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Sample records for central nuclear almirante

  1. Central depression of nuclear charge density distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Chu Yanyun; Ren Zhongzhou; Wang Zaijun; Dong Tiekuang

    2010-08-15

    The center-depressed nuclear charge distributions are investigated with the parametrized distribution and the relativistic mean-field theory, and their corresponding charge form factors are worked out with the phase shift analysis method. The central depression of nuclear charge distribution of {sup 46}Ar and {sup 44}S is supported by the relativistic mean-field calculation. According to the calculation, the valence protons in {sup 46}Ar and {sup 44}S prefer to occupy the 1d{sub 3/2} state rather than the 2s{sub 1/2} state, which is different from that in the less neutron-rich argon and sulfur isotopes. As a result, the central proton densities of {sup 46}Ar and {sup 44}S are highly depressed, and so are their central charge densities. The charge form factors of some argon and sulfur isotopes are presented, and the minima of the charge form factors shift upward and inward when the central nuclear charge distributions are more depressed. Besides, the effect of the central depression on the charge form factors is studied with a parametrized distribution, when the root-mean-square charge radii remain constant.

  2. The situation of nuclear medicine in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lass, Piotr

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews the situation of nuclear medicine in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), i.e. a group of 15 countries lying east of the Oder river-Trieste line and west of the present/planned EU eastern border. Together these countries have 106.6 million inhabitants, i.e. about a quarter of the population of the "European economic space". Its nuclear medicine, however, represents less than 10% of European nuclear medicine manpower and equipment. In these countries there are at least 245 nuclear medicine departments with 661 nuclear medicine specialists and at least 376 gamma cameras. There are six dedicated PET units and three PET/SPECT centres, as well as one manufacturer of gamma cameras, six radiopharmaceutical manufacturers and two nuclear medicine scientific journals. The biggest nuclear medicine communities are in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. The scientific input of the CEE countries to European science is moderate-about 10% when measured by EANM congress abstracts, and 5% when measured by the number of papers in MEDLINE-indexed journals. Mean European bibliometric parameters are approached only by Hungary and-to some extent-the Czech Republic. This survey indicates the need for international cooperation to improve the level of nuclear medicine in the CEE countries so that it reaches European standards. The potential of these countries could also be better used to the benefit of European nuclear medicine.

  3. Computer Security for Commercial Nuclear Power Plants - Literature Review for Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Waymire, Russell L.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is providing training and consultation activities on security planning and design for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute (KHNPCRI). As part of this effort, SNL performed a literature review on computer security requirements, guidance and best practices that are applicable to an advanced nuclear power plant. This report documents the review of reports generated by SNL and other organizations [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Energy Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency] related to protection of information technology resources, primarily digital controls and computer resources and their data networks. Copies of the key documents have also been provided to KHNP-CRI.

  4. [Evaluation of immunity against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and dengue in the human population of San Carlos, the Almirante Padilla Island Municipality, Zulia State, Venezuela. 1996].

    PubMed

    Valero, N; Añez, F; Larreal, Y; Arias, J; Rodríguez, Z; Espina, L M

    2001-09-01

    The Insular Municipality of Almirante Padilla, historically, has been affected by Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) epidemics, that have occurred cyclically in the Paez, Mara and Almirante Padilla Municipalities of the State of Zulia. During the last epidemic outbreak (1995), the studies reported a great number of cases of VEE in humans, based on epidemiologic-clinical diagnosis; occupying this municipality, the first place in the attack rate by the virus. At the same time, Dengue has been defined as an endemic illness affecting different regions, whose etiologic agent has previously circulated in the studied zone. In order to evaluate the immunity acquired against these viruses, a serological study was conducted in San Carlos Island. Two hundred and ten blood samples were obtained at random, among individuals of an age range between < 1 and 69 years, with and without antecedents of viral illness symptomatology at the moment of the epidemic outbreak, occurred in 1995. The samples were classified according to sex and age, and analyzed through the test of ELISA for specific IgG antibodies against the VEE and Dengue viruses. From the total of the samples processed, 116 (55.2%) were positive for VEE, affecting uniformly all age-groups with a slight masculine predominance. Likewise, 88 cases (41.9%) were determined positive for Dengue virus, affecting mainly the group ranging from 10 to 19 years. These results let us suggest that the epidemic outbreak occurred in 1995 at the Almirante Padilla Insular Municipality, had a double nature with both viruses being involved in the etiology of febrile cases.

  5. Regional geology of nuclear Central America and petroleum prospects of Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.R.; Nair, K.M.; Ramanathan, R.

    1989-03-01

    The subsurface stratigraphy and structural evolution of nuclear Central American are reviewed in the light of new data from Belize. The northern Belize Corozal basin is the southern continuation of the Yucatan platform of Mexico and the eastern extension of the Peten basin of Mexico and Guatemala. The southern Belize basin is contiguous with the Chapayal basin of Guatemala.

  6. Nuclear-nuclear collision centrality determination by the spectators calorimeter for the MPD setup at the NICA facility

    SciTech Connect

    Golubeva, M. B.; Guber, F. F.; Ivashkin, A. P.; Isupov, A. Yu.; Kurepin, A. B.; Litvinenko, A. G. Litvinenko, E. I.; Migulina, I. I.; Peresedov, V. F.

    2013-01-15

    The work conditions of the hadron calorimeter for spectators registration (Zero Degree Calorimeter, ZDC) were studied for the heavy nuclei collisions with the several GeV invariant energy. The ZDC simulations were performed for the MPD (Multi-Purpose Detector) at the NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility) collider, which are under developement at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna). Taking into account the spectator nuclear fragments leads to a nonmonotonic dependence of the ZDC response on the impact parameter. The reason for this dependence studied with several event generators is the primary beam hole in the ZDC center. It is shown, that the ZDC signal should be combined with a data from other MPD-NICA detector subsystems to determine centrality.

  7. Upgrading of data acquisition software for centralized radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Yussup, F. Ibrahim, M. M. Soh, S. C.; Hasim, H.; Haris, M. F.; Azman, A.; Razalim, F. A. A.; Yapp, R.; Ramli, A. A. M.

    2016-01-22

    With the growth of technology, many devices and equipments can be connected to the network and internet to enable online data acquisition for real-time data monitoring and control from monitoring devices located at remote sites. Centralized radiation monitoring system (CRMS) is a system that enables area radiation level at various locations in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia) to be monitored centrally by using a web browser. The Local Area Network (LAN) in Nuclear Malaysia is utilized in CRMS as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors. The development of the system involves device configuration, wiring, network and hardware installation, software and web development. This paper describes the software upgrading on the system server that is responsible to acquire and record the area radiation readings from the detectors. The recorded readings are called in a web programming to be displayed on a website. Besides the main feature which is acquiring the area radiation levels in Nuclear Malaysia centrally, the upgrading involves new features such as uniform time interval for data recording and exporting, warning system and dose triggering.

  8. Upgrading of data acquisition software for centralized radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yussup, F.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Haris, M. F.; Soh, S. C.; Hasim, H.; Azman, A.; Razalim, F. A. A.; Yapp, R.; Ramli, A. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    With the growth of technology, many devices and equipments can be connected to the network and internet to enable online data acquisition for real-time data monitoring and control from monitoring devices located at remote sites. Centralized radiation monitoring system (CRMS) is a system that enables area radiation level at various locations in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia) to be monitored centrally by using a web browser. The Local Area Network (LAN) in Nuclear Malaysia is utilized in CRMS as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors. The development of the system involves device configuration, wiring, network and hardware installation, software and web development. This paper describes the software upgrading on the system server that is responsible to acquire and record the area radiation readings from the detectors. The recorded readings are called in a web programming to be displayed on a website. Besides the main feature which is acquiring the area radiation levels in Nuclear Malaysia centrally, the upgrading involves new features such as uniform time interval for data recording and exporting, warning system and dose triggering.

  9. Assessment of individual radionuclide distributions from the Fukushima nuclear accident covering central-east Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Norikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Kitagawa, Jun-ichi; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Wong, Ying-Shee; Satou, Yukihiko; Handa, Koji; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Sato, Masanori; Yamagata, Takeyasu

    2011-01-01

    A tremendous amount of radioactivity was discharged because of the damage to cooling systems of nuclear reactors in the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in March 2011. Fukushima and its adjacent prefectures were contaminated with fission products from the accident. Here, we show a geographical distribution of radioactive iodine, tellurium, and cesium in the surface soils of central-east Japan as determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Especially in Fukushima prefecture, contaminated area spreads around Iitate and Naka-Dori for all the radionuclides we measured. Distributions of the radionuclides were affected by the physical state of each nuclide as well as geographical features. Considering meteorological conditions, it is concluded that the radioactive material transported on March 15 was the major contributor to contamination in Fukushima prefecture, whereas the radioactive material transported on March 21 was the major source in Ibaraki, Tochigi, Saitama, and Chiba prefectures and in Tokyo. PMID:22084070

  10. Role of Nuclear Receptors in Central Nervous System Development and Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Ana Maria; Moreno-Ramos, Oscar Andrés; Haider, Neena B.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily is composed of a wide range of receptors involved in a myriad of important biological processes, including development, growth, metabolism, and maintenance. Regulation of such wide variety of functions requires a complex system of gene regulation that includes interaction with transcription factors, chromatin-modifying complex, and the proper recognition of ligands. NHRs are able to coordinate the expression of genes in numerous pathways simultaneously. This review focuses on the role of nuclear receptors in the central nervous system and, in particular, their role in regulating the proper development and function of the brain and the eye. In addition, the review highlights the impact of mutations in NHRs on a spectrum of human diseases from autism to retinal degeneration. PMID:27168725

  11. ON THE HYDRODYNAMIC INTERPLAY BETWEEN A YOUNG NUCLEAR STARBURST AND A CENTRAL SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Wuensch, Richard; Palous, Jan

    2010-06-10

    We present one-dimensional numerical simulations, which consider the effects of radiative cooling and gravity on the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted by stellar winds and supernovae within young nuclear starbursts (NSBs) with a central supermassive black hole (SMBH). The simulations confirm our previous semi-analytic results for low-energetic starbursts, evolving in a quasi-adiabatic regime, and extend them to more powerful starbursts evolving in the catastrophic cooling regime. The simulations show a bimodal hydrodynamic solution in all cases. They present a quasi-stationary accretion flow onto the black hole, defined by the matter reinserted by massive stars within the stagnation volume and a stationary starburst wind, driven by the high thermal pressure acquired in the region between the stagnation and the starburst radii. In the catastrophic cooling regime, the stagnation radius rapidly approaches the surface of the starburst region, as one considers more massive starbursts. This leads to larger accretion rates onto the SMBH and concurrently to powerful winds able to inhibit interstellar matter from approaching the NSB. Our self-consistent model thus establishes a direct physical link between the SMBH accretion rate and the nuclear star formation activity of the host galaxy and provides a good upper limit to the accretion rate onto the central black hole.

  12. Nuclear phosphoinositide specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC)-beta 1: a central intermediary in nuclear lipid-dependent signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Martelli, A M; Fiume, R; Faenza, I; Tabellini, G; Evangelista, C; Bortul, R; Follo, M Y; Falà, F; Cocco, L

    2005-10-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the existence of an autonomous intranuclear phospho-inositide cycle that involves the activation of nuclear PI-PLC and the generation of diacylglycerol (DG) within the nucleus. Although several distinct isozymes of PI-PLC have been detected in the nucleus, the isoform that has been most consistently highlighted as being nuclear is PI-PLC-beta1. Nuclear PI-PLC-beta1 has been linked with either cell proliferation or differentiation. Remarkably, the activation mechanism of nuclear PI-PLC-beta1 has been shown to be different from its plasma membrane counterpart, being dependent on phosphorylation effected by p44/42 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. In this review, we report the most up-dated findings about nuclear PI-PLC-beta1, such as the localization in nuclear speckles, the activity changes during the cell cycle phases, and the possible involvement in the progression of myelodisplastic syndrome to acute myeloid leukemia.

  13. Plastid DNA sequencing and nuclear SNP genotyping help resolve the puzzle of central American Platanus

    PubMed Central

    De Castro, Olga; Di Maio, Antonietta; Lozada García, José Armando; Piacenti, Danilo; Vázquez-Torres, Mario; De Luca, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent research on the history of Platanus reveals that hybridization phenomena occurred in the central American species. This study has two goals: to help resolve the evolutive puzzle of central American Platanus, and to test the potential of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting ancient hybridization. Methods Sequencing of a uniparental plastid DNA marker [psbA-trnH(GUG) intergenic spacer] and qualitative and quantitative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of biparental nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) markers [LEAFY intron 2 (LFY-i2) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2)] were used. Key Results Based on the SNP genotyping results, several Platanus accessions show the presence of hybridization/introgression, including some accessions of P. rzedowskii and of P. mexicana var. interior and one of P. mexicana var. mexicana from Oaxaca (= P. oaxacana). Based on haplotype analyses of the psbA-trnH spacer, five haplotypes were detected. The most common of these is present in taxa belonging to P. orientalis, P. racemosa sensu lato, some accessions of P. occidentalis sensu stricto (s.s.) from Texas, P. occidentalis var. palmeri, P. mexicana s.s. and P. rzedowskii. This is highly relevant to genetic relationships with the haplotypes present in P. occidentalis s.s. and P. mexicana var. interior. Conclusions Hybridization and introgression events between lineages ancestral to modern central and eastern North American Platanus species occurred. Plastid haplotypes and qualitative and quantitative SNP genotyping provide information critical for understanding the complex history of Mexican Platanus. Compared with the usual molecular techniques of sub-cloning, sequencing and genotyping, real-time PCR assay is a quick and sensitive technique for analysing complex evolutionary patterns. PMID:23798602

  14. Molecular differentiation of Central European blowfly species (Diptera, Calliphoridae) using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers.

    PubMed

    GilArriortua, Maite; Saloña Bordas, Marta I; Köhnemann, Stephan; Pfeiffer, Heidi; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2014-09-01

    A challenging step in medical, veterinary and forensic entomology casework is the rapid and accurate identification of insects to estimate the period of insect activity (PIA), which usually approximates the post-mortem interval (PMI). The morphological identification of insect evidence is hampered by species similarities, especially at the early larval stages. However, DNA-based species identification is more accurate and reliable. In this study, we improved the suitability and efficacy of the standard mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcode region of 658 bp combined with an additional region of 616 bp of the same gene. We also tested the usefulness of other mitochondrial and nuclear loci, such as the non-coding region included in mitochondrial Cyt-b-tRNA(ser)-ND1 (495-496 bp) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) (310-337 bp). We classified a total of 54 specimens from five blowfly species belonging to three Calliphoridae genera commonly found in Central Europe: Phormia (P. regina), Calliphora (C. vicina) and Lucilia (L. sericata, L. ampullacea and L. caesar). Additionally included were the Cyt-b (307 bp) sequences for P. regina species and GenBank recorded information about the studied loci for select species. The results revealed the robustness of COI (616 bp) and ITS2 (310-337 bp) as diagnostic tools to be added to the widely established COI barcode (658 bp). Their higher discriminatory power allows for more precise and reliable identifications, even within more complex genera (Lucilia). This work also contributes new nucleotide sequences that are useful for accurate species diagnosis and new sequence data of Calliphoridae interspecific variability in the European Westphalia region (Germany).

  15. Seismic Hazard to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Coastal Central California; a Realistic Assessment Needed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. H.

    2014-12-01

    SourceURL:file://localhost/Users/joycehamilton/Desktop/Hamilton%20AGU%20abstractREV8-2-14.doc A recent issue of EOS featured the article "Active Faults and Nuclear Power Plants" (Chapman et.al., 2014). Although this article mainly reports on evaluations of fault hazard issues at Japan's Tsuruga NPP, it also includes a section on how the owner of the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant (DCNPP) in California, Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), is successfully responding to the evolving needs of seismic hazard assessment for that project. However, a review of the history of such assessment for the DCNPP project reveals a less benign situation, of which there is no hint in the EOS article. This history shows a long term pattern of collaborative efforts by PG&E and its operations and safety regulator, the US NRC, to maintain the operation of DCNPP using stratagems of non-recognition or non-acknowledgment of hazardous conditions, or of minimizing the postulated effects of such conditions by combinations of discovering new means of estimating ever lower levels of potential vibratory ground motions, and feeding the results into logic trees for a PRA which calculates the hazard down to levels acceptable to the NRC for the plant's continued operation. Such a result, however, can be made only if the geologic and seismologic reality of a very high level of seismic hazard to the facility is side stepped, down played, or dismissed. The actual pattern of late Quaternary—including contemporary—tectonism beneath and surrounding the DCNPP site, as shown on a realistic portrayal of geologic structures and active seismicity, is clearly at odds with such a conclusion, and with the statement in the EOS article that PG&E's Long Term Seismic Program "…has provided increased confidence that earthquakes occurring in central California are not likely to produce surprising or conflicting data."

  16. Understanding Earthquake Processes in the Central and Eastern US and Implications for Nuclear Reactor Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seber, D.; Tabatabai, S.

    2012-12-01

    All of the early site permits and new reactor licensing applications, which have been submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC), are located in the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). Furthermore, among the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) already licensed to operate in the US, 96 are located in the CEUS. While there are many considerations in siting commercial NPPs, the perceived lower seismic hazard in the CEUS compared to the Western United States is one of the reasons why the majority of operating and potential future nuclear reactors are located in the CEUS. However, one important criterion used in the licensing and safe operation of a nuclear power plant is its seismic design basis, which establishes the plant's ability to withstand ground motions produced by moderate- to large-sized earthquakes without suffering any damage to its critical safety related structures, systems, and components. The seismic design basis for a NPP is site specific and determined using up-to-date knowledge and information about seismic sources surrounding the site and seismic wave propagation characteristics. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the processes generating earthquakes (tectonic or man-made) and the seismic wave propagation characteristics in the CEUS is crucial. The U.S. NRC's seismic review process for evaluating new reactor siting applications heavily relies upon up-to-date scientific knowledge of seismic sources within at least 320 km of a proposed site. However, the availability of up-to-date knowledge and information about potential seismic sources in low-seismicity regions is limited and relevant data are sparse. Recently, the NRC participated in a joint effort to develop new seismic source models to be used in the CEUS seismic hazard studies for nuclear facilities. In addition, efforts are underway to better understand the seismic potential of the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone. While very large and successful scientific

  17. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S.; LaBonte, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity. PMID:24715791

  18. Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) Seismic Source Characterization (SSC) for Nuclear Facilities Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin J. Coppersmith; Lawrence A. Salomone; Chris W. Fuller; Laura L. Glaser; Kathryn L. Hanson; Ross D. Hartleb; William R. Lettis; Scott C. Lindvall; Stephen M. McDuffie; Robin K. McGuire; Gerry L. Stirewalt; Gabriel R. Toro; Robert R. Youngs; David L. Slayter; Serkan B. Bozkurt; Randolph J. Cumbest; Valentina Montaldo Falero; Roseanne C. Perman' Allison M. Shumway; Frank H. Syms; Martitia P. Tuttle

    2012-01-31

    This report describes a new seismic source characterization (SSC) model for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). It will replace the Seismic Hazard Methodology for the Central and Eastern United States, EPRI Report NP-4726 (July 1986) and the Seismic Hazard Characterization of 69 Nuclear Plant Sites East of the Rocky Mountains, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Model, (Bernreuter et al., 1989). The objective of the CEUS SSC Project is to develop a new seismic source model for the CEUS using a Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 3 assessment process. The goal of the SSHAC process is to represent the center, body, and range of technically defensible interpretations of the available data, models, and methods. Input to a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) consists of both seismic source characterization and ground motion characterization. These two components are used to calculate probabilistic hazard results (or seismic hazard curves) at a particular site. This report provides a new seismic source model. Results and Findings The product of this report is a regional CEUS SSC model. This model includes consideration of an updated database, full assessment and incorporation of uncertainties, and the range of diverse technical interpretations from the larger technical community. The SSC model will be widely applicable to the entire CEUS, so this project uses a ground motion model that includes generic variations to allow for a range of representative site conditions (deep soil, shallow soil, hard rock). Hazard and sensitivity calculations were conducted at seven test sites representative of different CEUS hazard environments. Challenges and Objectives The regional CEUS SSC model will be of value to readers who are involved in PSHA work, and who wish to use an updated SSC model. This model is based on a comprehensive and traceable process, in accordance with SSHAC guidelines in NUREG/CR-6372, Recommendations for Probabilistic

  19. A high resolution record of chlorine-36 nuclear-weapons-tests fallout from Central Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, J.R.; Cecil, L.D.; Synal, H.-A.; Santos, J.; Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Inilchek Glacier, located in the Tien Shan Mountains, central Asia, is unique among mid-latitude glaciers because of its relatively large average annual accumulation. In July 2000, two ice cores of 162 and 167 meters (m) in length were collected from the Inilchek Glacier for (chlorine-36) 36Cl analysis a part of a collaborative international effort to study the environmental changes archived in mid-latitude glaciers worldwide. The average annual precipitation at the collection site was calculated to be 1.6 m. In contrast, the reported average annual accumulations at the high-latitude Dye-3 glacial site, Greenland, the mid-latitude Guliya Ice Cap, China, and the mid-latitude Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, USA, were 0.52, 0.16 and 0.76 m, respectively. The resolution of the 36Cl record in one of the Inilchek ice cores was from 2 to 10 times higher than the resolution of the records at these other sites and could provide an opportunity for detailed study of environmental changes that have occurred over the past 150 years. Despite the differences in accumulation among these various glacial sites, the 36Cl profile and peak concentrations for the Inilchek ice core were remarkably similar in shape and magnitude to those for ice cores from these other sites. The 36Cl peak concentration from 1958, the year during the mid-1900s nuclear-weapons-tests period when 36Cl fallout was largest, was preserved in the Inilchek core at a depth of 90.56 m below the surface of the glacier (74.14-m-depth water equivalent) at a concentration of 7.7 ?? 105 atoms of 36Cl/gram (g) of ice. Peak 36Cl concentrations from Dye-3, Guliya and the Upper Fremont glacial sites were 7.1 ?? 105, 5.4 ?? 105 and 0.7 ?? 105 atoms of 36Cl/g of ice, respectively. Measurements of 36Cl preserved in ice cores improve estimates of historical worldwide atmospheric deposition of this isotope and allow the sources of 36Cl in ground water to be better identified. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. 75 FR 9576 - Civil Nuclear Policy Mission to Central and Eastern Europe

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    .... Increasing energy demands, dependence on Russian fossil fuels, and a small but aging fleet of Russian reactor....S. companies from across the civil nuclear supply chain, including engineering services;...

  1. Comparing flowmeter, aquifer test, and surface nuclear magnetic resonance data in Central Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, T.; Abraham, J. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Steele, G.; Hobza, C. M.; Li, Y.; McKenna, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Traditionally the only means of estimating the hydraulic properties of aquifers has involved drilling boreholes. The logistical and economic requirements of aquifer tests has limited the ability of hydrologists to construct the detailed groundwater models needed for resource management. As such, water policy decisions are often based on sparse aquifer tests combined with geologic interpretation and extrapolation. When dealing with complicated groundwater systems these extrapolations are often not accurate at the scale required to characterize the groundwater system, and additional information is needed to make better informed resource decisions. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) is a geophysical technique which allows for non-invasive estimates of hydraulic permeability and transmissivity. Protons in a volume of liquid water form a weak bulk magnetic moment as they align and precess about the earth's magnetic field. This moment is too small to be measured directly but may be observed by tipping it away from equilibrium using radio-frequency pulses oscillating at the same frequency as its precession (the Larmor frequency). After a short tipping pulse, the moment continues to precess around the static field, although at a tipped angle, slowly returning to its equilibrium state. The decay of these spinning magnetic moments can be observed inductively using loops of wire on the surface of the earth. In the simplest experiment a time series is recorded after a single tipping pulse. By varying the strength of the tipping pulse, different regions of the subsurface can be probed. The amplitude of the signal is directly proportional to the amount of water in the investigated volume. The decay rate of the signal is related to pore geometry and interconnectivity and can be used to estimate hydraulic conductivity. However, this relationship cannot be universally defined as it is affected by additional factors including the mineralogy of the host rock and homogeneity of

  2. 77 FR 37936 - Central Vermont Public Service Corporation, Gaz Métro Limited Partnership, Dominion Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... License I Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc. (DNC or the licensee) is authorized to act as the agent for... operator of MPS3 is DNC, which owns 93.4707%. The remaining 4.7990% of the license is owned by... Wholesale Electric Company's ownership or DNC's ownership and operation of the facility. No physical...

  3. Central depression in nuclear density and its consequences for the shell structure of superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasjev, A.V.; Frauendorf, S.

    2005-02-01

    The influence of the central depression in the density distribution of spherical superheavy nuclei on the shell structure is studied within the relativistic mean-field theory. A large depression leads to the shell gaps at the proton Z=120 and neutron N=172 numbers, whereas a flatter density distribution favors N=184 and leads to the appearance of a Z=126 shell gap and to the decrease of the size of the Z=120 shell gap. The correlations between the magic shell gaps and the magnitude of the central depression are discussed for relativistic and nonrelativistic mean field theories.

  4. Nuclear stopping and energy removal in central collisions between heavy ions of 8-115 AMeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Rulin

    Central and mid-central collisions have been studied for 40Ar + Cu, Ag and Au from 8 to 115 A MeV. Slow moving heavy residual nuclei were observed along with near 4π detection (including ~ 0.5° to 165° in the lab.) of light charged particles and fragments. A continuous increase in the multiplicities from the most violent collisions is observed with increasing projectile energy. The heavy residual nuclei are found to accept a majority fraction of the projectile momentum only up to ~ 44 A MeV, but then to yield this majority fraction to the ejectile spray for 65-115 A MeV. This confirms a dominance of familiar incomplete fusion processes up to 44 A MeV, but then demonstrates a succession to splintering central collisions, a new reaction class for the Fermi energy domain. For the central collisions, isotropic and forward-peaked components in the frame of the heaviest fragment are separated for each ejectile type. The nuclear stopping is characterized via average longitudinal momenta for the heaviest fragment and for each ejectile type. Comparison of measured values of longitudinal volecity for the heaviest fragment with predictions of the Boltzmann- Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model shows the over estimation of nuclear stopping by the model. Ejectiles emitted isotropically in the frame of the heaviest fragment define average deposition energies that reach 1-2 GeV, but there is no clear signature for a liquid-gas phase transition. Collective tranverse flow is measured by azimuthal correlation functions between each ejectile and the reaction plane, determined by vector summation of projectile-like-fragments. The energy at which collective transverse flow in the reaction plane disappears, termed the balance energy, is found to decrease as the mass of the target increases. The disassembly of the heaviest nuclei for these relatively high energy reactions is compared to calculations by multifragmentation models. Large divergences appear between the experimental data and

  5. The Fossil Nuclear Outflow in the Central 30 pc of the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Matsushita, Satoki; Koch, Patrick M.; Iono, Daisuke

    2016-11-01

    We report a new 1 pc (30″) resolution CS(J=2-1) line map of the central 30 pc of the Galactic center (GC), made with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We revisit our previous study of an extraplanar feature called the polar arc (PA), which is a molecular cloud located above SgrA*, with a velocity gradient perpendicular to the galactic plane. We find that the PA can be traced back to the galactic disk. This provides clues to the launching point of the PA, roughly 6 × 106 years ago. Implications of the dynamical timescale of the PA might be related to the Galactic center lobe at parsec scale. Our results suggest that, in the central 30 pc of the GC, the feedback from past explosions could alter the orbital path of molecular gas down to the central tenth of a parsec. In the follow-up work of our new CS(J=2-1) map, we also find that, near systemic velocity, the molecular gas shows an extraplanar hourglass-shaped feature (HG-feature) with a size of ˜13 pc. The latitude-velocity diagrams show that the eastern edge of the HG-feature is associated with an expanding bubble B1, ˜7 pc away from SgrA*. The dynamical timescale of this bubble is ˜3 × 105 years. This bubble is interacting with the 50 km s-1 cloud. Part of the molecular gas from the 50 km s-1 cloud was swept away by the bubble to b=-0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 2. The western edge of the HG-feature seems to be molecular gas entrained from the 20 km s-1 cloud toward the north of the galactic disk. Our results suggest a fossil explosion in the central 30 pc of the GC, a few 105 years ago.

  6. The Nuclear Orphan Receptor NR2F6 Is a Central Checkpoint for Cancer Immune Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hermann-Kleiter, Natascha; Klepsch, Victoria; Wallner, Stephanie; Siegmund, Kerstin; Klepsch, Sebastian; Tuzlak, Selma; Villunger, Andreas; Kaminski, Sandra; Pfeifhofer-Obermair, Christa; Gruber, Thomas; Wolf, Dominik; Baier, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 6 (NR2F6) is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Here, we show that genetic ablation of Nr2f6 significantly improves survival in the murine transgenic TRAMP prostate cancer model. Furthermore, Nr2f6−/− mice spontaneously reject implanted tumors and develop host-protective immunological memory against tumor rechallenge. This is paralleled by increased frequencies of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and higher expression levels of interleukin 2 and interferon γ at the tumor site. Mechanistically, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-intrinsic NR2F6 acts as a direct repressor of the NFAT/AP-1 complex on both the interleukin 2 and the interferon γ cytokine promoters, attenuating their transcriptional thresholds. Adoptive transfer of Nr2f6-deficient T cells into tumor-bearing immunocompetent mice is sufficient to delay tumor outgrowth. Altogether, this defines NR2F6 as an intracellular immune checkpoint in effector T cells, governing the amplitude of anti-cancer immunity. PMID:26387951

  7. Species delimitation in the Central African herbs Haumania (Marantaceae) using georeferenced nuclear and chloroplastic DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Ley, A C; Hardy, O J

    2010-11-01

    Species delimitation is a fundamental biological concept which is frequently discussed and altered to integrate new insights. These revealed that speciation is not a one step phenomenon but an ongoing process and morphological characters alone are not sufficient anymore to properly describe the results of this process. Here we want to assess the degree of speciation in two closely related lianescent taxa from the tropical African genus Haumania which display distinct vegetative traits despite a high similarity in reproductive traits and a partial overlap in distribution area which might facilitate gene flow. To this end, we combined phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses using nuclear (nr) and chloroplast (cp) DNA sequences in comparison to morphological species descriptions. The nuclear dataset unambiguously supports the morphological species concept in Haumania. However, the main chloroplastic haplotypes are shared between species and, although a geographic analysis of cpDNA diversity confirms that individuals from the same taxon are more related than individuals from distinct taxa, cp-haplotypes display correlated geographic distributions between species. Hybridization is the most plausible reason for this pattern. A scenario involving speciation in geographic isolation followed by range expansion is outlined. The study highlights the gain of information on the speciation process in Haumania by adding georeferenced molecular data to the morphological characteristics. It also shows that nr and cp sequence data might provide different but complementary information, questioning the reliability of the unique use of chloroplast data for species recognition by DNA barcoding.

  8. Mitochondrial content is central to nuclear gene expression: Profound implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Muir, Rebecca; Diot, Alan; Poulton, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    We review a recent paper in Genome Research by Guantes et al. showing that nuclear gene expression is influenced by the bioenergetic status of the mitochondria. The amount of energy that mitochondria make available for gene expression varies considerably. It depends on: the energetic demands of the tissue; the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutant load; the number of mitochondria; stressors present in the cell. Hence, when failing mitochondria place the cell in energy crisis there are major effects on gene expression affecting the risk of degenerative diseases, cancer and ageing. In 2015 the UK parliament approved a change in the regulation of IVF techniques, allowing "Mitochondrial replacement therapy" to become a reproductive choice for women at risk of transmitting mitochondrial disease to their children. This is the first time that this technique will be available. Therefore understanding the interaction between mitochondria and the nucleus has never been more important.

  9. Mitochondrial content is central to nuclear gene expression: Profound implications for human health

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Rebecca; Diot, Alan

    2016-01-01

    We review a recent paper in Genome Research by Guantes et al. showing that nuclear gene expression is influenced by the bioenergetic status of the mitochondria. The amount of energy that mitochondria make available for gene expression varies considerably. It depends on: the energetic demands of the tissue; the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutant load; the number of mitochondria; stressors present in the cell. Hence, when failing mitochondria place the cell in energy crisis there are major effects on gene expression affecting the risk of degenerative diseases, cancer and ageing. In 2015 the UK parliament approved a change in the regulation of IVF techniques, allowing “Mitochondrial replacement therapy” to become a reproductive choice for women at risk of transmitting mitochondrial disease to their children. This is the first time that this technique will be available. Therefore understanding the interaction between mitochondria and the nucleus has never been more important. PMID:26725055

  10. Quantification of aquifer properties with surface nuclear magnetic resonance in the Platte River valley, central Nebraska, using a novel inversion method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irons, Trevor P.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Steele, Gregory V.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Woodward, Duane D.

    2012-01-01

    Surface nuclear magnetic resonance, a noninvasive geophysical method, measures a signal directly related to the amount of water in the subsurface. This allows for low-cost quantitative estimates of hydraulic parameters. In practice, however, additional factors influence the signal, complicating interpretation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Platte Natural Resources District, evaluated whether hydraulic parameters derived from surface nuclear magnetic resonance data could provide valuable input into groundwater models used for evaluating water-management practices. Two calibration sites in Dawson County, Nebraska, were chosen based on previous detailed hydrogeologic and geophysical investigations. At both sites, surface nuclear magnetic resonance data were collected, and derived parameters were compared with results from four constant-discharge aquifer tests previously conducted at those same sites. Additionally, borehole electromagnetic-induction flowmeter data were analyzed as a less-expensive surrogate for traditional aquifer tests. Building on recent work, a novel surface nuclear magnetic resonance modeling and inversion method was developed that incorporates electrical conductivity and effects due to magnetic-field inhomogeneities, both of which can have a substantial impact on the data. After comparing surface nuclear magnetic resonance inversions at the two calibration sites, the nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived parameters were compared with previously performed aquifer tests in the Central Platte Natural Resources District. This comparison served as a blind test for the developed method. The nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived aquifer parameters were in agreement with results of aquifer tests where the environmental noise allowed data collection and the aquifer test zones overlapped with the surface nuclear magnetic resonance testing. In some cases, the previously performed aquifer tests were not designed fully to characterize

  11. Alanine Expansions Associated with Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome Impair PHOX2B Homeodomain-mediated Dimerization and Nuclear Import*

    PubMed Central

    Di Lascio, Simona; Belperio, Debora

    2016-01-01

    Heterozygous mutations of the human PHOX2B gene, a key regulator of autonomic nervous system development, lead to congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a failure in the autonomic control of breathing. Polyalanine expansions in the 20-residues region of the C terminus of PHOX2B are the major mutations responsible for CCHS. Elongation of the alanine stretch in PHOX2B leads to a protein with altered DNA binding, transcriptional activity, and nuclear localization and the possible formation of cytoplasmic aggregates; furthermore, the findings of various studies support the idea that CCHS is not due to a pure loss of function mechanism but also involves a dominant negative effect and/or toxic gain of function for PHOX2B mutations. Because PHOX2B forms homodimers and heterodimers with its paralogue PHOX2A in vitro, we tested the hypothesis that the dominant negative effects of the mutated proteins are due to non-functional interactions with the wild-type protein or PHOX2A using a co-immunoprecipitation assay and the mammalian two-hybrid system. Our findings show that PHOX2B forms homodimers and heterodimerizes weakly with mutated proteins, exclude the direct involvement of the polyalanine tract in dimer formation, and indicate that mutated proteins retain partial ability to form heterodimers with PHOX2A. Moreover, in this study, we investigated the effects of the longest polyalanine expansions on the homeodomain-mediated nuclear import, and our data clearly show that the expanded C terminus interferes with this process. These results provide novel insights into the effects of the alanine tract expansion on PHOX2B folding and activity. PMID:27129232

  12. Radiation exposure and central nervous system cancers: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.V.; Flanders, W.D.; Frome, E.L.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Fry, S.A.

    1987-03-01

    A nested case-control study was conducted among workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities to investigate the possible association of primary malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. Eighty-nine white male and female workers, who according to the information on death certificates dies of primary CNS cancers, were identified as cases. Four matched controls were selected for each case. External radiation exposure data were available from film badge readings for individual workers, whereas radiation dose to lung from internally deposited radionuclides, mainly uranium, was estimated from area and personnel monitoring data and was used in analyses in lieu of the dose to the brain. Matched sets were included in the analyses only if information was available for the case and at least one of the corresponding controls. Thus, the analyses of external radiation included 27 cases and 90 matched controls, and 47 cases and 120 matched controls were analyzed for the effects of radiation from internally deposited uranium. No association was observed between deaths fron CNS cancers and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external or internal sources. However, due to the small number of monitored subjects and low doses, a weak association could not be ruled out. 43 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

  13. Relationships between nuclear magnetic resonance parameters used to characterize weathering spilled oil and soil toxicity in central Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Stella Maris; Barquin, Mercedes; Katusich, Ofelia; Nudelman, Norma

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill in the Central Patagonian zone was studied to evaluate if any relationship exists between the parameters used to characterize weathering spilled oil and soil toxicity for two plant species and to evaluate if the phytotoxicity to local species would be a good index for the soil contamination. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural indexes and column chromatography compositional indexes were determined to characterize the oil spill in the soil samples. Bioassays were also carried out using Lactuca sativa L (reference) and Atriplex lampa (native species) as test organisms. Measurements of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and the electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil were carried out to evaluate the effect on the bioassays. The principal components analysis of the parameters determined by NMR, compositional indexes, EC, TPH, and toxicology data shows that the first three principal components accounted for the 78% of the total variance (40%, 25%, and 13% for the first, second, and third PC, respectively). A good agreement was found between information obtained by compositional indexes and NMR structural indexes. Soil toxicity increases with the increase of EC and TPH. Other factors, such as, the presence of branched and aromatic hydrocarbons is also significant. The statistical evaluation showed that the Euclidean distances (3D) between the background and each one of the samples might be a better indicator of the soil contamination, compared with chemical criterion of TPH.

  14. Circulating U2 small nuclear RNA fragments as a novel diagnostic biomarker for primary central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Baraniskin, Alexander; Zaslavska, Elena; Nöpel-Dünnebacke, Stefanie; Ahle, Guido; Seidel, Sabine; Schlegel, Uwe; Schmiegel, Wolff; Hahn, Stephan; Schroers, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) are highly aggressive tumors. Chemotherapy has improved prognosis significantly; however, early diagnosis is crucial for effective treatment. Presently, the diagnosis of PCNSL depends on histopathology of tumor biopsies. We have previously demonstrated differential expression of microRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with PCNSL. Based on promising findings about circulating U2 small nuclear RNA fragments (RNU2-1f) as novel blood-based biomarkers for pancreatic, colorectal, and lung cancer, we investigated RNU2-1f in the CSF of PCNSL patients. Methods CSF was collected from patients with PCNSL (n = 72) and control patients with various neurologic disorders (n = 47). Sequential CSF samples were collected from 9 PCNSL patients. RNU2-1f levels were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Measurement of RNU2-1f levels in CSF enabled the differentiation of patients with PCNSL from controls with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.909 with a sensitivity of 68.1% and a specificity of 91.4%. The diagnostic accuracy was further improved by combined determination of RNU2-1f and miR-21, resulting in AUC of 0.987 with a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 95.7%. In consecutive measurements of RNU2-1f, which were performed in 9 patients at different stages of the disease course, RNU2-1f CSF levels paralleled the course of the disease. Conclusions Our data suggest that the measurement of RNU2-1f detected in CSF can be used as a diagnostic marker and also as a possible marker for treatment monitoring. These promising results need to be evaluated within a larger patient cohort. PMID:26250566

  15. Central Role of the Oxygen-dependent Degradation Domain of Drosophila HIFα/Sima in Oxygen-dependent Nuclear Export

    PubMed Central

    Irisarri, Maximiliano; Lavista-Llanos, Sofía; Romero, Nuria M.; Centanin, Lázaro; Dekanty, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila HIFα homologue, Sima, is localized mainly in the cytoplasm in normoxia and accumulates in the nucleus upon hypoxic exposure. We have characterized the mechanism governing Sima oxygen-dependent subcellular localization and found that Sima shuttles continuously between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We have previously shown that nuclear import depends on an atypical bipartite nuclear localization signal mapping next to the C-terminus of the protein. We show here that nuclear export is mediated in part by a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal localized in the oxygen-dependent degradation domain (ODDD). CRM1-dependent nuclear export requires both oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of a specific prolyl residue (Pro850) in the ODDD, and the activity of the von Hippel Lindau tumor suppressor factor. At high oxygen tension rapid nuclear export of Sima occurs, whereas in hypoxia, Sima nuclear export is largely inhibited. HIFα/Sima nucleo-cytoplasmic localization is the result of a dynamic equilibrium between nuclear import and nuclear export, and nuclear export is modulated by oxygen tension. PMID:19587118

  16. The Nuclear Cluster of the Milky Way: Star Formation and Velocity Dispersion in the Central 0.5 Parsec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbe, A.; Genzel, R.; Eckart, A.; Najarro, F.; Lutz, D.; Cameron, M.; Kroker, H.; Tacconi-Garman, L. E.; Thatte, N.; Weitzel, L.; Drapatz, S.; Geballe, T.; Sternberg, A.; Kudritzki, R.

    1995-07-01

    We report the first results of an extensive new study of the Galactic center stellar cluster. The central parsec is powered by a cluster of about two dozen luminous and helium-rich blue supergiants/Wolf-Rayet stars (Teff ~ 20,000--30,000 K) with ZAMS masses up to ~100 M⊙. The most likely scenario for the formation of the massive stars is a small star formation burst between 3 x 106 and 7 x 106 years ago. In this scenario the Galactic center is presently in a short-lived, post--main-sequence "wind phase." In addition, there is evidence for another star formation event about 108 years ago, as well as for recently formed massive stars that may have been transported into the central core along with orbiting gas streamers. The radial velocity dispersion of 35 early- and late-type stars with distances of 1"--12" from Sgr A* is 154 +/- 19 km s-1. Our new results strongly favor the existence of a central dark mass of ~3 x 106 M⊙ (density >= 108.5 M⊙ pc-3, M/L >= 10 M⊙/L⊙) within 0.14 pc of the dynamic center.

  17. Genetic structure based on nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite loci of Solanum lycocarpum A. St. Hil. (Solanaceae) in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, K; Chaves, L J; Vencovsky, R; Kageyama, P Y

    2011-04-19

    Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae) is a woody species found in the Brazilian Cerrado. The flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa spp bees, and seeds are dispersed by mammals with distinct home range sizes. As a consequence, relative contributions of pollen and seeds to overall gene flow can vary according to different spatial scales. We studied the genetic structure of four natural populations of S. lycocarpum separated by 19 to 128 km, including individuals located along dirt roads that interlink three of the populations. A total of 294 individuals were genotyped with five nuclear and six chloroplast microsatellite markers. Significant spatial genetic structure was found in the total set of individuals; the Sp statistic was 0.0086. Population differentiation based on the six chloroplast microsatellite markers (θ(pC) = 0.042) was small and similar to that based on the five nuclear microsatellite markers (θ(p) = 0.054). For this set of populations, pollen and seed flow did not differ significantly from one another (pollen-to-seed flow ratio = 1.22). Capability for long distance seed dispersion and colonization of anthropogenic sites contributes to the ability of S. lycocarpum to maintain genetic diversity. Seed dispersion along dirt roads may be critical in preserving S. lycocarpum genetic diversity in fragmented landscapes.

  18. Chemical exposures and central nervous system cancers: a case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.V.; Flanders, W.D.; Frome, E.L.; Tankersley, W.G.; Fry, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    In a nested case-control study of workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities, we evaluated the possible association of primary CNS cancers with occupational exposure to chemicals. Seventy-two white male and 17 white female workers who, according to the information on death certificates, died of primary CNS cancers were identified as cases. For each case, four controls were matched on race, sex, facility at which initially employed (cohort), year of birth, and year of hire. Each job title/department combination was subjectively evaluated for potential exposure to each of 26 chemicals or chemical groups. Statistically significant associations were not found between CNS cancer deaths and any of the 26 chemicals. An increased risk of CNS cancer occurrence was observed among subjects employed for more than 20 yr (OR = 7.0, 95% CI = 1.2,41.1, cases = 9).

  19. Confronting fluctuations of conserved charges in central nuclear collisions at the LHC with predictions from Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun-Munzinger, P.; Kalweit, A.; Redlich, K.; Stachel, J.

    2016-12-01

    We construct net baryon number and strangeness susceptibilities as well as correlations between electric charge, strangeness and baryon number from experimental data on the particle production yields at midrapidity of the ALICE Collaboration at CERN. The data were taken in central Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV and cover one unit of rapidity. We show that the resulting fluctuations and correlations are consistent with Lattice QCD results at the chiral crossover pseudocritical temperature Tc ≃ 155 MeV. This agreement lends strong support to the assumption that the fireball created in these collisions is of thermal origin and exhibits characteristic properties expected in QCD at the transition from the quark gluon plasma to the hadronic phase. Since Lattice QCD calculations are performed at a baryochemical potential of μB = 0, the comparisons with LHC data are the most direct due to the vanishing baryon transport to midrapidity at these high energies.

  20. Populations genetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial loci in skin biopsies collected from central and northeastern North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae): population identity and migratory destinations.

    PubMed

    Larsen, A H; Sigurjónsson, J; Oien, N; Vikingsson, G; Palsbøll, P

    1996-11-22

    It has been speculated that humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, from the northeastern North Atlantic breed in tropical waters off the coast of West Africa and therefore that they represent a separate breeding population from that which winters in the West Indies. We determined the genotype at six microsatellite loci as well as the sequence of the first 288 nucleotides in the mitochondrial control region of 133 skin biopsies collected from humpback whales in the central North Atlantic (Iceland and Jan Mayen) and the northeastern North Atlantic (Bear Island and the northern coast of Norway). We detected no significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions nor any differences in genotype frequencies between localities at the nuclear loci. However, the mitochondrial analyses revealed two distinct matrilineal aggregations: the central and the northeastern North Atlantic. Our findings were not compatible with the idea of a separate eastern North Atlantic breeding ground unless one has been established recently. The proposed alternative hypothesis of a common North Atlantic panmictic population (wintering primarily in the West Indies) in which individual whales display maternally directed site-fidelity to specific feeding grounds was supported by re-sightings of two northeastern North Atlantic humpback whales in the West Indies.

  1. Extracellular magnesium regulates nuclear and perinuclear free ionized calcium in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells: possible relation to alcohol and central nervous system injury.

    PubMed

    Altura, B M; Zhang, A; Cheng, T P; Altura, B T

    2001-02-01

    Quantitative digital imaging microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and multiple molecular fluorescent probes were utilized to test the hypothesis that cerebral vascular muscle cell nuclear ([Ca(2+)](n)), perinuclear ([Ca(2+)](pn)), and cytoplasmic free calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) levels are regulated by the concentration of extracellular free magnesium ions ([Mg(2+)](o)). Primary cultured canine cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells were loaded with either fura-2/AM, indo-1/AM, or fluo-3/AM, and the subcellular Ca(2+) responses to stepwise reduction in [Mg(2+)](o) (i.e., from 1.36 to 0.17 mM) were analyzed over time. With normal 1.36 mM [Mg(2+)](o)-containing incubation media, basal mean [Ca(2+)](i) was 89.6+/-15 nM. Lowering [Mg(2+)](o) to 1.07, 0.88, 0.48, and 0.17 mM resulted in rapid (<4 min) increments in [Ca(2+)](i) going to 213+/-43, 368+/-67, 471+/-77, and 642+/-98 nM, respectively; the longer the exposure time (up to 30 min) to lowered [Mg(2+)](o), the higher the [Ca(2+)](i). Restoration of [Mg(2+)](o) to normal caused decreases in [Ca(2+)](i) to 215.9+/-42.3 nM, but only complete removal of [Ca(2+)](o) returned [Ca(2+)](i) to basal levels. Results show that basal [Ca(2+)](pn) (282+/-92 nM) exceeds basal cytoplasmic Ca(2+) (61+/-27.8 nM) and [Ca(2+)](n) (20+/-7.6 nM). However, reduction of normal [Mg(2+)](o) to 0.48 mM resulted in dramatic, rapid rises in all subcellular compartments, where [Ca(2+)](pn) (1503+/-102 nM)>cytoplasmic Ca(2+) (688+/-49 nM) approximately equal to [Ca(2+)](n) (674+/-12 nM). Nuclear Ca(2+) rose dramatically (e.g., 35-40 times basal levels). Both verapamil (1 microM) and Ni(2+) (5 mM) prevented, completely, the rises in Ca(2+) in all compartments, suggesting that Mg(2+)-dependent Ca(2+) accumulation may be dependent on nuclear, endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi, and cytoplasmic L-type voltage membrane-regulated Ca(2+) channels. The normally low [Ca(2+)](n) suggests that Ca(2+) does not transport passively across the nuclear

  2. Development and Testing of a Groundwater Management Model for the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test, Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas P. Boyle; Gregg Lamorey; Scott Bassett; Greg Pohll; Jenny Chapman

    2006-01-25

    This document describes the development and application of a user-friendly and efficient groundwater management model of the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) and surrounding areas that will allow the U.S. Department of Energy and state personnel to evaluate the impact of future proposed scenarios. The management model consists of a simple hydrologic model within an interactive groundwater management framework. This framework is based on an object user interface that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and has been used by the Desert Research Institute researchers and others to couple disparate environmental resource models, manage the necessary temporal and spatial data, and evaluate model results for management decision making. This framework was modified and applied to the CNTA and surrounding Hot Creek Valley. The utility of the management model was demonstrated through the application of hypothetical future scenarios including mineral mining, regional expansion of agriculture, geothermal energy production, and export of water to large urban areas outside the region. While the results from some of the scenarios indicated potential impacts to the region near CNTA and others did not, together they demonstrate the usefulness of the management tool for managers who need to evaluate the impact proposed changes in groundwater use in or near CNTA may have on radionuclide migration.

  3. Aerosol residence times and changes in radioiodine-131I and radiocaesium-137 Cs activity over Central Poland after the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Bem, Henryk

    2012-05-01

    The first detectable activities of radioiodine (131)I, and radiocaesium (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the air over Central Poland were measured in dust samples collected by the ASS-500 station in the period of 21(st) to 24(th) of March, 2011. However, the highest activity of both fission products, (131)I and (137)Cs: 8.3 mBq m(-3) and 0.75 mBq m(-3), respectively, were obtained in the samples collected on 30(th) March, i.e.∼18 days after the beginning of the fission products' discharge from the damaged units of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The simultaneously determined corrected aerosol residence time for the same samples by (210)Pb/(210)Bi and (210)Pb/(210)Po methods was equal to 10 days. Additionally, on the basis of the activity ratio of two other natural cosmogenic radionuclides, (7)Be and (22)Na in these aerosol samples, it was possible to estimate the aerosol residence time at ∼150 days for the solid particles coming from the stratospheric fallout. These data, as well as the differences in the activity size distribution of (7)Be and (131)I in the air particulate matter, show, in contrast to the Chernobyl discharge, a negligible input of stratospheric transport of Fukushima-released fission products.

  4. Water dynamics on ice and hydrate lattices studied by second-order central-line stimulated-echo oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Adjei-Acheamfour, Mischa; Tilly, Julius F.; Beerwerth, Joachim; Böhmer, Roland

    2015-12-07

    Oxygen-17 stimulated-echo spectroscopy is a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique that allows one to investigate the time scale and geometry of ultraslow molecular motions in materials containing oxygen. The method is based on detecting orientationally encoded frequency changes within oxygen’s central-transition NMR line that are caused by second-order quadrupolar interactions. In addition to the latter, the present theoretical analysis of various two-pulse echo and stimulated-echo pulse sequences takes also heteronuclear dipolar interactions into account. As an experimental example, the ultraslow water motion in polycrystals of tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrate is studied via two-time oxygen-17 stimulated-echo correlation functions. The resulting correlation times and those of hexagonal ice are similar to those from previous deuteron NMR measurements. Calculations of the echo functions’ final-state correlations for various motional models are compared with the experimental data of the clathrate hydrate. It is found that a six-site model including the oxygen-proton dipolar interaction describes the present results.

  5. Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameník, J.; Dulaiova, H.; Buesseler, K. O.; Pike, S. M.; Št'astná, K.

    2013-03-01

    Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 1.5 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2-1.5 Bq m-3) were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6-1.8 Bq m-3) were elevated above the 18-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 18-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m-3 (Station Aloha, 17 values). In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1-4 Bq m-3 and 137Cs levels were about 2-3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 1.5 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

  6. Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameník, J.; Dulaiova, H.; Buesseler, K. O.; Pike, S. M.; Št'astná, K.

    2013-09-01

    Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 2 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life, only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs values that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2-1.5 Bq m-3) were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6-1.8 Bq m-3) were elevated above the 23-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 23-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m-3 (Station Aloha, 18 values). In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1-4 Bq m-3, and 137Cs levels were about 2-3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 2 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

  7. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina) from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Igor M; Kavanaugh, David H

    2014-01-01

    Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (Geocharidiusgimlii Erwin, Geocharidiusintegripennis (Bates) and Geocharidiuszullinii Vigna Taglianti) and 12 described here as new. They are: Geocharidiusandersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec) and Geocharidiusvignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez) from Mexico; Geocharidiusantigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua), Geocharidiusbalini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán), Geocharidiuserwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros), Geocharidiusjalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla), Geocharidiuslonginoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón), and Geocharidiusminimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua) from Guatemala; and Geocharidiuscelaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park), Geocharidiuscomayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua), Geocharidiusdisjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park), and Geocharidiuslencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park) from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different montane areas at

  8. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina) from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Igor M.; Kavanaugh, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (Geocharidius gimlii Erwin, Geocharidius integripennis (Bates) and Geocharidius zullinii Vigna Taglianti) and 12 described here as new. They are: Geocharidius andersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec) and Geocharidius vignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez) from Mexico; Geocharidius antigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua), Geocharidius balini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán), Geocharidius erwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros), Geocharidius jalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla), Geocharidius longinoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón), and Geocharidius minimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua) from Guatemala; and Geocharidius celaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park), Geocharidius comayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua), Geocharidius disjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park), and Geocharidius lencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park) from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different

  9. Nuclear imaging in pediatrics

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The author's intent is to familiarize practicing radiologists with the technical aspects and interpretation of nuclear medicine procedures in children and to illustrate the indications for nuclear medicine procedures in pediatric problems. Pediatric doses, dosimetry, sedation, and injection techniques, organ systems, oncology and infection, testicular scanning and nuclear crystography, pediatric endocrine and skeletal systems, ventilation and perfusion imaging of both congenital and acquired pediatric disorders, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, reticuloendothelial studies, and central nervous system are all topics which are included and discussed.

  10. [Introgression of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers of Mus musculus musculus to aboriginal populations of wild mice from central Asia (M. m. wagneri) and south Siberia (M. m. gansuensis)].

    PubMed

    Spiridonova, L N

    2014-01-01

    Variability of the nucleotide sequences of the second intron of the b1-chain of hemoglobin (Hbb-b1) and complete control region of mitochondrial DNA (D-loop) was studied in aboriginal and commensal populations of M. m. wagneri from Central Asia and M. m. gansuensis from South Siberia. A difference in frequency of the hemoglobin Hbb(w1) type for natural and urban populations of mice was shown. All mice from natural habitats of studied areas kept musculus-type of mtDNA. Apparently, the substitution of taxonpecific mitochondrial haplotypes of wagneri and gansuensis might occur due to absorbing hybridization with nominate subspecies musculus, what is consistent with the results on nuclear DNA (Hbb-b1 gene) of this work. Two differentiated haplo groups among aboriginal subspecies wagneri were discovered first time (d = 0.01), one of which included house mice from Turkmenistan. This may indicate on mtDNA introgression from commensal forms of Turkmenistan into natural populations of Kazakhstan mice. The castaneus-type of mtDNA was detected in two individuals from the natural habitat of Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, it had not been met in Central Asia before. It is suggested that the gene flow of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes in microevolution processes in M. musculus is directed from the commensal forms towards wild populations.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  12. Cluster Formation during Expansion of Hot and Compressed Nuclear Matter Produced in Central Collisions of Au on Au at 250 A MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovici, M.; Herrmann, N.; Legrand, I.; Gobbi, A.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Reisdorf, W.; Buta, A.; Freifelder, R.; Jeong, S. C.; Krämer, M.; Moisa, D.; Schüll, D.; Simion, V.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I. M.; Berger, L.; Blaich, Th.; Boussange, S.; Čaplar, R.; Cerruti, C.; Cindro, N.; Coffin, J. P.; Donà, R.; Dupieux, P.; Erö, J.; Fintz, P.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Guillaume, G.; Hölbling, S.; Houari, A.; Jundt, F.; Kecskemeti, J.; Koncz, P.; Korchagin, Y.; Kotte, R.; Kuhn, C.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Lebedev, A.; Maguire, C.; Manko, V.; Mösner, J.; Montarou, G.; Montbel, I.; Morel, P.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Rami, F.; Ramillien, V.; Sadchikov, A.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Smolyankin, S.; Tezkratt, R.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M. A.; Wagner, P.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A. V.

    1995-06-01

    Complete distributions of the light and intermediate mass fragments ( Z = 1-6) produced within the polar angular range 1∘<=Θlab<=30∘ in highly central collisions of 250 A MeV Au + Au are presented. The results of this measurement and a model analysis are used to study the expansion and clustering of the hot and compressed transient state formed in central collisions of such a heavy system. The influence of the initial conditions on the final observables is discussed.

  13. Centrality dependence of the nuclear modification factor of charged pions, kaons, and protons in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz, J. R. M.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Chunhui, Z.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; di Bari, D.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hilden, T. E.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadlovska, S.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Legrand, I.; Lehas, F.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Luz, P. H. F. N. D.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Masui, H.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; McDonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira de Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Pant, D.; Papcun, P.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira da Costa, H.; Pereira de Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; van der Maarel, J.; van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.; Alice Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Transverse momentum (pT) spectra of pions, kaons, and protons up to pT=20 GeV/c have been measured in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV using the ALICE detector for six different centrality classes covering 0%-80%. The proton-to-pion and the kaon-to-pion ratios both show a distinct peak at pT≈3 GeV/c in central Pb-Pb collisions that decreases for more peripheral collisions. For pT>10 GeV/c , the nuclear modification factor is found to be the same for all three particle species in each centrality interval within systematic uncertainties of 10%-20%. This suggests there is no direct interplay between the energy loss in the medium and the particle species composition in the hard core of the quenched jet. For pT<10 GeV/c , the data provide important constraints for models aimed at describing the transition from soft to hard physics.

  14. Monitoring rainwater and seaweed reveals the presence of (131)I in southwest and central British Columbia, Canada following the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chester, A; Starosta, K; Andreoiu, C; Ashley, R; Barton, A; Brodovitch, J-C; Brown, M; Domingo, T; Janusson, C; Kucera, H; Myrtle, K; Riddell, D; Scheel, K; Salomon, A; Voss, P

    2013-10-01

    Detailed analysis of (131)I levels in rainwater and in three species of seaweed (Fucus distichus Linnaeus, Macrocystis pyrifera, and Pyropia fallax) collected in southwest British Columbia and Bella Bella, B.C., Canada was performed using gamma-ray spectroscopy following the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011. Maximum (131)I activity was found to be 5.8(7) Bq/L in rainwater collected at the campus of Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, B.C. nine days after the accident. Concomitantly, maximum observed activity in the brown seaweed F. distichus Linnaeus was observed to be 130(7) Bq/kg dry weight in samples collected in North Vancouver 11 days following the accident and 67(6) Bq/kg dry weight in samples collected from the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre on Vancouver Island 17 days following the accident. The (131)I activity in seaweed samples collected in southwest B.C. following the Fukushima accident was an order of magnitude less than what was observed following Chernobyl. Iodine-131 activity in F. distichus Linnaeus remained detectable for 60 days following the accident and was detectable in each seaweed species collected. The Germanium Detector for Elemental Analysis and Radioactivity Studies (GEARS) was modeled using the Geant4 software package and developed as an analytical tool by the Nuclear Science group in the Simon Fraser University Department of Chemistry for the purpose of these measurements.

  15. The central repeat domain 1 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency associated-nuclear antigen 1 (LANA1) prevents cis MHC class I peptide presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwun, Hyun Jin; Ramos da Silva, Suzane; Qin Huilian; Ferris, Robert L.; Tan Rusung; Chang Yuan; Moore, Patrick S.

    2011-04-10

    KSHV LANA1, a latent protein expressed during chronic infection to maintain a viral genome, inhibits major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) peptide presentation in cis as a means of immune evasion. Through deletional cloning, we localized this function to the LANA1 central repeat 1 (CR1) subregion. Other CR subregions retard LANA1 translation and proteasomal processing but do not markedly inhibit LANA1 peptide processing by MHC I. Inhibition of proteasomal processing ablates LANA1 peptide presentation. Direct expression of LANA1 within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) overcomes CR1 inhibition suggesting that CR1 acts prior to translocation of cytoplasmic peptides into the ER. By physically separating CR1 from other subdomains, we show that LANA1 evades MHC I peptide processing by a mechanism distinct from other herpesviruses including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Although LANA1 and EBV EBNA1 are functionally similar, they appear to use different mechanisms to evade host cytotoxic T lymphocyte surveillance.

  16. British nuclear policymaking

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, C.J.; Platt, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the domestic political, economic, and bureaucratic factors that affect the nuclear policymaking process in Great Britain. Its major conclusion is that, although there have been changes in that process in recent years (notably the current involvement of a segment of the British public in the debate about the deployment of intermediate-range nuclear forces), future British nuclear policymaking will remain much what it has been in the past. Three ideas are central to understanding British thinking on the subject: (1) Britain's long-standing resolve to have her own national nuclear force is largely traceable to her desire to maintain first-rank standing among the nations of the world in spite of loss of empire. (2) Financial considerations have always been important--so much so that they have usually dominated issues of nuclear policy. (3) The executive branch of government dominates the nuclear policymaking process but does not always present a united front. The United States heavily influences British nuclear policy through having supplied Britain since the late 1950s with nuclear data and components of nuclear weapon systems such as Polaris and Trident. The relationship works both ways since the U.S. depends on Britain as a base for deployment of both conventional and nuclear systems.

  17. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  18. [Nuclear families in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Unalan, T

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the household or family types in Turkey in 1983, especially nuclear families. Nuclear families constitute 61.6% of all households in Turkey, and the majority of them are in the West and the Central regions. The highest % of nuclear families was found in the Mediterranean regions, and the lowest in the Black Sea region. Among all nuclear families, 87% of them consist of husband, wife and children, whereas 13% of them have only husband and wife. Nuclear families without children are common in urban areas and in the West while nuclear families with children are mostly found in rural areas and in the East and the Black Sea regions. Nuclear families with 3 or more children constitute 32% of all nuclear households in the West. On the other hand, the corresponding % is 73 for the Eastern region. As a result, it is concluded that nuclear families have significant regional and residential differentiations and households with the same formation in a developed and a less developed region should have different social, economic, and cultural characteristics.

  19. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  20. Teaching in a Nuclear Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musil, Robert K.

    1982-01-01

    The study of the nuclear weapons culture and of disarmament must be made central to the curriculum in the humanities, the sciences, and other subject areas. After discussing the contradictions of the nuclear age, the author suggests using consciousness-raising techniques, readings, films, and student research projects as means of reaching…

  1. Environmental restoration and waste management: An introduction. Student edition; Restauracion ambiental y administracion de residuos nucleares: Introduccion; Edicion estudiantil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    For more than 40 years, the United States has produced nuclear weapons. These production activities generated both radioactive and hazardous waste and often contaminated the environment. For many years, the public was unaware of the problem and unable to do anything about it. All of this has changed. In response to recent public outcry, the former Secretary of Energy, Retired Admiral James D. Watkins, established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The creation of EM was the first step toward correcting contamination problems from the past 40 years In this booklet, we at DOE, through the efforts of the students at Oak Hills High School of Cincinnati, Ohio, will introduce you to EM and encourage your involvement in this major program within the Department of Energy. [Espanol] Durante mas de 40 anos, los Estados Unidos fabricaron armamentos nucleares. Esta produccion genero residuos radiactivos y peligrosos y, en muchos casos, contaminaron el medio ambiente. Durante mucho tiempo, el publico norteamericano no tenia conocimiento de este problema y no pudo hacer nada para solucionarlo. Todo esto ha cambiado. Respondiendo a crecientes protestas publicas, el ex Secretario de Energia Almirante James D. Watkins, establecio en noviembre de 1989 la Subsecretaria de Administracion Ambiental. La creacion de esta Subsecretaria fue el primer paso que dio el Departamento de Energia para corregir los problemas de contaminacion ambiental de los ultimos 40 anos. En esta publicacion, los que trabajamos en el Departamento de Energia con la ayuda de los estudiantes de la Escuela Secundaria de Oak Hills, Cincinnati, Ohio, te introduciermos a la administracion ambiental y alentamos tu participacion en este programa de fundamental importancia en el Departamento de Energia.

  2. Nuclear energy: moving ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Electricity is assuming a larger role despite conservation efforts because it can be generated from a variety of fuels, it is essential for many industrial processes, and it is easier to control the environmental impacts from centralized power plants. The growth in electricity use over the next 10 years is expected to match that of productivity and the gross national product. After examining available energy sources and concluding that nuclear energy is necessary for an adequate and reliable supply, this booklet goes on to examine the risks, accidents and accident control, safety research, nuclear waste management, and the economics of nuclear energy. It concludes that nuclear energy is needed for both the transition period as fossil fuels are used up and in the long term when demand may increase as much as 50%. 24 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  3. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  4. Solution structure of an oncogenic DNA duplex, the K-ras gene and the sequence containing a central C.A or A.G mismatch as a function of pH: nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Boulard, Y; Cognet, J A; Gabarro-Arpa, J; Le Bret, M; Carbonnaux, C; Fazakerley, G V

    1995-02-10

    The DNA duplex 5' d(GCCACCAGCTC)-d(GAGCTGGTGGC) corresponds to the sequence 29 to 39 of the K-ras gene, which contains a hot spot for mutations. This has been studied by one and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, energy minimization and molecular dynamics. The results show that it adopts a globally B-DNA type structure. We have introduced, at the central base-pair, the mismatches C.A and A.G. The mismatch position is that of the first base of the Gly12 codon, the hot spot. For the C.A mismatch we observe a structural change as a function of pH with an apparent pKa of 7.2. At low pH, the mismatch pair adopts a structure close to a classic wobble conformation with the cytidine residue displaced into the major groove. It is stabilised by two hydrogen bonds in which the adenosine residue is protonated and the cytidine residue has a significant C3'-endo population. At high pH, the mispair structure is in equilibrium between wobble and reverse wobble conformations. Similar studies are reported on the A.G mismatch, which also undergoes a transition as a function of pH. 31P spectra have been recorded on all systems and as a function of pH. No evidence for BII phosphodiester backbone conformations was found. The NMR results are well corroborated by molecular dynamics calculations performed with or without distance constraints. The dynamics at the mismatch sites have been examined. Although the overall structures are close to B-DNA, helical parameters fluctuate differently at these sites. Different hydrogen bonding alternatives in dynamic equilibrium that can involve three-centred hydrogen bonds are observed.

  5. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  6. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  7. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  8. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  9. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  10. Nuclear overlap functions

    SciTech Connect

    Eskola, K.J.; Vogt, R.; Wang, X.N.

    1995-07-01

    A three parameter Wood-Saxon shape is used to describe the nuclear density distribution, which R{sub A} is the nuclear radius, {approx} is the surface thickness, and {omega} allows for central irregularities. The electron scattering data is used where available for R{sub A}, z, and {omega}. When data is unavailable, the parameters {omega} = O, z = 0.54 fm and R{sub A} = 1.19 A{sup 1/3} - 1.61 A{sup -1/3} fm are used. The central density {rho}{sub 0} is found from the normalization {infinity} d{sup 3}r{rho}{sub A}(r) = A.

  11. Nuclear lamins and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Young, Stephen G; Jung, Hea-Jin; Lee, John M; Fong, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Much of the work on nuclear lamins during the past 15 years has focused on mutations in LMNA (the gene for prelamin A and lamin C) that cause particular muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, partial lipodystrophy, and progeroid syndromes. These disorders, often called "laminopathies," mainly affect mesenchymal tissues (e.g., striated muscle, bone, and fibrous tissue). Recently, however, a series of papers have identified important roles for nuclear lamins in the central nervous system. Studies of knockout mice uncovered a key role for B-type lamins (lamins B1 and B2) in neuronal migration in the developing brain. Also, duplications of LMNB1 (the gene for lamin B1) have been shown to cause autosome-dominant leukodystrophy. Finally, recent studies have uncovered a peculiar pattern of nuclear lamin expression in the brain. Lamin C transcripts are present at high levels in the brain, but prelamin A expression levels are very low-due to regulation of prelamin A transcripts by microRNA 9. This form of prelamin A regulation likely explains why "prelamin A diseases" such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome spare the central nervous system. In this review, we summarize recent progress in elucidating links between nuclear lamins and neurobiology.

  12. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  13. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  14. Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denschlag, J. O.

    This chapter first gives a survey on the history of the discovery of nuclear fission. It briefly presents the liquid-drop and shell models and their application to the fission process. The most important quantities accessible to experimental determination such as mass yields, nuclear charge distribution, prompt neutron emission, kinetic energy distribution, ternary fragment yields, angular distributions, and properties of fission isomers are presented as well as the instrumentation and techniques used for their measurement. The contribution concentrates on the fundamental aspects of nuclear fission. The practical aspects of nuclear fission are discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0720-2_57 of Vol. 6.

  15. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  16. Australia's nuclear graveyard

    SciTech Connect

    Milliken, R.

    1987-04-01

    Britain and Australia have become locked in a battle of wills and wits over a nuclear legacy that is now more than 30 years old. At stake is the issue of who will pay to clean up a stretch of the central Australian outback where at least 23 kilograms of plutonium are buried in nuclear graveyards or scattered in fine particles on the ground. The plutonium was left there after a series of British nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s. The cost of cleaning it up today, and rendering the ground safe the the Aborigines who claim it as their tribal homeland, has been estimated at up to $158 million. Australia's minister for resources, Senator Gareth Evans, went to London in October 1986 to try to involve the British in the cleanup. But Britain is still taking the stand that it had discharged any obligations on this score long ago. This question is at the heart of controversy that began mounting in the late 1970s over the British nuclear tests. It was then that Aborigines and test veterans from Britain and Australia started alleging that they had been exposed to unduly high doses of radiation. Clearly, the nuclear tests, which began as a political exercise between Britain and Australia more than 30 years ago, seem destined to remain the source of much legal, diplomatic, and financial fallout between the two countries for a long time to come.

  17. Lattice QCD and Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinos Orginos

    2007-03-01

    A steady stream of developments in Lattice QCD have made it possible today to begin to address the question of how nuclear physics emerges from the underlying theory of strong interactions. Central role in this understanding play both the effective field theory description of nuclear forces and the ability to perform accurate non-perturbative calculations in lo w energy QCD. Here I present some recent results that attempt to extract important low energy constants of the effective field theory of nuclear forces from lattice QCD.

  18. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  19. Nuclear privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-11-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country`s two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain`s nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross.

  20. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-05-16

    A fuel element particularly adapted for use in nuclear reactors of high power density is offered. It has fissionable fuel pellet segments mounted in a tubular housing and defining a central passage in the fuel element. A burnable poison element extends through the central passage, which is designed to contain more poison material at the median portion than at the end portions thereby providing a more uniform hurnup and longer reactivity life.

  1. Panel report: nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Joseph A; Hartouni, Edward P

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear science is at the very heart of the NNSA program. The energy produced by nuclear processes is central to the NNSA mission, and nuclear reactions are critical in many applications, including National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsules, energy production, weapons, and in global threat reduction. Nuclear reactions are the source of energy in all these applications, and they can also be crucial in understanding and diagnosing the complex high-energy environments integral to the work of the NNSA. Nuclear processes are complex quantum many-body problems. Modeling and simulation of nuclear reactions and their role in applications, coupled tightly with experiments, have played a key role in NNSA's mission. The science input to NNSA program applications has been heavily reliant on experiment combined with extrapolations and physical models 'just good enough' to provide a starting point to extensive engineering that generated a body of empirical information. This body of information lacks the basic science underpinnings necessary to provide reliable extrapolations beyond the domain in which it was produced and for providing quantifiable error bars. Further, the ability to perform additional engineering tests is no longer possible, especially those tests that produce data in the extreme environments that uniquely characterize these applications. The end of testing has required improvements to the predictive capabilities of codes simulating the reactions and associated applications for both well known and well characterized cases as well as incompletely known cases. Developments in high performance computing, computational physics, applied mathematics and nuclear theory have combined to make spectacular advances in the theory of fission, fusion and nuclear reactions. Current research exploits these developments in a number of Office of Science and NNSA programs, and in joint programs such as the SciDAC (Science Discovery through Advanced Computing) that supports the

  2. Nuclear stress test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  3. Nuclear reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Halley-Stott, Richard P; Pasque, Vincent; Gurdon, J B

    2013-06-01

    There is currently particular interest in the field of nuclear reprogramming, a process by which the identity of specialised cells may be changed, typically to an embryonic-like state. Reprogramming procedures provide insight into many mechanisms of fundamental cell biology and have several promising applications, most notably in healthcare through the development of human disease models and patient-specific tissue-replacement therapies. Here, we introduce the field of nuclear reprogramming and briefly discuss six of the procedures by which reprogramming may be experimentally performed: nuclear transfer to eggs or oocytes, cell fusion, extract treatment, direct reprogramming to pluripotency and transdifferentiation.

  4. Nuclear Speckles

    PubMed Central

    Spector, David L.; Lamond, Angus I.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear speckles, also known as interchromatin granule clusters, are nuclear domains enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors, located in the interchromatin regions of the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells. When observed by immunofluorescence microscopy, they usually appear as 20–50 irregularly shaped structures that vary in size. Speckles are dynamic structures, and their constituents can exchange continuously with the nucleoplasm and other nuclear locations, including active transcription sites. Studies on the composition, structure, and dynamics of speckles have provided an important paradigm for understanding the functional organization of the nucleus and the dynamics of the gene expression machinery. PMID:20926517

  5. Centrality, rapidity, and transverse-momentum dependence of cold nuclear matter effects on J/psi production in dAu, CuCu, and AuAu collisions at sq root(s{sub NN})=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, E. G.; Fleuret, F.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.

    2010-06-15

    We have carried out a wide study of cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects on J/psi production in dAu, CuCu and AuAu collisions at sq root(s{sub NN})=200 GeV. We have studied the effects of three different gluon-shadowing parametrizations, using the usual simplified kinematics for which the momentum of the gluon recoiling against the J/psi is neglected as well as an exact kinematics for a 2->2 process; namely g+g->J/psi+g as expected from LO pQCD. We have shown that the rapidity distribution of the nuclear modification factor R{sub dAu}, and particularly its antishadowing peak, is systematically shifted toward larger rapidities in the 2->2 kinematics, irrespective of which shadowing parametrization is used. In turn, we have noted differences in the effective final-state nuclear absorption needed to fit the PHENIX dAu data. Taking advantage of our implementation of 2->2 kinematics, we have also computed the transverse momentum dependence of the nuclear modification factor, which cannot be predicted with the usual simplified kinematics. All the corresponding observables have been computed for CuCu and AuAu collisions and compared to the PHENIX and STAR data. Finally, we have extracted the effective nuclear absorption from the recent measurements of R{sub CP} in dAu collisions by the PHENIX collaboration.

  6. Centrality, Rapidity And Transverse-Momentum Dependence of Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/Psi Production in D Au, Cu Cu And Au Au Collisions at S(NN)**(1/2)

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, E.G.; Fleuret, F.; Lansberg, J.P.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; /SPhN, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2011-11-11

    We have carried out a wide study of Cold Nuclear Matter (CNM) effects on J/{Psi} = production in dAu, CuCu and AuAu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. We have studied the effects of three different gluon-shadowing parameterizations, using the usual simplified kinematics for which the momentum of the gluon recoiling against the J/{Psi} is neglected as well as an exact kinematics for a 2 {yields} 2 process, namely g + g {yields} J/{psi} + g as expected from LO pQCD. We have shown that the rapidity distribution of the nuclear modification factor R{sub dAu}, and particularly its anti-shadowing peak, is systematically shifted toward larger rapidities in the 2 {yields} 2 kinematics, irrespective of which shadowing parameterization is used. In turn, we have noted differences in the effective final-state nuclear absorption needed to fit the PHENIX dAu data. Taking advantage of our implementation of a 2 {yields} 2 kinematics, we have also computed the transverse momentum dependence of the nuclear modification factor, which cannot be predicted with the usual simplified kinematics. All the corresponding observables have been computed for CuCu and AuAu collisions and compared to the PHENIX and STAR data. Finally, we have extracted the effective nuclear absorption from the recent measurements of RCP in dAu collisions by the PHENIX collaboration.

  7. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  8. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  9. Nuclear battlefields

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides complete data on the nuclear operations and research facilities in the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., France, China and the U.K. It describes detailed estimates on the U.S.S.R.'s nuclear stockpile for over 500 locations. It shows how non-nuclear countries cooperate with the world-wide war machine. And it maps the U.S. nuclear facilities from Little America, WY, and Charleston, SC, to the battleships patroling the world's oceans and subs stalking under the sea. The data were gathered from unclassified sources through the Freedom of Information Act, from data supplied to military installations, and from weapons source books. It provides guidance for policymakers, government and corporate officials.

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  11. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Nuclear Medicine SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for ... administered by inhalation, by oral ingestion, or by direct injection into an organ. The mode of tracer ...

  12. Nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Mobley, J.A.

    1982-05-01

    A nuclear accident with radioactive contamination can happen anywhere in the world. Because expert nuclear emergency teams may take several hours to arrive at the scene, local authorities must have a plan of action for the hours immediately following an accident. The site should be left untouched except to remove casualties. Treatment of victims includes decontamination and meticulous wound debridement. Acute radiation syndrome may be an overwhelming sequela.

  13. Nuclear cardiac

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

  14. Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    White, Morgan C.

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  15. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  16. Nuclear medicine at a crossroads.

    PubMed

    Schelbert, Heinrich R

    2011-12-01

    The growth of molecular imaging heightens the promise of clinical nuclear medicine as a tool for individualization of patient care and for improvement of health-care outcomes. Together with greater use of integrated structure-function imaging, clinical nuclear medicine reaches beyond traditional specialty borders into diagnostic radiology and oncology. Yet, there are concerns about the future of nuclear medicine, including progressively declining reimbursement, the competitive advantages of diagnostic radiology, limited translation of research accomplishments to clinical diagnostic imaging and patient care, and an insufficient pool of incoming highly qualified nuclear medicine clinicians. Thus, nuclear medicine views itself as being at a critical crossroads. What will be important is for nuclear medicine to be positioned as the quintessential molecular imaging modality more centrally within medical imaging and for the integration of nuclear medicine with primary care specialties to be driven more by patient needs than by specialty needs. In this way, the full potential of nuclear medicine as an effective and efficient tool for improving patient outcomes can be realized.

  17. Nuclear telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, R. T.; Szasz, I. J.

    1990-06-01

    Diagnostic nuclear medicine patient images have been transniitted for 8 years from a regional conununity hospital to a university teaching hospital 700 kiloinetres away employing slow scan TV and telephone. Transruission and interpretation were done at the end of each working day or as circumstances required in cases of emergencies. Referring physicians received the nuclear medicine procedure report at the end of the completion day or within few minutes of completion in case of emergency procedures. To date more than 25 patient studies have been transmitted for interpretation. Blinded reinterpretation of the original hard copy data of 350 patient studies resulted in 100 agreement with the interpretation of transmitted data. This technique provides high quality diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine services in remote hospitals where the services of an on-site nuclear physician is not available. 2. HISTORY Eight years ago when the nuclear medicine physician at Trail Regional Hospital left the Trail area and an other could not be recruited we examined the feasibility of image transmission by phone for interpretation since closing the department would have imposed unacceptable physical and financial hardship and medical constraints on the patient population the nearest nuclear medicine facility was at some 8 hours drive away. In hospital patients would have to be treated either based purely on physical findings or flown to Vancouver at considerable cost to the health care system (estimated cost $1500.

  18. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities.

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  20. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Carl E.; Crouthamel, Carl E.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of oxygen gettering material on the inner surface of the cladding. The gettering material reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core thereby preventing the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is an improved method for coating the inner surface of the cladding with a layer of gettering material.

  1. Nuclear risk

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public.

  2. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  3. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses how, as part of the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, DOE is required to investigate a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and, if it determines that the site is suitable, recommend to the President its selection for a nuclear waste repository. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in considering development of the plan, issued five objections, one of which is DOE's failure to recognize the range of alternative conceptual models of the Yucca Mountain site that can be supported by the limited existing technical data. At the end of the quarter DOE directed its project offices in Washington and Texas to begin orderly phase-out of all site-specific repository activities. Costs for this phase-out are $53 million for the Deaf Smith site and $85 million for the Hanford site.

  4. Uranium to Electricity: The Chemistry of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settle, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a series of industrial processes that produce fuel for the production of electricity in nuclear reactors, use the fuel to generate electricity, and subsequently manage the spent reactor fuel. While the physics and engineering of controlled fission are central to the generation of nuclear power, chemistry…

  5. Nuclear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  6. Nuclear pursuits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This table lists quantities of warheads (in stockpile, peak number per year, total number built, number of known test explosions), weapon development milestones (developers of the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb, date of first operational ICBM, first nuclear-powered naval SSN in service, first MIRVed missile deployed), and testing milestones (first fission test, type of boosted fission weapon, multistage thermonuclear test, number of months from fission bomb to multistage thermonuclear bomb, etc.), and nuclear infrastructure (assembly plants, plutonium production reactors, uranium enrichment plants, etc.). Countries included in the tally are the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China.

  7. Helping nuclear power help us

    SciTech Connect

    Schecker, Jay A

    2009-01-01

    After a prolonged absence, the word 'nuclear' has returned to the lexicon of sustainable domestic energy resources. Due in no small part to its demonstrated reliability, nuclear power is poised to playa greater role in the nation's energy future, producing clean, carbon-neutral electricity and contributing even more to our energy security. To nuclear scientists, the resurgence presents an opportunity to inject new technologies into the industry to maximize the benefits that nuclear energy can provide. 'By developing new options for waste management and exploiting new materials to make key technological advances, we can significantly impact the use of nuclear energy in our future energy mix,' says Chris Stanek, a materials scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stanek approaches the big technology challenges by thinking way small, all the way down to the atoms. He and his colleagues are using cutting edge atomic-scale simulations to address a difficult aspect of nuclear waste -- predicting its behavior far into the future. Their research is part of a broader, coordinated effort on the part of the Laboratory to use its considerable experimental, theoretical, and computational capabilities to explore advanced materials central to not only waste issues, but to nuclear fuels as well.

  8. Nuclear orbiting

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear orbiting following collisions between sd and p shell nuclei is discussed. The dependence of this process on the real and imaginary parts of the nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed, as well as the evolution of the dinucleus toward a fully equilibrated fused system. 26 refs., 15 figs.

  9. Nuclear Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel F.; Kendall, Henry W.

    1975-01-01

    Many scientists feel that research into nuclear safety has been diverted or distorted, and the results of the research concealed or inaccurately reported on a large number of occasions. Of particular concern have been the emergency cooling systems which have not, as yet, been adequately tested. (Author/MA)

  10. Nuclear Terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2001-01-01

    As pointed out by several speakers, the level of violence and destruction in terrorist attacks has increased significantly during the past decade. Fortunately, few have involved weapons of mass destruction, and none have achieved mass casualties. The Aum Shinrikyo release of lethal nerve agent, sarin, in the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995 clearly broke new ground by crossing the threshold in attempting mass casualties with chemical weapons. However, of all weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons still represent the most frightening threat to humankind. Nuclear weapons possess an enormous destructive force. The immediacy and scale of destruction are unmatched. In addition to destruction, terrorism also aims to create fear among the public and governments. Here also, nuclear weapons are unmatched. The public's fear of nuclear weapons or, for that matter, of all radioactivity is intense. To some extent, this fear arises from a sense of unlimited vulnerability. That is, radioactivity is seen as unbounded in three dimensions - distance, it is viewed as having unlimited reach; quantity, it is viewed as having deadly consequences in the smallest doses (the public is often told - incorrectly, of course - that one atom of plutonium will kill); and time, if it does not kill you immediately, then it will cause cancer decades hence.

  11. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  12. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  13. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  14. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    The technical principles and practices of the civil nuclear industry are described with particular reference to fission and its products, natural and artificial radioactivity elements principally concerned and their relationships, main types of reactor, safety issues, the fuel cycle, waste management, issues related to weapon proliferation, environmental considerations and possible future developments.

  15. Central pain.

    PubMed

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is central pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome caused by a lesion in the brain or spinal cord that sensitizes one's perception of pain. It is a debilitating condition caused by various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, strokes, spinal cord injuries, or brain tumors. Varied symptoms and the use of pharmacological medicines and nonpharmacological therapies will be addressed.

  16. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  17. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  19. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives.

  20. Nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  1. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  2. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  3. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  4. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened.

  5. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  6. Nuclear dualism.

    PubMed

    Karrer, Kathleen M

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear dualism is a characteristic feature of the ciliated protozoa. Tetrahymena have two different nuclei in each cell. The larger, polyploid, somatic macronucleus (MAC) is the site of transcriptional activity in the vegetatively growing cell. The smaller, diploid micronucleus (MIC) is transcriptionally inactive in vegetative cells, but is transcriptionally active in mating cells and responsible for the genetic continuity during sexual reproduction. Although the MICs and MACs develop from mitotic products of a common progenitor and reside in a common cytoplasm, they are different from one another in almost every respect.

  7. The Governance of Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vergino, E S; May, M

    2003-09-22

    be successful. Regaining that consensus on the other hand means alleviating some fundamental insecurity on the part of states, and weakening the hold that terrorist groups have on some state governments. This in turn requires that some fundamental issues be addressed, with recognition that these are part of a suite of complex and dynamic interactions. Among these issues are: How will states provide for their own security and other central interests while preventing further proliferation, protecting against the use of nuclear weapons, and yet allowing for the possible expansion of nuclear power?; How best can states with limited resources to fight terrorist activities and safeguard nuclear materials be assisted in securing their materials and technologies?; What is the future role of international inspections? Does the IAEA remain the right organization to carry out these tasks? If not, what are the desired characteristics of a successor agency and can there be agreement on one?; How confident can we be of nonproliferation as latent nuclear weapon capabilities spread? The policies to address these and other issues must explicitly deal with NPT members who do not observe their obligations; NPT non-members; illicit trade in SNM and weapon technologies and the possibility of a regional nuclear war.

  8. Applications of nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A C

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  9. Applications of nuclear physics

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-10

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applicationsmore » of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.« less

  10. Applications of nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and the BCS Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slichter, Charles P.

    The author describes the inspiration for the experiment by Hebel and Slichter to measure the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time in super-conductors, the design considerations for the experiment, the surprising experimental results, their theoretical treatment using the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory, and how comparing the nuclear relaxation results with those for ultrasound absorption confirmed the central idea of the BCS theory, the BCS pair wave function.

  12. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  15. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  16. Supernova shock revival by nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamrua, Ko; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei; Nishimura, Nobuya

    2012-11-12

    We performed hydrodynamic simulations of core collapse and bounce for a progenitor model with 15.0 solar mass, using ZEUS-MP code in axi-symmetric coordinate. Our numerical code is equipped with a nuclear reaction network including 13 alpha nuclei form {sup 4}He to {sup 56}Ni to investigate the potential role played by nuclear reactions in reviving a stalled shock wave at the central region of core-collapse supernovae. We found that the energy released by nuclear reactions is significantly helpful in accelerating shock waves and is able to produce energetic explosion even if inputted neutrino luminosity is low.

  17. Pro-Nuclear Environmentalism: Should We Learn to Stop Worrying and Love Nuclear Energy?

    PubMed

    van Munster, Rens; Sylvest, Casper

    2015-10-01

    In light of repeated failures to reach political agreement on effective policies to combat climate change, pro-nuclear environmentalists have set out to reverse the traditionally anti-nuclear inclinations of environmentalists. This essay examines the ideological commitments and assumptions of pro-nuclear environmentalism by performing a critical, historical analysis of the nuclear-environment nexus through the prism of documentary film. We focus on the work and career of documentary filmmaker Rob Stone, whose most recent production, Pandora's Promise (PP) (2013), has emerged as a central statement of this creed. PP actively forges a new political imaginary that replaces the apocalyptic image of nuclear fallout with that of catastrophic climate change. In terms of its rhetorical and visual strategies, however, PP also reveals that pro-nuclear environmentalist arguments have a long lineage. A close study of such continuities reveals a number of political implications that call for reflection as well as caution.

  18. (Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CRDO))

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M J

    1987-04-21

    One of the primary goals of the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) is to be an international focal point for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of liquid metal reactor (LMR) component reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) data. During FY-1985, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a Specific Memorandum of Agreement (SMA) with Japan's Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) regarding cooperative data exchange efforts. This agreement was CREDO's first step toward internationalization and represented an initial realization of the previously mentioned goal. DOE's interest in further internationalization of the CREDO system was the primary motivation for the traveler's attendance at the Reliability '87 conference.

  19. Traces of Thermalization from pt Fluctuations in Nuclear Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, S.

    2004-04-01

    Scattering of particles produced in high energy nuclear collisions can wrestle the system into a state near local thermal equilibrium. I illustrate how measurements of the centrality dependence of the mean transverse momentum and its fluctuations can exhibit this thermalization.

  20. Nuclear war: Opposing viewpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Szumski, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents opposing viewpoints on nuclear war. Topics discussed include: how nuclear would begin; would humanity survive; would civil defense work; will an arms agreement work; and can space weapons reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  1. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  2. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  3. Nuclear South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    inseparable from the history of nuclear developments in both India and Pakistan. The timing of India’s tests was determined by the pronuclear stance of the...Rawalpindi, 2001), 17-18. 53 3Robert Boardman, The Politics of Fading Dreams: Britain and the Nuclear Export Business, Nuclear Exports and World Politics (New...disasters of nuclear arms race. 61 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Boardman, Robert. The Politics of Fading Dreams: Britain and the Nuclear Export Business, Nuclear

  4. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D.

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  5. Nuclear Proliferation: A Global Nuclear Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    thinking about nuclear weapons as a “ Wild Card ” in this case. Finally, just as North Korea is using nuclear weapons as a “bargaining chip,” we...definite disadvantage for non-nuclear nations not to have a nuclear” Wild Card ”. So some misguided Japanese politicians are attracted to the “ Wild Card ” advantage

  6. The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-08

    The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions Amy F. Woolf Specialist in Nuclear Weapons Policy January 8, 2014 Congressional...START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...

  7. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  8. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  9. Regulation of nuclear pore complex conformation by IP(3) receptor activation.

    PubMed Central

    Moore-Nichols, David; Arnott, Anne; Dunn, Robert C

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, both the molecular architecture and functional dynamics of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) have been revealed with increasing detail. These large, supramolecular assemblages of proteins form channels that span the nuclear envelope of cells, acting as crucial regulators of nuclear import and export. From the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope, nuclear pore complexes exhibit an eightfold symmetric ring structure encompassing a central lumen. The lumen often appears occupied by an additional structure alternatively referred to as the central granule, nuclear transport complex, or nuclear plug. Previous studies have suggested that the central granule may play a role in mediating calcium-dependent regulation of diffusion across the nuclear envelope for intermediate sized molecules (10-40 kDa). Using atomic force microscopy to measure the surface topography of chemically fixed Xenopus laevis oocyte nuclear envelopes, we present measurements of the relative position of the central granule within the NPC lumen under a variety of conditions known to modify nuclear Ca(2+) stores. These measurements reveal a large, approximately 9-nm displacement of the central granule toward the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope under calcium depleting conditions. Additionally, activation of nuclear inositol triphosphate (IP(3)) receptors by the specific agonist, adenophostin A, results in a concentration-dependent displacement of central granule position with an EC(50) of ~1.2 nM. The displacement of the central granule within the NPC is observed on both the cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic faces of the nuclear envelope. The displacement is blocked upon treatment with xestospongin C, a specific inhibitor of IP(3) receptor activation. These results extend previous models of NPC conformational dynamics linking central granule position to depletion of IP(3) sensitive nuclear envelope calcium stores. PMID:12202368

  10. Nuclear Power in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun

    2012-02-01

    In response to the Fukushima accident, China is strengthening its nuclear safety at reactors in operation, under construction and in preparation, including efforts to improve nuclear safety regulations and guidelines based on lessons learned from the accident. Although China is one of the major contributors in the global nuclear expansion, China's nuclear power industry is relatively young. Its nuclear safety regulators are less experienced compared to those in other major nuclear power countries. To realize China's resolute commitment to rapid growth of safe nuclear energy, detailed analyses of its nuclear safety regulatory system are required. This talk explains China's nuclear energy program and policy at first. It also explores China's governmental activities and future nuclear development after Fukushima accidents. At last, an overview of China's nuclear safety regulations and practices are provided. Issues and challenges are also identified for police makers, regulators, and industry professionals.

  11. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  12. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  13. Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tretyakova, S.; Shmidt, O.; Podymova, T.; Shadrin, A.; Tkachenko, V.; Makeyeva, I.; Tkachenko, V.; Verbitskaya, O.; Schultz, O.; Peshkichev, I.

    2013-07-01

    The long-term wide development of nuclear power requires new approaches towards the realization of nuclear fuel cycle, namely, closed nuclear fuel cycle (CNFC) with respect to fission materials. Plant nuclear fuel cycle (PNFC), which is in fact the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel unloaded from the reactor and the production of new nuclear fuel (NF) at the same place together with reactor plant, can be one variant of CNFC. Developing and projecting of PNFC is a complicated high-technology innovative process that requires modern information support. One of the components of this information support is developed by the authors. This component is the programme conducting calculations for various variants of process flow sheets for reprocessing SNF and production of NF. Central in this programme is the blocks library, where the blocks contain mathematical description of separate processes and operations. The calculating programme itself has such a structure that one can configure the complex of blocks and correlations between blocks, appropriate for any given flow sheet. For the ready sequence of operations balance calculations are made of all flows, i.e. expenses, element and substance makeup, heat emission and radiation rate are determined. The programme is open and the block library can be updated. This means that more complicated and detailed models of technological processes will be added to the library basing on the results of testing processes using real equipment, in test operating mode. The development of the model for the realization of technical-economic analysis of various variants of technologic PNFC schemes and the organization of 'operator's advisor' is expected. (authors)

  14. The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-08

    The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions Amy F. Woolf Specialist in Nuclear Weapons Policy April 8, 2014 Congressional...Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions Congressional Research Service Summary The

  15. The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-27

    The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions Amy F. Woolf Specialist in Nuclear Weapons Policy August 27, 2014 Congressional...START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions Congressional Research Service Summary The

  16. Coordinating Space Nuclear Research Advancement and Education

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Jonathon A. Webb; Brian J. Gross; Aaron E. Craft

    2009-11-01

    The advancement of space exploration using nuclear science and technology has been a goal sought by many individuals over the years. The quest to enable space nuclear applications has experienced many challenges such as funding restrictions; lack of political, corporate, or public support; and limitations in educational opportunities. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) was established at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the mission to address the numerous challenges and opportunities relevant to the promotion of space nuclear research and education.1 The CSNR is operated by the Universities Space Research Association and its activities are overseen by a Science Council comprised of various representatives from academic and professional entities with space nuclear experience. Program participants in the CSNR include academic researchers and students, government representatives, and representatives from industrial and corporate entities. Space nuclear educational opportunities have traditionally been limited to various sponsored research projects through government agencies or industrial partners, and dedicated research centers. Centralized research opportunities are vital to the growth and development of space nuclear advancement. Coordinated and focused research plays a key role in developing the future leaders in the space nuclear field. The CSNR strives to synchronize research efforts and provide means to train and educate students with skills to help them excel as leaders.

  17. JPRS report: Science and technology, [March 12, 1992]. Central Eurasia: Engineering and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-12

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on engineering and equipment in Central Eurasia. Titles include: on increasing nuclear power plant pipeline reliability during earthquakes; seismic stability of production equipment: seismic stability feasibility analysis of Kozloduy nuclear power plant turbogenerator building pipelines; Ukrainian nuclear security committee; on criteria approximation in dynamic synthesis problems of manipulator robots; and others.

  18. Nuclear forces from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Noriyoshi

    2011-05-06

    Lattice QCD construction of nuclear forces is reviewed. In this method, the nuclear potentials are constructed by solving the Schroedinger equation, where equal-time Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave functions are regarded as quantum mechanical wave functions. Since the long distance behavior of equal-time NBS wave functions is controlled by the scattering phase, which is in exactly the same way as scattering wave functions in quantum mechanics, the resulting potentials are faithful to the NN scattering data. The derivative expansion of this potential leads to the central and the tensor potentials at the leading order. Some of numerical results of these two potentials are shown based on the quenched QCD.

  19. The New Nuclear Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the issue of nuclear proliferation, noting that the countries with nuclear capability now include Israel, South Africa, India, and Pakistan. Describes the role and problems of the United States in halting nuclearization. Supplies charts, maps, and information concerning the state of nuclear capability in each country. (NL)

  20. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  1. Nuclear energy and security

    SciTech Connect

    BLEJWAS,THOMAS E.; SANDERS,THOMAS L.; EAGAN,ROBERT J.; BAKER,ARNOLD B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity.

  2. Terrorists and Nuclear Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, David

    1975-01-01

    This essay explores the ways terrorist groups may gain possession of nuclear materials; the way in which they may use nuclear weapons and other nuclear technologies to their benefit; and various courses of action designed to minimize the possibilities of terrorists utilizing nuclear technology to their benefit and society's detriment. (BT)

  3. Frontiers of Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-12-31

    Current developments in nuclear structure at the `limits` are discussed. The studies of nuclear behavior at extreme conditions provide us with invaluable information about the nature of the nuclear interaction and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk frontiers of nuclear structure are briefly reviewed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei.

  4. Nuclear medicine annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

  5. The nuclear freeze controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, K.B.; Gray, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear arms control. Topics considered include the background and rationale behind the nuclear freeze proposal, nuclear deterrence, national defense, arms races, arms buildup, warfare, the moral aspects of nuclear deterrence, treaty verification, the federal budget, the economy, a historical perspective on Soviet policy toward the freeze, the other side of the Soviet peace offensive, and making sense of the nuclear freeze debate.

  6. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Mitchell, Sonny; Kim, Tony; Borowski, Stan; Power, Kevin; Scott, John; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steve

    2015-01-01

    HEOMD's (Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate) AES (Advanced Exploration Systems) Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project is making significant progress. First of four FY 2015 milestones achieved this month. Safety is the highest priority for NTP (as with other space systems). After safety comes affordability. No centralized capability for developing, qualifying, and utilizing an NTP system. Will require a strong, closely integrated team. Tremendous potential benefits from NTP and other space fission systems. No fundamental reason these systems cannot be developed and utilized in a safe, affordable fashion.

  7. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

  8. Fluid dynamical description of relativistic nuclear collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nix, J. R.; Strottman, D.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of both a conventional relativistic nuclear fluid dynamic model and a two fluid generalization that takes into account the interpenetration of the target and projectile upon contact, collisions between heavy nuclei moving at relativistic speeds are calculated. This is done by solving the relevant equations of motion numerically in three spatial dimensions by use of particle in cell finite difference computing techniques. The effect of incorporating a density isomer, or quasistable state, in the nuclear equation of state at three times normal nuclear density, and the effect of doubling the nuclear compressibility coefficient are studied. For the reaction 20Ne + 238U at a laboratory bombarding energy per nucleon of 393 MeV, the calculated distributions in energy and angle of outgoing charged particles are compared with recent experimental data both integrated over all impact parameters and for nearly central collisions.

  9. Nuclear fuel elements having a composite cladding

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Gerald M.; Cowan, II, Robert L.; Davies, John H.

    1983-09-20

    An improved nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in the core of nuclear reactors. The improved nuclear fuel element has a composite cladding of an outer portion forming a substrate having on the inside surface a metal layer selected from the group consisting of copper, nickel, iron and alloys of the foregoing with a gap between the composite cladding and the core of nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel element comprises a container of the elongated composite cladding, a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of said container and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. The metal layer of the composite cladding prevents perforations or failures in the cladding substrate from stress corrosion cracking or from fuel pellet-cladding interaction or both. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy.

  10. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  11. Nuclear power: sex differences in public opinion

    SciTech Connect

    Brody, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    This study attempts to determine the factors that account for the fact that women are both more opposed and uncertain than men concerning the further development of nuclear energy. To that end, data from four national opinion surveys covering the period 1975 to 1979 are employed. Log-linear techniques are used in the analyses. Two plausible explanations for women's greater aversion to nuclear power are presented. The marginality explanation attributes the differential support of men and women for nuclear power to the differential positions which they occupy in the economic, political, and technical spheres within society. Because men hold more central positions in these areas, it is postulated that they will perceive a greater need for additional energy and continued economic growth, believe that the advantages of nuclear power toward these goals are greater, and be more confident in applications of nuclear technology. The fact that men express more favorable attitudes toward nuclear power is thus to be explained by these factors. The safety explanation attributes the sex difference to a greater concern on the part of women about the safety of using nuclear fission to generate electricity. The general thrust of this arguments is that women's greater concern for safety revolves around their reproductive and nurturant roles, and the protection of future generations. Uncertainty is viewed as a special problem. An explanation for women's greater uncertainty, which attributes the difference to a sex-typed expectation concerning the formulation and expression of opinions on complex technical issues, is presented.

  12. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR CORE DESIGN

    DOEpatents

    Mahlmeister, J.E.; Peck, W.S.; Haberer, W.V.; Williams, A.C.

    1960-03-22

    An improved core design for a sodium-cooled, graphitemoderated nuclear reactor is described. The improved reactor core comprises a number of blocks of moderator material, each block being in the shape of a regular prism. A number of channels, extending the length of each block, are disposed around the periphery. When several blocks are placed in contact to form the reactor core, the channels in adjacent blocks correspond with each other to form closed conduits extending the length of the core. Fuel element clusters are disposed in these closed conduits, and liquid coolant is forced through the annulus between the fuel cluster and the inner surface of the conduit. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the moderator blocks are in the form of hexagonal prisms with longitudinal channels cut into the corners of the hexagon. The main advantage of an "edge-loaded" moderator block is that fewer thermal neutrons are absorbed by the moderator cladding, as compared with a conventional centrally loaded moderator block.

  14. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  15. Cultural Awareness in Nuclear Security Programs: A Critical Link

    SciTech Connect

    Nasser, Al-Sharif Nasser bin; Auda, Jasmine; Bachner, Katherine

    2016-11-20

    Nuclear security programs that offer training and capacity building opportunities to practitioners working in nuclear facilities play a central role in strengthening the global nuclear security architecture. There is often a significant divide, however, between both the development of these programs and their implementation, and between the programs’ intended and actual outcomes. This article argues that this disconnect can often be attributed to an absence of cultural awareness and an inability for internationally-designed programs to effectively resonate with local audiences. Furthermore, the importance of the role of cultural awareness in implementing nuclear security programs will be assessed, and its applications in the Jordanian context will be presented.

  16. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  17. Centralize Printing, and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    Describes the operations of a centralized printing office in a California school district. Centralization greatly increased the efficiency and lowered the cost of generating publications, information services, newsletters, and press releases throughout the school year. (TE)

  18. Central Neuropathic Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Watson, James C; Sandroni, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pain is common in patients with neurologic complications of a central nervous system insult such as stroke. The pain is most commonly musculoskeletal or related to obligatory overuse of neurologically unaffected limbs. However, neuropathic pain can result directly from the central nervous system injury. Impaired sensory discrimination can make it challenging to differentiate central neuropathic pain from other pain types or spasticity. Central neuropathic pain may also begin months to years after the injury, further obscuring recognition of its association with a past neurologic injury. This review focuses on unique clinical features that help distinguish central neuropathic pain. The most common clinical central pain syndromes-central poststroke pain, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and spinal cord injury-related pain-are reviewed in detail. Recent progress in understanding of the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain is reviewed, and pharmacological, surgical, and neuromodulatory treatments of this notoriously difficult to treat pain syndrome are discussed.

  19. Central and peripheral demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Gulati, Natasha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Several conditions cause damage to the inherently normal myelin of central nervous system, perepheral nervous system or both central and perepheral nervous system and hence termed as central demyelinating diseases, perepheral demyelinating diseases and combined central and perepheral demyelinating diseases respectively. Here we analysed and foccused on the etiology, prevalance, incidence and age of these demyelinating disorders. Clinical attention and various diagnostic tests are needed to adequately assess all these possibilities. PMID:24741263

  20. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  1. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  2. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  3. Nuclear disarmament verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  4. Nuclear fear revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2010-10-01

    In 1988 the science historian Spencer Weart published a groundbreaking book called Nuclear Fear: A History of Images, which examined visions of radiation damage and nuclear disaster in newspapers, television, film, literature, advertisements and popular culture.

  5. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains brief papers that discusses the following topics: Fundamental Symmetries in the Nucleus; Internucleon Interactions; Dynamics of Very Light Nuclei; Facets of the Nuclear Many-Body Problem; and Nuclear Instruments and Methods.

  6. Teaching "The Nuclear Predicament."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Philip; Kneeshaw, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Contends that courses on nuclear war must help students examine the political, social, religious, philosophical, economic, and moral assumptions which characterized the dilemma of nuclear armament/disarmament. Describes the upper level undergraduate course taught by the authors. (JDH)

  7. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-27

    small modular reactors and extend the lives and improve the operation of existing commercial nuclear power plants. 40 Interdisciplinary MIT Study, The Future of Nuclear Power, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003, p. 79. 41 Gronlund, Lisbeth, David Lochbaum, and Edwin Lyman, Nuclear Power in a Warming World, Union of Concerned Scientists, December 2007. 42 Travis Madsen, Tony Dutzik, and Bernadette Del Chiaro, et al., Generating Failure: How Building Nuclear Power Plants

  8. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    of efforts to improve the safety of nuclear reactors that were started together with the USSR. These efforts are focused in particular on...characteristics of these reactors are quite encouraging. With their improved safety and low radiation effect on environment they ensure the possi...Nuclear Power [KYODO] 3 Fukushima Nuclear Reactor Reports Leak [KYODO] 3 NORTH KOREA Nuclear Weapons Capability Discussed by ROK Paper

  9. Nuclear power browning out

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1996-05-01

    When the sad history of nuclear power is written, April 26, 1986, will be recorded as the day the dream died. The explosion at the Chernobyl plant was a terrible human tragedy- and it delivered a stark verdict on the hope that nuclear power will one day replace fossil fuel-based energy systems. Nuclear advocates may soldier on, but a decade after Chernobyl it is clear that nuclear power is no longer a viable energy option for the twenty-first century.

  10. JPRS Report Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    release; Distribution Unlimited | -—fb 40 Nuclear Developments JPRS-TND-88-016 CONTENTS 2 SEPTEMBER 1988 CHINA Nuclear Power Chief Seeks...Foreign Cooperation [Yuan Zhou; CHINA DAILY (BUSINESS WEEKLY) 1 Aug 88] 1 Nuclear Fusion Study Reaches Advanced Level [Xiao Longlian; Beijing...Government ’Welcomes’ Group [Beijing XINHUA 12 Aug 88] 4 No Decision on Disposal of Daya Nuclear Waste [Andy Ho; Hong Kong SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST

  11. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  12. Proliferation Persuasion. Coercive Bargaining with Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, Tristan A.

    2015-08-31

    Why do states wait for prolonged periods of time with the technical capacity to produce nuclear weapons? Only a handful of countries have ever acquired the sensitive nuclear fuel cycle technology needed to produce fissile material for nuclear weapons. Yet the enduring trend over the last five decades is for these states to delay or forgo exercising the nuclear weapons option provided by uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing capabilities. I show that states pause at this threshold stage because they use nuclear technology to bargain for concessions from both allies and adversaries. But when does nuclear latency offer bargaining benefits? My central argument is that challengers must surmount a dilemma to make coercive diplomacy work: the more they threaten to proliferate, the harder it becomes to reassure others that compliance will be rewarded with nuclear restraint. I identify a range of mechanisms able to solve this credibility problem, from arms control over breakout capacity to third party mediation and confidence building measures. Since each step towards the bomb raises the costs of implementing these policies, a state hits a sweet spot when it first acquires enrichment and/or reprocessing (ENR) technology. Subsequent increases in proliferation capability generate diminishing returns at the bargaining table for two reasons: the state must go to greater lengths to make a credible nonproliferation promise, and nuclear programs exhibit considerable path dependency as they mature over time. Contrary to the conventional wisdom about power in world politics, less nuclear latency thereby yields more coercive threat advantages. I marshal new primary source evidence from archives and interviews to identify episodes in the historical record when states made clear decisions to use ENR technology as a bargaining chip, and employ this theory of proliferation persuasion to explain how Japan, North Korea, and Iran succeeded and failed to barter concessions from the

  13. The experiences of nuclear peace activists

    SciTech Connect

    Barbera, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of the experiences of nine adult nuclear peace activists was conducted using unstructured interviews and qualitative analysis. The researcher explored why respondents became activists, what they thought and felt about the possibility of nuclear war and about themselves, and how they were sustained in their efforts. Results revealed that activism was associated with periods of flux in the activists' lives, when personal needs resonated with sociocultural conflict. Periods of change were more meaningful than periods of stasis. When personal or vocational conflict was intense, or when both were present, activism precipitated greater life change and was more centrally important. Sociocultural conflict was sufficient to stimulate activism only for those to whom this dimension of experience was highly meaningful, and resulting life changes were less dramatic. Activists were confident, inclusive, and tended to act in response to anxiety or conflict. They were concerned about the welfare of the disempowered, poor and oppressed, and disinterested in having power over others. Activists believed that nuclear weapons caused problems in the present, and it was these problems, rather than anticipated damage from nuclear war, that motivated them to activism. Their emotional responses to nuclear war were about present events, and their responses were characteristic of their emotional responses in general. Most activists were fearful of nuclear war when they first became active, but their fears diminished after they had been active for a period of time. Activists tended to interpret the nuclear problem and solution in terms of the issues that were already salient and meaningful to them. All the activists believed their efforts were effective in preventing nuclear war, and that nuclear war could be prevented. Activism was intrinsically valuable, apart from its success.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  15. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  16. Nuclear energy technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  17. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    a new generation of nuclear Because of the significant improvements in radiation read- reactors with an increased degree of safety are developed...With USSR [Moscow PRA VDA 14 Aug] ...................... 14 Future Nuclear Reactor Plans Detailed fIslamnahad Radio...July Stoppages /Moscow International] ........................................... 19 Suspension of Nuclear Reactor Construction Urged ITASS

  18. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    extraction plant in collaboration with the Fer- Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). tilizers and Chemicals , Travancore (FACT) at Eloor near Cochin...Nuclear Reactor Shut Down After Malfunction [KYODO] ................................................................ 8 PHILIPPINES Proposal To Operate...Nuclear Reactor in Algeria [TELAM] .............................................................. 10 Nuclear Official Returns From Algeria [TELAM

  19. Teaching Nuclear History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holl, Jack M.; Convis, Sheila C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of the teaching about nuclear history at U.S. colleges and universities. Reports the existence of a well-established and extensive literature, a focus on nuclear weapons or warfare, and a concentration on nuclear citizenship, therapy, or eschatology for courses outside of history departments. Discusses individual…

  20. Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... necesita saber acerca de... Estudios de Imagen de Medicina Nuclear Un procedimiento de medicina nuclear se describe algunas veces como unos rayos- ... través del cuerpo del paciente. Los procedimientos de medicina nuclear utilizan pequeñas cantidades de mate- riales radiactivos, ...

  1. Nuclear fact book

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, O. F.; Platt, A. M.; Robinson, J. V.

    1983-05-01

    This reference provides significant highlights and summary facts in the following areas: general energy; nuclear energy; nuclear fuel cycle; uranium supply and enrichment; nuclear reactors; spent fuel and advanced repacking concepts; reprocessing; high-level waste; gaseous waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; remedial action; transportation; disposal; radiation information; environment; legislation; socio-political aspects; conversion factors; and a glossary. (GHT)

  2. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  3. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  4. Optical spectrophotometry of the nuclear region of M51. II - Further evidence for nuclear activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, J. A.; Cecil, G.

    1983-03-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of the spiral galaxy M51 conducted by Rose and Searle (1982) have revealed that the ionized gas within the central region exhibits a peculiar emission-line spectrum and is undergoing large chaotic motions. These phenomena appear to result from low-level nuclear activity qualitatively similar to that seen in Seyfert galaxy nuclei and QSOs. It has been proposed that the gas is photoionized by a central nonstellar ultraviolet continuum. The present study is concerned with a further investigation of the ionization source in the nuclear region of M51, taking into account high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with an intensified Reticon detector on the 2.24 m telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory. It is found that photoionization by a central nonstellar ionizing continuum source provides the most consistent explanation for the observed anomalous emission-line spectrum.

  5. Nuclear Binding Near a Quantum Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Li, Ning; Rokash, Alexander; Alarcón, Jose Manuel; Du, Dechuan; Klein, Nico; Lu, Bing-nan; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam

    2016-09-01

    How do protons and neutrons bind to form nuclei? This is the central question of ab initio nuclear structure theory. While the answer may seem as simple as the fact that nuclear forces are attractive, the full story is more complex and interesting. In this work we present numerical evidence from ab initio lattice simulations showing that nature is near a quantum phase transition, a zero-temperature transition driven by quantum fluctuations. Using lattice effective field theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations for systems with up to twenty nucleons. For even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons, we discover a first-order transition at zero temperature from a Bose-condensed gas of alpha particles (4He nuclei) to a nuclear liquid. Whether one has an alpha-particle gas or nuclear liquid is determined by the strength of the alpha-alpha interactions, and we show that the alpha-alpha interactions depend on the strength and locality of the nucleon-nucleon interactions. This insight should be useful in improving calculations of nuclear structure and important astrophysical reactions involving alpha capture on nuclei. Our findings also provide a tool to probe the structure of alpha cluster states such as the Hoyle state responsible for the production of carbon in red giant stars and point to a connection between nuclear states and the universal physics of bosons at large scattering length.

  6. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  7. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. The nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.

    2016-11-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy characterizes the variation of the binding energy as the neutron to proton ratio of a nuclear system is varied. This is one of the most important features of nuclear physics in general, since it is just related to the two component nature of the nuclear systems. As such it is one of the most relevant physical parameters that affect the physics of many phenomena and nuclear processes. This review paper presents a survey of the role and relevance of the nuclear symmetry energy in different fields of research and of the accuracy of its determination from the phenomenology and from the microscopic many-body theory. In recent years, a great interest was devoted not only to the Nuclear Matter symmetry energy at saturation density but also to its whole density dependence, which is an essential ingredient for our understanding of many phenomena. We analyze the nuclear symmetry energy in different realms of nuclear physics and astrophysics. In particular we consider the nuclear symmetry energy in relation to nuclear structure, astrophysics of Neutron Stars and supernovae, and heavy ion collision experiments, trying to elucidate the connections of these different fields on the basis of the symmetry energy peculiarities. The interplay between experimental and observational data and theoretical developments is stressed. The expected future developments and improvements are schematically addressed, together with most demanded experimental and theoretical advances for the next few years.

  9. Thermodynamics of nuclear transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Hao; Mehta, Pankaj; Elbaum, Michael

    Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope is important for eukaryotes for gene expression and signaling. Experimental studies have revealed that nuclear transport is inherently a nonequilibrium process and actively consumes energy. In this work we present a thermodynamics theory of nuclear transport for a major class of nuclear transporters that are mediated by the small GTPase Ran. We identify the molecular elements responsible for powering nuclear transport, which we term the ``Ran battery'' and find that the efficiency of transport, measured by the cargo nuclear localization ratio, is limited by competition between cargo molecules and RanGTP to bind transport receptors, as well as the amount of NTF2 (i.e. RanGDP carrier) available to circulate the energy flow. This picture complements our current understanding of nuclear transport by providing a comprehensive thermodynamics framework to decipher the underlying biochemical machinery. Pm and CHW were supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling in Living Systems grant (to PM).

  10. 75 FR 30078 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR). By letter dated May 20, 2010, the Director denied the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee...

  11. The harmonic oscillator and nuclear physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The three-dimensional harmonic oscillator plays a central role in nuclear physics. It provides the underlying structure of the independent-particle shell model and gives rise to the dynamical group structures on which models of nuclear collective motion are based. It is shown that the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator features a rich variety of coherent states, including vibrations of the monopole, dipole, and quadrupole types, and rotations of the rigid flow, vortex flow, and irrotational flow types. Nuclear collective states exhibit all of these flows. It is also shown that the coherent state representations, which have their origins in applications to the dynamical groups of the simple harmonic oscillator, can be extended to vector coherent state representations with a much wider range of applicability. As a result, coherent state theory and vector coherent state theory become powerful tools in the application of algebraic methods in physics.

  12. Sakharov and the nuclear test ban

    SciTech Connect

    York, H.F.

    1981-11-01

    US-Soviet test ban policies evolved in an atmosphere of secrecy so that the ideas of people like Sakharov were not available for general consideration by the West. Because two sets of concerns were debated on the world stage, that mankind was threatened by a nuclear arms race and by radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests, this led to both anti-war and anti-test activities. A review of the literature quotes Sakharov's position on nuclear arms control measures and points out the basic problems of negotiation between an open democracy and a centrally-controlled state, noting failures on both sides. In view of the restraints, success should be granted to what progress has already been accomplished, however inadequate. The author feels that efforts by the early leaders to contain the arms race should be examined honestly and whatever actions are needed should be made courageously. 12 references. (DCK)

  13. The Standard Model of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detmold, William

    2015-04-01

    At its core, nuclear physics, which describes the properties and interactions of hadrons, such as protons and neutrons, and atomic nuclei, arises from the Standard Model of particle physics. However, the complexities of nuclei result in severe computational difficulties that have historically prevented the calculation of central quantities in nuclear physics directly from this underlying theory. The availability of petascale (and prospect of exascale) high performance computing is changing this situation by enabling us to extend the numerical techniques of lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD), applied successfully in particle physics, to the more intricate dynamics of nuclear physics. In this talk, I will discuss this revolution and the emerging understanding of hadrons and nuclei within the Standard Model.

  14. The nuclear threat: a new start

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drell, Sidney

    2009-02-01

    President Obama has said that he intends to "make the goal of eliminating all nuclear weapons a central element in [US] nuclear policy". He faces enormous challenges in converting this aspiration into a practical reality, both at home and abroad. One reason is that the world has become accustomed to thinking of nuclear weapons the way Winston Churchill described them in 1955: "It may be that we shall by a process of sublime irony have reached a stage in this story where safety will be the sturdy child of terror, and survival the twin brother of annihilation." Over half a century later, the world has changed and the "sublime irony" is that terror and annihilation still loom over humanity, while safety and survival are still in doubt.

  15. Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034

    SciTech Connect

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid

    2012-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so

  16. Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is in the Hot Creek Valley of south-central Nevada, approximately 70 miles northeast of Tonopah. The CNTA consists of three parcels totaling 2,560 acres. The parcels are spaced approximately 3 miles apart along a roughly north-south line. The total acreage is currently withdrawn from all forms of appropriation associated with mining laws and leasing. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), acquired the CNTA in the early 1960s to develop alternative sites to the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site) for underground nuclear testing. Three emplacement boreholes (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4) were drilled on the three parcels at the CNTA for underground nuclear testing. The initial underground nuclear test at CNTA, Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton. Its purpose was to evaluate the environmental and structural effects that might be expected if subsequent, higher-yield underground nuclear tests were conducted in this vicinity. The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface. In addition, seismic results supported the indication that the site was not favorable for larger detonations. The nuclear detonation created a cavity with a radius of approximately 328 feet. The Faultless test did not release any radioactivity at the surface, and no additional tests were conducted at the CNTA.

  17. Central line complications

    PubMed Central

    Kornbau, Craig; Lee, Kathryn C; Hughes, Gwendolyn D; Firstenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Central venous access is a common procedure performed in many clinical settings for a variety of indications. Central lines are not without risk, and there are a multitude of complications that are associated with their placement. Complications can present in an immediate or delayed fashion and vary based on type of central venous access. Significant morbidity and mortality can result from complications related to central venous access. These complications can cause a significant healthcare burden in cost, hospital days, and patient quality of life. Advances in imaging, access technique, and medical devices have reduced and altered the types of complications encountered in clinical practice; but most complications still center around vascular injury, infection, and misplacement. Recognition and management of central line complications is important when caring for patients with vascular access, but prevention is the ultimate goal. This article discusses common and rare complications associated with central venous access, as well as techniques to recognize, manage, and prevent complications. PMID:26557487

  18. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems FY16 Modeling Efforts at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Sacit M.; Greenwood, Michael Scott; Harrison, Thomas J.; Qualls, A. L.; Guler Yigitoglu, Askin; Fugate, David W.

    2016-09-01

    A nuclear hybrid system uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit. The power generated by the nuclear reactor is utilized by one or more power customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. In general, a nuclear hybrid system will couple the nuclear reactor to at least one thermal power user in addition to the power conversion system. The definition and architecture of a particular nuclear hybrid system is flexible depending on local markets needs and opportunities. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the nuclear system. Similarly, an area near oil refineries may have a need for emission free hydrogen production. A nuclear hybrid system expands the nuclear power plant from its more familiar central power station role by diversifying its immediately and directly connected customer base. The definition, design, analysis, and optimization work currently performed with respect to the nuclear hybrid systems represents the work of three national laboratories. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead lab working with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Each laboratory is providing modeling and simulation expertise for the integration of the hybrid system.

  19. Economics of nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Rossin, A D; Rieck, T A

    1978-08-18

    With 12 percent of U.S. electricity now being supplied by nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison has found nuclear plants to be good investments relative to other base load energy sources. The country's largest user of nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison, estimates that its commitment to nuclear saved its customers about 10 percent on their electric bills in 1977, compared to the cost with the next best alternative, coal. This advantage is seen as continuing, contrary to criticisms of the economics and reliability of nuclear power and claims that it has hidden subsidies. It is concluded that there is a need for both nuclear and coal and that government policy precluding or restricting either would be unwise.

  20. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  1. The quantitative nuclear matrix proteome as a biochemical snapshot of nuclear organization.

    PubMed

    Engelke, Rudolf; Riede, Julia; Hegermann, Jan; Wuerch, Andreas; Eimer, Stefan; Dengjel, Joern; Mittler, Gerhard

    2014-09-05

    The nuclear matrix (NM) is an operationally defined structure of the mammalian cell nucleus that resists stringent biochemical extraction procedures applied subsequent to nuclease-mediated chromatin digestion of intact nuclei. This comprises removal of soluble biomolecules and chromatin by means of either detergent (LIS: lithium diiodosalicylate) or high salt (AS: ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride) treatment. So far, progress toward defining bona fide NM proteins has been hindered by the problem of distinguishing them from copurifying abundant contaminants and extraction-method-intrinsic precipitation artifacts. Here, we present a highly improved NM purification strategy, adding a FACS sorting step for efficient isolation of morphologically homogeneous lamin B positive NM specimens. SILAC-based quantitative proteome profiling of LIS-, AS-, or NaCl-extracted matrices versus the nuclear proteome together with rigorous statistical filtering enables the compilation of a high-quality catalogue of NM proteins commonly enriched among the three different extraction methods. We refer to this set of 272 proteins as the NM central proteome. Quantitative NM retention profiles for 2381 proteins highlight elementary features of nuclear organization and correlate well with immunofluorescence staining patterns reported in the Human Protein Atlas, demonstrating that the NM central proteome is significantly enriched in proteins exhibiting a nuclear body as well as nuclear speckle-like morphology.

  2. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  3. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  4. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Stephen

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  5. Pakistans Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-12

    2004 revelations about a procurement network run by former Pakistani nuclear official A. Q. Khan, Islamabad has taken a number of steps to improve ...strengthened export control laws, improved personnel security, and international nuclear security cooperation programs, have improved Pakistan’s...context where these broader tensions and conflicts are present. 1 Pakistani efforts to improve the security of its nuclear weapons have been ongoing

  6. Nuclear Proliferation Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Professor William Potter

    2005-11-28

    William C. Potter, Director of the Center for Non Proliferation Studies and the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, will present nuclear proliferation challenges following the 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. In addition to elucidating reasons for, and implications of, the conference’s failure, Dr. Potter will discuss common ground between nuclear proliferation and terrorism issues and whether corrective action can be taken.

  7. Nuclear Politics in Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    system. States with prestige are recognized by other actors as having a high 21 Nuclear Politics in Iran standing either generally or with regard to...Nuclear Politics in Iran Edited by Judith S. Yaphe MIDDLE EAST STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES 1 Center for Strategic Research Institute for National...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Politics in

  8. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-03

    William Potter , and Nikolai Sokov, Reducing and Regulating Tactical (Nonstrategic) Nuclear Weapons in Europe, The James Martin Center For...See William C. Potter and Nikolai Sokov, “Nuclear Weapons that People Forget,” International Herald Tribune, May 31, 2000. 87 Sam Nunn, Igor...their security.97 94 Kent Harris , “NATO Allies Want U.S. Nuclear Weapons out of Europe

  9. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  10. Comprehensive Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Dr. Rudy J. M.; Allen, Todd R.; Stoller, Roger E; Yamanaka, Prof. Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    This book encompasses a rich seam of current information on the vast and multidisciplinary field of nuclear materials employed in fission and prototype fusion systems. Discussion includes both historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds leading scientists and engineers. Synthesizes pertinent current science to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  11. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Huey D.

    1974-01-01

    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  12. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  13. Idiopathic central diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Grace, Mary; Balachandran, Venu; Menon, Sooraj

    2011-10-01

    Idiopathic central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare disorder characterized clinically by polyuria and polydipsia, and an abnormal urinary concentration without any identified etiology. We report a case of central diabetes insipidus in a 60-year-old lady in the absence of secondary causes like trauma, infection, and infiltrative disorders of brain.

  14. Nuclear waste: Status of DOE`s nuclear waste site characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1987-12-31

    Three potential nuclear waste repository sites have been selected to carry out characterization activities-the detailed geological testing to determine the suitability of each site as a repository. The sites are Hanford in south-central Washington State, Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada, and Deaf Smith in the Texas Panhandle. Two key issues affecting the total program are the estimations of the site characterization completion data and costs and DOE`s relationship with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which has been limited and its relations with affected states and Indian tribes which continue to be difficult.

  15. Nuclear modifications of Parton Distribution Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeluyi, Adeola Adeleke

    This dissertation addresses a central question of modern nuclear physics: how does the behavior of fundamental degrees of freedom (quarks and gluons) change in the nuclear environment? This is an important aspect of experimental studies at current facilities such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLAB). It is also highly relevant to planned experimental efforts at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the future Electron Ion Collider (EIC). All these facilities probe matter via collisions involving nuclei; thus complications arise due to the presence of the attendant nuclear medium. Theoretical efforts to understand and interpret experimental results from such collisions are therefore largely dependent on the resolution of this question. The development of nuclear physics demonstrates that theoretical description is most efficient in terms of the effective degrees of freedom relevant to the scale (energy) being probed. Thus at low energies, nuclei are described as bound states of protons and neutrons (nucleons). At higher energies, the nucleons are no longer elementary, but are revealed to possess an underlying substructure: they are made up of quarks and gluons, collectively termed partons. The mometum distributions of these partons in the nucleon are referred to as Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). Parton distributions can be determined from experimental measurements of structure functions. The ratio of nuclear structure functions to nucleon structure functions (generically referred to as nuclear ratio) is a measure of the nuclear modifications of the free nucleon PDFs. Thus a study of the nuclear ratio suffices to gain an understanding of nuclear modifications. In this dissertation we aim to describe theoretically nuclear modifications in a restricted region where the nuclear ratio is less than unity, the so

  16. The Milky Way's nuclear star cluster and massive black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schödel, Rainer

    2016-02-01

    Because of its nearness to Earth, the centre of the Milky Way is the only galaxy nucleus in which we can study the characteristics, distribution, kinematics, and dynamics of the stars on milli-parsec scales. We have accurate and precise measurements of the Galactic centre's central black hole, Sagittarius A*, and can study its interaction with the surrounding nuclear star cluster in detail. This contribution aims at providing a concise overview of our current knowledge about the Milky Way's central black hole and nuclear star cluster, at highlighting the observational challenges and limitations, and at discussing some of the current key areas of investigation.

  17. The U.S. national nuclear forensics library, nuclear materials information program, and data dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, Stephen Philip; Brisson, Marcia; Curry, Michael

    2011-02-17

    Nuclear forensics assessments to determine material process history requires careful comparison of sample data to both measured and modeled nuclear material characteristics. Developing centralized databases, or nuclear forensics libraries, to house this information is an important step to ensure all relevant data will be available for comparison during a nuclear forensics analysis and help expedite the assessment of material history. The approach most widely accepted by the international community at this time is the implementation of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, which would be developed and maintained by individual nations. This is an attractive alternative toan international database since it provides an understanding that each country has data on materials produced and stored within their borders, but eliminates the need to reveal any proprietary or sensitive information to other nations. To support the concept of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, the United States Department of Energy has developed a model library, based on a data dictionary, or set of parameters designed to capture all nuclear forensic relevant information about a nuclear material. Specifically, information includes material identification, collection background and current location, analytical laboratories where measurements were made, material packaging and container descriptions, physical characteristics including mass and dimensions, chemical and isotopic characteristics, particle morphology or metallurgical properties, process history including facilities, and measurement quality assurance information. While not necessarily required, it may also be valuable to store modeled data sets including reactor burn-up or enrichment cascade data for comparison. It is fully expected that only a subset of this information is available or relevant to many materials, and much of the data populating a National Nuclear Forensics library would be process analytical or material accountability

  18. Expedient arrangement of newly constructed systems for centralized heat supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Rotinov, A. G.

    2008-11-01

    It is shown that for newly constructed combined-cycle cogeneration plants and nuclear cogeneration plants, the optimum arrangement of the centralized heat supply system is the combination of a cogeneration plant and a district heat-supply station (a boiler house).

  19. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  20. Gordon Conference on Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    Session topics were: quarks and nuclear physics; anomalons and anti-protons; the independent particle structure of nuclei; relativistic descriptions of nuclear structure and scattering; nuclear structure at high excitation; advances in nuclear astrophysics; properties of nuclear material; the earliest moments of the universe; and pions and spin excitations in nuclei.

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US.

  2. Vented nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  3. Under the Nuclear Umbrella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Leon F.

    1987-01-01

    Entertains the thesis that social work has a stake in the technological-humanistic debate and should greet the recent and spectacular technological failures with protest and alarm. Discusses relationship of nuclear issue and social work, effects of nuclear issue on children, and Chernobyl. Advocates pacifism, activism, and a coherent conception of…

  4. Vertical nuclear proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sidel, Victor W

    2007-01-01

    All the nuclear-weapon states are working to develop new nuclear-weapon systems and upgrade their existing ones. Although the US Congress has recently blocked further development of small nuclear weapons and earth-penetrating nuclear weapons, the United States is planning a range of new warheads under the Reliable Replacement Warhead programme, and renewing its nuclear weapons infrastructure. The United Kingdom is spending 1 billion pounds sterling on updating the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston, and about 20 billion pounds sterling on replacing its Vanguard submarines and maintaining its Trident warhead stockpile. The US has withdrawn from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and plans to install missile defence systems in Poland and the Czech Republic; Russia threatens to upgrade its nuclear countermeasures. The nuclear-weapon states should comply with their obligations under Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, as summarised in the 13-point plan agreed at the 2000 NPT Review Conference, and they should negotiate a Nuclear Weapons Convention.

  5. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain

    2014-05-09

    There are important aspects of Cosmology, the scientific study of the large scale properties of the universe as a whole, for which nuclear physics can provide insights. Here, we will focus on Standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and we refer to the previous edition of the School [1] for the aspects concerning the variations of constants in nuclear cosmo-physics.

  6. Nuclear Taskforce Summation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    At the end of 1978, there were approximately 230 nuclear-fueled electric generating plants around the world; 72 of these were in the United States. Each plant requires an operations-and-maintenance workforce of 92 people, and attrition occurs at a rate of 8% per year. Requirements for a nuclear taskforce and job training, in view of current…

  7. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    7 Scientists Term Nuclear Reactor ’Satisfactory’ [XINHUA] ............................................................... 7 Neutron Velocity...PAULO 29 Oct] .................................... 14 Details of Secret Army Graphite Reactor Disclosed [FOLHA DE SAO PAULO 24 Oct] .............. 14...Corporation Plans To Expand Production [THE HINDU 2 Oct] .................................. 28 ISRAEL Request for Canadian Nuclear Reactor Confirmed

  8. Nuclear-Powered Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Describes an exercise to develop interest and understanding about nuclear energy in which students make presentations regarding a proposal to build a hypothetical nuclear power plant. Students spend two weeks researching the topic; give testimony before a "Senate Energy Committee"; and vote on the proposal. Background information is…

  9. Talk About Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremlett, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  10. Nuclear Age Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The primary goal of the Oregon nuclear age education curriculum is to develop in students the knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges of living in a nuclear age. This curriculum is developed around five general themes, each corresponding to a specific unit. The general goals for the units are: (Unit 1) to increase students' exposure to…

  11. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  12. Nuclear Shuttle Logistics Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  13. High energy nuclear structures

    SciTech Connect

    Boguta, J.; Kunz, J.

    1984-03-09

    In conventional nuclear physics the nucleus is described as a non-relativistic many-body system, which is governed by the Schroedinger equation. Nucleons interact in this framework via static two-body potentials, mesonic degrees of freedom are neglected. An alternative description of nuclear physics in terms of a relativistic field theory has been developed by Walecka. The model Lagrangian containing baryons, sigma-mesons and ..omega..-mesons was subsequently extended to include also ..pi..-mesons and rho-mesons. An essential feature of such a nuclear Lagrangian is its renormalizability. In addition to the description of known nuclear structure the field theoretical approach may reveal entirely new nuclear phenomena, based on the explicit treatment of mesonic degrees of freedom. The existence of such abnormal nuclear states was proposed by Lee and Wick employing the sigma-model Lagrangian. There the non-linearity of the meson field equations allows for soliton solutions in the presence of nucleons, in particular the sigma-field may exhibit a kink. Different types of soliton solutions occur in gauge theories with hidden symmetries. In the phenomenological Lagrangian the rho-meson is described by a non-abelian gauge field, that acquires its mass spontaneously due to the non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of a Higgs field. A general ansatz for soliton solutions of such a gauge theory was given by Dashen et al. A specific solution and its possible implications for nuclear physics like anomalous nuclear states were discussed by Boguta.

  14. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  15. Nuclear effects at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1996-07-01

    The development of a nuclear beam facility at HERA would allow the study of fundamental features of quark and gluon interactions in QCD. I briefly review the physics underlying nuclear shadowing and anti-shadowing as well as other diffractive and jet fragmentation processes that can be studies in high energy electron-nucleus collisions.

  16. TRAINING NUCLEAR TECHNICIANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOVNER, EDGAR A.

    PROBLEMS CONFRONTED BY PLANNERS OF NUCLEAR PROGRAMS AT THE TECHNICIAN LEVEL INCLUDE (1) LACK OF PRECEDENT IN CURRICULUM, COURSE OUTLINES, AND GRADUATE PLACEMENT, (2) DIFFICULTY IN DETERMINING COSTS OF LABORATORY CONSTRUCTION, EQUIPMENT, AND OPERATION, AND (3) REQUIREMENT OF ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION LICENSES IN NUCLEAR OCCUPATIONS. A 92-SEMESTER…

  17. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  18. Nuclear energy related research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Program Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities, and industry also contribute to many projects.

  19. World nuclear outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  20. World nuclear outlook 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  1. Nuclear transfer in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Linda J; Wilmut, Ian; Mullins, John J

    2004-01-01

    Cloning is the asexual reproduction of an individual, such that the offspring have an essentially identical nuclear genome. Nuclear transfer and cloning have been achieved in a number of species, namely sheep, cows, goats, rabbits, cats and mice, but have been largely unsuccessful, so far, in dogs, primates and rats. Clearly, contributory factors which affect the outcome of successful cloning experiments are not universally applicable to all species. One theme common to all cloning experiments, however, is the overall inefficiency of the process, typically 0-4%. A number of factors contribute to nuclear transfer inefficiency, and we will review mouse cloning experiments, which address these problems, highlighting the importance of donor nucleus choice (somatic or ES cell, fetal or adult, quiescent or actively dividing). Finally, we will summarize the emerging principles which appear to govern nuclear reprogramming and production of clones, and will consider the application of nuclear transfer to the rat.

  2. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions {h_bar} {yields} 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses.

  3. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Source Terms. Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    There has been increased public interest in the potential effects of nuclear powerplant accidents since the Soviet reactor accident at Chernobyl. People have begun to look for more information about the amount of radioactivity that might be released into the environment as a result of such an accident. When this issue is discussed by people…

  4. Nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and their consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Sanruddin, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of a colloquium convened by the Groupe de Bellerive offers the contributions of Carl Sagan, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Kenneth Galbraith, Pierre Trudeau, Edward Kennedy, and other eminent scientists, politicians, and strategists on the subject of the proliferation of nuclear weaponry and its potential ramifications.

  5. Nuclear excitation and precompound nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    De, A.; Ray, S.; Ghosh, S.K.

    1988-06-01

    The angular distribution of nucleons emitted in nucleon-induced precompound nuclear reactions are calculated taking into account the effect of excitation on the kinematics of nucleon-nucleon scattering inside the target-plus-projectile system. The results are compared with quantum mechanical calculations and those of reaction models based on a pure nucleon-nucleon collision picture.

  6. [Experimental nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    An earlier study of unusual electromagnetic decays in {sup 86}Zr was extended in order to make comparisons with its isotone {sup 84}Sr and with {sup 84}Zr. The K=14 (t {sub {1/2}} = 70 ns) high-spin isomer in {sup 176}W was found to have a 13% branch directly to the K=O ground-state band, one of the strongest violations of K-selection rules known. A new program to search for a predicted region of oblate deformation involving neutron deficient isotopes in the Rn/Fr/Ra region was begun. In the area of nuclear astrophysics, as part of a study of the onset of the rp-Process, a set of measurements searching for possible new resonances for {sup 14}O+{alpha} and {sup 17}F+p reactions was completed and a coincidence experiment measuring the {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne({alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne(p){sup 18}F reactions in order to determine the rates of the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}){sup 19}Ne reactions was begun. Experimental measurements of {beta}n{alpha} coincidences from the {sup 15}N(d,p){sup 16}N({beta}{sup {minus}}{nu}){sup 16}O({alpha}){sup 12}C reaction have also been completed and are currently being analyzed to determine the rate of the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}) reaction. In the APEX collaboration, we have completed the assembly and testing of two position-sensitive Na barrels which surround the axial silicon detector arrays and serve as the e{sup +} triggers by detecting their back-to-back annihilation quanta were completed. The HI@AGS and RHIC collaborations, construction and implementation activities associated with the space-time-tracker detector and in the design of the central detector for the PHENIX experiment were carried out. Operation of the ESTU tandem accelerator has been reliable, delivering beam on target at terminal voltages as high as 19.3 MV and running for as long as 143 days between tank openings. Fabrication and bench testing of a new negative ion source system have been completed.

  7. US nuclear weapons policy

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.

    1990-12-05

    We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

  8. An architecture for nuclear energy in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.; Cunningham, P.T.; Wagner, R.L. Jr.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear energy currently plays a significant role in the energy economies of the US and other major industrial nations. Its future (several scenarios are described later) may involve significant growth in developing countries but controversy and debate surrounds future nuclear energy scenarios. In that ongoing debate, proponents and critics both appear to assume that nuclear technologies, practices and institutions will continue over the long term to look much as they do today. This paper discusses possible global and regional nuclear energy scenarios, and proposes changes in the global nuclear architecture that could reshape technologies, practices and institutions of nuclear energy over the coming decades. In doing so the array of choices available for exercising the nuclear energy option could be enlarged, making such a potential deployment less problematic and perhaps less controversial. How fuel discharged from power reactors is used and disposed of is a central issue of nuclear energy`s present controversy and central factor in determining its long-term potential. Many proponents of nuclear power, especially outside the US, believe that extracting all the energy available in reactor fuel--and, in particular, recovering the plutonium from discharged fuel for recycling through breeder reactors--is necessary to realize the technology`s ultimate potential as a source of virtually inexhaustible energy. Others consider the plutonium contained in discharged fuel to be a challenge to waste disposal and a potential proliferation risk. Focusing on the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle as a principal arena for improvement represents a fruitful pathway towards creating a significantly improved fuel-cycle architecture.

  9. The nuclear dynamo; Can a nuclear tornado annihilate nations

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of the hypothesis of a nuclear dynamo for a controlled nuclear fusion reactor. This dynamo hypothesis suggests properties for a nuclear tornado that could annihilate nations if accidentally triggered by a single high yield to weight nuclear weapon detonation. The formerly classified reports on ignition of the atmosphere, the properties of a nuclear dynamo, methods to achieve a nuclear dynamo in the laboratory, and the analogy of a nuclear dynamo to a nuclear tornado are discussed. An unclassified international study of this question is urged.

  10. 75 FR 39057 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear... CFR), Section 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear...

  11. 77 FR 7184 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee)...

  12. 75 FR 3497 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC,: Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License...

  13. 76 FR 15001 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc,. Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc,. Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear... Regulations (10 CFR) 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  14. Nuclear economics 2000: Deterministic and probabilistic projections of nuclear and coal electric power generation costs for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.A.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Bowers, H.I.

    1987-06-01

    The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base-load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 2000. For the Midwest region a complete data set that specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results is supplied. When based on the reference set of input variables, the comparison of power generation costs is found to favor nuclear in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is most favored in the northeast and western regions where coal must be transported over long distances; however, coal-fired generation is most competitive in the north central region where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. In several regions small changes in the reference variables could cause either option to be preferred. The reference data set reflects the better of recent electric utility construction cost experience (BE) for nuclear plants. This study assumes as its reference case a stable regulatory environment and improved planning and construction practices, resulting in nuclear plants typically built at the present BE costs. Today's BE nuclear-plant capital investment cost model is then being used as a surrogate for projected costs for the next generation of light-water reactor plants. An alternative analysis based on today's median experience (ME) nuclear-plant construction cost experience is also included. In this case, coal is favored in all ten regions, implying that typical nuclear capital investment costs must improve for nuclear to be competitive.

  15. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  16. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  17. Supporting Our Nation's Nuclear Industry

    ScienceCinema

    Lyons, Peter

    2016-07-12

    On the 60th anniversary of the world's first nuclear power plant to produce electricity, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Peter Lyons discusses the Energy Department's and the Administration's commitment to promoting a nuclear renaissance in the United States.

  18. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  19. Supporting Our Nation's Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Peter

    2011-01-01

    On the 60th anniversary of the world's first nuclear power plant to produce electricity, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Peter Lyons discusses the Energy Department's and the Administration's commitment to promoting a nuclear renaissance in the United States.

  20. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  1. The Assembly History of the Milky Way Nuclear Star Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmeier-Krause, A.; Neumayer, N.; Schödel, R.; Seth, A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Walcher, C. J.; Lützgendorf, N.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Hilker, M.; Kuntschner, H.

    2017-03-01

    Within the central 10 pc of our Galaxy lies a dense cluster of stars, the nuclear star cluster. This cluster forms a distinct component of our Galaxy. Nuclear star clusters are common objects and are detected in ~ 75% of nearby galaxies. It is, however, not fully understood how nuclear star clusters form. The Milky Way nuclear star cluster is the closest of its kind. At a distance of only 8 kpc we can spatially resolve its stellar populations and kinematics much better than in external galaxies. This makes the Milky Way nuclear star cluster the perfect local reference object for understanding the structure and assembly history of nuclear star clusters in general. There are of the order of 107 stars within the central 10 pc of the Galactic center. Most of these stars are several Gyr old late-type stars. However, there are also more than 100 hot early-type stars in the central parsec of the Milky Way, with ages of only a few Myr. Beyond a projected distance of 0.5 pc of the Galactic center, the density of young stars was largely unknown, since only very few spectroscopic observations existed so far. We covered the central >4 pc2 (0.75 sq.arcmin) of the Galactic center using the integral-field spectrograph KMOS (VLT). We extracted more than 1,000 spectra from individual stars and identified >20 new early-type stars based on their spectra. We studied the spatial distribution of the different populations and their kinematics to put constraints on the assembly history of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster.

  2. Pigmented central neurocytoma.

    PubMed

    Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Kalkanis, Steven N; Louis, David N

    2004-06-01

    Central neurocytoma is a low-grade neuronal neoplasm that occurs most often within the lateral ventricles. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with gait problems, headache and memory loss. Preoperative evaluation demonstrated a heterogeneous, hypervascular and partially cystic mass in the left lateral ventricle. Histopathological examination revealed characteristic features of central neurocytoma, including immunoreactivity for synaptophysin, as well as the unusual feature of abundant pigment in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Special stains revealed iron, consistent with hemosiderin, but found no evidence of melanin or melanosomes. Previous reports of pigmented central neurocytoma have described the presence of lipofuscin or neuromelanin. To our knowledge, the present case represents the first example of pigmented central neurocytoma secondary to hemosiderin deposition.

  3. Central nervous system

    MedlinePlus

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  4. Central ballast tanker design

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER Design. This design is intended to reduce the volume of oil spilled from tankers by giving the crew a tanker properly designed and equipped to allow large quantities of oil from ruptured tank(s) to flow safely to a fully-inerted central ballast tank. In addition to reducing the volume of oil spilled, the design also addresses many of the shortcomings of the DOUBLE HULL DESIGN which are increasingly becoming a concern. The following is a brief review of the development of the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER. The simple operational features, stability, low cost and ease of maintenance of the single hull tanker were important and can be retained with the CENTRAL BALLAST DESIGN.

  5. TACS Central Control Facility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-12

    Central Control Facility 6 3. System Management Data Flow 7 B. Hardware Operating Environment 9 1. Computer 9 2. TACS Interfaces 9 3. Other Central...TERMINATION TIMING 131 Appendix C SYSTEM MANAGEMENT DATA FORMATS 135 Appendix D FIVE- AND NINE-SLOT SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION DIFFERENCES 147 Appendix E...control burst management ) 26 2-7 Call Progress Messages 29 2-8 Flowchart of Assignment/Blockage Decision Process for All-Member Net Requests 30 2-9

  6. Central Diffraction in ALICE

    SciTech Connect

    Schicker, R.

    2011-07-15

    The ALICE experiment consists of a central barrel in the pseudorapidity range -0.9<{eta}<0.9 and of additional detectors covering about 3 units of pseudorapidity on either side of the central barrel. Such a geometry allows the tagging of single and double gap events. The status of the analysis of such diffractive events in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s) = 7 TeV is presented.

  7. High-temperature solar central receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinrood, A. C.

    1981-07-01

    Designs and concepts for solar central receiver thermal power plants are reviewed. Concentrations of over 1,000 suns are now possible, and seven prototype plants, producing from 1-10 MWe, are close to completion, employing cavity and external receiver configurations. Heat transfer fluids are discussed, noting that the water/steam cycle is emerging as the dominant mode; liquid sodium is benefitting from extensive testing for nuclear power plants; molten salt provides thermal storage at $10-30/kWt-hr; high temperature gas systems (815 C) can be applied for gypsum board drying and NH3 production. Heliostats are all of a steel/glass configuration and require mass production to become economical. Thermal storage systems, applications for repowering in conjunction with conventional power plants, and cogeneration for electricity/process heat are examined, and power costs are projected to match those of coal if the central receiver construction costs can be halved.

  8. Balanced Centrality of Networks.

    PubMed

    Debono, Mark; Lauri, Josef; Sciriha, Irene

    2014-01-01

    There is an age-old question in all branches of network analysis. What makes an actor in a network important, courted, or sought? Both Crossley and Bonacich contend that rather than its intrinsic wealth or value, an actor's status lies in the structures of its interactions with other actors. Since pairwise relation data in a network can be stored in a two-dimensional array or matrix, graph theory and linear algebra lend themselves as great tools to gauge the centrality (interpreted as importance, power, or popularity, depending on the purpose of the network) of each actor. We express known and new centralities in terms of only two matrices associated with the network. We show that derivations of these expressions can be handled exclusively through the main eigenvectors (not orthogonal to the all-one vector) associated with the adjacency matrix. We also propose a centrality vector (SWIPD) which is a linear combination of the square, walk, power, and degree centrality vectors with weightings of the various centralities depending on the purpose of the network. By comparing actors' scores for various weightings, a clear understanding of which actors are most central is obtained. Moreover, for threshold networks, the (SWIPD) measure turns out to be independent of the weightings.

  9. The new nuclear nations

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, L.

    1985-01-01

    Using 251 pages of text, 66 pages of references and 26 pages of appendixes, Spector delves into a world of new nuclear suppliers whose voracious hunger for profits may lead them to provide unwise assistance to countries that are unduly interested in nuclear weaponry. He assails a new dragon, a 'nuclear netherworld' that would illicitly supply such items for profit or political gain. Spector's book tells of covert dealings in nuclear technologies and materials. For him, the buyers have but one goal: '... to gain possession of the knowledge and materials necessary for development of nuclear weapons'. He warns of dangers from this illicit trade, of the loopholes in existing controls and the need to close them. His warnings come wrapped in stories of undercover transactions, many about Pakistan's efforts to get what it needs for its centrifuge enrichment plant. Recognizing the tightening of controls over nuclear trade since the 1970s, including those for dual-use items, Spector is nonetheless pessimistic that these efforts are sufficient to irradicate the nuclear netherworld or to deter newcomers from it.

  10. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  11. Evaluated Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oblozinsky, P.; Oblozinsky,P.; Herman,M.; Mughabghab,S.F.

    2010-10-01

    This chapter describes the current status of evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications. We start with evaluation procedures for neutron-induced reactions focusing on incident energies from the thermal energy up to 20 MeV, though higher energies are also mentioned. This is followed by examining the status of evaluated neutron data for actinides that play dominant role in most of the applications, followed by coolants/moderators, structural materials and fission products. We then discuss neutron covariance data that characterize uncertainties and correlations. We explain how modern nuclear evaluated data libraries are validated against an extensive set of integral benchmark experiments. Afterwards, we briefly examine other data of importance for nuclear technology, including fission yields, thermal neutron scattering and decay data. A description of three major evaluated nuclear data libraries is provided, including the latest version of the US library ENDF/B-VII.0, European JEFF-3.1 and Japanese JENDL-3.3. A brief introduction is made to current web retrieval systems that allow easy access to a vast amount of up-to-date evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications.

  12. Perspectives of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand

    2003-04-01

    The organizers of this meeting have asked me to present perspectives of nuclear physics. This means to identify the areas where nuclear physics will be expanding in the next future. In six chapters a short overview of these areas will be given, where I expect that nuclear physics will develop quite fast: (1) Quantum Chromodynamics and effective field theories in the confinement region. (2) Nuclear structure at the limits. (3) High energy heavy ion collisions. (4) Nuclear astrophysics. (5) Neutrino physics. (6) Test of physics beyond the standard model by rare processes. After a survey over these six points I will pick out a few topics where I will go more in details. There is no time to give for all six points detailed examples. I shall discuss the following examples of the six topics mentionned above: (1) The perturbative chiral quark model and the nucleon Σ-term. (2) VAMPIR (Variation After Mean field Projection In Realistic model spaces and with realistic forces) as an example of the nuclear structure renaissance. (3) Measurement of important astrophysical nuclear reactions in the Gamow peak. (4) The solar neutrino problem. As examples for testing new physics beyond the standard model by rare processes I had prepared to speak about the measurement of the electric neutron dipole moment and of the neutrinoless double beta decay. But the time is limited and so I have to skip these points, although they are extremely interesting.

  13. Virtual nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  14. Constraining the symmetry energy content of nuclear matter from nuclear masses: A covariance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, C.; Agrawal, B. K.; De, J. N.

    2015-08-01

    Elements of nuclear symmetry energy evaluated from different energy density functionals parametrized by fitting selective bulk properties of few representative nuclei are seen to vary widely. Those obtained from experimental data on nuclear masses across the periodic table, however, show that they are better constrained. A possible direction in reconciling this paradox may be gleaned from comparison of results obtained from use of the binding energies in the fitting protocol within a microscopic model with two sets of nuclei, one a representative standard set and another where very highly asymmetric nuclei are additionally included. A covariance analysis reveals that the additional fitting protocol reduces the uncertainties in the nuclear symmetry energy coefficient, its slope parameter, as well as the neutron-skin thickness in 208Pb nucleus by ˜50 % . The central values of these entities are also seen to be slightly reduced.

  15. Investigation of nuclear pore complex protein interactions and the implications for nuclear transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isgro, Timothy A.

    The nucleus of the cell is of central importance to an organism, serving to store and organize genetic material, while separating and protecting this very important information from the host of other cellular components. While the nucleus requires this protective isolation, it also needs to communicate with the rest of the cell, exchanging proteins and RNA, for a variety of nuclear and cytoplasmic processes which act in concert. The nuclear pore complex is responsible for controlling the transport of large molecules into and out of the cell nucleus. It is perhaps the largest protein structure in eukaryotic cells, and because of its size, pointed experimental study has been difficult. As a result, the mechanism by which the nuclear pore complex selectively allows "good" material across the nuclear envelope, while preventing the transit of "bad", remains unknown. Here, the computer has been used to study interactions between the transport receptors that shuttle material across the nuclear pore complex and FG-nucleoporins, proteins which compose the complex itself and are of great importance in allowing protected nuclear transport. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on transport complexes formed by the transport receptors importin-beta, NTF2, and Cse1p. The simulations confirm nearly all interactions previously known about from experimental data, while serving, in some cases, to provide greater detail about these interactions. Furthermore, the simulations uncover a host of previously unknown interactions between each transport receptor and FG-nups. When the interactions are compared across all three transport receptors, a novel binding pattern is revealed that indicates how the nuclear pore complex may recognize the difference between the macromolecules destined to cross the nuclear envelope and the host of other proteins for which it must protect against transport.

  16. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  17. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This document is the March 1996 listing of NRC issuances. Included are: (1) NRC orders granting Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company`s petition for review of the ASLB order LBP-95-17, (2) NRC orders relating to the potential disqualification of two commissioners in the matter of the decommissioning of Yankee Nuclear Power Station, (3) ASLB orders pertaining to the Oncology Services Corporation, (4) ASLB orders pertaining to the Radiation Oncology Center, (5) ASLB orders pertaining to the Yankee Nuclear Power Station, and (6) Director`s decision pertaining to the Yankee Nuclear Power Station.

  18. The nuclear option

    SciTech Connect

    Herken, G.

    1992-03-01

    A development history and current status evaluation are presented for nuclear-thermal rocket propulsion systems applicable to interplanetary flight. While the most advanced current chemical rocket engines, such as the SSMEs of the Space Shuttle, produce specific impulses of the order of 450 secs, a nuclear-thermal rocket engine tested at Los Alamos in 1969 generated 845 secs; such specific impulse improvements could represent weeks or months of interplanetary travel time. Attention is given to the achievements of the historical Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, Helios, and Orion design programs, as well as to the current Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transportation Applications, which is fusion-based.

  19. Fictions of nuclear disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, D.

    1987-01-01

    This work is critical study of literary interpretations of the nuclear holocaust. The author examines more than 250 stories and novels dealing with the theme of nuclear power and its devastating potential implications. Addressing such topics as the scientist and Armageddon, the role of religion, future evolution and mutation, and the postnuclear society, the author assesses the response of Bradbury, Lessing, Malamud, Shute, Huxley, Vonnegut, Heinlein, and others to the threat of nuclear apocalypse, with in-depth analyses of Alter Miller's A canticle for Leibowitz and Russell Hoban's Riddley Walker.

  20. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2006-05-19

    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  1. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine.

  2. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMAN TB

    2011-01-14

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the {approx}200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by

  3. Bmal1 is a direct transcriptional target of the orphan nuclear receptor, NR2F1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orphan nuclear receptor NR2F1 (also known as COUP-TFI, Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter Transcription Factor I) is a highly conserved member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. NR2F1 plays a critical role during embryonic development, particularly in the central and peripheral nervous systems a...

  4. Used Nuclear Fuel: From Liability to Benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orbach, Raymond L.

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear power has proven safe and reliable, with operating efficiencies in the U.S. exceeding 90%. It provides a carbon-free source of electricity (with about a 10% penalty arising from CO2 released from construction and the fuel cycle). However, used fuel from nuclear reactors is highly toxic and presents a challenge for permanent disposal -- both from technical and policy perspectives. The half-life of the ``bad actors'' is relatively short (of the order of decades) while the very long lived isotopes are relatively benign. At present, spent fuel is stored on-site in cooling ponds. Once the used fuel pools are full, the fuel is moved to dry cask storage on-site. Though the local storage is capable of handling used fuel safely and securely for many decades, the law requires DOE to assume responsibility for the used fuel and remove it from reactor sites. The nuclear industry pays a tithe to support sequestration of used fuel (but not research). However, there is currently no national policy in place to deal with the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel. This administration is opposed to underground storage at Yucca Mountain. There is no national policy for interim storage---removal of spent fuel from reactor sites and storage at a central location. And there is no national policy for liberating the energy contained in used fuel through recycling (separating out the fissionable components for subsequent use as nuclear fuel). A ``Blue Ribbon Commission'' has been formed to consider alternatives, but will not report until 2012. This paper will examine alternatives for used fuel disposition, their drawbacks (e.g. proliferation issues arising from recycling), and their benefits. For recycle options to emerge as a viable technology, research is required to develop cost effective methods for treating used nuclear fuel, with attention to policy as well as technical issues.

  5. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Simpson; Jack D. Law

    2010-02-01

    This is an a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. No formal abstract was required for the article. The full article will be attached.

  6. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Fagan, Deborah K.; Anderson, Dale N.; Shumway, Robert

    2008-09-15

    Teleseismic events (earthquakes or explosions) generate strong seismic energy waves that propagate largely in the mantle. For example, the Threshold Test Ban Treaty restricted nuclear tests to be less that 150 kilotons in size, and explosions of this size generate seismic energy waves that are observed teleseismically. Teleseismic monitoring for explosions answers three questions: Where is the seismic event located? Is the event an explosion or natural (event identification)? If an explosion, how large was it? Resolving whether an explosion is chemical or nuclear can require additional analysis (e.g., analysis of atmospherically observed chemical and nuclear spectra). Because of the political ramifications of event identification errors, risk analysis in the context of nuclear explosion monitoring is unique.

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... nuclear medicine facility. Through the natural process of radioactive decay, the small amount of radiotracer in your child’s body will lose its radioactivity over time. In many cases, the radioactivity will ...

  8. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  9. Desalting and Nuclear Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burwell, Calvin C.

    1971-01-01

    Future use of nuclear energy to produce electricity and desalted water is outlined. Possible desalting processes are analyzed to show economic feasibility and the place in planning in world's economic growth. (DS)

  10. Nuclear Heart Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your blood and travels to your heart. Nuclear heart scans use single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) to detect the energy from the tracer to make pictures of your ...

  11. International Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E.

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  12. The nuclear weapons world

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, P.

    1988-01-01

    This book presents insight into the technical world of weapons production. It discusses accountability in nuclear weapons decisionmaking. Nuclear decisions and the weapons and strategy they concern are too mammoth, too complex and too intimidating a subject for most of us to grapple with. The more so because informed debate is rare, and because information is difficult to obtain. In Britain, Parliamentary questions receive evasive answers or no answers at all, and the rationale of official secrecy is used as a reason to reveal less and less about decisions on national defense: between 1981 and 1987, for example, the number of open government documents published on defence fell from fifty-seven to two. In the case of NATO, decisions on nuclear strategy into the next century are taken in secret by defence ministers meeting in the Nuclear Planning Group.

  13. Physics and nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, N. E.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear power owes its origin to physicists. Fission was demonstrated by physicists and chemists and the first nuclear reactor project was led by physicists. However as nuclear power was harnessed to produce electricity the role of the engineer became stronger. Modern nuclear power reactors bring together the skills of physicists, chemists, chemical engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers and civil engineers. The paper illustrates this by considering the Sizewell B project and the role played by physicists in this. This covers not only the roles in design and analysis but in problem solving during the commissioning of first of a kind plant. Looking forward to the challenges to provide sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy sources for the future illustrates the need for a continuing synergy between physics and engineering. This will be discussed in the context of the challenges posed by Generation IV reactors.

  14. Nuclear data interface retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Interface (NDI) code library and data formats are the standards for multigroup nuclear data at Los Alamos National Laboratory. NDI's analysis, design, implementation, testing, integration, and maintenance required a ten person-year and ongoing effort by the Nuclear Data Team. Their efforts provide a unique, contemporary experience in producing a standard component library. In reflection upon that experience at NDI's decennial, we have identified several factors critical to NDI's success: it addressed real problems with appropriate simplicity, it fully supported all users, it added extra value through the code to the raw nuclear data, and its team went the distance from analysis through maintenance. In this report we review these critical success factors and discuss their implications for future standardization projects.

  15. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-28

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Bulgaria; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Honduras; (5) India, Iran, Pakistan, Syria; (6) Soviet Union; and (7) France, Germany, Turkey.

  16. Nuclear material operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  17. Direct nuclear pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Miley, George H.; Wells, William E.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a direct nuclear pumped gas laser in which the lasing mechanism is collisional radiated recombination of ions. The gas laser active medium is a mixture of the gases, with one example being neon and nitrogen.

  18. Nuclear Clusters in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubono, S.; Binh, Dam N.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Kahl, D.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Komatsubara, T.; Kato, S.; Khiem, Le H.

    2010-03-01

    The role of nuclear clustering is discussed for nucleosynthesis in stellar evolution with Cluster Nucleosynthesis Diagram (CND) proposed before. Special emphasis is placed on α-induced stellar reactions together with molecular states for O and C burning.

  19. Western Nuclear Science Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Reese; George Miller; Stephen Frantz; Denis Beller; Denis Beller; Ed Morse; Melinda Krahenbuhl; Bob Flocchini; Jim Elliston

    2010-12-07

    The primary objective of the INIE program is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering programs at the member institutions and to address the long term goal of the University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Assistance Program.

  20. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 5: Introduction to Nuclear Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  1. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 24: Nuclear Systems and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  2. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 23: Nuclear Chemical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  3. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  4. UNISOR Nuclear Orientation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Girit, I.C.

    1988-01-01

    The combination of an on-line isotope separator and a dilution refrigerator has increased the applicability of the nuclear orientation technique to a wide range of nuclei, especially those very far from stability. The UNISOR Nuclear Orientation Facility (UNISOR/NOF) is among the two (the other being NICOLE at CERN) that have recently become operational. The following is an overall view of the UNISOR system and recent results. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, B.C.

    1984-02-07

    A nuclear magnetic resonance gyro using two nuclear magnetic resonance gases, preferably xenon 129 and xenon 131, together with two alkaline metal vapors, preferably rubidium, potassium or cesium, one of the two alkaline metal vapors being pumped by light which has the wavelength of that alkaline metal vapor, and the other alkaline vapor being illuminated by light which has the wavelength of that other alkaline vapor.

  6. Keeping Nuclear Materials Secure

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-19

    For 50 years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been helping to keep nuclear materials secure. We do this by developing instruments and training inspectors that are deployed to other countries to make sure materials such as uranium are being used for peaceful purposes and not diverted for use in weapons. These measures are called “nuclear safeguards,” and they help make the world a safer place.

  7. Nuclear Warfare Water Contamination.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Products x Applied Health Physics, Inc x Applied Physical Technology, Inc x Aptec Nuclear Inc x The Aston Company x Baird Corp x Berthold-Beta...15, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C., June 1966. 61 26. Private Communication, D. C. Lindsten (USAMERADCOM) to John C.Phillips (SA[-Chicago...Detection and Measurement," John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1919. 29. Lichholz, G. G., "Environmental Aspects of Nuclear Power," Ann Arbor, Science, Ann Arbor

  8. Nuclear Plant Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Engineers from the Power Authority of the State of New York use a Crack Growth Analysis Program supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center) in one stage of nuclear plant inspection. Welds of the nuclear steam supply system are checked for cracks; radiographs, dye penetration and visual inspections are performed to locate cracks in the metal structure and welds. The software package includes three separate crack growth analysis models and enables necessary repairs to be planned before serious problems develop.

  9. Nuclear Rocket Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center has a strong interest in nuclear rocket propulsion and provides active support of the graphite reactor program in such nonnuclear areas as cryogenics, two-phase flow, propellant heating, fluid systems, heat transfer, nozzle cooling, nozzle design, pumps, turbines, and startup and control problems. A parallel effort has also been expended to evaluate the engineering feasibility of a nuclear rocket reactor using tungsten-matrix fuel elements and water as the moderator. Both of these efforts have resulted in significant contributions to nuclear rocket technology. Many successful static firings of nuclear rockets have been made with graphite-core reactors. Sufficient information has also been accumulated to permit a reasonable Judgment as to the feasibility of the tungsten water-moderated reactor concept. We therefore consider that this technoIogy conference on the nuclear rocket work that has been sponsored by the Lewis Research Center is timely. The conference has been prepared by NASA personnel, but the information presented includes substantial contributions from both NASA and AEC contractors. The conference excludes from consideration the many possible mission requirements for nuclear rockets. Also excluded is the direct comparison of nuclear rocket types with each other or with other modes of propulsion. The graphite reactor support work presented on the first day of the conference was partly inspired through a close cooperative effort between the Cleveland extension of the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (headed by Robert W. Schroeder) and the Lewis Research Center. Much of this effort was supervised by Mr. John C. Sanders, chairman for the first day of the conference, and by Mr. Hugh M. Henneberry. The tungsten water-moderated reactor concept was initiated at Lewis by Mr. Frank E. Rom and his coworkers. The supervision of the recent engineering studies has been shared by Mr. Samuel J. Kaufman, chairman for the second day of the

  10. Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Deborah J.

    2014-10-28

    These slides will be presented at the training course “International Training Course on Implementing State Systems of Accounting for and Control (SSAC) of Nuclear Material for States with Small Quantity Protocols (SQP),” on November 3-7, 2014 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The slides provide a basic overview of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. This is a joint training course provided by NNSA and IAEA.

  11. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    COMERCIO 21 Aug] 23 NEAR EAST & SOUTH ASIA EGYPT Agreements Signed to Develop Domestic Uranium [AL-JUMHURIYAH 2 Aug] 24 INDIA Two Large...Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (Nuclebras) to Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), and trans- ferred the shares of its capital stock...96.622 authorizes the establishment of Uranium of Brasil S.A. as a subsidiary of INB, with headquarters in the city of Caldas, Minas Gerais State

  12. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-12

    Generation IV Program will also focus on developing a sodium-cooled fast reactor ( SFR ). Existing U.S. commercial nuclear reactors use water to slow...Nevada. The UREX+ process also would reduce the heat generated by nuclear waste — the major limit on the repository’s capacity — by removing cesium ...significantly contaminated by radioactive cesium .17 Greenpeace issued a report in 2006 estimating that 200,000 deaths in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine resulted

  13. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  14. Extensive nuclear sphere generation in the human Alzheimer's brain.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, Katharina; Bukhari, Hassan; Loosse, Christina; Leonhardt, Gregor; Glotzbach, Annika; Pawlas, Magdalena; Hess, Katharina; Theiss, Carsten; Müller, Thorsten

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear spheres are protein aggregates consisting of FE65, TIP60, BLM, and other yet unknown proteins. Generation of these structures in the cellular nucleus is putatively modulated by the amyloid precursor protein (APP), either by its cleavage or its phosphorylation. Nuclear spheres were preferentially studied in cell culture models and their existence in the human brain had not been known. Existence of nuclear spheres in the human brain was studied using immunohistochemistry. Cell culture experiments were used to study regulative mechanisms of nuclear sphere generation. The comparison of human frontal cortex brain samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients to age-matched controls revealed a dramatically and highly significant enrichment of nuclear spheres in the AD brain. Costaining demonstrated that neurons are distinctly affected by nuclear spheres, but astrocytes never are. Nuclear spheres were predominantly found in neurons that were negative for threonine 668 residue in APP phosphorylation. Cell culture experiments revealed that JNK3-mediated APP phosphorylation reduces the amount of sphere-positive cells. The study suggests that nuclear spheres are a new APP-derived central hallmark of AD, which might be of crucial relevance for the molecular mechanisms in neurodegeneration.

  15. An integrated mechanism of cardiomyocyte nuclear Ca(2+) signaling.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Cristián; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Jaimovich, Enrique; Rothermel, Beverly A; Uhlén, Per; Hill, Joseph A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    In cardiomyocytes, Ca(2+) plays a central role in governing both contraction and signaling events that regulate gene expression. Current evidence indicates that discrimination between these two critical functions is achieved by segregating Ca(2+) within subcellular microdomains: transcription is regulated by Ca(2+) release within nuclear microdomains, and excitation-contraction coupling is regulated by cytosolic Ca(2+). Accordingly, a variety of agonists that control cardiomyocyte gene expression, such as endothelin-1, angiotensin-II or insulin-like growth factor-1, share the feature of triggering nuclear Ca(2+) signals. However, signaling pathways coupling surface receptor activation to nuclear Ca(2+) release, and the phenotypic responses to such signals, differ between agonists. According to earlier hypotheses, the selective control of nuclear Ca(2+) signals by activation of plasma membrane receptors relies on the strategic localization of inositol trisphosphate receptors at the nuclear envelope. There, they mediate Ca(2+) release from perinuclear Ca(2+) stores upon binding of inositol trisphosphate generated in the cytosol, which diffuses into the nucleus. More recently, identification of such receptors at nuclear membranes or perinuclear sarcolemmal invaginations has uncovered novel mechanisms whereby agonists control nuclear Ca(2+) release. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the selective control of nuclear Ca(2+) signals with special focus on emerging models of agonist receptor activation.

  16. An integrated mechanism of cardiomyocyte nuclear Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Cristián; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Jaimovich, Enrique; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Uhlén, Per; Hill, Joseph A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    In cardiomyocytes, Ca2+ plays a central role in governing both contraction and signaling events that regulate gene expression. Current evidence indicates that discrimination between these two critical functions is achieved by segregating Ca2+ within subcellular microdomains: transcription is regulated by Ca2+ release within nuclear microdomains, and excitation–contraction coupling is regulated by cytosolic Ca2+. Accordingly, a variety of agonists that control cardiomyocyte gene expression, such as endothelin-1, angiotensin-II or insulin-like growth factor-1, share the feature of triggering nuclear Ca2+ signals. However, signaling pathways coupling surface receptor activation to nuclear Ca2+ release, and the phenotypic responses to such signals, differ between agonists. According to earlier hypotheses, the selective control of nuclear Ca2+ signals by activation of plasma membrane receptors relies on the strategic localization of inositol trisphosphate receptors at the nuclear envelope. There, they mediate Ca2+ release from perinuclear Ca2+ stores upon binding of inositol trisphosphate generated in the cytosol, which diffuses into the nucleus. More recently, identification of such receptors at nuclear membranes or perinuclear sarcolemmal invaginations has uncovered novel mechanisms whereby agonists control nuclear Ca2+ release. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the selective control of nuclear Ca2+ signals with special focus on emerging models of agonist receptor activation. PMID:24997440

  17. Superpower nuclear minimalism

    SciTech Connect

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in building weapons -- now it seems like America and Russia are competing to get rid of them the fastest. The lengthy process of formal arms control has been replaced by exchanges of unilateral force reductions and proposals for reciprocal reductions not necessarily codified by treaty. Should superpower nuclear strategies change along with force postures President Bush has yet to make a formal pronouncement on post-Cold War American nuclear strategy, and it is uncertain if the Soviet/Russian doctrine of reasonable sufficiency formulated in the Gorbachev era actually heralds a change in strategy. Some of the provisions in the most recent round of unilateral proposals put forth by Presidents Bush and Yeltsin in January 1992 are compatible with a change in strategy. Whether such a change has actually occurred remains to be seen. With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, mutual assured destruction (MAD) which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war- fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  18. Central auditory imperception.

    PubMed

    Snow, J B; Rintelmann, W F; Miller, J M; Konkle, D F

    1977-09-01

    The development of clinically applicable techniques for the evaluation of hearing impairment caused by lesions of the central auditory pathways has increased clinical interest in the anatomy and physiology of these pathways. A conceptualization of present understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the central auditory pathways is presented. Clinical tests based on reduction of redundancy of the speech message, degradation of speech and binaural interations are presented. Specifically performance-intensity functions, filtered speech tests, competing message tests and time-compressed speech tests are presented with the emphasis on our experience with time-compressed speech tests. With proper use of these tests not only can central auditory impairments by detected, but brain stem lesions can be distinguished from cortical lesions.

  19. Neutron skin and centrality classification in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paukkunen, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    The concept of centrality in high-energy nuclear collisions has recently become a subject of an active debate. In particular, the experimental methods to determine the centrality that have given reasonable results for many observables in high-energy lead-lead collisions at the LHC have led to surprising behavior in the case of proton-lead collisions. In this letter, we discuss the possibility to calibrate the experimental determination of centrality by asymmetries caused by mutually different spatial distributions of protons and neutrons inside the nuclei - a well-known phenomenon in nuclear physics known as the neutron-skin effect.

  20. A Nuclear Energy Renaissance: Challenges to Nuclear Weapon Nonproliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-30

    civilian nuclear power infrastructure. Light water reactors require enriched uranium to operate, albeit at much lower enrichment percentages...the horizon. Twenty-two years after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident the world’s nuclear energy industry is booming.1 Nuclear energy is...experiencing a strong revival around the world and in the United States. There are currently 439 nuclear reactors operating worldwide, in 30 countries. Thirty

  1. Analysis of nuclear reconstitution, nuclear envelope assembly, and nuclear pore assembly using Xenopus in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Bernis, Cyril; Forbes, Douglass J

    2014-01-01

    The large and complex eukaryotic nucleus is the arbiter of DNA replication, RNA transcription, splicing, and ribosome assembly. With the advent of in vitro nuclear reconstitution extracts derived from Xenopus eggs in the 1980s, it became possible to assemble multiple nuclei in vitro around added DNA or chromatin substrates. Such reconstituted nuclei contain a nuclear lamina, double nuclear membranes, nuclear pores, and are competent for DNA replication and nuclear import. In vitro nuclear reconstitution has allowed the assembly of "wild-type" and "biochemically mutant" nuclei in which the impact of individual components can be assessed. Here, we describe protocols for preparation of the nuclear reconstitution extract, nuclear reconstitution in vitro, assessment of nuclear membrane integrity, and a more specialized assay for nuclear pore assembly into preformed pore-free nuclear intermediates.

  2. Analysis of Nuclear Reconstitution, Nuclear Envelope Assembly, and Nuclear Pore Assembly Using Xenopus In Vitro Assays

    PubMed Central

    Bernis, Cyril; Forbes, Douglass J.

    2015-01-01

    The large and complex eukaryotic nucleus is the arbiter of DNA replication, RNA transcription, splicing, and ribosome assembly. With the advent of in vitro nuclear reconstitution extracts derived from Xenopus eggs in the 1980s, it became possible to assemble multiple nuclei in vitro around added DNA or chromatin substrates. Such reconstituted nuclei contain a nuclear lamina, double nuclear membranes, nuclear pores, and are competent for DNA replication and nuclear import. In vitro nuclear reconstitution has allowed the assembly of “wild-type” and “biochemically mutant” nuclei in which the impact of individual components can be assessed. Here, we describe protocols for preparation of the nuclear reconstitution extract, nuclear reconstitution in vitro, assessment of nuclear membrane integrity, and a more specialized assay for nuclear pore assembly into preformed pore-free nuclear intermediates. PMID:24857730

  3. Trajectories of Cepheid variable stars in the Galactic nuclear bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki

    2012-06-01

    The central region of our Galaxy provides us with a good opportunity to study the evolution of galactic nuclei and bulges because we can observe various phenomena in detail at the proximity of 8 kpc. There is a hierarchical alignment of stellar systems with different sizes; from the extended bulge, the nuclear bulge, down to the compact cluster around the central supermassive blackhole. The nuclear bulge contains stars as young as a few Myr, and even hosts the ongoing star formation. These are in contrast to the more extended bulge which are dominated by old stars, ~10Gyr. It is considered that the star formation in the nuclear bulge is caused by fresh gas provided from the inner disk. In this picture, the nuclear bulge plays an important role as the interface between the gas supplier, the inner disk, and the galactic nucleus. Kinematics of young stars in the nuclear bulge is important to discuss the star forming process and the gas circulation in the Galactic Center. We here propose spectroscopic observations of Cepheid variable stars, ~25 Myr, which we recently discovered in the nuclear bulge. The spectra taken in this proposal will allow timely estimates of the systemic velocities of the variable stars.

  4. Central venous access.

    PubMed

    Ganeshan, Arul; Warakaulle, Dinuke R; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-01-01

    Central venous access plays an important role in the management of an ever-increasing population of patients ranging from those that are critically ill to patients with difficult clinical access. Interventional radiologists are key in delivering this service and should be familiar with the wide range of techniques and catheters now available to them. A comprehensive description of these catheters with regard to indications, technical aspects of catheterization, success rates, and associated early and late complications, as well as a review of various published guidelines on central venous catheter insertion are given in this article.

  5. Hale Central Peak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the mountains that make up the central peak region of Hale Crater, located near 35.8oS, 36.5oW. Dark, smooth-surfaced sand dunes are seen to be climbing up the mountainous slopes. The central peak of a crater consists of rock brought up during the impact from below the crater floor. This autumn image is illuminated from the upper left and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  6. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  7. Nuclear War and Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

  8. Uncertainties in nuclear fission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talou, Patrick; Kawano, Toshihiko; Chadwick, Mark B.; Neudecker, Denise; Rising, Michael E.

    2015-03-01

    We review the current status of our knowledge of nuclear fission data, and quantify uncertainties related to each fission observable whenever possible. We also discuss the roles that theory and experiment play in reducing those uncertainties, contributing to the improvement of our fundamental understanding of the nuclear fission process as well as of evaluated nuclear data libraries used in nuclear applications.

  9. Britain`s nuclear quandary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    This article is review of energy policy in the United Kingdom, in particular, the British government`s review of the nuclear industry. Major topics of this review include: (1) The economic viability of new nuclear stations, (2) The privitization of the nuclear industry, (3) Nuclear waste disposal, and (4) Liabilities associated with decommissioning.

  10. Nuclear powerplants for mobile applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. This paper examines the technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  11. Nuclear localization of the dystrophin-associated protein α-dystrobrevin through importin α2/β1 is critical for interaction with the nuclear lamina/maintenance of nuclear integrity.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Areli; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Suárez-Sánchez, Rocío; Zinker, Samuel; Jans, David A; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2015-05-01

    Although α-dystrobrevin (DB) is assembled into the dystrophin-associated protein complex, which is central to cytoskeletal organization, it has also been found in the nucleus. Here we delineate the nuclear import pathway responsible for nuclear targeting of α-DB for the first time, together with the importance of nuclear α-DB in determining nuclear morphology. We map key residues of the nuclear localization signal of α-DB within the zinc finger domain (ZZ) using various truncated versions of the protein, and site-directed mutagenesis. Pulldown, immunoprecipitation, and AlphaScreen assays showed that the importin (IMP) α2/β1 heterodimer interacts with high affinity with the ZZ domain of α-DB. In vitro nuclear import assays using antibodies to specific importins, as well as in vivo studies using siRNA or a dominant negative importin construct, confirmed the key role of IMPα2/β1 in α-DB nuclear translocation. Knockdown of α-DB expression perturbed cell cycle progression in C2C12 myoblasts, with decreased accumulation of cells in S phase and, significantly, altered localization of lamins A/C, B1, and B2 with accompanying gross nuclear morphology defects. Because α-DB interacts specifically with lamin B1 in vivo and in vitro, nuclear α-DB would appear to play a key role in nuclear shape maintenance through association with the nuclear lamina.

  12. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  13. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  14. Sensor Fusion for Nuclear Proliferation Activity Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Adel Ghanem, Ph D

    2007-03-30

    The objective of Phase 1 of this STTR project is to demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (PoC) of the Geo-Rad system that integrates a location-aware SmartTag (made by ZonTrak) and a radiation detector (developed by LLNL). It also includes the ability to transmit the collected radiation data and location information to the ZonTrak server (ZonService). The collected data is further transmitted to a central server at LLNL (the Fusion Server) to be processed in conjunction with overhead imagery to generate location estimates of nuclear proliferation and radiation sources.

  15. HIGH TEMPERATURE, HIGH POWER HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; Wykoff, W.R.; Busey, H.M.

    1960-06-14

    A heterogeneous nuclear reactor is designed comprising a stationary housing and a rotatable annular core being supported for rotation about a vertical axis in the housing, the core containing a plurality of radial fuel- element supporting channels, the cylindrical empty space along the axis of the core providing a central plenum for the disposal of spent fuel elements, the core cross section outer periphery being vertically gradated in radius one end from the other to provide a coolant duct between the core and the housing, and means for inserting fresh fuel elements in the supporting channels under pressure and while the reactor is in operation.

  16. Ghrelin in Central Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ferrini, F; Salio, C; Lossi, L; Merighi, A

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide synthesized by endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa, is released in the bloodstream in response to a negative energetic status. Since discovery, the hypothalamus was identified as the main source of ghrelin in the CNS, and effects of the peptide have been mainly observed in this area of the brain. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have reported ghrelin synthesis and effects in specific populations of neurons also outside the hypothalamus. Thus, ghrelin activity has been described in midbrain, hindbrain, hippocampus, and spinal cord. The spectrum of functions and biological effects produced by the peptide on central neurons is remarkably wide and complex. It ranges from modulation of membrane excitability, to control of neurotransmitter release, neuronal gene expression, and neuronal survival and proliferation. There is not at present a general consensus concerning the source of ghrelin acting on central neurons. Whereas it is widely accepted that the hypothalamus represents the most important endogenous source of the hormone in CNS, the existence of extra-hypothalamic ghrelin-synthesizing neurons is still controversial. In addition, circulating ghrelin can theoretically be another natural ligand for central ghrelin receptors. This paper gives an overview on the distribution of ghrelin and its receptor across the CNS and critically analyses the data available so far as regarding the effects of ghrelin on central neurotransmission. PMID:19721816

  17. Multicultural Central Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Eric D.

    This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

  18. Central venous line - infants

    MedlinePlus

    A central venous line (CVL) is a long, soft, plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A CVL USED? A CVL is often put in when a baby cannot get a ... (MCC). A CVL can be used to give nutrients or medicines to a ...

  19. CENTRALIZATION OF CAMPUS CONTROLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    A COLLEGE CAMPUS HAVING A LARGE NUMBER OF SEPARATE BUILDINGS WITH ONE BASIC HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM IS AN IDEAL SITUATION FOR REALIZING GREAT BENEFITS FROM CENTRALIZED BUILDING CONTROL SYSTEMS. TYPICAL REQUIREMENTS AND ADVANTAGES OF SUCH SYSTEMS ARE DISCUSSED BRIEFLY AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE SYSTEM AT FOUR MAJOR UNIVERSITIES ARE GIVEN. THIS…

  20. Ghrelin in central neurons.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, F; Salio, C; Lossi, L; Merighi, A

    2009-03-01

    Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide synthesized by endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa, is released in the bloodstream in response to a negative energetic status. Since discovery, the hypothalamus was identified as the main source of ghrelin in the CNS, and effects of the peptide have been mainly observed in this area of the brain. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have reported ghrelin synthesis and effects in specific populations of neurons also outside the hypothalamus. Thus, ghrelin activity has been described in midbrain, hindbrain, hippocampus, and spinal cord. The spectrum of functions and biological effects produced by the peptide on central neurons is remarkably wide and complex. It ranges from modulation of membrane excitability, to control of neurotransmitter release, neuronal gene expression, and neuronal survival and proliferation. There is not at present a general consensus concerning the source of ghrelin acting on central neurons. Whereas it is widely accepted that the hypothalamus represents the most important endogenous source of the hormone in CNS, the existence of extra-hypothalamic ghrelin-synthesizing neurons is still controversial. In addition, circulating ghrelin can theoretically be another natural ligand for central ghrelin receptors. This paper gives an overview on the distribution of ghrelin and its receptor across the CNS and critically analyses the data available so far as regarding the effects of ghrelin on central neurotransmission.

  1. Education in Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, George R.; Waggoner, Barbara Ashton

    The first chapter of this book describes the physical and cultural environment of Central America and includes analytical comments showing the complexity of the problems confronting the region. Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are then treated in separate chapters including: 1) political, economic, social and…

  2. Nuclear age thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Depastas, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

  3. Nuclear Lunar Logistics Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This document has been prepared to incorporate all presentation aid material, together with some explanatory text, used during an oral briefing on the Nuclear Lunar Logistics System given at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, on 18 July 1963. The briefing and this document are intended to present the general status of the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) nuclear rocket development, the characteristics of certain operational NERVA-class engines, and appropriate technical and schedule information. Some of the information presented herein is preliminary in nature and will be subject to further verification, checking and analysis during the remainder of the study program. In addition, more detailed information will be prepared in many areas for inclusion in a final summary report. This work has been performed by REON, a division of Aerojet-General Corporation under Subcontract 74-10039 from the Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. The presentation and this document have been prepared in partial fulfillment of the provisions of the subcontract. From the inception of the NERVA program in July 1961, the stated emphasis has centered around the demonstration of the ability of a nuclear rocket to perform safely and reliably in the space environment, with the understanding that the assignment of a mission (or missions) would place undue emphasis on performance and operational flexibility. However, all were aware that the ultimate justification for the development program must lie in the application of the nuclear propulsion system to the national space objectives.

  4. Nuclear pumped laser II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Lee, J. H.; Pinkston, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    The first direct nuclear pumped laser using the He-2-(n,p) H-3 reaction is reported. Lasing took place on the 1.79 microns Ar I transition in a mixture of He-3-Ar at approximately 600 Torr total pressure. It was found that the electrically pulsed afterglow He-Ar laser had the same concentration profile as the nuclear pumped laser. As a result, nuclear lasing was also achieved in He-3-Xe (2.027 micron) and He-3-Kr (2.52 micron). Scaling of laser output with both thermal flux and total pressure as well as minority concentration has been completed. A peak output (He-3-Ar) of 3.7 watts has been achieved at a total pressure of 4 atm. Direct nuclear pumping of He-3-Ne has also been achieved. Nuclear pumping of a He-3-NF3 mixture was attempted, lasing in FI at approximately 7000 A, without success, although the potential lasing transitions appeared in spontaneous emission. Both NF3 and 238UF6 appear to quench spontaneous emission when they constitute more than 1% of the gas mixture.

  5. Europe's nuclear dominos

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J. )

    1993-06-01

    As long as the United States continues to play a leading role in NATO, the incentive for European powers to acquire independent nuclear weapons is virtually zero. Most European power, however, have relatively sophisticated nuclear establishments and could easily manufacture nuclear explosives if they judged that their security required an independent capability. They might judge so if the United States pulls out of Europe and out of NATO. It is the opinion of the author that if the United States withdraws, and if France and Britain insist on maintaining their current status as independent nuclear weapons powers, they will encourage proliferation by example. The likelihood of different countries deciding to manufacture nuclear weapons under these cicumstances is evaluated. The future of NATO is assessed. The conclusions of and future structure of the Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE) is discussed. The impact of United Nations involvement in preventing proliferation is evaluated. Recommendations are proposed for the utilization of existing organizations to deter proliferation in Europe.

  6. Nuclear concepts/propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion systems will enable and/or enhance important space exploration missions to the moon and Mars. Current efforts are addressing certain research areas, although NASA and DOE still have much work yet to do. Relative to chemical systems, nuclear thermal propulsion offers the potential of reduced vehicle weight, wider launch windows. and shorter transit times, even without aerobrakes. This would improve crew safety by reducing their exposure to cosmic radiation. Advanced materials and structures will be an important resource in responding to the challenges posed by safety and test facility requirements, environmental concerns, high temperature fuels and the high radiation, hot hydrogen environment within nuclear thermal propulsion systems. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) has its own distinct set of advantages relative to chemical systems. These include low resupply mass, the availability of large amounts of onboard electric power for other uses besides propulsion, improved launch windows, and the ability to share technology with surface power systems. Development efforts for NEP reactors will emphasize long life operation of compact designs. This will require designs that provide high fuel burnup and high temperature operation along with personnel and environmental safety.

  7. Nuclear Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumayer, Nadine

    2017-03-01

    The centers of galaxies host two distinct, compact components: massive black holes and nuclear star clusters. Nuclear star clusters are the densest stellar systems in the universe, with masses of ~ 107M⊙ and sizes of ~ 5pc. They are almost ubiquitous at the centres of nearby galaxies with masses similar to, or lower than the Milky Way. Their occurrence both in spirals and dwarf elliptical galaxies appears to be a strong function of total galaxy light or mass. Nucleation fractions are up to 100% for total galaxy magnitudes of M B = -19mag or total galaxy luminosities of about L B = 1010 L ⊙ and falling nucleation fractions for both smaller and higher galaxy masses. Although nuclear star clusters are so common, their formation mechanisms are still under debate. The two main formation scenarios proposed are the infall and subsequent merging of star clusters and the in-situ formation of stars at the center of a galaxy. Here, I review the state-of-the-art of nuclear star cluster observations concerning their structure, stellar populations and kinematics. These observations are used to constrain the proposed formation scenarios for nuclear star clusters. Constraints from observations show, that likely both cluster infall and in-situ star formation are at work. The relative importance of these two mechanisms is still subject of investigation.

  8. Ending a nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cimbala, S.J.; Douglass, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Western strategic concepts have had their own built-in images of nuclear war. These concepts concentrate largely upon the uncertainties of mass nuclear exchanges and the unbelievable devastation that would accompany such a conflict. By not considering in detail how a war of such magnitude and violence might unfold, let alone be ended, these nightmare strategists must resign themselves to either capitulation or cataclysm if their theories of deterrence should prove to be either inoperative or inappropriate in the acid test of reality. The world is at a crossroads in the development of its views of nuclear strategy. The rapid pace of technological development has profound implications for how both conventional and nuclear war might be either avoided or waged. The impact of technological development has been especially great in the area of strategic defense where, like never before, we have the opportunity to create an alternative to the exclusive reliance on the threat of retaliation. Ending a Nuclear War: Are the Superpowers Prepared provides contribution to the study of this vitally important component of deterrence.

  9. Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dudder, G B; Niemeyer, S; Smith, D K; Kristo, M J

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution have become increasingly important tools in the fight against illegal trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. This technical report documents the field of nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution in a comprehensive manner, summarizing tools and procedures that have heretofore been described independently in the scientific literature. This report also provides national policy-makers, decision-makers, and technical managers with guidance for responding to incidents involving the interdiction of nuclear and radiological materials. However, due to the significant capital costs of the equipment and the specialized expertise of the personnel, work in the field of nuclear forensics has been restricted so far to a handful of national and international laboratories. In fact, there are a limited number of specialists who have experience working with interdicted nuclear materials and affiliated evidence. Most of the laboratories that have the requisite equipment, personnel, and experience to perform nuclear forensic analysis are participants in the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group or ITWG (see Section 1.8). Consequently, there is a need to disseminate information on an appropriate response to incidents of nuclear smuggling, including a comprehensive approach to gathering evidence that meets appropriate legal standards and to developing insights into the source and routes of nuclear and radiological contraband. Appendix A presents a ''Menu of Options'' for other Member States to request assistance from the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories (INFL) on nuclear forensic cases.

  10. Linear response of homogeneous nuclear matter with energy density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, A.; Davesne, D.; Navarro, J.

    2015-03-01

    Response functions of infinite nuclear matter with arbitrary isospin asymmetry are studied in the framework of the random phase approximation. The residual interaction is derived from a general nuclear Skyrme energy density functional. Besides the usual central, spin-orbit and tensor terms it could also include other components as new density-dependent terms or three-body terms. Algebraic expressions for the response functions are obtained from the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the particle-hole propagator. Applications to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter and asymmetric nuclear matter are presented and discussed. Spin-isospin strength functions are analyzed for varying conditions of density, momentum transfer, isospin asymmetry, and temperature for some representative Skyrme functionals. Particular attention is paid to the discussion of instabilities, either real or unphysical, which could manifest in finite nuclei.

  11. Regulation of p53 tetramerization and nuclear export by ARC

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Roger S.-Y.; Nam, Young-Jae; Ostreicher, Marc Jason; Metzl, Mark D.; Whelan, Russell S.; Peng, Chang-Fu; Ashton, Anthony W.; Fu, Weimin; Mani, Kartik; Chin, Suet-Feung; Provenzano, Elena; Ellis, Ian; Figg, Nichola; Pinder, Sarah; Bennett, Martin R.; Caldas, Carlos; Kitsis, Richard N.

    2007-01-01

    Inactivation of the transcription factor p53 is central to carcinogenesis. Yet only approximately one-half of cancers have p53 loss-of-function mutations. Here, we demonstrate a mechanism for p53 inactivation by apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC), a protein induced in multiple cancer cells. The direct binding in the nucleus of ARC to the p53 tetramerization domain inhibits p53 tetramerization. This exposes a nuclear export signal in p53, triggering Crm1-dependent relocation of p53 to the cytoplasm. Knockdown of endogenous ARC in breast cancer cells results in spontaneous tetramerization of endogenous p53, accumulation of p53 in the nucleus, and activation of endogenous p53 target genes. In primary human breast cancers with nuclear ARC, p53 is almost always WT. Conversely, nearly all breast cancers with mutant p53 lack nuclear ARC. We conclude that nuclear ARC is induced in cancer cells and negatively regulates p53. PMID:18087040

  12. Cultural Awareness in Nuclear Security Programs: A Critical Link

    DOE PAGES

    Nasser, Al-Sharif Nasser bin; Auda, Jasmine; Bachner, Katherine

    2016-11-20

    Nuclear security programs that offer training and capacity building opportunities to practitioners working in nuclear facilities play a central role in strengthening the global nuclear security architecture. There is often a significant divide, however, between both the development of these programs and their implementation, and between the programs’ intended and actual outcomes. This article argues that this disconnect can often be attributed to an absence of cultural awareness and an inability for internationally-designed programs to effectively resonate with local audiences. Furthermore, the importance of the role of cultural awareness in implementing nuclear security programs will be assessed, and its applicationsmore » in the Jordanian context will be presented.« less

  13. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1980-04-29

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has an improved composite cladding comprised of a moderate purity metal barrier of zirconium metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of a zirconium alloy tube. The metal barrier forms a shield between the alloy tube and a core of nuclear fuel material enclosed in the composite cladding. There is a gap between the cladding and the core. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the composite cladding and has low neutron absorption characteristics. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the alloy tube from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  14. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a composite cladding having a substrate and a metal barrier metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of the substrate so that the metal barrier forms a shield between the substrate and the nuclear fuel material held within the cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a low neutron absorption metal of substantially pure zirconium. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  15. Labor and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.; Nelkin, D.

    1980-03-01

    The AFL-CIO is officially pro-nuclear, but tensions within unions are taking issue over ideological differences. The Labor movement, having looked to nuclear power development as an economic necessity to avoid unemployment, has opposed efforts to delay construction or close plants. As many as 42% of union members or relatives of members, however, were found to oppose new power plants, some actively working against specific construction projects. The United Mine Workers and Teamsters actively challenged the nuclear industry while the auto workers have been ambivalent. The differences between union orientation reflects the history of unionism in the US and explains the emergence of social unionism with its emphasis on safety and working conditions as well as economic benefits. Business union orientation trends to prevail during periods of prosperity; social unions during recessions. The labor unions and the environmentalists are examined in this conext and found to be hopeful. 35 references. (DCK)

  16. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika; Singh, Balraj

    2015-09-15

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015.

  17. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  18. Nuclear Power in Space

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  19. Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Schienbein, I.; Yu, J.-Y.; Keppel, Cynthia; Morfin, Jorge; Olness, F.; Owens, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    We study nuclear effects of charged current deep inelastic neutrino-iron scattering in the framework of a chi^2 analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs). We extract a set of iron PDFs which are used to compute x_Bj-dependent and Q^2-dependent nuclear correction factors for iron structure functions which are required in global analyses of free nucleon PDFs. We compare our results with nuclear correction factors from neutrino-nucleus scattering models and correction factors for charged-lepton--iron scattering. We find that, except for very high x_Bj, our correction factors differ in both shape and magnitude from the correction factors of the models and charged-lepton scattering.

  20. Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions

    SciTech Connect

    I. Schienbein, J.Y. Yu, C. Keppel, J.G. Morfin, F. Olness, J.F. Owens

    2009-06-01

    We study nuclear effects of charged current deep inelastic neutrino-iron scattering in the framework of a {chi}{sup 2} analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs). We extract a set of iron PDFs which are used to compute x{sub Bj}-dependent and Q{sup 2}-dependent nuclear correction factors for iron structure functions which are required in global analyses of free nucleon PDFs. We compare our results with nuclear correction factors from neutrino-nucleus scattering models and correction factors for charged-lepton--iron scattering. We find that, except for very high x{sub Bj}, our correction factors differ in both shape and magnitude from the correction factors of the models and charged-lepton scattering.

  1. Friction in nuclear dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1985-03-01

    The problem of dissipation in nuclear dynamics is related to the breaking down of nuclear symmetries and the transition from ordered to chaotic nucleonic motions. In the two extreme idealizations of the perfectly Ordered Regime and the fully Chaotic Regime, the nucleus should behave as an elastic solid or an overdamped fluid, respectively. In the intermediate regime a complicated visco-elastic behaviour is expected. The discussion is illustrated by a simple estimate of the frequency of the giant quadrupole resonance in the Ordered Regime and by applications of the wall and window dissipation formulae in the Chaotic Regime. 51 refs.

  2. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include: nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), which challenges (1) high temperature fuel and materials, (2) hot hydrogen environment, (3) test facilities, (4) safety, (5) environmental impact compliance, and (6) concept development, and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), which challenges (1) long operational lifetime, (2) high temperature reactors, turbines, and radiators, (3) high fuel burn-up reactor fuels, and designs, (4) efficient, high temperature power conditioning, (5) high efficiency, and long life thrusters, (6) safety, (7) environmental impact compliance, and (8) concept development.

  3. Nuclear medicine annual, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclide evaluation of brain death, bone imaging with SPECT, and lymphoscintigraphy are among the topics covered in Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1987. In addition, the book includes reviews of the role of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and in the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Reports describe advances in radionuclide and magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal gland and assess the current status of diuretic renography. Also included are articles on changes in functional imaging with aging, on radionuclide evaluation of the lower genitourinary tract in children, and on cholescintigraphy in children.

  4. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

    1983-03-11

    It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

  5. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    SciTech Connect

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  6. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  7. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  8. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Bob

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  9. Fast neutron nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrillat, M. Th.; Lions, N.

    1985-01-08

    The invention relates to a fast neutron nuclear reactor of the integrated type comprising a cylindrical inner vessel. The inner vessel comprises two concentric ferrules and the connection between the hot collector defined within this vessel and the inlet port of the exchangers is brought about by a hot structure forming a heat baffle and supported by the inner ferrule and by a cold structure surrounding the hot structure, supported by the outer ferrule and sealingly connected to the exchanger. Application to the generation of electric power in nuclear power stations.

  10. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-28

    AFCI to $181 million and shifts the mixed-oxide ( MOX ) fuel program — totaling $281 million — to the nuclear energy program from the nuclear...appropriations act, signed December 26, 2007 (P.L. 110-161), holds AFCI to $181 million and shifts the mixed-oxide ( MOX ) fuel program — totaling $281...million in FY2007 to $395.0 million in FY2008. The FY2008 omnibus appropriation holds AFCI to $181 million and shifts the mixed-oxide ( MOX ) fuel program

  11. Nuclear Innovation Workshops Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, John Howard; Allen, Todd Randall; Hildebrandt, Philip Clay; Baker, Suzanne Hobbs

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Innovation Workshops were held at six locations across the United States on March 3-5, 2015. The data collected during these workshops has been analyzed and sorted to bring out consistent themes toward enhancing innovation in nuclear energy. These themes include development of a test bed and demonstration platform, improved regulatory processes, improved communications, and increased public-private partnerships. This report contains a discussion of the workshops and resulting themes. Actionable steps are suggested at the end of the report. This revision has a small amount of the data in Appendix C removed in order to avoid potential confusion.

  12. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  13. Comprehensive Glossary of Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlands, Tracy; Stone, Craig; Meyer, Richard

    2001-10-01

    We have developed a comprehensive glossary of terms covering the broad fields of nuclear and related areas of science. The glossary has been constructed with two sections. A primary section consists of over 6,000 terms covering the fields of nuclear and high energy physics, nuclear chemistry, radiochemistry, health physics, astrophysics, materials science, analytical science, environmental science, nuclear medicine, nuclear engineering, nuclear instrumentation, nuclear weapons, and nuclear safeguards. Approximately 1,500 terms of specific focus on military and nuclear weapons testing define the second section. The glossary is currently larger than many published glossaries and dictionaries covering the entire field of physics. Glossary terms have been defined using an extensive collection of current and historical publications. Historical texts extend back into the 1800's, the early days of atomic physics. The glossary has been developed both as a software application and as a hard copy document.

  14. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  15. Progress and challenges of nuclear science development in Vietnam - an outlook on the occassion of the 10-th anniversary of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hien, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    Over ten years since the commissioning of the Dalat nuclear research reactor a number of nuclear techniques have been developed and applied in Vietnam Manufacturing of radioisotopes and nuclear instruments, development of isotope tracer and nuclear analytical techniques for environmental studies, exploitation of filtered neutron beams, ... have been major activities of reactor utilizations. Efforts made during ten years of reactor operation have resulted also in establishing and sustaining the applications of nuclear techniques in medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The successes achieved and lessons teamed over the past ten years are discussed illustrating the approaches taken for developing the nuclear science in the conditions of a country having a very low national income and experiencing a transition from a centrally planned to a market-oriented economic system.

  16. Tethyan evolution of central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Sengor, A.M.C. )

    1990-05-01

    The study area extends from the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea in the west to the Helan Shan and Longmen Shan in the east and from about 40{degree}N parallel in the north to the neo-Tethyan sutures in the south, thus including what is called Middle Asia in the Soviet literature. In the region thus delineated lies the boundary between the largely late Paleozoic core of Asia (Altaids) and the Tethyside superorogenic complex. This boundary passes through continental objects that collided with nuclear Asia in the late Paleozoic to terminate its Altaid evolution. Subduction to the south of some of these had commenced before they collided (e.g., Tarim in the Kuen-Lun), in others later (e.g., South Ghissar area west of Pamirs). This subduction 1ed, in the late Paleozoic, to the opening of marginal basins, at least one of which may be partly extant (Tarim). Giant subduction accretion complexes of Paleozoic to earliest Triassic age dominate farther south in the basement of Turan (mainly in Turkmenian SSR) and in the Kuen-Lun/Nan Shan ranges. No discrete continental collisions or any continental basement in these regions could be unequivocally recognized contrary to most current interpretations. Magmatic arcs that developed along the southern margin of Asia in the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic grew atop these subduction-accretion complexes and record a gradual southerly migration of magmatism through time. Subduction also dominated the northern margin of Gondwanaland between Iran and China in late Paleozoic time, although the record in Afghanistan and northwest Tibet is scrappy. It led to back-arc basin formation, which in Iran and Oman became neo-Tethys and, in at least parts of central Asia, the Waser-Mushan-Pshart/Banggong Co-Nu Jiang ocean. This ocean was probably connected with the Omani part of the neo-Tethys via the Sistan region.

  17. [CENTRAL ANTICHOLINERGIC... SYNDROME?].

    PubMed

    Danilov, M S; Lebedinskii, K M

    2015-01-01

    While reading special literature in diferent languages the authors noted surprising fact: the term and concept of "central anticholinergic syndrome" is well-known as common anaesthesia complication in German (abbr: ZAS) and partially Spanish sources, but in Russian, English or French literature is used only in toxicological context. Describing etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the complication manifesting with comatose, agitated or shivering forms, the authors analyzing the reasons for such a noticeably diferent approaches to the situation reaching 10% of all the general anaesthesia cases. Probably, ZAS isn't nosologically clearly defined syndrome, but just adverse appearance of one of the fundamental general anaesthesia mechanisms? Anyway, the problem of central cholinergic activity suppression, excessive by its amplitude and/or duration, exists all over the world. German concept of ZAS allows the anaesthesiologist to resolve it on pathogenically generalized basis, while in other professional communities various symptomatic approaches seem to be more common.

  18. Centrality based Document Ranking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    approach. We model the documents to be ranked as nodes in a graph and place edges between documents based on their similarity. Given a query, we compute...similarity of the query with respect to every document in the graph . Based on these similarity values, documents are ranked for a given query...clinical documents using centrality based approach. We model the documents to be ranked as nodes in a graph and place edges between documents based on their

  19. FNAL central email systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  20. Gangs in Central America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-02

    introduced – H.R. 1645 ( Gutierrez ), S. 330 (Isakson), and S. 1348 (Reid) – that includes provisions to increase cooperation among U.S., Mexican, and...America, Colombia, and Mexico, U.S. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales stated that “the United States stands with all of our neighbors in our joint fight...deportations on Central America. Legislation in the 110th Congress The 110th Congress has considered immigration legislation – H.R. 1645 ( Gutierrez ), S

  1. [The central pattern generators].

    PubMed

    Balaban, P M; Vorontsov, D D; Dyakonova, V E; Dyakonova, T L; Zakharov, I S; Korshunova, T A; Orlov, O Yu; Pavlova, G A; Panchin, Yi V; Sakharov, D A; Falikman, M V

    2013-01-01

    The central pattern generator (CPG) is defined as a set of neurons involved in joint production of patterned motor output. The roundtable discussion on the CPG was a part of the 5th All-Russian Conference on Animal Behavior (Moscow, Nov. 21, 2012). The discussion centred on three core themes: 1) the mechanisms of the organization and reconfiguration of pattern generating neuronal ensembles, 2) extrapolations that extend the CPG concept beyond the motor systems, and 3) evolutionary and developmental aspects of CPG.

  2. Central corneal abscess.

    PubMed

    van Bijsterveld, O P

    1976-05-01

    Central corneal abscess developed in the experimental animal after inoculation of biologically active staphylococcal strains in a paracentral epithelial lesion of the cornea. These abscesses did not ulcerate, developed only with high inocula, occurred more frequently in immunized rabbits. A serpiginous type of ulceration did not develop at the site of the initial epithelial lesion nor at any other place in the cornea. Histologically, the lesions consisted of densely packed polymorphonuclear leukocytes between the corneal lamellae.

  3. West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  4. [Central precocious puberty].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Marek, Bogdan; Okopień, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    Central precocious puberty, defined as the onset of puberty before the age 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys, results from a premature activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamus. This condition is characterised by early pubertal changes, acceleration of growth velocity, and rapid bone maturation that often result in reduced adult height. It may be either idiopathic or associated with hypothalamic hamartoma, brain neoplasms, numerous non-cancerous disorders of the central nervous system and treatment of peripheral precocious puberty. The goal of the initial assessment of children is to exclude the presence of all these organic disorders. The diagnosis should include detailed anamnesis and clinical examination, measurement of pituitary and sex hormones, assessment of bone age, and imaging of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, abdomen, pelvis and gonads. The treatment of choice are gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. In this paper, we review the current views on the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of central precocious puberty.

  5. Nuclear membrane: nuclear envelope PORosity in fission yeast meiosis.

    PubMed

    Sazer, Shelley

    2010-11-09

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes closed mitosis but 'virtual nuclear envelope breakdown' at anaphase of meiosis II, in which the nuclear envelope is structurally closed but functionally open.

  6. Nuclear transport: shifting gears in fungal nuclear and cytoplasmic organization.

    PubMed

    Casey, Amanda K; Wente, Susan R

    2012-10-09

    In fungi, nuclear pore complexes are free to move through the nuclear envelope; however, little is known about how movement is regulated. New evidence reveals roles for molecular motors and potential impacts on genomic organization.

  7. Nuclear Systems Kilopower Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Don; Gibson, Marc; Mason, Lee; Houts, Michael; McClure, Patrick; Robinson, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Systems Kilopower Project was initiated by NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program in fiscal year 2015 to demonstrate subsystem-level technology readiness of small space fission power in a relevant environment (Technology Readiness Level 5) for space science and human exploration power needs. The Nuclear Systems Kilopower Project consists of two elements. The primary element is the Kilopower Prototype Test, also called the Kilopower Reactor Using Stirling Technology(KRUSTY) Test. This element consists of the development and testing of a fission ground technology demonstrator of a 1 kWe fission power system. A 1 kWe system matches requirements for some robotic precursor exploration systems and future potential deep space science missions, and also allows a nuclear ground technology demonstration in existing nuclear test facilities at low cost. The second element, the Mars Kilopower Scalability Study, consists of the analysis and design of a scaled-up version of the 1 kWe reference concept to 10 kWe for Mars surface power projected requirements, and validation of the applicability of the KRUSTY experiment to key technology challenges for a 10 kWe system. If successful, these two elements will lead to initiation of planning for a technology demonstration of a 10 kWe fission power capability for Mars surface outpost power.

  8. Politics of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

  9. Nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    This document is presented in viewgraph form, and the topics covered include the following: (1) the direct fission-thermal propulsion process; (2) mission applications of direct fission-thermal propulsion; (3) nuclear engines for rocket vehicles; (4) manned mars landers; and (5) particle bed reactor design.

  10. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  11. Nuclear waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Darrel D.; Ebra, Martha A.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  12. Viewpoints on Nuclear Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Committee on the Present Danger, Inc., the Committee of Atomic Bomb Survivors in the United States, the World Friendship Center in Hiroshima, two authors, physics and education professors, an English and history teacher, and a high school student comment on nuclear education. (RM)

  13. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  14. Nuclear light bulb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, Tom

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear light bulb engine is a closed cycle concept. The nuclear light bulb concept provides containment by keeping the nuclear fuel fluid mechanically suspended in a cylindrical geometry. Thermal heat passes through an internally cooled, fused-silica, transparent wall and heats hydrogen propellant. The seeded hydrogen propellant absorbs radiant energy and is expanded through a nozzle. Internal moderation was used in the configuration which resulted in a reduced critical density requirement. This result was supported by criticality experiments. A reference engine was designed that had seven cells and was sized to fit in what was then predicted to be the shuttle bay mass and volume limitations. There were studies done of nozzle throat cooling schemes to remove the radiant heat. Elements of the nuclear light bulb program included closed loop critical assembly tests done at Los Alamos with UF6 confined by argon buffer gas. It was shown that the fuel region could be seeded with constituents that would block UV radiation from the uranium plasma. A combination of calculations and experiments showed that internal moderation produced a critical mass reduction. Other aspects of the research are presented.

  15. Second Nuclear Era

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.; Spiewak, I.; Barkenbus, J.N.; Livingston, R.S.; Phung, D.L.

    1984-03-01

    The Institute for Energy Analysis with support from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has studied the decline of the present nuclear era in the United States and the characteristics of a Second Nuclear Era which might be instrumental in restoring nuclear power to an appropriate place in the energy options of our country. The study has determined that reactors operating today are much safer than they were at the time of the TMI accident. A number of concepts for a supersafe reactor were reviewed and at least two were found that show considerable promise, the PIUS, a Swedish pressurized water design, and a gas-cooled modular design of German and US origin. Although new, safer, incrementally improved, conventional reactors are under study by the nuclear industry, the complete lack of new orders in the United States will slow their introduction and they are likely to be more expensive than present designs. The study recommends that supersafe reactors be taken seriously and that federal and private funds both be used to design and, if feasible, to build a prototype reactor of substantial size. 146 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Nuclear cardiograph and scintigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, P.

    1975-01-01

    Extensive advances in the technology of detectors, data analysis systems, and tracers used have resulted in greatly expanded applications of radioisotopes to the assessment of cardiac function and disease. The development of nuclear cardiology has proceeded along four lines: (1) radionuclide angiography, (2) myocardial perfusion imaging, (3) intracoronary microsphere imaging, and (4) regional myocardial blood flow determination using inert gases.

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, design, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  18. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

    2012-06-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is concluding the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the NMRG including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program. General performance results from phases 3 and 4 will also be presented.

  19. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Bulatowicz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This presentation will describe the operational principles, design basics, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  20. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    improvement commitments toward Iran with respect to the Bushehr in the wings’ aerodynamic profile. The production costs nuclear reactor , will have negative...16 Commentary Reviews Defense Research, Development [Delhi Overseas Service 23 Nov] .............. 17 Reactor Using Man...18 Paper Urges Germany To Honor Reactor Contract [KAYHAN INTERNATIONAL 18 Oct] .......... 19 ISRAEL IDF To Deploy New

  1. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    United States would no longer insist on retaining two per While the situation has been continuously improving on cent of its present stock of chemical ...production, possession, and use of chemical and biological weapons will continue to appear under appropriate geographic headings in the ARMS CONTROL...I Foreign Ministry on Algerian Nuclear Reactor [ZHONGGUO XINWEN SHE] .............................. I

  2. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  3. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-02-25

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Indonesia, North Korea, South Korea, Thailand; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary; (4) Argentina, Brazil, El Salvador, Nicaragua; (5) India, Iran, Bangladesh, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Austria, United Kingdom; and (8) South Africa.

  4. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  5. Nuclear Power in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Research has shown that nuclear radioisotope power generators can supply compact, reliable, and efficient sources of energy for a broad range of space missions. These missions range from televising views of planetary surfaces to communicating scientific data to Earth. This publication presents many applications of the advancing technology and…

  6. Nuclear Cluster Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kamimura, Masayasu

    2011-05-06

    Predictive power of theory needs good models and accurate calculation methods to solve the Schroedinger equations of the systems concerned. We present some examples of successful predictions based on the nuclear cluster models of light nuclei and hypernuclei and on the calculation methods that have been developed by Kyushu group.

  7. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-14

    activity back integrated guided missile programme ( IGMP ) launched to Indian territory. To be effective as a nuclear delivery under Mrs Gandhi in July 1983...A prime objective be within India’s reach. of the IGMP was to minimise delays and get the wheels of research and development moving smoothly. What

  8. Nuclear spin circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-04-07

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra.

  9. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-19

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Panama; (5) India, Iran, Pakistan, Israel, Afghanistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Turkey, Belgium, Canada, Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom; and (8) South Africa.

  10. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-04

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Rumania; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Peru; (5) India, Iraq, Syria, Israel, Egypt, Mauritania, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Austria, Canada, Italy, Spain; and (8) South Africa.

  11. NUCLEAR FUEL COMPOSITION

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.

    1960-05-31

    A novel reactor composition for use in a self-sustaining fast nuclear reactor is described. More particularly, a fuel alloy comprising thorium and uranium-235 is de scribed, the uranium-235 existing in approximately the same amount that it is found in natural uranium, i.e., 1.4%.

  12. Topics in nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-30

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of 'significant events' since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its 'lessons learned' have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  13. Nuclear Medical Technology Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Guy H., Ed.

    This 1-day colloquium, attended by 23 participants representing societies, government agencies, colleges and universities, and other training programs, was conducted for the purpose of reporting on and discussing the curriculums developed at the University of Cincinnati for training nuclear medical technologists. Pilot programs at both the…

  14. Topics in nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its "lessons learned" have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  15. Northeast Asia Nuclear Dilemmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    deterrence.40 Rather, analysts suggest that China fears that Japanese proliferation would beget Taiwan to renew its long- aborted nuclear weapons... abortive effort to establish...Cabinet Being Reshuffled After Rape Gaffes.” Associated Press, January 8, 2012. http://news.yahoo.com/japan-cabinet-being-reshuffled- rape -gaffes

  16. NUCLEAR CONVERSION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-09-13

    A nuclear conversion apparatus is described which comprises a body of neutron moderator, tubes extending therethrough, uranium in the tubes, a fluid- circulating system associated with the tubes, a thorium-containing fluid coolant in the system and tubes, and means for withdrawing the fluid from the system and replacing it in the system whereby thorium conversion products may be recovered.

  17. Nuclear Radiation Damages Minds!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Professors Ernest Sternglass (University of Pittsburgh) and Steven Bell (Berry College) have assembled cogent, conclusive evidence indicating that nuclear radiation is associated with impaired cognition. They suggest that Scholastic Aptitude Scores (SATs), which have declined steadily for 19 years, will begin to rise. Their prediction is based on…

  18. Nuclear Security Futures Scenarios.

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Warren, Drake Edward; Hayden, Nancy Kay; Passell, Howard D.; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Backus, George A.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the scenarios used in strategic futures workshops conducted at Sandia on September 21 and 29, 2016. The workshops, designed and facilitated by analysts in Center 100, used scenarios to enable thought leaders to think collectively about the changing aspects of global nuclear security and the potential implications for the US Government and Sandia National Laboratories.

  19. Preserving Nuclear Grade Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, Bob

    2008-02-05

    When people think of the government they think of the President, or Congress, or the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), but there are thousands of people in government-related jobs doing things most don’t really notice everyday. You can find them everywhere, from the space science folks at NASA, to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) watching out for the bad guys. There are Rangers, and Social Workers, Nurses and Agricultural Managers. They are people working to keep the many facets of the USA rolling. One very diverse bunch is The Department of Energy (DOE) , a group who is expanding the ways we make and save energy to power our cars, homes, and businesses. Tucked away under the DOE is the National Nuclear Security Administration, the NNSA is an agency that maintains the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile. It works to reduce global danger from weapons of mass destruction. It provides the U.S. Navy with safe nuclear propulsion, and it responds to nuclear and radiological emergencies in the United States and abroad, and it supports efforts in science and technology*. (* DOE/NNSA/KCP website info)

  20. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Harold F. McFarlane; Terry Todd

    2013-11-01

    Reprocessing is essential to closing nuclear fuel cycle. Natural uranium contains only 0.7 percent 235U, the fissile (see glossary for technical terms) isotope that produces most of the fission energy in a nuclear power plant. Prior to being used in commercial nuclear fuel, uranium is typically enriched to 3–5% in 235U. If the enrichment process discards depleted uranium at 0.2 percent 235U, it takes more than seven tonnes of uranium feed to produce one tonne of 4%-enriched uranium. Nuclear fuel discharged at the end of its economic lifetime contains less one percent 235U, but still more than the natural ore. Less than one percent of the uranium that enters the fuel cycle is actually used in a single pass through the reactor. The other naturally occurring isotope, 238U, directly contributes in a minor way to power generation. However, its main role is to transmute into plutoniumby neutron capture and subsequent radioactive decay of unstable uraniumand neptuniumisotopes. 239Pu and 241Pu are fissile isotopes that produce more than 40% of the fission energy in commercially deployed reactors. It is recovery of the plutonium (and to a lesser extent the uranium) for use in recycled nuclear fuel that has been the primary focus of commercial reprocessing. Uraniumtargets irradiated in special purpose reactors are also reprocessed to obtain the fission product 99Mo, the parent isotope of technetium, which is widely used inmedical procedures. Among the fission products, recovery of such expensive metals as platinum and rhodium is technically achievable, but not economically viable in current market and regulatory conditions. During the past 60 years, many different techniques for reprocessing used nuclear fuel have been proposed and tested in the laboratory. However, commercial reprocessing has been implemented along a single line of aqueous solvent extraction technology called plutonium uranium reduction extraction process (PUREX). Similarly, hundreds of types of reactor

  1. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  2. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  3. Nuclear weapons and the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.B.; Markusen, E.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 12 sections, each consisting of several papers. Some of the section titles are: Is Hiroshima Our Text.; Nuclear Weapons and Their Effects; Can Nuclear War be Survived.; The Debate Over U.S. Strategic Nuclear Weapons Policy; and Costs of the Arms Race.

  4. Safe use of atomic (Nuclear) power (Nuclear Safety)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    The established concept of ensuring safety for nuclear power sources is presented; the influence of severe accidents on nuclear power development is considered, including the accident at a Japan NPP in 2011, as well as the role of state regulation of nuclear safety.

  5. Unlocking India’s Strategic Potential in Central Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    technological cooperation as an important 55 attribute of modernization for the regional economies . India is actively positioning itself as a technology power...matters, including nuclear issues and privatization and investment into the Indian economy . The author makes an important caveat when discussing the...fortune in lives and money . The future of its military infrastructure and relationships with countries in Central-South Asia is a big unknown, with

  6. Nuclear Proliferation and Grand Challenges

    ScienceCinema

    McCarthy, Kathy

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy leads systems analysis. She talks about proliferation and the grand challenges of nuclear R&D. For more information about INL energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  7. Nuclear thermal propulsion program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion program is described. The following subject areas are covered: lunar and Mars missions; national space policy; international cooperation in space exploration; propulsion technology; nuclear rocket program; and budgeting.

  8. A Career in Nuclear Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Lambregts, Marsha

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear chemist Dr. Marsha Lambregts talks about the Center for Advanced Energy Studies and the benefits of a nuclear energy career. For more information about careers at INL, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  9. Adventures in scientific nuclear diplomacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2014-05-01

    A former director of Los Alamos National Laboratory offers a first-person perspective on the important contributions scientists can make toward improving the safety and security of nuclear materials and reducing the global nuclear dangers in an evolving world.

  10. The Nuclear Debate in Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, John

    1977-01-01

    Provides a nuclear film bibliography grouped into the areas of: building and using the bomb; living with the bomb; and living with nuclear power. These films are for mature high school students and older. (MLH)

  11. Nuclear Proliferation and Grand Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy leads systems analysis. She talks about proliferation and the grand challenges of nuclear R&D. For more information about INL energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  12. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  13. International Nuclear Safeguards at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Sternat, Matthew R.

    2015-02-01

    As global nuclear energy expands, assuring peaceful uses of nuclear technology becomes increasingly important. In addition to complying with international nuclear safeguards, a responsible nuclear energy program promotes a corresponding safeguards culture. Establishment of transparent peaceful uses of nuclear technologies starts with cooperative international engagements and safeguards systems. Developing states investing in nuclear energy must assure the international community of their longterm commitment to safeguards, safety, and security (3S) of nuclear materials and technologies. Cultivating a safeguards culture starts in the initial phases of infrastructure planning and must be integrated into the process of developing a responsible nuclear energy program. Sandia National Laboratories supports the implementation of safeguards culture through a variety of activities, including infrastructure development.

  14. Adventures in scientific nuclear diplomacy

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2014-05-09

    A former director of Los Alamos National Laboratory offers a first-person perspective on the important contributions scientists can make toward improving the safety and security of nuclear materials and reducing the global nuclear dangers in an evolving world.

  15. A Career in Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lambregts, Marsha

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear chemist Dr. Marsha Lambregts talks about the Center for Advanced Energy Studies and the benefits of a nuclear energy career. For more information about careers at INL, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  16. Dielectric Heaters for Testing Spacecraft Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William Herbert; Bitteker, Leo; Godfroy, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A document proposes the development of radio-frequency-(RF)-driven dielectric heaters for non-nuclear thermal testing of the cores of nuclear-fission reactors for spacecraft. Like the electrical-resistance heaters used heretofore for such testing, the dielectric heaters would be inserted in the reactors in place of nuclear fuel rods. A typical heater according to the proposal would consist of a rod of lossy dielectric material sized and shaped like a fuel rod and containing an electrically conductive rod along its center line. Exploiting the dielectric loss mechanism that is usually considered a nuisance in other applications, an RF signal, typically at a frequency .50 MHz and an amplitude between 2 and 5 kV, would be applied to the central conductor to heat the dielectric material. The main advantage of the proposal is that the wiring needed for the RF dielectric heating would be simpler and easier to fabricate than is the wiring needed for resistance heating. In some applications, it might be possible to eliminate all heater wiring and, instead, beam the RF heating power into the dielectric rods from external antennas.

  17. A nonlinear relativistic nuclear model for protoneutronstars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razeira, M.; Vasconcellos, C. A. Z.; Dillig, M.

    2003-08-01

    In the last few decades, studies on the internal structure, composition, dynamics and evolution of protoneutron stars, neutron stars, pulsars, hybrid and strange stars became central topics for theoretical and experimental research. Since the observation of the first pulsar in 1967, whose characteristic observational features allowed its identification as a rotating neutron star, nuclear models have been widely employed in the description of the holly graal of modern physics, the equation of state of dense matter. As under the pull of gravity the energy density in the core of these compact stars is thought to approach or even exceed more than 6 times the density of ordinary nuclear matter, predictions on the structure of the stars depend sensitively on the equation of state provided by model calculations. Combined with the equations of the general relativity metric, predictions on the mass, radius, crust extent and moment of inertia of the stars are then susceptible to the comparison to observation. In this work, a theoretical modeling for protoneutron stars (nuclear matter at finite temperature) is studied in the framework of an effective many-body relativistic mean field theory and the Sommerfeld approximation which contains the fundamental baryon octet and leptonic degrees of freedom, sigma, omega, rho and delta mesons, chemical equilibrium and charge neutrality. Our predictions include the determination of the mass of protoneutron stars, the mass-radius relation, relative population, gravitational redshift among other properties.

  18. Ultrafast electronic dynamics driven by nuclear motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendrell, Oriol

    2016-05-01

    The transfer of electrical charge on a microscopic scale plays a fundamental role in chemistry, in biology, and in technological applications. In this contribution, we will discuss situations in which nuclear motion plays a central role in driving the electronic dynamics of photo-excited or photo-ionized molecular systems. In particular, we will explore theoretically the ultrafast transfer of a double electron hole between the functional groups of glycine after K-shell ionization and subsequent Auger decay. Although a large energy gap of about 15 eV initially exists between the two electronic states involved and coherent electronic dynamics play no role in the hole transfer, we will illustrate how the double hole can be transferred within 3 to 4 fs between both functional ends of the glycine molecule driven solely by specific nuclear displacements and non-Born-Oppenheimer effects. This finding challenges the common wisdom that nuclear dynamics of the molecular skeleton are unimportant for charge transfer processes at the few-femtosecond time scale and shows that they can even play a prominent role. We thank the Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging and the Volkswagen Foundation for financial support.

  19. Nuclear eclectic power.

    PubMed

    Rose, D J

    1974-04-19

    The uranium and thorium resources, the technology, and the social impacts all seem to presage an even sharper increase in nuclear power for electric generation than had hitherto been predicted. There are more future consequences. The "hydrogen economy." Nuclear power plants operate best at constant power and full load. Thus, a largely nuclear electric economy has the problem of utilizing substantial off-peak capacity; the additional energy generation can typically be half the normal daily demand. Thus, the option of generating hydrogen as a nonpolluting fuel receives two boosts: excess nuclear capacity to produce it, plus much higher future costs for oil and natural gas. However, the so-called "hydrogen economy" must await the excess capacity, which will not occur until the end of the century. Nonelectric uses. By analyses similar to those performed here, raw nuclear heat can be shown to be cheaper than heat from many other fuel sources, especially nonpolluting ones. This will be particularly true as domestic natural gas supplies become more scarce. Nuclear heat becomes attractive for industrial purposes, and even for urban district heating, provided (i) the temperature is high enough (this is no problem for district heating, but could be for industry; the HTGR's and breeders, with 600 degrees C or more available, have the advantage); (ii) there is a market for large quantities (a heat rate of 3800 Mw thermal, the reactor size permitted today, will heat Boston, with some to spare); and (iii) the social costs become more definitely resolved in favor of nuclear power. Capital requirements. Nuclear-electric installations are very capital-intensive. One trillion dollars for the plants, backup industry, and so forth is only 2 percent of the total gross national product (GNP) between 1974 and 2000, at a growth rate of 4 percent per year. But capital accumulation tends to run at about 10 percent of the GNP, so the nuclear requirements make a sizable perturbation. Also

  20. Direct nuclear-powered lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1983-01-01

    The development of direct nuclear pumped lasers is reviewed. Theoretical and experimental investigations of various methods of converting the energy of nuclear fission fragments to laser power are summarized. The development of direct nuclear pumped lasers was achieved. The basic processes involved in the production of a plasma by nuclear radiation were studied. Significant progress was accomplished in this area and a large amount of basic data on plasma formation and atomic and molecular processes leading to population inversions is available.

  1. Nuclear Propulsion in Space (1968)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-23

    Project NERVA was an acronym for Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, a joint program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and NASA managed by the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (SNPO) at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Jackass Flats, Nevada U.S.A. Between 1959 and 1972, the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office oversaw 23 reactor tests, both the program and the office ended at the end of 1972.

  2. Nuclear Propulsion in Space (1968)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Project NERVA was an acronym for Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, a joint program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and NASA managed by the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (SNPO) at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Jackass Flats, Nevada U.S.A. Between 1959 and 1972, the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office oversaw 23 reactor tests, both the program and the office ended at the end of 1972.

  3. Central effects of fingolimod.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Vítor T; Fonseca, Joaquim

    2014-08-01

    Introduccion. El fingolimod, un modulador del receptor de la esfingosina-1-fosfato (S1P) dotado de un mecanismo de accion novedoso, fue el primer tratamiento oral aprobado para la esclerosis multiple remitente recurrente. Su union a los receptores S1P1 de los linfocitos promueve la retencion selectiva de los linfocitos T virgenes y de memoria central en los tejidos linfoides secundarios, lo que impide su salida hacia el sistema nervioso central (SNC). Asimismo, el fingolimod atraviesa con facilidad la barrera hematoencefalica, y diversos estudios le atribuyen un efecto neuroprotector directo en el SNC. Objetivo. Revisar la informacion disponible acerca de los efectos centrales del fingolimod. Desarrollo. El desequilibrio entre los procesos lesivos y reparadores constituye un reflejo de la desmielinizacion cronica, la degeneracion axonal y la gliosis, y parece contribuir a la discapacidad que la esclerosis multiple acarrea. La facilidad con la que el fingolimod atraviesa la barrera hematoencefalica le permite actuar directamente sobre los receptores S1P localizados en las celulas del SNC. Una vez en el interior del SNC, ocupa los receptores S1P de los oligodendrocitos y de sus celulas precursoras, de los astrocitos, los microgliocitos y las neuronas, fomentando la remielinizacion, la neuroproteccion y los procesos endogenos de regeneracion. La eficacia evidenciada en los ensayos clinicos concuerda con un mecanismo de accion que incluiria efectos directos sobre las celulas del SNC. Conclusiones. Los datos disponibles indican que la eficacia del fingolimod en el tratamiento de la esclerosis multiple se debe a su ambivalencia como molecula inmunomoduladora y moduladora directa de los receptores S1P del SNC. Tanto es asi que estudios recientes le atribuyen efectos neuroprotectores en varios modelos que suscitan expectativas en torno a su posible aplicacion terapeutica en la enfermedad de Alzheimer, el paludismo cerebral y el neuroblastoma, asi como en la neuroproteccion

  4. White Paper on Nuclear Astrophysics and Low Energy Nuclear Physics - Part 1. Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Arcones, Almudena; Escher, Jutta E.; Others, M.

    2016-04-04

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21 - 23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9 - 10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). The white paper is furthermore informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12 - 13, 2014. In summary we find that nuclear astrophysics is a modern and vibrant field addressing fundamental science questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions relate to the origin of the elements, the nuclear engines that drive life and death of stars, and the properties of dense matter. A broad range of nuclear accelerator facilities, astronomical observatories, theory efforts, and computational capabilities are needed. With the developments outlined in this white paper, answers to long-standing key questions are well within reach in the coming decade.

  5. Central Asia After 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Disputes With China,” Eurasia Daily Monitor, October 26, 2011. 9. Linda Jakobson et al., ”China’s Energy and Security relati- ons with Russia,” SIPRI...the_limits_of_regional_cooperati- on_in_south_asia. 65. Roman Muzalevski, ”India Seeks to Project Power In and Out of Central Asia,” Eurasia Daily...available from www.kom- mersant.ru/doc/1407757. 77. SIPRI Yearbook 2010, p. 291. 78. Kommersant, March 14, 2011. 79. Ibid. 80. Jakobson et al., ”China’s

  6. Flooding in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. Central American resource studies

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Floods in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows flooding in central China on July 4, 2002. In the false-color image vegetation appears orange and water appears dark blue to black. Because of the cloud cover and the fact that some of the water is filled with sediment, the false-color image provides a clearer picture of where rivers have exceeded their banks and lakes have risen. The river in this image is the Yangtze River, and the large lake is the Poyang Hu. Credits: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Fires in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of fires are set every year during the dry season in Central Africa. This true color image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows dozens of smoke plumes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on June 29, 2000. Residents burn away scrub and brush annually in the woody savanna to clear land for farming and grazing. For more information, visit the SeaWiFS Home Page, Global Fire Monitoring Fact Sheet, and 4km2 Fire Data Image Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  10. Nuclear Wallet Cards from the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Tuli, Jagdish K.

    Nuclear Wallet Cards present properties for ground and isomeric states of all known nuclides. Properties given are: spin and parity assignments, nuclear mass excesses, half-life, isotopic abundances, and decay modes. Appendices contain properties of elements, fundamental constants and other useful information. Nuclear Wallet Cards booklet is published by the National Nuclear Data Center and its electronic (current) version is periodically updated. The Nuclear Wallet Cards by Dr. Jagdish K. Tuli, presently in its 8th edition, is distributed in print as well as in PDA-adaptable Palm Pilot format; the data table as an ASCII file is available upon request. [Taken from http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/wallet/

  11. Nuclear weapons in the 1990s and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Van Oudenaren, J.

    1992-12-31

    This chapter explores on a country-by-country and region-by-region basis the factors that will influence the debates concerning nuclear weapons in both the nuclear and nonnuclear states. The recent political changes in Europe and longer-term developments such as the continuing diffusion of economic and technological power throughout the world are calling into question basic assumptions about the compatibility of the existing nuclear order with other aspects of the international system. Together the United States and the former Soviet Union possess over 95 percent of the nuclear warheads in existence, but only about 10 percent of world population and 35 percent of gross national product. France and Britain have large and growing nuclear arsenals, while Japan and Germany, both of which have larger populations and economies and exposed geopolitically, are barred from access to nuclear weapons. In the third world there is lingering resentment at the perceived efforts by the great powers to deny nuclear weapons to rising regional influentials in the case of important countries such as India, Israel, and South Africa. More fundamentally, there is uncertainty about the very identity of at least three of the five declared nuclear powers. France and Britain are engaged in a long-term process that could lead to full political union in a larger European Community. Meanwhile, the former Soviet Union has moved in the opposite direction and at a far more rapid pace. The August 1991 coup and its aftermath severely weakened central control in Moscow, leading to declarations of independence by the union republic. Nuclear weapons almost certainly will play less of a role in structuring a bipolar American-Russian competition, but they could well play a more dangerous and destabilizing role in the third world, as well as Japan, Germany, and other countries previously thought of as middle powers that are now assuming greater global importance. 5 refs.

  12. Job Prospects for Nuclear Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses trends in job opportunities for nuclear engineers. Lists some of the factors influencing increases and decreases in the demand for nuclear engineers. Describes the effects on career opportunities from recent nuclear accidents, military research and development, and projected increases of demand for electricity. (TW)

  13. Job Prospects for Nuclear Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    As the debate over nuclear safety continues, the job market remains healthy for nuclear engineers. The average salary offered to new nuclear engineers with bachelor's degrees is $27,400. Salary averages and increases compare favorably with other engineering disciplines. Various job sources in the field are noted. (JN)

  14. Nuclear Technology: Making Informed Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altshuler, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a unit on nuclear technology which is taught in a physics class. Explains the unit design, implementation process, demonstrations used, and topics of discussion that include light and optics, naturally and artificially produced sources of radioactivity, nuclear equations, isotopes and half-lives, and power-generating nuclear reactors.…

  15. Game Imaging Meets Nuclear Reality

    ScienceCinema

    Michel, Kelly; Watkins, Adam

    2016-07-12

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, a team of artists and animators, nuclear engineers and computer scientists is teaming to provide 3-D models of nuclear facilities to train IAEA safeguards inspectors and others who need fast familiarity with specific nuclear sites.

  16. Game Imaging Meets Nuclear Reality

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, Kelly; Watkins, Adam

    2011-03-21

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, a team of artists and animators, nuclear engineers and computer scientists is teaming to provide 3-D models of nuclear facilities to train IAEA safeguards inspectors and others who need fast familiarity with specific nuclear sites.

  17. Educators and the Nuclear Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Stanley M.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses education's long-term role in preventing nuclear war and reports on a three-state survey of 118 high school seniors on their knowledge of nuclear war issues. Describes educational groups' activities around the issues and recounts the author's personal experiences at Hiroshima (Japan) and growing awareness of nuclear problems. (RW)

  18. Report Card on Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Sheldon

    1974-01-01

    Problems facing the nuclear power industry include skyrocketing construction costs, technical failures, fuel scarcity, power plant safety, and the disposal of nuclear wastes. Possible solutions include: reductions in nuclear power plant construction, a complete moratorium on new plant construction, the construction of fast breeder reactors and the…

  19. Behavior, society, and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations.

  20. Overview paper on nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Spiewak, I.; Cope, D.F.

    1980-09-01

    This paper was prepared as an input to ORNL's Strategic Planning Activity, ORNL National Energy Perspective (ONEP). It is intended to provide historical background on nuclear power, an analysis of the mission of nuclear power, a discussion of the issues, the technology choices, and the suggestion of a strategy for encouraging further growth of nuclear power.

  1. Multidimensional Analysis of Nuclear Detonations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-17

    reconstructions and temperature distributions of the early time nuclear fireballs. Initial developments have resulted in the first 2-dimensional... temperature distribution of a nuclear fireball using digitized film. This temperature analysis underwent verification using the Digital Imaging and Remote... temperature profile of the nuclear fireball as a function of optical path length. A 3-dimensional reconstruction was performed using a variation of a

  2. Nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, G.A.; Lawrence, T.J. )

    1989-06-01

    The state of the art in nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer is discussed. Cryogenic propulsion, electric propulsion, solar-thermal propulsion and direct nuclear propulsion are examined in this context. New technologies with exceptional promise are addressed, emphasizing the particle test bed nuclear engine.

  3. Nuclear dreams: the malignant alteration of nuclear architecture.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, J A

    1998-08-01

    Cancer is diagnosed by examining the architectural alterations to cells and tissues. Changes in nuclear structure are among the most universal of these and include increases in nuclear size, deformities in nuclear shape, and changes in the internal organization of the nucleus. These may all reflect changes in the nuclear matrix, a non-chromatin nuclear scaffolding determining nuclear form, higher order chromatin folding, and the spatial organization of nucleic acid metabolism. Malignancy-induced changes in this structure may have profound effects on chromatin folding, on the fidelity of genome replication, and on gene expression. Elucidating the mechanisms and the biological consequences of nuclear changes will require the identification of the major structural molecules of the internal nuclear matrix and an understanding of their assembly into structural elements. If biochemical correlates to malignant alterations in nuclear structure can be identified then nuclear matrix proteins and, perhaps nuclear matrix-associated structural RNAs, may be an attractive set of diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets.

  4. Historical civilian nuclear accident based Nuclear Reactor Condition Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Kaylyn Marie

    There are significant challenges to successfully monitoring multiple processes within a nuclear reactor facility. The evidence for this observation can be seen in the historical civilian nuclear incidents that have occurred with similar initiating conditions and sequences of events. Because there is a current lack within the nuclear industry, with regards to the monitoring of internal sensors across multiple processes for patterns of failure, this study has developed a program that is directed at accomplishing that charge through an innovation that monitors these systems simultaneously. The inclusion of digital sensor technology within the nuclear industry has appreciably increased computer systems' capabilities to manipulate sensor signals, thus making the satisfaction of these monitoring challenges possible. One such manipulation to signal data has been explored in this study. The Nuclear Reactor Condition Analyzer (NRCA) program that has been developed for this research, with the assistance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Graduate Fellowship, utilizes one-norm distance and kernel weighting equations to normalize all nuclear reactor parameters under the program's analysis. This normalization allows the program to set more consistent parameter value thresholds for a more simplified approach to analyzing the condition of the nuclear reactor under its scrutiny. The product of this research provides a means for the nuclear industry to implement a safety and monitoring program that can oversee the system parameters of a nuclear power reactor facility, like that of a nuclear power plant.

  5. U. S. /NATO sea-based non-strategic nuclear deterrence: Paradox or pitfall. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, L.S.

    1991-09-01

    The present study examines the evolution of nuclear strategy with particular emphasis on the capacity of U.S./NATO sea-based non-strategic nuclear forces. The current trend in NATO towards a certain denuclearization of the Central European states might well place an increased reliance on the sea-based theater nuclear weapons to counter Soviet theater nuclear forces in the Western Soviet Union. The present work analyzes the policy background of the NATO nuclear strategy from a European perspective in light of recent problems as a necessary precondition to an understanding of the more concrete issues of hardware. Although the U.S. Navy's nuclear-capable Tomahawk land attack cruise missile (TLAM/N) remains a potent and flexible nuclear strike asset, it is best suited for heavily defended high value fixed targets. Emphasis on offensive mobility in a future conflict will make carrier-based aircraft a more decisive platform from which to prosecute and destroy high value mobile targets. However, an analysis of the U.S. Navy's non-strategic nuclear forces reveals substantial deficiencies when compared with those of the Soviet Union. A declining U.S. Navy nuclear stockpile of air-deliverable strike weapons in combination with the lack of a long-range nuclear-capable stealth aircraft weakens the credibility of the aircraft carrier battle group as a nuclear deterrent force.

  6. Nuclear past, nuclear present: Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and contemporary strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, I.

    1985-01-01

    The controversial atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 represent the only occasions when atomic weapons have been employed in war, yet surprisingly little attention has been paid to the relationship between the bombings and the course of subsequent nuclear strategy. Dr. Clark contends that the August 1945 experience was crucially formative and gave rise to a set of influential assumptions about the moral acceptability of using nuclear weapons, the rationality of nuclear decision-making, and the controllability of nuclear operations. The author's detailed reconstruction of the events of 1945 sheds new light upon these assumptions and contributes to the present debate about nuclear strategy, tracing present nuclear strategy, tracing present nuclear concerns and problems back to some of the misleading conclusions drawn from the bombings.

  7. Leading twist nuclear shadowing, nuclear generalized parton distributions and nuclear DVCS at small x

    SciTech Connect

    Guzey, Vadim; Goeke, Klaus; Siddikov, Marat

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the leading twist theory of nuclear shadowing and calculate quark and gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of spinless nuclei. We predict very large nuclear shadowing for nuclear GPDs. In the limit of the purely transverse momentum transfer, our nuclear GPDs become impact parameter dependent nuclear parton distributions (PDFs). Nuclear shadowing induces non-trivial correlations between the impact parameter $b$ and the light-cone fraction $x$. We make predictions for the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) amplitude and the DVCS cross section on $^{208}$Pb at high energies. We calculate the cross section of the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process and address the issue of the extraction of the DVCS signal from the $e A \\to e \\gamma A$ cross section. We find that the $e A \\to e \\gamma A$ differential cross section is dominated by DVCS at the momentum transfer $t$ near the minima of the nuclear form factor. We also find that nuclear shadowing leads

  8. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-01-06

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source special nuclear and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this document. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. This document has been revised to meet the interim status waste analysis plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173 303-300(5). When the final status permit is issued, permit conditions will be incorporated and this document will be revised accordingly.

  9. Central diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Arima, Hiroshi; Azuma, Yoshinori; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Hagiwara, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Central diabetes insipidus (CDI), characterized by polyuria and polydipsia, is caused by deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP), an antidiuretic hormone which acts on V2 receptors in kidney to promote reabsorption of free water. CDI is classified into three subtypes; idiopathic, secondary and familial. A previous study suggests that infundibulo-neurohypophysitis might be an underlying cause of idiopathic CDI. Among secondary CDI, the tumors in the central nervous system such as craniopharyngioma and germ cell tumors are the most frequent causes. Familial CDI is inherited mostly in an autosomal dominant mode, and the number of causal mutations in the AVP gene locus reported so far exceeds 80. CDI is treated with desmopressin, an analogue of vasopressin, and the tablet is preferred to the nasal form because it is easier to administer. It is also shown that the oral disintegrating tablet formula increases QOL and decreases the incidence of hyponatremia in CDI patients. In some CDI patients, the osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus do not function and patients do not sense thirst. These adipsic CDI patients are treated with desmopressin and adjusting the amount of daily water intake based on body weight measurement; but controlling the water balance is extremely difficult, and morbidity and mortality are shown to be high in these patients. PMID:28008190

  10. Cryogenic nuclear gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Gallop, J.C.; Potts, S.P.

    1980-09-30

    A cryogenic nuclear gyroscope is described that is comprised of a cylinder of niobium cooled within a helium cryostat so as to be superconducting and to provide a trapped, substantially homogeneous magnetic field, a helium-3 sample contained within a spherical pyrex cell having nuclei possessing a net magnetic moment, coils provided to polarize the sample to provide that net magnetic moment, and a SQUID magnetometer coupled to the sample by a pick-up coil of a transformer and frequency sensitive means coupled to the SQUID to detect changes in the precession of the nuclear moments of the sample caused by rotation of the gyroscope about an axis parallel to the direction of the homogeneous magnetic field. A superconducting lead shield isolates the helium-3 sample from external magnetic fields.

  11. Outpatient therapeutic nuclear oncology.

    PubMed

    Turner, J Harvey

    2012-05-01

    In the beginning, nuclear medicine was radionuclide therapy, which has evolved into molecular tumour-targeted control of metastatic cancer. Safe, efficacious, clinical practice of therapeutic nuclear oncology may now be based upon accurate personalised dosimetry by quantitative gamma SPECT/CT imaging to prescribe tumoricidal activities without critical organ toxicity. Preferred therapy radionuclides possess gamma emission of modest energy and abundance to enable quantitative SPECT/CT imaging for calculation of the beta therapy dosimetry, without radiation exposure risk to hospital personnel, carers, family or members of the public. The safety of outpatient radiopharmaceutical therapy of cancer with Iodine-131, Samarium-153, Holmium-166, Rhenium-186, Rhenium-188, Lutetium-177 and Indium-111 is reviewed. Measured activity release rates and radiation exposure to carers and the public are all within recommendations and guidelines of international regulatory agencies and, when permitted by local regulatory authorities allow cost-effective, safe, outpatient radionuclide therapy of cancer without isolation in hospital.

  12. Graphite for nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Virgiliev, Yu.S.; Kalyagina, I.P.

    1993-12-31

    Relative dimensional changes and physical properties of structural graphites - {Gamma}p-280 (nuclear graphite) and {Gamma}p{Pi}-2 (modificated variety of nuclear graphite for the rings of elastic contact) irradiated at temperatures ranging from 320 to 1900K with a fluence of about 2.5.10{sup 22}nvt (E {ge} 0.18 MeV) are represented. In order to ensure a long-time serviceability of the VGM - reactor blocks the high-strength graphite of {Gamma}p-1 grade are developed. The properties and its irradiation changes of {Gamma}p-1 graphite are represented. A secondary swelling of the graphite develops similar to the swelling of metals, alloys and high-melting compounds.

  13. Nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.; Tubb, David J.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility is investigated of using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) for slow freighter ships traveling from a 500 km low Earth orbit (LEO) to the Moon's orbit about the Earth, and on to Mars. NEP is also shown to be feasible for transporting people to Mars on long conjunction-class missions lasting about nine months one way, and on short sprint missions lasting four months one way. Generally, it was not attempted to optimize ion exhaust velocities, but rather suitable parameters to demonstrate NEP feasibility were chosen. Various combinations of missions are compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTR) systems. Typically, NEP and NTR can accomplish the same lifting task with similar mass in LEO. When compared to chemical propulsion, NEP was found to accomplish the same missions with 40% less mass in LEO. These findings are sufficiently encouraging as to merit further studies with optimum systems.

  14. Military nuclear waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    A National Research Council (NRC) panel has endorsed a plan for a proposed underground military nuclear waste disposal facility located on a site near Carlsbad, N.M. The Department of Energy (DOE) asked NRC to evaluate the geologic suitability of the site.The NRC panel, chaired by Frank L. Parker of Vanderbilt University, concluded in its final report that “the important issues about the geology of the site have been resolved…” Those issues include the purity and volume of salt, the absence of brine pockets at the repository horizon in the areas excavated, the absence of breccia pipes and of toxic gases, and the nearly horizontal bedding of the salt. Thick underground salt beds have long been considered prime candidates for nuclear waste repositories. The existence of salt beds is believed to indicate long-term stability. In addition, the salt is flexible and will seal cracks and discontinuities over time.

  15. Nuclear functions of prefoldin

    PubMed Central

    Millán-Zambrano, Gonzalo; Chávez, Sebastián

    2014-01-01

    Prefoldin is a cochaperone, present in all eukaryotes, that cooperates with the chaperonin CCT. It is known mainly for its functional relevance in the cytoplasmic folding of actin and tubulin monomers during cytoskeleton assembly. However, both canonical and prefoldin-like subunits of this heterohexameric complex have also been found in the nucleus, and are functionally connected with nuclear processes in yeast and metazoa. Plant prefoldin has also been detected in the nucleus and physically associated with a gene regulator. In this review, we summarize the information available on the involvement of prefoldin in nuclear phenomena, place special emphasis on gene transcription, and discuss the possibility of a global coordination between gene regulation and cytoplasmic dynamics mediated by prefoldin. PMID:25008233

  16. (Theoretical nuclear physics)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report discussed the following topics: Consistent RHA-RPA for finite nuclei; vacuum polarization in a finite system; isovector correlations in QHD description of nuclear matter; nuclear response functions in quasielastic electron scattering; charge density differences for nuclei near {sup 208}Pb in quantum hadro-dynamics; excitation of the 10.957 MeV 0{sup {minus}}; T=0 state in {sup 16}O by 400 MeV protons; deformed chiral nucleons; new basis for exact vacuum calculations in 3-spatial dimensions; second order processes in the (e,e{prime}d) reaction; scalar and vector contributions to {bar p}p {yields} {bar {Lambda}}{Lambda} and {bar p}p {yields} {bar {Lambda}}{Sigma}{sup 0} + c.c; and radiative capture of protons by light nuclei at low energies.

  17. Rutherford's Nuclear Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heibron, John

    2011-04-01

    Rutherford's nuclear model originally was a theory of scattering that represented both the incoming alpha particles and their targets as point charges. The assumption that the apha particle, which Rutherford knew to be a doubly ionized helium atom, was a bare nucleus, and the associated assumption that the electronic structure of the atom played no significant role in large-angle scattering, had immediate and profound consequences well beyond the special problem for which Rutherford introduced them. The group around him in Manchester in 1911/12, which included Niels Bohr, Charles Darwin, Georg von Hevesy, and Henry Moseley, worked out some of these consequences. Their elucidation of radioactivity, isotopy, atomic number, and quantization marked an epoch in microphysics. Rutherford's nuclear model was exemplary not only for its fertility and picturability, but also for its radical simplicity. The lecturer will not undertake to answer the baffling question why such simple models work.

  18. Topics in Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2011-11-04

    The 104 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of 'significant events' since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and some designers are taking a second look at the economies of smaller, modular reactors.

  19. Traceability in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Brian E.; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    Accurate, reproducible measurement of radioactivity in nuclear medicine applications is vital to ensure the safety and effectiveness of disease diagnosis and treatment using unsealed radioactive sources. The need to maintain a high degree of confidence in those measurements requires that they be carried out so as to be traceable to national and international standards. In addition, measurement traceability for radioactivity in medicine helps ensure international consistency in measurement at all levels of practice (national measurement laboratories, research institutions, isotope producers, radiopharmaceutical manufacturers and clinics). This paper explores the importance of radioactivity measurement in nuclear medicine and demonstrates how traceability can be extended from international standards to the quantity of the drug administered to the patient.

  20. Topics in Nuclear Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2011-11-01

    The 104 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and some designers are taking a second look at the economies of smaller, modular reactors.