multiple BP measurements were obtained and categorized and one-month period prevalence was calculated. Statistical analyses of frequency and percentage were performed. Approximately one-fifth of the population above 40 years of age in central India where a community-based approach is in place was hypertensive. This is significantly lower than the previously documented prevalence rate of one-third or even more prevalence rate in India. The attribute of caste and religion, a specific rural Indian characteristic did not have any significant bearing on the above results. The prevalence tended to increase progressively with age until 70 years, after which it declined. Multiple blood pressure measurements may yield an accurate prevalence of hypertension. With the documented evidences from India, the current reduced prevalence of hypertension could have been influenced by the community-based interventions in this population. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Central American resource studies

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Basic Skills in Asian Studies: India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    Designed for an Asian studies program at the secondary level and using learning activities centering on India, the guide develops four basic skills: reading, applying critical thinking, interpreting the geography, and understanding history. Five learning activities are provided for each basic skill and each unit is introduced with a description…

  13. Foreign Area Studies: India. A Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Emily C., Ed.

    Developed for a one-semester college credit course, this syllabus encourages a cross-cultural approach to the study of Indian society. The objective is to provide students with not only a balanced view of India but also with an idea of dynamics of change. Emphasis is upon paralleling social and political issues in the United States with those of…

  14. Prevalence of the β(S) gene among scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward class groups in Central India.

    PubMed

    Shrikhande, Anuradha V; Arjunan, Aishwarya; Agarwal, Amit; Dani, Aarti; Tijare, Jayashri; Gettig, Elizabeth; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is an inherited disorder of the blood, and characterized by vasoocclusive crises (VOC), risks for pneumococcal infections and organ toxicities, is associated with morbidity and premature mortality. India, with a population of 1.2 billion individuals, is estimated to be home to over 50.0% of the world's patients with sickle cell disease. The β(S) gene [β6(A3)Glu→Val; HBB: c.20A>T] has the highest prevalence in three socio-economically disadvantaged ethnic categories: the Scheduled Castes (SC), the Scheduled Tribes (ST), and Other Backward Class (OBC) groups in India. The tradition of endogamy practiced by the ethnic groups in India provides the rationale for the screening of individual populations to better understand the distribution of the β(S) gene, guide counseling and awareness programs and aid development of public policy. We undertook a study to describe the prevalence of the β(S) gene in these ethnic groups in the district of Nagpur, Maharashtra in Central India. Through community screening and subsequent targeted screening of high risk individuals, 35,636 individuals were screened, of whom 5466 were found to have sickle cell trait and 1010 were identified with sickle cell disease. Community screening revealed a sickle cell trait prevalence of 13.0% in the SC, 12.0% in the ST and 3.4% in the OBC population. This study describes the prevalence of the β(S) gene within these groups in Central India determined by large scale community screening. This program has uncovered previously undiagnosed cases, provided detailed information to guide population-based disease counseling, prevention and comprehensive care programs.

  15. Comparative petrogenesis and tectonics of Paleoproterozoic Malanjkhand and Dongargarh granitoids, Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Dinesh; Panigrahi, Mruganka Kumar

    2012-05-01

    The Malanjkhand granitoid (MG) and two units of Dongargarh granitoids (DGs) represent contemporaneous episodes of Paleoproterozoic felsic magmatism in the Bastar Craton, Central India. A comparative geochemical study is carried out between the mineralized Malanjkhand granitoid (MG) and barren Dongargarh granitoids (DGs) that occur adjacent to each other separated by the Dongargarh Group of rocks. Major element oxides geochemistry reveals that MG is granite-granodiorite whereas DG is strictly granite in composition and both plutons show calc-alkaline affinity. Geochemical discrimination indicates that MG is an I-type, whereas an A-type affinity can only be suspected in case of DG and both can be labeled as 'peraluminous'. Trace element data from these Paleoproterozoic granitoids indicate that they evolved in a tectonic environment similar to continental rift setting. HFSE ratios suggest variable degree of fractionation of highly differentiated granitic magma was a very complex crystallization process results in the formation of these two granitoids by common mechanism, possibly fluid separation might be involved. Highly fractionated REE and depleted MREE patterns with Eu-anomaly absent in MG and negative in DG, inferred that the parental magma derived by low-degree partial melting of heterogeneous mafic source probably amphibolitic in nature, followed by progressive differentiation. Zircon saturation temperature and Zr content reveals that MG crystallized from wet melt whereas DG crystallized from relatively dry melt but both are classify as hot-granites. Thermobarometric calculations indicates that MG has emplaced at upper level whereas DG at relatively deeper or middle-upper level in the continental crust. The origin of Palaeoproterozoic granitoids in Central India has attributed to the magma mixing process between crustal derived felsic and mafic magma contributed by basaltic underplating in a continental rift environment.

  16. Forest corridors maintain historical gene flow in a tiger metapopulation in the highlands of central India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sandeep; Dutta, Trishna; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Wood, Thomas C.; Panwar, Hemendra Singh; Seidensticker, John

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the patterns of gene flow of an endangered species metapopulation occupying a fragmented habitat is crucial for landscape-level conservation planning and devising effective conservation strategies. Tigers (Panthera tigris) are globally endangered and their populations are highly fragmented and exist in a few isolated metapopulations across their range. We used multi-locus genotypic data from 273 individual tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) from four tiger populations of the Satpura–Maikal landscape of central India to determine whether the corridors in this landscape are functional. This 45 000 km2 landscape contains 17% of India's tiger population and 12% of its tiger habitat. We applied Bayesian and coalescent-based analyses to estimate contemporary and historical gene flow among these populations and to infer their evolutionary history. We found that the tiger metapopulation in central India has high rates of historical and contemporary gene flow. The tests for population history reveal that tigers populated central India about 10 000 years ago. Their population subdivision began about 1000 years ago and accelerated about 200 years ago owing to habitat fragmentation, leading to four spatially separated populations. These four populations have been in migration–drift equilibrium maintained by high gene flow. We found the highest rates of contemporary gene flow in populations that are connected by forest corridors. This information is highly relevant to conservation practitioners and policy makers, because deforestation, road widening and mining are imminent threats to these corridors. PMID:23902910

  17. Forest corridors maintain historical gene flow in a tiger metapopulation in the highlands of central India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Dutta, Trishna; Maldonado, Jesús E; Wood, Thomas C; Panwar, Hemendra Singh; Seidensticker, John

    2013-09-22

    Understanding the patterns of gene flow of an endangered species metapopulation occupying a fragmented habitat is crucial for landscape-level conservation planning and devising effective conservation strategies. Tigers (Panthera tigris) are globally endangered and their populations are highly fragmented and exist in a few isolated metapopulations across their range. We used multi-locus genotypic data from 273 individual tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) from four tiger populations of the Satpura-Maikal landscape of central India to determine whether the corridors in this landscape are functional. This 45 000 km(2) landscape contains 17% of India's tiger population and 12% of its tiger habitat. We applied Bayesian and coalescent-based analyses to estimate contemporary and historical gene flow among these populations and to infer their evolutionary history. We found that the tiger metapopulation in central India has high rates of historical and contemporary gene flow. The tests for population history reveal that tigers populated central India about 10 000 years ago. Their population subdivision began about 1000 years ago and accelerated about 200 years ago owing to habitat fragmentation, leading to four spatially separated populations. These four populations have been in migration-drift equilibrium maintained by high gene flow. We found the highest rates of contemporary gene flow in populations that are connected by forest corridors. This information is highly relevant to conservation practitioners and policy makers, because deforestation, road widening and mining are imminent threats to these corridors.

  18. Occurence and distribution of fluoride in groundwaters of central Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Vikas, C

    2009-07-01

    High fluoride in groundwater has been reported from many parts of India, particularly its impact on human health. Waterborne fluorosis is prevalent in parts of Ajmer and Jaipur districts in central Rajasthan which can be correlated to excessive concentration of the toxic fluoride ions in drinking water. The area, falling under the semiarid terrain of central Rajasthan, is geologically occupied by Precambrian rocks where groundwater occurs under unconfined conditions. Fluoride concentration in shallow aquifer samples of the study area ranges between 0.12 to 16.9 mg/L. Presence of fluoride bearing minerals in the host rock and their interaction with water is considered to be the main cause for fluoride in groundwater. Chemical weathering under arid to semiarid conditions with relatively high alkalinity favours high concentration of fluoride in groundwater, which has resulted in dental and skeletal fluorosis in the study area. The incidence of fluorosis, caused by an excess of fluoride compounds in drinking water, has been rising at an alarming rate in the state.

  19. Suicide in Rural Central India: Profile of Attempters of Deliberate Self Harm Presenting to Padhar Hospital in Madhya Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Ebenezer, Johann Alex; Joge, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suicide is a significant public health issue. India currently has the largest number of suicides in the world and has a disproportionate number of youth suicides including young women. The studies on patterns of suicide in rural central India are sparse, particularly among tribal communities. Aims: The aim of this study is to describe the profile of suicide attempters presenting to a secondary-level hospital in rural central India and identify areas for potential future research toward preventive strategies. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was carried out of eighty patients who were admitted with presenting complaints of deliberate self-harm and survived until psychiatric consultation. Descriptive statistics was employed to generate the results. Results and Conclusions: 86% of the attempts were isolated impulsive attempts following triggers, the most common of which was interpersonal disputes (71%). Only 67% of patients had a mental health condition, the most common syndrome being alcohol use disorder, followed by depression, and personality disorders. Although 45% of attempters had background interpersonal conflicts, only 5% reported financial stressors as contributory. Psychosocial stressors, especially interpersonal conflicts within the family, appear to be at least as important factors as mental illnesses in contributing to suicide attempts in the area. PMID:28031594

  20. Burden of Complicated Malaria in a Densely Forested Bastar Region of Chhattisgarh State (Central India)

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vidhan; Basak, Sanjay; Bhandari, Sneha; Bharti, Praveen K.; Thomas, Trilok; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Singh, Neeru

    2014-01-01

    Background A prospective study on severe and complicated malaria was undertaken in the tribal dominated area of Bastar division, Chhattisgarh (CG), Central India, with an objective to understand the clinical epidemiology of complicated malaria in patients attending at a referral hospital. Methods Blood smears, collected from the general medicine and pediatric wards of a government tertiary health care facility located in Jagdalpur, CG, were microscopically examined for malaria parasite from July 2010 to December 2013. The Plasmodium falciparum positive malaria cases who met enrollment criteria and provided written informed consent were enrolled under different malaria categories following WHO guidelines. PCR was performed to reconfirm the presence of P.falciparum mono infection among enrolled cases. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify different risk factors using STATA 11.0. Results A total of 40,924 cases were screened for malaria. The prevalence of malaria and P.falciparum associated complicated malaria (severe and cerebral both) in the hospital was 6% and 0.81%, respectively. P.falciparum malaria prevalence, severity and associated mortality in this region peaked at the age of>4–5 years and declined with increasing age. P.falciparum malaria was significantly more prevalent in children than adults (P<0.00001). Among adults, males had significantly more P.falciparum malaria than females (P<0.00001). Case fatality rate due to cerebral malaria and severe malaria was, respectively, 32% and 9% among PCR confirmed mono P.falciparum cases. Coma was the only independent predictor of mortality in multivariate regression analysis. Mortality was significantly associated with multi-organ complication score (P = 0.0003). Conclusion This study has revealed that the pattern of morbidity and mortality in this part of India is very different from earlier reported studies from India. We find that the peak morbidity and mortality in

  1. A New Insight into Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis for Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, H. S.; Shukla, A. K.; Khan, P. K.; Mishra, O. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Son-Narmada-Tapti lineament and its surroundings of Central India (CI) is the second most important tectonic regime following the converging margin along Himalayas-Myanmar-Andaman of the Indian sub-continent, which attracted several geoscientists to assess its seismic hazard potential. Our study area, a part of CI, is bounded between latitudes 18°-26°N and longitudes 73°-83°E, representing a stable part of Peninsular India. Past damaging moderate magnitude earthquakes as well as continuing microseismicity in the area provided enough data for seismological study. Our estimates based on regional Gutenberg-Richter relationship showed lower b values (i.e., between 0.68 and 0.76) from the average for the study area. The Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis carried out over the area with a radius of ~300 km encircling Bhopal yielded a conspicuous relationship between earthquake return period ( T) and peak ground acceleration (PGA). Analyses of T and PGA shows that PGA value at bedrock varies from 0.08 to 0.15 g for 10 % ( T = 475 years) and 2 % ( T = 2,475 years) probabilities exceeding 50 years, respectively. We establish the empirical relationships and between zero period acceleration (ZPA) and shear wave velocity up to a depth of 30 m [ V s (30)] for the two different return periods. These demonstrate that the ZPA values decrease with increasing shear wave velocity, suggesting a diagnostic indicator for designing the structures at a specific site of interest. The predictive designed response spectra generated at a site for periods up to 4.0 s at 10 and 2 % probability of exceedance of ground motion for 50 years can be used for designing duration dependent structures of variable vertical dimension. We infer that this concept of assimilating uniform hazard response spectra and predictive design at 10 and 2 % probability of exceedance in 50 years at 5 % damping at bedrocks of different categories may offer potential inputs for designing earthquake resistant

  2. Clinical presentation, etiology, and survival in adult acute encephalitis syndrome in rural Central India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajnish; Mishra, Pradyumna Kumar; Joshi, Deepti; Santhosh, SR; Parida, M.M.; Desikan, Prabha; Gangane, Nitin; Kalantri, S.P.; Reingold, Arthur; Colford, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a constellation of symptoms that includes fever and altered mental status. Most cases are attributed to viral encephalitis (VE), occurring either in outbreaks or sporadically. We conducted hospital-based surveillance for sporadic adult-AES in rural Central India in order to describe its incidence, spatial and temporal distribution, clinical profile, etiology and predictors of mortality. Methods All consecutive hospital admissions during the study period were screened to identify adult-AES cases and were followed until 30-days of hospitalization. We estimated incidence by administrative sub-division of residence and described the temporal distribution of cases. We performed viral diagnostic studies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples to determine the etiology of AES. The diagnostic tests included RT-PCR (for enteroviruses, HSV 1 and 2), conventional PCR (for flaviviruses), CSF IgM capture ELISA (for Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue, West Nile virus, Varicella zoster virus, measles, and mumps). We compared demographic and clinical variables across etiologic subtypes and estimated predictors of 30-day mortality. Results A total of 183 AES cases were identified between January and October 2007, representing 2.38% of all admissions. The incidence of adult AES in the administrative subdivisions closest to the hospital was 16 per 100,000. Of the 183 cases, a non-viral etiology was confirmed in 31 (16.9%) and the remaining 152 were considered as VE suspects. Of the VE suspects, we could confirm a viral etiology in 31 cases: 17 (11.2%) enterovirus; 8 (5.2%) flavivirus; 3 (1.9%) Varicella zoster; 1 (0.6%) herpesvirus; and 2 (1.3%) mixed etiology); the etiology remained unknown in remaining 121 (79.6%) cases. 53 (36%) of the AES patients died; the case fatality proportion was similar in patients with a confirmed and unknown viral etiology (45.1 and 33.6% respectively). A requirement for assisted ventilation significantly

  3. Morphotectonics of the Jamini River basin, Bundelkhand Craton, Central India; using remote sensing and GIS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, K.; Mohanty, T.; Pati, J. K.; Singh, S.; Chaubey, K.

    2016-12-01

    Morphological and morphotectonic analyses have been used to obtain information that influence hydrographic basins, predominantly these are modifications of tectonic elements and the quantitative description of landforms. Discrimination of morphotectonic indices of active tectonics of the Jamini river basin consists the analyses of asymmetry factor, ruggedness number, basin relief, gradient, basin elongation ratio, drainage density analysis, and drainage pattern analysis, which have been completed for each drainage basin using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Jamini river is one of the major tributaries of the Betwa river in central India. The Jamini river basin is divided into five subwatersheds viz. Jamrar, Onri, Sainam, Shahzad and Baragl subwatershed. The quantitative approach of watershed development of the Jamini river basin, and its four sixth (SW1-SW4) and one fifth (SW5) order subwatersheds, was carried out using Survey of India toposheets (parts of 54I, 54K, 54L, 54O, and 54P), Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER (GDEM) data, and field data. The Jamini river has low bifurcation index which is a positive marker of tectonic imprint on the hydrographic network. The analyses show that the geomorphological progression of the study area was robustly influenced by tectonics. The analysis demonstrates to extensional tectonics system with the following alignments: NE-SW, NW-SE, NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW, E-W, and N-S. Three major trends are followed by lower order streams viz. NE-SW, NW-SE, and E-W directions which advocate that these tectonic trends were active at least up to the Late Pleistocene. The assessment of morphotectonic indices may be used to evaluate the control of active faults on the hydrographic system. The analysis points out westward tilting of the drainage basins with strong asymmetry in some reaches, marked elongation ratio of subwatersheds, and lower order streams having close alignment with lineaments (active faults). The study facilitated to considerate the

  4. Burden & pattern of illnesses among the tribal communities in central India : A report from a community health programme.

    PubMed

    Jain, Yogesh; Kataria, Raman; Patil, Sushil; Kadam, Suhas; Kataria, Anju; Jain, Rachna; Kurbude, Ravindra; Shinde, Sharayu

    2015-05-01

    Tribals are the most marginalised social category in the country and there is little and scattered information on the actual burden and pattern of illnesses they suffer from. This study provides information on burden and pattern of diseases among tribals, and whether these can be linked to their nutritional status, especially in particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTG) seen at a community health programme being run in the tribal areas of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh States of India. This community based programme, known as Jan Swasthya Sahyog (JSS) has been serving people in over 2500 villages in rural central India. It was found that the tribals had significantly higher proportion of all tuberculosis, sputum positive tuberculosis, severe hypertension, illnesses that require major surgery as a primary therapeutic intervention and cancers than non tribals. The proportions of people with rheumatic heart disease, sickle cell disease and epilepsy were not significantly different between different social groups. Nutritional levels of tribals were poor. Tribals in central India suffer a disproportionate burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases amidst worrisome levels of undernutrition. There is a need for universal health coverage with preferential care for the tribals, especially those belonging to the PVTG. Further, the high level of undernutrition demands a more augmented and universal Public Distribution System.

  5. Unlocking India’s Strategic Potential in Central Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1 I. India’s Delayed Arrival and Aspirations in Central Asia ………………......……5 II. India’s Strategic Culture and Geopolitical...number of select ele- ments of India’s strategic culture and geopolitical con- straints have prevented Delhi from pursuing a more active and effective...aspects of India’s strategic culture and geopolitical constraints. Meanwhile, U.S. strate- gic presence in the region leaves much to be desired

  6. India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Aerosols over India     View Larger Image ... particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the ... October 15, 2001 - High concentrations of aerosols over India. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  7. Alliance of oral hygiene practices and abrasion among urban and rural residents of Central India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Naveen S; Saxena, Vrinda; Reddy, Raghavendra; Deshpande, Neeraj; Deshpande, Anshula; Kovvuru, Suresh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To attain alliance between the oral hygiene practices with prevalence of tooth abrasion among urban and rural adult population of Central India. To plan dental care services in inaccessible areas and to suggest appropriate remedial measures to prevent this avertable and self-inflicted injury of teeth in this cross-sectional study. A sum of 1045 adult residents both from Urban (529) and rural (516) parts of Bhopal district (Central India) was selected on a random basis. The multistage sampling technique was adopted to ascertain the sample size. In urban area the study population consisted of 240 males, 289 females and 201 males and 315 females in rural area respectively. All residents above 18 years of age from the Bhopal district were included in cross-sectional study. Assessment form comprises of questionnaire and general information on oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and medical history. Abrasion was assessed using diagnostic criteria recommended by Smith and Knight (modified). Chi- square test was used to test associations between categorical variables at 5% level of significance. Regression analysis attempted to define for risk factors causing abrasion. Literature on the prevalence of abrasion is very sparse, so attempt is made to correlate the etiological factors and recommend to prevent tooth wear. Investigation of this cross-sectional study was aggregate of 1045 residences. Result shows high prevalence of abrasion 70.2%. Higher prevalence concomitant with diffident habits related to oral hygiene maintenance was recorded more among rural (76.9%) when compared to urban dwellers (63.7%). Presence of abrasion verifies statistical significance in relation to age, rural urban difference and variations in habit of oral hygiene care. Stated in the present study, avertable and self-inflicted is tooth abrasion, recurrently resulted by the reprehensible brushing method and common use of indigenous material for the maintenance of oral hygiene. Shows significant

  8. A study of nine anthroposcopic traits among the three tribes of the Bastar District in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Datta, U; Mitra, M; Singhrol, C S

    1989-03-01

    Nine anthroposcopic traits, namely palmar and plantar digital formulae, hand-clasping, armfolding, handedness, tongue rolling and folding, ear lobe attachment and legfolding have been studied in the three tribal populations--Murias, Bisonhorn Marias and Halbas--from the Bastar District in Madhya Pradesh (Central India). An attempt has been made to compare the results of the present study with other population groups of Central India.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus mongoliensis Strain MB4, a Sulfur-Utilizing Aerobic Thermophile Isolated from a Hot Spring in Tattapani, Central India

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Parul; Saxena, Rituja

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anoxybacillus mongoliensis strain MB4, an aerobic thermophile, was isolated from a hot spring located in central India. Its first draft genome sequence reported in this study comprises 2,807,516 bp and 2,853 protein-coding genes. Detailed genomic analysis indicates that it is capable of performing sulfur metabolism. PMID:28254979

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus mongoliensis Strain MB4, a Sulfur-Utilizing Aerobic Thermophile Isolated from a Hot Spring in Tattapani, Central India.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Parul; Saxena, Rituja; Sharma, Vineet K

    2017-03-02

    Anoxybacillus mongoliensis strain MB4, an aerobic thermophile, was isolated from a hot spring located in central India. Its first draft genome sequence reported in this study comprises 2,807,516 bp and 2,853 protein-coding genes. Detailed genomic analysis indicates that it is capable of performing sulfur metabolism.

  11. Disparities in pay of medical teachers all over India: need for a central governing body.

    PubMed

    Sukhlecha, Anupama

    2014-01-01

    While most professions have national level bodies governing the pay structure of their teachers, there is no functional body to govern the pay of medical teachers. The result is that the net pay of teachers in the central institutions (such as AIIMS, and the medical colleges of Chandigarh University etc) is higher than that of their counterparts in the medical colleges run by state governments. There is a central body, the Medical Council of India (MCI), which maintains standards of medical education all over the country.

  12. Health Status of the Prisoners in a Central Jail of South India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil D.; Kumar, Santosh A.; Pattankar, Jayashree V.; Reddy, Shrinivas B.; Dhar, Murali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health care in prisons is one of the neglected health areas in our country. Looking into the health problems of prisons will show us a way for the approach in providing the heath care for prisoners. Objectives: To assess the health status of convicted inmates of prison and to study their sociodemographic profile. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the inmates of central prison over a period of 1 year. Study population comprised of 300 convicted life-term prisoners. The inmates were interviewed using predesigned and pretested proforma. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by frequencies and percentages along with 95% confidence interval using statistical package SPSS18. Results: In health status, 29 (9.6%) inmates suffered from acute upper respiratory tract infections and 15 (5%) from acute lower respiratory tract infections. A total of 54 (18%) inmates had ascariasis. Diseases of musculoskeletal system and connective tissue contributed to 26 (8.7%) of inmates. A total of 252 (84%) prisoners had anemia. In sociodemographic profile, it was found that rural people, unmarried, illiterates, lower socioeconomic status people were more likely to have committed the crime resulting in the conviction for life. Conclusions: As there is an increase in number of prisoners and morbidities among them, there is an urgent need for prison health care services in developing countries like India and provide training to the health care providers to manage the commonly existing health problems among prisoners in the prisons. PMID:24379498

  13. Even partial reduction of biomass fuel use may improve the respiratory health of rural women in Central India.

    PubMed

    Sukhsohale, N D; Narlawar, U W; Ughade, S N; Kulkarni, H

    2012-01-01

    Routine use of biomass fuels in cooking adversely affects respiratory health, but whether partial abolition of the biomass use is also detrimental is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 760 women in rural central India: 283 used non-biomass fuels (Group A), 225 biomass and other fuels (Group B), while 252 exclusively used biomass fuels (Group C). Robust multivariate analyses adjusted for age, daily cooking time, cooking experience, marital status, overcrowding and education showed that only Group C, and not Group B, had poor respiratory health. Our results indicate that even partial abolition of biomass use may be beneficial.

  14. Major ion chemistry of shallow groundwater of a fast growing city of central India.

    PubMed

    Marghade, Deepali; Malpe, D B; Zade, A B

    2012-04-01

    Nagpur City located in semiarid area of central India is a fast-growing industrial centre. In recent years, rapid development has created an increased demand for drinking water, which is increasingly being fulfilled by groundwater abstraction. The present study was undertaken to assess major ion chemistry of shallow groundwater to understand geochemical evolution of groundwater and water quality for promoting sustainable development and effective management of groundwater resources. A total of 47 water samples were collected from shallow aquifer of selected parts of the city and the water chemistry of various ions viz. Ca(2 +), Mg(2 +), Na(+), K(+), CO(3)(2-), HCO(3)(-), Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) and NO(3)(-) are carried out. The chemical relationships in Piper diagram identify Ca-HCO(3)-Cl and mixed Ca-Na-HCO(3)-Cl as most prevalent water types. Alkaline earth exceeds alkalis and weak acids exceed strong acids. Ionic ratios and Gibb's diagram suggest that silicate rock weathering and anthropogenic activities are the main processes that determine the ionic composition in the study area. The nitrate appeared as a major problem of safe drinking water in this region. We recorded highest nitrate concentration, i.e., 411 mg/l in one of the dug well. A comparison of groundwater quality in relation to drinking water quality standards revealed that about half of the shallow aquifer samples are not suitable for drinking.

  15. Nutritional status and its correlates among tribal children of Melghat, central India.

    PubMed

    Talapalliwar, Manoj Rajanna; Garg, Bishan S

    2014-11-01

    To find out the magnitude and epidemiological determinants of malnutrition among 0-6 y tribal children. A community based cross sectional study was done in the villages of Melghat in central India. The information of 540 children in the age group 0-6 y was collected. The newly developed WHO growth standards were used to calculate conventional indices of malnutrition (underweight, stunting and wasting) and composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to find out the correlates of malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition among these tribal children in terms of underweight, stunting, and wasting were 60.9 %, 66.4 % and 18.8 % respectively. Malnutrition in terms of composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) was 76.3 %. The important correlates of malnutrition that emerged out of this study were the age of child, age of mother less than 20 y at her first pregnancy, practice of not feeding colostrum, calorie deficit diet, anemia and morbidities like diarrhea and acute respiratory illnesses. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in tribal children. The health care delivery at village level should be strengthened for early diagnosis and prompt treatment of anemia and other morbidities in children. The strategies are needed to delay the child bearing age in this community and improve breast feeding practices.

  16. Clay Minerals in Soils as Evidence of Holocene Climatic Change, Central Indo-Gangetic Plains, North-Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Pankaj; Parkash, Bramha; Pal, Dilip K.

    1998-11-01

    Clay mineral assemblages of a soil chrono-association comprising five fluvial surface members (QGH1 to QGH5) of the Indo-Gangetic Plains between the Ramganga and Rapti rivers, north-central India, demonstrate that pedogenic interstratified smectite-kaolin (Sm/K) can be considered as a potential indicator for paleoclimatic changes during the Holocene from arid to humid climates. On the basis of available radiocarbon dates, thermoluminescence dates, and historical evidence, tentative ages assigned to QGH1 to QGH5 are <500 yr B.P., >500 yr B.P., >2500 yr B.P., 8000 TL yr B.P., and 13,500 TL yr B.P., respectively. During pedogenesis two major regional climatic cycles are recorded: relatively arid climates between 10,000-6500 yr B.P. and 3800-? yr B.P. were punctuated by a warm and humid climate. Biotite weathered to trioctahedral vermiculite and smectite in the soils during arid conditions, and smectite was unstable and transformed to Sm/K during the warm and humid climatic phase (7400-4150 cal yr B.P.). When the humid climate terminated, vermiculite, smectite, and Sm/K were preserved to the present day. The study suggests that during the development of soils in the Holocene in alluvium of the Indo-Gangetic Plains, climatic fluctuations appear to be more important than realized hitherto. The soils older than 2500 yr B.P. are relict paleosols, but they are polygenetic because of their subsequent alterations.

  17. Multiple sclerosis in India: An institutional study.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Ankit; Bhatia, Rohit; Srivastava, M V Padma; Prasad, Kameshwar; Singh, Mamta Bhushan

    2015-05-01

    Few population based studies on multiple sclerosis have been published from India. There is an increasing demand to establish a nationwide MS registry in India especially in view of the percieved increased incidence and prevalence. To create a registry data base for all MS patients presenting at our institute and understand the disease characteristics in our population and compare them with the published reports from the west. MS was diagnosed on the basis of clinical and imaging features (Revised McDonald׳s criteria 2010). Demographics, clinical data, treatment details and disease behavior were recorded over a follow up of one year. Descriptive analyses was performed. 101 patients (61 females) were recruited in the study period from June 2011 to December 2012. Mean age of the patients at the time of presentation was 33.3±9.2 years and mean duration of illness was 5.98±4.95. 68.4% patients had RRMS, 16.8% had SPMS whereas 14.8% patients had PPMS. Site(s) involved in first relapse was spinal cord in 43.7% patients followed by brainstem 25.3% and optic nerve in 24.1% patients. Mean number of relapses were 3.26±2.026. Mean EDSS at the time of presentation was 3.20±2.11. Overall, 55.44% patients took DMT at some point during their course of disease. No significant differences were observed between our patient characteristics when compared to publications from west. Demographic data in the present study are comparable to those reported in population-based epidemiological studies from west. A nationwide registry network will help establish stronger data on incidence, prevalence and disease profile of MS in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic changes associated with the Deccan Volcanism, examples from terrestrial deposits from Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantasia, Alicia; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Font, Eric; Samant, Bandana; Mohabey, Dhananjay; Thakre, Deepali; Keller, Gerta

    2015-04-01

    Since the 80's, numerous authors have established the connection between Deccan volcanism in India and the KT events. Chenet et al (2008) showed that Deccan Traps erupted in three main phases with 6% total Deccan volume in phase-1 (base C30n), 80% in phase-2 (C29r) and 14% in phase-3 (C29n). Recent works indicate that the main phase-2 (80%) occurred over a relatively short time interval in magnetic polarity C29r, which coincides with the KTB events (Blair et al., in press, Keller et al, 2012). The biotic evolution is well understood in marine environments, but only few data are available concerning the terrestrial environmental changes. In central India, sedimentary beds associated with the Deccan Traps are represented by infratrappean (Lameta Formation) and intertrappean sediments, which were deposited during periods of volcanic quiescence. These deposits are located at different stratigraphic levels within the basaltic pile and are therefore crucial to evaluate the changes on land induced by the onset of the volcanism. The sedimentary beds exposed in the central part of India in the Jabalpur-Mandla-Chhindwara sector (Madyha Pradesh) and in the Nand-Dongargaon basin (Maharashtra) were studied using a sedimentological, geophysical, geochemical and mineralogical approach. Our results indicate that the intertrappean sediments deposited during the Deccan volcanism do not reflect the same characteristics than the infratrappean sediments preceding the volcanic eruptions. Indeed, palynological studies of the Lameta Formation indicate a dominance of angiosperms and a rich canopy of gymnosperms (Conifers and Podocarpaceae) and an understory of palms and herbs. Moreover, sedimentological and mineralogical observations indicate alluvial-limnic environment under arid climate. The eruption of Deccan volcanic flows severely affected the environmental conditions. Intertrappean sediments associated with the three Deccan phases were deposited in terrestrial to lacustrine

  19. Carbapenem Resistance among Enterobacter Species in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Atul; Praharaj, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Mahadevan; Grover, Naveen

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To detect genes encoding carbapenem resistance among Enterobacter species in a tertiary care hospital in central India. Methods. Bacterial identification of Enterobacter spp. isolates from various clinical specimens in patients admitted to intensive care units was performed by routine conventional microbial culture and biochemical tests using standard recommended techniques. Antibiotic sensitivity test was performed by standard Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. PCR amplification and automated sequencing was carried out. Transfer of resistance genes was determined by conjugation. Results. A total of 70/130 (53.84%) isolates of Enterobacter spp. were found to exhibit reduced susceptibility to imipenem (diameter of zones of inhibition ≤13 mm) by disc diffusion method. Among 70 isolates tested, 48 (68.57%) isolates showed MIC values for imipenem and meropenem ranging from 32 to 64 mg/L as per CLSI breakpoints. All of these 70 isolates were found susceptible to colistin in vitro as per MIC breakpoints (<0.5 mg/L). PCR carried out on these 48 MBL (IP/IPI) E-test positive isolates (12 Enterobacter aerogenes, 31 Enterobacter cloacae, and 05 Enterobacter cloacae complex) was validated by sequencing for beta-lactam resistance genes and result was interpreted accordingly. Conclusion. The study showed MBL production as an important mechanism in carbapenem resistance in Enterobacter spp. and interspecies transfer of these genes through plasmids suggesting early detection by molecular methods. PMID:25180095

  20. Picobirnavirus detection in bovine and buffalo calves from foothills of Himalaya and Central India.

    PubMed

    Malik, Yashpal Singh; Chandrashekar, K M; Sharma, Kuldeep; Haq, Adil A; Vaid, Nirupama; Chakravarti, Somendu; Batra, Munish; Singh, Rashmi; Pandey, A B

    2011-12-01

    The present study describes detection of picobirnavirus (PBV) in faecal samples from bovine and buffalo calves employing the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). A total of 136 faecal samples from buffalo (n = 122) and cow calves (n = 14) exhibiting clinical signs of diarrhoea and from healthy calves were collected during 2007-2010 from subtropical (central India) and tarai area of western temperate Himalayan foothills (Uttarakhand). The dsRNA nature of the virus was confirmed by nuclease treatment (RNase A, RNaseT1 and DNase 1). PAGE results confirmed 3.67% (5/136) positivity for PBV, showing a typical genomic migration pattern with two discrete bands with size of approximately 2.4 and 1.7 kbps for the larger and smaller segments, respectively. Among the five PBV samples identified, three were from buffalo calves and one from cow calf exhibiting clinical signs of acute diarrhoea, while one sample from non-diarrhoeic buffalo calf also showed the presence of PBV. None of the samples showed dual infection of rotavirus and PBV. The preliminary findings indicate sporadic incidences of PBV in bovine calves and emphasize the need for the development of better diagnostics for early detection and genetic characterization of these emerging isolates of farm animals of economic significance.

  1. Intestinal parasites prevalence and related factors among school children in the rural area of central India.

    PubMed

    Dambhare, D G; Bharambe, M S; Garg, B S

    2010-12-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and its epidemiological correlates among rural Indian school going children and to find out the effect of hygiene education on personal hygiene of school children at village Karanji (Kaji) in Wardha district of central India. Out of 172, 87 (50.6%) boys and 85 (49.4%) girls were examined. The mean age of the school children was 10.37 +/- 2.71. The prevalence of intestinal parasite infection was 7.56%. The prevalence was significantly high among barefoot children (OR = 8.99; 95% CI: 2.14 - 43.49) followed by those having poor hand washing practices (OR = 4.90; 95% CI: 1.30 - 20.01), not using sanitary latrine (OR = 2.49; 95% CI: 0.6 - 11.91)) and dirty untrimmed nails (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 0.56 - 7.04). One month after hygiene education, there was significant improvement in the key personal hygiene behavior (p < 0.05). The proportion of children having practice of hand washing with soap after defecation significantly improved. Health education on personal hygiene to the school children was effective for behavior change. A multisectoral control approach and hygiene education will help health authorities in strategy of control programs for intestinal parasites among school going children.

  2. Factors associated with long-term species composition in dry tropical forests of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwala, M.; DeFries, R. S.; Qureshi, Q.; Jhala, Y. V.

    2016-10-01

    The long-term future of species composition in forests depends on regeneration. Many factors can affect regeneration, including human use, environmental conditions, and species’ traits. This study examines the influence of these factors in a tropical deciduous forest of Central India, which is heavily used by local, forest-dependent residents for livestock grazing, fuel-wood extraction, construction and other livelihood needs. We measure size-class proportions (the ratio of abundance of a species at a site in a higher size class to total abundance in both lower and higher size classes) for 39 tree species across 20 transects at different intensities of human use. The size-class proportions for medium to large trees and for small to medium-sized trees were negatively associated with species that are used for local construction, while size class proportions for saplings to small trees were positively associated with those species that are fire resistant and negatively associated with livestock density. Results indicate that grazing and fire prevent non-fire resistant species from reaching reproductive age, which can alter the long term composition and future availability of species that are important for local use and ecosystem services. Management efforts to reduce fire and forest grazing could reverse these impacts on long-term forest composition.

  3. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Commercially Important Oysters from Goa, Central-West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Shenai-Tirodkar, Prachi S; Gauns, Mangesh U; Ansari, Zakir A

    2016-12-01

    The major beds of oyster along the central-west coast of India are exposed to different anthropogenic activities and are severely exploited for human consumption. In this viewpoint, tissues of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, C. gryphoides and Saccostrea cucullata were analyzed for Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations (dry weight) from Chicalim Bay, Nerul Creek and Chapora Bay in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. A higher concentration of Cu (134.4-2167.9 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (7.1-88.5 mg kg(-1)) was found, which is greater than the recommended limits in all the three species (and sites). Moreover, significant (p < 0.05) variations were observed for all the metals concentrations among the species, seasons and sites. The high concentrations of Cd and Cu in tissues of edible oyster pose a threat to human health. Therefore, continuous monitoring, people awareness and a stringent government policy should be implemented to mitigate the metal pollution along the studied sites.

  4. Composition and sources of organic tracers in aerosol particles of industrial central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Basant; Patel, Khageshwar S.; Jaiswal, Nitin K.; Sharma, Saroj; Ambade, Balram; Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci L. Massey; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2013-02-01

    Organic aerosols are important atmospheric components, and their formation and sources represent important aspects of urban air quality and health effects. Asia, including India, is the largest global source of aerosol particles due to regional natural advection (e.g. desert and soil dust) and anthropogenic activities (e.g. emissions from traffic, industry and burning of coal, biomass and agricultural waste) that generate vast amounts of particulate matter (PM) significantly contributing to climate change. This article reports on the distributions, concentrations, and sources of organic compounds (i.e., alkanes, carboxylic acids, carbonyl compounds, alcohols, plasticizers, PAHs, biomarkers) of PM in the ambient atmosphere of an extensively industrialized area of central India (Raipur, Chhattisgarh, a coal mega-burning region). The dominant components are emissions from fossil fuel utilization, burning of biomass and plastics, and fugitive sources. Speciation and variations of potential new tracer compounds identified are also described.

  5. A new case of reservoir triggered seismicity: Govind Ballav Pant reservoir (Rihand dam), central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahalaut, Kalpna; Gahalaut, V. K.; Pandey, M. R.

    2007-07-01

    We report here that seismicity near Govind Ballav Pant reservoir is strongly influenced by the reservoir operations. It is the second largest reservoir in India, which is built on Rihand river in the failed rift region of central India. Most of the earthquakes occurred during the high water stand in the reservoir with a time lag of about 1 month. We use the concept of coulomb stress change and use Green's function based approach to estimate stresses and pore pressure due to the reservoir load. We find that the reservoir increases coulomb stress on the nearby faults of the region that are favourably oriented for failure in predominantly reverse slip manner under the NNE-SSW compression and thus promotes failure. The above two factors make it an obvious, yet so far unreported case of reservoir triggered seismicity.

  6. Estimation of tiger densities in the tropical dry forests of Panna, Central India, using photographic capture-recapture sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karanth, K.Ullas; Chundawat, Raghunandan S.; Nichols, James D.; Kumar, N. Samba

    2004-01-01

    Tropical dry-deciduous forests comprise more than 45% of the tiger (Panthera tigris) habitat in India. However, in the absence of rigorously derived estimates of ecological densities of tigers in dry forests, critical baseline data for managing tiger populations are lacking. In this study tiger densities were estimated using photographic capture–recapture sampling in the dry forests of Panna Tiger Reserve in Central India. Over a 45-day survey period, 60 camera trap sites were sampled in a well-protected part of the 542-km2 reserve during 2002. A total sampling effort of 914 camera-trap-days yielded photo-captures of 11 individual tigers over 15 sampling occasions that effectively covered a 418-km2 area. The closed capture–recapture model Mh, which incorporates individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities, fitted these photographic capture history data well. The estimated capture probability/sample, p̂= 0.04, resulted in an estimated tiger population size and standard error (N̂(SÊN̂)) of 29 (9.65), and a density (D̂(SÊD̂)) of 6.94 (3.23) tigers/100 km2. The estimated tiger density matched predictions based on prey abundance. Our results suggest that, if managed appropriately, the available dry forest habitat in India has the potential to support a population size of about 9000 wild tigers.

  7. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  8. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  9. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  10. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  11. Arsenic contamination in soil-water-plant (rice, Oryza sativa L.) continuum in central and sub-mountainous Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Savitoz Singh; Brar, Joginder Singh; Biswas, Asim; Banger, Kamaljit; Saroa, Gurbachan Singh

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, Arsenic (As) concentrations in underground water, soil, and plants (rice) and their inter-relationships in central and sub-mountainous Punjab, India were studied. Approximately, 32% of the tubewell water samples had As concentrations greater than the maximum permissible limit (10 μg As L(-1)) set by the World Health Organization (WHO) whereas in hand pump waters, As concentrations were within the safe range (i.e. <10 μg As L(-1)). As concentrations in tubewell waters were significantly correlated with As concentrations in surface soil (r = 0.57; P < 0.05) and plant samples (r = 0.27-0.82; P < 0.05) in central and sub-mountainous Punjab. The estimated daily intake of As through human consumption in rural and urban population was 0.016 and 0.012 μg day(-1) kg(-1) body weight respectively.

  12. Mass loading of size-segregated atmospheric aerosols in the ambient air during fireworks episodes in eastern Central India.

    PubMed

    Nirmalkar, Jayant; Deb, Manas K; Deshmukh, Dhananjay K; Verma, Santosh K

    2013-04-01

    The effects of combustion of the fire crackers on the air quality in eastern Central India were studied for the first time during Diwali festival. This case study analyzes the size distribution and temporal variation of aerosols collected in the rural area of eastern Central India during pre-diwali, Diwali and post-diwali period for the year of 2011. Fifteen aerosol samples were collected during the special case study of Diwali period using Andersen sampler. The mean concentrations of PM10 (respirable particulate matter) were found to be 212.8 ± 4.2, 555.5 ± 20.2 and 284.4 ± 5.8 during pre-diwali, Diwali and post-diwali period, respectively. During Diwali festival PM10 concentration was about 2.6 and 1.9 times higher than pre-diwali and post-diwali period, respectively. PM2.5 (fine) and PM1 (submicron) concentrations during Diwali festival were more than 2 times higher than pre-diwali and post-diwali.

  13. Antibiotic Prescribing among Pediatric Inpatients with Potential Infections in Two Private Sector Hospitals in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ashish; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Infectious diseases are one of the major causes of child mortality in India. Pediatric patients are commonly prescribed antibiotics for non-bacterial infections. Monitoring of local antibiotic prescribing with respect to the diagnosis is necessary to improve the prescribing practices. The aim of the study was to describe antibiotic prescribing for potential infections among patients admitted in pediatric departments in two private sector hospitals; one teaching (TH) and one non-teaching (NTH) in Central India. Methods Data from all patients admitted at the pediatric departments of both study hospitals was collected manually, for 3 years (2008–2011) using a customized form. Data from inpatients aged 0–18 years, diagnosed with; acute gastroenteritis (AGE), respiratory tract infections, enteric fever, viral fever or unspecified fever were focused for analysis. Antibiotic prescriptions were analysed using the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system and defined daily doses (DDDs). Adherence to the Indian Academy of Pediatrics list of essential medicines (IAP-LEM) was investigated. P-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results Oftotal6, 825 inpatients admitted at two pediatric departments, 510 patients from the TH and 2,479from the NTH were selected based on the assigned potential infectious diagnoses. Of these, 224 patients (44%) at the TH and 2,088 (84%) at the NTH were prescribed at least one antibiotic during hospital stay (odds ratio-0.69, 95%confidence interval-0.52 to 0.93; p<0.001). Patients with AGE, viral- and enteric fever were frequently prescribed antibiotics at both hospitals, yet higher proportion were prescribed antibiotics at the NTH compared to the TH. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were the most commonly prescribed antibiotic class in both hospitals, namely third generation cephalosporins, J01DD (69%) at the TH, and new fixed dose combinations of antibiotics J01R (FDCs, 42%) at the NTH. At the TH, 37% of the

  14. Prevalence of fluorosis in an endemic village in central India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Aparna

    2010-10-01

    Endemic fluorosis is an important public health problem in certain parts of the Durg district of Chhattisgarh. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis among the population and to assess the relation between drinking water fluoride level and prevalence of fluorosis. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Gureda Village, of the Durg district of Chhattisgarh state in October 2009. The survey covered 805 individuals - 362 males and 443 females. The prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was assessed based on clinical examinations of individuals. Drinking and eating habits of individuals were recorded as per checklist. Water fluoride levels of prime water sources were also determined by lab examination. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 8.2%. Both skeletal and dental fluorosis were more common in males. Dental fluorosis was higher in the 8-45 age group, whereas the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis increased with age. Genu varum (38.1%) and genu vulgum (6.3%) were the common skeletal deformities. Water fluoride levels ranged from 0.2 to 7.8 ppm.

  15. Clinico-Pathological Spectrum of Ophthalmic Lesions: An Experience in Tertiary Care Hospital of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Gahine, Renuka; Hussain, Nighat; Memon, Mohd Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Ophthalmic lesions show varied distribution on the basis of geographical location. Eye being a unique sensory organ needs to be studied both clinically and pathologically. Aim This study was aimed to evaluate the histomorphological and clinico-pathlological spectrum of ophthalmic lesions at a tertiary care hospital of Central India. Materials and Methods We reviewed all the ophthalmic biopsies performed in the Department of Pathology of our institute between January 2008 and November 2014. Total 488 biopsies of the orbito-ocular region were obtained from patients attending the ophthalmology department. Ophthalmic biopsies were studied as per epidemiological and histomorphological data. Results The patients ranged in age from one month to 85 years with bimodal distribution. With a male to female ratio of 1:1. Ophthalmic lesions were highest (44.8%) in less than 20 years age group. Eyelid (33.6%) was the most commonly involved site. Clinical diagnosis was consistent with histopathological diagnosis in approximately 76% cases. The non-neoplastic, benign and malignant lesions were 61.1%, 7.8% and 31.1% respectively. Retinoblastoma formed 40.1% of all malignant lesions followed by sebaceous carcinoma (19.1%) and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) (10.5%). Rare lesions were primary neuroblastoma of orbit and rhabdomyosarcoma of eyelid. Conclusion Findings suggest that among neoplastic lesions the most common ophthalmic malignancies were retinoblastoma in children and sebaceous carcinoma in adults. Among non-neoplastic lesions, 89% cases of infectious aetiology were of rhinosporidiosis in our study making it an important differential diagnosis among ophthalmic lesions. PMID:28273971

  16. Status of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among the Sahariya tribe of North Central India.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ravi; Kumar, Dilip; Gupta, Vinod K; Jain, Sanjay; Chauhan, Devendra S; Tiwari, Pramod K; Katoch, Vishwa M

    2016-01-01

    The incidence/prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) is reported to be high in the Sahariya tribe of North Central India. The outbreaks of different drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis emphasized the need for continuous monitoring of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. This study aimed to assess the profile of multidrug resistant TB among the Sahariya tribe and their non-tribal neighbors for first line drugs through field-based investigations. A total of 274 sputum positive pulmonary TB individuals were enrolled and studied for their drug susceptibility profile by the proportion method. A total of 21 cases from Sahariya and 6 from non-tribes were identified with MDR-TB. Thus Sahariya tribe showed a 1.95-fold increased risk of developing drug resistance than non-tribes. Significant differences were observed for developing drug sensitivity between Sahariya males and females when analyzed for resistance developed to any drug and overall drug resistance vs. sensitive isolates, respectively. A 4.46-fold risk was found for MDR-TB among the smokers of Sahariya tribe, whereas, the non-tribes did not show any significant association. The drug susceptibility profile developed in the present study indicates that drug-resistant tuberculosis is emerging as a serious public health concern in Sahariya tribe. Urgent and effective control measures and better management policies are needed for the prevention of MDR-TB in the tribe. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethnomedicinal plants used to treat bone fracture from North-Central Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Harsha V; Bhat, Shripad; Hurkadale, Pramod J; Kholkute, S D; Hegde, G R

    2012-07-13

    North Central Western Ghats in India comprises rich bio-cultural diversity and is also home to varied ethnomedicinal practices. The study was taken up for documentation and analysis of traditional knowledge regarding the practice and use of plants in the treatment of bone fracture. This is an effort to preserve the vanishing wealth of traditional knowledge. Key informants identified in a preliminary survey and collection of information was through semi structured, open ended interviews. The details on age, place of practice, experience of key informants and learning of practice, disease they treat and mode of diagnosis, storage and usage of plants were collected. The identity of plants and their information was confirmed through repeated guided transect walks in different seasons with the informants and focus group discussions. Identified plants were deposited at the herbaria of Regional Medical Research Centre, Belgaum. Forty four key informants providing treatment for bone fracture in this region were identified. Thirty eight plant species belonging to 24 families have been documented in the present study. Highest number of species representation is found in families Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae. The habit of the species showed that 45% of the herbal drugs were obtained from trees, followed by herbs, shrubs and climbers and majority of plants used were collected from wild (76%). The stem or stem bark (33%) was most commonly used plant part to prepare medicine. Twenty six formulations of 30 plant species were directly used in treating bone fracture, where Cissus quadrangularis has the highest use-value (0.14). Eleven plants were found to be administered for bone strengthening, pain relieving, inflammation reduction and speedy recovery and Gmelina arborea has the highest use value (0.27). The results indicated the importance of traditional herbal practices in community for their health needs. Both conservational strategies and further validation studies are the need

  18. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  19. Assessment of Land Degradation and Greening in Ken River Basin of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Ashish; Palmate, Santosh S.

    2017-04-01

    Natural systems have significant impact of land degradation on biodiversity loss, food and water insecurity. To achieve the sustainable development goals, advances in remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) are progressively utilized to combat climate change, land degradation and poverty issues of developing country. The Ken River Basin (KRB) has dominating land cover pattern of agriculture and forest area. Nowadays, this pattern is affected due to climate change and anthropogenic activity like deforestation. In this study, land degradation and greening status of KRB of Central India during the years 2001 to 2013 have been assessed using MODIS land cover (MCD12Q1) data sets. International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) land cover data has been extracted from the MCD12Q1 data product. Multiple rasters of MODIS landcover were analyzed and compared for assigning unique combination of land cover dynamics employing ArcGIS software. Result reveals that 14.38% natural vegetation was degraded, and crop land and woody savannas were greened by 9.68% to 6.94% respectively. Natural vegetation degradation have been observed in the upper KRB area, and resulted to increase in crop land (3418.87 km2) and woody savannas (1242.23 km2) area. Due to transition of 1043.6 km2 area of deciduous broadleaf forest to woody savannas greening was also observed. Moreover, both crop land and woody savannas showed inter-transitions of 669.31 km2 into crop land to woody savannas, and 874.09 km2 into woody savannas to crop land. The present analysis reveals that natural vegetation has more land conversions into woody savannas and crop land in the KRB area. Further, Spatial change analysis shows that land degradation and greening has occurred mostly in the upper part of the KRB. The study reveals that the land transition information can be useful for proper planning and management of natural resources.

  20. Bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of arsenic in arsenic-enriched soils, Central India.

    PubMed

    Das, Suvendu; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Kar, Sandeep

    2013-06-01

    Incidental soil ingestion is expected to be a significant exposure route to arsenic for children because of the potentially high arsenic contents found in certain soils. Therefore, it is prudent to get information on oral bioaccessibility of arsenic following incidental soil ingestion and its relevance in health risk assessment for future remediation strategies. Soil samples were collected from eight villages of Ambagarh Chauki block, Chhattisgarh, Central India. The soils from seven villages had total arsenic content more than the background level of 10mgkg(-1) (ranged from 16 to 417mgkg(-1)), whereas the total arsenic content of soil from Hauditola was 7mgkg(-1). Bioaccessible arsenic assessed by the simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET) ranged from 5.7 to 46.3%. Arsenic bioaccessibility was significantly influenced by clay content (R(2)=0.53, p<0.05, n=8), TOC (R(2)=0.50, p<0.05, n=8), Fe content (R(2)=0.47, p<0.05, n=8) and soil pH (R(2)=0.75, p<0.01, n=8). Risk assessment of the study sites showed that hazard index of arsenic under incidental soil ingestion was below 1 in all the study sites, except Kaudikasa. However, carcinogenic risk probability for arsenic to children from the villages Meregaon, Thailitola, Joratarai and Kaudikasa was below acceptable level (<1×10(-4)), suggesting potential health risk for children from these sites could not be overlooked. With high carcinogenic risk value (3.8E-05) and HI index (>1) for arsenic in soils of Kaudikasa, attention should be paid for development of remediation measure.

  1. Aerosol black carbon characteristics over Central India: Temporal variation and its dependence on mixed layer height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompalli, Sobhan Kumar; Babu, S. Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Manoj, M. R.; Kumar, N. V. P. Kiran; Shaeb, K. Hareef Baba; Joshi, Ashok Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In a first of its kind study over the Indian region, concurrent and extensive measurements of black carbon (BC) concentration and atmospheric boundary layer parameters are used to quantify the role of atmospheric boundary layer in producing temporal changes in BC. During this study, 18 months (2011-12) data of continuous measurements of BC aerosols, made over a semi-urban location, Nagpur, in Central India are used along with concurrent measurements of vertical profiles of atmospheric thermodynamics, made using weekly ascents of GPS aided Radiosonde for a period of 1 year. From the balloon data, mixed layer heights and ventilation coefficients are estimated, and the monthly and seasonal changes in BC mass concentration are examined in the light of the boundary layer changes. Seasonally, the BC mass concentration was highest (~ 4573 ± 1293 ng m- 3) in winter (December-February), and lowest (~ 1588 ± 897 ng m- 3) in monsoon (June-September), while remained moderate (~ 3137 ± 1446 ng m- 3) in pre-monsoon (March-May), and post-monsoon (~ 3634 ± 813 ng m- 3) (October-November) seasons. During the dry seasons, when the rainfall is scanty or insignificantly small, the seasonal variations in BC concentrations have a strong inverse relationship with mixed layer height and ventilation coefficient. However, the lowest BC concentrations do not occur during the season when the mixed layer height (MLH) is highest or the ventilation coefficient is the highest; rather it occurs when the rainfall is strong (during summer monsoon season) and airmass changes to primarily of marine origin.

  2. A study of menarcheal age in India.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D F; Chinn, S; Girija, B; Singh, H D

    1977-03-01

    A study of menarcheal age was carried out in southern India. A logit method of analysis was applied to status quo data on 1267 Tamil and Telugu speaking girls aged 9 to 18 years in 3 schools catering for different socio-economic groups. There appears to be no relationship of menarcheal age with dietary pattern classified simply as vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Differences in median age at menarche between schools correspond well with the socio-economic differences between them. The median age in the most advantaged school (12-86 years) is comparable with that in recent studies in southern and eastern Europe, and may perhaps be in advance of some recent north-west European samples.

  3. A Case Study in Distance Learning Systems: Panjab University, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodenough, S.

    A case study of the Directorate of Correspondence Courses at Panjab University, an Open University school in India, is presented. Areas of discussion include characteristics of the country, the educational system in India, and the Directorate of Correspondence Courses. Specific topics include: the physical setting; the population; the economy; the…

  4. Temporal fluctuations and frontal area change of Bangni and Dunagiri glaciers from 1962 to 2013, Dhauliganga Basin, central Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vinit; Mehta, Manish; Mishra, Ajai; Trivedi, Anjali

    2017-05-01

    Glaciers have been receding for the last 100 years in many glaciated regions of the world, and the rate of recession has accelerated during the last 60 years. Recent assessments of changes in glaciers in the Himalaya have usually recognized their variable rate of recession. The present study deals with snout retreat, frontal area vacation, and estimation of the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of Bangni and Dunagiri glaciers, in the Dhauliganga Basin, central Himalaya (India), using multi-image satellite data (Landsat MSS, 1976; Landsat TM, 1990; Landsat ETM +, 2005) and Survey of India topographic maps (1962; 1:50,000) along with field surveys (2012 to 2014) for the period of 1962-2013. The meteorological data of the India Meteorological Department (IMD) and TRMM suggested that the central Himalaya received less precipitation between 1960 and 1990. Because of the less precipitation, glaciers receded rapidly during this period. The present study shows that Bangni and Dunagiri glaciers retreated 2080 ± 162 m and 484 ± 38 m with average rates of 41 ± 3.2 m a- 1 and 9 ± 0.6 m a- 1 between 1962 and 2013, respectively. During this period Bangni and Dunagiri glaciers lost about 17% and 11% of their length, respectively. The result also suggested that Bangni Glacier vacated 598,948 ± 12,257 m2 frontal area, while Dunagiri Glacier vacated 170,428 ± 7833 m2 frontal area between 1962 and 2013. Moreover, the estimated ELA change for Bangni Glacier was 64 ± 30 m upward during the study period. The Geological Survey of India (GSI, 1998a,b) suggested that the ELA of Dunagiri Glacier rose 28 m between 1984 and 1992 and that the glacier lost (-)16 × 106 m3 w.e. ice with an average rate of loss of (-)1.04 m w.e. a- 1. The geomorphology of the Dunagiri Valley reflected that Bangni and Dunagiri glaciers were joined together in the past. Nevertheless, these two glaciers retreat at different rates, indicating that climate change is not the only factor in glacier retreat but that

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of the changing drought characteristics in Bundelkhand region of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, T.; Jaiswal, R. K.; Nayak, P. C.; Ghosh, N. C.

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of meteorological and hydrological drought characteristics including the dry spell analysis for planning of supplemental irrigation has been carried out for Bearma basin in Bundelkhand region of Central India. The Bundelkhand region has been under a spell of recurrent droughts. In the last decade, widespread droughts were felt during 2002-2003 and 2007-2008. The drought frequency varies between 1 in 3 years in Rehli and Deori and 1 in 5 years in Hatta. Rehli and Deori blocks falling in Sagar district have been identified to be drought prone. The meteorological drought characteristics evaluated by standardized precipitation index (SPI) indicated that drought severity has increased greatly with the drought intensity varying between -1.22 in Deori and -0.97 in Rehli. The streamflow drought characteristics have been evaluated using streamflow drought index (SDI), whereas the groundwater drought characteristics evaluated by groundwater drought index (GDI). The maximum groundwater drought intensity is observed in Rehli (-0.44). Two critical dry spells (CDS) of 14-18 days invariably occur during the principal rainy months of July and August, for which provision of life-saving supplementary irrigation is essential for the rain-fed agriculture. A drought management plan (DMP) has been developed, based on basin relevant drought indicators and drought triggers, designed and fined tuned to actual drought conditions in the basin. Based on the supply and demand scenario during droughts, an appropriate drought response plan linked to prevailing drought levels has been developed, to effectively manage the scarce water resources during persistent drought scenario. Results of the study are quite promising and the concept of DMP can be replicated to other basins in the region taking into account the basin relevant indicators as necessary.

  6. Effects of Iron Deficiency on Cognitive Function in School Going Adolescent Females in Rural Area of Central India

    PubMed Central

    More, Sarika; Shivkumar, V. B.; Gangane, Nitin; Shende, Sumeet

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is most common nutritional deficiency disorder in India and remains a formidable health challenge. Girls in the period of later school age and early adolescence are prone to develop iron deficiency. Iron deficiency leads to many non-hematological disturbances which include growth and development, depressed immune function in infants; reduces physical work capacity; decreases the cognitive function in both infants and adolescents. Present study was done to know the prevalence of iron deficiency in both the anemic and non anemic school going adolescent girls, to assess the effect of iron deficiency on cognitive functions in anemic iron deficient and non-anemic iron deficient school girls in a village school situated in central India. Methods. A secondary school having girl students in the age group of 12–15 years studying in sixth to ninth standard was selected. Serum ferritin concentration was estimated by ELISA. For assessing the cognitive function mathematics score, one multi-component test for memory, attention and verbal learning and Intelligent Quotient scores of the students were used. Results. Scholastic Performance, IQ and Scores of Mental balance, Attention & Concentration, Verbal Memory and Recognition were decreased in iron deficient girls, both anemic and non anemic as compared to the non iron deficient girls. PMID:24386560

  7. Effects of iron deficiency on cognitive function in school going adolescent females in rural area of central India.

    PubMed

    More, Sarika; Shivkumar, V B; Gangane, Nitin; Shende, Sumeet

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is most common nutritional deficiency disorder in India and remains a formidable health challenge. Girls in the period of later school age and early adolescence are prone to develop iron deficiency. Iron deficiency leads to many non-hematological disturbances which include growth and development, depressed immune function in infants; reduces physical work capacity; decreases the cognitive function in both infants and adolescents. Present study was done to know the prevalence of iron deficiency in both the anemic and non anemic school going adolescent girls, to assess the effect of iron deficiency on cognitive functions in anemic iron deficient and non-anemic iron deficient school girls in a village school situated in central India. Methods. A secondary school having girl students in the age group of 12-15 years studying in sixth to ninth standard was selected. Serum ferritin concentration was estimated by ELISA. For assessing the cognitive function mathematics score, one multi-component test for memory, attention and verbal learning and Intelligent Quotient scores of the students were used. Results. Scholastic Performance, IQ and Scores of Mental balance, Attention & Concentration, Verbal Memory and Recognition were decreased in iron deficient girls, both anemic and non anemic as compared to the non iron deficient girls.

  8. Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.

    2009-04-01

    Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region Despite India's tremendous progress on all fronts after independence in 1947, the fact remains that it is one of the poorest nation in the world in terms of per capita income and energy consumption which is considered to be the gauge of the economic situation of any country. In case of India, it is nearly one tenth of the developed nations. If economic condition of its people is to be raised, then country has to boost its agriculture production which is largely monsoon dependent and to exploit its conventional and unconventional energy sources at a very rapid growth rate. Although, worldwide, 70% of the water that is withdrawn for human use is used for agriculture, 22% for industry and 8% is used for domestic services. But in India which is a low income country, 82% is used for agriculture, 10% for industry and 8% for domestic services. Therefore, India needs new sources of water to reduce the risk of dependency on the monsoon for the Sustainable Development of the country. It is in this connection that the Ambikapur Basin in the Central India has been studied for sustainable water withdrawal. At present, the crops in the Ambikapur region are totally monsoon dependent. However, with the initiatives of the State Government, 25 boreholes in an area of about 25 square kilometers have been drilled up to a depth of 500m and completed in the Gondwana sandstone. The water quality and the discharge rates have been established to sustain the crops of the area which is the only livelihood of the local people , in case the monsoon fails. The hydraulic properties of the aquifer like Transmissivity (T) and the Coefficient of Storage (S) were determined following the graphic method of Jacob and Theis. The rate of discharge (Q) of the pumped well was estimated at 4.05 x 10 to the power 3 cubic meters per second and the values of other parameters like T at

  9. Late-Archaean Potassic Granite from the Bundelkhand Craton, Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Saheli; Saha, Lopamudra; Nasipuri, Pritam; Pati, Jayanta Kumar; Patole, Vishal

    2014-05-01

    Late-Archaean granitoids, show wide range of compositional variation: (i) TTG like granitoids with strongly fractionated REE patterns, which can be both Na-rich and K-Mg-rich (Sanukitoids) (ii) K-rich, Mg-poor biotite granites with less fractionated REE patterns and showing negative Eu-anomalies (type area, the Closepet Granite, Eastern Dharwar Craton, India). Amongst them Late-Archaean Sanukitoid or K-rich Closepet-type granitoids are most widely reported from the Archaean Cratons world-wide: Superior Province, Canada, Pilbara Craton, Yilgarn Craton, Antarctica, Limpopo Belt, Dharwar Craton. Several models proposed so far for the origin of these granitoids mostly include partial melting of hydrated basalts, reaction of slab melts with mantle wedge peridotites, re-melting of an enriched mantle and then mixing of the resulting melt with the anatectic melt generated during the melting of continental crust in subduction zone settings. The Closepet-type potassic biotite-rich granites were mostly produced by re-melting of TTG-like continental basements most likely in a subduction zone setting. Most of the proposed models suggest such partial melting to have taken place in garnet-stability field and some in orthopyroxene-stability field. In this study we report late-Archaean (~2.61-2.5 Ga) potassic granite from the Bundelkhand Craton in central India. The Late-Archaean granitoids recorded from the craton are intrusive into the high-grade supracrustal rocks of the craton. They are classified as coarse grained grey, pink porphyritic granite, medium granied pink granite, granite porphyry and fine-grained pink granite. The supracrustal rocks of the craton have been metamorphosed at ~2.78 Ga under high-pressure conditions (~17-18 kbar)- medium temperature (600ºC) in a subduction zone setting. The intrusions of the granitoids at ~2.6-2.5 Ga mark the stability of the craton. The pink-porphyritic granite studied here preserves plagioclase-potash feldspar

  10. Central nervous system toxoplasmosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: An emerging disease in India.

    PubMed

    Mathew, M J; Chandy, M J

    1999-09-01

    With the incidence of patients infected with human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) increasing in India, the central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of the disease will be seen more frequently. The CNS may be primarily afflicted by the virus or by opportunistic infections and neoplasms secondary to the immune suppression caused by the virus. In India, although mycobacterium tuberculosis has been reported to be the most common opportunistic infection, toxoplasmosis may become as common owing to the ubiquitous nature of the protozoan. Since an empirical trial of medical therapy without histopathological diagnosis is recommended, the true incidence of this condition may remain under estimated. The role of ancillary tests such as radiology and serology in the initial diagnosis of this condition remain crucial. This report highlights two patients who were diagnosed to have acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) only after the biopsy of the intracranial lesion was reported as toxoplasmosis. Presently all patients for elective neurosurgery are tested for HIV antigen. The management protocol to be followed in a known patient with AIDS presenting with CNS symptoms is discussed in detail. The value of ancillary tests is also reviewed.

  11. Nonmalarial acute undifferentiated fever in a rural hospital in central India: diagnostic uncertainty and overtreatment with antimalarial agents.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajnish; Colford, John M; Reingold, Arthur L; Kalantri, Shriprakash

    2008-03-01

    Nonmalarial acute undifferentiated fever (NMAUF) refers to a febrile illness with no indication of an organ-specific disease after diagnosis of malaria has been excluded. In developing countries, the empirical treatment of NMAUFs with antimalarial drugs continues even in the era of highly specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria. We carried out a retrospective review of patients with fever admitted to a rural teaching hospital in central India. We categorized patients with NMAUF into different clinical syndromes and determined their demographic profile, inhospital course, and the pattern of antimalarial use. The study sample included 1,197 adult patients who were investigated for malaria; 1,053 (88%) of them had NMAUF, and use of further diagnostics in this group was limited. Despite one or more negative tests for malaria, many patients (39.9%, 95% CI 37.0-43.3) received antimalarial drugs. These results suggest a need for guidelines and training to improve empirical treatment of NMAUF.

  12. East Meets West: An Earthquake in India Helps Hazard Assessment in the Central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    Although geographically distant, the State of Gujarat in India bears many geological similarities to the Mississippi Valley in the Central United States. The Mississippi Valley contains the New Madrid seismic zone that, during the winter of 1811-1812, produced the three largest historical earthquakes ever in the continental United States and remains the most seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains. Large damaging earthquakes are rare in ‘intraplate’ settings like New Madrid and Gujarat, far from the boundaries of the world’s great tectonic plates. Long-lasting evidence left by these earthquakes is subtle (fig. 1). Thus, each intraplate earthquake provides unique opportunities to make huge advances in our ability to assess and understand the hazards posed by such events.

  13. Skillful Revelation: Local Healers, Rationalists, and Their 'Trickery' in Chhattisgarh, Central India.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    To understand the workings of medicine, healing, placebo, belief, and rationality, medical anthropologists need to pay attention to the complex relations of various forms of revelation, contemplation, and rejoining revelation that attach to illness and healing. In this article two performances of a healing technique located in the agricultural plain of Chhattisgarh, central India, are compared: one representing scientific rationality; the other 'blind' superstition. In both performances the practitioner's aim is to reveal: the local healer reveals witchcraft objects from the afflicted body; the local rationalist society reveals the healer's technique as a fraudulent trick. Each performance shares 'an aesthetics of revelation'-they rely on seeing or revealing to obtain their social effect. The interplay between forms of revelation, a reliance on aesthetics for the revelation, and the ways of seeing can indicate how distinctions are made (or not) between doctor and quack, expertise and gimmickry, and truth and falsehood.

  14. On-site spectrophotometric determination of antimony in water, soil and dust samples of Central India.

    PubMed

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Agrawal, Kavita; Harmukh, Neetu

    2008-06-30

    A new, selective and sensitive on-site spectrophotometric method for the determination of antimony at trace level in water, soil and dust samples of Central India has been demonstrated. It is based on the color reaction of Sb(III) with I(-) ions in the presence of a cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in acidic media, and subsequent extraction of the complex with N-phenylbenzimidoylthiourea (PBITU) into chloroform to give a yellow colored complex. The value of apparent molar absorptivity of the complex in the terms of Sb is (7.84) x 10(4)l mol(-1)cm(-1) at 440 nm. The detection limit of the method is 5 ng ml(-1). In addition, the present method is free from interferences of all metal ions that are associated during the determination of antimony in environmental samples.

  15. Data on nearshore wave process and surficial beach deposits, central Tamil Nadu coast, India.

    PubMed

    Joevivek, V; Chandrasekar, N

    2017-08-01

    The chronicles of nearshore morphology and surficial beach deposits provide valuable information about the nature of the beach condition and the depositional environment. It imparts an understanding about the spatial and temporal relationship of nearshore waves and its influence over the distribution of beach sediments. This article contains data about wave and sediment dynamics of the ten sandy beaches along the central Tamil Nadu coast, India. This present dataset comprises nearshore wave parameters, breaker wave type, beach morphodynamic state, grain size distribution and weight percentage of heavy and light mineral distribution. The dataset will figure out the beach morphology and hydrodynamic condition with respect to the different monsoonal season. This will act as a field reference to realize the coastal dynamics in an open sea condition. The nearshore entities were obtained from the intensive field survey between January 2011 and December 2011, while characteristics of beach sediments are examined by the chemical process in the laboratory environment.

  16. Distribution of airborne microbes and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacteria during Gwalior trade fair, Central India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jayprakash; Kumar, Awanish; Mahor, Pawan; Goel, Ajay Kumar; Chaudhary, Hotam Singh; Yadava, Pramod Kumar; Yadav, Hariom; Kumar, Pramod

    2015-07-01

    Research into the distribution of bioaerosols during events associated with huge groups of people is lacking, especially in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to understand the distribution pattern of bioaerosols during an annual trade fair in the historical city of Gwalior, central India, a very important historical fair that was started by the King of Gwalior Maharaja Madho Rao in 1905. Air samples were collected from six different sites at the fair ground and three different sites in a residential area before/during/after the fair using an impactor sampler on microbial content test agar and rose bengal agar for total bacteria and fungi, respectively. The representative strains of bacteria and fungi were further identified and selected bacterial strains were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing according to US Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The bacterial bioaerosol count [colony-forming units (CFU)/m(3)] at fair sites was found to be 9.0 × 10(3), 4.0 × 10(4), and 1.0 × 10(4) before the start of the fair, during the fair, and after the fair, respectively. The fungal bioaerosol count at fair sites was 2.6 × 10(3) CFU/m(3), 6.3 × 10(3) CFU/m(3), and 1.7 × 10(3) CFU/m(3) before the fair, during the fair, and after the fair, respectively. Bacterial/fungal bioaerosols during-fair were increased significantly from the bacterial/fungal bioaerosols of the before-fair period (p < 0.05); they were also significantly higher than the bacterial/fungal bioaerosols at non-fair sites during the event (p < 0.0001). The proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria over the fair ground was significantly increased during-fair and was still higher in the after-fair period. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) were also reported at the fair ground. The study indicates significantly higher bacterial and fungal bioaerosols during the fair event. Therefore, further research is needed to explore the

  17. Age at menarche and menstrual cycle pattern among school adolescent girls in Central India.

    PubMed

    Dambhare, Dharampal G; Wagh, Sanjay V; Dudhe, Jayesh Y

    2012-01-01

    The onset of menstruation is part of the maturation process. However, variability in menstrual cycle characteristics and menstrual disorders are common. The purpose of this study was to determine the age at menarche and patterns of menstruation among school adolescent girls and explore its variation across socio-economic and demographic factors. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out on 1100 school adolescent girls in district Wardha, Central India. Data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire on menstruation. Data was entered and analyzed by using Epi Info 6.04 software package. Chi- square value was used for testing statistical significance. Mean ages of menarche were 13.51 + 1.04 years and 13.67 + 0.8 years for urban and rural areas respectively. Abnormal cycle length was common and affected 30.48%. The majority 56.15 experienced dysmenorrhoea and 56.16 percent had premenstrual syndrome. Self medication was practiced by 7.13% of the adolescent girls. The most common premenstrual symptom was headache 26.74%. Absenteeism from the school 13.9% was the effect of menstruation related problems on their daily routine. Dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms were perceived as most distressing symptoms leading to school absenteeism. Majority of the girls 75.58% had discussed menstrual problems with someone, most commonly with their mothers 38.15%. There was a general lack of information about menstrual issues especially with regards to cycle length, duration of menses and age at menarche. Girls from families of high socio-economic class have significantly lower mean menarcheal age in both urban and rural area. The mean age of menarche was significantly higher in girls involved in vigorous sporting activity in urban area compared to their non-sporting counterparts. Age at menarche was delayed. The menstrual disorders among female adolescents are common. A school health education on menstrual problems targeting adolescent girls and

  18. Willingness to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance: an analysis of dairy farmers in central India.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Ameer; Chander, Mahesh; Bardhan, Dwaipayan

    2013-02-01

    In India, insurance market especially in agricultural sector is usually underdeveloped. The idea of livestock insurance emerged in India before three decades, yet, it has not operated in a significant way till date. It is well noted that livestock insurance scheme is the relevant strategy in managing different risks related to livestock farming but very little attention has been paid to address the livestock insurance needs of the dairy farmers. This study, therefore, addresses the basic question that how many people and to what extent they are willing to pay for livestock insurance and determine the main factors which influence insurance participation of dairy farmers. The data was collected from Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in India with a sample survey of 120 cattle and buffalo farmers. For eliciting willingness to pay, a contingent valuation scenario was presented to dairy animal owners in the group of five to six. A logit discrete binary regression model was used to know the factors influencing adoption of livestock insurance. The results suggest that most of the farmers were willing to participate in cattle and buffalo insurance. The amount of premium varies across different breeds of dairy animals. The low level of education of many dairy farmers have negatively influenced the decision to purchase livestock insurance. Farmers having more experience in rearing dairy animals are more likely to be willing to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance.

  19. Mass loading and episodic variation of molecular markers in PM2.5 aerosols over a rural area in eastern central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmalkar, Jayant; Deshmukh, Dhananjay K.; Deb, Manas K.; Tsai, Ying I.; Sopajaree, Khajornsak

    2015-09-01

    The impact of biomass burning in atmospheric aerosols load is poorly known. We investigated the impact of biomass burning through molecular markers on the concentration of PM2.5 aerosol samples collected from a rural site in eastern central India during three episodic periods from October to November 2011. The collected PM2.5 samples were chemically quantified for potassium as well as sugars and dicarboxylic acids using ion chromatography. Levoglucosan and glucose were found as the most abundant sugar compounds and sugar-alcohols showed the predominance of mannitol whereas oxalic acid was the most abundant diacid followed by maleic acid in PM2.5 aerosols. Substantially enhanced concentrations of K+ as well as levoglucosan and glucose were observed in eastern central India. Analysis of the source specific molecular markers and ratios of sugars and diacids infer that combustion of biomass was the major emission sources of organic compounds associated with PM2.5 aerosols over eastern central India. We applied Spearman correlation analysis and principal component analysis to further investigate the sources of measured sugars and diacids. The concentrations of K+ and levoglucosan were significantly correlated with sugars and diacids that verifying their common sources from biomass burning emission. This study demonstrates that biomass burning for domestic heating and cooking purposes and agricultural activities significantly influence the air quality of eastern central India during the investigation period. The obtained data in this research is helpful for the global scientific community to assessments and remedial of air quality parameters in rural areas of developing countries under similar atmospheric circumstances.

  20. Malaria in India: The Center for the Study of Complex Malaria in India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Aparup; Anvikar, Anupkumar R.; Cator, Lauren J.; Dhiman, Ramesh C.; Eapen, Alex; Mishra, Neelima; Nagpal, Bhupinder N.; Nanda, Nutan; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Read, Andrew F.; Sharma, Surya K.; Singh, Om P.; Singh, Vineeta; Sinnis, Photini; Srivastava, Harish C.; Sullivan, Steven A.; Sutton, Patrick L.; Thomas, Matthew B.; Carlton, Jane M.; Valecha, Neena

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in India and one which contributes significantly to the overall malaria burden in Southeast Asia. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Program of India reported ~1.6 million cases and ~1100 malaria deaths in 2009. Some experts argue that this is a serious underestimation and that the actual number of malaria cases per year is likely between 9 and 50 times greater, with an approximate 13-fold underestimation of malaria-related mortality. The difficulty in making these estimations is further exacerbated by (i) highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, (ii) the transmission and overlap of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors, (iii) increasing antimalarial drug resistance and insecticide resistance, and (iv) the impact of climate change on each of these variables. Simply stated, the burden of malaria in India is complex. Here we describe plans for a Center for the Study of Complex Malaria in India (CSCMi), one of ten International Centers of Excellence in Malaria Research (ICEMRs) located in malarious regions of the world recently funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. The CSCMi is a close partnership between Indian and United States scientists, and aims to address major gaps in our understanding of the complexity of malaria in India, including changing patterns of epidemiology, vector biology and control, drug resistance, and parasite genomics. We hope that such a multidisciplinary approach that integrates clinical and field studies with laboratory, molecular, and genomic methods will provide a powerful combination for malaria control and prevention in India. PMID:22142788

  1. Malaria in India: the center for the study of complex malaria in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Aparup; Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Cator, Lauren J; Dhiman, Ramesh C; Eapen, Alex; Mishra, Neelima; Nagpal, Bhupinder N; Nanda, Nutan; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Read, Andrew F; Sharma, Surya K; Singh, Om P; Singh, Vineeta; Sinnis, Photini; Srivastava, Harish C; Sullivan, Steven A; Sutton, Patrick L; Thomas, Matthew B; Carlton, Jane M; Valecha, Neena

    2012-03-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in India and one which contributes significantly to the overall malaria burden in Southeast Asia. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Program of India reported ∼1.6 million cases and ∼1100 malaria deaths in 2009. Some experts argue that this is a serious underestimation and that the actual number of malaria cases per year is likely between 9 and 50 times greater, with an approximate 13-fold underestimation of malaria-related mortality. The difficulty in making these estimations is further exacerbated by (i) highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, (ii) the transmission and overlap of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors, (iii) increasing antimalarial drug resistance and insecticide resistance, and (iv) the impact of climate change on each of these variables. Simply stated, the burden of malaria in India is complex. Here we describe plans for a Center for the Study of Complex Malaria in India (CSCMi), one of ten International Centers of Excellence in Malaria Research (ICEMRs) located in malarious regions of the world recently funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. The CSCMi is a close partnership between Indian and United States scientists, and aims to address major gaps in our understanding of the complexity of malaria in India, including changing patterns of epidemiology, vector biology and control, drug resistance, and parasite genomics. We hope that such a multidisciplinary approach that integrates clinical and field studies with laboratory, molecular, and genomic methods will provide a powerful combination for malaria control and prevention in India. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Incidence and Clinical Outcome of Patients with Hypertensive Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Update from Tertiary Care Center of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Amit R.; Shekhawat, Seema D.; Lande, Neha H.; Kawle, Anuja P.; Kabra, Dinesh P.; Chandak, Nitin H.; Badar, Shweta R.; Raje, Dhananjay V.; Daginawala, Hatim F.; Singh, Lokendra R.; Kashyap, Rajpal S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the incidence and clinical outcome of patients with hypertensive acute ischemic stroke (AIS) admitted to a tertiary care center in Central India. In addition, we examined the status of stroke biomarkers namely neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial specific protein (S-100ββ), and inter-α-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4(ITIH4) in the serum of patients suffering from AIS with hypertension (HTN) and without HTN. Methods: A total of 104 patients with AIS were enrolled for the study. Clinical outcome and stroke biomarker levels were evaluated in them at the time of hospital discharge and then followed at 12 months and 18 months after hospital discharge. Results: HTN is a major risk factor associated with 67%(70.104) of patients with AIS. Multivariate analysis suggests higher odds of 4.088(95%Cl, 0.721–23.179) and 2.437(95%Cl, 0.721–23.179) for 12 and 18 months outcome in patients with AIS and HTN, respectively. Serum NSE and S-100ββ decreased at the time of discharge as compared to admission level in improved patients suffering from AIS with or without HTN, whereas levels of ITIH4 peptides 2 and 7 increased at the time of discharge (compared to its admission level) only in improved patients with AIS regardless of HTN or non-HTN condition. Conclusion: HTN is one of the major risk factors associated with higher risk of AIS as well as long-term unfavourable outcome after AIS in Central India region. NSE, S-100ββ, and ITIH4 were found to be independent predictors of outcome in patients with AIS irrespective of HTN and non-HTN condition. PMID:27872696

  3. High-resolution seismic imaging of the Sohagpur Gondwana basin, central India: Evidence for syn-sedimentary subsidence and faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanam, K.; Kumar, P. Senthil; Mysaiah, D.; Prasad, P. Prabhakara; Seshunarayana, T.

    2013-12-01

    Gondwana sedimentary basins in the Indian Shield preserve a rich record of tectonic, sedimentary and volcanic processes that affected Gondwanaland. The Gondwana rocks were deposited in the linear rift basins that were formed during Permian-Cretaceous time, similar to their neighbours in Australia, Africa and Antarctica. In this study, we illustrate how Gondwana tectonics affected the Sohagpur Gondwana basin that occurs at the junction of the Mahanadi and Son-Narmada rift systems in the central India, through a high-resolution seismic reflection study along six profiles, covering the central part of the Sohagpur basin. The study reveals (1) ˜1000 m thick, gently dipping Barakar Formation, (2) thick coal seams at a depth of 350-550 m, and (3) NNW-SSE to NW-SE striking steeply dipping normal faults defining rift geometry. These results indicate that the Sohagpur basin contains a thick Lower Gondwana sedimentary succession with a high potential of coal resources and were affected by extensional tectonics. The rift structure in the study area is a syn- to post-sedimentary deformational structure that was formed arguably in response to tectonics that pervasively affected Gondwanaland.

  4. Clinicomycological Study of Dermatophytosis in South India

    PubMed Central

    Poluri, Lakshmi Vasantha; Indugula, Jyothi P; Kondapaneni, Sai L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dermatophytic infections are commonly encountered a problem and constitute more than 50% of cases in dermatology outpatient departments. Diagnosis of these infections requires the proper use of laboratory methods. Objectives: This study was conducted to know the etiology of dermatophytosis in patients attending Tertiary Care Level Hospital in South India and to compare the efficacy of Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) with actidione and dermatophyte test medium (DTM) in isolating and identifying dermatophytes. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 samples which included 101 skin samples and 9 hair samples from clinically suspected dermatophytosis were collected. Direct microscopy by KOH and culture on SDA with actidione and DTM were done. Results: Of 110 samples collected, 58.18% were KOH positive for fungal filaments and 56.36% were culture positive for dermatophytes. More number of cases were observed between age groups of 21–40 years. Males were more affected compared to females. Tinea corporis was the common clinical presentation observed (40%). Trichophyton rubrum (58.06%) was the predominant isolate recovered in all clinical presentations but Trichophyton violaceum was the most common isolate in tinea capitis. All culture positives were grown on both SDA with actidione and DTM. Appearance of growth was earlier on DTM that is, within 10 days compared to SDA with actidione where growth started appearing only after 10 days. This is statistically significant P < 0.0001 (χ2 = 71.6). Species level identification on primary isolation was possible when grown on SDA with actidione and it was not possible with the growth on DTM on primary isolation. Conclusion: DTM is a good screening medium in laboratory diagnosis of dermatophytosis when compared to SDA with actidione. But DTM is inferior to SDA with actidione in identification of dermatophyte species. PMID:26417157

  5. Yield of pulmonary tuberculosis cases by symptoms: Findings from a community survey in Madhya Pradesh, central India.

    PubMed

    Rao, V G; Bhat, J; Yadav, R; Muniyandi, M; Bhondeley, M K; Wares, D F

    2015-04-01

    A cross-sectional tuberculosis prevalence survey was undertaken in Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh, central India. All individuals were questioned for chest symptoms. Sputum samples were collected and examined for microscopy and culture. Overall prevalence of sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be 255.3 per 100,000 population. Cough, with or without other symptoms, was present in 75.5% individuals and yielded 88.2% of the detected pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Elicitation of a previous history of treatment yielded 5.9%, and chest pain 4.5% cases. History of fever alone yielded no cases. The findings suggest that a history of fever alone may be safely excluded from the list of symptoms to be elicited in future TB prevalence surveys in India. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Quaternary Sediments of Terna River Sub-Basin East Central Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babar, Md.; Chunchekar, R. V.; Ghute, B. B.

    Terna river valley is an important agricultural belt in east-central Maharashtra India. The study area, Terna river sub-basin a tributary river of Manjara river in Latur-Osmanabad districts, is considered for the present study. The physico-chemical characteristics of geomorphological units such as valley fill, pediments, pediplain, highly dissected plateau and older alluvial plain are discussed. The western part of the sub-basin is characterized by irregular hard rock terrain with flat-topped Deccan basaltic plateau surfaces, erosional and highly dissected hills. The eastern part of the sub-basin is gently sloping to flat terrain consisting of alluvial material of the Terna River and the E-W trending escarpment. The central and eastern part of the sub-basin is covered with thick black cotton soil and alluvial soil. The sediments in hilly areas of highly dissected plateau and pediment surfaces have proportions of sand greater than silt and clay. In pediplain and older alluvial soils, the proportion of clay and silt is greater than the sand and shows gradual decrease in the clay + silt to sand ratio. The pH ranges from 7.48 to 8.46, electric conductivity varies from 1.20 dS/m to 6.99 dS/m, organic carbon% from 0.02 to 1.15, CaCO3% from 3 to 49.5 and potassium 10 to 12.4 ppm.

  7. Biomarker evidence for increasing aridity in south-central India over the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, S.; Wilkes, H.; Prasad, S.; Brauer, A.; Basavaiah, N.; Strecker, M. R.; Sachse, D.

    2012-12-01

    Summer monsoonal rainfall has played an important role in the development and sustenance of the largely agro-based economy in the Indian subcontinent in the recent past. A better understanding of past variations in monsoonal rainfall can therefore lead to an assessment of its potential impact on early human societies. However, our knowledge of spatiotemporal patterns of past monsoon strength, as inferred from proxy records, is limited due to the lack of high-resolution paleo-hydrological records from continental archives. Here, we reconstruct centennial-scale hydrological variability associated with changes in the intensity of the Indian Summer Monsoon based on a record of lipid biomarker abundances and compound-specific stable isotopic composition of a 10-m-long sediment core from saline-alkaline Lonar Lake, situated in the core 'monsoon zone' of south-central India. We identified three periods of distinct hydrology over the Holocene in south-central India. The period between 10.4 and 6.5 ka BP was characterized by a relatively high abundance of land-plant biomarkers, such as long-chain n-alkanes. The composition of these leaf-wax n-alkanes (weighted average of concentration of different chain-length n-alkanes, expressed as the ACL index) and their negative δ13C (-30‰ to -33 ‰) indicate the dominance of woody C3 vegetation in the catchment, and negative δD (-170‰ to -175‰) values argue for a wet period due to an intensified monsoon. Rapid fluctuations in abundance of both terrestrial and aquatic biomarkers between 6.5 and 4 ka BP indicate an unstable lake ecosystem, culminating in a transition to arid conditions. Higher ACL values and a pronounced shift to more positive δ13C values (up to -22‰) of leaf-wax n-alkanes over this period indicate a change of dominant vegetation to C4 grasses. Along with a 40‰ increase in leaf wax n-alkane δD values, which likely resulted from less rainfall and/or higher plant evapotranspiration, we interpret this period

  8. Area Handbook Series. India: A Country Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    missed opportu n ities. The world’s two largest democracies were separated geographically, were at different stages of economic and political development...units went to Pakistan in a first stage , which was followed by transfers on an individual basis. About two -thirds of army personnel went to India...of Sind by British 1845-49 ............ Two Anglo-Sikh wars 1853 .............. First railroad and telegraph lines opened 1856

  9. Health literacy on tuberculosis amongst vulnerable segment of population: special reference to Saharia tribe in central India.

    PubMed

    Muniyandi, M; Rao, V G; Bhat, J; Yadav, R; Sharma, R K; Bhondeley, M K

    2015-05-01

    Health literacy on tuberculosis (TB) is an understanding about TB to perform activities with regard to prevention, diagnosis and treatment. We undertook a study to assess the health literacy on TB among one of the vulnerable tribal groups (Saharia) in central India. In this cross-sectional study, 2721 individuals aged >15 yr from two districts of Madhya Pradesh State of India were interviewed at their residence during December 2012-July 2013. By using a short-form questionnaire, health literacy on cause, symptoms, mode of transmission, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of TB was assessed. Of the 2721 (Gwalior 1381; Shivpuri 1340) individuals interviewed; 76 per cent were aged <45 yr. Living condition was very poor (62% living in huts/katcha houses, 84 per cent with single room, 89 per cent no separate kitchen, 97 per cent used wood/crop as a fuel). Overall literacy rate was 19 per cent, and 22 per cent had >7 members in a house. Of the 2721 respondents participated, 52 per cent had never heard of TB; among them 8 per cent mentioned cough as a symptom, 64 per cent mentioned coughing up blood, and 91 per cent knew that TB diagnosis, and treatment facilities were available in both government and private hospitals. Health literacy score among participants who had heard of TB was <40 per cent among 36 per cent of respondents, 41-60 per cent among 54 per cent and >60 per cent among 8 per cent of respondents. The finding that nearly half of the respondents had not heard of TB indicated an important gap in education regarding TB in this vulnerable population. There is an urgent need to implement targeted interventions to educate this group for better TB control.

  10. Spatial genetic analysis reveals high connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in the Satpura–Maikal landscape of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sandeep; Dutta, Trishna; Maldonado, Jesús E; Wood, Thomas C; Panwar, Hemendra Singh; Seidensticker, John

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the spatial genetic structure of the tiger meta-population in the Satpura–Maikal landscape of central India using population- and individual-based genetic clustering methods on multilocus genotypic data from 273 individuals. The Satpura–Maikal landscape is classified as a global-priority Tiger Conservation Landscape (TCL) due to its potential for providing sufficient habitat that will allow the long-term persistence of tigers. We found that the tiger meta-population in the Satpura–Maikal landscape has high genetic variation and very low genetic subdivision. Individual-based Bayesian clustering algorithms reveal two highly admixed genetic populations. We attribute this to forest connectivity and high gene flow in this landscape. However, deforestation, road widening, and mining may sever this connectivity, impede gene exchange, and further exacerbate the genetic division of tigers in central India. PMID:23403813

  11. Treatment of wastewater and restoration of aquatic systems through an eco-technology based constructed treatment wetlands - a successful experience in Central India.

    PubMed

    Billore, S K; Sharma, J K; Singh, N; Ram, H

    2013-01-01

    In the last couple of decades constructed wetlands (CWs) have drawn considerable interest in Central India. CWs offer an effective means of integrating wastewater treatment and resource enhancement, often at competitive cost in comparison to conventional wastewater treatments, with additional benefits of Green Urban Landscaping and wildlife habitat. This paper describes treatment performances and the design of some Sub Surface Flow CWs (SSFCW) and Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs) in Central India. Central Indian CWs show significant pollution reduction load for total suspended solids (TSS) (62-82%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (40-75%), NH(4)-N (67-78%) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) (59-78%). Field scale SSFCWs installed so far in Central India are rectangular, earthen, single/multiple celled having similar depths of 0.60-0.90 m, hydraulic retention capacity 18-221 m(3) with effective size 41.8-1,050 m(2). The major components of CWs incorporate puddled bottom/side walls, sealed with impermeable low-density polyethylene, a bed of locally available river gravel planted with Phragmites karka, and an inlet distribution and outlet collection system. A new variant on CWs are AFIs working under hydroponics. The field scale experimental AFIs installed in-situ in a slowly flowing local river were composed of hollow bamboo, a bed of coconut coir, floating arrangements and Phragmites karka as nutrient stripping plant species. The AFIs polish the aquatic system by reducing 46.6% of TSS, 45-55% of NH(4)-N, 33-45% of NO(3)-N, 45-50% of TKN and 40-50% of BOD. The study established that there is a need for further research and sufficient data to assist the development of CWs by instilling confidence in policymakers, planners and in the public.

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India: A technical study for U.S.-India cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Taraknath Woddi Venkat

    The recent civil nuclear cooperation proposed by the Bush Administration and the Government of India has heightened the necessity of assessing India's nuclear fuel cycle inclusive of nuclear materials and facilities. This agreement proposes to change the long-standing U.S. policy of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons by denying nuclear technology transfer to non-NPT signatory states. The nuclear tests in 1998 have convinced the world community that India would never relinquish its nuclear arsenal. This has driven the desire to engage India through civilian nuclear cooperation. The cornerstone of any civilian nuclear technological support necessitates the separation of military and civilian facilities. A complete nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India emphasizes the entwinment of the military and civilian facilities and would aid in moving forward with the separation plan. To estimate the existing uranium reserves in India, a complete historical assessment of ore production, conversion, and processing capabilities was performed using open source information and compared to independent reports. Nuclear energy and plutonium production (reactor- and weapons-grade) was simulated using declared capacity factors and modern simulation tools. The three-stage nuclear power program entities and all the components of civilian and military significance were assembled into a flowsheet to allow for a macroscopic vision of the Indian fuel cycle. A detailed view of the nuclear fuel cycle opens avenues for technological collaboration. The fuel cycle that grows from this study exploits domestic thorium reserves with advanced international technology and optimized for the existing system. To utilize any appreciable fraction of the world's supply of thorium, nuclear breeding is necessary. The two known possibilities for production of more fissionable material in the reactor than is consumed as fuel are fast breeders or thermal breeders. This dissertation analyzes a thermal

  13. On the classification and sub-classification of aerosol key types over south central peninsular India: MODIS-OMI algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sreekanth, V

    2014-01-15

    Long-term (8 years), simultaneous data on aerosol optical properties from MODIS and OMI satellite sensors are analyzed to study their temporal characteristics and to infer on the major aerosol types present over the study location, Bangalore situated in south central peninsular India. Investigations are carried out on Aerosol Optical Depths (AODs), Angstrom exponent (α) and Aerosol Index (AI) for the purpose. Aerosol parameters exhibited significant seasonal variations: AODs peaking during monsoon, α during post-monsoon and AI during summer. Seasonal air mass back trajectories are computed to infer on the transport component over the study region. By assigning proper thresholds (depending on the nature of the location and transport pathways) on AOD and α values, aerosols are discriminated into their major types viz., marine influenced, desert dust, urban/industrialized and mixed types. Further sub-categorization of the aerosols has been done on an annual scale taking into account of their absorptance information in terms of the OMI-AI values. Mixed type aerosols contributed the most during all the seasons. Next to mixed type aerosols, marine influenced aerosols dominated during winter, desert dust during monsoon and summer, urban/industrialized aerosols during post-monsoon. Considering the urban nature of the study location, urban/industrialized/carbonaceous type aerosols have been significantly underestimated in these methodologies. Finally, discussion has been made on the consistency of the results obtained from the methodologies (i) based on AODs and α; (ii) based on AODs, α and AI. © 2013.

  14. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and amino acids in Holocene sediments of Lake Lonar, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Philip; Gaye, Birgit; Wiesner, Martin; Basavaiah, Nathani; Prasad, Sushma; Stebich, Martina; Anoop, Ambili; Riedel, Nils

    2013-04-01

    Investigations on surface sediments and a sediment core from Lake Lonar in central India were carried out within the framework of the HIMPAC (Himalaya: Modern and Past Climate) programme. The aim was to understand recent productivity, sedimentation, and degradation processes and to reconstruct variations in Holocene lake conditions on the basis of biogeochemical analysis on a 10 m long sediment core retrieved from the centre of Lake Lonar. Located in India's core monsoon zone, Lake Lonar offers valuable information about the climate development of the whole region. The lake is situated at the floor of a meteorite impact structure on the Deccan plateau basalt. The modern lake is characterised by brackish water, high alkalinity, severe eutrophication, and bottom water anoxia. The lake is about 6 m deep and fed by rainfall during the SW monsoon season and three perennial streams. Since no out-flowing stream is present and no seepage loss occurs, the lake level is highly sensitive to the balance of precipitation and evaporation. Here we present C/N, carbon and nitrogen isotope, and amino acid data of bulk organic matter from modern lake and Holocene core sediments. Modern conditions are mainly related to human activity which started to have persistent influence on the biological and chemical lake properties at ~1200 cal a BP. The distribution of δ13C in the modern sediments is driven by the ratio between terrestrial and aquatic organic matter, while δ15N seems to be influenced by redox conditions at the sediment-water-interface with elevated values at shallow oxic stations. Differences in the amino acid assemblages of oxic and anoxic surface sediment samples were used to calculate an Ox/Anox ratio indicating the redox conditions during organic matter degradation. The onset of the monsoon reconstructed from the sediment core occurred at ca. 11450 cal a BP. The early Holocene core sediments are characterised by low sedimentation rate, low aquatic productivity, and

  15. Studying Tones in North East India: Tai, Singpho and Tangsa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on nearly 20 years of study of a variety of languages in North East India, from the Tai and Tibeto-Burman families, this paper examines the issues involved in studying those languages, building on three well established principles: (a) tones are categories within a language, and the recognition of those categories is the key step in…

  16. Nitrate contamination of shallow aquifer groundwater in the central districts of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Garg, Sunil; Sondhi, S K; Taneja, D S

    2012-01-01

    The increasing trend in nitrogenous fertilizer use and extensive irrigation in the agricultural production system in Punjab, India are the reasons of contamination of groundwater, which is the main source of drinking water. A study was conducted to determine the extent of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) contamination of groundwater in the shallow aquifers of Ludhiana district. Pre and post-monsoon groundwater samples from hand pumps of 36 villages, located at or near the nodes of 6-12 km grid, were collected during the years 1998 and 1999 and were analyzed for NO3-N concentration. During the period of study, the NO3-N concentration in 34.7%, 37.5%, 15.3%, 11.1% and 1.4% of the groundwater samples was between 0-5 mg/L, 6-10 mg/L, 11-15 mg/L, 16-20 mg/L and 21-25 mg/L, respectively. Around 72% of the groundwater samples were safe and did not exceed the critical limit of NO3-N concentration (10 mg/L) prescribed for drinking water. Although, statistically no change in the mean NO3-N concentration level has been observed during the study period and is within the safe limit in most of the samples (72%), yet there is every possibility of further contamination of groundwater due to continuous high N-fertilizer use and over irrigation which necessitates judicious and efficient N-fertilizer and irrigation water use in Punjab (India).

  17. Spatial and temporal variations of wave energy in the nearshore waters of the central west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrutha, M. M.; Sanil Kumar, V.

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of wave power potential at different water depths and time is required for identifying a wave power plant location. This study examines the variation in wave power off the central west coast of India at water depths of 30, 9 and 5 m based on waverider buoy measured wave data. The study shows a significant reduction ( ˜ 10 to 27 %) in wave power at 9 m water depth compared to 30 m and the wave power available at 5 m water depth is 20 to 23 % less than that at 9 m. At 9 m depth, the seasonal mean value of the wave power varied from 1.6 kW m-1 in the post-monsoon period (ONDJ) to 15.2 kW m-1 in the Indian summer monsoon (JJAS) period. During the Indian summer monsoon period, the variation of wave power in a day is up to 32 kW m-1. At 9 m water depth, the mean annual wave power is 6 kW m-1 and interannual variations up to 19.3 % are observed during 2009-2014. High wave energy ( > 20 kW m-1) at the study area is essentially from the directional sector 245-270° and also 75 % of the total annual wave energy is from this narrow directional sector, which is advantageous while aligning the wave energy converter.

  18. Rural Self Development in India: Two Case Studies. A Curriculum Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Thomas N.

    Case studies of two, successful, rural, self-development programs in India are presented in this document, which is designed to supplement the study of India in the social studies curriculum. After a brief introduction to India's village system, the two projects are discussed. The first case study presents a water collection system in Bagrunda…

  19. Assessment of Cr, Ni and Pb Pollution in Rural Agricultural Soils of Tonalite-Trondjhemite Series in Central India.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kriti; Kumar, Bijendra; Agrawal, Rahul; Priyanka, Kumari; Venkatesh, Madavi; Anshumali

    2017-06-01

    Chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) contamination was investigated in wheat cultivated rain-fed and irrigated rural agricultural soils (n = 31) of Tonalite-Trondjhemite Series in Central India. The soil sampling was carried out by using stratified random sampling method. The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb were 54.8, 38.1 and 68.9 mg/kg, respectively. The average values of enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (I geo ) and contamination factor (CF) followed the order as: Pb > Ni > Cr. Distribution patterns of soil parent material and weathering processes govern mineral enrichments, irrespective of rainfed or irrigated agricultural practices. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed strong loading of Cr and Ni (PC1) and Pb and clay (PC3). The strong loading on Cr and Ni indicates soils are originating from basic and volcanic rocks in the study area. The strong loading of Pb and clay indicates Pb is strongly adsorbed on clay minerals and Fe-oxides. The cancer risk (CR) index showed negligible carcinogenic risk to the residing population. However, hazard index (HI) values for children exceed the safe limit (HI > 1) for Cr and Pb. Spatial distribution of pollution load index suggest highest pollution in the northeastern part of the district. The study revealed that geogenically enriched soils of the area are suitable for agricultural activities under present conditions.

  20. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy mineral deposition - central Tamil Nadu coast, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joevivek, V.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from January 2011 to July 2012. Using beach profile data, variation in beach width, slope and volumetric changes have been calculated. Beach slope and nearshore wave parameters were used to quantify the longshore sediment transport rate. Beaches between Thirukadaiyur and Karaikkal attained predominant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind and wave currents create nearshore bar during northeast (NE) monsoon and frequent berms at tidal zone during southwest (SW) monsoon. Surface sediment samples were collected in each location for quantifying the heavy mineral weight percentage during the period of pre- and post-Thane cyclone. Sediments were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate the changes and occurrence of heavy minerals in beach sands. The XRD results show that sediments in the study area have enriched heavy mineral distribution even after strong cyclonic event. It confirms the redistribution of heavy mineral deposits present in the coast. The results suggested that monsoonal action has influenced the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy mineral distribution.

  1. Predominance of Central Asian and European families among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Kashmir Valley, India.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Gulnaz; Wani, Tehmeena; Sharma, Pragya; Katoch, V M; Lone, Rubina; Shah, Azra; Katoch, Kiran; Kakru, D K; Chauhan, Devendra Singh

    2017-10-01

    As there are no data available regarding the strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in Kashmir Valley, India, the current study aimed at describing the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains in this region, by spoligotyping and 12-locus-based MIRU-VNTR typing (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number Tandem Repeat). Sputa from 207 smear positive cases with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis were subjected to culture for M. tuberculosis. Eighty-five isolates confirmed as M. tuberculosis were subjected to drug susceptibility testing and molecular typing by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs. Drug susceptibility results of 72 isolates revealed 76.3% as fully sensitive while 5.5% as multidrug resistant (MDR). Spoligotyping of 85 isolates detected 42 spoligotypes with 50 isolates (58.8%) clustered into seven spoligotypes. SIT26/CAS1_Del was the major spoligotype (23, 27%) followed by SIT127/H4 (12, 14.1%); CAS lineage (37.6%) was predominant, followed by Haarlem (25.8%) and ill-defined T clade (23.5%). MIRU-VNTR analysis displayed 82 MIRU patterns from 85 strains, including 3 small clusters and 79 unique. MIRU 26 was found to be the most discriminatory locus. Kashmir Valley has CAS as the predominant lineage of M. tuberculosis similar to the rest of the Indian sub-continent, while it is peculiar in having Euro American lineages such as Haarlem and ill-defined T clade. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic diversity at two pentanucleotide STR and thirteen tetranucleotide STR loci by multiplex PCR in four predominant population groups of central India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, N; Kashyap, V K

    2002-08-28

    Genetic diversity study at STR loci in 208 individuals belonging to two backward groups, one caste and one tribal community of Central India called "Chhattisgarh" has been carried out to evaluate significance of Powerplex System loci in human identification and population diversity. Populations are Agharia (72), Satmani (50), Dheria Gond (36) and Teli (50). Fifteen loci (Powerplex 16 Kit) studied are Penta E, D18S51, D21S11, THO1, D3S1358, FGA, TPOX, D8S1179, vWA, Amelogenin, Penta D, CSF1PO, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317 and D5S818. The studied penta nucleotide STR (two) and 13 tetranucleotide (CODIS ) STR are found to be highly polymorphic genetic markers in all studied populations. Most common allele for the four studied population has been found to be same at THO1 (allele 9), D8S1179 (allele 14), CSF1PO (allele 12), Penta E (allele 11) and D16S539 (allele 11). Penta E is found to be most polymorphic (PD=0.89373) among studied 15 STR loci in four populations of Central India.

  3. A Statistical Study on Higher Educational Institutions in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neelaveni, C.; Manimaran, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to observe the increased effectiveness of Higher Educational Institutions in India and its competitiveness. It proposes to develop the interest in enhancing the quality in Educational Institutions. It is monitored and evaluated through rapid growth of information technology, which makes sophisticated data collection possible. This…

  4. Digital Libraries and Repositories in India: An Evaluative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittal, Rekha; Mahesh, G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify and evaluate the collections within digital libraries and repositories in India available in the public domain. Design/methodology/approach: The digital libraries and repositories were identified through a study of the literature, as well as internet searching and browsing. The resulting digital…

  5. Teaching About India. A Guide for Ninth Grade Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The teaching and resource guide on India for ninth grade students is intended to supplement and enrich "Social Studies 9: Asian and African Culture." It is designed as a flexible set of suggestions for incorporating concepts, understandings, objectives, strategies, and available materials. Emphasis is upon inductive methods which…

  6. A Report on Social Studies Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudin, Susan

    1987-01-01

    Describes the current social studies curricula of India. Among other items, notes that class size in urban areas is 45+, and that the government-written textbooks stress national integration and the elimination of ethnic prejudice. Concludes that though there are significant differences, many of the same issues and concerns are shared by Indian…

  7. Analysis of Information, Impact and Control of HIV amongst Dental Professionals of Central India.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Jatin; Agarwal, Rolly Shrivastava; Shrivastava, Asha; Shrivastava, Sudha

    2015-07-01

    Dental health care providers may be exposed to a variety of microorganisms via blood, oral or respiratory secretions. Though the risk of transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in dental settings is low, the consequences of being infected are life threatening. Therefore, high standards in infection control and waste management are required in controlling occupational contagion and cross infection. To obtain comprehensive information about the HIV related information, its impact on the health care provider's attitude towards treating patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), infection control & waste disposal practices among dental professionals of Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh; situated in Central India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 320 private dental practitioners. Data was collected using a pretested, self administered 40 item questionnaire and statistically analysed. The response rate was 81.25%. Over all 50.76% dentists were graded as having good knowledge of HIV. Unfortunately, their willingness to treat these patients remained low. In all 39.23% dentist were willing to render care to PLWHA. Junior dentists expressed less hesitation with regard to acceptance of risk patients than other dentists. Over 65% of the respondents reported adherence to universal precautions. The most alarming observation was that dentists were not following safe waste management practices. Dental professionals continue to indicate a reluctance to treat patients with HIV/AIDS or those in high- risk groups. The results suggest need to have a comprehensive motivational program and implementing ways to ensure access and availability of safe dental care for PLWHA. The desire to get training on how to handle PLWHA illustrates that receptiveness to change exists.

  8. Analysis of Information, Impact and Control of HIV amongst Dental Professionals of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Jatin; Shrivastava, Asha; Shrivastava, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental health care providers may be exposed to a variety of microorganisms via blood, oral or respiratory secretions. Though the risk of transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in dental settings is low, the consequences of being infected are life threatening. Therefore, high standards in infection control and waste management are required in controlling occupational contagion and cross infection. Aim To obtain comprehensive information about the HIV related information, its impact on the health care provider’s attitude towards treating patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), infection control & waste disposal practices among dental professionals of Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh; situated in Central India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 320 private dental practitioners. Data was collected using a pretested, self administered 40 item questionnaire and statistically analysed. Results The response rate was 81.25%. Over all 50.76% dentists were graded as having good knowledge of HIV. Unfortunately, their willingness to treat these patients remained low. In all 39.23% dentist were willing to render care to PLWHA. Junior dentists expressed less hesitation with regard to acceptance of risk patients than other dentists. Over 65% of the respondents reported adherence to universal precautions. The most alarming observation was that dentists were not following safe waste management practices. Conclusion Dental professionals continue to indicate a reluctance to treat patients with HIV/AIDS or those in high- risk groups. The results suggest need to have a comprehensive motivational program and implementing ways to ensure access and availability of safe dental care for PLWHA. The desire to get training on how to handle PLWHA illustrates that receptiveness to change exists. PMID:26393211

  9. Remote Sensing Based Biophysical Characterization of Tropical Deciduous Forest in Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Goroshi, S.; Sharma, N. K.; Bairagi, G. D.; Sharma, R.; Jalil, P.; Jain, A.; Sonakia, A.; Parihar, J. S.

    2011-09-01

    The paper reports the measurements of biophysical parameters using field and satellite data over a tropical deciduous forest Kanha National Park (KNP), central India. Field measurement (GBH, LAI, litter, soil moisture) was carried out over ten quadrates of 0.1ha in KNP for characterization of biophysical parameters with specified measurement protocol and sampling. Satellite based remote sensing analysis (LAI, Phenology, and NPP) was carried out using multi date observations of IRS-LISS-III, IMS-1MX, SPOT-VEGETATION and EOS-MODIS instruments. Rank correlation analysis using field data collected in the selected quadrates at KNP showed Sal (Shorea robusta) is dominant forest species followed by Lendia, Jamun (Syzygium cumini), Saja, Harra and Dhawda etc. Field measurement of Sal showed GBH range from 20 cm to 170 cm. Different forest classes such as Sal; Sal mixed with Jamun, Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) etc, including grasslands/scrubland were classified with overall accuracy of 85.56 percent using March, May and October multi spectral data. Sal has distinct growth characteristics (low vegetation growth/ leaf fall in March instead of May) as compared to other vegetation species. As per the Leaf Area Index (LAI) measurement using hemispherical photographs, Sal showed the highest LAI (6.95 m2/m2) during September and lowest LAI (2.63 m2/m2) during March. Overall good agreement (r= 0.79) was found between the LAI generated from LISS-III and MODIS data product. It was observed from SPOT-VEGETATION analysis that NPP varied from 8.4 tC/ha/year (dry deciduous forest) to 14.25 tC/ha/year (Moist deciduous forest) in KNP.

  10. Arsenic contamination in water, soil, sediment and rice of central India.

    PubMed

    Patel, K S; Shrivas, K; Brandt, R; Jakubowski, N; Corns, W; Hoffmann, P

    2005-04-01

    Arsenic contamination in the environment (i.e. surface, well and tube-well water, soil, sediment and rice samples) of central India (i.e. Ambagarh Chauki, Chhattisgarh) is reported. The concentration of the total arsenic in the samples i.e. water (n = 64), soil (n = 30), sediment (n = 27) and rice grain (n = 10) were ranged from 15 to 825 microg L(-1), 9 to 390 mg kg(-1), 19 to 489 mg kg(-1) and 0.018 to 0.446 mg kg(-1), respectively. In all type of waters, the arsenic levels exceeded the permissible limit, 10 microg L(-1). The most toxic and mobile inorganic species i.e. As(III) and As(V) are predominantly present in water of this region. The soils have relatively higher contents of arsenic and other elements i.e. Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ga, Zr, Sn, Sb, Pb and U. The mean arsenic contents in soil of this region are much higher than in arsenic soil of West Bengal and Bangladesh. The lowest level of arsenic in the soil of this region is 3.7 mg kg(-1) with median value of 9.5 mg kg(-1). The arsenic contents in the sediments are at least 2-folds higher than in the soil. The sources of arsenic contamination in the soil of this region are expected from the rock weathering as well as the atmospheric deposition. The environmental samples i.e. water, soil dust, food, etc. are expected the major exposure for the arsenic contamination. The most of people living in this region are suffering with arsenic borne diseases (i.e. melanosis, keratosis, skin cancer, etc.).

  11. Anisotropy Studies in Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviris, G.; Papadimitriou, P.; Makropoulos, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Gulf of Corinth, located in Central Greece, is a tectonic graben characterized by high seismicity level. GPS measurements indicate extension of the Gulf in an approximately N-S direction, with a rate of 10 to 15 mm/year. The southern part of the Gulf is dominated by the presence of large active normal faults in an almost E-W direction, dipping north, resulting to the subsidence of the central part of the graben. Analysis of data recorded by the Cornet network, which is the permanent network of the University of Athens, revealed the existence of an anisotropic upper crust at the eastern part of the Gulf of Corinth. Anisotropy was also observed at the western part of Corinth Gulf, using data recorded by a temporary seismological network installed in the area. Furthermore, shear wave splitting analysis was performed in the region of Attica (to the NE of the Gulf) that hosts Athens, the capital of Greece, using aftershocks of the 1999 Athens earthquake (Mw=6.0) that caused 143 fatalities. The methods used for the determination of the splitting parameters are the polarization vector as a function of time (polarigram) and the hodogram. For each selected event the direction of polarization of the fast shear wave, the delay between the two split shear waves and the polarization of the source were measured. Concerning both parts of the Gulf of Corinth, the obtained mean values of anisotropy vary between N90° and N142°. In the region of Attica the mean values of the anisotropy direction of all stations vary between N95° and N100°, almost parallel to the azimuth of the Parnitha fault. The time delay between the split shear waves vary between 0.020s and 0.130s. The obtained anisotropy measurements are in agreement with the extensive dilatancy anisotropy (EDA) model, since the direction of anisotropy is independent from the event-station azimuth and perpendicular to the direction of extension. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The present study was co-funded by the European Social Fund

  12. Toxic metals status in human blood and breast milk samples in an integrated steel plant environment in Central India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajnikant; Pervez, Shamsh

    2005-02-01

    Owing to its unique nutritional and immunological characteristics, human milk is the most important food source for infants. Breast milk can, however, also be a pathway of maternal excretion of toxic elements. Selected toxic elements (As, Pb, Mn,a Hg and Cd) were determined in human breast milk and blood samples obtained from 120 subjects related to an integrated steel plant environment located in central India. Samples of breast milk and blood from subjects living outside the steel plant environment were also analyzed for comparative study. Higher levels of these toxic elements were found in blood samples as compared to breast milk samples. Plant workers showed the higher presence of these metals in their breast milk and blood samples compared to the residents of the area and the subjects living outside the industrial environment, respectively. Mn, Pb and Hg have shown a higher tendency to associate with blood and breast milk than As and Cd. The order of occurrence of these metals in blood and milk samples thus found is Mn > Pb > Hg > As > Cd.

  13. Fate of Metals in Relation to Water and Sediment Properties in a Subtropical Lake in Central Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Inaotombi, Shaikhom; Gupta, Prem Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Lakes of Himalaya are one of the most fragile ecosystems on earth. Tourism and urban development in the upland region strongly affect its water resources. The high rate of sedimentation and organic matter deposition alters the ecological state of sediment bed, which indirectly influences on dynamics of metallic elements. We investigated spatial and temporal variations of water and sediment characteristic in Lake Sattal of Central Himalaya, India. Samples were collected seasonally from four sampling locations from January 2011 to December 2012. Pearson's correlation and Canonical correspondence analysis (CCAs) were applied to examine the dynamics and behaviors of heavy metals. Concentrations of elements were in the order of fluoride (Fl) > zinc (Zn) > copper (Cu) > iron (Fe) > manganese (Mn). Sand size fraction was higher in the littoral zone while clay particle was dominant in the profundal zone of the lake. Dissolved oxygen at sediment-water-interface (SWI) and water temperature were the major factors influencing the dynamics of metallic contents in the water column. Spatially, total organic matter (TOM) was higher in the deeper portion of the lake. Our study revealed that mobility of Fe is temperature-dependent, whereas speciation of Mn and Cu are primarily controlled by the suboxic condition of SWI in organic-rich site. Upland lakes are more vulnerable to anoxic condition and have severe implications on heavy metals speciation. Proper implementation of land use policies and management practices, including stormwater detention, can be integrated into resolving such problems.

  14. Microcystin-producing and non-producing cyanobacterial blooms collected from the Central India harbor potentially pathogenic Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Prashant; Kumar Agrawal, Manish; Nath Bagchi, Suvendra

    2015-05-01

    On the basis of relative abundance, frequency and biovolume, the important value index ranks were assigned to individual cyanobacteria in phytoplankton samples collected from fourteen water resources of Central India. The mcyABDE genes were detected in all the blooms with Microcystis (-aeruginosa, -viridis, -panniformis, -botrys) as being the major constituent morphospecies. On the other hand, blooms composed of primarily Oscillatoria (-limosa,-agardhii, -laetevirens) along with Anabaena, Nostoc, Phormidium and Spirulina as sub-dominant forms exhibited quite a patchy distribution of one or the other mcy genes. Fifty percent of Microcystis- but none of the Oscillatoria dominant blooms produced microcystins-RR and desmethyl-RR at 0.03-0.41mgg(-1) bloom dry mass. Traces of dissolved microcystin was detected in lake water, which is well below the WHO guideline. Irrespective of cyanobacterial composition and microcystin production ability, during the study period 43-64% of the cyanobacterial bloom samples exhibited association of viable but nonculturable forms of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, as evident from amplification of the antigen genes. We believe that spread of endemic cholera is the major threat associated with harmful algal blooms.

  15. Validation of SCS CN Method for Runoff Estimation with Field Observed Regression Analysis Results in Venna Basin, Central India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katpatal, Y. B.; Paranjpe, S. V.; Kadu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Effective Watershed management requires authentic data of surface runoff potential for which several methods and models are in use. Generally, non availability of field data calls for techniques based on remote observations. Soil Conservation Services Curve Number (SCS CN) method is an important method which utilizes information generated from remote sensing for estimation of runoff. Several attempts have been made to validate the runoff values generated from SCS CN method by comparing the results obtained from other methods. In the present study, runoff estimation through SCS CN method has been performed using IRS LISS IV data for the Venna Basin situated in the Central India. The field data was available for Venna Basin. The Land use/land cover and soil layers have been generated for the entire watershed using the satellite data and Geographic Information System (GIS). The Venna basin have been divided into intercepted catchment and free catchment. Run off values have been estimated using field data through regression analysis. The runoff values estimated using SCS CN method have been compared with yield values generated using data collected from the tank gauge stations and data from the discharge stations. The correlation helps in validation of the results obtained from the SCS CN method and its applicability in Indian conditions. Key Words: SCS CN Method, Regression Analysis, Land Use / Land cover, Runoff, Remote Sensing, GIS.

  16. Late Acheulean hominins at the Marine Isotope Stage 6/5e transition in north-central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslam, Michael; Roberts, Richard G.; Shipton, Ceri; Pal, J. N.; Fenwick, Jacqueline L.; Ditchfield, Peter; Boivin, Nicole; Dubey, A. K.; Gupta, M. C.; Petraglia, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating was applied to Late Quaternary sediments at two sites in the Middle Son Valley, Madhya Pradesh, India. Designated Bamburi 1 and Patpara, these sites contain Late Acheulean stone tool assemblages, which we associate with non-modern hominins. Age determinations of 140-120 ka place the formation of these sites at around the Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 6-5 transition, placing them among the youngest Acheulean sites in the world. We present here the geochronology and sedimentological setting of these sites, and consider potential implications of Late Pleistocene archaic habitation in north-central India for the initial dispersal of modern humans across South Asia.

  17. LA-SF-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronology of granitic rocks from the central Bundelkhand greenstone complex, Bundelkhand craton, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Sanjeet K.; Verma, Surendra P.; Oliveira, Elson P.; Singh, Vinod K.; Moreno, Juan A.

    2016-03-01

    The central Bundelkhand greenstone complex in Bundelkhand craton, northern India is one of the well exposed Archaean supracrustal amphibolite, banded iron formation (BIF) and felsic volcanic rocks (FV) and associated with grey and pink porphyritic granite, tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG). Here we present high precision zircon U-Pb geochronological data for the pinkish porphyritic granites and TTG. The zircons from the grey-pinkish porphyritic granite show three different concordia ages of 2531 ± 21 Ma, 2516 ± 38 Ma, and 2514 ± 13 Ma, which are interpreted as the best estimate of the magmatic crystallization age for the studied granites. We also report the concordia age of 2669 ± 7.4 Ma for a trondhjemite gneiss sample, which is so far the youngest U-Pb geochronological data for a TTG rock suite in the Bundelkhand craton. This TTG formation at 2669 Ma is also more similar to Precambrian basement TTG gneisses of the Aravalli Craton of north western India and suggests that crust formation in the Bundelkhand Craton occurred in a similar time-frame to that recorded from the Aravalli craton of the North-western India.

  18. Role of mucosal high-risk human papillomavirus types in head and neck cancers in central India.

    PubMed

    Gheit, Tarik; Anantharaman, Devasena; Holzinger, Dana; Alemany, Laia; Tous, Sara; Lucas, Eric; Prabhu, Priya Ramesh; Pawlita, Michael; Ridder, Ruediger; Rehm, Susanne; Bogers, Johannes; Maffini, Fausto; Chiocca, Susanna; Lloveras, Belén; Kumar, Rekha Vijay; Somanathan, Thara; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Castellsagué, Xavier; Arbyn, Marc; Brennan, Paul; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Pillai, Madhavan Radhakrishna; Gangane, Nitin; Tommasino, Massimo

    2017-07-01

    Mucosal high-risk (HR) human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause a subset of head and neck cancers (HNC). The HPV-attributable fraction of HNC varies substantially between countries. Although HNC has a very high incidence in the Indian subcontinent, information on the contribution of HPV infection is limited. Here, we evaluated the HPV-attributable fraction in HNC (N = 364) collected in a central region of India. HNC from three different anatomical subsites were included, namely, oral cavity (n = 252), oropharynx (n = 53) and hypopharynx/larynx (n = 59). In this retrospective study, HPV-driven HNC were defined by presence of both viral DNA and RNA. Overexpression of p16(INK4a) was also evaluated. HR-HPV DNA was detected in 13.7% of the cases; however, only 2.7% were positive for both HPV DNA and RNA. The highest percentage of HPV DNA/RNA double positivity was found in oropharynx (9.4%), followed by larynx (1.7%) and oral cavity (1.6%) (p = 0.02). More than half of HPV DNA/RNA-positive cases were p16(INK4a) -negative, while a considerable number of HPV RNA-negative cases were p16(INK4a) -positive (17.9%). HPV16 was the major type associated with HNC (60.0%), although cases positive for HPV18, 35 and 56 were also detected. Our data indicate that the proportion and types of mucosal HR-HPV associated with HNC in this central Indian region differ from those in other (developed) parts of the world. This may be explained by differences in smoking and/or sexual behaviour compared with North America and northern Europe. Moreover, we show that p16(INK4a) staining appeared not to be a good surrogate marker of HPV transformation in the Indian HNC cases. © 2017 UICC.

  19. Metagenomic Analysis of Hot Springs in Central India Reveals Hydrocarbon Degrading Thermophiles and Pathways Essential for Survival in Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Rituja; Dhakan, Darshan B.; Mittal, Parul; Waiker, Prashant; Chowdhury, Anirban; Ghatak, Arundhuti; Sharma, Vineet K.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme ecosystems such as hot springs are of great interest as a source of novel extremophilic species, enzymes, metabolic functions for survival and biotechnological products. India harbors hundreds of hot springs, the majority of which are not yet explored and require comprehensive studies to unravel their unknown and untapped phylogenetic and functional diversity. The aim of this study was to perform a large-scale metagenomic analysis of three major hot springs located in central India namely, Badi Anhoni, Chhoti Anhoni, and Tattapani at two geographically distinct regions (Anhoni and Tattapani), to uncover the resident microbial community and their metabolic traits. Samples were collected from seven distinct sites of the three hot spring locations with temperature ranging from 43.5 to 98°C. The 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of V3 hypervariable region and shotgun metagenome sequencing uncovered a unique taxonomic and metabolic diversity of the resident thermophilic microbial community in these hot springs. Genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation pathways, such as benzoate, xylene, toluene, and benzene were observed to be abundant in the Anhoni hot springs (43.5–55°C), dominated by Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acidovorax sp., suggesting the presence of chemoorganotrophic thermophilic community with the ability to utilize complex hydrocarbons as a source of energy. A high abundance of genes belonging to methane metabolism pathway was observed at Chhoti Anhoni hot spring, where methane is reported to constitute >80% of all the emitted gases, which was marked by the high abundance of Methylococcus capsulatus. The Tattapani hot spring, with a high-temperature range (61.5–98°C), displayed a lower microbial diversity and was primarily dominated by a nitrate-reducing archaeal species Pyrobaculum aerophilum. A higher abundance of cell metabolism pathways essential for the microbial survival in extreme conditions was observed at Tattapani. Taken together

  20. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India

    PubMed Central

    Dhanwal, Dinesh Kumar; Bajaj, Sarita; Rajput, Rajesh; Subramaniam, K. A. V.; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Bhandari, Rajendra; Dharmalingam, Mala; Sahay, Rakesh; Ganie, Ashraf; Kotwal, Narendra; Shriram, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Background: A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. Objective: To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh), Bengaluru (Karnataka), Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Kolkata (West Bengal), Hyderabad (Telangana), Nasik (Maharashtra), Rohtak (Haryana), Pune (Maharashtra), New Delhi (Delhi), Srinagar (Kashmir), and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh) enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. Results: We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388), using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613), whereas 40% (n = 155) of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%), majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country. PMID:27186559

  1. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India.

    PubMed

    Dhanwal, Dinesh Kumar; Bajaj, Sarita; Rajput, Rajesh; Subramaniam, K A V; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Bhandari, Rajendra; Dharmalingam, Mala; Sahay, Rakesh; Ganie, Ashraf; Kotwal, Narendra; Shriram, Usha

    2016-01-01

    A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh), Bengaluru (Karnataka), Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Kolkata (West Bengal), Hyderabad (Telangana), Nasik (Maharashtra), Rohtak (Haryana), Pune (Maharashtra), New Delhi (Delhi), Srinagar (Kashmir), and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh) enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388), using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613), whereas 40% (n = 155) of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%), majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country.

  2. Situation of drug resistant tuberculosis in Saharia tribe of central India.

    PubMed

    Bhat, J; Rao, V G; Yadav, R; Muniyandi, M; Sharma, R; Karfarma, C; Luke, C

    2015-05-01

    The information on multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) situation amongst Saharia, one of the Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) in Madhya Pradesh, India, is not available. Hence, this study was undertaken to find the situation of MDR-TB amongst Saharia PVTG in two districts of Madhya Pradesh. Community based cross-sectional TB prevalence surveys were conducted among Saharia PVTG in Gwalior and Shivpuri districts of Madhya Pradesh. Chest symptomatics were identified from the individual registered for the study. Two sputum samples were collected from each of the eligible individuals, transported to the laboratory, and were examined by Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) smear microscopy and solid medium culture methods. Drug susceptibility testing of the isolates was done by indirect proportion method on solid medium. MDR rate was 2.2 per cent of new cases and 8.2 per cent among the previously treated cases of TB in Gwalior while it was two per cent among the previously treated cases in Shivpuri district. Though the prevalence of tuberculosis in these districts was alarmingly high, the MDR rates were more or less similar to national average. However, the findings of this study highlight the need for active intervention so that the MDR-TB is kept under control.

  3. Central America: A Regional Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowry, George; Lacy, Ann

    This lesson is a series of activities and multi-media presentations designed to enable students to understand the historic and geographic roots of some of the problems that Central American nations have faced. Geography, history, writing, and storytelling are used as ways of understanding a multicultural world. Creative thinking and participation…

  4. A study on drug safety monitoring program in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, A; Patel, Isha; Sanyal, Sudeepa; Balkrishnan, R; Mohanta, G P

    2014-09-01

    Pharmacovigilance is useful in assuring the safety of medicines and protecting the consumers from their harmful effects. A number of single drugs as well as fixed dose combinations have been banned from manufacturing, marketing and distribution in India. An important issue about the availability of banned drugs over the counter in India is that sufficient adverse drug reactions data about these drugs have not been reported. The most common categories of drugs withdrawn in the last decade were nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (28%), antidiabetics (14.28%), antiobesity (14.28%), antihistamines (14.28%), gastroprokinetic drugs (7.14%), breast cancer and infertility drugs (7.14%), irritable bowel syndrome and constipation drugs (7.14%) and antibiotics (7.14%). Drug withdrawals from market were made mainly due to safety issues involving cardiovascular events (57.14%) and liver damage (14.28%). Majority of drugs have been banned since 3-5 years in other countries but are still available for sale in India. The present study compares the drug safety monitoring systems in the developed countries such as the USA and UK and provides implications for developing a system that can ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in India. Absence of a gold standard for a drug safety surveillance system, variations in culture and clinical practice across countries makes it difficult for India to completely adopt another country's practices. There should be a multidisciplinary approach towards drug safety that should be implemented throughout the entire duration spanning from drug discovery to usage by consumers.

  5. A Study on Drug Safety Monitoring Program in India

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, A.; Patel, Isha; Sanyal, Sudeepa; Balkrishnan, R.; Mohanta, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is useful in assuring the safety of medicines and protecting the consumers from their harmful effects. A number of single drugs as well as fixed dose combinations have been banned from manufacturing, marketing and distribution in India. An important issue about the availability of banned drugs over the counter in India is that sufficient adverse drug reactions data about these drugs have not been reported. The most common categories of drugs withdrawn in the last decade were nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (28%), antidiabetics (14.28%), antiobesity (14.28%), antihistamines (14.28%), gastroprokinetic drugs (7.14%), breast cancer and infertility drugs (7.14%), irritable bowel syndrome and constipation drugs (7.14%) and antibiotics (7.14%). Drug withdrawals from market were made mainly due to safety issues involving cardiovascular events (57.14%) and liver damage (14.28%). Majority of drugs have been banned since 3-5 years in other countries but are still available for sale in India. The present study compares the drug safety monitoring systems in the developed countries such as the USA and UK and provides implications for developing a system that can ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in India. Absence of a gold standard for a drug safety surveillance system, variations in culture and clinical practice across countries makes it difficult for India to completely adopt another country's practices. There should be a multidisciplinary approach towards drug safety that should be implemented throughout the entire duration spanning from drug discovery to usage by consumers. PMID:25425751

  6. Fluoride contamination in drinking water in rural habitations of Central Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Ikbal; Arif, Mohd; Hussain, Jakir

    2012-08-01

    Fluoride concentration in groundwater sources used as major drinking water source in rural area of block Nawa (Nagaur District), Rajasthan was examined and the toxic effects by intake of excess fluoride on rural habitants were studied. In block 13, habitations (30%) were found to have fluoride concentration more than 1.5 mg/l (viz. maximum desirable limit of Indian drinking water standards IS 10500, 1999). In five habitations (11%), fluoride concentration in groundwater is at toxic level (viz. above 3.0 mg/l). The maximum fluoride concentration in the block is 5.91 mg/l from Sirsi village. As per the desirable and maximum permissible limit for fluoride in drinking water, determined by World Health Organization or by Bureau of Indian Standards, the groundwater of about 13 habitations of the studied sites is unfit for drinking purposes. Due to the higher fluoride level in drinking water, several cases of dental and skeletal fluorosis have appeared at alarming rate in this region. There is an instant need to take ameliorative steps in this region to prevent the population from fluorosis. Groundwater sources of block Nawa can be used for drinking after an effective treatment in absence of other safe source. The evaluation of various defluoridation methods on the basis of social and economical structure of India reveals that the clay pot chip, activated alumina adsorption, and Nalgonda techniques are the most promising.

  7. Indications of human activity from amino acid and amino sugar analyses on Holocene sediments from lake Lonar, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, P.; Gaye, B.; Wiesner, M.; Prasad, S.; Basavaiah, N.; Stebich, M.; Anoop, A.; Riedel, N.; Brauer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The DFG funded HIMPAC (Himalaya: Modern and Past Climates) programme aims to reconstruct Holocene Indian Monsoon climate using a multi-proxy and multi-archive approach. First investigations made on sediments from a ca. 10 m long core covering the whole Holocene taken from the lake Lonar in central India's state Maharashtra, Buldhana District, serve to identify changes in sedimentation, lake chemistry, local vegetation and regional to supra-regional climate patterns. Lake Lonar occupies the floor of an impact crater that formed on the ~ 65 Ma old basalt flows of the Deccan Traps. It covers an area of ca. 1 km2 and is situated in India's core monsoon area. The modern lake has a maximum depth of about 5 m, is highly alkaline, and hyposaline, grouped in the Na-Cl-CO3 subtype of saline lakes. No out-flowing stream is present and only three small streams feed the lake, resulting in a lake level highly sensitive to precipitation and evaporation. The lake is eutrophic and stratified throughout most of the year with sub- to anoxic waters below 2 m depth. In this study the core sediments were analysed for their total amino acid (AA) and amino sugar (AS) content, the amino acid bound C and N percentage of organic C and total N in the sediment and the distribution of individual amino acids. The results roughly show three zones within the core separated by distinct changes in their AA content and distribution. (i) The bottom part of the core from ca. 12000 cal a BP to 11400 cal a BP with very low AA and AS percentage indicating high lithogenic contribution, most probably related to dry conditions. (ii) From 11400 cal a BP to 1200 cal a BP the sediments show moderate AA and AS percentages and low values for the ratios of proteinogenic AAs to their non-proteinogenic degradation products (e.g. ASP/β-ALA; GLU/γ-ABA). (iii) The top part of the core (< 1200 cal a BP) is characterised by an intense increase in total AA and AS, AA-C/Corg and AA-N/Ntotas well as in the ratio of

  8. Changes in erosional and depositional processes with time and management of Goa Coast, central west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Ganapati; D'Souza, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal and estuarine environments, world over are facing immense impact due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The natural processes include climatic changes, rise in sea level, cyclone, flood, tsunamis, coastal erosion, salinity ingress and siltation. Likewise, anthropogenic pressures include population expansion, ocean traffic, dredging, resource exploitation, pollution, unplanned urbanization and intensive industrialization. Due to these impacts the fragile coastal ecosystem and its entities, like sub ecosystems, resources, morphological units are undergoing unprecedented degradation, rendering these coastal regions vulnerable, impinging risk to human population, livestock, properties, as also, devastation of resourceful lands. This accelerates economic fatalities and irreversible obliteration to the ecosystems. Evidences on the global concern towards this issue have been well established. The countries world over, including India, pledged consensus towards the protection of the fragile coastal ecosystems through UNCED, Agenda-21. India, on 19th February 1991, has designated specified corridors along the landward side of the coastline as "Coastal Regulatory Zones" (CRZ), through appropriate policy and law. In context with the CRZ notification, scientific database at local and site-specific areas, developed. Synergy of ecosystems, landscape and resources with demographic, tourism data, vis-à-vis, economic corridors/sectors aided the paradigms and criterion for local and site specific prescriptions for Goa Coast. The Goa coast is a part of central west coast of India and is characterized by pocket beaches flanked by rocky cliffs, estuaries, bays, and at some places mangroves. Beaches in southern Goa are long and linear in nature with sand dunes. The Mandovi and Zuari estuarine system in Goa is the largest in this part of the coast. Mud flats, swampy marshes and wetlands are found mainly along estuaries and creeks. The beaches of Goa are stable beaches

  9. Ripple marks in intertidal Lower Bhander Sandstone (late Proterozoic), Central India: A morphological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Soumen

    1981-08-01

    The late Proterozoic, intertidal Lower Bhander Sandstone (Bhander Group, Vindhyan Supergroup) developed around Maihar, central India, is characterized by alternations of sandstone and shale in different scales and shows profuse ripple marks of widely varying morphology. Visual examination of their external morphology led to the identification of wave ripple, current ripple and others of intermediate character. Standard deviation and average of ripple spacing and height of symmetrical and assymmetrical ripples show genetically significant differences analogous to those obtained by Harms (1969) for wave- and current-generated ripples. Different dimensionless parameters, e.g., R.I., R.S.I., S.I., etc., processed separately for the two types of ripples, show a wide variation in their range which encompasses the total spectrum of values stipulated for wave and current ripples. However, the frequency of any particular genetic type of ripple differs widely when analysed in terms of different dimensionless parameters. Several scatter plots, prepared after Tanner (1967) also indicate the presence of various genetic types of ripples, but there are ripples for which results remain inconclusive. Furthermore, scatter plots involving the vertical form index (ripple length/ripple height) and median grain size of a few asymmetrical ripples, following Reineck and Wunderlich (1968a), led to the discrimination between current ripple and wave ripple and the distinction is grossly consistent with the results obtained by other means. Ripple spacing, ripple index and grain-size data of a few representative samples of ripples of possible wave origin, analysed after Tanner (1971) and Allen (1979) indicate that they were generated in a shallow basin with restricted fetch. Internally, the ripples, irrespective of their symmetry, are often characterized by unidirectional bundles of foresets consisting of rhythmically alternating sand and mud laminae. The sets of cross-laminae may be complexly

  10. Kerosene-a toddler's sin: A five years study at tertiary care hospital in western India.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Utsav; Gupta, Sanjay

    2017-04-01

    Acute kerosene poisoning is a preventable health problem in children perceived mainly in developing countries. It influences socioeconomic and cultural status of country due to its contribution in morbidity and mortality. As kerosene is widely used as household energy source in India at rural areas as well as urban, it accounts for significant number of poisoning cases mainly accidental in manner. As there are only handful studies from India on kerosene poisoning in children, we planned this study to evaluate incidence of kerosene poisoning in Western Indian population and its clinico-epidemiotoxicological profile. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we collected data of all the cases of kerosene poisoning diagnosed during five years from 2009 to 2013 at Shri Krishna hospital situated at Karamsad, Gujarat state of Western India. We observed among total 42 cases, all victims were under 3 years of age. Evening in summer months, rural areas, storage of kerosene in household containers, inadequate parental supervision and door-to-hospitalization period emerged as most serious associated factors. Fever, cough, vomiting, tachypnoea and leucocytosis were commonest manifestations while pneumonia was the most common complication. Signs of central nervous system involvement, leucocytosis and vomiting were significantly correlated with pneumonia. Deaths occurred due to pneumonia. Early diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia may reduce mortality and recommendations are made to reduce the incidence of kerosene poisoning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Women and Tobacco Use: Discrepancy in the Knowledge, Belief and Behavior towards Tobacco Consumption among Urban and Rural Women in Chhattisgarh, Central India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ram Vinod; Gupta, Anjali; Agrawal, Ankush; Gandhi, Aniruddh; Gupta, Manjari; Das, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco consumption has become pandemic, and is estimated to have killed 100 million people in the 20th century worldwide. Some 700,000 out of 5.4 million deaths due to tobacco use were from India. The era of global modernization has led to an increase in the involvement of women in tobacco consumption in the low income and middle-income countries. Tobacco consumption by females is known to have grave consequences. To assess: (1) the tobacco use among urban and rural women; (2) the discrepancy in the knowledge, belief and behavior towards tobacco consumption among urban and rural women in Durg-Bhilai Metropolitan, Chhattisgarh, Central India. The study population consisted of 2,000 18-25 year old young women from Durg-Bhilai Metropolitan, Chhattisgarh, Central India, from both urban and rural areas. Data were collected using a pretested, anonymous, extensive face to face interview by a female investigator to assess the tobacco use among women and the discrepancy in the knowledge, belief and behavior towards tobacco consumption among urban and rural individuals. The prevalence of tobacco use was found to be 47.2%. Tobacco consumption among rural women was 54.4% and in urban women was 40%. The majority of the women from urban areas (62.8%) were smokers whilst rural women (77.4%) showed preponderance toward smokeless tobacco use. Urban women had a better knowledge and attitude towards harms from tobacco and its use than the rural women. Women in rural areas had higher odds (1.335) of developing tobacco habit than the urban women. Increased tobacco use by women poses very severe hazards to their health, maternal and child health, and their family health and economic well-being. Due to the remarkably complex Indian picture of female tobacco use, an immediate and compulsory implementation of tobacco control policies laid down by the WHO FCTC is the need of the hour.

  12. The Central Eurasia collision zone: insights from a neotectonic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunini, Lavinia; Jiménez-Munt, Ivone; Fernandez, Manel; Vergés, Jaume

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we explore the neotectonic deformation in the whole Central Eurasia, including both the India-Eurasia and the Arabia-Eurasia collision zones, by using the thin-sheet approach in which the lithosphere strength is calculated from the lithosphere structure and thermal regime. We investigate the relative contributions of the lithospheric structure, rheology, boundary conditions, and friction coefficient on faults on the predicted velocity and stress fields. The resulting models have been evaluated by comparing the predictions with available data on seismic deformation, stress directions and GPS velocities. A first order approximation of the velocity and stress directions is obtained, reproducing the counter-clockwise rotation of Arabia and Iran, the westward escape of Anatolia, and the eastward extrusion of the northern Tibetan Plateau. To simulate the observed extensional faults within Tibet a weaker lithosphere is required, provided by a change in the rheological parameters or a reduction of the lithosphere thickness in NE-Tibet. The temperature increase generated by the lithospheric thinning below the Tibetan Plateau would also allow reconciling the model with the high heat flow and low mantle seismic velocities observed in the area. Besides the large scale, this study offers a coherent result in regions with little or no data coverage, as in the case of the Arabia-India inter-collision zone, over large areas of Pakistan and entire Afghanistan. The study is supported by MITE (CGL2014-59516-P) and WE-ME (PIE-CSIC-201330E111) projects.

  13. Earthquake precursory studies in India: Scenario and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Mithila; Bansal, Brijesh K.

    2012-08-01

    Earthquakes are the worst natural calamities that strike without any notice and cause immediate loss of life and property. Internationally, serious and scientifically acceptable earthquake prediction studies started in 1970s and short term prediction of the Heicheng earthquake of February 4, 1975 in China is a land mark. In India, a successful medium term prediction of August 6, 1988 earthquake, (M 7.5) in northeast Indian region encouraged to intensify such studies in the country. These predictions were based mainly on seismological precursors. Initially, the precursory studies were taken in isolated manner, but after validation of specific geophysical parameters, efforts were made to adopt an integrated approach involving collection, analysis and interpretation of various precursory observations in a comprehensive and coordinated manner. Accordingly, a few Multi-parametric Geophysical Observatories (MPGOs) have been established at the selected locations in seismically active areas in the country. This approach led to successful short term prediction of some moderate earthquakes (M ⩾ 4) in Koyna region (famous for Reservoir Triggered Seismicity) in western India. Simultaneously, efforts have been made to generate long term multi-parametric observations from these observatories, as a basic scientific input required for future earthquake prediction related studies. The real-time analysis of these data sets would help to understand the earthquake generation process and attaining the predictive capabilities by developing models for short term earthquake forecasting. To facilitate direct observations and test the hypothesis of Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS) as well as to understand the earthquake generation processes, it is planned to undertake deep borehole (6-8 km) investigations in Koyna region of western India. The paper highlights the efforts made so far in India in the area of earthquake precursory studies as well as the future road map.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolate from an Outbreak in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Polakshee; Morla, Sudhir; Kaore, Megha; Kurkure, Nitin Vasantrao

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDV/Chicken/Nagpur/01/12 was isolated from vaccinated chicken farms in India during outbreaks in 2012. The genome is 15,192 nucleotides in length and is classified as genotype VII in class II. PMID:25593257

  15. How safe are the global water coverage figures? Case study from Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Sam; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Wate, Satish; Pimpalkar, Sarika

    2011-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation was designed to provide reference figures for access in individual countries to safe water. The JMP is based on non-administrative or nongovernment data from national-level surveys such as the Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey (MICS) or Demographic Health Survey. In the 2007 JMP report, India is noted to have water supply coverage of 89% (95% in urban areas and 85% in rural areas) compared to the Government of India estimates of 95%. The central state of Madhya Pradesh is noted by the Government of India to have coverage of 60%. However, the definition of access to safe water currently does not consider the quality or safety of the water being consumed. This paper, therefore, presents results from the application of a statistical tool (random multiple cluster technique-termed Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality [RADWQ]) to Indore Zone in Madhya Pradesh. When results provided by the RADWQ technique are compared to the JMP MICS data, coverage levels reported in the JMP are reduced by up to 40% due to the high risk of microbiological (thermotolerant coliforms) contamination. In Indore Zone, the coverage of safe water reduced from 42% to 25% through the inclusion of the water safety parameters. The study recommends the inclusion of water quality/safety data in reported data under the UNICEF/WHO JMP.

  16. Identification of high-risk population and prevalence of kidney damage among asymptomatic central government employees in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Himanshu Sekhar; Gupta, Yadunanandan Prasad; Sharma, Neera; Buxi, Gurdeep

    2016-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has attained epidemic proportions in India due to increased incidence of diabetes and hypertension (HTN). It was surmised that identification of only high-risk groups (HRGs) through a questionnaire would be sufficient to identify cases of kidney damage (KD). The study attempted to device a questionnaire to classify the subjects in to HRG and low-risk group (LRG) and assess the extent of early KD. The central government employees were classified into HRG and LRG based on "SCreening for Occult REnal Disease (SCORED)" and "EXTENDED" questionnaire formulated after addition of 10 more parameters apart from diabetes and HTN. Urine examination by dipstick, quantitative microalbumin, serum creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were assessed to determine KD. The data were analyzed for risk-group classification. Sensitivity was calculated based on the number of KD cases in the HRG. Of the 1104 employees screened, 58% and 42% were classified in HRG and LRG, respectively. There were 306 KD cases of whom, 65% were in the HRG. The sensitivity of the EXTENDED questionnaire to detect CKD was much higher (60%) compared to the SCORED questionnaire (25%). The prevalence of KD according to stage was: stage-1, 13.4%; stage-2, 9.9%; and late stages (3, 4, and 5), 4.5%. Microalbuminuria and dipstick-positive proteinuria showed statistically higher proportion in the HRG (25% and 4.1%) than in the LRG (19% and 1%, respectively) (P <0.05). Although the EXTENDED questionnaire was more sensitive in detecting KD, only screening the high-risk population will leave behind 35% of KD cases. There is, therefore, a need for mass screening at regular intervals.

  17. Association between wood cooking fuel and maternal hypertension at delivery in central East India

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Blair J.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Coull, Brent A.; Quinn, Ashlinn; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Sabin, Lora; Hamer, Davidson H.; Singh, Neeru; MacLeod, William B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Smoke from burning of biomass fuels has been linked with adverse pregnancy outcomes and with hypertension among nonpregnant subjects; association with hypertension during pregnancy has not been well studied. We sought to evaluate whether use of wood cooking fuel increases the risk of maternal hypertension at delivery compared to gas which burns with less smoke. Methods Information on fuel use and blood pressure was available for analysis from a cross-sectional survey of 1369 pregnant women recruited at delivery in India. Results Compared to gas users, women using wood as fuel had on average lower mean arterial pressure (adjusted effect size −2.0 mmHg; 95% CI −3.77, −0.31) and diastolic blood pressure (adjusted effect size −1.96 mmHg; 95% CI −3.60, −0.30) at delivery. Risk of hypertension (systolic > 139 mmHg or diastolic > 89 mmHg) was 14.6% for women cooking with wood compared to 19.6% for those cooking with gas although this did not reach significance after adjustment, using propensity score techniques, for factors that make wood and gas users distinct (adjusted prevalence ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.49, 1.17). Conclusions Combustion products from the burning of biomass fuels are similar to those released with tobacco smoking which has been linked with a reduced risk for preeclampsia. The direction of our findings suggests the possibility of a similar effect for biomass cook smoke. Whether clean cook cooking interventions being promoted by international advocacy organizations will impact hypertension in pregnancy warrants further analysis as hypertension remains a leading cause of maternal death worldwide and cooking with biomass fuels is widespread. PMID:26153626

  18. Association between wood cooking fuel and maternal hypertension at delivery in central East India.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Blair J; Singh, Mrigendra P; Coull, Brent A; Quinn, Ashlinn; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Sabin, Lora; Hamer, Davidson H; Singh, Neeru; MacLeod, William B

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from burning of biomass fuels has been linked with adverse pregnancy outcomes and hypertension among nonpregnant subjects; association with hypertension during pregnancy has not been well studied. We evaluated whether the use of wood cooking fuel increases the risk of maternal hypertension at delivery compared to gas which burns with less smoke. Information on fuel use and blood pressure was available for analysis from a cross-sectional survey of 1369 pregnant women recruited at delivery in India. Compared to gas users, women using wood as fuel had on average lower mean arterial pressure (adjusted effect size - 2.0 mmHg; 95% CI: -3.77, -0.31) and diastolic blood pressure (adjusted effect size -1.96 mmHg; 95% CI: -3.60, -0.30) at delivery. Risk of hypertension (systolic >139 mmHg or diastolic >89 mmHg) was 14.6% for wood users compared to 19.6% for gas users although this did not reach significance after adjustment, using propensity score techniques, for factors that make wood and gas users distinct (adjusted prevalence ratio 0.76; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.17). Combustion products from the burning of biomass fuels are similar to those released with tobacco smoking, which has been linked with a reduced risk for preeclampsia. The direction of our findings suggests the possibility of a similar effect for biomass cook smoke. Whether clean cooking interventions being promoted by international advocacy organizations will impact hypertension in pregnancy warrants further analysis as hypertension remains a leading cause of maternal death worldwide and cooking with biomass fuels is widespread.

  19. Sensitivity of annual mass balance gradient and Hypsometry to the changing climate: the case of Dokriani Glacier, central Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratap, B.

    2015-12-01

    The glacier mass balance is undelayed, unfiltered and direct method to assess the impact of climate change on the glaciers. Many studies suggest that some of the Himalayan glaciers have lost their mass at an increased rate during the past few decades. Furthermore, the mass balance gradient and hypsometric analysis are important to understand the glacier response towards climatic perturbations. Our long term in-situ monitoring on the Dokriani Glacier provides great insights to understand the variability in central Himalayan glaciers. We report the relationship between glacier hypsometry and annual mass balance gradient (12 years) to understand the glacier's response towards climate change. Dokriani Glacier in the Bhagirathi basin is a small (7 km2) NNW exposed glacier in the western part of central Himalaya, India. The study analysed the annual balance, mass balance gradient and length changes observed during first decade of 21st century (2007-2013) and compare with the previous observations of 1990s (1992-2000). A large spatial variability in the mass balance gradients of two different periods has been observed. The equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) was fluctuated between 5000 and 5100 m a.s.l. and the derived time averaged ELA (ELAn) and balance budget ELA (ELA0) were 5075 and 4965 m a.s.l respectively during 1992-2013. The observed time-averaged accumulation-area ratio (AARn) and balance budget AAR (AAR0) were 0.67 and 0.72 respectively during 1992-2013. The higher value of AAR comprises due to flat and broader accumulation area (4.50 km2) of the glacier. Although, having larger accumulation area, the glacier has faced strong mass wasting with average annual ablation of -1.82 m w.e. a-1 in the ablation zone as compare to residual average annual accumulation of 0.41 m w.e. a-1. Based on the annual mass balance series (12 years) Dokriani Glacier has continuous negative annual balances with monotonically negative cumulative mass loss of -3.86 m w.e with the average

  20. Socio-cultural and service delivery dimensions of maternal mortality in rural central India: a qualitative exploration using a human rights lens.

    PubMed

    Jat, Tej Ram; Deo, Prakash R; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Despite the avoidable nature of maternal mortality, unacceptably high numbers of maternal deaths occur in developing countries. Considering its preventability, maternal mortality is being increasingly recognised as a human rights issue. Integration of a human rights perspective in maternal health programmes could contribute positively in eliminating avertable maternal deaths. This study was conducted to explore socio-cultural and service delivery-related dimensions of maternal deaths in rural central India using a human rights lens. Social autopsies were conducted for 22 maternal deaths during 2011 in Khargone district in central India. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The factors associated with maternal deaths were classified by using the 'three delays' framework and were examined by using a human rights lens. All 22 women tried to access medical assistance, but various factors delayed their access to appropriate care. The underestimation of the severity of complications by family members, gender inequity, and perceptions of low-quality delivery services delayed decisions to seek care. Transportation problems and care seeking at multiple facilities delayed reaching appropriate health facilities. Negligence by health staff and unavailability of blood and emergency obstetric care services delayed receiving adequate care after reaching a health facility. The study highlighted various socio-cultural and service delivery-related factors which are violating women's human rights and resulting in maternal deaths in rural central India. This study highlights that, despite the health system's conscious effort to improve maternal health, normative elements of a human rights approach to maternal health (i.e. availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of maternal health services) were not upheld. The data and analysis suggest that the deceased women and their relatives were unable to claim their entitlements and that the duty bearers were not

  1. Socio-cultural and service delivery dimensions of maternal mortality in rural central India: a qualitative exploration using a human rights lens

    PubMed Central

    Jat, Tej Ram; Deo, Prakash R.; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the avoidable nature of maternal mortality, unacceptably high numbers of maternal deaths occur in developing countries. Considering its preventability, maternal mortality is being increasingly recognised as a human rights issue. Integration of a human rights perspective in maternal health programmes could contribute positively in eliminating avertable maternal deaths. This study was conducted to explore socio-cultural and service delivery–related dimensions of maternal deaths in rural central India using a human rights lens. Design Social autopsies were conducted for 22 maternal deaths during 2011 in Khargone district in central India. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The factors associated with maternal deaths were classified by using the ‘three delays’ framework and were examined by using a human rights lens. Results All 22 women tried to access medical assistance, but various factors delayed their access to appropriate care. The underestimation of the severity of complications by family members, gender inequity, and perceptions of low-quality delivery services delayed decisions to seek care. Transportation problems and care seeking at multiple facilities delayed reaching appropriate health facilities. Negligence by health staff and unavailability of blood and emergency obstetric care services delayed receiving adequate care after reaching a health facility. Conclusions The study highlighted various socio-cultural and service delivery–related factors which are violating women's human rights and resulting in maternal deaths in rural central India. This study highlights that, despite the health system's conscious effort to improve maternal health, normative elements of a human rights approach to maternal health (i.e. availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of maternal health services) were not upheld. The data and analysis suggest that the deceased women and their relatives were unable to claim their

  2. Socio-cultural and service delivery dimensions of maternal mortality in rural central India: a qualitative exploration using a human rights lens.

    PubMed

    Jat, Tej Ram; Deo, Prakash R; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Sebastian, Miguel San

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the avoidable nature of maternal mortality, unacceptably high numbers of maternal deaths occur in developing countries. Considering its preventability, maternal mortality is being increasingly recognised as a human rights issue. Integration of a human rights perspective in maternal health programmes could contribute positively in eliminating avertable maternal deaths. This study was conducted to explore socio-cultural and service delivery-related dimensions of maternal deaths in rural central India using a human rights lens. Design Social autopsies were conducted for 22 maternal deaths during 2011 in Khargone district in central India. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The factors associated with maternal deaths were classified by using the 'three delays' framework and were examined by using a human rights lens. Results All 22 women tried to access medical assistance, but various factors delayed their access to appropriate care. The underestimation of the severity of complications by family members, gender inequity, and perceptions of low-quality delivery services delayed decisions to seek care. Transportation problems and care seeking at multiple facilities delayed reaching appropriate health facilities. Negligence by health staff and unavailability of blood and emergency obstetric care services delayed receiving adequate care after reaching a health facility. Conclusions The study highlighted various socio-cultural and service delivery-related factors which are violating women's human rights and resulting in maternal deaths in rural central India. This study highlights that, despite the health system's conscious effort to improve maternal health, normative elements of a human rights approach to maternal health (i.e. availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of maternal health services) were not upheld. The data and analysis suggest that the deceased women and their relatives were unable to claim their entitlements

  3. Source apportionment of mercury in dust fallout at urban residential area of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, S.; Balakrishna, G.; Tiwari, S.

    2009-10-01

    The components and quantities of atmospheric dust fallout have been reported to be the pollution indicator of large urban areas. The multiplicity and complexity of sources of atmospheric dusts in urban regions (e.g. industrial complexes composed of a variety of industrial processes, automobiles, construction activities etc.) has put forward the need of source apportionment of these sources indicating their contribution to specific environmental receptor. The study presented here is focused on investigation of source contribution estimates of Mercury in urban dust fallout in an urban-industrial area, Raipur, India. Source-receptor based representative sampling plan using longitudinal study design has been adopted. Six sampling sites have been identified on the basis of land use for development plan of anthropogenic activities and factors related to the transportation and dispersion pattern of atmospheric dusts. 24 samples of dust fallout has been collected from each site (one in each month) and subjected to chemical analysis of selected chemical constituents known as markers of selected major dust emitting sources (Steel making average, Road traffic-borne dusts, construction activities, Auto mobile exhaust, and soils). Chemical composition of dust measured at sites marked for identified sources alongwith SPECIATE of USEPA has been used for the preparation of source profiles. Three classified residential receptors (ambient-outdoor, house-indoors and local street-outdoors) have been chosen for development of receptor compositional profiles. Source apportionment has been done using Chemical Mass Balance (CMB 8). Good fit parameters and relative source contribution has been analysed and documented. Dust fallout and respective mercury levels were found tobe higher compared to prescribed standards. Variation in relative contribution of selected sources from site to site within the study area has been occurred. Dominance of local line and area sources (road-traffic and

  4. Study of snow-monsoon relationship and changes in rainfall and temperature characteristics in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamgain, Ashu

    In the recent past, there are indications of changes in the surface air temperature, extreme weather events, snow and Indian summer monsoon. This thesis analyses the above weather phenomena based on observed data and climate model simulations for the present as well as the near future. Earlier studies show a strong negative relationship between Eurasian snow cover/depth and Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Limitations of such studies are that both the parameters snow and rainfall were seasonally averaged over large areas. Indian summer monsoon has its own characteristics of evolution such as onset, active, break and withdrawal phases which have been studied extensively. However, the evolution of Eurasian snow is yet to be examined. Further, it is interesting to explore the characteristics of evolution of snow over the different regions of Eurasia and their relationship with the evolution characteristics of summer monsoon. In this thesis, a detailed examination has been done on the starting and the ending dates of snowfall over different regions of Eurasia and attempts have been made to explore any relationship with onset of Indian summer monsoon. It is observed that the regions where snowfall starts early, it ends late. Further, in those regions maximum snow depth also occurs late. In some years, more snowfall in East Eurasia is followed by less snowfall in West Eurasia. Also snow depths particularly in the northernmost and southwest regions of East Eurasia are opposite in phase. The results of this study indicate a weak relationship between snow starting dates in Eurasia and summer monsoon onset dates in the Kerala coast. However, the relationship between the northernmost Eurasian snow depth and the summer monsoon precipitation in the Peninsular India is significant. Today, regional weather/climate models are increasingly used to study several atmospheric phenomena. The Regional Climate Model, RegCM3 has been successfully integrated to simulate the salient features

  5. Perceptions about Training during Endocrinology Residency Programs in India over the Years: A Cross-sectional Study (PEER India Study).

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Deepak; Dutta, Deep; Singla, Rajiv; Surana, Vineet; Aggarwal, Sameer; Gupta, Yashdeep; Kalra, Sanjay; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Tandon, Nikhil

    2017-01-01

    Residents' perception on quality of endocrinology training in India is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the perceptions about endocrinology residency programs in India among current trainees as compared to practicing endocrinologists. Trainees attending a preconference workshop at the annual conference of Endocrine Society of India (ESI) were given a questionnaire designed to evaluate their perceptions on their training. These evaluated the reasons for choosing endocrinology, their experiences during residency, and career plans. Practicing endocrinologists attending ESICON with at least 5-year experience were evaluated as controls. Questionnaires from 63 endocrine trainees and 78 practicing endocrinologists were analyzed. Endocrinology is perceived to be the super-specialty with the best quality of life (QOL) but fair with regard to financial remuneration. Among current trainees, 61.89%, 31.74%, and 34.91% are satisfied with training in clinical endocrinology, laboratory endocrinology, and clinical/translational research, respectively. The corresponding figures for practicing endocrinologists are 71.78%, 25.63%, and 30.75%, respectively. Exposure to national endocrinology conferences during their endocrinology residency was adequate. However, exposure to international endocrinology conferences, research publications, project writing, and grant application are limited. Laboratory endocrinology is rated as the most neglected aspect during endocrine residency. Most of the trainees want to establish their own clinical practice in the long run. Very few trainees (17.46%) wish to join the medical education services. There is a good perception of QOL in endocrinology in spite of average financial remuneration. There is dissatisfaction with the quality of training in laboratory endocrinology and clinical research. Very few endocrine trainees consider academics as a long-term career option in India.

  6. Gender disparity in late-life cognitive functioning in India: findings from the longitudinal aging study in India.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinkook; Shih, Regina; Feeney, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M

    2014-07-01

    To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan). Data collected during home visits includes cognitive performance tests, and rich sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables. The cognitive performance tests include episodic memory, numeracy, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. We find gender disparity in cognitive function in India, and this disparity is greater in the north than the south. We also find that gender disparities in educational attainment, health, and social and economic activity explain the female cognitive disadvantage in later life. We report significant gender disparities in cognitive functioning among older Indian adults, which differ from gender disparities in cognition encountered in developed countries. Our models controlling for education, health status, and social and economic activity explain the disparity in southern India but not the region-specific disparity in the northern India. North Indian women may face additional sources of stress associated with discrimination against women that contribute to persistent disadvantages in cognitive functioning at older ages. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Prolonged monsoon droughts and links to Indo-Pacific warm pool: A Holocene record from Lonar Lake, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Sushma; Anoop, A.; Riedel, N.; Sarkar, S.; Menzel, P.; Basavaiah, N.; Krishnan, R.; Fuller, D.; Plessen, B.; Gaye, B.; Röhl, U.; Wilkes, H.; Sachse, D.; Sawant, R.; Wiesner, M. G.; Stebich, M.

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about the regional impact of global climate change in a warming scenario have highlighted the gaps in our understanding of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM, also referred to as the Indian Ocean summer monsoon) and the absence of long term palaeoclimate data from the central Indian core monsoon zone (CMZ). Here we present the first high resolution, well-dated, multiproxy reconstruction of Holocene palaeoclimate from a 10 m long sediment core raised from the Lonar Lake in central India. We show that while the early Holocene onset of intensified monsoon in the CMZ is similar to that reported from other ISM records, the Lonar data shows two prolonged droughts (PD, multidecadal to centennial periods of weaker monsoon) between 4.6-3.9 and 2-0.6 cal ka. A comparison of our record with available data from other ISM influenced sites shows that the impact of these PD was observed in varying degrees throughout the ISM realm and coincides with intervals of higher solar irradiance. We demonstrate that (i) the regional warming in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) plays an important role in causing ISM PD through changes in meridional overturning circulation and position of the anomalous Walker cell; (ii) the long term influence of conditions like El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the ISM began only ca. 2 cal ka BP and is coincident with the warming of the southern IPWP; (iii) the first settlements in central India coincided with the onset of the first PD and agricultural populations flourished between the two PD, highlighting the significance of natural climate variability and PD as major environmental factors affecting human settlements.

  8. The United States and Rising Regional Powers a Case Study of India, 1991-2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    THE UNITED STATES AND RISING REGIONAL POWERS A CASE STUDY OF INDIA, 1991 -2003 A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S...Study of India, 1991 -2003 Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair Jack D. Kem, Ph.D. , Member Clay Easterling, M.B.A...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE United States and rising regional powers: A case study of India 1991 -2003 5a

  9. [Global Studies]. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Susan Strong

    This unit contains a sampling of lessons from a unit on India designed for ninth-grade students. Sections of the unit include: (1) "Geography of India"; (2) "Comparison of Major Religions"; (3) "The Caste System"; (4) "Empires of India"; (5) "Gandhi and Independence"; (6) "Division of the…

  10. Delusional disorder: Study from North India.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Biswas, Parthasarathy; Avasthi, Ajit

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to study sociodemographic profile, clinical parameters including comorbidity, usefulness of antipsychotics especially atypicals, family history, and follow-up rates for delusional disorder. The records of all subjects who were seen in the Department of Psychiatry during a period of 10 years (i.e. 1994-2003) were reviewed. Eighty-eight subjects fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. The sample consisted predominantly of female subjects (55.7%), most of the total subjects were married and had favorable social functioning. The most common delusion was persecutory (54.5%), followed by delusion of reference (46.6%). The majority of the subjects had a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Education was negatively correlated with age at onset and positively correlated with the number of delusions. Age at onset was negatively correlated with total number of delusions. The sociodemographic profile of delusional disorder is consistent across various cultures, has high comorbidity and, when treated appropriately, responds to various antipsychotic agents.

  11. Haplotype diversity and linkage disequilibrium at DRD2 locus--a study on four population groups of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Mukhopadhyay, Rupak; Shukla, Deepti; Kaur, Harpreet; Sachdeva, Mohinder Pal; Rao, A P; Saksena, Deepti; Kalla, Aloke Kumar

    2009-02-01

    Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) is expressed in the central nervous system and has a high affinity for many antipsychotic drugs. Besides several epidemiological investigations on association of DRD2 locus polymorphism(s) with neuropsychiatric problems and addictive behavior, a few polymorphisms in this locus have also been used to understand genomic diversity and population migratory histories globally. The present study attempts to understand the genomic diversity/affinity among four endogamous groups of Andhra Pradesh (India) against the backdrop of diversity studies from other parts of India and the rest of the world, with special reference to DRD2 locus. The four population groups from Adilabad District of Andhra Pradesh, namely, Brahmin (n=50), Nayakpod (n=49), Thoti (n=52), and Kolam (n=53), were included in the study. The DRD2 markers typed for the present study are three biallelic restriction fragments, that is, TaqI A (rs1800497), TaqI B (rs1079597), and TaqI D (rs1800498). Scoring of DRD2 haplotypes with respect to the three TaqI sites shows that five out of eight possible haplotypes are shared by the four populations. Ancestral haplotype B2D2A1 is most frequent among Thotis (0.359). The results of the present study indicate a differential gene flow into South India followed by certain important demographic events resulting in diversified peopling of India.

  12. PM2.5 pollution from household solid fuel burning practices in central India: 1. Impact on indoor air quality and associated health risks.

    PubMed

    Matawle, Jeevan Lal; Pervez, Shamsh; Shrivastava, Anjali; Tiwari, Suresh; Pant, Pallavi; Deb, Manas Kanti; Bisht, Diwan Singh; Pervez, Yasmeen F

    2016-09-10

    PM2.5 concentrations were measured in residential indoor environment in slums of central India during 2012-2013. In addition, a suite of chemical components including metals (Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Mo, Se, Sb, Na, Mg, K and Hg), ions (Na(+), Mg(2+), K(+), Ca(2+), F(-), Cl(-), NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-)) and carbon (OC and EC) were analyzed for all samples. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were found to be several folds higher than the 24-h national ambient air quality standard (60 µg/m(3)) for PM2.5 in India, and the concentrations were found to vary from season to season. Mass closure was attempted for PM2.5 data, and close to 100 % mass was accounted for by organic matter, crustal material, secondary organic and inorganic aerosols and elemental carbon. Additionally, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks associated with exposure to indoor PM2.5 (inhalation, dermal and ingestion) were estimated and while exposures associated with dermal contact and ingestion were found to be within the acceptable limits, risk associated with inhalation exposure was found to be high for children and adults. Elements including Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, As and Pb were present in high concentrations and contributed to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for residents' health. Results from this study highlight the need for efforts to reduce air pollution exposure in slum areas.

  13. The changing dynamics of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum in central India: trends over a 27-year period (1975--2002).

    PubMed

    Singh, Neeru; Kataria, Om; Singh, Mrigendra Pal

    2004-01-01

    The changing epidemiology of malaria since 1975 was studied in a tribal forested belt of central India, Chhattisgarh state, which is the second most highly malarious state in India. Chhattisgarh, which accounts for 2% of the total population of the country, contributed >16% of the total malaria cases, 23% of Plasmodium falciparum, and 7% of deaths due to malaria in the country. Retrospective analysis further revealed that, in 1975--76, P. vivax was the predominant species (58%); however, since 1979, P. falciparum showed a steady upward trend (50%), and in 2002. P. vivax reduced to 28%. Between 1986 and 2000, P. falciparum cases reported by the National Anti Malaria Programme have increased 500%, and the number of deaths also showed a similar alarming increase. From 2000 to 2002, though the number of malaria infections and number of deaths declined sharply as a result of intensive intervention measures (30% and 95%, respectively), which included new drugs like Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine and Arteether under Enhanced Malaria Control Programme, the proportion of P. falciparum has held steady without any decline. Moreover, along with Anopheles fluviatilis, the traditional vector in the forest, An. culicifacies has also established itself in the forest. The comeback of malaria and establishment of new vectors was largely due to the deterioration of health services along with emergence of resistance in P. falciparum to Chloroquine and in An. culicifacies to DDT. Therefore, a more diversified malaria control program might be needed for sustainable malaria control.

  14. Chikungunya Infection in India: Results of a Prospective Hospital Based Multi-Centric Study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Pratima; Ratagiri, Vinod H.; Kabra, Sushil K.; Lodha, Rakesh; Sharma, Sumit; Sharma, B. S.; Kalaivani, Mani; Wig, Naveet

    2012-01-01

    Background Chikungunya (CHIKV) has recently seen a re-emergence in India with high morbidity. However, the epidemiology and disease burden remain largely undetermined. A prospective multi-centric study was conducted to evaluate clinical, epidemiological and virological features of chikugunya infection in patients with acute febrile illness from various geographical regions of India. Methods and Findings A total of 540 patients with fever of up to 7days duration were enrolled at Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Karnataka (South); Sawai Man Singh Medical College (SMS) Rajasthan (West), and All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) New Delhi (North) from June 2008 to May 2009. Serum specimens were screened for chikungunya infection concurrently through RT-PCR and serology (IgM). Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Bioedit and Mega2 programs. Chikungunya infection was detected in 25.37% patients by RT-PCR and/or IgM-ELISA. Highest cases were detected in south (49.36%) followed by west (16.28%) and north (0.56%) India. A difference in proportion of positives by RT-PCR/ELISA with regard to duration of fever was observed (p<0.05). Rashes, joint pain/swelling, abdominal pain and vomiting was frequently observed among chikungunya confirmed cases (p<0.05). Adults were affected more than children. Anti-CHIK antibodies (IgM) were detected for more than 60days of fever onset. Phylogenetic analysis based on E1 gene from KIMS patients (n = 15) revealed ∼99% homology clustering with Central/East African genotype. An amino acid change from lysine to glutamine at position 132 of E1 gene was frequently observed among strains infecting children. Conclusions The study documented re-emergence of chikungunya in high frequencies and severe morbidity in south and west India but rare in north. The study emphasizes the need for continuous surveillance for disease burden using multiple diagnostic tests and also warrants the need for an appropriate molecular

  15. Antibiotic prescribing in medical intensive care units--a comparison between two private sector hospitals in Central India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Megha; Damlin, Anna L; Sharma, Ashish; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2015-05-01

    Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, common in India, contributes to increased risk for development of bacterial resistance. Patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) are often prescribed antibiotics. Paucity of local data on antibiotic prescribing hinders development of appropriate interventions. The aim of the study was to describe and compare antibiotic prescribing in medical ICUs (MICUs) at two private sector hospitals, one teaching (TH) and one non-teaching (NTH) in Ujjain, India. The study was conducted prospectively for 3 years at MICUs of both hospitals. Patients were compared for demographic variables and diagnosis, prescribed antibiotics, generic name prescribing, and route of administration. Adherence to the World Health Organization list of essential medicines (WHOLEM) and the National List of Essential Medicines of India (NLEMI) was analyzed. In total, 4843 of 6141 patients admitted to the MICUs stayed at least one night. More than 70% were prescribed antibiotics. Generic name prescribing was more common at the TH than at the NTH. Prescriptions at the TH had higher compliance to WHOLEM and NLEMI compared with that at the NTH (p < 0.001). Of the 1371 patients at the TH, 189 (14%) and of 3472 at the NTH, 400 (12%) patients were diagnosed with infections. More than 75% of patients at both hospitals had no infection-associated diagnoses. Antibiotic prescribing was common at both hospitals. The antibiotic prescriptions at the TH had higher compliance to WHOLEM and NLEMI. However, there is a need to develop appropriate interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing at both hospitals.

  16. NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindha, K.; Rajesh, R.; Murugan, R.; Elango, L.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking is a major problem in many countries as it causes health related problems. Most often infants are affected by the intake of high nitrate in drinking water and food. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the nitrate concentration in groundwater and determining the causes for nitrate in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district in India which is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from forty six representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to March 2009. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during the study. Soil samples were collected from fifteen locations during May 2009 and the denitrifying bacteria were isolated from the soil using spread plate method. The nitrate concentration in groundwater samples were analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration of nitrate recorded during the sampling period was 879.65mg/l and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. The maximum permissible limit of nitrate for drinking water as per Bureau of Indian Standards is 45mg/l. About 13% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond this limit. The nitrate concentration was high in the southeastern part of the study area. This implies that the nitrate concentration in groundwater tends to increase along the flow direction. Application of fertilizers is one

  17. Climate variability, vulnerability, and coping mechanism in Alaknanda catchment, Central Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kireet; Joshi, Sneh; Joshi, Varun

    2008-06-01

    A study was carried out to discover trends in the rainfall and temperature pattern of the Alaknanda catchment in the Central Himalaya. Data on the annual rainfall, monsoon rainfall for the last decade, and average annual temperatures over the last few decades were analyzed. Nonparametric methods (Mann-Kendall and Sen's method) were employed to identify trends. The Mann-Kendall test shows a decline in rainfall and rise in temperature, and these trends were found to be statistically significant at the 95% confidence level for both transects. Sen's method also confirms this trend. This aspect has to be considered seriously for the simple reason that if the same trend continues in the future, more chances of drought are expected. The impact of climate change has been well perceived by the people of the catchment, and a coping mechanism has been developed at the local level.

  18. Enhanced tuberculosis case finding through advocacy and sensitisation meetings in prisons of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, G.; Agrawal, T. K.; Kumar, A. M. V.; Chadha, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in prisons is a major problem. The prisons in Chhattisgarh, India, are overcrowded, and there are no formal efforts to engage them in TB control. In 2014, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease and the state TB programme advocated with state prison authorities to implement an enhanced case-finding strategy in the prisons. Sensitisation meetings (one/quarter/prison) to improve awareness among prisoners about TB symptoms and services were coupled with improved access to diagnosis. Patients with presumptive TB who were examined by sputum microscopy increased by 39% per 100 000 prisoners, and TB case notification rates increased by 38%, in 2014 relative to 2013. PMID:28775946

  19. Tectonic evolution of Kishtwar Window with respect to the Main Central Thrust, northwest Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Keser

    2010-08-01

    The crystalline rocks of the Himalaya (High Himalayan Crystallines, Central Crystallines, etc.) are bounded to the north by the South Tibetan Detachment/Zanskar Shear Zone/Trans Himadri Fault System at the top and to the south by the Main Central Thrust (MCT) at the base. To the south and tectonically below the MCT lies the Lesser Himalaya comprising low grade meta-sedimentary thrust sheets and the crystallines klippen. North and tectonically above the Zanskar Shear Zone lies the sedimentary succession of the Tethys Himalaya. However, there is a different geological set-up to the northwest of Beas valley, which defies this normal set-up, i.e., the Tethyan rocks either lie in contact with the Lesser Himalayan thrust sheets or they, to a large extent, surround the High Himalayan Crystallines (HHC). This unique set-up is documented around areas comprising Chamba, Kishtwar and Zanskar regions in the northwest Himalaya. The Lesser Himalayan imbricated sequence, extending progressively into deeper structural level beneath and crops-out as Kishtwar Window within the HHC. This tectonic contact along the window was described as the MCT. However, the present study of the window indicates that its western side is bounded by a high angle NE dipping reverse fault (Kishtwar Thrust). The structural analyses reveal that this fault is younger than the MCT and is interpreted here as Breach Thrust. Present observations suggest that the rocks of the window and the northeasterly lying HHC have been folded and exhumed together as an antiform along the Kishtwar Thrust. The HHC occurring south of the Kishtwar Window have actually been thrust over the Lesser Himalayan thrust sheet. This contact is observed and marked for the first time and is accordingly described as the Main Central Thrust as per convention along the length of the Himalayan belt. Northeast and in the hangingwall of the MCT, the repetition of the contact of the Lesser Himalayan rocks and the HHC is interpreted here as the

  20. Case studies on biological treatment of tannery effluents in India.

    PubMed

    Tare, Vinod; Gupta, Sandeep; Bose, Purnendu

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of the cost and quality of treatment of tannery wastewater in India by two common effluent treatment plants (CETPs) constructed for two tannery clusters, at Jajmau (Kanpur) and at Unnao in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The Jajmau plant is upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process-based, while the Unnao plant is activated sludge process (ASP)-based. Investigations indicated that the ASP-based plant was superior in all respects. Total annualized costs, including capital and operation and maintenance costs, for the UASB and ASP plants were Rs. 4.24 million/million liters per day (MLD) and Rs. 3.36 million/MLD, respectively. Land requirements for the two CETPs were 1.4 hectares/MLD and 0.95 hectares/ MLD, respectively. Moreover, the treated UASB effluent had higher biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD/ COD) and considerable amounts of other undesirable constituents, like chromium (Cr) and sulfide, as compared with the ASP effluent, which had lower BOD/COD and negligible concentration of sulfide and Cr. Sludge production from the UASB-based plant was also higher at 1.4 t/day/MLD, in comparison to the sludge production of 0.8 t/day/MLD for the ASP-based plant. Also, the entire sludge produced in the UASB-based plant was Cr-contaminated and, hence, hazardous, while only a small fraction of the sludge produced in the ASP-based plant was similarly contaminated. The results of this study are at variance with the conventional wisdom of the superiority of anaerobic processes for tannery wastewater treatment in tropical developing countries like India.

  1. Burden of asymptomatic malaria among a tribal population in a forested village of central India: a hidden challenge for malaria control in India.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, M K; Raghavendra, K; Bhatt, R M; Swain, D K; Valecha, N; Kleinschmidt, I

    2017-06-01

    Chhattisgarh in India is a malaria-endemic state with seven southern districts that contributes approximately 50-60% of the reported malaria cases in the state every year. The problem is further complicated due to asymptomatic malaria cases which are largely responsible for persistent transmission. This study was undertaken in one of the forested villages of the Keshkal subdistrict in Kondagaon district to ascertain the proportion of the population harbouring subclinical malarial infections. Community-based cross-sectional study. Mass blood surveys were undertaken of the entire population of the village in the post-monsoon seasons of 2013 and 2014. Fingerprick blood smears were prepared from individuals of all ages to detect malaria infections in their blood. Individuals with fever at the time of the survey were tested with rapid diagnostic tests, and parasitaemia in thick blood smears was confirmed by microscopy. Malaria-positive cases were treated with anti-malarials in accordance with the national drug policy. Peripheral blood smears of 134 and 159 individuals, including children, were screened for malaria infection in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Overall, the malaria slide positivity rates were 27.6% and 27.7% in 2013 and 2014, respectively, and the prevalence rates of asymptomatic malaria were 20% and 22.8%. This study showed that, for two consecutive years, the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection was significantly higher among children aged ≤14 years (34.4% and 34.1% for 2013 and 2014, respectively) compared with adults (15.2% and 18.2% for 2013 and 2014, respectively; P = 0.023 and 0.04, respectively). The number of asymptomatic malaria cases, especially Plasmodium falciparum, is significant, reinforcing the underlying challenge facing the malaria elimination programme in India. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Two Blades of Grass: A Summary of Two Studies on Agricultural Innovation in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Prodipto; And Others

    Under contract with the United States Agency for International Development and Michigan State University, a study was made comparing diffusion of innovations in Brazil, Nigeria, and India. In India, the study was in two phases: a survey of 108 villages in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and West Bengal; and a study of adoption behavior among 680…

  3. Exploratory qualitative study for community management and control of tuberculosis in India.

    PubMed

    Theng, Yin-Leng; Chandra, Shalini; Goh, Lynette Ying Qin; Lwin, May O; Foo, Schubert

    2014-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in India which accounts for nearly one-fifth of the global TB burden. Though India has been gaining success in eliminating TB, the disease still kills 1000 people daily. It is of prime importance to control the TB situation in India. Motivated by the need to explore factors influencing TB, a qualitative study was conducted with 14 doctors and key TB informants in India over a period of one month involving face-to-face interviews. The interviewees came from diverse backgrounds and vocations, thus providing a rich data on varied issues in controlling the spread of TB in India for enhanced patient care. The data was coded and analyzed. The findings suggest the need to address mental and social well-being of the TB patients through three main themes, namely, Alerts, Care and Education, in order to control the TB situation in India.

  4. Dicarboxylic acids, ω-oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, EC, and inorganic ions in wintertime size-segregated aerosols from central India: Sources and formation processes.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay K; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Deb, Manas K

    2016-10-01

    The size distributions of aerosols can provide evidences for their sources and formation processes in the atmosphere. Size-segregated aerosols (9-sizes) were collected in urban site (Raipur: 21.2°N and 82.3°E) in central India during winter of 2012-2013. The samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12), ω-oxocarboxylic acids (ωC2-ωC9), pyruvic acid and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and inorganic ions. Diacids showed a predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by succinic and azelaic acid whereas ω-oxoacids exhibited a predominance of glyoxylic acid and glyoxal was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. Diacids, ω-oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls showed bimodal size distribution with peaks in fine and coarse modes. High correlations of fine mode diacids and related compounds with potassium and levoglucosan suggest that they were presumably due to a substantial contribution of primary emission from biomass burning and secondary production from biomass burning derived precursors. High correlations of C2 with higher carbon number diacids (C3-C9) suggest that they have similar sources and C2 may be produced via the decay of its higher homologous diacids in fine mode. Considerable portions of diacids and related compounds in coarse mode suggest that they were associated with mineral dust particles by their adsorption and photooxidation of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors via heterogeneous reaction on dust surface. This study demonstrates that biomass burning and dust particles are two major factors to control the size distribution of diacids and related compounds in the urban aerosols from central India.

  5. PULMONARY FUNCTION STUDIES IN FEMALE SINGERS OF KOLKATA, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anindita Singha; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2015-12-01

    Singing performance is based on the efficiency of the respiratory system. The present study was aimed to evaluate the results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in female singers of Kolkata, India and to compare the data with their sedentary counterparts from India and abroad. The study was also aimed to propose prediction norms for PFTs in both the groups. Fifty-six female singers and fifty-two female non-singers (control group) with similar socioeconomic backgrounds were randomly sampled from the Rabindrabharati University, Kolkata. Pulmonary function tests were conducted by an Expirograph and the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured by Wright's peak flow meter. PFTs were significantly higher in singers than in their control group. The correlation matrix depicted a significant relationship of physical parameters (age, body height and body weight) with vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratoty volume in 1 second (FEV1) and PEFR in both groups. Regression equations were computed to predict PFTs from physical parameters and duration of invovlement in singing training. The results indicated that female singers of Kolkata had higher lung capacity than their non-singer counterparts probably because of their regular practice and training of singing that required imperative effort of the respiratory system.

  6. An epidemiological study of asymptomatic neurocysticercosis in a pig farming community in northern India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kashi N; Verma, Avantika; Srivastava, Sandeep; Gupta, Rakesh K; Pandey, Chandra M; Paliwal, Vimal K

    2011-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the larvae of Taenia solium. The prevalence of NCC is obscured due to variations in the methods used for epidemiological studies and often asymptomatic manifestation. The present study was conducted on 595 apparently healthy individuals belonging to the pig farming community of northern India to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic NCC and to evaluate risk factors based on questionnaires. Diagnosis of NCC was based on neuroimaging, immunological and epidemiological criteria. Asymptomatic NCC was detected in 90 (15.1%) of 595 individuals. The evaluation of risk factors showed that age >15 years (P=0.001), intake of raw vegetables (P=0.025) and undercooked pork (P=0.005), lack of safe drinking water (P=0.003), inadequate drainage system (P=0.049), no separate place for pigs (P≤0.001), NCC related active epilepsy in the family (P≤0.001) were significantly associated with asymptomatic NCC. The present study shows high prevalence of asymptomatic NCC in pig farming community of northern India. Further, asymptomatic NCC is associated with most variables of poor socio-economic parameters.

  7. Maternal Health Situation in India: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Mavalankar, Dileep V.; Ramani, K.V.; Upadhyaya, Mudita; Sharma, Bharati; Iyengar, Sharad; Gupta, Vikram; Iyengar, Kirti

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Safe Motherhood Initiative, India has accounted for at least a quarter of maternal deaths reported globally. India's goal is to lower maternal mortality to less than 100 per 100,000 livebirths but that is still far away despite its programmatic efforts and rapid economic progress over the past two decades. Geographical vastness and sociocultural diversity mean that maternal mortality varies across the states, and uniform implementation of health-sector reforms is not possible. The case study analyzes the trends in maternal mortality nationally, the maternal healthcare-delivery system at different levels, and the implementation of national maternal health programmes, including recent innovative strategies. It identifies the causes for limited success in improving maternal health and suggests measures to rectify them. It recommends better reporting of maternal deaths and implementation of evidence-based, focused strategies along with effective monitoring for rapid progress. It also stresses the need for regulation of the private sector and encourages further public-private partnerships and policies, along with a strong political will and improved management capacity for improving maternal health. PMID:19489415

  8. Portrait of a Science Teacher as a Bricoleur: A Case Study from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of science teaching in an eighth grade school classroom in India. It comes out of a larger ethnographic study done in 2005 that looked at how science was taught and learned in a rural government run middle school in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. Subscribing to a sociocultural perspective, the paper presents…

  9. The Reverberations of a Graduate Study Abroad Course in India: Transformational Journeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson Sathe, Laurie; Geisler, Carol C.

    2017-01-01

    Faculty in a transdisciplinary graduate program in holistic health studies, which is grounded in transformational learning led a study abroad course in India. The focus of the course is on perspectives of health and healing in India, including an understanding of Yoga, meditation, Ayurvedic medicine, and Tibetan medicine. The purpose of this…

  10. Portrait of a Science Teacher as a Bricoleur: A Case Study from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of science teaching in an eighth grade school classroom in India. It comes out of a larger ethnographic study done in 2005 that looked at how science was taught and learned in a rural government run middle school in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. Subscribing to a sociocultural perspective, the paper presents…

  11. The Reverberations of a Graduate Study Abroad Course in India: Transformational Journeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson Sathe, Laurie; Geisler, Carol C.

    2017-01-01

    Faculty in a transdisciplinary graduate program in holistic health studies, which is grounded in transformational learning led a study abroad course in India. The focus of the course is on perspectives of health and healing in India, including an understanding of Yoga, meditation, Ayurvedic medicine, and Tibetan medicine. The purpose of this…

  12. Ethnomedicinal plants to cure skin diseases-an account of the traditional knowledge in the coastal parts of Central Western Ghats, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pradeep; Hegde, Ganesh R; Hegde, Gurumurthi; Mulgund, Gangadhar S

    2014-01-01

    Documentation of ethnomedicinal knowledge pertaining to the treatment of different types of skin diseases from the Central Western Ghats of India, a rich habitat of different ethnic communities. Frequent field surveys were carried out to invent the 'key informants' in the treatment of skin diseases in the study area. The information was collected through semi-structured open ended interviews with questionnaire in their local Kannada language. All medicinal plants recorded for the treatment of skin diseases were photographed in the field; voucher specimens were made subsequently and are deposited in the Herbarium, P.G. Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad. The information such as botanical name, status, family, vernacular name, habit and habitat, analysis like percentage of parts used, percentage of drug preparations, use value (UV), informants consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL) and correlation between UV and use mention (Np) of the plants are provided. In all, 48 informants were interviewed. Amongst which 38 were the 'key informants' who gave the information exclusively about the treatment of skin diseases. Among 102 plant species collected, seven species are endemic to India and eleven species have their nativity outside India. Twelve species could be considered as new claims for skin diseases as their use has not been mentioned in Ayurveda or any other research articles surveyed. Of all the drug formulations, paste is the most preferred method (50%) followed by oil extraction (18.89%), juice (14.44%), ash (4.44%) etc. The highest UV is for Pongamia pinnata, Naregamia alata, Randia dumetorum and Girardinia diversifolia (1.50 each). The treatment for different types of skin diseases by the herbal healers are classified into 13 categories, out of which ringworm scored the highest ICF value. Similarly, the 100% FL value scored was in the order of 10 plants for boils, 4 plants for different types of sore, 2 plants for ringworm, intertrigo

  13. Congenital malformations at birth in Central India: A rural medical college hospital based data.

    PubMed

    Taksande, Amar; Vilhekar, Krishna; Chaturvedi, Pushpa; Jain, Manish

    2010-09-01

    To study the incidence of congenital anomalies and the associated risk factors in Department of Pediatrics at Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha, a rural medical college hospital in central Maharashtra. All the intramural deliveries between 1 January 2005 and 31 July 2007 comprised 9386 births and their 9324 mothers (62 mothers gave birth to twin babies). The newborns were examined and assessed systematically for the presence of congenital anomalies, system wise distribution of anomalies and risk factors attributable. Out of the total 9386 deliveries, 9194 were live births and 192 were stillbirths. The total number of babies with congenital malformations was 179 (1.91%). Out of the 9262 singleton births, 177 (1.05%) were malformed, whereas 2 of the 62 pairs of twins had birth defects. Nine of the 179 malformed babies (5.02%) were still born. Prematurity, increased maternal age, increasing birth order and low birth weight were found to have a higher risk of congenital anomalies. Cardiovascular malformations were most common in live births, followed by musculoskeletal and genitourinary anomalies. Congenital anomalies are a major cause of stillbirths and infant mortality. Evaluation of cardiovascular system to rule out congenital heart disease in high-risk mothers' babies is the important factor to be considered.

  14. Congenital malformations at birth in Central India: A rural medical college hospital based data

    PubMed Central

    Taksande, Amar; Vilhekar, Krishna; Chaturvedi, Pushpa; Jain, Manish

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence of congenital anomalies and the associated risk factors in Department of Pediatrics at Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha, a rural medical college hospital in central Maharashtra. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the intramural deliveries between 1 January 2005 and 31 July 2007 comprised 9386 births and their 9324 mothers (62 mothers gave birth to twin babies). The newborns were examined and assessed systematically for the presence of congenital anomalies, system wise distribution of anomalies and risk factors attributable. RESULTS: Out of the total 9386 deliveries, 9194 were live births and 192 were stillbirths. The total number of babies with congenital malformations was 179 (1.91%). Out of the 9262 singleton births, 177 (1.05%) were malformed, whereas 2 of the 62 pairs of twins had birth defects. Nine of the 179 malformed babies (5.02%) were still born. Prematurity, increased maternal age, increasing birth order and low birth weight were found to have a higher risk of congenital anomalies. Cardiovascular malformations were most common in live births, followed by musculoskeletal and genitourinary anomalies. CONCLUSION: Congenital anomalies are a major cause of stillbirths and infant mortality. Evaluation of cardiovascular system to rule out congenital heart disease in high-risk mothers’ babies is the important factor to be considered. PMID:21206705

  15. Microglial Contribution to Glioma Progression: an Immunohistochemical Study in Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Samarendranath; Chatterjee, Uttara; Chaudhuri, Swapna; Anirban, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Human glioma, arising from glial cells of the central nervous system, accounts for almost 30%of all brain tumours , neoplasms with a poor prognosis and high mortality rates worldwide. In the present study we assessed tissue architectural modifications associated with macrophage lineage cells, controversial major immune effector cells within the brain, in human glioma tissue samples from eastern India. Ethically cleared post-operative human glioma samples from our collaborative neurosurgery unit with respective CT/MRI and patient history were collected from the Nodal Centre of Neurosciences in Kolkata, over 9 months. Along with conventional histopathology, samples were subjected to silver-gold staining and fluorescence tagged immunophenotyping for the detection of electron dense brain macrophage/microglia cells in glioma tissue, followed by immune-phenotyping of cells. With higher grades, CD11b+/Iba-1+ macrophage/microglia architecture with de-structured boundaries of glioma lesions indicated malfunction and invasive effector state. Present study documented a contribution of microglia to glioma progression in Eastern India.

  16. Syn- and post-tectonic granite plutonism in the Sausar Fold Belt, central India: Age constraints and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Das, Kaushik; Hayasaka, Yasutaka; Sarkar, Arindam

    2015-08-01

    Sausar Fold Belt (SFB) in central India forms the southern part of the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ) - a crustal scale Proterozoic mobile belt dissecting the Indian craton, whose tectonothermal history and age is important for understanding the Proterozoic crustal history of the Indian craton. SFB comprises a gneissic basement (TBG: Tirodi Biotite Gneiss) overlain by a supracrustal sequence of quartzite-pelite-carbonate (SSG: Sausar Group). SSG and TBG are deformed and metamorphosed in greenschist to amphibolite facies. Two phases of granite intrusion are observed in the SSG - a syntectonic foliated granite and a post-tectonic massive granite, with clear structural relationship with the host rocks. Monazite chemical dating (U-Th-total Pb) of the foliated and massive granites yield Neoproterozoic (ca. 945-928 Ma) ages that contradict many earlier geochronological interpretations. Foliated granites and the immediately adjacent TBG show monazite grains with ca. 945 Ma mean age, interpreted as the timing of D2 deformation and amphibolite facies metamorphism of SSG. The post tectonic granites intruded these rocks around 928 Ma, and were largely undeformed. A terminal thermal overprint is found in some monazite grain rims at ca. 785 Ma age. The younger Sausar tectonothermal events have overprinted the adjacent high-grade granulites of Ramakona-Katangi Granulite (RKG) belt, and should not be considered as parts of the same tectonothermal event representing different depth sections only.

  17. Integrated flood disaster management and spatial information: Case studies of Netherlands and India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatanova, S.; Ghawana, T.; Kaur, A.; Neuvel, J. M. M.

    2014-11-01

    Spatial Information is an integral part of flood management practices which include risk management & emergency response processes. Although risk & emergency management activities have their own characteristics, for example, related to the time scales, time pressure, activities & actors involved, it is still possible to identify at least one common challenge that constrains the ability of risk & emergency management to plan for & manage emergencies effectively and efficiently i.e. the need for better information. Considering this aspect, this paper explores flood management in Netherlands& India with an emphasis on spatial information requirements of each system. The paper examines the activities, actors & information needs related to flood management. Changing perspectives on flood management in Netherlands are studied where additional attention is being paid to the organization and preparation of flood emergency management. Role of different key actors involved in risk management is explored. Indian Flood management guidelines, by National Disaster Management Authority, are analyzed in context of their history, institutional framework, achievements and gaps. Flood Forecasting System of Central Water Commission of India is also analyzed in context of spatial dimensions. Further, information overlap between risk & emergency management from the perspectives of spatial planners & emergency responders and role of GIS based modelling / simulation is analyzed. Finally, the need for an integrated spatial information structure is explained & discussed in detail. This examination of flood management practices in the Netherlands and India with an emphasis on the required spatial information in these practices has revealed an increased recognition of the strong interdependence between risk management and emergency response processes. Consequently, the importance of an integrated spatial information infrastructure that facilitates the process of both risk and emergency

  18. Retrospective study of chikungunya outbreak in urban areas of India

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, B.N.; Saxena, Rekha; Srivastava, Aruna; Singh, Neeru; Ghosh, S.K.; Sharma, S.K.; Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Hemant; Sharma, Alok Suman; Chand, S.K.; Ojha, V.P.; Mohanty, S.S.; Mohanty, A.K.; Dasgupta, R.K.; Dhillon, G.P.S.; Dash, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: A retrospective study on chikungunya outbreak in India in five States viz. Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra and Kerala was conducted in 2007-2008 to know the distribution and determinants of chikungunya fever outbreak in India. Methods: On the basis of high and low incidence of chikungunya fever, two districts from each State and two wards from the selected district were taken for random selection of 1000 households from 10 districts and 5 States. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to individuals, patients, qualified health professionals and to stakeholders for collecting information. Results: The educational background and occupation of the respondents showed variations across the study States. Only in high incidence ward of Maharashtra, water storage period for 3-6 days and emptying, drying of water containers on weekly basis was noted. The study through knowledge, attitude, belief, practice (KABP) obtained individual's perception of chikungunya fever, its prevention and control. Patients’ expenditure on treatment was mainly recorded less than Rs 500 across study States. Health facility survey obtained an overview of the capacity of local health facilities. Stakeholders’ perception regarding chikungunya fever was also noted. Interpretation & Conclusions: The study revealed differences in awareness of chikungunya, cause of the disease, vector responsible, mode of transmission, biting time and elimination of breeding of mosquitoes statistically significant among high and low incidence wards of all the States. Expenditure on treatment was independent of economically active status and loss of man-days across all the States. Education and occupation did not have any relation with emptying/drying of water containers in high incidence wards. Strengthening of surveillance, information, education and communication (IEC) activities along with case management facilities may be provided by the State health department for

  19. Occurrence of dual infection of peste-des-petits-ruminants and goatpox in indigenous goats of central India.

    PubMed

    Malik, Y S; Singh, D; Chandrashekar, K M; Shukla, S; Sharma, K; Vaid, N; Chakravarti, S

    2011-06-01

    Peste-des-petits-ruminants (PPR), bluetongue (BT) and goatpox (GP) have been well recognized as causes of significant economic losses in the small ruminant population of Asia and Africa. We describe here the occurrence of these three in an outbreak noticed in non-descript goats from a subtropical region of central India. An investigation was carried out to confirm the aetiology of the heavy mortality in goats (74.6%, 112/150), with testing of samples from 12 surviving animals exhibiting mixed clinical signs indicative of PPR, BT and GP. Sandwich ELISA was used to detect PPR virus antigen and competition ELISA to detect PPR virus and BT virus antibodies. GP was confirmed on the basis of nodular lesions and an immunodiffusion assay. Eight of the 12 affected animals (66.7%) were positive for PPR virus and BT virus antibodies, and two goats (16.7%, 2/12) exhibiting clinical lesions of pox were also found positive for PPR virus/antibodies and BT virus antibodies, respectively. Although BT virus could not be identified in any sample, detection of BT virus antibodies indicated previous or possibly concurrent infection with BT virus in these goats. The N-gene-based RT-PCR was used to confirm the PPR infection in these goats, and one of the amplicons was sequenced. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed close proximity to PPR virus isolates from Tibet and China, with sequence homology of up to 96.9%. The sequence homology was relatively low with the majority of other Indian isolates (72.7-93.5%). The detection of this new PPR virus sequence indicates the circulation of cross-border strains in this region of India. It is presumed that the heavy mortality observed in goats is possibly attributable to the occurrence of mixed infection of PPR and GP, or PPR, BT and GP.

  20. Impact of water management interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed of Bundelkhand region, Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ramesh; Garg, Kaushal K.; Wani, Suhas P.; Tewari, R. K.; Dhyani, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    Bundelkhand region of Central India is a hot spot of water scarcity, land degradation, poverty and poor socio-economic status. Impacts of integrated watershed development (IWD) interventions on water balance and different ecosystem services are analyzed in one of the selected watershed of 850 ha in Bundelkhand region. Improved soil, water and crop management interventions in Garhkundar-Dabar (GKD) watershed of Bundelkhand region in India enhanced ET to 64% as compared to 58% in untreated (control) watershed receiving 815 mm annual average rainfall. Reduced storm flow (21% vs. 34%) along with increased base flow (4.5% vs. 1.2%) and groundwater recharge (11% vs. 7%) of total rainfall received were recorded in treated watershed as compared to untreated control watershed. Economic Water productivity and total income increased from 2.5 to 5.0 INR m-3 and 11,500 to 27,500 INR ha-1 yr-1 after implementing integrated watershed development interventions in GKD watershed, respectively. Moreover IWD interventions helped in reducing soil loss more than 50% compared to control watershed. The results demonstrated that integrated watershed management practices addressed issues of poverty in GKD watershed. Benefit to cost ratio of project interventions was found three and pay back period within four years suggest economic feasibility to scale-up IWD interventions in Bundelkhend region. Scaling-up of integrated watershed management in drought prone rainfed areas with enabling policy and institutional support is expected to promote equity and livelihood along with strengthening various ecosystem services, however, region-specific analysis is needed to assess trade-offs for downstream areas along with onsite impact.

  1. Diamond-facies chrome spinel from the Tokapal kimberlite, Indrāvati basin, central India and its petrological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalapathi Rao, N. V.; Lehmann, B.; Mainkar, D.; Panwar, B. K.

    2012-07-01

    Widespread and abundant spinel is the only primary mineral of petrogenetic significance preserved in the hydrothermally altered, crater-facies, Neoproterozoic (≥620 Ma) Tokapal kimberlite pipe that intruded the Indrāvati basin, Bastar craton, Central India. Two distinct spinel populations occur: (i) finer-grained (<50 μm) microcrysts which are zoned from titaniferous magnesiochromite-chromite to magnetite; and (ii) larger macrocrysts (>400 μm) with cores having distinctly chromium-rich (Cr2O3 up to 63.67 wt%), and TiO2-poor (<0.68 wt%) compositions. Based on their morphology and chemical composition the macrocrysts are inferred to be disaggregated mantle xenocrysts and their compositional range extends well into the diamond stability field. However, the reported absence of diamond and other indicator minerals (such as pyrope garnet, chrome diopside and magnesian ilmenite) in the Tokapal pipe is intriguing since diamondiferous cratonic roots are indeed preserved in the Bastar craton, and also the kimberlite itself was derived from a similar source region(s) as that of the well-known diamondiferous Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1,100 Ma) kimberlites from Wajrakarur, Dharwar craton, southern India. Given the large areal extent (>550 ha) of kimberlite, there is a possibility that it contains diamonds but they were not recovered during the sampling. Alternately, highly oxidising conditions imparted by the metasomatic fluids/melts derived from (i) asthenosphere-lithosphere interaction, or (ii) the kimberlite itself might have played an important role in the destruction of diamond, and other indicator minerals.

  2. Identity Dystopias, Empire Framing and Theoretical Hegemonies: Two Case Studies, India and Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Tim; O'Donoghue, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the connections between official contemporary identity formation and colonial pasts. Using the case studies of India and Ireland the article explores how different traditions of theorisation are powerful in these formations. India and Ireland were two colonial domains that had many linkages outside the ambit of the British.…

  3. Identity Dystopias, Empire Framing and Theoretical Hegemonies: Two Case Studies, India and Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Tim; O'Donoghue, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the connections between official contemporary identity formation and colonial pasts. Using the case studies of India and Ireland the article explores how different traditions of theorisation are powerful in these formations. India and Ireland were two colonial domains that had many linkages outside the ambit of the British.…

  4. Social Studies Course III. India: A Cultural Area. Teacher's Manual and Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.

    This secondary level instructional unit on India is the second of three cultural areas comprising Course III, "Cultural Areas of Today's World," and follows the first sequential social studies unit on Africa described in SO 003 516. A major objective is for the student to comprehend the characteristics and value structure of India and,…

  5. A qualitative study on how adolescent males in South India view reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Veena Ganesh; Kamath, Asha; Roy, Kallol; Rao, Chythra Raghavendra; Hegde, Asha; Ashok, Lena

    2016-05-03

    In India it is taboo to discuss sexual and reproductive health (RH) issues, especially with adolescent boys. Minimal research has been done in India to address the adolescent mindset of boys. Our aim was to study the unaddressed issues among boys and to highlight their perspectives regarding RH.

  6. Perceptions about Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Study from Vellore, South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwardraj, S.; Mumtaj, K.; Prasad, J. H.; Kuruvilla, A.; Jacob, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cultural and religious beliefs influence perceptions about health and illness. Data, from India, on perceptions about intellectual disability are scant. This study explored people's cultural beliefs and attitudes about intellectual disability, perceived needs and burden associated with care in Vellore, south India. Method: A…

  7. Perceptions about Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Study from Vellore, South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwardraj, S.; Mumtaj, K.; Prasad, J. H.; Kuruvilla, A.; Jacob, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cultural and religious beliefs influence perceptions about health and illness. Data, from India, on perceptions about intellectual disability are scant. This study explored people's cultural beliefs and attitudes about intellectual disability, perceived needs and burden associated with care in Vellore, south India. Method: A…

  8. Pattern of Holocene glaciation in the monsoon-dominated Kosa Valley, central Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, Pinkey; Nawaz Ali, S.; Rana, Naresh; Singh, Sunil; Poonam; Sundriyal, Y. P.; Bagri, D. S.; Juyal, Navin

    2017-05-01

    Reconstruction based on the geomorphology, lateral moraine stratigraphy, and limited optical chronology indicate that the monsoon-dominated Kosa Valley experienced four glacial advances during the late glacial to late Holocene. The oldest and most extensive glaciation, which is termed as Raj Bank Stage-1 (RBS-1), is represented by the degraded moraine ridge. This glaciation remains undated; however, the chronology of outwash terrace gravel dated to 12.7 ± 1.3 ka indicates that the RBS-1 probably represents the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The second glacial advance (RBS-2) is preserved as a curvilinear lateral moraine and is dated to 6.1 ± 0.4 ka. The third glacial advance viz. RBS-3 is bracketed between 5.0 ± 0.5 and 4.0 ± 0.4 ka. Following this, the glacier receded in pulses that are represented by two distinct recessional moraines (RBS-3a and b). The forth glacial stage (RBS-4), which is dated between 2.2 ± 0.2 and 1.6 ± 0.2 ka, shows a pulsating recession and is represented by a prominent recessional moraine (RBS-4a). Whereas, presence of unconsolidated, poorly defined moraine mounds proximal to the glacier snout are ascribed as neoglacial advance corresponding to the Little Ice Age (LIA). With the limited chronometric data, we speculated that the glaciation was driven during the weak to moderate Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) aided by lowered temperature. Presence of recessional moraines associated with mid-Holocene glacial phase indicate that the monsoon-dominated glaciers respond sensitively to minor (sub-millennial scale) changes in temperature and precipitation conditions. The observations are broadly in accordance with the studies carried out in other monsoon-dominated valleys in the central Himalaya, implying that in ISM dominated regions, lowered temperature seems to be the major driver of glaciations during the late glacial to late Holocene.

  9. Hereditary thrombophilia in cerebral venous thrombosis: a study from India.

    PubMed

    Pai, Navin; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati

    2013-07-01

    A systematic study of thrombophilia markers in a large series of patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) from India is scarce. The present study was undertaken to know the prevalence of common hereditary thrombophilia in a large series of CVT patients from India. Six hundred and twelve (354 men, 219 women and 39 children) consecutive patients with CVT admitted to various hospitals in Mumbai between 2001 and 2010 were investigated for the common thrombophilia markers, that is, protein C (PC), protein S, antithrombin (AT), and factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation. The main presenting clinical manifestations included papilledema (62%), headache (62%), hemiparesis (48%), seizures (31%), and cranial nerve palsy (7%). All the patients were managed with heparin followed by warfarin during the succeeding 6 months. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis was the commonest site (74%) followed by cortical venous thrombosis (15%). Associated clinical pathologies were dehydration, sepsis, pregnancy and puerperium, malaria, and tuberculosis; but in the majority of patients, there was no obvious cause. Eighteen percent of the patients had any of the thrombophilia markers studied; PC deficiency was the commonest thrombophilia marker followed by deficiency of protein S, FVL mutation and AT deficiency. The men below 45 years with PC deficiency (P=0.03) and women with protein S deficiency were significantly higher (P=0.04). In conclusion, CVT is not an uncommon cause of neurological deficit as was presented in earlier reports. Pregnancy and puerperium-related CVT was much less common. Thrombophilia markers accounted for approximately one-fifth of the patients. Death due to CVT has shown remarkable reduction (13%) because of early diagnosis and appropriate anticoagulation.

  10. Elder mistreatment in urban India: a community based study.

    PubMed

    Chokkanathan, Srinivasan; Lee, Alex E Y

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the extent and correlates of elder mistreatment among 400 community dwelling older adults aged 65 and above in Chennai, India. The prevalence rate of mistreatment was 14%. Chronic verbal abuse was the most common followed by financial abuse and the rate of physical abuse and neglect was similar. Among the mistreated, exactly half of them had experienced more than one type of mistreatment (multifaceted-mistreatment). With the exception of financial abuse, a significantly greater number of women experienced verbal and physical abuse as well as neglect compared to men. Adult children, daughters-in-law, spouses, and sons-in-law were the prominent perpetrators. The mistreated older adults were more depressed and less satisfied with life than those who were not mistreated. Logistic regression analysis revealed gender, social support, and subjective rating of physical health as significant factors associated with abuse.

  11. LIFENET hospitals (India): developing new services' case study.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Zillur; Qureshi, M N

    2008-01-01

    Indian healthcare is in the process of offering a plethora of services to customers hailing largely from India and from neighboring countries. The Indian hospital sector consists of private "nursing homes" and government and charitable missionary hospitals. Government and missionary hospitals determine their charges according to patients' income levels and treat poor patients freely. Nursing homes charged higher, market-determined rates. They offer services in just a few medical specialties, owned and operated by physicians who worked with them. Nursing homes cannot afford the latest medical technology, but they provide more intimate settings than government hospitals. This case study aims to demonstrate the various strategic options available to a for-profit hospital, in an emerging economy with a burgeoning middle-class population and how it can choose which services that it can best offer to its target population. Diagnosing and treating complex ailments in nursing homes could be a time-consuming and expensive proposition as visits to several nursing homes with different specialties may be necessary. This paper demonstrates how an hospital can develop new customer-oriented services and eliminate the hassle for patients needing to run around different healthcare outlets even for minor ailments. The paper finds that large government hospitals generally have better facilities than nursing homes, but they were widely believed to provide poor-quality care. They failed to keep up with advanced equipment, train their technicians adequately and did not publicize their capabilities to doctors who might refer patients. Many missionary and charitable hospitals were undercapitalized and did not offer all services. These conditions left an unsatisfied demand for high-quality medical care. In 1983, LIFENET opened in Madras, becoming the first comprehensive, for-profit hospital in India. LIFENET, invested in a cardiology laboratory and clinics with capacity to diagnose heart

  12. World Studies. Japan, India, China: Which Direction? Social Studies: 6478.20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Grace C.; Schmidt, Fran

    This Quinmester world studies elective course for grades 7, 8, and 9, focuses on the comparative study of three far eastern nations: China, India, and Japan. The study examines the successes and failures of each nation in dealing with the common problems of over-population, industrialization, and literacy education, leading to speculation as to…

  13. Influence of topography on glacier changes in the central Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Purushottam Kumar; Shukla, Aparna; Jasrotia, Avtar Singh

    2017-08-01

    Assessing the impact of topography on glacier changes is vital because, while climate is the driving force behind these changes, the topography may control their heterogeneity. Present study provides a detailed insight into varied responses of 18 glaciers (1994-2015), spread over the central Himalaya (CH), and systematically explores the influence of topographic factors on changing glacier parameters using satellite remote sensing data (Landsat TM/ETM +/OLI, Cartosat-1 PAN, Resoursesat-2 LISS-4, SRTM digital elevation model) and limited field observations. Results show that the total glaciated area decreased from 313.34 ± 13.25 km2 in 1994 to 306.36 ± 13.40 km2 in 2015 whereas retreat rates varied from 4.75 ± 2.25 to 28.25 ± 2.25 m a- 1 during this period. The total debris-covered area also increased from 86.56 ± 1.29 to 97.99 ± 1.75 km2 and the average snowline altitude upshifted by 67 m during 1994-2015. Various topographic factors analyzed here include: glacier area, length, compactness ratio, altitude, slope, aspect, hypsometry, area accumulation ratio and snout characteristics. Multivariate statistical analysis demonstrates that compactness ratio, glacier size, altitude range and mean slope strongly influence the area loss. Whereas glacier length, mean slope, compactness and altitude range influence the retreat rates. Cumulative influence of these factors was assessed using a novel approach which uses ordinal scale relative weighting-rating technique to compute a Topographic Influence Index (TII). Breaks in the frequency of TII values were used for categorizing the glaciers into three groups that experienced different degrees of topographic influence on area loss and retreat namely, modest, moderate and strong. It is observed that, out of 18 glaciers, 5 had modest, 8 had moderate and 5 glaciers had strong influence of topography on area loss. Whereas, 6, 8 and 4 glaciers experienced modest, moderate and strong influence of topography on retreat

  14. Stratigraphic and provenancial evidence for recognition of an underfilled foreland basin in central Himalaya: implication for timing of India-Asia initial collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X.; Wang, J.; Jansa, L.; Wu, F.; Yu, J.

    2009-12-01

    upper slope environment deposition to a terrigenous/ siliciclastic-dominated coastline deposition near the top. This shallowing-upward sequence was interpreted to be deposited close to the crest of the forebulge when it passed through the area of Tingri. 4) The change in sedimentation between the Zhepure Shanpo and Zhepure Shanbei formations could represent the transition from Indian passive margin to onset of Himalayan foreland basin deposition. Our data indicated that onset of Himalayan foreland basin and India-Asia initial collision in central Himalaya could be happed as early as at latest Campanian (~72 Ma). This study was financially supported by the Chinese NSFC Project (40772070) and MOST 973 Project (2006CB701402).

  15. Microsatellite diversity reveals the interplay of language and geography in shaping genetic differentiation of diverse Proto-Australoid populations of west-central India.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Sonali; Vasulu, T S; Kashyap, V K

    2006-02-01

    Microsatellite diversity was analyzed in four Proto-Australoid tribes, including Indo-European (Marathi)-speaking Katkari, Pawara, Mahadeo-Koli, and Dravidian (Gondi)-speaking groups of Maharashtra, west-central India, to understand their genetic structure and to identify the congruence between language and gene pool. Allele frequency data at 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci in studied tribes was compared with data of 22 Indo-European- and Dravidian-speaking caste and tribal populations using heterozygosity, allele size variance, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), G(ST) estimate, PC plot, and Mantel correlation test. Our results demonstrate that "Gondi" tribes comprising the Madia-Gond, a hunter-gatherer population, and the agriculturist Dheria-Gond harbor lower diversity than "Marathi" tribal groups, which are culturally and genetically distinct. Katkari, a hunter-gatherer tribe, showed greater diversity and the presence of a large number of unique alleles, genetically distinct from all others except the Pawara, supporting their old cultural links. The agriculturist Pawara tribe represents a splinter subgroup of the Bhil tribe and has experienced gene flow. The Mahadeo-Koli, an agriculturally oriented tribe, displayed significant heterozygote deficiency, attributable to the practice of high endogamy. The Proto-Australoid tribal populations were genetically differentiated from castes of similar morphology, suggesting different evolutionary mechanisms operating upon the populations. The populations showed genetic and linguistic similarity, barring a few groups with varied migratory histories. The microsatellite variation clearly demonstrates the interplay of sociocultural factors including linguistic, geographical contiguity, and microevolutionary processes in shaping the genetic diversity of populations in contemporary India. This study supports the ethno-historical relationships of Indian populations.

  16. Surface ozone scenario and air quality in the north-central part of India.

    PubMed

    Saini, Renuka; Taneja, Ajay; Singh, Pradyumn

    2017-09-01

    Tropospheric pollutants including surface ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and meteorological parameters were measured at a traffic junction (78°2' E and 27°11' N) in Agra, India from January 2012 to December 2012. Temporal analysis of pollutants suggests that annual average mixing ratios of tropospheric pollutants were: O3 - 22.97±23.36ppbV, NO2 - 19.84±16.71ppbV and CO - 0.91±0.86ppmV, with seasonal variations of O3 having maximum mixing ratio during summer season (32.41±19.31ppbV), whereas lowest was found in post-monsoon season (8.74±3.8ppbV). O3 precursors: NO2 and CO, showed inverse relationship with O3. Seasonal variation and high O3 episodes during summer are associated with meteorological parameters such as high solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and transboundary transport. The interdependence of these variables showed a link between the daytime mixing ratios of O3 with the nighttime level of NO2. The mixing ratios of CO and NO2 showed tight correlations, which confirms the influence of vehicular emissions combined with other anthropogenic activities due to office/working hours, shallowing, and widening of boundary layer. FLEXTRA backward trajectories for the O3 episode days clearly indicate the transport from the NW and W to S/SE and SW direction at Agra in different seasons. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Pseudotachylitic breccia from the Dhala impact structure, north-central India: Texture, mineralogy and geochemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, J. K.; Reimold, W. U.; Greshake, A.; Schmitt, R. T.; Koeberl, C.; Pati, P.; Prakash, K.

    2015-05-01

    Pseudotachylitic breccia (PTB) occurs in a drill core from the crater floor of the 11 km diameter, Proterozoic Dhala impact structure, India. PTBs were intersected in late Archean granitoids between 348.15 m and 502.55 m depth in the MCB-10 drill core from the center of the Dhala structure. The breccias comprise both cataclastic-matrix as well as melt breccias. The presence of microlites and vesicles in the groundmass and a widely observed flow fabric in the PTB support the presence of melt in the groundmass of some samples. Clasts in PTB are derived from the Archean granitoid basement. PTB matrix, the matrix of impact melt breccia also occurring between 256.50 m and 502.55 m depth, and the target granitoids vary in terms of silica, total alkali, magnesium and iron oxide contents. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of PTB and target granitoids are similar, but the elemental abundances in the PTB are lower. The restricted size of PTB as veins and pods of up to 2.5 cm width, their occurrence at varied depths over a core length of 150 m, the clast population, and the chemical relationships between PTB and their host rocks all suggest the derivation of these breccias locally from the fractured basement granitoids involving in-situ melting. We favor that this took place due to rapid decompression during the collapse and modification stage of impact cratering, with, locally, additional energy input from frictional heating. Locally, amphibolite and dioritic mylonite occur in the host granitoids and their admixture could have contributed to the comparatively more mafic composition of PTB. Alteration of these crater floor rocks could have involved preferential reduction of silica and alkali element abundances, possibly due to impact-induced hydrothermal activity at crater floor level. This process, too, could have resulted in more mafic compositions.

  18. Study of water quality of Hudiara drain, India-Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afzal, S; Ahmad, I; Younas, M; Zahid, M D; Khan, M H; Ijaz, A; Ali, K

    2000-08-01

    This paper examines the extent of pollution in Hudiara drain water due to untreated industrial and sewage waste of India and Pakistan. Ninety-nine surface water samples from the Pakistani side of the Hudiara drain were collected during September 1997, and April and June 1998. The analytical results of the Hudiara drain samples point out the industrial and sewage inputs from India and Pakistan. Higher values of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand(COD), total organic carbon(TOC), and trace metals in drain samples from the Indo-Pak border clearly indicate the Indian industrial and sewage pollution. Large variations in the levels of various measured parameters (COD, BOD, TOC, pH, total soluble substances, and trace metals) were observed along the Hudiara drain in the Pakistani vicinity. These variations were due to different types of industrial effluents and small village drains. The study showed that suspended solids(SS), COD, and fecal coliform (FC) were the major pollutants. Accordingly, the most feasible alternative is to convert the drainage network to a sedimentation and temporary storage reservoir. If disinfected, the runoff water can be used for restricted irrigation. Groundwater samples taken from the drain's surrounding area have also been analyzed. Thirty percent of the samples are not fit for drinking purposes due to NO3-N, Se and FC counts as prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. A trilinear diagram clearly indicates the influence of surface water of the Hudiara drain on ground water; moreover, higher values of nitrate and FC clearly indicate the seepage from the Hudiara drain.

  19. Final Report: Electric Power for India: A US-India Bilateral Study, January 1, 1998 - September 30, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Arunachalam, V. S.; Morgan, Granger

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this project is to study and evaluate various technology and policy options for improving the availability of electric power in India. This project was carried out in collaboration with a number of Indian experts who participated in a joint Indo-US meeting at the University of Warwick, UK, in September 1999. This group made recommendations on capital and finance, technology, and policy initiatives for Indian and US planners to consider. These recommendations are summarized in the report.

  20. Unpacking the psychiatric advance directive in low-resource settings: an exploratory qualitative study in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychiatric advance directives, a tool to document preferences for care in advance of decisional incapacity, have been shown to benefit persons with mental illness in a number of countries through improving medication adherence, reducing symptoms from escalating in a crisis, accelerating recovery, and enhancing service user autonomy. While concepts such as autonomy are important in a number of high-income country settings, it remains unclear whether tools like psychiatric advance directives are suitable in a different context. The recent introduction of the psychiatric advance directive into draft legislation in India prompts the question as to how feasible psychiatric advance directives are in the Indian context. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and utility of PADs in India, with a focus on the need for individual control over decision making and barriers to implementation, by exploring views of its central stakeholders, service users and carers. Methods Qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 51) with clients (n = 39) and carers (n = 12) seeking mental health treatment at outpatient clinics in urban and rural settings provided by a non-profit organisation in Tamil Nadu, India. Results Clients engaged in a number of forms of decision-making (passive, active, and collaborative) depending on the situation and decision at hand, and had high levels of self-efficacy. Most clients and carers were unfamiliar with PADs, and while some clients felt it is important to have a say in treatment wishes, carers expressed concerns about service user capacity to make decisions. After completing PADs, clients reported an increase in self-efficacy and an increased desire to make decisions. Conclusions The introduction of psychiatric advance directives in India appears to be associated with positive outcomes for some service users, however, there is a need to better understand how this tool can be adapted to better suit the care context in

  1. Syncollisional extension along the India-Asia suture zone, south-central Tibet: Implications for crustal deformation of Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. A.; Sanchez, V.; Taylor, M. H.

    2010-02-01

    Crustal deformation models of the Tibetan plateau are assessed by investigating the nature of Neogene deformation along the India-Asia suture zone through geologic mapping in south-central Tibet (84°30'E). Our mapping shows that the suture zone is dominated by a system of 3 to 4 ENE-striking, south-dipping thrust faults, rather than strike-slip faults as predicted by models calling upon eastward extrusion of the Tibetan plateau. Faults along the suture zone are not active, as they are cut by a system of NNW-striking oblique slip normal faults, referred to herein as the Lopukangri fault system. Fault-slip data from the Lopukangri fault system shows that the mean slip direction of its hanging wall is N36W. We estimate the net slip on the Lopukangri fault by restoring components of the thrust system. We estimate that the fault has accommodated ˜ 7 km of right-slip and ˜ 8 km of normal dip-slip, yielding a net slip of ˜ 10.5 km, and 6 km of horizontal east-west extension. The Lopukangri fault system is active and geomorphic offsets indicate right separations and westside-down dip-separation. The mapview curviplanar geometry and geomorphic expression of the Lopukangri fault system is similar to faults and rift basins to its east and west. These extensional faults are en echelon in map view and encompass a region that is 200 km long (east-west) and 95 km wide (north-south). Assuming our results for the Lopukangri fault are applicable to the entire system, we estimate a maximum of 18% extension across the zone. All active faults in the system terminate southward adjacent to the India-Asia suture zone. Because the individual rift geometries are similar and suggest a common kinematic relationship, we propose that the extensional system formed as a trailing extensional imbricate fan at the southern termination of the central Tibet conjugate fault zone. Alternatively, the extensional system may terminate to the north and represent a group of isolated crustal tears. Both

  2. Water circulation and governing factors in humid tropical river basins in the central Western Ghats, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Tripti, M; Lambs, L; Gurumurthy, G P; Moussa, I; Balakrishna, K; Chadaga, M D

    2016-01-15

    The small river basins in the narrow stretch of the Arabian Sea coast of southwest India experience high annual rainfall (800-8000 mm), with a higher proportion (85 %) during the summer monsoon period between June and September. This is due to a unique orographic barrier provided by the Western Ghats mountain belt (600-2600 m) for the summer monsoon brought by the southwesterly winds. This study is the first of a kind focusing on the water cycle with an intensive stable isotopes approach (samples of river water, groundwater, rainwater; seasonal and spatial sampling) in this part of the Western Ghats in Karnataka and also in the highest rainfall-receiving region (with places like Agumbe receiving 7000-8000 mm annual rainfall) in South India. In addition, the region lacks sustainable water budgeting due to high demographic pressure and a dry pre-monsoon season as the monsoon is mainly unimodal in this part of India, particularly close to the coast. The stable isotopic compositions of groundwater, river water and rainwater in two tropical river basins situated approximately 60 km apart, namely the Swarna near Udupi and the Nethravati near Mangalore, were studied from 2010 to 2013. The δ(18)O and δ(2)H values of the water samples were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and the d-excess values calculated to better understand the dominant source of the water and the influence of evaporation/recycling processes. The water in the smaller area basin (Swarna basin) does not show seasonal variability in the δ(18)O values for groundwater and river water, having a similar mean value of -3.1 ‰. The d-excess value remains higher in both wet and dry seasons suggesting strong water vapor recycling along the foothills of the Western Ghats. In contrast, the larger tropical basin (Nethravati basin) displays specific seasonal isotopic variability. The observation of higher d-excess values in winter with lower δ(18)O values suggests an influence of northeast winter

  3. Ediacara fossil assemblage in the upper Vindhyans of Central India and its significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Chirananda

    2006-09-01

    A fossil assemblage of soft-bodied megascopic metazoans possessing faunistic, ecological and taphonomic affinities to known classical Ediacaran assemblages has been discovered from the Proterozoic Vindhyan Basin of India. The assemblage is represented by nine coelenterate genera ( Tribachidium, Eoporita, Kaisalia, Cyclomedusa, Ediacaria, Nimbia, Paliella, Medusinites and Hiemalora), one arthropod genus Spriggina and a few unnamed possible new forms belonging to sponge and coelenterate. These fossils show facies-controlled temporal distribution forming two fossil zones: F 1 and F 2 located, respectively, in the Lakheri and Sirbu Formations (Bhander Group). A majority of them is common to the Ediacara assemblages of several continents, thereby suggesting their global biogeographic distribution. F 1 and F 2 in the local stratigraphy are separated by a thick stromatolitic carbonate facies devoid of metazoan remains. The Vindhyan Ediacara and host rock sequences reveal energetic (wave-tide-storm induced), shallow marine and near-shore environments of deposition of siliciclastic terrigenous facies. The carbonate facies parting suggests interruption of typical Ediacara environments by a broad spell of lime-rich quieter water settings favoring selective growth of metaphytes. The Vindhyan fossils show both Nemiana (higher relief forms without finer features in sandstones, e.g. Cyclomedusa and Ediacaria) and Beltanelliformis (lower relief forms with finer features in shales, e.g. Kaisalia and Hiemalora) types of preservation. Wide biogeography and ecological uniformity qualify the Vindhyan fossils as biostratigraphically significant group that fixes the age of the Lakheri-Sirbu segment at latest Neoproterozoic, helps in intercontinental correlation of the Bhander Group and focuses supra-Sirbu sequence as potential bearer of early Cambrian organic signatures. Predominance of forms representing Cycloza, an archaic group having monaxonic heteropolar symmetry of infinitely high

  4. A link between North Atlantic cooling and dry events in the core SW monsoon region in Lonar Lake, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Philip; Gaye, Birgit; Prasad, Sushma; Plessen, Birgit; Stebich, Martina; Anoop, Ambili; Riedel, Nils; Basavaiah, Nathani

    2014-05-01

    A sediment core from Lonar Lake in central India covers the complete Holocene and was used to reconstruct the monsoon history of the core SW-monsoon region. We compare C/N ratios, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, grain size, as well as amino acid derived degradation proxies with climatically sensitive proxies of other records from South Asia and the North Atlantic region. The comparison reveals some more or less contemporaneous climate shifts. At Lonar Lake, a general long term climate transition from wet conditions during the early Holocene to drier conditions during the late Holocene, delineating the insolation curve, can be reconstructed. Several phases of shorter term climate alteration that superimpose the general climate trend correlate with cold phases in the North Atlantic region. The most pronounced climate deteriorations indicated by our data occurred between 6.2 - 5.2, 4.65 - 3.9, and 2.05 - 0.55 cal ka BP. The strong dry phase between 4.65 - 3.9 cal ka BP at Lonar Lake corroborates the hypothesis that severe climate deterioration contributed to the decline of the Indus Civilisation about 3.9 ka BP.

  5. Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program on International Women's Studies Seminar on Changing Status Roles in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoder-Salmon, Marilyn

    In July 1988, 14 Florida scholars traveled to India on a 6-week followup of a 1976 project on the status of women in India. Headquartered in Madras (India), the group also studied in 12 other locations. A pre-departure orientation program included lectures on health and related issues, a discussion of life in an Indian village, films, and slides…

  6. Study of the Neurophysiology of Central Fatigue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-05

    objective cognitive fatigue using event related potentials (ERPs). 2) To determine the neurophysiologic mechanisms underlying objective cognitive fatigue ...Study of the Neurophysiology of Central Fatigue The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not...AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 cognitive, fatigue , fatigability

  7. Investigating the nature and sources of non-water soluble sulfate sulfur in fine particles over a National Park in Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Raman, R. S.; Shah, D.

    2016-12-01

    Sulfate aerosol is ubiquitous in the lower troposphere and isan important constituent of fine particles (PM2.5).Sulfateaerosol scatters visible light and influences cloud formation, thus affecting climate. In general, water soluble sulfate sulfur(WSS) is a major contributor (if not the only one) to total particle sulfur (S). In this study, the relationships between PM2.5WSS and total S are examined. Ambient PM2.5 particles over a National Park in Bhopal, Central India were collected every other day between 01January 2012 and 31 December 2013 on various filter substrates. WSS was quantified using ion chromatography while total S was measured by ED-XRF. A preliminary examination of the relationships between WSS and S suggests the existence of significant amounts of non-WSS over the study location. Further, these relationships varied from season-to-season. This study will focus on identifying the nature and sources of non-WSS and its contribution to PM2.5 at the study location.

  8. Leaf growth pattern in evergreen and deciduous species of the Central Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negi, G. C. S.; Singh, S. P.

    1992-12-01

    Leaf growth patterns were investigated in 11 evergreen (with leaf life-spans of just more than 1 year) and 15 deciduous species, occurring along an elevational gradient of 600-2200 m elevation in the Central Himalaya. Records were made of the leaf initiation period, leaf population dynamics, leaf expansion, leaf mass changes, leaf longevity and related parameters. Species of both groups produced leaves at similar rates during March to April, the driest period of the year. Species of both groups had approximately fully developed foliage during the warm, wet period (mid-June to mid-September) of the monsoon. However, significant differences were found at group level in other characters: shoot length (19.5 cm per shoot for deciduous and 11.7 cm for evergreen species); leaf population per 10 cm shoot length (4.7 vs 15.0); leaf area (107.9 vs 41.4 cm2/ leaf); specific leaf mass (106.9 vs 191.3 g/m2); and leaf mass loss after the monsoon period, being rapid and higher (31.6%) in deciduous species and slow and limited in the evergreens (26.2%). However, species of the two groups showed considerable overlaps in the values of above characters. The evergreen species of the Central Himalaya resembled the deciduous species of the region more than the multi-year leaves of clearly evergreen species. The evergreens bear leaves throughout the year, but like deciduous species bear the cost of annual replacement of old leaves by new leaves. They seem to outcompete deciduous species by producing annually a greater mass of leaves of low-carbon cost (per unit leaf mass), which is capable of conducting photosynthesis all year round. A situation of less marked contrast between favourable and nonfavourable periods, with respect to temperature, seems to favour the leaf characters of the evergreens.

  9. A clinicoepidemiological study of pityriasis rosea in South India.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Satyaki

    2013-01-01

    Pityriasis rosea is an acute self-limiting papulosquamous skin disorder of unknown etiology. Although pityriasis rosea is a common dermatologic disorder, information regarding the epidemiology of the disease in India is limited because of inadequate studies. The incidence and presentation of pityriasis rosea varies from one geographical region to another. The objective was to study the various clinical patterns of the disease and epidemiologic factors influencing its occurrence. A cross-sectional study on the clinicoepidemiologic pattern of pityriasis rosea was conducted. A detailed history of illness regarding onset, evolution, duration, symptoms, systemic features, recurrence, history of contact, and associated factors such as socioeconomic status, history of drug intake, and use of new clothing, along with epidemiologic data, was recorded in the performa. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 47 (mean 20.32) years. Incidence of pityriasis rosea was highest among patients aged 11 to 20 years followed by those 21 to 30 years. There was a male preponderance. Seasonal variation was not evident. History of using new garments or old garments, unwashed for an extended period was elicited in 23% of cases. The average interval of onset of lesions and presentation to physician was 14.45 days. Pruritus was a common symptom (70%). Of 73 patients, 67 had herald patch. The clinical features of most of the cases were in accordance with the classical pattern of pityriasis rosea.

  10. Study of the Fresh Groundwater Resources, Neil Island, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, V. K.

    India has a large number of islands and among these, Andman Nicobar, which is located in the South East of India, formed by Bay of Bengal, has 352 islands within an area of 8250 km2. Most of these islands, and various other coastal areas such as Krishna, Godavari, and Kaveri delta are facing sea water intrusion problems and this in turn affect not only surface/groundwater quality but also contaminate soil structure, which further affect agriculture production and tourism. Agriculture and tourism are the main sources for the survival of local people. Because of such water problems, most of the inhabitants face lots of problems, which include health hazards, as a result of which, they are forced to migrate to some other places. Almost no hydrochemical work has been done so far, in most of these islands. The present preliminary work is an attempt to identify the problem in Neil Island and present the data. A systematic hydrochemical study was carried out to assess the chemical quality of groundwater in Neil Island. This study indicates the following: • Water is nearly neutral to mildly alkaline in pH (7.2-7.9), and its TDS varies from 374 to 1270 mg/l. • Water is classified into Na-Ca-Cl-HCO3 and mixed type. • 86% of samples have shown hardness (CaCO3) > 250mg/l, and are classified as hard water. • About 30% of area of Neil is covered with limestone, and its probable interaction with groundwater may cause the hardness. The Ca vs TDS; HCO3 vs TDS, and SO4 vs EC have good correlation. • At present, the influence of seawater intrusion on groundwater is almost negligible, but if excessive withdrawal of groundwater is continued, the aquifers will be contaminated. Presently, groundwater is suitable for various types of agricultural production. • Major cations, anions, and trace elements are within the permissible limit of portable water. Na and Cl are the most dominant ions; good correlation exists between Na vs Σ cations and Cl vs Σ anions.

  11. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards Medical Research amongst the Postgraduate Students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences University of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Purushottam A.; Bangal, Vidyadhar B.; Phalke, Deepak B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health research training is an essential component of medical education and a vital exercise to help develop physician research skills. Objectives: This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices towards health research amongst the postgraduate students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences University of central India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from August to October 2012. A total of 116 postgraduate students were interviewed. Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to health research were assessed using a predesigned, pretested and validated questionnaire. Results were analyzed in the form of percentage and proportions whenever appropriate. Results: In present study, the concept of research hypothesis was known to only 18.9% of the postgraduate students, whereas 17.2 and 21.5% students knew the full form of MEDLARS and MEDLINE respectively. Majority (91.4%) students believed that patient outcome improves with continued medical research and 70.7% are willing to participate in workshop for research methodology. Lack of time due to vast curriculum of postgraduate subjects (59.5%), lack of research curriculum (25%), and inadequate facilities (25.8%) were stated as major obstacles for pursuing research. Conclusion: Postgraduate students have inadequate knowledge, but have positive attitudes towards health research. Postgraduate training and research facilities at the institution need to undergo major transformation in order to encourage meaningful research by postgraduate trainees. PMID:24791231

  12. D0 central tracking chamber performance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzuto, Domenico

    1991-12-01

    The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an RΦ tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against γ → e + e- events.

  13. Methods for determination of the age of Pleistocene tephra, derived from eruption of Toba, in central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westaway, Rob; Mishra, Sheila; Deo, Sushama; Bridgland, David R.

    2011-06-01

    Tephra, emplaced as a result of Pleistocene eruption of the Indonesian `supervolcano' Toba, occurs at many localities in India. However, the ages of these deposits have hitherto been contentious; some workers have argued that these deposits mark the most recent eruption (eruption A, ca 75 ka), although at some sites they are stratigraphically associated with Acheulian (Lower Palaeolithic) artefacts. Careful examination of the geochemical composition of the tephras, which are composed predominantly of shards of rhyolitic glass, indicates that discrimination between the products of eruption A and eruption D (ca 790 ka) of Toba is difficult. Nonetheless, this comparison favours eruption D as the source of the tephra deposits at some sites in India, supporting the long-held view that the Lower Palaeolithic of India spans the late Early Pleistocene. In principle, these tephra deposits should be dateable using the K-Ar system; however, previous experience indicates contamination by a small proportion of ancient material, resulting in apparent ages that exceed the true ages of the tephras. We have established the optimum size-fraction in which the material from Toba is concentrated, 53-61 μm, and have considered possible origins for the observed contamination. We also demonstrate that Ar-Ar analysis of four out of five of our samples has yielded material with an apparent age similar to that expected for eruption D. These numerical ages, of 809 ± 51, 714 ± 62, 797 ± 45 and 827 ± 39 ka for the tephras at Morgaon, Bori, Gandhigram and Simbhora, provide a weighted mean age for this eruption of 799 ± 24 ka (plus-or-minus two standard deviations). However, these numerical ages are each derived from no more than 10-20% of the argon release in each sample, which is not ideal. Nonetheless, our results demonstrate that it is feasible, in principle, to date this difficult material using the Ar-Ar technique; future follow-up studies will therefore be able to refine our

  14. Vascular malformations of central nervous system: A series from tertiary care hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Karri, Sudhir Babu; Uppin, Megha S.; Rajesh, A.; Ashish, K.; Bhattacharjee, Suchanda; Rani, Y. Jyotsna; Sahu, B. P.; Saradhi, M Vijaya; Purohit, A. K.; Challa, Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To describe clinicopathological features of surgically resected vascular malformations (VMs) of central nervous system (CNS). Materials and Methods: Histologically diagnosed cases of VMs of CNS during April 2010–April 2014 were included. Demographic data, clinical and radiological features were obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed along with Verhoeff-Van Gieson (VVG), Masson's trichrome, periodic acid-Schiff, and Perls' stains. Morphologically, cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were distinguished on the basis of vessel wall features on VVG and intervening glial parenchyma. Results: Fifty cases were diagnosed as VMs of CNS with an age range of 14–62 years. These included 36 cavernomas, 12 AVMs, 2 mixed capillary-cavernous angiomas. Most of the cavernoma patients (15/36) presented with seizures, whereas AVM patients (8/12) had a headache as the dominant symptom. Twenty-nine patients were reliably diagnosed on radiological features. Microscopic evidence of hemorrhage was seen in 24/36 cavernomas and 6/12 AVMs, as opposed to radiologic evidence of 10 and 4, respectively. Reactive gliosis was seen in 16 cavernomas. Conclusions: Histological features are important for classifying the VMs of CNS as there are no specific clinical and radiological features. Type of VM has a bearing on management, prognosis, and risk of hemorrhage. PMID:27114659

  15. Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of Central India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Aditya; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Mondol, Samrat; Edgaonkar, Advait; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Today, most wild tigers live in small, isolated Protected Areas within human dominated landscapes in the Indian subcontinent. Future survival of tigers depends on increasing local population size, as well as maintaining connectivity between populations. While significant conservation effort has been invested in increasing tiger population size, few initiatives have focused on landscape-level connectivity and on understanding the effect different landscape elements have on maintaining connectivity. We combined individual-based genetic and landscape ecology approaches to address this issue in six protected areas with varying tiger densities and separation in the Central Indian tiger landscape. We non-invasively sampled 55 tigers from different protected areas within this landscape. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian genetic assignment tests indicate long-range tiger dispersal (on the order of 650 km) between protected areas. Further geo-spatial analyses revealed that tiger connectivity was affected by landscape elements such as human settlements, road density and host-population tiger density, but not by distance between populations. Our results elucidate the importance of landscape and habitat viability outside and between protected areas and provide a quantitative approach to test functionality of tiger corridors. We suggest future management strategies aim to minimize urban expansion between protected areas to maximize tiger connectivity. Achieving this goal in the context of ongoing urbanization and need to sustain current economic growth exerts enormous pressure on the remaining tiger habitats and emerges as a big challenge to conserve wild tigers in the Indian subcontinent.

  16. Connectivity of Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations in the Human-Influenced Forest Mosaic of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Aditya; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Mondol, Samrat; Edgaonkar, Advait; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Today, most wild tigers live in small, isolated Protected Areas within human dominated landscapes in the Indian subcontinent. Future survival of tigers depends on increasing local population size, as well as maintaining connectivity between populations. While significant conservation effort has been invested in increasing tiger population size, few initiatives have focused on landscape-level connectivity and on understanding the effect different landscape elements have on maintaining connectivity. We combined individual-based genetic and landscape ecology approaches to address this issue in six protected areas with varying tiger densities and separation in the Central Indian tiger landscape. We non-invasively sampled 55 tigers from different protected areas within this landscape. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian genetic assignment tests indicate long-range tiger dispersal (on the order of 650 km) between protected areas. Further geo-spatial analyses revealed that tiger connectivity was affected by landscape elements such as human settlements, road density and host-population tiger density, but not by distance between populations. Our results elucidate the importance of landscape and habitat viability outside and between protected areas and provide a quantitative approach to test functionality of tiger corridors. We suggest future management strategies aim to minimize urban expansion between protected areas to maximize tiger connectivity. Achieving this goal in the context of ongoing urbanization and need to sustain current economic growth exerts enormous pressure on the remaining tiger habitats and emerges as a big challenge to conserve wild tigers in the Indian subcontinent. PMID:24223132

  17. Paleogene volcanism in Central Afghanistan: Possible far-field effect of the India-Eurasia collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motuza, Gediminas; Šliaupa, Saulius

    2017-10-01

    A volcanic-sedimentary succession of Paleogene age is exposed in isolated patches at the southern margin of the Tajik block in the Ghor province of Central Afghanistan. The volcanic rocks range from basalts and andesites to dacites, including adakites. They are intercalated with sedimentary rocks deposited in shallow marine environments, dated biostratigraphically as Paleocene-Eocene. This age corresponds to the age of the Asyābēd andesites located in the western Ghor province estimated by the 40Ar/39Ar method as 54 Ma. The magmatism post-dates the Cimmerian collision between the Tajik block (including the Band-e-Bayan block) and the Farah Rod block located to the south. While the investigated volcanic rocks apparently bear geochemical signatures typical to an active continental margin environment, it is presumed that the magmatism was related to rifting processes most likely initiated by far-field tectonics caused by the terminal collision of the Indian plate with Eurasia (Najman et al., 2017). This event led to the dextral movement of the Farah Rod block, particularly along Hari Rod (Herat) fault system, resulting in the development of a transtensional regime in the proximal southern margin of the Tajik block and giving rise to a rift basin where marine sediments were interbedded with pillow lavas intruded by sheeted dyke series.

  18. Petrogenesis of the end-Cretaceous diamondiferous Behradih orangeite pipe: implication for mantle plume-lithosphere interaction in the Bastar craton, Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalapathi Rao, N. V.; Lehmann, B.; Mainkar, D.; Belyatsky, B.

    2011-05-01

    We present mineral chemistry, geochemistry and Sr and Nd isotope data of drillcore samples from the Late Cretaceous (65 Ma), diamondiferous Behradih ultramafic pipe, Bastar craton, Central India, which is emplaced synchronous with the Deccan flood basalt eruption. The rock is affected by pervasive serpentine-talc-carbonate alteration and consists of pelletal lapilli and variously sized olivine and phlogopite macrocrysts, set in a groundmass of abundant clinopyroxene, chrome spinel, apatite, Fe-rich perovskite (<50 μm), zircon, titanite, rutile and calcite. Mineralogical studies identify the Behradih pipe as orangeite (formerly termed as Group II kimberlite) and establish the occurrence of such rocks outside the Kaapvaal craton, southern Africa. As the age of the Behradih orangeite overlaps with that of the main phase of the Deccan flood basalt magmatism, we infer a common tectonomagmatic control vis-a-vis the Deccan-related mantle plume. Trace element ratios and the Nd isotope signatures of the Behradih pipe imply that the Deccan plume has only contributed heat, but not substantial melt, to the Behradih magma with a cause-and-consequence relationship between them. Our study highlights (a) a striking similarity in the genesis of Late Cretaceous orangeites associated with the continental flood basalts in the Kaapvaal and Bastar cratons but related to different mantle plumes and (b) the role of plume-lithosphere interaction in the generation of orangeites.

  19. Bathymetric preference of four major genera of rectilinear benthic foraminifera within oxygen minimum zone in Arabian Sea off central west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Abhijit; Nigam, Rajiv

    2014-04-01

    Fifty two surface sediment samples collected from the region off Goa, central west coast of India from water depths of 15-3300 m were analyzed with special emphasis on foraminiferal content. Rectilinear benthic foraminiferal morphogroup shows a high relative abundance within Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), both shallow marine (50-60 m water depth) and intermediate to deep water (150-1500 m water depth). We gave special emphasis on four rectilinear foraminiferal genera, namely Fursenkoina, Bolivina, Bulimina and Uvigerina to observe their individual distribution among OMZ. We found genus Fursenkoina predominates at the shallow water OMZ, within the water depth zone of 50-60 m. Within 150-1500 m water depth, which is considered as intermediate to deep water OMZ in this region, genus Uvigerina shows its highest abundance above 1000 m water depth, whereas genus Bulimina shows its affinity with deeper water environment (>1000 m water depth). Genus Bolivina does not show any such depth preference, except its higher abundance in only intermediate to deep water OMZ. This depth differentiation among four rectilinear benthic foraminiferal genera presents the basic data for palaeoclimatic study based on the extent and intensity of OMZ along with the palaeobathymetry study.

  20. Seasonal inhomogeneity of soot particles over the central Indo-Gangetic Plains, India: Influence of meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B. P.; Tiwari, S.; Hopke, Philip K.; Singh, R. S.; Bisht, D. S.; Srivastava, A. K.; Singh, R. K.; Dumka, U. C.; Singh, A. K.; Rai, B. N.; Srivastava, Manoj K.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) particles play a unique and important role in earth's climate system. BC was measured (in-situ) in the central part of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) at Varanasi, which is a highly populated and polluted region due to its topography and extensive emission sources. The annual mean BC mass concentration was 8.92 ± 7.0 µg m -3, with 34% of samples exceeding the average value. Seasonally, BC was highest during the post-monsoon and winter periods (approximately 18 µg m -3) and lower in the premonsoon/ monsoon seasons (approximately 6 µg m -3). The highest frequency (approximately 46%) observed for BC mass was in the interval from 5 to 10 µg m -3. However, during the post-monsoon season, the most common values (approximately 23%) were between 20 and 25 µg m -3. The nighttime concentrations of BC were approximately twice as much as the daytime values because of lower boundary layer heights at nighttime. The Ångström exponent was significantly positively correlated (0.55) with ground-level BC concentrations, indicating the impact of BC on the columnar aerosol properties. The estimated mean absorption Ångström exponent was 1.02 ± 0.08 µg m -3, indicating that the major source of BC was from fossil fuel combustion. Significant negative correlations between BC mass and meteorological parameters indicate a pronounced effect of atmospheric dynamics on the BC mass in this region. The highest mean BC mass concentration (18.1 ± 6.9 µg m -3) as a function of wind speed was under calm wind conditions (38% of the time).

  1. Study of electromagnetic radiation pollution in Jalandhar city, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basandrai, D.; Dhami, A. K.; Bedi, R. K.; Khan, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    Environment pollution from electromagnetic radiations emitted from cell phone towers is a new kind of health hazard, which has increase the public concern regarding the health implications of electromagnetic radiations on humans and animals. Long term consequences of these radiations are still unknown. So it become important to measure and maps the electromagnetic radiation level to analyze potential risk. The present study has been taken to estimate the RF pollution by measuring radiation power densities level near school, hospitals and old age home of Jalandhar City, India. The radiation exposure was measured using a handheld portable electrosmog meter. Results were compared with the safety guidelines issued by ICNIRP (International commission on non ionizing radiation protection) and Bio-initiative report, 2012. It has been found that the radiation exposure level in terms of power densities and corresponding specific absorption rate (SAR) are much below than ICNIRP guidelines for all schools, hospitals and old age home. But in the case of 3 schools, the results are quite alarming where the power density and SAR was found to be 79.6% and 4%, respectively higher in comparisons with safe biological limit.

  2. Maternal health in Gujarat, India: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mavalankar, Dileep V; Vora, Kranti S; Ramani, K V; Raman, Parvathy; Sharma, Bharati; Upadhyaya, Mudita

    2009-04-01

    Gujarat state of India has come a long way in improving the health indicators since independence, but progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and largely unmeasured or documented. This case study identified several challenges for reducing the maternal mortality ratio, including lack of the managerial capacity, shortage of skilled human resources, non-availability of blood in rural areas, and infrastructural and supply bottlenecks. The Gujarat Government has taken several initiatives to improve maternal health services, such as partnership with private obstetricians to provide delivery care to poor women, a relatively-short training of medical officers and nurses to provide emergency obstetric care (EmOC), and an improved emergency transport system. However, several challenges still remain. Recommendations are made for expanding the management capacity for maternal health, operationalization of health facilities, and ensuring EmOC on 24/7 (24 hours a day, seven days a week) basis by posting nurse-midwives and trained medical officers for skilled care, ensuring availability of blood, and improving the registration and auditing of all maternal deaths. However, all these interventions can only take place if there are substantially-increased political will and social awareness.

  3. Study on the recent severe thunderstorms in northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanathan, Gokul; Narayanan, Sunanda; Mrudula, G.

    2016-05-01

    Thunderstorm, resulting from vigorous convective activity, is one of the most spectacular weather phenomena in the atmosphere which is associated with thunder, squall lines and lightening. On 13 April 2010, a severe storm struck parts of Bangladesh and eastern India which lasted about 90 minutes, with the most intense portion spanning 30-40 minutes. The severe Thunderstorm on 13th April 2010 spawned a large tornado, which lasted about 20 minutes and was the first tornado recorded in Bihar history. In the year 2015, Bihar experienced a similar storm on 21 April during which multiple microbursts were observed. Various meteorological parameters have been analyzed to study the factors affecting the development of the thunderstorm. Satellite images from KALPANA and Meteosat has been analyzed to capture the temporal and spatial evolution of these storms. The satellite images show the development of a convective clouds system in the early afternoon hours which developed further into the severe storms by late evening. The analysis carried out further using K-index, lifted index, CAPE etc also shows the development of multiple cells of convection. Further analysis of these storms is presented in the paper.

  4. Maternal Health in Gujarat, India: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Kranti S.; Ramani, K.V.; Raman, Parvathy; Sharma, Bharati; Upadhyaya, Mudita

    2009-01-01

    Gujarat state of India has come a long way in improving the health indicators since independence, but progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and largely unmeasured or documented. This case study identified several challenges for reducing the maternal mortality ratio, including lack of the managerial capacity, shortage of skilled human resources, non-availability of blood in rural areas, and infrastructural and supply bottlenecks. The Gujarat Government has taken several initiatives to improve maternal health services, such as partnership with private obstetricians to provide delivery care to poor women, a relatively-short training of medical officers and nurses to provide emergency obstetric care (EmOC), and an improved emergency transport system. However, several challenges still remain. Recommendations are made for expanding the management capacity for maternal health, operationalization of health facilities, and ensuring EmOC on 24/7 (24 hours a day, seven days a week) basis by posting nurse-midwives and trained medical officers for skilled care, ensuring availability of blood, and improving the registration and auditing of all maternal deaths. However, all these interventions can only take place if there are substantially-increased political will and social awareness. PMID:19489418

  5. Improving preparedness of farmers to Climate Variability: A case study of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swami, D.; Parthasarathy, D.; Dave, P.

    2016-12-01

    A key objective of the ongoing research is to understand the risk and vulnerability of agriculture and farming communities with respect to multiple climate change attributes, particularly monsoon variability and hydrology such as ground water availability. Climate Variability has always been a feature affecting Indian agriculture but the nature and characteristics of this variability is not well understood. Indian monsoon patterns are highly variable and most of the studies focus on larger domain such as Central India or Western coast (Ghosh et al., 2009) but district level analysis is missing i.e. the linkage between agriculture and climate variables at finer scale has not been investigated comprehensively. For example, Eastern Vidarbha region in Maharashtra is considered as one of the most agriculturally sensitive region in India, where every year a large number of farmers commit suicide. The main reasons for large number of suicides are climate related stressors such as droughts, hail storms, and monsoon variability aggravated with poor socio-economic conditions. Present study has tried to explore the areas in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra where famers and crop productivity, specifically cotton, sorghum, is highly vulnerable to monsoon variability, hydrological and socio-economic variables which are further modelled to determine the maximal contributing factor towards crops and farmers' vulnerability. After analysis using primary and secondary data, it will aid in decision making regarding field operations such as time of sowing, harvesting and irrigation requirements by optimizing the cropping pattern with climatic, hydrological and socio-economic variables. It also suggests the adaptation strategies to farmers regarding different types of cropping and water harvesting practices, optimized dates and timings for harvesting, sowing, water and nutrient requirements of particular crops according to the specific region. Primarily along with secondary analysis

  6. Evaluation of chikungunya virus infection in children from India during 2009-2010: A cross sectional observational study.

    PubMed

    Raghavendhar, B Siva; Ray, Pratima; Ratagiri, Vinod H; Sharma, B S; Kabra, Sushil K; Lodha, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    positive cases were from KIMS center, Hubli. Seasonally, positivity varied with number of enrolled cases at KIMS and SMS. Joint pain was significantly associated with CHIKV positivity (P = 0.0156). Presence/absence of certain clinical features varied with age (P < 0.05). Sequence analysis revealed four amino acid changes. Phylogenetic analysis with partial sequences of E1 gene from KIMS (n = 12) and SMS (n = 5) showed that the study isolates clustered with Indian Ocean Lineage strains (IOL) of East, Central and South African (ECSA) type. Evaluation of chikungunya virus infection in children from India during 2009-2010 showed high proportion of CHIKV infection in Southern region of India compared to Northern region. The circulating CHIKV strains were of Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL) group within the East, Central, and South African (ECSA) genotype. However few amino acid changes were observed in E1 polypeptide with reference to African strain S-27 (AF369024). Further studies are needed to know the implications of these changes in vector-pathogen compatibility and host-pathogen interactivity. As a whole, this study highlighted the proportion of CHIKV cases, lineage of causative strain and evolutionary pattern of circulating strain in terms of amino acid changes in the structural protein. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Electroconvulsive therapy in adolescents: a retrospective study from north India.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Malhotra, Savita; Varma, Sannidhya; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit; Mattoo, Surendra K

    2013-06-01

    There are minimal data on the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in adolescents from India. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical profile and effectiveness of ECT in adolescents (aged 13-18 years). A retrospective chart review was carried out to identify adolescents (aged 13-18 years) who had received ECT during the period 1999-2011. During the study period, 39 such patients received ECT; complete records of 25 patients were available. Details regarding their sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment data were extracted from these records for the present study. During the study period, 658 patients received ECT, of which 39 were aged 18 or younger (5.9%). Schizophrenia (n = 14; 56%) was the commonest diagnosis for which ECT was used in adolescents, followed by depression (n = 3; 12%). Catatonic symptoms (n = 17; 68%) were the most common symptoms among these subjects. Electroconvulsive therapy was considered as a treatment of choice taking the clinical picture account in about three fourths of the patients (n = 19; 76%). The mean (SD) numbers of ECTs administered per patient were 10.1 (4.87) (range, 2-21). The mean (SD) response rate to ECT was 76% (23.3%) (range, 31%-100%). Response rates according to diagnosis were the following: 76.3% for schizophrenia, 87.2% for depression, 81.8% for psychosis (not otherwise specified), and 77.7% for acute and transient psychosis. Response rate in patients with catatonia was 91.6%. Prolonged seizures, nausea and vomiting, and headache were reported in 2 cases each. Electroconvulsive therapy is used less frequently in children and adolescents compared to the older patients. This study shows that ECT is effective in the treatment of severe psychiatric disorders in adolescents and is associated with the same frequency of adverse effects as the adults.

  8. The nature and evolution of the Main Central Thrust: Structural and geochronological constraints from the Sikkim Himalaya, NE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Dilip K.; Chakraborty, Sumit; Trepmann, Claudia; Rubatto, Daniela; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Gaidies, Fred; Dasgupta, Somnath; Chowdhury, Priyadarshi

    2017-06-01

    The Main Central Thrust (MCT) is a prominent continental-scale fault within the Himalaya. Its definition has been the topic of some debate in the literature. After a brief consideration of the state of discussion to clarify the definition we use in this work, we report features from the field- to the microstructural- scale of a particularly well-exposed section in Sikkim, NE India. The nature of the protoliths as well as the overlying and underlying rocks is characterized in terms of ε-Nd. The dates of motion on the fault are constrained using U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite from pegmatitic dikes that cross-cut the deformation fabric. It is found that the mechanism of deformation recorded in the fault zone rocks is different compared to that found in the overlying Greater Himalayan (GH) or the underlying Lesser Himalayan (LH) rocks. The GH and LH have different protolith characteristics as well. Combined with existing data on P-T history, dates of metamorphism, and cooling- and exhumation-rates of the GH and the LH, our measurements show that major motion on this fault occurred before 20 Ma at 450-700 °C but after peak metamorphism of rocks (750-800 °C) in this zone. Isolated events occurred in this zone as late as 11 Ma, possibly in the brittle domain. This underscores the pulsed nature of movement over an extended period on such major faults, and the related difficulties in dating fault movement, determination of the rates of movement, and designating a fault plane as in- or out-of-sequence within a propagating deformation front.

  9. The Status of Knowledge Related to the Emergency Management of Avulsed Tooth amongst the Medical Practitioners of Nagpur, Central India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suryakant; Sajjanar, Arunkumar B; Athulkar, Milind; Sajjanar, Jayashree; Shewale, Akhilesh; Wasnik, Milind; Dhongde, Pali; Moon, Ankita

    2017-05-01

    Tooth avulsion is a frequently reported traumatic injury amongst young children and whenever it occurs, the parents or teachers of those children often seek the help of Medical Practitioners to provide the first line of treatment. Therefore, the general physician's knowledge regarding the same is an important issue to be taken into consideration. To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of general medical practitioners of Nagpur city of Central India regarding emergency management of avulsed tooth and highlight the importance of avulsed tooth education in schools and medical colleges in order to increase the knowledge of the same among teachers, parents and general physicians. A cross-sectional survey was carried out amongst 1045 medical doctors after a comprehensive search made in Google database using the keywords "Medical", "doctors" "Nagpur". Data regarding the emergency management of avulsed tooth was collected using a self administered close ended questionnaire. A total of 1045 medical practitioners (718 males, 327 females) voluntarily participated in this survey. It was observed that 56.8% of the medical practitioners had no prior knowledge of management of an avulsed tooth. A 81.6% of practitioners were unaware of transport medium for an avulsed tooth whereas, more than half practitioners (64.7%) were naive about an ideal time for replantation of an avulsed tooth. A little more than one third of the practitioners (26.5%) were unacquainted about the method of holding an avulsed tooth. Regardless of the level of education, the general medical practitioners of Nagpur lack most of the knowledge required for the emergency management of an avulsed teeth. Keeping the in mind the present scenario, it was recommended that education regarding avulsed tooth should be incorporated in school and medical curriculum to increase awareness among parents, teachers and medical practitioners. Also, it is the responsibility of the dentist to make the society aware of this

  10. Structure and Function of Shisham Forests in Central Himalaya, India: Nutrient Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    LODHIYAL, NEELU; LODHIYAL, L. S.; PANGTEY, Y. P. S.

    2002-01-01

    The structure and function of Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) forests were investigated in relation to nutrient dynamics in 5‐ to 15‐year‐old stands growing in central Himalaya. Nutrient concentrations and storage in different layers of vegetation were in the order: tree > shrub > herb. Forest soil, litter and vegetation accounted for 80·1–91·9, 1·0–1·5 and 7·0–18·4 %, respectively, of the total nutrients in the system. There were considerable reductions (trees 32·8–43·1; shrubs 26·2–32·4; and herbs 18·8–22·2 %) in nutrient concentrations of leaves during senescence. Nutrient uptake by the vegetation as a whole and also by the different components, with and without adjustment for internal recycling, was investigated. Annual transfer of litter nutrients to the soil from vegetation was 74·8–108·4 kg ha–1 year–1 N, 5·6–8·4 kg ha–1 year–1 P and 38·7–46·9 kg ha–1 year–1 K. Turnover rate and time for different nutrients ranged between 56 and 66 % year–1 and 1·5 and 1·8 years, respectively. The turnover rate of litter indicates that over 50 % of nutrients in litter on the forest floor are released, which ultimately enhances the productivity of the forest stand. The nutrient use efficiency in Shisham forests ranged from 136 to 143 kg ha–1 year–1 for N, 1441 to 1570 kg ha–1 year–1 for P and 305 to 311 kg ha–1 year–1 for K. Compared with natural oak forest (265 kg ha–1 year–1) and an exotic eucalypt plantation (18 kg ha–1 year–1), a higher proportion of nutrients was retranslocated in Shisham forests, largely because of higher leaf tissue nutrient concentrations. This indicates a lower nutrient use efficiency of Shisham compared with eucalypt and oak. Compartment models for nutrient dynamics have been developed to represent the distribution of nutrients pools and net annual fluxes within the system. PMID:12096819

  11. Sustainability of cement kiln co-processing of wastes in India: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Baidya, Rahul; Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Parlikar, Ulhas V

    2017-07-01

    Co-processing in cement kiln achieves effective utilization of the material and energy value present in the wastes, thereby conserving the natural resources by reducing the use of virgin material. In India, a number of multifolded initiatives have been taken that take into account the potential and volume of waste generation. This paper studies the factors which might influence the sustainability of co-processing of waste in cement kilns as a business model, considering the issues and challenges in the supply chain framework in India in view of the four canonical pillars of sustainability. A pilot study on co-processing was carried out in one of the cement plant in India to evaluate the environmental performance, economical performance, operational performance and social performance. The findings will help India and other developing countries to introduce effective supply chain management for co-processing while addressing the issues and challenges during co-processing of different waste streams in the cement kilns.

  12. Online Bullying among High-School Students in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Christine Suniti; Ragan, Moira A.; Selvaraj, Priscilla R.; Shultz, Benjamin J.

    2017-01-01

    Six hundred and forty high-school students (Grades 7-12) from a large central government school in South India participated in this exploratory study of online bullying (cyberbullying) in India. Participants responded to the Survey on Social Use of Information and Communications Technology (SSUICT; Bhat and Ragan 2013). Findings indicated that…

  13. Wilms' tumor: single centre retrospective study from South India.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, B; Rohan, B; Kavitha, S; Madhumathi, D S; Lokanath, D; Appaji, L

    2013-09-01

    Wilms' tumor is the most common malignant renal tumor in paediatric age group, and is classically managed by multimodal treatment which involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The last few decades have seen a dramatic change in the prognosis of this disease, which once was a uniformly lethal malignancy. While there is plenty of data in world literature on the outcome of Wilms' tumor, there is paucity of data from India. Hence, we conducted the present study to analyze the outcome of Wilms' tumor at our institute. To study the clinicopathologic profile and outcome of Wilms' tumor with NWTS (National Wilms' Tumor Study Group) IV protocol. Sixty-one patients with histopathological proven diagnosis of Wilms' tumor and had received treatment at our institute from Jan 2003 through Dec 2010 were included for analysis. Patients received treatment based on NWTS IV protocol. Patients were analysed for overall survival and event free survival and these outcomes were correlated with age, sex, stage at presentation and histology. Favourable histology which included focal anaplasia was found in 80.3 % while unfavourable histology was elicited in 19.7 % of the cases. The estimated 5 year event-free survival was 83.3 % and overall survival was 85.2 %. Tumour histology was the single most important factor predicting the survival. Patients with childhood Wilms' still present very late in our setting, this poses management challenges as large tumor are technically difficult to deliver at surgery. Histology has a crucial role in outcome of this disease. With multidisciplinary approach, similar survival rates to National Wilms' Tumor Study Group seems to be achievable even in Indian scenario.

  14. Radioelemental, petrological and geochemical characterization of the Bundelkhand craton, central India: implication in the Archaean geodynamic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Labani; Nagaraju, P.; Singh, S. P.; Ravi, G.; Roy, Sukanta

    2016-06-01

    We have carried out radioelemental (232Th, 238U, 40K), petrological and geochemical analyses on granitoids and gneisses covering major rock formations of the Bundelkhand craton, central India. Our data reveal that above characteristics are distinct among granitoids (i.e. pink, biotite and grey granitoids) and gneisses (i.e. potassic and sodic types). Pink granitoid is K-feldspar-rich and meta-aluminous to per-aluminous in character. Biotite granitoid is meta-aluminous in character. Grey granitoid is rich in Na-feldspar and mafic minerals, granodiorite to diorite in composition and meta-aluminous in character. Among these granitoids, radioelements (Th, U, K) are highest in pink granitoid (45.0 ± 21.7 ppm, 7.2 ± 3.4 ppm, 4.2 ± 0.4 %), intermediate in biotite granitoid (44.5 ± 28.2 ppm, 5.4 ± 2.8 ppm, 3.4 ± 0.7 %) and lowest in grey granitoid (17.7 ± 4.3 ppm, 4.4 ± 0.6 ppm, 3.0 ± 0.4 %). Among gneisses, potassic-type gneisses have higher radioelements (11.8 ± 5.3 ppm, 3.1 ± 1.2 ppm, 2.0 ± 0.5 %) than the sodic-type gneisses (5.6 ± 2.8 ppm, 1.3 ± 0.5 ppm, 1.4 ± 0.7 %). Moreover, the pink granitoid and the biotite granitoid have higher Th/U (6 and 8, respectively) compared to the grey granitoid (Th/U: 4), implying enrichment of Th in pink and biotite granitoids relative to grey granitoid. K/U among pink, biotite and grey granitoids shows little variation (0.6 × 104, 0.6 × 104, 0.7 × 104, respectively), indicating relatively similar increase in K and U. Therefore, mineralogical and petrological data along with radioelemental ratios suggest that radioelemental variations in these lithounits are mainly related to abundances of the radioactive minerals that have formed by the fractionation of LILE from different magma sources. Based on present data, the craton can be divided into three distinct zones that can be correlated with its evolution in time and space. The central part, where gneisses are associated with metavolcanics of greenstone belt, is

  15. Zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus microsporus and Rhizopus oryzae in Madhya Pradesh (M.P.) Central India: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Nawange, Shesh R; Singh, S M; Naidu, J; Jain, S; Nagpal, T; Behrani, D S; Mellado, E; Tudela, J L Rodriguez

    2012-08-01

    Zygomycosis encompasses infections due to two distinct orders of fungi, Mucorales and Entomophthorales. With rare exception, Entomophthorales are restricted to tropical areas. By contrast, mucorales are ubiquitous opportunistic fungi, which play a crucial part in the natural decay process. In human pathology, they may be opportunistic agents and be responsible for rare infection called (Mucormycosis) zygomycosis. We report two cases of zygomycosis from Madhya Pradesh, Central India, one caused by Rhizopus oryzae in a diabetic patient and another caused by Rhizopus microsporus in an apparently healthy patient. The cases were diagnosed by direct microscopy, histopathological examination and culture. Both the patients were successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. Rhizopus microsporus is, for the first time reported from Madhya Pradesh, India, causing rhino-maxillary orbital zygomycosis.

  16. A comprehensive study on landfill site selection for Kolkata City, India.

    PubMed

    Paul, Koushik; Dutta, Amit; Krishna, A P

    2014-07-01

    Kolkata is one of the four major metropolitan cities in India and the capital city of the state of West Bengal. With an area of 187.33 km2 and a population of about 10 million (including a floating population of about 6 million), the city generates about 3500 Metric Ton (MT) of solid waste per day. Currently, Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) disposes its waste at Dhapa (21.47 ha), where the disposal rate exceeds 3000 MT/day, and at Garden Reach (3.52 ha), where the disposal rate is 100 MT/day. Considering the exhaustion of Dhapa land space, city planners are urgently searching for an alternate disposal ground. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), under the sponsorship of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), has brought out literature developing the site selection criteria for municipal solid waste disposal ground to suit Indian conditions. The developed criteria encompass environmental conditions, accessibility, geological and hydrogeological conditions, and ecological and societal effects. This paper attempts to locate the most suitable site for disposal of KMC area solid waste using the multicriterion decision analysis as stipulated in CPCB 2003 guidelines and the overlay analysis of geographic information system (GIS). Implications: The paper is based on landfill site selection for dumping of solid waste generated within Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area. The methodology uses GIS/remote sensing, Site Sensitivity Index (an offshoot of pairwise comparison technique developed in CPCB 2003 guidelines, Government of India), and the Delphi technique. Dhapa landfill site, where solid waste of KMC area is currently being disposed, is exhausted; the authors of this article thus found it relevant to carry out a research on the selection of an alternative landfill site. The study undertaken was comprehensive, yet presented in a lucid way so that policymakers will find easy to comprehend.

  17. An empirical analysis of suicidal death trends in India: a 5 year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Badiye, Ashish; Kapoor, Neeti; Ahmed, Shagufa

    2014-10-01

    Suicide, a major problem worldwide, continues to be a criminal offence in most of the developing countries of the world, including India. This paper retrospectively examines the latest trends and the relevant determinants of the suicidal deaths in one of the most important city of central India- Nagpur of Maharashtra state, carried out for a period of 5 years i.e. 2009-2013. Total 2036 cases were analyzed. An alarmingly increasing trend in the rate of suicides has been observed in the region, which increased from 16% to 22.68% during the study period. The male to female suicide ratio was found to be 2.50:1. The rate of suicidal deaths ranged from 15.34 to 21.74 per 100,000 populations. Hanging was found to be the most preferred mean adopted for suicide by males (54.77%) and females (47.65%), while, Family problems was the most common cause of suicide among both male (38.25%) and female (52.65%). The Suicides were concentrated in the age group of 30-44 years for males (35.76%), while in the age group of 15-29 years for females (51.75%). The prevalence was higher among the people who were married, being as high as 1099 (66.73%) males and 372 (56.45%) females. Highest trend has been found among the people with matriculate/secondary education level. The males with job in private sector accounted for 1007 suicides (61.14%) and 434 (65.86%) females in the category of housewives (non-working, homemakers) committed the same. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Can Trimodal Distribution of HbS Levels in Sickle Cell Traits Be Used To Predict the Associated Alpha-Thalassemia For Screening Cases in Central India?

    PubMed Central

    WARPE, BM; SHRIKHANDE, AV; POFLEE, SV

    2016-01-01

    Background: Until now, trimodal distribution of HbS has been seen by six different studies in the world when associated with alpha-thalassemia with confirmation by corresponding alpha-genotyping studies. The RBC indices reduce as alpha-globin genes reduce in sickle cell trait (SCT) patients, which decreases the extent of intra-vascular sickling and thus betters the clinical course of the patients. This is a pioneer study conducted on Central Indian poor population to use the already proven six studies to screen associated alpha-thalassemia in SCT patients thus, circumventing the much costlier alpha-genotyping studies. Moreover, it aimed to study the haematological parameters in such cases. Methods: The study was performed at RHDMC, IGGMC, Nagpur, India from 2003 to 2012. The sample population was suspected cases of haemolytic anaemia. CBC and RBC indices were obtained by a cell analyzer. The sickle solubility test positively screened cases were confirmed by agar-gel haemoglobin electrophoresis at pH 8.6. Finally, quantitative assessment of haemoglobin variants was performed by HPLC. Results: Out of total 5819 cases over ten years, 933 cases were sickle heterozygotes. Overall, 180/933 subjects were predicted to be homozygous alpha-thalassemia and 338/933 were heterozygous alpha-thalassemia, based on trimodal distribution of HbS. Conclusion: Genotyping is costlier for majority of the poor non-affording patients in Indian government set-ups, so this study is suitable to screen for associated alpha-thalassemia in SCT patients. PMID:27499774

  19. Centralized versus decentralized lunar PMAD study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Kenneth J.

    A study of proposed lunar base architectures was performed to identify issues concerning centralized and decentralized power system deployment options. The power management and distribution (PMAD) system analysis is addressed. The PMAD system consists of power conditioning components that convert the generated power into the form desired for transmission, transmission lines that conduct this power from the power sources to the loads, and power conditioning hardware that converts the power into the form selected for secondary distribution to the loads. Three PMAD architecture configurations were evaluated: centralized, hybrid, and decentralized. Two models were created for each architecture to identify the preferred method of power transmission, DC or AC. Each model permitted the load power demands and distribution voltage level to be varied to assess the impact on power system mass. The AC power system models also allowed the distribution frequency to be changed. Finally, individual models were developed for different transmission line configurations and placements to determine the best conductor construction and installation location.

  20. Chronic arsenic toxicity: studies in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Guha Mazumder, Debendranath; Dasgupta, U B

    2011-09-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis) as a result of drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world, including India. A lot of research on health effects, including genotoxic effect of chronic arsenic toxicity in humans, have been carried out in West Bengal during the last 2 decades. A review of literature including information available from West Bengal has been made to characterize the problem. Scientific journals, monographs, and proceedings of conferences with regard to human health effects, including genotoxicity, of chronic arsenic toxicity have been reviewed. Pigmentation and keratosis are the specific skin diseases characteristic of chronic arsenic toxicity. However, in West Bengal, it was found to produce various systemic manifestations, such as chronic lung disease, characterized by chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive and/or restrictive pulmonary disease, and bronchiectasis; liver diseases, such as non cirrhotic portal fibrosis; polyneuropathy; peripheral vascular disease; hypertension; nonpitting edema of feet/hands; conjunctival congestion; weakness; and anemia. High concentrations of arsenic, greater than or equal to 200 μg/L, during pregnancy were found to be associated with a sixfold increased risk for stillbirth. Cancers of skin, lung, and urinary bladder are the important cancers associated with this toxicity. Of the various genotoxic effects of arsenic in humans, chromosomal aberration and increased frequency of micronuclei in different cell types have been found to be significant. Various probable mechanisms have been incriminated to cause DNA damage because of chronic arsenic toxicity. The results of the study in West Bengal suggest that deficiency in DNA repair capacity, perturbation of methylation of promoter region of p53 and p16 genes, and genomic methylation alteration may be involved in arsenic-induced disease manifestation in humans. P53 polymorphism has been found to be

  1. Scrub Typhus Meningitis in South India — A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin; Muthu, Vivekanandan; Iqbal, Nayyar; Remalayam, Bhavith; George, Tarun

    2013-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is prevalent in India although definite statistics are not available. There has been only one study on scrub typhus meningitis 20 years ago. Most reports of meningitis/meningoencephalitis in scrub typhus are case reports Methods A retrospective study done in Pondicherry to extract cases of scrub typhus admitted to hospital between February 2011 and January 2012. Diagnosis was by a combination of any one of the following in a patient with an acute febrile illness- a positive scrub IgM ELISA, Weil-Felix test, and an eschar. Lumbar puncture was performed in patients with headache, nuchal rigidity, altered sensorium or cranial nerve deficits. Results Sixty five cases of scrub typhus were found, and 17 (17/65) had meningitis. There were 33 males and 32 females. Thirteen had an eschar. Median cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count, lymphocyte percentage, CSF protein, CSF glucose/blood glucose, CSF ADA were 54 cells/µL, 98%, 88 mg/dL, 0.622 and 3.5 U/mL respectively. Computed tomography was normal in patients with altered sensorium and cranial nerve deficits. Patients with meningitis had lesser respiratory symptoms and signs and higher urea levels. All patients had received doxycycline except one who additionally received chloramphenicol. Conclusion Meningitis in scrub typhus is mild with quick and complete recovery. Clinical features and CSF findings can mimic tuberculous meningitis, except for ADA levels. In the Indian context where both scrub typhus and tuberculosis are endemic, ADA and scrub IgM may be helpful in identifying patients with scrub meningitis and in avoiding prolonged empirical antituberculous therapy in cases of lymphocytic meningitis. PMID:23799119

  2. Middle ear microsurgery in india: a retrospective audit study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mangal; Rai, Ashutosh; Bandyopadhyay, Sarmishtha

    2006-04-01

    Around 2000 ENT Surgeons perform about 120000 middle ear microsurgery operations annually in India while the burden of otitis media is 50 million cases. A comprehensive questionnaire consisting of personal details of surgeons, his infrastructure, results, and complications was sent to 2000 ENT Surgeons from the latest AOI Directory. 400 Surgeons responded back from all over the country and the data collected was fed into a computer program and was analysed. Most of the responses were from western and southern parts of India. Almost all those who responded were performing myringoplasty while only 47 percent performed ossiculoplasty and 40 percent stapes surgery. Senior surgeons (more than 5 years after post graduation) had better infrastructure and better results as compared to junior surgeons, (less than 5 years). About 60 percent surgeons had Indian operating microscopes (commonest 80 percent being BEL) while 40 percent could afford foreign made microscopes (90 percent being Karl Zeiss). The procedure of myringoplasty is almost standardized while there is need to popularize ossiculoplasty and stupes surgery. Need was felt for technology transfer programmes from Southern and Western parts of India to Northern and Eastern parts of India.

  3. Reaching tribal men to improve awareness to sexual morbidities: experience from Baiga tribe of Central India.

    PubMed

    Saha, Kalyan B; Saha, Uma C; Sharma, R K; Pandey, Arvind

    2013-05-01

    Tribal men's reluctance in sharing responsibilities as supportive partners in reproductive and sexual health matters debar women from their sexual rights coupled with their negligence in health care and lesser utilization of reproductive health facilities. As a matter of fact a large proportion of ill health particularly related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) suffered not only by men but also by their spouses. The present study was planned among one of the primitive tribes of Madhya Pradesh to understand the knowledge of males about reproductive tract infection (RTI)/STI/HIV/AIDS, RTI symptoms suffered, perception on sexual health, utilization of health services and to improve the knowledge by intervention of need based IEC (information, education, communication) strategy. The study was conducted among 400 currently married men in the age group of 15-40 yr in one of the primitive tribes, Baigas of Dindori district of Madhya Pradesh. Eighteen villages were explored in the study. The IEC intervention was made by using quasi-experimental before and after with control design. The baseline data generated indicated that Baigas male were poorly informed about RTI (18%), STI (21.5%) and HIV/AIDS (10%). Further, men also projected misconception on different aspects of sexuality. Women's views recorded also suggested a disturbing trend regarding male involvement in reproductive health particularly related to STIs. After intervention of IEC targeting male population in age group 15 - 40 yr by adopting a before and after with controls design the awareness was improved significantly. The utilization of the health services was also improved significantly. The study recommends replication of the IEC strategy designed in other Baiga villages for improving the reproductive health of the tribe.

  4. Reaching tribal men to improve awareness to sexual morbidities: Experience from Baiga tribe of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kalyan B.; Saha, Uma C.; Sharma, R.K.; Pandey, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: Tribal men's reluctance in sharing responsibilities as supportive partners in reproductive and sexual health matters debar women from their sexual rights coupled with their negligence in health care and lesser utilization of reproductive health facilities. As a matter of fact a large proportion of ill health particularly related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) suffered not only by men but also by their spouses. The present study was planned among one of the primitive tribes of Madhya Pradesh to understand the knowledge of males about reproductive tract infection (RTI)/STI/HIV/AIDS, RTI symptoms suffered, perception on sexual health, utilization of health services and to improve the knowledge by intervention of need based IEC (information, education, communication) strategy. Method: The study was conducted among 400 currently married men in the age group of 15-40 yr in one of the primitive tribes, Baigas of Dindori district of Madhya Pradesh. Eighteen villages were explored in the study. The IEC intervention was made by using quasi-experimental before and after with control design. Result: The baseline data generated indicated that Baigas male were poorly informed about RTI (18%), STI (21.5%) and HIV/AIDS (10%). Further, men also projected misconception on different aspects of sexuality. Women's views recorded also suggested a disturbing trend regarding male involvement in reproductive health particularly related to STIs. Interpretation & conclusions: After intervention of IEC targeting male population in age group 15 - 40 yr by adopting a before and after with controls design the awareness was improved significantly. The utilization of the health services was also improved significantly. The study recommends replication of the IEC strategy designed in other Baiga villages for improving the reproductive health of the tribe. PMID:23760379

  5. Social determinants of stunting in rural area of Wardha, Central India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Pradeep R; Sinha, Nirmalya; Dongre, Amol R

    2013-07-01

    Stunting is a consequence of long term, cumulative inadequacies of health and nutrition. Health system uses underweight for growth monitoring for its simplicity. Lately there is renewed interest in stunting and especially severe acute malnutrition. Stunting is a relatively neglected indicator. It is therefore imperative to understand the causes of stunting early in infancy and childhood, so that preventive measures can be taken. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the social determinants of stunting in rural Wardha. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken in three Primary Health Centres (PHCs) of Wardha district with total population of 88,187. The sample was drawn from three PHC areas by 30-cluster sampling technique. Stunting was defined using WHO Child Growth Standards for 'height-for-age'. 'Height-for-age' values below 2 standard deviations were considered as stunted while below 3 standard deviations were considered 'severe stunting'. Prevalence of stunting was observed to be 52.3% and severe stunting was 25.1%. The significant determinants of stunting were found to be age, father's education, fathers' occupation, low income, not receiving Vitamin-A supplement during last 6 months and having anaemia. Sex, caste, mother's education and mothers' occupation did not contribute significantly to the stunting. Low income and related factors such as father's education and his occupation are important determinant of the stunting. Father being the decision maker, his education is of importance. Vitamin-A supplementation and anaemia as surrogate indicators for access to health care also found out to be significant determinants of stunting.

  6. Seasonal prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii inhabiting Eucalyptus terreticornis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees in Jabalpur City of Madhya Pradesh, Central India.

    PubMed

    Bedi, N G; Nawange, S R; Singh, S M; Naidu, J; Kavishwar, A

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a two-year retrospective analysis of the work done during 2003-2005 on the distribution population density and isolation frequency of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii recovered from different parts of Eucalyptus tree spp., at Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Of the 1000 samples collected from bark, flowers, fruits, buds and leaves of Eucalyptus trees E. terreticornis and E. camaldulensis, 32 (3.2%) were found to be positive for C.n var. grubii and 28 (2.8%) for C. gattii respectively. While both the pathogens were isolated through all the seasons, no significant difference was found in prevalence of the two species (P>0.05) from different Eucalyptus tree samples. For C. neoformans var. grubii the highest isolation frequency of the pathogen was in spring followed by autumn, summer, winter and rainy season. For C. gattii, highest isolation frequency of the pathogen was in summer, followed by autumn, spring, winter and rainy season. Significant difference was seen in the isolation frequency of C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii during autumn and rainy season (P<0.01), spring and rainy season (P<0.001) and summer and rainy season (P<0.001). Population density and isolation frequency of the both pathogens were significantly lower in rainy season. Bark of the Eucalyptus tree yielded the highest frequency of C. neoformans var. grubii followed by flower, fruits, buds and debris. Trees located in the densely populated area of the city yielded highest frequency of the pathogens followed by trees located in sparsely populated area on the outskirt of the city and areas near the river Narmada. Further comprehensive study is suggested to assess the overall impact of seasonal prevalence in the isolation frequency and population density of both the pathogens and their clinical significance across climatically divergent region of India. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  7. Assessment of sources for higher Uranium concentration in ground waters of the Central Tamilnadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adithya, V. S.; Chidambaram, S.; Tirumalesh, K.; Thivya, C.; Thilagavathi, R.; Prasanna, M. V.

    2016-03-01

    The uranium concentration in groundwater has attained greater importance considering the health effects in mankind. Groundwater being the major source of uranium; sampling and analysis of groundwater for the major cations and anions along with uranium has been carried out in hard rock aquifers of Madurai district. The sampling has been carried out in varied aquifers like, Charnockites, Hornblende Biotite Gneiss, Granites, Quartzites, Laterites and sandstone. The cation and anions showed the following order of dominance Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and that of anions are HCO3 ->Cl->SO4 2-> NO3 ->PO4 3-. Higher concentration of uranium was found along the granitic aquifers and it varied along the groundwater table condition. Further it was identified that the mineral weathering was the predominant source of U in groundwater. Tritium studies also reveal the fact that the younger waters are more enriched in uranium than the older groundwater with longer residence time.

  8. Dental trauma and mouthguard awareness and use among contact and noncontact athletes in central India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vidhatri; Saxena, Vrinda; Tiwari, Utkarsh; Singh, Aishwarya; Jain, Manish; Goud, Siddana

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the associations of mouthguard awareness and use with the rate and type of orofacial trauma during sports activities among professional athletes. In this cross-sectional study of athletes aged 12 to 22 years who trained for participation in national and international competitions, data were collected by using a questionnaire and a clinical examination that included an index of dental injury. There were significant differences in mouthguard awareness and use and injury rates, i.e., athletes who did not wear mouthguards had more injuries. Traumatic injuries to teeth were significantly more frequent among contact athletes (15; 9%) than among noncontact athletes (4; 2.5%). Limited mouthguard awareness could be due to lack of information and education on dental injuries and their prevention.

  9. The risk of cancer as a result of elevated levels of nitrate in drinking water and vegetables in Central India.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Pinky; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Nagarnaik, Pranav; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of nitrates on the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer development. Nitrate converted to nitrite under reducing conditions of gut results in the formation of N-nitrosamines which are linked to an increased gastric cancer risk. A population of 234 individuals with 78 cases of GI cancer and 156 controls residing at urban and rural settings in Nagpur and Bhandara districts of India were studied for 2 years using a case-control study. A detailed survey of 16 predictor variables using Formhub software was carried out. Nitrate concentrations in vegetables and primary drinking water supplies were measured. The logistic regression model showed that nitrate was statistically significant in predicting increasing risk of cancer when potential confounders were kept at base level (P value of 0.001 nitrate in drinking water; 0.003 for nitrate in vegetable) at P < 0.01. Exposure to nitrate in drinking water at >45 mg/L level of nitrate was associated with a higher risk of GI cancers. Analysis suggests that nitrate concentration in drinking water was found statistically significant in predicting cancer risk with an odds ratio of 1.20.

  10. Thematic mapper studies of central Andean volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    A series of false color composite images covering the volcanic cordillera was written. Each image is 45 km (1536 x 1536 pixels) and was constructed using bands 7, 4, and 2 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Approximately 100 images were prepared to date. A set of LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images was used in conjunction with the TM hardcopy to compile a computer data base of all volcanic structure in the Central Andean province. Over 500 individual structures were identified. About 75 major volcanoes were identified as active, or potentially active. A pilot study was begun combining Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data with TM for a test area in north Chile and Bolivia.

  11. Medical Store Management: An Integrated Economic Analysis of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Mahatme, MS; Dakhale, GN; Hiware, SK; Shinde, AT; Salve, AM

    2012-01-01

    Economic analysis plays a pivotal role in the management of medical store. The main objectives of this study were to consider always better control-vital, essential and desirable (ABC-VED) analysis with economic order quantity (EOQ), comparison of indexed cost and the actual cost, and to assess the expenditure for the forthcoming years. Based on cost and criticality, a matrix of nine groups by combining ABC and VED analysis was formulated. Drug categories were narrowed down for prioritization to direct supervisory monitoring. The subgroups AE and AV of the categories category I and II should be ordered based on EOQ. The difference between the actual annual drug expenditure (ADE) and the derived indexed cost using the cost inflation index (CII) was calculated. Linear regression was used to assess the expenditure for the forth coming years. The total ADE for the financial year of 2010–2011 was Rs. 1,91,44,253 which was only 7.68% of annual hospital expenditure. Using the inflation index, the indexed cost of acquisition of ADE for year 2010–2011 was Rs. 1,95,10,387. The difference between the two was estimated to be 2.11%. Thus, the CII justifies the demand of increased budget for next year and prompts us for cautious use of drugs. By taking into consideration the ADE of last 10 years, we have forecasted the budget for forthcoming years which will help significantly for making policies according to the available budget. PMID:22754264

  12. Arsenic contamination in the Kanker district of central-east India: geology and health effects.

    PubMed

    Pandey, P K; Sharma, R; Roy, M; Roy, S; Pandey, M

    2006-10-01

    This paper identifies newer areas of arsenic contamination in the District Kanker, which adjoins the District Rajnandgaon where high contamination has been reported earlier. A correlation with the mobile phase episodes of arsenic contamination has been identified, which further hinges on the complex geology of the area. Arsenic concentrations in both surface and groundwater, aquatic organisms (snail and water weeds) soil and vegetation of Kanker district and its adjoining area have been reported here. The region has been found to contain an elevated level of arsenic. All segments of the ecoysystem are contaminated with arsenic at varying degrees. The levels of arsenic vary constantly depending on the season and location. An analysis of groundwater from 89 locations in the Kanker district has shown high values of arsenic, iron and manganese (mean: 144, 914 and 371 microg L(-1), respectively). The surface water of the region shows elevated levels of arsenic, which is influenced by the geological mineralised zonation. The most prevalent species in the groundwater is As(III), whereas the surface water of the rivers shows a significant contamination with the As(V) species. The analysis shows a bio-concentration of the toxic metals arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium. Higher arsenic concentrations (groundwater concentrations greater than 50 microg L(-1)) are associated with sedimentary deposits derived from volcanic rocks, hence mineral leaching appears to be the source of arsenic contamination. Higher levels of arsenic and manganese in the Kanker district have been found to cause impacts on the flora and fauna. A case study of episodic arsenical diarrhoea is presented.

  13. Seasonal variation of the solute and suspended sediment load in Gangotri glacier meltwater, central Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Virendra Bahadur; Ramanathan, AL.; Pottakkal, Jose George; Kumar, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study on the seasonal variation of major cations and anions was carried out to understand the source of dissolved ions as well as the geochemical weathering processes controlling the meltwater chemistry of Gangotri glacier. Calcium and magnesium are the major cations while sulphate is the dominant anion followed by bicarbonate. The high ratios of (Ca + Mg)/(Na + K), Ca/Na, Mg/Na, HCO3/Na and low ratio of (Na + K)/TZ+ for pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons indicate the dominance of carbonate weathering, which is a major source of the dissolved ions in the meltwater of Gangotri glacier followed by silicate weathering. High equivalent ratios of Na/Cl and K/Cl as compared to sea water indicate relatively lesser contribution from atmospheric input to the chemical composition of meltwater. Correlation matrix and factor analysis were used to identify various factors controlling the major ion chemistry. Marked seasonal and diurnal variations were observed in the dissolved ions and suspended sediment concentration. Daily mean suspended sediment concentration for pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon was observed as 1719, 3281 and 445 mgl-1, respectively. Highest suspended sediment load was observed in monsoon season followed by pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The cation denudation rates of Gangotri glacier meltwater were calculated to be 42.2, 46.5 and 15.9 t km-2 y-1 for pre-monsoon (June only), monsoon and post-monsoon respectively. These values are higher than that of other Himalayan glaciers. Whereas physical weathering rate of the Gangotri glacier catchment was observed to be 7056, 15,344 and 588 t km-2 y-1 for pre-monsoon (June only), monsoon and post-monsoon respectively, much higher than the Indian and world averages of river.

  14. Human resources, patient load, and infrastructure at institutions providing diabetic care in India: The India 11-city 9-state study

    PubMed Central

    Anchala, Raghupathy; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sai Venkat; Gudlavalleti, Murthy V. S.; Singh, Vivek; Shukla, Rajan; Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Babu, R. Giridhara; Ramachandra, Srikrishna S.; Sagar, Jayanti; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Ballabh, Hira Pant; Gilbert, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of information on the practice patterns and available human resources and services for screening for eye complications among persons with diabetes in India. Objectives: The study was undertaken to document existing health care infrastructure and practice patterns for managing diabetes and screening for eye complications. Methods: This cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in 11 cities where public and private diabetic care providers were identified. Both multispecialty and standalone diabetic care facilities were included. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to senior representative(s) of each institution to evaluate parameters using the World Health Organization health systems framework. Results: We interviewed physicians in 73 hospitals (61.6% multispecialty hospitals; 38.4% standalone clinics). Less than a third reported having skilled personnel for direct ophthalmoscopy. About 74% had provision for glycated hemoglobin testing. Only a third had adequate vision charts. Printed protocols on management of diabetes were available only in 31.5% of the facilities. Only one in four facilities had a system for tracking diabetics. Half the facilities reported having access to records from the treating ophthalmologists. Direct observation of the services provided showed that reported figures in relation to availability of patient support services were overestimated by around 10%. Three fourths of the information sheets and half the glycemia monitoring cards contained information on the eye complications and the need for a regular eye examination. Conclusions: The study highlighted existing gaps in service provision at diabetic care centers in India. PMID:27144131

  15. The sinuous bedrock channel of the Tapi River, Central India: Its form and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Vishwas S.

    2005-09-01

    channel bed. The main conclusion of the study is that the bedrock channel is increasing the flow resistance and energy losses by developing and enhancing the meandering pattern.

  16. Source apportionment of arsenic in atmospheric dust fall out in an urban residential area, Raipur, Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishna, G.; Pervez, S.; Bisht, D. S.

    2011-06-01

    The components and quantities of atmospheric dust fallout have been reported to be the pollution indicator of large urban areas. The multiplicity and complexity of sources of atmospheric dusts in urban regions has put forward the need of source apportionment of these sources indicating their contribution to specific environmental receptor. The study presented here is focused on investigation of source contribution estimates of Arsenic in urban dust fallout in an urban-industrial area, Raipur, India. Source-receptor based representative sampling plan using longitudinal study design has been adopted. Six sampling sites have been identified on the basis of land use for development plan of anthropogenic activities and factors related to the transportation and dispersion pattern of atmospheric dusts. Source apportionment has been done using Chemical Mass Balance (CMB 8). Good fit parameters and relative source contribution has been analyzed and documented. Dominance of coal fired industries sources on arsenic levels measured at selected ambient residential receptors compared to line sources has been observed. Road-traffic has shown highest contribution of dust at indoor houses and out door-street automobile exhaust has shows highest contribution for arsenic. The results of CMB output and regression data of source-receptor dust matrices have shown comparable pattern.

  17. Comparative Study of Population Growth and Agricultural Change: C - Case Study of India. Asian Population Studies Series No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    This report, the third in a series of five reports of the Comparative Study of Population Growth and Agricultural Change, describes a study of the two states of India (Punjaband and Orissa) which attempted to clarify the relationship between population pressure and agricultural change through a time series analysis. This study: (1) outlines trends…

  18. Central Falls' Kids First: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    Central Falls' Kids First, a 3-year initiative was designed to eradicate local childhood hunger through the expansion of federal child nutrition programs in Central Falls, a small, densely populated, ethnically diverse and low-income city in northeastern Rhode Island. A strong community partnership was created and included the office of the city's…

  19. Central Falls' Kids First: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    Central Falls' Kids First, a 3-year initiative was designed to eradicate local childhood hunger through the expansion of federal child nutrition programs in Central Falls, a small, densely populated, ethnically diverse and low-income city in northeastern Rhode Island. A strong community partnership was created and included the office of the city's…

  20. Hemoglobinopathies among the Gond tribal groups of central India; interaction of alpha- and beta-thalassemia with beta chain variants.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R B; Tiwary, R S; Pande, P L; Kutlar, F; Oner, C; Oner, R; Huisman, T H

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the frequencies and types of alpha-thal, beta-thal, and Hb variants among nearly 200 inhabitants of villages in the Mandla and Jabalpur districts of Madhya Pradesh in Central India. Over 85% were tribals of the Gond group. alpha-Thal, as -alpha 3.7/and -alpha 4.2/, and the nondeletional Koya Dora mutation were present at the combined frequency of 0.54. There were indications for the presence of other nondeletional types of alpha-thal. alpha-Globin gene triplications were not observed. Four of the six beta-thal alleles observed were in the tribal groups; two (G----C at codon 30 and G----A at IVS-I-1) were found for the first time. The simultaneous presence of an alpha-thal (-alpha/alpha alpha or -alpha/-alpha) greatly improved the clinical and hematological condition of the patients with Hb S-beta(+)-thal (IVS-I-5; G----C). The lower frequency of alpha-thal among the beta-thal heterozygotes (f = 0.32) may indicate that some of the beta-thal alleles in the tribal populations originated from an outside source. Forty-one subjects had SS; all but one had beta S with haplotype #31, while one chromosome had haplotype #17. The presence of an alpha-thal-2 (f = 0.53) in the SS patients did not affect hematological data. The Hb F levels varied between 7.5% and 42.5% with high G gamma values. No difference in Hb F level between males and females was observed. Lower Hb F levels were present in 10 SS patients with an alpha-thal-2 homozygosity (average 16% versus 23.5% for eight SS patients with alpha alpha/alpha alpha) suggesting a decreased formation of alpha gamma dimers in severe alpha chain deficiency. Several younger SS patients (less than 10 years) also had high Hb F levels (32-42%). Variations in the sequence at -530 of the beta-globin gene; i.e. in the so-called silencer sequence, were present in all beta S chromosomes with haplotype #31, but were not considered important for understanding the variability in the Hb F level. gamma-Globin gene

  1. A reassessment of the Archean-Mesoproterozoic tectonic development of the southeastern Chhattisgarh Basin, Central India through detailed aeromagnetic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, M.; Ramesh Babu, V.; Markandeyulu, A.; Raju, B. V. S. N.; Chaturvedi, A. K.; Roy, M. K.

    2017-08-01

    We constrained the geological framework over polydeformed Paleoproterozoic Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and addressed the tectonic evolution of Singhora basin in the fringes of Bastar Craton, central India by utilizing aeromagnetic data interpretation, 2.5D forward modelling and 3D magnetic susceptibility inversions. The Sonakhan Greenstone Belt exposes volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Sonakhan Group within NNW-SSE to NW-SE trending linear belts surrounded by granite gneisses, which are unconformably overlain by sedimentary rocks of Chhattisgarh Basin. The orientations of aeromagnetic anomalies are coincident with geological trends and appear to correlate with lithology and geologic structure. Regional magnetic anomalies and lineaments reveal both NNW-SSE and NE-SW trends. Prominent E-W trending linear, high amplitude magnetic anomalies are interpreted as the Trans-Chhattisgarh Aeromagnetic Lineament (TCAL). NW-SE trending aeromagnetic signatures related to Sonakhan Greenstone Belt extends below the Singhora sedimentary rocks and forms the basement in the west. The analysis suggests that TCAL is a block fault with northern block down-thrown and affected the basement rocks comprising the Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and Samblapur Granitoids. The episode of faulting represented by the TCAL is pre-Singhora sedimentation and played a vital role in basin evolution. The basement configuration image generated by estimates of depth to magnetic basement suggests a complex pattern of NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending depressions separated by a linear N-S trending basement ridge. It is inferred from the 3D magnetic susceptibility inversion that the thickness of sediments is more towards the eastern basin margin and the N-S ridge is a manifestation of post sedimentary faulting. Results of 2.5D modelling of a WNW-ESE profile across the Singhora Basin combined with results from 3D inversion suggest suggests the basin subsidence was controlled by NE-SW trending regional faults in an active

  2. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using NCEP-ATPIII, IDF and WHO Definition and Its Agreement in Gwalior Chambal Region of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Dhananjay; Mahajan, Sunil; Subramanian, Senthil K.; Bisen, Prakash Singh; Chung, Choon Hee; Prasad, GBKS

    2013-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) ATPIII Criteria, International Diabetes Federation and the World Health Organization (WHO) definitions were used in quantifying the metabolic syndrome and also the concordance between these three criteria’s used for identifying metabolic syndrome. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 700 type 2 diabetic subjects from the urban areas of Gwalior Chambal region (Central India). Subjects in the age group of 28-87 yrs were included in the study. Type I diabetics, pregnant ladies and those with chronic viral and bacterial infections and serious metabolic disorders were excluded from the study. Fasting blood glucose, Blood lipids (T-cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol) were assessed and anthropometry blood pressure were measured from all the subjects. Results: The Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be 45.8%, 57.7% and 28% following NCEP-ATPIII Criteria, IDF and WHO definitions, respectively. Using all the three definitions the prevalence was higher in women in all age groups. ATP III and IDF criteria showed good agreement (κ 0.68) compared to ATP III with WHO (κ 0.54) and IDF with WHO (κ 0.34) criteria. Highest prevalence was observed following IDF definition. Conclusions: A good agreement was observed between ATPIII and IDF criteria. Maximum prevalence of Metabolic syndrome was recorded when IDF criteria was followed. NCEP-ATPIII criteria for the diagnosis of MetS and this criterion reflected equal importance to the every variable and showed a good agreement between the different criteria used. PMID:24171882

  3. Clinico-radiological profile and outcome of dengue patients with central nervous system manifestations: A case series in an Eastern India tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Souren; Sen, Kaushik; Biswas, Nirendra Mohan; Ghosal, Anirban; Rousan Jaman, S. K.; Yashavantha Kumar, K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Dengue, an acute viral disease, transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, has a variable clinical spectrum ranging from asymptomatic infection to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. However, neurological complications, in general, are unusual but have been observed more frequently in the recent past, and some studies highlighted varied neurological complications during the course of illness. Although dengue is classically considered a nonneurotropic virus, there is increasing evidence for dengue viral neurotropism. In this study, we have evaluated clinico-radiological profile and outcome of nine serologically confirmed dengue patients having varied manifestations of central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Materials and Methods: All the consecutive patients presented with neurological complications with positive serology for dengue infection (IgM positivity) in Department of Medicine, in a tertiary care hospital in Eastern India from August 2013 to October 2014 were included in the study. These patients were subjected to a detailed clinical evaluation, laboratory assessment including complete hemogram, coagulation profile, liver function test, serum electrolytes, and routine CSF (Cerebrospinal Fluid) study with the exclusion of other common neuroinvasive pathogens. Results: Out of 9 patients with neurological complications associated with confirmed dengue infection, 2 (22%) patients had dengue encephalopathy, 5 (56%) patients have dengue encephalitis, 1 (11%) patient had dengue meningitis, and 1 (11%) patient had postdengue immune-mediated CNS involvement. Conclusion: This case series reaffirms the occurrence of varied CNS manifestations in dengue virus infection and underlines the importance of inclusion of dengue in the differential diagnosis of acute encephalitis syndrome. PMID:26933357

  4. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus using NCEP-ATPIII, IDF and WHO definition and its agreement in Gwalior Chambal region of Central India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dhananjay; Mahajan, Sunil; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Bisen, Prakash Singh; Chung, Choon Hee; Prasad, G B K S

    2013-09-17

    The aim of study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) ATPIII Criteria, International Diabetes Federation and the World Health Organization (WHO) definitions were used in quantifying the metabolic syndrome and also the concordance between these three criteria's used for identifying metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 700 type 2 diabetic subjects from the urban areas of Gwalior Chambal region (Central India). Subjects in the age group of 28- 87 yrs were included in the study. Type I diabetics, pregnant ladies and those with chronic viral and bacterial infections and serious metabolic disorders were excluded from the study. Fasting blood glucose, Blood lipids (T-cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol) were assessed and anthropometry blood pressure were measured from all the subjects. The Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be 45.8%, 57.7% and 28% following NCEP-ATPIII Criteria, IDF and WHO definitions, respectively. Using all the three definitions the prevalence was higher in women in all age groups. ATP III and IDF criteria showed good agreement (k 0.68) compared to ATP III with WHO (k 0.54) and IDF with WHO (k 0.34) criteria. Highest prevalence was observed following IDF definition. A good agreement was observed between ATPIII and IDF criteria. Maximum prevalence of Metabolic syndrome was recorded when IDF criteria was followed. NCEP-ATPIII criteria for the diagnosis of MetS and this criterion reflected equal importance to the every variable and showed a good agreement between the different criteria used.

  5. Coryphoid palm leaf fossils from the Maastrichtian-Danian of Central India with remarks on phytogeography of the Coryphoideae (Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rashmi; Srivastava, Gaurav; Dilcher, David L

    2014-01-01

    A large number of fossil coryphoid palm wood and fruits have been reported from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of India. We document the oldest well-preserved and very rare costapalmate palm leaves and inflorescence like structures from the same horizon. A number of specimens were collected from Maastrichtian-Danian sediments of the Deccan Intertrappean beds, Ghughua, near Umaria, Dindori District, Madhya Pradesh, India. The specimens are compared with modern and fossil taxa of the family Arecaceae. Sabalites dindoriensis sp. nov. is described based on fossil leaf specimens including basal to apical parts. These are the oldest coryphoid fossil palm leaves from India as well as, at the time of deposition, from the Gondwana- derived continents. The fossil record of coryphoid palm leaves presented here and reported from the Eurasian localities suggests that this is the oldest record of coryphoid palm leaves from India and also from the Gondwana- derived continents suggesting that the coryphoid palms were well established and wide spread on both northern and southern hemispheres by the Maastrichtian-Danian. The coryphoid palms probably dispersed into India from Europe via Africa during the latest Cretaceous long before the Indian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate.

  6. Coryphoid Palm Leaf Fossils from the Maastrichtian–Danian of Central India with Remarks on Phytogeography of the Coryphoideae (Arecaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rashmi; Srivastava, Gaurav; Dilcher, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Premise of research A large number of fossil coryphoid palm wood and fruits have been reported from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of India. We document the oldest well-preserved and very rare costapalmate palm leaves and inflorescence like structures from the same horizon. Methodology A number of specimens were collected from Maastrichtian–Danian sediments of the Deccan Intertrappean beds, Ghughua, near Umaria, Dindori District, Madhya Pradesh, India. The specimens are compared with modern and fossil taxa of the family Arecaceae. Pivotal results Sabalites dindoriensis sp. nov. is described based on fossil leaf specimens including basal to apical parts. These are the oldest coryphoid fossil palm leaves from India as well as, at the time of deposition, from the Gondwana- derived continents. Conclusions The fossil record of coryphoid palm leaves presented here and reported from the Eurasian localities suggests that this is the oldest record of coryphoid palm leaves from India and also from the Gondwana- derived continents suggesting that the coryphoid palms were well established and wide spread on both northern and southern hemispheres by the Maastrichtian–Danian. The coryphoid palms probably dispersed into India from Europe via Africa during the latest Cretaceous long before the Indian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate. PMID:25394208

  7. India: Bihar

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image Scientists studying satellite data have discovered an immense wintertime pool ... of India. The MISR observations, however, show the pollution lies much farther north. While high pollution levels were found over much ...

  8. Inorganic ions in ambient fine particles over a National Park in central India: Seasonality, dependencies between SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+, and neutralization of aerosol acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Samresh; Sunder Raman, Ramya

    2016-10-01

    Twelve hour integrated ambient fine particles (PM2.5) were collected over an Van Vihar National Park (VVNP), in Bhopal, Central India. Samples were collected on filter substrates every-other-day for two years (2012 and 2013). In addition to PM2.5 mass concentration, water soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were also measured. Further, on-site meteorological parameters including temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, rainfall and atmospheric pressure were recorded. During 2012, the average PM2.5 concentration was 40 ± 31 μgm-3 while during 2013 it was 48 ± 50 μgm-3. Further, in about 20% of the samples the 12 h integrated fine PM mass exceeded the daily (24 h) average standards (60 μgm-3). This observation suggests that the PM2.5 mass concentration at the study site is likely to be in violation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), India. During the study period the sum of three major ions (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) accounted for 19.4% of PM2.5 mass on average. Air parcel back trajectory ensembles revealed that emissions from thermal power plants were likely to be the main regional source of particulate SO42- and NO3- measured over VVNP. Further, local traffic activities appeared to have no significant impact on the concentrations of PM2.5 and its WSIIs constituents, as revealed by a day-of-the-week analysis. PM2.5 mass, SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ showed a pronounced seasonal trend with winter (Jan, Feb) and post-monsoon (Oct, Nov, Dec) highs and pre-monsoon (Mar, Apr, May) and monsoon (Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep) lows, during both 2012 and 2013. Further, when the sum of SO42- and NO3- constituted greater than 90% of water soluble inorganic anions by mass, they were linearly dependent on one another and moderately anti-correlated (r2 = 0.60). The molar ratios of NH4+ and non-sea salt SO42- were examined to understand the aerosol neutralization mechanisms and particulate NO3- formation. An assessment of these ratios and subsequent analyses

  9. The Central California Coastal Circulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelton, Dudley B.; Bernstein, Robert L.; Bratkovich, Alan; Kosro, P. Michael

    The Central California Coastal Circulation Study (CCCCS) was an 18-month field program designed to study the variability of water mass characteristics and the velocity field on the continental shelf and upper continental slope of California from Point Conception to San Francisco. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Interior, Minerals Management Service (MMS), as part of an overall assessment of the impact of development of oil and gas resources on the ecosystem of coastal California. The Santa Maria Basin area, which extends from Point Conception to Point Buchon (100 km to the north) and about 50 km offshore, is of particular interest, as this area will be the focus of oil and gas exploration and production over the next decade. However, MMS is also interested in how the ocean variability in this region relates to the large-scale flow of the California Current System. The field work for CCCCS was conducted from February 1984 through July 1985 by Raytheon Service Company. This paper summarizes some of the preliminary results from analysis of the CCCCS data.

  10. Prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcal Bioaerosols in and around Residential Houses in an Urban Area in Central India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Goel, A K

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin resistant staphylococci (MRS) commonly found in clinical samples or associated environment pose a major health challenge globally. The carriage rate of MRS in human population is high, especially in India but research on airborne distribution of MRS is scanty. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MRS in indoor and outdoor environment of residential houses. Air samples were collected using impactor air sampler. The total counts of viable bacteria, staphylococci, and MRS along with the particles of various sizes were determined from indoor and outdoor environment of 14 residential houses. MRS bacteria were identified as methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) employing biochemical and PCR assays. The average concentration of MRS inside and outside of the houses was 5.9% and 4.6% of the total bacteria, respectively. The maximum correlation of total indoor and outdoor bacteria with particulate matter was 10 μm (r = 0.74) and 5 μm (r = 0.84), respectively. Statistically, significant positive correlation of staphylococci and MRS was found with particles of 10-25 μm inside the houses. Molecular surveillance, antibiotic stewardship programme, and infection control policies can help to manage increasing MRS burden in developing countries.

  11. Prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcal Bioaerosols in and around Residential Houses in an Urban Area in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P.; Goel, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin resistant staphylococci (MRS) commonly found in clinical samples or associated environment pose a major health challenge globally. The carriage rate of MRS in human population is high, especially in India but research on airborne distribution of MRS is scanty. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MRS in indoor and outdoor environment of residential houses. Air samples were collected using impactor air sampler. The total counts of viable bacteria, staphylococci, and MRS along with the particles of various sizes were determined from indoor and outdoor environment of 14 residential houses. MRS bacteria were identified as methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) employing biochemical and PCR assays. The average concentration of MRS inside and outside of the houses was 5.9% and 4.6% of the total bacteria, respectively. The maximum correlation of total indoor and outdoor bacteria with particulate matter was 10 μm (r = 0.74) and 5 μm (r = 0.84), respectively. Statistically, significant positive correlation of staphylococci and MRS was found with particles of 10–25 μm inside the houses. Molecular surveillance, antibiotic stewardship programme, and infection control policies can help to manage increasing MRS burden in developing countries. PMID:26925268

  12. Characteristics and sources of water-soluble ionic species associated with PM10 particles in the ambient air of central India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay K; Tsai, Ying I; Deb, Manas K; Zarmpas, Pavlos

    2012-11-01

    PM(10) aerosol samples were collected in Durg City, India from July 2009 to June 2010 using an Andersen aerosol sampler and analyzed for eight water-soluble ionic species, namely, Na(+), NH(4) (+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO(3) (-) and SO(4) (2-) by ion chromatography. The annual average concentration of PM(10) (253.5 ± 99.4 μg/m(3)) was four times higher than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 60 μg/m(3) prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board, India. The three most abundant ions were SO(4) (2-), NO(3) (-), and NH(4) (+), with average concentrations of 8.88 ± 4.81, 5.63 ± 2.22, and 5.18 ± 1.76 μg/m(3), respectively, and in turn accounting for 27.1 %, 16.5 %, and 15.5 % of the total water-soluble ions analyzed. Seasonal variation was similar for all secondary ions i.e., SO(4) (2-), NO(3) (-), and NH(4) (+), with high concentrations during winter and low concentrations during monsoon. Varimax Rotated Component Matrix principal component analysis identified secondary aerosols, crustal resuspension, and coal and biomass burning as common sources of PM(10) in Durg City, India.

  13. New Insights into the Structure of the Northern Margin of the India-Asia Collision from Magnetotelluric Data across the Central Altyn Tagh Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Unsworth, M. J.; Jin, S.; Wei, W.; Ye, G.; Jones, A. G.; Jing, J.; Dong, H.; Xie, C.; Le Pape, F.; Vozar, J.; Fang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Altyn Tagh Fault (ATF) is a left-lateral, strike-slip fault that forms the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and plays a significant role in accommodating the convergence between the colliding Indian and Eurasian plates. As a part of the fourth phase of the INDEPTH project, magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected across the central segment of the ATF to determine the lithospheric-scale structure of the fault system. Dimensionality analyses demonstrated that the MT data can be interpreted using two-dimensional approaches, but some localized 3-D effects are seen. Consequently, both 2-D and 3-D inversions were carried out, and a joint interpretation was made on the basis of these two types of models. Inversion models revealed two major conductors beneath the Qaidam Basin (QB) and Altyn Tagh Range (ATR), respectively. The conductive region beneath the QB was interpreted as a ductile layer in the lower crust to upper mantle that might represent flow beneath the western margin of the QB, whereas the large scale south-dipping conductor beneath the ATR is interpreted as a region with high fluid content formed by metamorphism associated with the oblique underthrusting of the Tarim Block beneath the northern Tibetan Plateau. These fluids migrate upward through the fault system and have formed serpentinized zones in the crust. Combining these interpretations, a structural model compatible with diverse geophysical observations is proposed, in which we suggest the competing end-member rigid block model and continuum model are reconcilable with the continuum model locally dominant for the study region, as evidenced by a thickened crust. * This work was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (41404060, 40974058, 40904025) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2652014016). Reference:Zhang, L., Unsworth, M., Jin, S., Wei, W., Ye, G., Jones, A.G., Jing, J., Dong, H., Xie, C., Le Pape, F., Vozar, J., 2015. Structure of the Central

  14. Prevalence and incrimination of Anopheles fluviatilis species S (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic forest area of Chhattisgarh state, central India.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Nutan; Bhatt, Rajendra M; Sharma, Shri N; Rana, Pallab K; Kar, Narayani P; Sharma, Akash; Adak, Tridibes

    2012-09-28

    Chhattisgarh state in central India is highly endemic for malaria and contributes about 13% of annually reported malaria cases in the country with predominance of P. falciparum. Entomological investigations were carried out in a tribal forested area of district Bastar located in the southern part of Chhattisgarh state to record the prevalence of sibling species of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies complexes. The vector species complexes were investigated at sibling species level for their biology in terms of resting and feeding behavior and malaria transmission potential. Indoor resting vector mosquitoes collected during 2010-2011 were identified to sibling species by cytotaxonomy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The blood meal source analysis and incrimination studies were done at sibling species level by counter current immunoelectrophoresis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Analysis of sibling species composition revealed predominance of An. fluviatilis species S in the study area, which was found to be highly anthropophagic and rested in human dwellings whereas the sympatric species T was primarily zoophagic. Incrimination studies showed high sporozoite rate in species S, thereby confirming its vectorial efficiency. An. culicifacies was encountered in low numbers and comprised species B and C in almost equal proportion. Both these species were found to be exclusively zoophagic. The observations made strongly suggest that species S of Fluviatilis Complex is the principal vector of malaria in certain forest areas of district Bastar, Chhattisgarh state and should be the target species for vector control operation. Vector control strategies based on biological characteristics of Fluviatilis S will lead to substantial decline in malaria incidence in such areas.

  15. Women's political participation and health: a health capability study in rural India.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Candace H; Darmstadt, Gary L; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the relationship between women's political participation and health has eluded researchers and cannot be adequately studied using traditional epidemiological or social scientific methodologies. We employed a health capability framework to understand dimensions of health agency to illuminate how local political economies affect health. Exploiting a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community-based behavior change management intervention in northern India, we conducted a qualitative study with semistructured, in-depth focus groups in both intervention and nonintervention villages. We presented scenarios to each group regarding the limitations and motivations involved in women's political participation and health. Thematic analysis focused on four domains of health agency -- participation, autonomy, self-efficacy, and health systems -- relevant for understanding the relationship between political participation and health. Elder women demonstrated the greatest sense of self-efficacy and as a group cited the largest number of successful health advocacy efforts. Participation in an associated community-based neonatal intervention had varying effects, showing some differences in self-efficacy, but only rare improvements in participation, autonomy, or health system functioning. Better understanding of cultural norms surrounding autonomy, the local infrastructure and health system, and male and female perceptions of political participation and self-efficacy are needed to improve women's health agency. For a community-based participatory health intervention to improve health capability effectively, explicit strategies focused on health agency should be as central as health indicators. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  16. Mafic dyke swarms of the Bastar Craton, central India: geochemistry, Sr-Nd isotopes and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chien-Yi; Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Raghvan Hari, Kosiyathu; Viswakarma, Neeraj

    2017-04-01

    The Archean Bastar Craton of central India which is demarcated by Godivari rift in the west, Mahanadi rift in the east, Narmada-Son rift in the north and the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt in the south was intruded by several generations of mafic dyke swarms during the Precambrian, with most of the dykes NW-SE to WNW-ESE trending. The dyke swarms can be subdivided into three main groups: the Meso-Neoarchean sub-alkaline mafic dykes (BD1), Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic boninite-norite dykes (BN) and Paleoproterozoic sub-alkaline mafic dykes (BD2). In the present work, an attempt has been made to constrain the petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the dykes in the Bhanupratapur area of central Bastar Craton. Petrographically, the dykes are metabasites / metadolerites that experienced hydrothermal alteration, as most of the samples are moderately to highly altered. Primary minerals were replaced but still retain the original igneous texture (ophitic). The least-altered samples contain orthopyroxene, plagioclase, secondary amphibole, secondary quartz and some euhedral Fe-Ti oxides. The dykes can be classified into two groups according to major element data. Petrographically, the two groups cannot be clearly distinguished. Group 1 is sub-alkaline basalt (SiO2 = 51 wt%) with low magnesium (MgO = 4.6 to 7.2 wt%), low Mg-number (Mg# ≤ 53) and higher titanium (TiO2 ≥ 0.83 wt%). Group 2 is sub-alkaline basaltic andesite and has boninitic characteristics with higher silica (SiO2 = 51 to 56 wt%), higher magnesium (MgO = 5.9 to 19.1 wt%), higher Mg-number (Mg# = 50 to 79) and lower titanium (TiO2 ≤ 0.8 wt%). The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of Group 1 show variability in the light rare earth elements (La/SmN = 1.2 to 2.4). Group 2 exhibit light rare earth element enrichment (La/YbN = 2.2 to 10.4). The Sm-Nd isochron age of Group 1 is approximately 1.9 Ga, with the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7029 to 0.7058 and ɛNd(t) values range from-0.9 to +1.8. Group 1

  17. Rheumatic heart disease in rural south India: A clinico-observational study

    PubMed Central

    Sriharibabu, Manne; Himabindu, Yalamanchali; Kabir, Zubair

    2013-01-01

    Background Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is still a public health issue in many countries in the world, and particularly in Southeast Asia. India, for example, contributes 25%–50% of the global burden of RHD. Clinic-based and epidemiological studies on RHD in India have used different methodologies and clinical criteria to estimate RHD burden in India. The present study employs strict clinical criteria, including echocardiography, to estimate RHD prevalence and associated clinical complications in a large unique rural population in southern India covered through a governmental health insurance scheme. Materials and methods Total 44,164 eligible patients were screened from 238 primary care health centers in rural southern India between October 2007 and March 2012 using strict clinical criteria and objective ascertainment. A total of 403 patients aged 15 years or above were finally analyzed based on both the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Detailed information on both demographic and clinical characteristics was obtained through personal interviews and clinical examinations. Descriptive analyses were performed, including age standardization. Results The age-standardized RHD prevalence rate was 9.7/1000 populations—more common in younger age groups (<44 years) and relatively high among females. Pulmonary hypertension was the most common clinical complication followed by CHF, tricuspid regurgitation, as well as infective endocarditis. More than two-thirds had no past history of RHD or penicillin prophylaxis. Conclusions RHD rates are still high in rural India among populations covered through governmental health insurance scheme. Both primary and secondary preventive measures, including widespread coverage of penicillin prophylaxis, must be considered mainstay tools to both prevent and reduce RHD burden in endemic populations, including rural India. PMID:24023467

  18. Observed internal tides and near-inertial waves on the continental shelf and slope off Jaigarh, central west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subeesh, M. P.; Unnikrishnan, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    The characteristics of internal tides (ITs) and near-inertial waves (NIWs) on the continental shelf and slope off Jaigarh (17∘N), central west coast of India were studied. Eight-month (March-October) long Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements made in the year 2008 were used in the present study. Analysis of sea surface heights from satellite altimeter data, where the tracks of the satellites are oriented nearly in the direction of the semimajor axis of barotropic tides, reveals the presence of diurnal and semidiurnal internal tides with surface amplitudes of about 2 cm. Baroclinic current spectra of horizontal velocities show peaks in IT frequencies of M2, S2, K1 and O1 and in inertial frequency (f). The observed current spectra show higher energies than those in Garrett-Munk reference spectra by about 2-3 times. Based on the estimates of "critical topography" (where the topographic slope is equal to the slope of IT) and computed barotropic body force (Baines, 1982), the shelf-edge, mid-slope and deep part of the slope region are found to be the possible generation sites of internal tides in the region. Over the period of observation, the IT on the slope is found to be energetic, with a strong IT during March to mid-April (pre-monsoon period). Whereas, on the shelf, IT is weak during the pre-monsoon and found to be strong in the southwest monsoon. The available hydrographic data and model simulated hydrography suggest that this difference is linked with the stratification changes on the shelf and slope during these seasons, where the stratification is found to be weak on the shelf and strong on the slope during pre-monsoon. Strong low-mode NIW is observed on the shelf associated with the storm events while the NIW is found to be less energetic on the slope.

  19. Record of continental to marine transition from the Mesoproterozoic Ampani basin, Central India: An exercise of process-based sedimentology in a structurally deformed basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Saha, Subhojit; Das, Kaushik

    2017-08-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Ampani Group of rocks, a structurally deformed sedimentary package hosted within the Bastar Craton in central India, was studied for process-based facies and paleoenvironmental analyses. Outcrop mapping on 1:1500 scale, deconvolution of deformation pattern, and process-based facies analyses have led to the identification of fifteen facies types, clubbed under four facies associations. A range of paleoenvironmental settings varying from continental fluvial to distal marine shelf is inferred. Deductive paleohydrology revealed poorly-efficient 'dirty river' character for the Ampani River system with low water discharge. However, at times of catastrophic sheet floods release of sediments trapped at the river mouth in form of hyperpycnal underflows triggered formation of river mouth delta. Reworking of delta front sediment in wave-dominated coastline resulted development of beach-foreshore and shoreface (proximal to distal). Variation in the relative proportion of bar and interbar products within the shoreface successions exposed at different studied sections is interpreted as signature of relative bathymetric variation. The pro-deltaic Ampani shelf was storm infested. Tectonic perturbance in the basin hinterland in course of Ampani sedimentation is inferred from occurrence of a disparately thick lobate high-density flow deposit towards the top of shoreface succession and increase in feldspar content upward within the shoreface succession. Addition of detritus from a ∼1600 Ma Mesoproterozoic provenance in upper part of shoreface also strengthen the contention. Deconvolution of deformation pattern and delineation of environmental products ranging between continental and deep marine allowed us to infer the Ampani sediment package as fining-upward in character evolved in a transgressive mode.

  20. Epidemiology of viral pathogens of free-ranging dogs and Indian foxes in a human-dominated landscape in central India.

    PubMed

    Belsare, A V; Vanak, A T; Gompper, M E

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing concern that free-ranging domestic dog (Canis familiaris) populations may serve as reservoirs of pathogens which may be transmitted to wildlife. We documented the prevalence of antibodies to three viral pathogens, canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus (CAV), in free-ranging dog and sympatric Indian fox (Vulpes bengalensis) populations in and around the Great Indian Bustard Wildlife Sanctuary, in Maharashtra, central India. A total of 219 dogs and 33 foxes were sampled during the study period. Ninety-three percentage of dogs and 87% of foxes were exposed to one or more of the three pathogens. Exposure rates in dogs were high: >88% for CPV, >72% for CDV and 71% for CAV. A large proportion of adult dogs had antibodies against these pathogens due to seroconversion following earlier natural infection. The high prevalence of exposure to these pathogens across the sampling sessions, significantly higher exposure rates of adults compared with juveniles, and seroconversion in some unvaccinated dogs documented during the study period suggests that these pathogens are enzootic. The prevalence of exposure to CPV, CDV and CAV in foxes was 48%, 18% and 52%, respectively. Further, a high rate of mortality was documented in foxes with serologic evidence of ongoing CDV infection. Dogs could be playing a role in the maintenance and transmission of these pathogens in the fox population, but our findings show that most dogs in the population are immune to these pathogens by virtue of earlier natural infection, and therefore, these individuals make little current or future contribution to viral maintenance. Vaccination of this cohort will neither greatly improve their collective immune status nor contribute to herd immunity. Our findings have potentially important implications for dog disease control programmes that propose using canine vaccination as a tool for conservation management of wild carnivore populations. © 2014

  1. Cloud characteristics over the rain-shadow region of North Central peninsular India during monsoon withdrawal and post-withdrawal periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morwal, S. B.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Kothawale, D. R.; Dani, K. K.; Burger, R.; Bruintjes, R. T.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Cloud characteristics over the rain-shadow region of the north central peninsular India has been studied using C-band radar data for the period 21 September-30 October 2011. The period covers withdrawal and post-withdrawal periods of monsoon 2011. Though the study has been carried out for one season, it has been shown that it is representative of climatic feature over the region. The cloud characteristics have been discussed in the context of large scale dynamical and thermodynamical conditions over the region using NCEP wind data and radiosonde data, respectively. The large scale dynamic and thermodynamical conditions were found favorable for occurrence of widespread and deep convection. The cloud top heights show tri-modal distribution with peaks at 2-3, 4-6 and 8-12 km which are associated with cumulus, congestus and cumulonimbus clouds, respectively. The tops of these three types of the clouds are found to be associated with the stable layers in the atmosphere. The frequency of congestus clouds was the highest. The cloud characteristics over the region differ from other tropical land and oceanic regions in respect of maximum height, mean duration and cumulative frequency distribution. Distribution of cloud top height and duration show deviation from lognormality in the lower ends. It indicates that the cloud growth mechanism is different than that observed over other tropical land and oceanic regions and also due to the large wind shear prevailed over the region. During the period, a large number of suitable clouds were found available for hygroscopic and glaciogenic cloud seeding.

  2. Perception of Medical Students about Communication Skills Laboratory (CSL) in a Rural Medical College of Central India.

    PubMed

    Jagzape, Tushar Bharat; Jagzape, Arunita Tushar; Vagha, Jayant Dattatray; Chalak, Anita; Meshram, Revatdhamma Jagdish

    2015-12-01

    "The art of medicine is intricately tied to the art of communication." In traditional medical curriculum, communication is not taught formally and this leads to a gap in reliability and consistency of the teaching. Few studies have shown that much litigation against doctors is due to lack of communication and not because of lack of clinical expertise. Considering the importance of training in communication skills, it was included in the curriculum of students of DMIMS (DU), which has got probably the first communication skills lab in a medical college in India. To study the perception of medical students about usefulness of communication skills lab. This observational study was carried out at Communication Skills Lab (CSL) of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (M), Wardha, Maharasthra. Feedback was obtained with the help of a prevalidated questionnaire from 65 final MBBS students about their perception about utility of the module taught in the CSL including factors which helped and which hindered in learning. Descriptive statistics was used for the quantitative data and categorization for qualitative data. A total of 78.46% students were of the idea that CSL posting is must for all medical undergraduates. A 93.83% perceive that the module taught was very relevant and useful and were satisfied with the duration of posting (81.47%). A 78.46% students experienced improvement in their communication skills. They opined that more emphasis should be given on communication between doctor and patient (61.53%). The students found communication skills lab very useful. They desired more emphasis on communication between doctor and patient and sought more interactivity, video demonstrations to be part of the module.

  3. Perception of Medical Students about Communication Skills Laboratory (CSL) in a Rural Medical College of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Jagzape, Arunita Tushar; Vagha, Jayant Dattatray; Chalak, Anita; Meshram, Revatdhamma Jagdish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction “The art of medicine is intricately tied to the art of communication.” In traditional medical curriculum, communication is not taught formally and this leads to a gap in reliability and consistency of the teaching. Few studies have shown that much litigation against doctors is due to lack of communication and not because of lack of clinical expertise. Considering the importance of training in communication skills, it was included in the curriculum of students of DMIMS (DU), which has got probably the first communication skills lab in a medical college in India. Aim To study the perception of medical students about usefulness of communication skills lab. Materials and Methods This observational study was carried out at Communication Skills Lab (CSL) of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (M), Wardha, Maharasthra. Feedback was obtained with the help of a prevalidated questionnaire from 65 final MBBS students about their perception about utility of the module taught in the CSL including factors which helped and which hindered in learning. Descriptive statistics was used for the quantitative data and categorization for qualitative data. Results A total of 78.46% students were of the idea that CSL posting is must for all medical undergraduates. A 93.83% perceive that the module taught was very relevant and useful and were satisfied with the duration of posting (81.47%). A 78.46% students experienced improvement in their communication skills. They opined that more emphasis should be given on communication between doctor and patient (61.53%). Conclusion The students found communication skills lab very useful. They desired more emphasis on communication between doctor and patient and sought more interactivity, video demonstrations to be part of the module. PMID:26816918

  4. Hydrogeochemical controls on mobilization of arsenic and associated health risk in Nagaon district of the central Brahmaputra Plain, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Patel, Arbind Kumar; Das, Aparna; Kumar, Pankaj; Goswami, Ritusmita; Deka, Parismita; Das, Nilotpal

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, elevated concentration of arsenic (As) in groundwater in the northeastern states of India has become a major cause of concern. Since many regions of the Brahmaputra plains are reported with groundwater As contamination, an attempt was made to study the As contamination and factors governing its release in the Nagaon district in Brahmaputra floodplain, based on various water types, relation of As with other major ions and with various depth profiles. The origin of groundwater mineralization and the processes responsible for As enrichment in groundwater was determined by calculating saturation index using PHREEQC code. Multivariate statistical analysis was carried out for identification of As-releasing mechanism based on rock-water interaction. Principle component analysis of physicochemical parameters revealed the association of As with SiO2 and Cl(-) in pre-monsoon and the fact that alkaline condition favors release of As. The relation between As and Fe shows that reductive dissolution of solid Fe oxide and hydroxide phases could be the source of As in Nagaon district. The result of hierarchical cluster analysis indicates that As release could also be associated with the agrochemicals application. Health risk assessment revealed that children are more susceptible to carcinogenic as well as non-carcinogenic health impact with consumption of As-contaminated drinking water. The male population is more susceptible to cancer as compared to females as the average water consumption is higher in case of male. Overall, the study highlights the health risk assessment is a matter of chief concern in this study as the younger generation are at higher risk.

  5. Community pharmacy based research activity in India: A bibliometric study of the past ten years.

    PubMed

    Basak, Subal Chandra; Sathyanarayana, Dondeti

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze and record the published evidence regarding community pharmacy practice in India during the past decade (1998-2008). A bibliometric review analysis of the original papers was undertaken to assess the different aspects of community pharmacy practice in India. The MEDLINE, Index Copernicus, IndMed, DOAJ databases and the journals such as Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Indian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy were used as data sources. Type of papers, type of journals, category of papers, production indicators and impact factor of the journals were analyzed. Thirty papers were included in the study. The papers were published in 13 different journals, 33.3% of them being in the Indian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. The average number of authors per paper was 2.73 (SD=1.41). Impact factor was available for only three journals. There are limited studies being published in India which cover the community pharmacy related activities in India. The key indicators which emerge from the literature review present some fundamental challenges to the development of the role of the community pharmacist in India.

  6. Community pharmacy based research activity in India: A bibliometric study of the past ten years

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Subal Chandra; Sathyanarayana, Dondeti

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze and record the published evidence regarding community pharmacy practice in India during the past decade (1998-2008). Methods: A bibliometric review analysis of the original papers was undertaken to assess the different aspects of community pharmacy practice in India. The MEDLINE, Index Copernicus, IndMed, DOAJ databases and the journals such as Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Indian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy were used as data sources. Type of papers, type of journals, category of papers, production indicators and impact factor of the journals were analyzed. Results: Thirty papers were included in the study. The papers were published in 13 different journals, 33.3% of them being in the Indian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. The average number of authors per paper was 2.73 (SD=1.41). Impact factor was available for only three journals. Conclusions: There are limited studies being published in India which cover the community pharmacy related activities in India. The key indicators which emerge from the literature review present some fundamental challenges to the development of the role of the community pharmacist in India. PMID:23093877

  7. Associations Between the Macroeconomic Indicators and Suicide Rates in India: Two Ecological Studies.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Anto P; Senthilkumar, P; Gayathri, K; Shyamsundar, G; Jacob, K S

    2015-01-01

    While western studies have focused on the importance of psychiatric illnesses in the complex pathways leading to suicides, several Indian studies have highlighted the important contributions by economic, social, and cultural factors. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that annual national suicide rates and suicide rates of the different states in India were associated with macroeconomic indices. Data from the National crime records bureau, Ministry of finance, labour bureau, Government of India, population commission, and planning commission official portals, World Bank and the United Nations were accessed. We assessed the correlations of annual national and state-wise suicide rates with macroeconomic, health, and other indices using ecological study design for India, and for its different states and union territories. We documented statistically significant associations between the suicide rates and per capita gross domestic product, consumer price index, foreign exchange, trade balance, total health expenditure as well as literacy rates. As recent economic growth in India is associated with increasing suicide rates, macroeconomic policies emphasizing equitable distribution of resources may help curtailing the population suicide rates in India.

  8. Community responses to government defunding of watershed projects: a comparative study in India and the USA.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Tomas M; Sen, Sucharita

    2013-03-01

    When central governments decentralize natural resource management (NRM), they often retain an interest in the local efforts and provide funding for them. Such outside investments can serve an important role in moving community-based efforts forward. At the same time, they can represent risks to the community if government resources are not stable over time. Our focus in this article is on the effects of withdrawal of government resources from community-based NRM. A critical question is how to build institutional capacity to carry on when the government funding runs out. This study compares institutional survival and coping strategies used by community-based project organizations in two different contexts, India and the United States. Despite higher links to livelihoods, community participation, and private benefits, efforts in the Indian cases exhibited lower survival rates than did those in the U.S. cases. Successful coping strategies in the U.S. context often involved tapping into existing institutions and resources. In the Indian context, successful coping strategies often involved building broad community support for the projects and creatively finding additional funding sources. On the other hand, the lack of local community interest, due to the top-down development approach and sometimes narrow benefit distribution, often challenged organizational survival and project maintenance.

  9. Community Responses to Government Defunding of Watershed Projects: A Comparative Study in India and the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, Tomas M.; Sen, Sucharita

    2013-03-01

    When central governments decentralize natural resource management (NRM), they often retain an interest in the local efforts and provide funding for them. Such outside investments can serve an important role in moving community-based efforts forward. At the same time, they can represent risks to the community if government resources are not stable over time. Our focus in this article is on the effects of withdrawal of government resources from community-based NRM. A critical question is how to build institutional capacity to carry on when the government funding runs out. This study compares institutional survival and coping strategies used by community-based project organizations in two different contexts, India and the United States. Despite higher links to livelihoods, community participation, and private benefits, efforts in the Indian cases exhibited lower survival rates than did those in the U.S. cases. Successful coping strategies in the U.S. context often involved tapping into existing institutions and resources. In the Indian context, successful coping strategies often involved building broad community support for the projects and creatively finding additional funding sources. On the other hand, the lack of local community interest, due to the top-down development approach and sometimes narrow benefit distribution, often challenged organizational survival and project maintenance.

  10. Assessing the needs of siblings of persons with schizophrenia: A qualitative study from India.

    PubMed

    Amaresha, Anekal C; Joseph, Boban; Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Muralidhar, Daliboina; Subbakrishna, Doddaballapura K

    2015-10-01

    There is a lack of studies on siblings of persons with schizophrenia (SOPS) in Asia. This study aims to explore the needs of SOPS in India. 15 SOPS participated in this qualitative explorative study. All the interviews were audio recorded and later transcribed. Data analysis was carried out using General Inductive Approach. Five themes emerged from the data: managing illness or socio-occupational functioning; follow up services; informational needs; personal needs; and miscellaneous needs. SOPS in India have some distinctive needs. Identifying these needs might help in developing and designing specific psychosocial interventions for better management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Framingham Heart Study: impact on the prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases in India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Satija, Ambika

    2010-01-01

    India is in the middle of the epidemiological transition, with the burden of disease shifting towards chronic conditions, of which cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) form a major part. Findings from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) have tremendous potential to circumvent the projected increase in CVD burden in India, as they highlight the importance of measuring risk in individuals and populations, and preventing future onset of disease. The findings of the FHS have stimulated several cross-sectional studies in India documenting a high and increasing burden of CVD risk factors. These have led to policy level changes in the country, in the form of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control ratification, and the National Program on Diabetes, CVD, and Stroke. There is now need for an Indian cohort study on the lines of the FHS, which can more closely evaluate the use of the FHS risk score among Indians and translate FHS findings into the Indian context. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Perceived health concerns among sexual minority women in Mumbai, India: an exploratory qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Banik, Swagata; Rodriguez, Israel; Mengele, Shruta Rawat; Herbenick, Debby; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Sanders, Stephanie; Dange, Alpana; Anand, Vivek

    2016-07-01

    The experiences of sexual minority women (i.e., women who do not identify as 'heterosexual') in India have largely been absent in scientific literature. In partnership with India's oldest and largest sexual and gender minority-advocacy organisation, the Humsafar Trust, our study used community-based participatory research principles to explore the lived experiences and health concerns of sexual minority women in Mumbai. Study methodologies included interviews with key informants, a focus group comprised of six women, and an additional 12 in-person interviews with sexual minority women to identify important physical, mental, social and other health priorities from these women's perspectives. Thematic data are organised within the framework offered by the social ecological model, including individual, interpersonal, micro and macro levels. Findings from this study are important in providing the groundwork for future research and intervention involving sexual minority women in India, a dramatically underserved population.

  13. Spatial distribution of metals in ground/surface waters in the Chandrapur district (Central India) and their plausible sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satapathy, D. R.; Salve, P. R.; Katpatal, Y. B.

    2009-02-01

    This study addresses a framework to evaluate and map environmental hazard with reference to spatial distribution of major and trace metal contamination and its relationship with lithology in Chandrapur district of Maharashtra, India using geospatial, statistical and GIS tools. In all, 208 ground water and 35 surface water samples were collected using global positioning system (GPS) synoptically with satellite imagery IRS P6 LISS III and were analyzed in ICP-AES. Analytical results reflect the presence of major and trace metals in ground water in terms of % as Fe (48%), Mn (12%), Zn (9%), Al (8%), Pb (7%), Cu (6%), Ni (4%), Cd (3%) and Cr (3%) of the total average concentration. The contamination is attributed to weathering of rocks and also to mining activities. Similarly, surface water contribution of major and trace metals was found as Al (47.8%), Fe (42.8%), Mn (5.5%), Zn (2.3%), Pb (0.56%), Ni (0.42%), Cu (0.16%), Cr (0.16%) and Cd (0.10%) of the total average concentration. Ordinary kriging interpolation method was adopted to assess the spatial distribution of different major and trace metals in groundwater samples with their best model fit variogram Classical statistical method like principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out in order to establish correlation between spatial pattern of metal contamination and geology of the area in GIS environment. Various surface and subsurface aspects like landuse/land cover, structural features, hydrogeology, topography etc were also considered to ascertain their impact to supplement the inference of the study.

  14. Persistence and risk assessment of spiromesifen on tomato in India: a multilocational study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K K; Mukherjee, Irani; Singh, Balwinder; Mandal, Kousik; Sahoo, Sanjay K; Banerjee, Hemanta; Banerjee, Tirthankar; Roy, Sankhajit; Shah, Paresh G; Patel, Hemlatta K; Patel, Anil R; Beevi, S Naseema; George, Thomas; Mathew, Thomas B; Singh, Geeta; Noniwal, Rajbir; Devi, Sunita

    2014-12-01

    Supervised field trials were conducted at four different agro-climatic locations of India to evaluate the dissipation pattern and risk assessment of spiromesifen on tomato. Spiromesifen 240 SC was sprayed on tomato at 150 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1). Samples of tomato fruits were drawn at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after treatment and soil at 15 days after treatment. Quantification of residues was done on gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometer in selective ion monitoring mode in the mass range of 271-274 (m/z). The limit of quantification of the method was found to be 0.05 mg kg(-1), while the limit of determination was 0.015 mg kg(-1). Residues were found below the LOQ of 0.05 mg kg(-1) in 10 days at both the doses of application at all the locations. Spiromesifen dissipated with a half-life of 0.93-1.38 days at the recommended rate of application and 1.04-1.34 days at the double the rate of application. Residues of spiromesifen in soil were detectable level (<0.05 mg kg(-1)) after 15 days of treatment. A preharvest interval (PHI) of 1 day has been recommended on tomato on the basis of data generated under All India Network Project on Pesticide Residues. Spiromesifen 240 SC has been registered for its use on tomato by Central Insecticide Board and Registration Committee, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. The maximum residue limit (MRL) of spiromesifen on tomato has been fixed by Food Safety Standard Authority of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India as 0.3 μg/g after its risk assessment.

  15. Preliminary studies on trace element contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in India and Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agusa, T.; Kunito, T.; Nakashima, E.; Minh, T. B.; Tanabe, S.; Subramanian, A.; Viet, P. H.

    2003-05-01

    The disposal of wastes in dumping sites has increasingly caused concem about adverse health effects on the populations living nearby. However, no investigation has been conducted yet on contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in Asian developing countries. In this study, concentrations of 11 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb and Pb) were detennined in scalp hair from the population living nearby and in soil from dumping sites and control sites of India and Vietnam. Soil samples in dumping site in India showed significantly higher concentrations of some trace elements than soils in control site, whereas this trend was not notable in Vietnam. This is probably due to the fact that the wastes were covered with the soil in the dumping site of Vietnam. Cadmium concentrations in some hair samples of people living near dumping site in India and Vietnam exceeded the level associated with learning disorder in children. Levels of most of the trace elements in hair were significantly higher in dumping site than those in control site in India and Vietnam, suggesting direct or indirect exposure to those elements from dumping wastes. To our knowledge, this is the first study of trace element contamination in dumping sites in India and Vietnam.

  16. Eye care infrastructure and human resources for managing diabetic retinopathy in India: The India 11-city 9-state study

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Clare E.; Babu, R. Giridhara; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sai Venkat; Anchala, Raghupathy; Shukla, Rajan; Ballabh, Pant Hira; Vashist, Praveen; Ramachandra, Srikrishna S.; Allagh, Komal; Sagar, Jayanti; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Murthy, G. V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information on the availability of services for diagnosis and management of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in India. Objectives: The study was undertaken to document existing healthcare infrastructure and practice patterns for managing DR. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 cities and included public and private eye care providers. Both multispecialty and stand-alone eye care facilities were included. Information was collected on the processes used in all steps of the program, from how diabetics were identified for screening through to policies about follow-up after treatment by administering a semistructured questionnaire and by using observational checklists. Results: A total of 86 eye units were included (31.4% multispecialty hospitals; 68.6% stand-alone clinics). The availability of a dedicated retina unit was reported by 68.6% (59) facilities. The mean number of outpatient consultations per year was 45,909 per responding facility, with nearly half being new registrations. A mean of 631 persons with sight-threatening-DR (ST-DR) were registered per year per facility. The commonest treatment for ST-DR was laser photocoagulation. Only 58% of the facilities reported having a full-time retina specialist on their rolls. More than half the eye care facilities (47; 54.6%) reported that their ophthalmologists would like further training in retina. Half (51.6%) of the facilities stated that they needed laser or surgical equipment. About 46.5% of the hospitals had a system to track patients needing treatment or for follow-up. Conclusions: The study highlighted existing gaps in service provision at eye care facilities in India. PMID:27144134

  17. Magnetic Data Interpretation for the Source-Edge Locations in Parts of the Tectonically Active Transition Zone of the Narmada-Son Lineament in Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, G. K.

    2016-02-01

    The study has been carried out in the transition zone of the Narmada-Son lineament (NSL) which is seismically active with various geological complexities, upwarp movement of the mantle material into the crust through fault, fractures lamination and upwelling. NSL is one of the most prominent lineaments in central India after the Himalaya in the Indian geology. The area of investigation extends from longitude 80.25°E to 81.50°E and latitude 23.50°N to 24.37°N in the central part of the Indian continent. Different types of subsurface geological formations viz. alluvial, Gondwana, Deccan traps, Vindhyan, Mahakoshal, Granite and Gneisses groups exist in this area with varying geological ages. In this study area tectonic movement and crustal variation have been taken place during the past time and which might be reason for the variation of magnetic field. Magnetic anomaly suggests that the area has been highly disturbed which causes the Narmada-Son lineament trending in the ENE-WSW direction. Magnetic anomaly variation has been taken place due to the lithological variations subject to the changes in the geological contacts like thrusts and faults in this area. Shallow and deeper sources have been distinguished using frequency domain analysis by applying different filters. To enhance the magnetic data, various types of derivatives to identify the source-edge locations of the causative source bodies. The present study carried out the interpretation using total horizontal derivative, tilt angle derivative, horizontal tilt angle derivative and Cos (θ) derivative map to get source-edge locations. The results derived from various derivatives of magnetic data have been compared with the basement depth solutions calculated from 3D Euler deconvolution. It is suggested that total horizontal derivative, tilt angle derivative and Cos (θ) derivative are the most useful tools for identifying the multiple source edge locations of the causative bodies in this tectonically active

  18. Clinical impact of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T mutations among sickle cell disease patients of Central India.

    PubMed

    Nishank, Sudhansu Sekhar; Singh, Mendi Prema Shyam Sunder; Yadav, Rajiv

    2013-11-01

    It is known that patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) present activation of the blood coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, especially during vaso-occlusive crises and also during the steady state of the disease. We determined whether the presence of the factor prothrombin gene G20210A variant, factor V gene G1691A mutation (factor V Leiden), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphisms may be risk factors for vascular complications in individuals with SCD. The study involved 150 patients with sickle cell anemia and 150 healthy controls of Central India. Genotyping of three thrombophilic mutations was carried out by PCR-RFLP methods using MnlI, Hind III, and Hinf I, respectively, for factor V Leiden, prothrombin, and MTHFR mutations. Patients with SCD had significantly higher prevalence of mutant variants of MTHFR gene (28.0% heterozygotes and 14.6% homozygotes) and FVL gene (14.6% heterozygotes) as compared to normal/control individuals, but complete absence of mutant variants of prothrombin gene. The patients with SCD having mutant variants of MTHFR and FVL genes showed higher incidence of pain in chest, abdomen, and bone joints along with early age of onset of clinical manifestations as well as frequent dependence on blood transfusion than those patients with SCD having wild variants of these thrombotic genes. As compared to control subjects, SCD individuals having mutant variants of FVL and MTHFR genes had significant association with higher levels of prothrombin fragment (F1+2), D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin (TAT), and lower level of protein C. MTHFR C677T and FVL G1691A polymorphisms may be risk factors for increased vascular complications in patient with SCD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Stable and radioactive carbon in forest soils of Chhattisgarh, Central India: Implications for tropical soil carbon dynamics and stable carbon isotope evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, A. H.; Yadava, M. G.; Ramesh, R.

    2016-06-01

    Soils from two sites viz. Kotumsar and Tirathgarh, located ∼5 km apart in a tropical reserve forest (18°52‧N, 81°56‧E) in central India, have been explored for soil organic carbon (SOC) content, its mean residence time (MRT) and the evolution of stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C). SOC stocks in the upper 30 cm of soil layers are ∼5.3 kg/m2 and ∼3.0 kg/m2; in the upper 110 m are ∼10.7 kg/m2 and ∼7.8 kg/m2 at Kotumsar and Tirathgarh, respectively. SOC decreases with increasing depth. Bomb carbon signature is observed in the upper ∼10 cm. Organic matters in the top soil layers (0-10 cm) have MRTs of the order of a century which increases gradually with depths, reaching 3500-5000 yrs at ∼100 cm. δ13C values of SOC increase with depth, the carbon isotopic fractionation is obtained to be -1.2‰ and -3‰ for soils at Kotumsar and Tirathgarh, respectively, confirmed using Rayleigh isotopic fractionation model. The evolution of δ13C in soils was also studied using a modified Rayleigh fractionation model incorporating a continuous input into the reservoir: the depth profiles of δ13C for SOC show that the input organic matter from surface into the deeper soil layers is either insignificant or highly labile and decomposes quite fast in the top layers, thus making little contribution to the residual biomasses of the deeper layers. This is an attempt to understand the distillation processes that take place in SOC, assess the extent of decomposition by microbes and effect of percolation of fresh organic matter into dipper soil layers which are important for stable isotope based paleoclimate and paleovegetation reconstruction and understanding the dynamics of organic carbon in soils.

  20. Genetic and Chemical Profiling of Gymnema sylvestre Accessions from Central India: Its Implication for Quality Control and Therapeutic Potential of Plant

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Singh, Seema; Bharati, Kumar Avinash; Jyotsana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gymnema sylvestre, a vulnerable plant species, is mentioned in Indian Pharmacopeia as an antidiabetic drug Objective: Study of genetic and chemical diversity and its implications in accessions of G. sylvestre Materials and Methods: Fourteen accessions of G. sylvestre collected from Central India and assessment of their genetic and chemical diversity were carried out using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) fingerprinting methods Results: Among the screened 40 ISSR primers, 15 were found polymorphic and collectively produced nine unique accession-specific bands. The maximum and minimum numbers of amplicones were noted for ISSR-15 and ISSR-11, respectively. The ISSR -11 and ISSR-13 revealed 100% polymorphism. HPLC chromatograms showed that accessions possess the secondary metabolites of mid-polarity with considerable variability. Unknown peaks with retention time 2.63, 3.41, 23.83, 24.50, and 44.67 were found universal type. Comparative hierarchical clustering analysis based on foresaid fingerprints indicates that both techniques have equal potential to discriminate accessions according to percentage gymnemic acid in their leaf tissue. Second approach was noted more efficiently for separation of accessions according to their agro-climatic/collection site Conclusion: Highly polymorphic ISSRs could be utilized as molecular probes for further selection of high gymnemic acid yielding accessions. Observed accession specific bands may be used as a descriptor for plant accessions protection and converted into sequence tagged sites markers. Identified five universal type peaks could be helpful in identification of G. sylvestre-based various herbal preparations. SUMMARY Nine accession specific unique bandsFive marker peaks for G. sylvestre.Suitability of genetic and chemical fingerprinting Abbreviations used: HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, ISSR: Inter Simple Sequence Repeats, CTAB: Cetyl

  1. Genetic and Chemical Profiling of Gymnema sylvestre Accessions from Central India: Its Implication for Quality Control and Therapeutic Potential of Plant.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Singh, Seema; Bharati, Kumar Avinash; Jyotsana

    2016-07-01

    Gymnema sylvestre, a vulnerable plant species, is mentioned in Indian Pharmacopeia as an antidiabetic drug. Study of genetic and chemical diversity and its implications in accessions of G. sylvestre. Fourteen accessions of G. sylvestre collected from Central India and assessment of their genetic and chemical diversity were carried out using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) fingerprinting methods. Among the screened 40 ISSR primers, 15 were found polymorphic and collectively produced nine unique accession-specific bands. The maximum and minimum numbers of amplicones were noted for ISSR-15 and ISSR-11, respectively. The ISSR -11 and ISSR-13 revealed 100% polymorphism. HPLC chromatograms showed that accessions possess the secondary metabolites of mid-polarity with considerable variability. Unknown peaks with retention time 2.63, 3.41, 23.83, 24.50, and 44.67 were found universal type. Comparative hierarchical clustering analysis based on foresaid fingerprints indicates that both techniques have equal potential to discriminate accessions according to percentage gymnemic acid in their leaf tissue. Second approach was noted more efficiently for separation of accessions according to their agro-climatic/collection site. Highly polymorphic ISSRs could be utilized as molecular probes for further selection of high gymnemic acid yielding accessions. Observed accession specific bands may be used as a descriptor for plant accessions protection and converted into sequence tagged sites markers. Identified five universal type peaks could be helpful in identification of G. sylvestre-based various herbal preparations. Nine accession specific unique bandsFive marker peaks for G. sylvestre.Suitability of genetic and chemical fingerprinting Abbreviations used: HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, ISSR: Inter Simple Sequence Repeats, CTAB: Cetyl Trimethylammonium Bromide, DNTP: Deoxynucleotide Triphosphates.

  2. Garnet geochronology: improvements and application in studying India-Asia collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Matthijs; Scherer, Erik; Mezger, Klaus; Lee, Jeffrey; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Kooijman, Ellen; Stearns, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Garnet enables constraints on all parameters relevant to lithosphere studies: pressure, temperature, strain, and time. This aspect, in combination with its widespread occurrence in metamorphic rocks, make the mineral a prime target in research into the dynamics of mountain belts. Our ability to obtain and interpret precise age constraints from garnet Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd data has greatly improved over the years. This contribution highlights recent enhancements in garnet geochronology and demonstrates the versatility of this method in two case studies set in the India-Asia collision zone. To enable a more effective use of garnet geochronology, we investigated the retentiveness of Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope signatures in naturally metamorphosed garnet. A grain-size dependent Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd analysis of garnet was done on a sample of a slowly cooled Archean granulite from the Pikwitonei Granulite Domain, Canada. Comparison of the apparent ages to the known thermal history of this rock allowed constraints on chronometer systematics at high temperature. Diffusive re-equilibration is shown to occur to a small (Sm-Nd) to minor, if not insignificant (Lu-Hf), extent during high temperature metamorphism, thus firmly establishing the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd chronometers as reliable, well-characterized dating tools. Garnet Lu-Hf chronology was done to show that mid-crustal flow and 'Barrovian-type' metamorphism of rocks now exposed in the North Himalayan Gneiss Domes in Central Tibet commenced in the early Eocene. This result is the first to confirm that crustal thickening and contraction in the Tibetan Himalaya was broadly synchronous with the collision between Greater India and Eurasia. Garnet dating and thermometry, and rutile U-Pb thermochronology on granulites from the Pamir (an exposed segment of deep Asia) revealed a history of heating to 750-830 °C, commencing at 37 Ma in the South Pamir and occurring progressively later northward. The data advocate a causal link between Indian slab

  3. Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for Dementia: Pilot Studies of Acceptability and Feasibility of Cultural Adaptation for India.

    PubMed

    Raghuraman, Shruti; Lakshminarayanan, Monisha; Vaitheswaran, Sridhar; Rangaswamy, Thara

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to culturally adapt, translate, and test the feasibility and acceptability of delivering cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) for persons with mild to moderate dementia in Chennai, India. The adaptation followed a five-stage process in accordance with the formative method for adapting psychotherapy. Focus-group discussions with experts and feedback from participants, carers, and facilitators after two consecutive pilot studies provided the basis for adaptation. Substantial modifications were required. The adapted program was found to be an acceptable, enjoyable, and constructive by participants and carers alike. CST was successfully adapted for use in South India. Translations into other Indian languages using the adapted manual are required for nation-wide implementation. Large-scale clinical trials are required to replicate global reports on the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of CST in India across different settings. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Opinion Leadership in India, A Study of Interpersonal Communication in Eight Villages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Lalit K.

    A part of a larger study on "Diffusion of Innovations in Rural Societies" conducted in Brazil, Nigeria, and India during 1966-1968, this particular study is based on opinion leadership provided by 680 farmers in 8 Indian villages. In these villages, opinion leaders comprise the primary source of basic information and play a very…

  5. Insights into Communication Intervention and AAC in South India: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Saranya; Mathew, Samuel N.; Lloyd, Lyle L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated current trends in communication intervention and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in southern India through a mixed-methods design. Study participants (N = 18) were special educators, speech-language pathologists, and behavior therapists. Responses from the questionnaire were quantitatively analyzed.…

  6. Influence of HRM Practices on Organizational Commitment: A Study among Software Professionals in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, A. K.; Anantharaman, R. N.

    2004-01-01

    Although organizational commitment has been discussed frequently in organizational psychology for almost four decades, few studies have involved software professionals. A study in India reveals that HRM practices such as employee-friendly work environment, career development, development oriented appraisal, and comprehensive training show a…

  7. Influence of HRM Practices on Organizational Commitment: A Study among Software Professionals in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, A. K.; Anantharaman, R. N.

    2004-01-01

    Although organizational commitment has been discussed frequently in organizational psychology for almost four decades, few studies have involved software professionals. A study in India reveals that HRM practices such as employee-friendly work environment, career development, development oriented appraisal, and comprehensive training show a…

  8. A Grounded Theory Study of Effective Global Leadership Development Strategies: Perspectives from Brazil, India, and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokkesmoe, Karen Jane

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focuses on global leadership and global leadership development strategies from the perspective of people from three developing countries, Brazil, India, and Nigeria. The study explores conceptualizations of global leadership, the skills required to lead effectively in global contexts, and recommended…

  9. A Grounded Theory Study of Effective Global Leadership Development Strategies: Perspectives from Brazil, India, and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokkesmoe, Karen Jane

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focuses on global leadership and global leadership development strategies from the perspective of people from three developing countries, Brazil, India, and Nigeria. The study explores conceptualizations of global leadership, the skills required to lead effectively in global contexts, and recommended…

  10. Perceived coercion in persons with mental disorder in India: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Raveesh, B N; Pathare, S; Lepping, P; Noorthoorn, E O; Gowda, G S; Bunders-Aelen, J G F

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how patients in India perceive coercion in psychiatric care. Aims: To assess perceived coercion in persons with mental disorder admitted involuntarily and correlate with sociodemographic factors and illness variables. Materials and Methods: We administered the short MacArthur Admission Experience Interview Questionnaire to all consecutive involuntary psychiatric patients admitted in 2014 in Mysore, India. Multivariate linear regression was used. Results: Three hundred and one patients participated. “Perceived coercion” subscale scores increased with female gender, nuclear family status, Muslim and Christian religion, lower income, and depressive disorder. It decreased with former coercion, forensic history, and longer illness duration. Drug use increased total scores; the extended family item decreased them. “Negative pressure” increased with male gender, extended family, lower income, forensic history, and longer illness duration. Conclusions: The study shows perceived coercion is a reality in India. Levels of perceived coercion and the populations affected are similar to high-income countries. PMID:28216772

  11. Biogeochemical study of termite mounds: a case study from Tummalapalle area of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Arveti, Nagaraju; Reginald, S; Kumar, K Sunil; Harinath, V; Sreedhar, Y

    2012-04-01

    Termite mounds are abundant components of Tummalapalle area of uranium mineralization of Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh, India. The systematic research has been carried out on the application of termite mound sampling to mineral exploration in this region. The distribution of chemical elements Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Li, Rb, Sr, Ba, and U were studied both in termite soils and adjacent surface soils. Uranium accumulations were noticed in seven termite mounds ranging from 10 to 36 ppm. A biogeochemical parameter called "Biological Absorption Coefficient" of the termite mounds indicated the termite affected soils contained huge amounts of chemical elements than the adjacent soils.

  12. Psychological violence experienced by men who have sex with men in Puducherry, India: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Elouard, Yajna; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men are a hidden population in India. This study explores the psychological violence such men are exposed to in Puducherry, India. Eleven in-depth interviews probe experiences of blackmail, discrimination, and rejection. Some informants modified their behaviors or appearances to avoid harassment and safeguard their families' reputations. Others told how Indian men accepted their behaviors, but rejected their identities. Social pressure to marry was also a recurring theme. Understanding the factors behind these violent experiences may facilitate their amelioration.

  13. An 11-year-old boy with silico-tuberculosis attributable to secondary exposure to sandstone mining in central India.

    PubMed

    Murlidhar, V

    2015-06-23

    Silicosis from secondary exposure is not often reported. This is the first such report of a child with possible silicosis attributable to secondary exposure to sandstone mining in India. Silicosis from secondary exposure has been reported in the gem polishing and slate pencil manufacturing industries in India; however, the stone-mining industry is severely under-researched. No preventive measures have been instituted in the stone-mining industry and children are exposed to respirable silica dust when their mothers take them to their work places. Poverty and lack of accessibility to modern medical facilities promote malnutrition and tuberculosis, two known co-morbid conditions. Stone mining, an export-oriented industry, produces billions of dollars of foreign currency every year. Although there is legislation to protect workers from exploitation, employers disregard the law and the state turns a blind eye by not implementing proper enforcement mechanisms. Silicosis from environmental exposure affects the entire community that lives in stone-mining areas.

  14. A study of Central Exclusive Production

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, James

    2006-01-01

    Central exclusive production of a system X in a collision between two hadrons h is defined as hh → h + X + h with no other activity apart from the decay products of X. This thesis presents predictions for the production cross section of a CP violating supersymmetric Higgs boson and the radion of the Randall-Sundrum model. The ExHuME Monte Carlo generator was written to simulate central exclusive processes and is described and explored. A comparison to di-jet observations made by the D0 detector at the Tevatron, Fermilab between January and June 2004 is made and the distributions found support the predictions of ExHuME.

  15. Gravitational Study of the Central Nervous System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments conducted at 1G are discussed with reference to the role of calcium ions in information processing by the central nervous system. A technique is described which allows thin sections of a mammalian hippocampus to be isolated while maintaining neural activity. Two experiments carried out in hypergravic fields are also addressed; one investigating altered stimulation in the auditory system, the other determining temperature regulation responses in hypergravic fields.

  16. Gravitational Study of the Central Nervous System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments conducted at 1G are discussed with reference to the role of calcium ions in information processing by the central nervous system. A technique is described which allows thin sections of a mammalian hippocampus to be isolated while maintaining neural activity. Two experiments carried out in hypergravic fields are also addressed; one investigating altered stimulation in the auditory system, the other determining temperature regulation responses in hypergravic fields.

  17. Insights From the Diabetes in India Nutrition Guidelines Study

    PubMed Central

    Trostler, Naomi; Varsha, V.; Voet, Hillary

    2017-01-01

    This 12-month prospective randomized cluster trial of 20 dietitians in India compared usual care (UC) and evidence-based nutrition practice guideline (EBNPG) care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Baseline, 6-month, and 12-month data from 238 patients were analyzed. EBNPG implementation was evaluated using the Ottawa Model for Knowledge Transfer. EBNPG and UC groups achieved significant hemoglobin A1C improvements. EBNPG-treated participants were significantly more likely to meet low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride goals at 6 or 12 months. Dietitian dropout, implementation barriers, and undetermined EBNPG intervention fidelity are limitations. Future research should assess barriers/supports and degree of EBNPG use. PMID:28232773

  18. Culture and Poverty: A Case Study of a Girl with Special Educational Needs from a Poor Community in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Neetha

    2015-01-01

    Girls with disabilities from lower economic homes are disadvantaged (in terms of gender, disability and poverty) in India, and are often regarded as useless by their communities. There is a need to improve and provide a chance for self-sufficiency among women with disabilities in India. The purpose of this study was to examine the life-chances…

  19. Could For-Profit Private Education Benefit the Poor? Some A Priori Considerations Arising from Case Study Research in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James

    2007-01-01

    A low-cost private education sector is acknowledged to be serving the poor in developing countries, including India. However, it is widely accepted that this sector cannot provide a route towards "education for all". This conclusion is explored in the light of case study evidence from low-income areas of Hyderabad, India. Private…

  20. Culture and Poverty: A Case Study of a Girl with Special Educational Needs from a Poor Community in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Neetha

    2015-01-01

    Girls with disabilities from lower economic homes are disadvantaged (in terms of gender, disability and poverty) in India, and are often regarded as useless by their communities. There is a need to improve and provide a chance for self-sufficiency among women with disabilities in India. The purpose of this study was to examine the life-chances…

  1. Physicochemical characteristics of paper industry effluents--a case study of South India Paper Mill (SIPM).

    PubMed

    Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Shihua, Q I; Singh, Surendra; Belagali, S L

    2011-06-01

    Pulp and paper mills generate varieties of pollutants depending upon type of the pulping process being used. This paper presents the characteristics of wastewater from South India Paper Mill, Karnataka, India which is using recycled waste paper as a raw material. The raw wastewater consists of 80-90 mg L( - 1) suspended solid and 1,010-1,015 mg L( - 1) dissolved solid. However, pH varied from 5.5-6.8. The biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand ranged from 200-210 and 1,120-1,160 mg L( - 1), respectively. Aerobic treatment of raw effluent attribute to significant reduction in suspended solid (range between 25 to 30 mg L( - 1)) and total dissolved solid (range between 360 to 390 mg L( - 1)). However, pH, temperature, and electrical conductivity were found superior after treatment. Copper, cadmium, iron, lead, nickel, and zinc were found in less quantity in raw effluent and were almost completely removed after treatment. The dendrogram of the effluent quality parameters clearly indicate that South India Paper Mill does not meet Minimal National Standard set by central Pollution Control Board to discharge in agricultural field.

  2. Exploring Global Competence with Managers in India, Japan, and the Netherlands: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ras, Gerard J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the meaning of global competence for global managers in three different countries. Thirty interviews were conducted with global managers in India, Japan and the Netherlands through Skype, an internet based software. Findings are reported by country in five major categories: country background, personal…

  3. Lifelong Education and Community Learning: Three Case Studies in India. UIE Monographs, 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, V; Shukla, N. N.

    Three case studies of educational practices in India illustrate that lifelong learning (1) is not confined to childhood; (2) encompasses a large number of sources outside formal education; and (3) can lead to improvement of everday life. These three educational activities, all at semi-rural institutions, and directed toward improving aborigines'…

  4. Attitudes of Secondary Regular School Teachers toward Inclusive Education in New Delhi, India: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatnagar, Nisha; Das, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the attitudes of regular school teachers in Delhi, India, toward the inclusion of students with disabilities. It also explored their views regarding facilitators of inclusive education. Respondents were secondary school teachers working in schools in Delhi that implement inclusive education for students with…

  5. Motion Pictures for the Study of India: A Guide to Classroom Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestal, Theodore M.

    After a three year review of films on India available in the United States, the Resource Center offered this guide to those motion pictures adjudged best for use in American classrooms. There are twelve documentary films and four commercial feature films included for use at any level of school, college, or university study: Child of the Streets; A…

  6. Women Learning Politics and the Politics of Learning: A Feminist Study of Canada and India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E.; McGregor, Catherine; Farrell, Martha; Pant, Mandakini

    2011-01-01

    Our feminist cross-national comparative study explored the informal and nonformal education and learning of women politicians in Canada and India. Using individual interviews, focus groups, surveys and observations of training sessions we compared and contrasted socio-cultural contexts, challenges, education and learning philosophies, and diverse…

  7. Educational Services for Tibetan Students with Disabilities Living in India: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Britany; Gibb, Gordon S.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Prater, Mary Anne

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes services for students with disabilities at Karuna Home in Bylakuppe, Karnataka, India, a residential facility established to address the needs of individuals whose parents are primarily Tibetan immigrants. Interview, observation, and document review data collected over three months were used to describe and explain…

  8. From Yashwant Place to Yashka: A Case Study of Commodification of Russian in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suryanarayan, Neelakshi

    2017-01-01

    The present paper is a case study of how the commodification of the Russian language has transformed a market in New Delhi, India, inaugurated in 1969 and known as Yashwant Place. Over the years, the market slowly assumed a new identity, referred to as Yashka not only by Russian visitors but also tourists from countries of the former Soviet Union,…

  9. The Cultural Roots of Teacher Associations: A Case Study from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padwad, Amol

    2016-01-01

    Teacher associations (TAs) are communities located in complex cultural spaces that may affect their functioning, vision, priorities, and policies. This case study of the English Language Teachers' Association of India (ELTAI) attempts to examine the relationship between the Association and the cultural space it inhabits, with specific reference to…

  10. [Comparative Migration Studies and Comparative Politics.] Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Patrick

    This paper addresses how the experience of the Fulbright Seminar in India has allowed the participant to enrich his teaching in comparative migration studies and comparative politics. The paper describes specifically how each course has changed as a result of the international experience. The report suggests questions for consideration as the…

  11. The Cultural Roots of Teacher Associations: A Case Study from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padwad, Amol

    2016-01-01

    Teacher associations (TAs) are communities located in complex cultural spaces that may affect their functioning, vision, priorities, and policies. This case study of the English Language Teachers' Association of India (ELTAI) attempts to examine the relationship between the Association and the cultural space it inhabits, with specific reference to…

  12. A Global Investigation of Child Labor: Case Studies from India, Uganda, and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Selena

    This curriculum guide was developed to help students gain a broader perspective about child labor and become more familiar with the issues, controversies, and debates that surround it. Three case studies are highlighted: (1) a street child in India; (2) child soldiers in Uganda; and (3) a migrant farm worker child in the United States. Each case…

  13. Lifelong Education and Community Learning: Three Case Studies in India. UIE Monographs, 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, V; Shukla, N. N.

    Three case studies of educational practices in India illustrate that lifelong learning (1) is not confined to childhood; (2) encompasses a large number of sources outside formal education; and (3) can lead to improvement of everday life. These three educational activities, all at semi-rural institutions, and directed toward improving aborigines'…

  14. Impact of Internet Search Engines on OPAC Users: A Study of Punjabi University, Patiala (India)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shiv

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the impact of internet search engine usage with special reference to OPAC searches in the Punjabi University Library, Patiala, Punjab (India). Design/methodology/approach: The primary data were collected from 352 users comprising faculty, research scholars and postgraduate students of the university. A…

  15. A Global Investigation of Child Labor: Case Studies from India, Uganda, and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Selena

    This curriculum guide was developed to help students gain a broader perspective about child labor and become more familiar with the issues, controversies, and debates that surround it. Three case studies are highlighted: (1) a street child in India; (2) child soldiers in Uganda; and (3) a migrant farm worker child in the United States. Each case…

  16. Secondary School Teachers' Perception of Corporal Punishment: A Case Study in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheruvalath, Reena; Tripathi, Medha

    2015-01-01

    This article examines secondary school teachers' perceptions of corporal punishment in India. Although it has been banned in Indian schools, various types of corporal punishment are still used by teachers. It has been mainly used as a mechanism for controlling disciplinary problems in schools. Based on a pilot study of 160 secondary teachers, the…

  17. Gestures of India: A Study of Emblems among Punjabi Residents of Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Christopher R.

    Based on the theoretical concepts and research methodology of Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen, a study examined the emblems (gestures with exact verbal meanings) of Punjabi (India) immigrants in Canada. A limited repertoire of 63 emblems was elicited from nine Punjabi informants and then shown to nine Canadian citizens and one United States…

  18. Modernism and Planned Development: A Study of Two Punjabi Villages in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Satish

    Two rural villages with similar characteristics were selected in Punjab (northern India) in order to study attitudes towards planned socio-economic development programs. All household heads (married males) in Bhagpura (123) and Khaira Bet (116) were interviewed; other data were derived separately. Program acceptance (modernism) in both villages…

  19. Exploring Global Competence with Managers in India, Japan, and the Netherlands: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ras, Gerard J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the meaning of global competence for global managers in three different countries. Thirty interviews were conducted with global managers in India, Japan and the Netherlands through Skype, an internet based software. Findings are reported by country in five major categories: country background, personal…

  20. Gestures of India: A Study of Emblems among Punjabi Residents of Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Christopher R.

    Based on the theoretical concepts and research methodology of Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen, a study examined the emblems (gestures with exact verbal meanings) of Punjabi (India) immigrants in Canada. A limited repertoire of 63 emblems was elicited from nine Punjabi informants and then shown to nine Canadian citizens and one United States…

  1. Impact of Internet Search Engines on OPAC Users: A Study of Punjabi University, Patiala (India)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shiv

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the impact of internet search engine usage with special reference to OPAC searches in the Punjabi University Library, Patiala, Punjab (India). Design/methodology/approach: The primary data were collected from 352 users comprising faculty, research scholars and postgraduate students of the university. A…

  2. Place-Based Education and Pre-Service Teachers: A Case Study from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molyneux, Paul; Tyler, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Case studies of successful place-based education that involve international partnerships are rare. This article reports on an inclusive educational collaboration between pre-service teachers at an Australian university and primary and secondary school-aged children in a slum area of Delhi, India. Encouraged to undertake teaching that affirmed and…

  3. Analysis of Satellite Retreived Active-Passive Merged Soil Moisture Distribution: A Case Study Over India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravorty, A.; Chahar, B. R.; Sharma, O. P.; Dhanya, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Soil moisture is the source of water for evapotranspiration over the continents and it participates in both energy and water balance of the earth. Soil moisture participates in the energy cycle by managing the partitioning of the energy budget into latent and sensible heat, there by influencing the hydrological cycle. But to better understand the influence of soil moisture on the hydrological cycle, large scale monitoring is required. The objective of this study is to qualitatively analyze the active-passive merged soil moisture distribution, prepared under the ESA_CCI programme, against two AMSR-E soil moisture distributions, AMSR-E/NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center) and AMSR-E/VUA(Virje Universiet Amstradam) and GLDAS_NOAH model simulations. The ESA_CCI soil moisture distribution is also compared with the GPCC monthly precipitation distribution to observe the representativeness of the precipitation seasonality in the satellite retrieved soil moisture. India has been selected as the study area, esp. the Central Indian region, as it has shown to be a soil moisture hot-spot for land-surface atmosphere interaction. The preliminary study show that both ESA_CCI and AMSR-E/VUA soil moisture distributions capture similar seasonal patterns in addition to processes like rainfall events and inter-annual variations. In addition to this it was also observed that the soil moisture distribution of ESA_CCI and AMSR-E/VUA are linearly related to each other for more than 50% of the land points. In case of ESA_CCI and AMSR-E/NSIDC, the soil moisture distributions are able to capture similar seasonal patterns but not the random events and they also do not show a strong linear relationship. We also analyze the effect of topography and vegetation distribution on the error charactristics of the satellite retrieved soil moisture distributions.

  4. Evaluation of normal range of mouth opening using three finger index: South India perspective study.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Jayshree; Shenai, Prashanth K; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Kumar, Pavan Y

    2015-01-01

    The frequency, with which restricted mouth opening is encountered in the clinical practice, makes it essential to establish what constitutes the normal range. This study was undertaken to evaluate the normal range of mouth opening in adult population in south India. randomized clinical study conducted on dentate adult patients to evaluate the normal range of mouth openin. 500 healthy patients aged between 18-59 were randomly selected and divided into four groups according to their age ranges. The maximum inter-incisal distance and width of right and left three fingers at the first distal inter-phalanges were measured using vernier calipers. ANOVA test, student t test and pearsons correlation test. The mean value and range of maximum mouth opening of 50.3 mm ± 6.26 mm for males and 49.9 mm ± 6.74 mm for females was recorded. These values were significant and correlated with the width of three fingers. It was found that the greatest mean maximum mouth opening was recorded in youngest age group and lowest was recorded in older age group in both genders. The mean mouth opening value decreases with age and is lesser in females as compared to males of same age. This study demonstrated that individuals in all the four groups were able to vertically align their right and left three fingers between the upper and lower central incisors upto the first distal interphalangeal folds thus suggesting that, width of three fingers can be used as 'tool' to distinguish 'normal' from 'restricted' mouth opening.

  5. Evaluation of the potential of organic geochemical proxies from lake sediments from Central India to reconstruct monsoon variability during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Saswati; Sachse, Dirk; Wilkes, Heinz; Prasad, Sushma; Brauer, Achim; Strecker, Manfred; Basavaiah, Nathani

    2010-05-01

    A better understanding of the past variations of the Indian Monsoon system, which has a deep societal impact on the subcontinent, is essential to determine its behavior under a changing global climate. We aim to reconstruct the variability of the Indian Monsoon, which has both spatially as well as temporally variable nature, during the last 10,000 years using lipid biomarker abundances and stable isotopes from continuous, high-resolution lake sediments in a climatically sensitive region of Central India. Previous sedimentological and geochemical studies on bulk material from a well dated long lake sediment core covering the last 11,000 years have already shown evidence of rapid changes in lithology, sedimentation rate, paleo lake productivity and supply of terrestrial organic matter. Changes in the abundance of source-specific organic compounds - lipid biomarkers - can be useful for the interpretation of past changes in hydrology and ecosystem of the lake and its catchment area as well as their relation to climatic factors. We have identified a number of suitable biomarker compounds for paleohydrological and environmental reconstruction from surface sediments and short cores. Identified biomarker compounds include both aquatic and terrestrial biomarkers. Among the aquatic biomarkers short chain n-alkanes and phytane, most probably derived from cyanobacteria and microbial biomarkers like moretene, diploptene and other hopenes were present. Additionally long chain n-alkanes from vascular land plants from the lake catchment area were identified. Interestingly, the triterpene lipid tetrahymanol and tetrahymanone was found to be the biomarker of highest concentration in all analyzed surface sediments, with concentrations higher than the ubiquitous short-chain fatty acids. Tetrahymanol is often attributed to certain protozoa and frequently found in hypersaline lakes. However, studies have shown that this lipid can also be found in sizable amounts in phototrophic bacteria

  6. Relative Abundance and Plasmodium Infection Rates of Malaria Vectors in and around Jabalpur, a Malaria Endemic Region in Madhya Pradesh State, Central India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neeru; Mishra, Ashok K.; Chand, Sunil K.; Bharti, Praveen K.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Nanda, Nutan; Singh, Om P.; Sodagiri, Kranti; Udhyakumar, Venkatachalam

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken in two Primary Health Centers (PHCs) of malaria endemic district Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh (Central India). Methods In this study we had investigated the relative frequencies of the different anopheline species collected within the study areas by using indoor resting catches, CDC light trap and human landing methods. Sibling species of malaria vectors were identified by cytogenetic and molecular techniques. The role of each vector and its sibling species in the transmission of the different Plasmodium species was ascertained by using sporozoite ELISA. Results A total of 52,857 specimens comprising of 17 anopheline species were collected by three different methods (39,964 by indoor resting collections, 1059 by human landing and 11,834 by CDC light trap). Anopheles culicifacies was most predominant species in all collections (55, 71 and 32% in indoor resting, human landing and light trap collections respectively) followed by An. subpictus and An. annularis. All five sibling species of An. culicifacies viz. species A, B, C, D and E were found while only species T and S of An. fluviatilis were collected. The overall sporozoite rate in An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were 0.42% (0.25% for P. falciparum and 0.17% for P. vivax) and 0.90% (0.45% for P. falciparum and 0.45% for P. vivax) respectively. An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were found harbouring both P. vivax variants VK-210 and VK-247, and P. falciparum. An. culicifacies sibling species C and D were incriminated as vectors during most part of the year while sibling species T of An. fluviatilis was identified as potential vector in monsoon and post monsoon season. Conclusions An. culicifacies species C (59%) was the most abundant species followed by An. culicifacies D (24%), B (8.7%), E (6.7%) and A (1.5%). Among An. fluviatilis sibling species, species T was common (99%) and only few specimens of S were found. Our study provides crucial information on the prevalence

  7. Do High School Students in India Gamble? A Study of Problem Gambling and Its Correlates.

    PubMed

    Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; Thennarassu, K; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Benegal, Vivek; George, Sanju

    2016-11-02

    Studies from the West suggest that significant numbers of high school students gamble, despite it being illegal in this age group. To date, there have been no studies on the prevalence of gambling among senior high school and higher secondary school students in India. This study reports point prevalence of gambling and its psychosocial correlates among high school students in the State of Kerala, India. 5043 high school students in the age group 15-19 years, from 73 schools, were selected by cluster random sampling from the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, South India. They completed questionnaires that assessed gambling, substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Of a total of 4989 completed questionnaires, 1400 (27.9 %) high school students reported to have ever gambled and 353 (7.1 %) were problem gamblers. Of those who had ever gambled, 25.2 % were problem gamblers. Sports betting (betting on cricket and football) was the most popular form of gambling followed by the lottery. Problem gamblers when compared with non-problem gamblers and non-gamblers were significantly more likely to be male, have academic failures, have higher rates of lifetime alcohol and tobacco use, psychological distress, suicidality, history of sexual abuse and higher ADHD symptom scores. Gambling among adolescents in India deserves greater attention, as one in four students who ever gambled was a problem gambler and because of its association with a range of psychosocial variables.

  8. Expectations of persons with paraplegia regarding their care in India: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nalina; Raja, Kavitha

    2017-01-01

    A qualitative study. The aim of this study was to understand expectations of persons with paraplegia in India regarding their care. India. This study used a qualitative methodology to have a focus group interview of persons with paraplegia in India. Focus group consisted of two to four participants with paraplegia. Adults with level T6 and below, complete injury, duration of at least 6 months post injury and those living in the community were included. Online focus group interviews were conducted using ZOOM online software for online discussions/meetings. Data were collected till data saturation. Recorded videos were transcribed into texts, and the transcribed documents were analysed using the ATLASti.8 software for qualitative data analysis. Forty-eight codes were retrieved under fourteen code groups. These code groups were acceptance, accessibility, advanced technology, assistive devices, basic skills, employment, expectations, experiences, functional independence, government policies, knowledge, psychological make-up, physiotherapy and rural area. Because of lack of awareness, knowledge and education provided to persons with paraplegia, their expectations were often unrealistic. Patient education and education of the health professionals are two of the most important aspects in spinal cord injury rehabilitation that must be taken into consideration in India.

  9. Nonurban Development in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, David E.

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on how India's economic planning and development efforts since 1950 have affected rural areas and small towns, which comprise nearly 80% of India's population. Presents several case studies of rural development and concludes that the major keys to the stability of India as a democracy are population control, a unifying language, and…

  10. Factors affecting the attractiveness of medical tourism destination: an empirical study on India- review article.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Seyama; Haque, Ahasanul; Momen, Abdul; Yasmin, Farzana

    2014-07-01

    In this edge, medical tourism is not a new idea. Medical treatment is one of the essential demands of human beings and it requires high quality and intensive care. Beside western world, few developing countries are playing key roles as medical tourism destinations. India is one of the leading names among these countries. The purpose of the paper is to find the factors influencing the attractiveness of India as a health tourism destination. The study has found the major contributing factors and their relative importance in the attractiveness of the health tourism destination that is India from consumers' perspectives by conducting survey with an application of structural equation modelling approach. In Indian context, medical tourists consider service quality and cost mostly to select any medical destination. In addition they also give value to the destination competitiveness but tourist attitude is less important in comparison with other factors affecting their destination choice. Since the study has used structural equation modelling approach to test the hypothesis and figure out the relative importance of the factors, the fundamental indices such as Normed Chi square(less than 3), RMSEA (less than 0.08) and CFI (more than 0.90) values show the overall model fit of the proposed model. In order to transform a country such as India as an attractive and competitive medical tourist destination in this time of globalization, a step should be taken to control cost ensuring the quality of services.

  11. Factors Affecting the Attractiveness of Medical Tourism Destination: An Empirical Study on India- Review Article

    PubMed Central

    SULTANA, Seyama; HAQUE, Ahasanul; MOMEN, Abdul; YASMIN, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background In this edge, medical tourism is not a new idea. Medical treatment is one of the essential demands of human beings and it requires high quality and intensive care. Beside western world, few developing countries are playing key roles as medical tourism destinations. India is one of the leading names among these countries. The purpose of the paper is to find the factors influencing the attractiveness of India as a health tourism destination. Methods The study has found the major contributing factors and their relative importance in the attractiveness of the health tourism destination that is India from consumers’ perspectives by conducting survey with an application of structural equation modelling approach. Results In Indian context, medical tourists consider service quality and cost mostly to select any medical destination. In addition they also give value to the destination competitiveness but tourist attitude is less important in comparison with other factors affecting their destination choice. Since the study has used structural equation modelling approach to test the hypothesis and figure out the relative importance of the factors, the fundamental indices such as Normed Chi square(less than 3), RMSEA (less than 0.08) and CFI (more than 0.90) values show the overall model fit of the proposed model. Conclusion In order to transform a country such as India as an attractive and competitive medical tourist destination in this time of globalization, a step should be taken to control cost ensuring the quality of services. PMID:25909055

  12. Life-Stage and Mobility: An Exploratory GPS Study of Mobility in Multigenerational Families, Ahmedabad, India.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Michal; D'Ambrosio, Lisa; Samanta, Tannistha; Coughlin, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    As the population of older adults in India grows, research is needed to plan a sustainable future for India's older adults. This article reports results from a Global Positioning System (GPS)-based pilot study that examined the mobility of middle-class, older adults living in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Using mobility as a lens through which to examine the lives of older adults, we map potential research and identify policy areas of interest considering older adults in urban India. The study explores the role of life stage in mobility as well as the effects of gender and urban environment on mobility. Using this distinctive perspective on day-to-day life, we propose themes through which, using policy and planning tools, the living environments of older adults in Indian cities can be improved. These policy measures include focusing on walkability and pedestrian safety in residential areas and building on existing mixed land use to create high accessibility to goods and services in urban environments.

  13. Nutritional status of adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in rural central India and its association with mortality.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Anurag; Chatterjee, Madhuri; Jain, Yogesh; Chatterjee, Biswaroop; Kataria, Anju; Bhargava, Madhavi; Kataria, Raman; D'Souza, Ravi; Jain, Rachna; Benedetti, Andrea; Pai, Madhukar; Menzies, Dick

    2013-01-01

    Under-nutrition is a known risk factor for TB and can adversely affect treatment outcomes. However, data from India are sparse, despite the high burden of TB as well as malnutrition in India. We assessed the nutritional status at the time of diagnosis and completion of therapy, and its association with deaths during TB treatment, in a consecutive cohort of 1695 adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in rural India during 2004 - 2009.Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted estimates of the association of nutritional status with deaths during treatment. At the time of diagnosis, median BMI and body weights were 16.0 kg/m(2)and 42.1 kg in men, and 15.0 kg/m(2)and 34.1 kg in women, indicating that 80% of women and 67% of men had moderate to severe under-nutrition (BMI<17.0 kg/m(2)). Fifty two percent of the patients (57% of men and 48% of women) had stunting indicating chronic under-nutrition. Half of women and one third of men remained moderately to severely underweight at the end of treatment. 60 deaths occurred in 1179 patients (5%) in whom treatment was initiated. Severe under-nutrition at diagnosis was associated with a 2 fold higher risk of death. Overall, a majority of patients had evidence of chronic severe under-nutrition at diagnosis, which persisted even after successful treatment in a significant proportion of them. These findings suggest the need for nutritional support during treatment of pulmonary TB in this rural population.

  14. Source Apportionment of PM2.5 Mass and Optical Attenuation Over an Ecologically Sensitive Zone in Central India by Positive Matrix Factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmalkar, J.; Raman, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Ambient PM2.5 samples (N=366) were collected over an ecologically sensitive zone (Van Vihar National Park) in Bhopal, Central India for two years (01 January, 2012 to 31 December, 2013). Samples were collected using three co-located Mini-Vol® samplers on Teflon, Nylon, and Quartz filter substrates. The aerosol was then chemically characterized for water-soluble inorganic ions, elements, and carbon fractions (elemental carbon and organic carbon) using ion chromatography, ED-XRF, and thermal-optical EC/OC analyzer, respectively. The optical attenuation (at 370 nm and 800 nm) of PM2.5 aerosols was also determined by optical transmissometry (OT-21). The application of Positive matrix factorization (PMF) to a combination of PM2.5 mass, its ions, elements, carbon fractions, and optical attenuation and its outcomes will be discussed.

  15. Isolation and molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus from the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India: evidence of an East, Central, and South African genotype.

    PubMed

    Muruganandam, N; Chaaithanya, I K; Senthil, G S; Shriram, A N; Bhattacharya, D; Jeevabharathi, G S; Sudeep, A B; Pradeepkumar, N; Vijayachari, P

    2011-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae. In 2006, CHIKV infection struck the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, with an attack rate of 60%. There were more than 10 cases with acute flaccid paralysis simulating the Guillian Barre Syndrome. The majority of the patients presented severe joint pain. The cause for such an explosive nature of the outbreak with increased morbidity was not known. The isolation of CHIKV was attempted and succeeded from nine subjects presenting clinical symptoms of Chikungunya fever. The cDNA of all the isolates was sequenced for partial E1 and nsP1 genes. Sequences were aligned based on the double locus sequence typing concept. The phylogenetic analysis shows that sequences of Andaman isolates grouped with the East, Central, and South African genotype of virus isolates from India, Sri Lanka, and Réunion. The genetic distance between Andaman isolates and the Réunion isolates was very small. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the origin of the isolates responsible for the first ever confirmed CHIKV outbreak in these islands to be the East, Central, and South African genotype. In this manuscript, we discuss the involvement of the East, Central, and South African strain with the Chikungunya fever outbreak in this archipelago and double locus sequence typing as a first time approach.

  16. Seroprevalence studies on animal chlamydiosis amongst ruminants in five states of India

    PubMed Central

    Chahota, R.; Gupta, S.; Bhardwaj, B.; Malik, P.; Verma, S.; Sharma, and M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Animal chlamydiosis, caused by different chlamydial species, is characterized by clinical or subclinical disease manifestations in cattle, buffalo, ovine, caprine and wild animal species. Animal chlamydiosis often remains underdiagnosed or undiagnosed, and its status in many parts of India is still unknown. Hence, the present study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of animal chlamydiosis amongst ruminant livestock species of five states of India. Materials and Methods: Totally, 2127 randomly selected serum samples collected from ruminant livestock species viz. cattle (n=430), buffaloes (n=429), sheep (906) and goats (n=362), were tested by agar gel precipitation test for chlamydiosis between 2002 and 2011. Precipitating antigen was prepared from locally isolated strain of Chlamydia psittaci after treatment with sodium deoxycholate. Results: The chlamydial seroprevalence detected amongst ruminants in five states of India was: Himachal Pradesh: Cattle-10.90%, sheep-10.60% and goats- 22.46%; Punjab: Cattle-1.45%; Andhra Pradesh: Cattle-2.80%, buffaloes-0.93%, sheep-8.90% and goats-9.46%; Maharashtra: goats-8.33%; Jammu and Kashmir: sheep-12.50%. The mean seroprevalence values of each animal species are: Cattle-4.65%, buffaloes-0.93%, sheep-9.82% and goats-19.33%. Conclusion: The results indicate the endemic nature of animal chlamydiosis across five states in India. Hence, it requires further extensive studies in other parts of India also using chlamydial species-specific diagnostics to ascertain overall countrywide prevalence of the disease. The zoonotic nature of the chlamydiae of ruminant origin further adds significance to such prevalence studies. PMID:27047000

  17. First measurements of ambient aerosol over an ecologically sensitive zone in Central India: Relationships between PM2.5 mass, its optical properties, and meteorology.

    PubMed

    Sunder Raman, Ramya; Kumar, Samresh

    2016-04-15

    PM2.5 mass and its optical properties were measured over an ecologically sensitive zone in Central India between January and December, 2012. Meteorological parameters including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, and barometric pressure were also monitored. During the study period, the PM2.5 (fine PM) concentration ranged between 3.2μgm(-3) and 193.9μgm(-3) with a median concentration of 31.4μgm(-3). The attenuation coefficients, βATN at 370nm, 550nm, and 880nm had median values of 104.5Mm(-1), 79.2Mm(-1), and 59.8Mm(-1), respectively. Further, the dry scattering coefficient, βSCAT at 550nm had a median value of 17.1Mm(-1) while the absorption coefficient βABS at 550nm had a median value of 61.2Mm(-1). The relationship between fine PM mass and attenuation coefficients showed pronounced seasonality. Scattering, absorption, and attenuation coefficient at different wavelengths were all well correlated with fine PM mass only during the post-monsoon season (October, November, and December). The highest correlation (r(2)=0.81) was between fine PM mass and βSCAT at 550nm during post-monsoon season. During this season, the mass scattering efficiency (σSCAT) was 1.44m(2)g(-1). Thus, monitoring optical properties all year round, as a surrogate for fine PM mass was found unsuitable for the study location. In order to assess the relationships between fine PM mass and its optical properties and meteorological parameters, multiple linear regression (MLR) models were fitted for each season, with fine PM mass as the dependent variable. Such a model fitted for the post-monsoon season explained over 88% of the variability in fine PM mass. However, the MLR models were able to explain only 31 and 32% of the variability in fine PM during pre-monsoon (March, April, and May) and monsoon (June, July, August, and September) seasons, respectively. During the winter (January and February) season, the MLR model explained 54% of the PM2.5 variability. Copyright

  18. A large-scale investigation of the quality of groundwater in six major districts of Central India during the 2010-2011 sampling campaign.

    PubMed

    Khare, Peeyush

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the groundwater quality in six major districts of Madhya Pradesh in central India, namely, Balaghat, Chhindwara, Dhar, Jhabua, Mandla, and Seoni during the 2010-2011 sampling campaign, and discusses improvements made in the supplied water quality between the years 2011 and 2017. Groundwater is the main source of water for a combined rural population of over 7 million in these districts. Its contamination could have a huge impact on public health. We analyzed the data collected from a large-scale water sampling campaign carried out by the Public Health Engineering Department (PHED), Government of Madhya Pradesh between 2010 and 2011 during which all rural tube wells and dug wells were sampled in these six districts. Eight hundred thirty-one dug wells and 47,606 tube wells were sampled in total and were analyzed for turbidity, hardness, iron, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, and sulfate ion concentrations. Our study found water in 21 out of the 228 dug wells in Chhindwara district unfit for drinking due to fluoride contamination while all dug wells in Balaghat had fluoride within the permissible limit. Twenty-six of the 56 dug wells and 4825 of the 9390 tube wells in Dhar district exceeded the permissible limit for nitrate while 100% dug wells in Balaghat, Seoni, and Chhindwara had low levels of nitrate. Twenty-four of the 228 dug wells and 1669 of 6790 tube wells in Chhindwara had high iron concentration. The median pH value in both dug wells and tube wells varied between 6 and 8 in all six districts. Still, a significant number of tube wells exceeded a pH of 8.5 especially in Mandla and Seoni districts. In conclusion, this study shows that parts of inhabited rural Madhya Pradesh were potentially exposed to contaminated subsurface water during 2010-2011. The analysis has been correlated with rural health survey results wherever available to estimate the visible impact. We next highlight that the quality of drinking water has enormously improved

  19. Processing of Single-Channel High-Resolution Shallow Seismic Reflection Data for Imaging Gas Charged Sediments and Buried Channel System on Central-West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubey, A. K.; Yadav, R.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution, shallow-seismic reflection using sparker seismic source is one of the most popular offshore exploration methods for imaging sub-surface structures in near shore region. In the present study, high-resolution shallow-seismic reflection data were acquired using 300 Joule sparker energy source with multi-electrode spark array and single-channel streamer containing 16-hydrophones at a boat speed of about 4 knot. The data were recorded in SEG-Y format with record length of 500 ms, sampled at 40 μs. The problems in sparker seismic data are artefacts which primarily include (i) short-path multiples, (ii) long-path multiples, (iii) ghost reflections, (iv) secondary bubble effect, and (v) incoherent noise. Short-path multiples, produced by reflectors at seabed/sub-seabed and sea surface, arrive at receiver immediately after the primary reflection, whereas, long-path multiples arrive later as a distinct event. Ghost reflections due to source and receiver arrangement below sea-surface produce a seismic wavelet, delay in time and reverse in polarity with respect to primary. Secondary bubbles (bubble effect) produced destructive interference that strongly attenuated amplitude of the signal, and produced frequency notching as demonstrated in power spectrum of raw seismic data. Incoherent noise present in seismic reflection data reduce the quality of the signal and can often lead to misinterpretation. Processing and analysis of seismic trace of the present study reveal that the artefact related to ghost reflections are not present in the data. However, short-path and long-paths multiples, secondary bubble effect and incoherent noise severely affected the quality of the seismic data. This paper presents and discusses processing of high-resolution, single-channel seismic reflection data acquired between water depth 10 and 70 meter in near shore region of central-west coast of India. Our results show that quality of the processed data is highly improved and yield

  20. Retrospective seasonal prediction of summer monsoon rainfall over West Central and Peninsular India in the past 142 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Bin; Yang, Young-Min

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of Indian summer (June-September) rainfall on regional scales remains an open issue. The operational predictions of West Central Indian summer rainfall (WCI-R) and Peninsular Indian summer rainfall (PI-R) made by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) had no skills during 2004-2012. This motivates the present study aiming at better understanding the predictability sources and physical processes governing summer rainfall variability over these two regions. Analysis of 133 year data reveal that although the lower boundary forcing that associated with enhanced WCI-R and PI-R featured a similar developing La-Nina and "east high west low" sea-level pressure (SLP) dipole pattern across the Indo-Pacific, the anomalous high sea surface temperature (SST) over the northern Indian Ocean and weak low pressure over northern Asia tended to enhance PI-R but reduce WCI-R. Based on our understanding of physical linkages with the predictands, we selected four and two causative predictors for predictions of the WCI-R and PI-R, respectively. The intensified summer WCI-R is preceded by (a) Indian Ocean zonal dipole-like SST tendency (west-warming and east-cooling), (b) tropical Pacific zonal dipole SST tendency (west-warming and east-cooling), (c) central Pacific meridional dipole SST tendency (north-cooling and south-warming), and (d) decreasing SLP tendency over northern Asia in the previous season. The enhanced PI-R was lead by the central-eastern Pacific cooling and 2-m temperature cooling tendency east of Lake Balkhash in the previous seasons. These causative processes linking the predictors and WCI-R and PI-R are supported by ensemble numerical experiments using a coupled climate model. For the period of 1871-2012, the physics-based empirical (P-E) prediction models built on these predictors result in cross-validated forecast temporal correlation coefficient skills of 0.55 and 0.47 for WCI-R and PI-R, respectively. The independent forecast skill is significantly

  1. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START): a Canada-India collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START) will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness) are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada. PMID:23356884

  2. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START): a Canada-India collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sonia S; Vasudevan, Anil; Gupta, Milan; Morrison, Katherine; Kurpad, Anura; Teo, Koon K; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2013-01-28

    People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START) will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness) are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada.

  3. Study of satellite retrieved CO2 and CH4 concentration over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Prabhunath; Rastogi, Shantanu; Singh, R. P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports a study of spatial and temporal variations of columnar averaged concentration of CO2 and CH4 over India using SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) and Greenhouse gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT) data. Comparison of these data with the global view National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) land data and also location specific flask data is made. The temporal variation in column averaged global CO2 is similar to that over India and it is also similar to the NOAA surface flask data and global view. The variation in NOAA surface CH4 is location dependent and its global view appears to vary seasonally in opposite phase with the column averaged CH4 values from satellites, reflecting the limited comparability of surface and column averaged data. Over India the CO2 maximum is in May and minimum in August/September while for CH4 the maximum is in September and minimum in February/March. The seasonal variation of CH4 over India is correlated with the eastern coastal rice cultivation.

  4. The psychological toll of slum living in Mumbai, India: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Subbaraman, Ramnath; Nolan, Laura; Shitole, Tejal; Sawant, Kiran; Shitole, Shrutika; Sood, Kunal; Nanarkar, Mahesh; Ghannam, Jess; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Bloom, David E.; Patil-Deshmukh, Anita

    2014-01-01

    In India, “non-notified” slums are not officially recognized by city governments; they suffer from insecure tenure and poorer access to basic services than “notified” (government-recognized) slums. We conducted a study in a non-notified slum of about 12,000 people in Mumbai to determine the prevalence of individuals at high risk for having a common mental disorder (i.e., depression and anxiety), to ascertain the impact of mental health on the burden of functional impairment, and to assess the influence of the slum environment on mental health. We gathered qualitative data (six focus group discussions and 40 individual interviews in July-November 2011), with purposively sampled participants, and quantitative data (521 structured surveys in February 2012), with respondents selected using community-level random sampling. For the surveys, we administered the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ) to screen for common mental disorders (CMDs), the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHO DAS) to screen for functional impairment, and a slum adversity questionnaire, which we used to create a composite Slum Adversity Index (SAI) score. Twenty-three percent of individuals have a GHQ score ≥5, suggesting they are at high risk for having a CMD. Psychological distress is a major contributor to the slum’s overall burden of functional impairment. In a multivariable logistic regression model, household income, poverty-related factors, and the SAI score all have strong independent associations with CMD risk. The qualitative findings suggest that non-notified status plays a central role in creating psychological distress—by creating and exacerbating deprivations that serve as sources of stress, by placing slum residents in an inherently antagonistic relationship with the government through the criminalization of basic needs, and by shaping a community identity built on a feeling of social exclusion from the rest of the city. PMID:25189736

  5. Study of quaternary aquifers in Ganga Plain, India: focus on groundwater salinity, fluoride and fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Anil Kumar; Mishra, Ajai

    2007-06-01

    In marginal and central alluvial plains (Ganga Plain) of India, the inland salinity is continuously increasing, canal network and arid to semi-arid climatic conditions that led to excessive evapotranspiration concentrates the salt in soil and thereby escalating the groundwater salinity. In Mat Tahsil, Mathura district (Ganga Plain) study on shallow and deep aquifer salinity and fluoride was carried out in August 2001 and 2004. Groundwater salinity in some parts is more then 4000 microOmega(-1)/cm. This region is severely affected by endemic fluorosis due to consumption of fluoride-contaminated water. Analysis of F(-), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) was carried out at 30 sites of dugwells and borewells. Result shows that there is a variation and continuous escalation in the groundwater salinity and fluoride concentration in deep and shallow aquifers on the basis of analysis. Classification of salinity levels was carried out in 2001 and 2004. The deep aquifers (borewells) are found more saline as compare to the shallow aquifers (dugwells) while F(-), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) shows high concentration in shallow aquifers. The fluoride concentration in the groundwater of these villages showed values from 0.1 to 2.5mg/l, severe enough to cause dental and skeletal fluorosis among the inhabitants, especially children of these villages. One of the major effects of inland salinity in this region is from saline groundwater, which is reaching the land surface and causing soil salinisations and water logging in the NE and SE parts of Mat block.

  6. Pilot Study of Essential Drug Quality in Two Major Cities in India

    PubMed Central

    Bate, Roger; Tren, Richard; Mooney, Lorraine; Hess, Kimberly; Mitra, Barun; Debroy, Bibek; Attaran, Amir

    2009-01-01

    Background India is an increasingly influential player in the global pharmaceutical market. Key parts of the drug regulatory system are controlled by the states, each of which applies its own standards for enforcement, not always consistent with others. A pilot study was conducted in two major cities in India, Delhi and Chennai, to explore the question/hypothesis/extent of substandard and counterfeit drugs available in the market and to discuss how the Indian state and federal governments could improve drug regulation and more importantly regulatory enforcement to combat these drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings Random samples of antimalarial, antibiotic, and antimycobacterial drugs were collected from pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas of Delhi and Chennai, India. Semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography and disintegration testing were used to measure the concentration of active ingredients against internationally acceptable standards. 12% of all samples tested from Delhi failed either one or both tests, and were substandard. 5% of all samples tested from Chennai failed either one or both tests, and were substandard. Spatial heterogeneity between pharmacies was observed, with some having more or less substandard drugs (30% and 0% respectively), as was product heterogeneity, with some drugs being more or less frequently substandard (12% and 7% respectively). Conclusions/Significance In a study using basic field-deployable techniques of lesser sensitivity rather than the most advanced laboratory-based techniques, the prevalence of substandard drugs in Delhi and Chennai is confirmed to be roughly in accordance with the Indian government's current estimates. However, important spatial and product heterogeneity exists, which suggests that India's substandard drug problem is not ubiquitous, but driven by a subset of manufacturers and pharmacies which thrive in an inadequately regulated environment. It is likely that the drug regulatory system in India needs

  7. Petrological and geochemical evolution of the Central Gneissic Belt, Rengali Province, eastern India: Implications for the Neoarchean growth and orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Arnab; Bose, Sankar; Das, Kaushik; Ghosh, Gautam

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on the evolution of the Central Gneissic Belt of the Archean Rengali Province which evolved as a craton-margin orogenic belt. The Central Gneissic Belt is constituted of charnockite gneiss, migmatitic hornblende gneiss and granite gneiss often showing gradational contacts. While mafic granulite occurs as enclave within the charnockite gneiss, amphibolite and calc-silicate granofels enclaves are present within the granite gneiss. Mafic granulite shows peak metamorphic assemblage of garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz ± orthopyroxene which was stabilized at 10.6 ± 0.5 kbar and 860 ± 20 °C. Charnockite gneiss with the peak assemblage of orthopyroxene + quartz + plagioclase + K-feldspar was metamorphosed at 792 ± 48 °C and 7.6 ± 0.4 kbar. Amphibolite and migmatitic hornblende gneiss contain hornblende along with plagioclase and garnet and these rocks were metamorphosed at 800 ± 20 °C, 8.5 ± 0.2 kbar and 695 °C, 8 kbar respectively. Later meta-dolerite dikes exhibit relic igneous textures which are slightly modified by greenschist-facies metamorphism. Charnockite gneiss, migmatitic hornblende gneiss and granite gneiss show similar trace and REE characteristics (moderate fractionation in terms of La and Yb, LREE enrichment and flat HREE pattern) implying the same protolith composition for these rock groups. Based on the field, petrographic and geochemical data, we propose that the protoliths for the charnockite gneiss, the migmatitic hornblende gneiss and the granite gneiss crystallized as fractionated magma in within-plate syncollisional setting during the ca. 2860-2780 Ma orogeny at the Rengali Province.

  8. Teleconnections of ENSO and IOD to summer monsoon and rice production potential of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Somnath; Sehgal, Vinay Kumar; Raghava, Ramesh; Sinha, Mourani

    2016-12-01

    Regional trend of summer monsoon precipitation has been analyzed for broad physical regions of India namely, (i) Indo-Gangetic plain, (ii) Central and East India, (iii) Coastal and Peninsular India and (iv) Western India. A significantly drying trend has been found in the two regions namely, Indo-Gangetic plain and Central and East India with comparative seasonal rate of drying higher in the latter region. A complex relation between the regional trend of summer monsoon precipitation, global teleconnection parameters and rice production of the regions have been studied. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) have a significant role in the precipitation anomaly of Indo-Gangetic plain unlike Central and East India where the ENSO only plays role as global teleconnection parameter. Rice production of Central and East India has been found to be affected adversely during the El Nino years. Central and East India is found to be the worst affected region compared to the Indo-Gangetic plain with respect to its fragile rainfed rice production potential and strong adverse teleconnection of El Nino on the rice production in this zone.

  9. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in India: The All India Ophthalmological Society Diabetic Retinopathy Eye Screening Study 2014

    PubMed Central

    Gadkari, Salil S; Maskati, Quresh B; Nayak, Barun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to ascertain the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients across the nation and attempt to establish history-based risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of diabetic patients was conducted as an initiative of the All India Ophthalmological Society from 14th November to 21st November 2014. Known diabetics were evaluated voluntarily by members of the society at 194 centers using a structured protocol provided by the society for examination. The results were evaluated to ascertain the prevalence of DR in the population studied and to establish relation with gender, age, and history-based risk factors such as duration of diabetes, insulin use, and other end-organ disease using the Chi-square test. Results: A total of 6218 known diabetics were screened. Totally, 5130 data entry forms were considered suitable for further evaluation. About 61.2% were males, 88.6% were between 40 and 80 years of age, almost two-thirds of the patients were from the west and south zones, and over half had diabetes more than 5 years. The data set was predominantly urban 84.7% and 46.1% had no family history. DR prevalence in the entire data set was 21.7%. Prevalence was more in males (P = 0.007), diabetics more than 5 years (P = 0.001), those above 40 years (P = 0.01), insulin users (P = 0.001), and history of vascular accidents (P = 0.0014). Significantly 22.18% of patients detected with DR had a vision of 6/18 or better in the worse eye. Conclusion: The study reiterated the findings of earlier regional studies on a pan Indian scale and put data in perspective. PMID:26953022

  10. Investigations on geomagnetic secular variation anomalies through tectonomagnetic monitoring in the seismoactive zone of the Narmada-Son Lineament, Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waghmare, S. Y.

    2009-12-01

    Data from repeated geomagnetic observations at exactly same location on the five profiles i.e. Katangi-Mandla (AA'), Mandla-Lakhnadon (BB'), Lakhnadon-Narsimhapur (CC'), Narsimhapur-Jabalpur (DD') and Jabalpur-Seoni (EE') have revealed secular variation of the total geomagnetic field in the tectonically/seismically active zone of the Narmada-Son Lineament (NSL), Central India. The seismicity in NSL, associated with the activation of boundary fault near Jabalpur, might have been responsible for the release of stress accumulated due to continuous northward movement of the Indian plate. The external magnetic field contributions (ionospheric/magnetospheric currents) as well as internal (secular trend of main field due to Earth's core electric currents) have been eliminated due to the operation of the reference base station within study area at Seismic Observatory Jabalpur. Proton Precession Magnetometers (PPMs) with sensitivity 0.1 nT were used simultaneously for measuring the total geomagnetic field intensity at the repeated-survey stations and reference station. The survey sites were visited annually wherein seven cycles of repeated observations were performed from 2003 to 2009. The simple difference method was used in data analysis and the residuals have been calculated as secular variations of the total geomagnetic field with values ranging from ±0.1 nT/yr to ±9.5 nT/yr at different stations. However, measurable seismic activity was not registered during the repeated survey period. It is proposed that secular changes originate from stress and tension on the NSL fault system and crustal blocks as a tectonomagnetic effect. However, the Geomagnetic Depth Sounding (GDS) experiment in Jabalpur area revealed high electrical conductivity anomaly (Satpura conductor) which has been interpreted due to fluids/saline water in the crust. There is a possibility for the fluids to flow through the porous rocks thereby generating electric currents to produce the electrokinetic

  11. Lithofacies and particle-size characteristics of late Quaternary floodplain deposits along the middle reaches of the Ganga river, central Ganga plain, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanhaiya, S.; Singh, B. P.; Tripathi, Maya; Sahu, Sagrika; Tiwari, Veena

    2017-05-01

    Floodplains are flat areas lining both sides of most rivers. They are commonly inundated during high flood events and are important sites of biodiversity and human occupation and cultivation. Big city centers such as Kanpur, Allahabad, Mirzapur and Varanasi are situated on the bank of the Ganga river in central Ganga plain, India. Cliffed embankments occur on the left side of the Ganga river around the village of Jhusi, Allahabad district and Adalpura, Mirzapur district, and on the right side around the town of Jajmau, Kanpur district, around the village of Sirsa, Allahabad district, around the town of Ramnagar, Varanasi district and the village of Tanda, Chandauli district. These cliff sections were studied to determine facies types and grain-size variations along and across the cliff sections in order to elucidate the mechanism of particle transportation and sedimentation on the floodplains. It was found that the majority of the facies are composed of extremely silty and very silty slightly sandy mud, and extremely silty and very silty sandy mud, a few consisting of slightly clayey silt. Both groundwater horizons and intercalated pedogenic calcretes in the muddy facies suggest pedogenesis under arid to semiarid climatic conditions during their development. Grain-size analyses show that mean particle size ranges from 4.23-6.53 phi (coarse to fine silt). Sorting (standard deviation) shows a range of 1.57-2.94 phi, indicating that all the samples are poorly to very poorly sorted. Skewness ranges from 0.09-0.88 (near-symmetrical to very fine skewed). Kurtosis varies from 0.75-1.54, with a few exceptions indicating mesokurtic to very leptokurtic size distributions. Plots of mean grain size vs. sorting suggest that sedimentation took place in a quiet fluvial environment in the course of numerous discharge episodes. Channel and floodplain deposits of the Ganga river are clearly distinguished in these plots. Furthermore, a plot of the coarsest percentile against the

  12. Asthma Insights and Management in India: Lessons Learnt from the Asia Pacific - Asthma Insights and Management (AP-AIM) Study.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Sundeep S; Apte, Komalkirti K; Dhar, Raja; Shetty, Pradeep; Faruqi, Rab A; Thompson, Philip J; Guleria, Randeep

    2015-09-01

    Despite a better understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, presence of reliable diagnostic tools, availability of a wide array of effective and affordable inhaled drugs and simplified national and international asthma management guidelines, asthma remains poorly managed in India. The Asia-Pacific Asthma Insight and Management (AP-AIM) study was aimed at understanding the characteristics of asthma, current management, level of asthma control and its impact on quality of life across Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. This paper describes the results of asthma management issues in India in detail and provides a unique insight into asthma in India. The AP-AIM India study was conducted in eight urban cities in India, viz: Ajmer, Delhi, Kolkata, Rourkela, Chennai, Mangalore, Mumbai and Rajkot from February to July 2011. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in adult asthmatics and parents of asthmatic children between the ages of 12 and 17 years with a confirmed diagnosis or a treatment history of 1 year for asthma. Four hundred asthmatics (M:F::1:1.273), with a mean age of 50 ± 17.8 years, from across India were studied. 91% of the asthmatics in India perceived their asthma to be under control, however, none of the asthmatics had controlled asthma by objective measures. Asthmatics in India believed that their asthma was under control if they have up to 2 emergency doctor visits a year. The quality of life of these patients was significantly affected with 93% school/work absenteeism and a loss of 50% productivity. Seventy-five percent of the asthmatics have never had a lung function test. The common triggers for asthmatics in India were dust (49%) and air pollution (49%), while only 5% reported of pollen as triggers. Eighty-nine percent of Indian asthmatics reported an average use of oral steroids 10.5 times a year. Only 36% and 50% of Indian asthmatics used controller and rescue inhalers with a majority

  13. Implementation of Central Bar Bending Yard: A Case Study on 6 × 660 MW Sasan UMPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveen, Potnoor

    2014-12-01

    Central bar bending yard is implemented for the first time in India in power plant construction by Reliance at Sasan ultra mega power project by use of fully automatic Computer Numerical Control (CNC) based machines for improved project quality, automated precise rebar processing, low wastage of material and less labor dependency.

  14. Ethnozoological study of animals used by traditional healers in Silent Valley of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Yabesh, J E Morvin; Prabhu, S; Ayyanar, M; Damodaran, R

    2015-03-13

    India has great biodiversity of fauna. The use of fauna with medicinal properties is a common practice since pre-hispanic times. In the last decade, there has been an interest in ethnozoological studies in India. Ethnozoological studies are necessary in order to discover new medications for human health. There is urgency in recording such data. This is the first ethnozoological study in which statistical calculations about animals are done by the ICF method in Kerala, India. The purpose of this study is to analyze and record traditional knowledge of animals utilized by the indigenous people living on Silent Valley, located in Palakkad district of Kerala, India and to document the traditional names, preparation and uses of these animals. Field study was carried out for a period of September 2011 to August 2012 years in Kerala. The ethnomedicinal information was collected through interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions and overt observations with semi-structured questionnaires among traditional healers. The collected data were analyzed through informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (FL). This study recorded a total of 57 families, 66 genera, and 69 species of animals that produced 163 methods for usages. Mammalian occupied 29% of the total animals listed, followed by aves (28%), insects (17%), reptiles (10%), actinopterygii (4%), malacostraca, amphibians and clitellata (each 3%), chilopoda (2%) and gastropoda (1%) of the whole, respectively. In regards to usage, 68 species utilized as food products and medicinal uses, totaled 98.55% followed by one species for cosmetics (1.45%). This study indicated that the animals are still being used by the local healers of Palakkad district, to treat various illnesses. The empirical knowledge reported in this study will provide outstanding possibilities for the discovery of new sources of medicine for the drug industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Shifting to settled cultivation: Changing practices among the Adis in Central Arunachal Pradesh, north-east India.

    PubMed

    Teegalapalli, Karthik; Datta, Aparajita

    2016-09-01

    In the hilly tropics, although shifting cultivation is a widespread practice, government policies have attempted to replace it with other land uses. However, several factors determine whether farming communities can make the shift. We tried understanding the factors that facilitate or impede the shift to settled cultivation through interviews with the Adi tribe in north-east India. Although settled cultivation was initiated in the 60s, about 90 % of the families still practise shifting cultivation, observing 13 festivals associated with the annual agricultural calendar. Our results indicate that the economic status of a household determined whether a family undertook settled cultivation, while labour availability was important for shifting cultivation. Often, these nuances are ignored in the Government policies. We conclude that future policies should be mindful of cultural and socio-economic factors that affect the community and of the social-ecological resilience of the landscapes and not use a one-size-fits-all strategy.

  16. Patterns in abundance and diversity of faecally dispersed parasites of tiger in Tadoba National Park, central India

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, Rahul R; Goel, Shantanu S; Ranade, Sachin P; Jog, Maithili M; Watve, Milind G

    2002-01-01

    Background Importance of parasites in ecological and evolutionary interactions is being increasingly recognized. However, ecological data on parasites of important host species is still scanty. We analyze the patterns seen in the faecal parasites of tigers in the Tadoba National Park, India, and speculate on the factors and processes shaping the parasite community and the possible implications for tiger ecology. Results The prevalence and intensities were high and the parasite community was dominated by indirect life cycle parasites. Across all genera of parasites variance scaled with the square of the mean and there was a significant positive correlation between prevalence and abundance. There was no significant association between different types of parasites. Conclusions The 70 samples analyzed formed 14 distinct clusters. If we assume each of the clusters to represent individual tigers that were sampled repeatedly and that resident tigers are more likely to be sampled repeatedly, the presumed transient tigers had significantly greater parasite loads than the presumed resident ones. PMID:12000685

  17. Constraints on the development of Proterozoic basins in central India from 40Ar/39Ar analysis of authigenic glauconitic minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrad, J.E.; Hein, J.R.; Chaudhuri, A.K.; Patranabis-Deb, S.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Deb, G.K.; Beukes, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ages of some key stratigraphic sequences in central Indian Proterozoic basins are based predominantly on lithostratigraphic relationships that have been constrained by only a few radioisotopic dates. To help improve age constraints, single grains of glauconitic minerals taken from sandstone and limestone in two Proterozoic sequences in the Pranhita-Godavari Valley and the Chattisgarh basin were analyzed by the 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating method. Analysis of the age spectra distinguishes between ages that are interpreted to reflect the time of glauconite formation, and anomalous ages that result from inherited argon or postcrystallization heating. The analyses indicate an age of 1686 ± 6 Ma for the Pandikunta Limestone and 1566 ± 6 Ma for the Ramgundam Sandstone, two units in the western belt of Proterozoic sequences in Pranhita-Godavari Valley. Glauconite from the Chanda Limestone, in the upper part of this sequence, contains inherited 40Ar but is interpreted to reflect an age of ca. 1200 Ma. Glauconite from the Somanpalli Group in the eastern belt of the Pranhita-Godavari Valley gives an age of 1620 ± 6 Ma. In the Chattisgarh basin, glauconite from two units gives disturbed ages that suggest a period of regional heating in the Chattisgarh basin at ca. 960–1000 Ma. These new ages indicate that these sequences are 200–400 m.y. older than previously recognized, which has important implications for geochemical studies of Mesoproterozoic ocean redox conditions in addition to providing important constraints on regional tectonics and lithostratigraphy.

  18. Invasive pneumococcal disease in children aged younger than 5 years in India: a surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Anand; Manchanda, Vikas; Balasubramanian, Sundaram; Lalwani, Sanjay; Modak, Meera; Bai, Sushama; Vijayan, Ajith; Shet, Anita; Nagaraj, Savitha; Karande, Sunil; Nataraj, Gita; Yewale, Vijay N; Joshi, Shrikrishna A; Iyer, Ranganathan N; Santosham, Mathuram; Kahn, Geoffrey D; Knoll, Maria Deloria

    2017-03-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children younger than 5 years of age in India. We aimed to provide nationally representative data for the pattern of disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, trends in the serotype of invasive pneumococci, and invasive pneumococci antimicrobial resistance patterns, in India. In this prospective hospital-based and retrospective laboratory-based surveillance study, we prospectively enrolled children aged younger than 5 years with suspected or proven invasive pneumococcal disease from 18 hospitals or institutional centres and retrospectively included laboratory-confirmed pneumococcal isolates from ten sentinel laboratories, together representing 11 states in India. Eligibility criteria were fever higher than 38°C without localising symptoms, clinical presentation of suspected meningitis or pneumonia, and evidence of radiographic pneumonia. We cultured blood and other normally sterile body fluids, reconfirmed and serotyped pneumococcal isolates, and established antimicrobial susceptibility using standard study protocols. Between Jan 1, 2011, and June 30, 2015, we enrolled 4377 patients. Among 361 (8%) patients with culture-proven pneumococcal disease, all clinical data were known for 226 (63%); among these patients, 132 (58%) presented with pneumonia, 78 (35%) presented with meningitis, and 16 (7%) had other clinical conditions. 131 (3%) died overall and 29 (8%) patients with invasive pneumococcal disease died. Serotypes 14 (52 [14%] of 361), 1 (49 [14%]), 5 (37 [10%]), and 19F (33 [9%]) were the most common. Penicillin non-susceptibility occurred in isolates from 29 (8%) patients, co-trimoxazole resistance occurred in 239 (66%), erythromycin resistance occurred in 132 (37%), and chloramphenicol resistance occurred in 33 (9%). We found multidrug resistance in 33 (9%) of 361 patients. The proportion of positive blood cultures, number of isolates, geographical representation

  19. Why Students Study English: A Trinational Study of Student Attitudes Towards English in Singapore, India, and Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Willard David

    In accordance with the growing trend in language teaching philosophy towards assessing learner needs before choosing methods and materials, this study concentrates on the attitudes of final year bachelor degree program students towards learning and using English. These 821 students from Thailand, India, and Singapore were majoring in the fields…

  20. Petrochemical and isotopic studies of Transhimalayan granites in Ladakh, NW India

    SciTech Connect

    Srimal, N.; Basu, A.R.; Sinha, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    The India-Asia collision zone in the Transhimalayan Indus and Shyok Tectonic Belts (STB) of Ladakh, NW India is characterized by two major granitic batholiths. The northern, Karakoram Granitic batholith and the southern, Ladakh Granitic batholith are separated by thrust-bound belts of ophiolite, flysch and calc-alkaline volcanics of Mesozoic to Tertiary age. The KGC can be divided into three zones: a northern zone of metaluminous to mildly peraluminous granodiorite, diorite and tonalite with normative corundum, a southern zone of peraluminous two-mica and garnet bearing granites with normative corundum 1.8-3.3%, K/Rb=200-310, Rb/Sr > 0.3 and initial /sup 87/Sr/ /sup 86/Sr > 0.7113, and a central zone with variable K/Rb, Rb/Sr and initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios showing characteristics of both the northern and the southern zones. Field and characteristics of both the northern and the southern zones. Field and geochemical data indicate that: 1) the northern granites of the KGC represent an older magmatic arc derived largely from igneous sources with a small admixture of evolved crustal components and 2) the southern granites of the KGC are derived by partial melting of mature crustal material. Preliminary work in the LGC indicate varying source contamination reflected in variable initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios (.7041-.7072) and in correlated /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr vs. delta /sup 18/O plot. The authors data suggest: 1) multiple accretion of Gondwanic fragments in the Mesozoic and Tertiary along the southern margin of Asia, 2) absence of extensive crustal anatexis in the source region of the Ladakh batholith, and 3) remobilization of old sutures and crustal anatexis as a result of India-Asia collision.

  1. Urban and country level greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprints: A comparative study of a megacity, Delhi and India.

    PubMed

    Ganga, Sarada; Gurjar, B R; Kumari, Ragini

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the contribution and comparison of carbon footprints of megacity Delhi with that of India over the period from 1990 to 2000. Two published studies were taken as base to calculate carbon footprint in terms of CO2 equivalents (CO(2)-e) by taking into account CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions mainly from transport, power plants, domestic, industries, agriculture and waste sectors. It is found that carbon footprints have increased more in India (-45%) in comparison to Delhi (-33%) between 1990-2000. However, the average per capita carbon footprints at India level is less than for Delhi. Also, carbon footprint per km area in Delhi is - 40 times to that for India. In India (2000) the contribution to carbon footprint's share primarily comes from power plants, industries and agriculture sector whereas it comes from power plants and transport in case of Delhi. Various control measures taken into account in Delhi during 1990-2000 have resulted in decreasing share of CO2 in the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in comparison to what appears at India level. It indicates that suitable policy measures and norms are required to be implemented at India level to control other GHGs along with CO2 to reduce net carbon footprints at the country level.

  2. Radon and Helium as productive tools for earthquake precursory and fault delineation studies in NW Himalayas, India: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, B.; Mahajan, S.; Walia, V.; Kumar, A.; Singh, S.; Yang, T. F.

    2009-12-01

    To determine the role of radon and helium as a productive tool for fault delineation and earthquake precursory studies, continuous measurements are made in the soil-gas and groundwater in NW Himalayas, India. The area under study is seismically active and falls in the High Seismic Zones IV and V of the Seismic Map of India. The NW Himalayas are tectonically active due to the northward movement of the Indian plate towards Eurasian plate and the frequent occurrence of small magnitude earthquake indicates that the area is under unusually high stress and strain. The temporal variations in the radon concentration in soil-gas and groundwater are continuous monitored, at three different stations viz. Amritsar (Zone IV), Dharamsala (Zone V) and Dalhousie (Zone IV), using Barasol probes (Algade, France) and RAD7 (Durrige, USA) respectively. The radon anomalies, in the data are correlated with micro seismic events recorded along Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Main Central Thrust (MCT) of NW Himalayas within the grid (28 - 34° North, 72 - 79° East). The anomalous change in the radon concentration before an event suggests that continuous radon monitoring in a grid pattern can serve as a productive tool in earthquake prediction studies. The MCT and MBT are associated with evolution of Himalayan orogeny. Besides the longitudinal lineaments several transverse lineaments occur as faults and fractures trending normally or obliquely to Himalayan trend. Keeping this thing in view, a geochemical soil-gas surveys have been conducted in the NW Himalayas. To carry out the present investigation soil-gas samples were collected in sample bags at depth of about 0.7 - 1.0 m by using hollow steel probe. The collected soil-gas sample bags are analyzed for radon and helium using RTM 2100 and Helium Leak Sniff Detector respectively. The data analysis clearly reveals anomalous values of subsurface gases along the fault and lineaments.

  3. Role of Voluntary Organizations in Astronomy Popularization: A case study of "Khagol Mandal", Mumbai, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, A.; Joshi, S.; Deshpande, A.; Joglekar, H.; Soman, Y.

    2006-08-01

    In India, Astronomy research institutions are few and far spaced as compared to the population density. Further, the public outreach activities of research institutes cannot cover most of the academic institutes in their area as they way out-number public outreach resource potential of any institute. The organisations of amateur astronomy enthusiasts do come handy in this scenario. We here present a case study of "Khagol Mandal", an a voluntary organisation primarily based in Mumbai, India's economic capital. In 20 years since its inception in 1985-86, Khagol Mandal has given more than 1000 public outreach programmes in various schools, undergraduate colleges, famous city hangouts, apart from their regular overnight programmes in Vangani, a sleepy village on the outskirts of the city. Study tours on special occasions like TSE'95 and TSE'99 as well as regular study tours to meteor crater at Lonar, Maharashtra facilitate their volunteers with glimpses of real research work in astronomy. These have inspired a number of students to take professional astronomy careers. With a volunteer force, probably largest in India or even South Asia, Khagol Mandal is well poised to take advantage of the newest tools like the Virtual Observatory and make the use of existing goodwill to take these tools to the layman. With little guidance from senior researchers, organisations like these can provide a solution to ever increasing need of man power for secondary data analysis.

  4. The psychosocial impact of child domestic work: a study from India and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Therese M; Gamlin, Jennie; Ong, Michelle; Camacho, Agnes Zenaida V; Camacho, Agnes Zeneida V

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of domestic employment on the well-being of child domestic workers (CDWs) in India and the Philippines. A questionnaire was administered to 700 CDWs and 700 school-attending controls in the two countries. In India, 36% of CDWs started work before age 12, 48% worked because of poverty or to repay loans, 46% worked >10 h per day, and 31% were physically punished by employers. Filipino CDWs were mainly migrants from rural areas, 47% were working to continue their studies and 87% were attending school, compared with 35% of Indians. In India, 67% of CDWs and 25% of controls scored in the lowest tertile (p<0.001) compared with 36% and 30%, respectively, in the Philippines (p=02). Key significant correlates of low psychosocial scores were non-attendance at school, long working hours, physical punishment, limited support networks and poor health. This study shows that it is not domestic work that is intrinsically harmful, but rather the circumstances and conditions of work, which could be improved through pragmatic regulatory measures.

  5. Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Charophyte Gyrogonites from the Lameta Formation of Jabalpur, Central India: Palaeobiogeographic and Palaeoecological Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Ashu

    2014-12-01

    A charophyte gyrogonite assemblage consisting of Platychara cf. sahnii, Nemegtichara grambastii and Microchara sp. is reported herein from two localities (Bara Simla Hill and Chui Hill sections) of the Lameta Formation at Jabalpur. he Lameta Formation locally underlying the Deccan traps has been shown to be pedogenically modified alluvial plain deposits containing one of the most extensive dinosaur nesting sites in the world. They are associated with dinosaur bones and freshwater ostracod assemblages that suggest a Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) age. This is the first detailed systematic account of charophyte gyrogonites from the Lameta Formation. This charophyte assemblage is compatible with the biostratigraphic attribution provided by the ostracods. From a biogeographic viewpoint, it exhibits considerable similarity to other infratrappean assemblages of the Nand, Dongargaon, and Dhamni-Pavna sections (Maharashtra), and some intertrappean assemblages of Kora in Gujarat, Rangapur in Andhra Pradesh and Gurmatkal in South India<