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Sample records for central oklahoma aquifer

  1. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma Aquifer in central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, D.L.; Christenson, S.C.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export files The data sets in this report include digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of Cleveland, Lincoln, Logan, Oklahoma, Payne, and Pottawatomie Counties. The Central Oklahoma aquifer includes the alluvial and terrace deposits along major streams, the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. The Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits consist of unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The Permian-age Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations consist of sandstone with interbedded siltstone and mudstone. The Permian-age Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups consist of sandstone, shale, and thin limestone. The Central Oklahoma aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma where the aquifer is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. Most of the usable ground water within the aquifer is from the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations. Substantial quantities of usable ground water also are present in the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, and in alluvial and terrace deposits associated with the major streams. The aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity and recharge values, and ground-water level elevation contours are from previously published reports.

  2. Potentiometric surface in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer, Oklahoma, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Magers, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    A study of the hydrogeology of the Central Oklahoma aquifer was started in 2008 to provide the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) hydrogeologic data and a groundwater flow model that can be used as a tool to help manage the aquifer. The 1973 Oklahoma water law requires the OWRB to do hydrologic investigations of Oklahoma's aquifers (termed 'groundwater basins') and to determine amounts of water that may be withdrawn by permitted water users. 'Maximum annual yield' is a term used by OWRB to describe the total amount of water that can be withdrawn from a specific aquifer in any year while allowing a minimum 20-year life of the basin (Oklahoma Water Resources Board, 2010). Currently (2010), the maximum annual yield has not been determined for the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Until the maximum annual yield determination is made, water users are issued a temporary permit by the OWRB for 2 acre-feet/acre per year. The objective of the study, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, was to study the hydrogeology of the Central Oklahoma aquifer to provide information that will enable the OWRB to determine the maximum annual yield of the aquifer based on different proposed management plans. Groundwater flow models are typically used by the OWRB as a tool to help determine the maximum annual yield. This report presents the potentiometric surface of the Central Oklahoma aquifer based on water-level data collected in 2009 as part of the current (2010) hydrologic study. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-724 by Christenson and others (1992) presents the 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map. This 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map was made as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment pilot project for the Central Oklahoma aquifer that examined the geochemical and hydrogeological processes operating in the aquifer. An attempt was made to obtain water-level measurements for the 2009 potentiometric-surface map from the wells

  3. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. The program, known as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a variety of water-quality issues. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three ground-water pilot projects that have been started. The NAWQA program also incudes four surface-water pilot projects. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project, as part of the pilot NAWQA program, will develop and test methods for performing assessments of ground-water quality. The objectives of the Central Oklahoma aquifer assessment are: (1) To investigate regional ground-water quality throughout the aquifer in the manner consistent with the other pilot ground-water projects, emphasizing the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic substances in ground water, including trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive constituents; (2) to describe relations between ground-water quality, land use, hydrogeology, and other pertinent factors; and (3) to provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected prevalent water-quality problems within the study unit; and (4) to describe the potential for water-quality degradation of ground-water zones within the study unit. The Central Oklahoma aquifer, which includes in descending order the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, the Chase Group, the Council Grove Group, the Admire Group, and overlying alluvium and terrace deposits, underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma and is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. The aquifer was selected for study by the NAWQA program because it is a major source for water supplies in central Oklahoma and because it has several known or suspected water-quality problems. Known problems include concentrations of arsenic, chromium

  4. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; geochemical and geohydrologic investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, D.L.; Christenson, S.C.; Breit, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment pilot project for the Central Oklahoma aquifer examined the chemical and isotopic composition of ground water, the abundances and textures of minerals in core samples, and water levels and hydraulic properties in the flow system to identify geochemical reactions occurring in the aquifer and rates and directions of ground-water flow. The aquifer underlies 3,000\\x11square miles of central Oklahoma and consists of Permian red beds, including parts of the Permian Garber Sandstone, Wellington Formation, and Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, and Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits. In the part of the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that is not confined by the Permian Hennessey Group, calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are the dominant ions in ground water; in the confined part of the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation and in the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, sodium and bicarbonate are the dominant ions in ground water. Nearly all of the Central Oklahoma aquifer has an oxic or post-oxic environment as indicated by the large dissolved concentrations of oxygen, nitrate, arsenic (V), chromium (VI), selenium (VI), vanadium, and uranium. Sulfidic and methanic environments are virtually absent. Petrographic textures indicate dolomite, calcite, sodic plagioclase, potassium feldspars, chlorite, rock fragments, and micas are dissolving, and iron oxides, manganese oxides, kaolinite, and quartz are precipitating. Variations in the quantity of exchangeable sodium in clays indicate that cation exchange is occurring within the aquifer. Gypsum may dissolve locally within the aquifer, as indicated by ground water with large concentrations of sulfate, but gypsum was not observed in core samples. Rainwater is not a major source for most elements in ground water, but evapotranspiration could cause rainwater to be a significant source of potassium, sulfate, phosphate and nitrogen species. Brines derived from

  5. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) Aquifer, Oklahoma, 1987 to 2009, and simulation of available water in storage, 2010-2059

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Ryter, Derek; Neel, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Magers, Jessica S.

    2014-01-01

    The Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma. The study area for this investigation was the extent of the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Water from the Central Oklahoma aquifer is used for public, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supply. With the exception of Oklahoma City, all of the major communities in central Oklahoma rely either solely or partly on groundwater from this aquifer. The Oklahoma City metropolitan area, incorporating parts of Canadian, Cleveland, Grady, Lincoln, Logan, McClain, and Oklahoma Counties, has a population of approximately 1.2 million people. As areas are developed for groundwater supply, increased groundwater withdrawals may result in decreases in long-term aquifer storage. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, investigated the hydrogeology and simulated groundwater flow in the aquifer using a numerical groundwater-flow model. The purpose of this report is to describe an investigation of the Central Oklahoma aquifer that included analyses of the hydrogeology, hydrogeologic framework of the aquifer, and construction of a numerical groundwater-flow model. The groundwater-flow model was used to simulate groundwater levels and for water-budget analysis. A calibrated transient model was used to evaluate changes in groundwater storage associated with increased future water demands.

  6. Three-dimensional geologic model of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Pantea, Michael P.; Puckette, James O.; Halihan, Todd; Osborn, Noel; Christenson, Scott; Pack, Skip

    2010-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer of south-central Oklahoma encompasses more than 850 square kilometers and is the principal water resource for south-central Oklahoma. Rock units comprising the aquifer are characterized by limestone, dolomite, and sandstones assigned to two lower Paleozoic units: the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups. Also considered to be part of the aquifer is the underlying Cambrian-age Timbered Hills Group that contains limestone and sandstone. The highly faulted and fractured nature of the Arbuckle-Simpson units and the variable thickness (600 to 2,750 meters) increases the complexity in determining the subsurface geologic framework of this aquifer. A three-dimensional EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model was constructed to quantify the geometric relationships of the rock units of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in the Hunton anticline area. This 3-D EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model incorporates 54 faults and four modeled units: basement, Arbuckle-Timbered Hills Group, Simpson Group, and post-Simpson. Primary data used to define the model's 54 faults and four modeled surfaces were obtained from geophysical logs, cores, and cuttings from 126 water and petroleum wells. The 3-D framework model both depicts the volumetric extent of the aquifer and provides the stratigraphic layer thickness and elevation data used to construct a MODFLOW version 2000 regional groundwater-flow model.

  7. Review of the general geology and solid-phase geochemical studies in the vicinity of the Central Oklahoma aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosier, Elwin L.; Bullock, John H.

    1988-01-01

    The Central Oklahoma aquifer is the principal source of ground water for municipal, industrial, and rural use in central Oklahoma. Ground water in the aquifer is contained in consolidated sedimentary rocks consisting of the Admire, Council Grove, and Chase Groups, Wellington Formation, and Garber Sandstone and in the unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits that occur along the major stream systems in the study area. The Garber Sandstone and the Wellington Formation comprise the main flow system and, as such, the aquifer is often referred to as the 'Garber-Wellington aquifer.' The consolidated sedimentary rocks consist of interbedded lenticular sandstone, shale, and siltstone beds deposited in similar deltaic environments in early Permian time. Arsenic, chromium, and selenium are found in the ground water of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in concentrations that, in places, exceed the primary drinking-water standards of the Environmental Protection Agency. Gross-alpha concentrations also exceed the primary standards in some wells, and uranium concentrations are uncommonly high in places. As a prerequisite to a surface and subsurface solid-phase geochemical study, this report summarizes the general geology of the Central Oklahoma study area. Summaries of results from certain previously reported solid-phase geochemical studies that relate to the vicinity of the Central Oklahoma aquifer are also given; including a summary of the analytical results and distribution plots for arsenic, selenium, chromium, thorium, uranium, copper, and barium from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program.

  8. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an important source of water that underlies about 2,320-square miles of parts of Osage, Pawnee, Payne, Creek, Lincoln, Okfuskee, and Seminole Counties. Approximately 75 percent of the water withdrawn from the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is for municipal use. Rural domestic use and water for stock animals account for most of the remaining water withdrawn. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is defined in a ground-water report as consisting principally of the rocks of the Late Pennsylvanian-age Vamoosa Formation and overlying Ada Group. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer consists of a complex sequence of fine- to very fine-grained sandstone, siltstone, shale, and conglomerate interbedded with very thin limestones. The water-yielding capabilities of the aquifer are generally controlled by lateral and vertical distribution of the sandstone beds and their physical characteristics. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is unconfined where it outcrops in about an 1,700-square-mile area. Most of the lines in the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were extracted from published digital surficial geology data sets based on a scale of 1:250,000, and represent geologic contacts. Some of lines in the data sets were interpolated in areas where the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits near streams and rivers. These data sets include only the outcrop area of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer and where the aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits. The hydraulic conductivity value and recharge rate are from a ground-water report about the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer. The water-level elevation contours were digitized from a mylar map, at a scale of 1:250,000, used to publish a plate in a ground-water report about the Vamoosa

  9. Relation of Shallow Water Quality in the Central Oklahoma Aquifer to Geology, Soils, and Land Use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, Alan H.; Christenson, Scott C.; Andrews, William J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify, describe, and explain relations between natural and land-use factors and ground-water quality in the Central Oklahoma aquifer NAWQA study unit. Natural factors compared to water quality included the geologic unit in which the sampled wells were completed and the properties of soils in the areas surrounding the wells. Land-use factors included types of land use and population densities surrounding sampled wells. Ground-water quality was characterized by concentrations of inorganic constituents, and by frequencies of detection of volatile organic compounds and pesticides. Water-quality data were from samples collected from wells 91 meters (300 feet) or less in depth as part of Permian and Quaternary geologic unit survey networks and from an urban survey network. Concentrations of many inorganic constituents were significantly related to geology. In addition, concentrations of many inorganic constituents were greater in water from wells from the Oklahoma City urban sampling network than in water from wells from low-density survey networks designed to evaluate ambient water quality in the Central Oklahoma aquifer study unit. However, sampling bias may have been induced by differences in hydrogeologic factors between sampling networks, limiting the ability to determine land-use effects on concentrations of inorganic constituents. Frequencies of detection of pesticide and volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in ground-water samples were related to land use and population density, with these compounds being more frequently detected in densely-populated areas. Geology and soil properties were not significantly correlated to pesticide or VOC occurrence in ground water. Lesser frequencies of detection of pesticides in water from wells in rural areas may be due to low to moderate use of those compounds on agricultural lands in the study unit, with livestock production being the primary agricultural activity. There are many possible

  10. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott; Osborn, Noel I.; Neel, Christopher R.; Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Puckette, James; Pantea, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater in the aquifer moves from areas of high head (altitude) to areas of low head along streams and springs. The potentiometric surface in the eastern Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer generally slopes from a topographic high from northwest to the southeast, indicating that regional groundwater flow is predominantly toward the southeast. Freshwater is known to extend beyond the aquifer outcrop near the City of Sulphur, Oklahoma, and Chickasaw National Recreation Area, where groundwater flows west from the outcrop of the eastern Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer and becomes confin

  11. Geochemical Investigation of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, South-Central Oklahoma, 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott; Hunt, Andrew G.; Parkhurst, David L.

    2009-01-01

    A geochemical reconnaissance investigation of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma was initiated in 2004 to characterize the ground-water quality at an aquifer scale, to describe the chemical evolution of ground water as it flows from recharge areas to discharge in wells and springs, and to determine the residence time of ground water in the aquifer. Thirty-six water samples were collected from 32 wells and springs distributed across the aquifer for chemical analysis of major ions, trace elements, isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, dissolved gases, and age-dating tracers. In general, the waters from wells and springs in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer are chemically suitable for all regulated uses, such as public supplies. Dissolved solids concentrations are low, with a median of 347 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Two domestic wells produced water with nitrate concentrations that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's nitrate maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 mg/L. Samples from two wells in the confined part of the aquifer exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) for chloride of 250 mg/L and the SMCL of 500 mg/L for dissolved solids. Water samples from these two wells are not representative of water samples from the other wells and springs completed in the unconfined part of the aquifer. No other water samples from the Arbuckle-Simpson geochemical reconnaissance exceeded MCLs or SMCLs, although not every chemical constituent for which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established a MCL or SMCL was analyzed as part of the Arbuckle-Simpson geochemical investigation. The major ion chemistry of 34 of the 36 samples indicates the water is a calcium bicarbonate or calcium magnesium bicarbonate water type. Calcium bicarbonate water type is found in the western part of the aquifer, which is predominantly limestone. Calcium magnesium bicarbonate water is found in the eastern part of the aquifer, which is predominantly a

  12. Chemical analysis of water samples and geophysical logs from cored test holes drilled in the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Funkhouser, Ron A.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from eight test holes and geophysical logs for nine test holes drilled in the Central Oklahoma aquifer are presented. The test holes were drilled to investigate local occurrences of potentially toxic, naturally occurring trace substances in ground water. These trace substances include arsenic, chromium, selenium, residual alpha-particle activities, and uranium. Eight of the nine test holes were drilled near wells known to contain large concentrations of one or more of the naturally occurring trace substances. One test hole was drilled in an area known to have only small concentrations of any of the naturally occurring trace substances. Water samples were collected from one to eight individual sandstone layers within each test hole. A total of 28 water samples, including four duplicate samples, were collected. The temperature, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured at the sample site. Laboratory determinations included major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, vanadium, and zinc). Radionuclide activities and stable isotope d values also were determined, including: gross-alpha-particle activity, gross-beta-particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, uranium-234, uranium-235, uranium-238, total uranium, carbon-13/carbon-12, deuterium/hydrogen-1, oxygen-18/oxygen-16, and sulfur-34/sulfur-32. Additional analyses of arsenic and selenium species are presented for selected samples as well as analyses of density and iodine for two samples, tritium for three samples, and carbon-14 for one sample. Geophysical logs for most test holes include caliper, neutron, gamma-gamma, natural-gamma logs, spontaneous potential, long- and short-normal resistivity, and single-point resistance

  13. Vertical gradients in water chemistry in the central High Plains aquifer, southwestern Kansas and Oklahoma panhandle, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2001-01-01

    The central High Plains aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic, industrial, and irrigation uses in parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Water-level declines of more than 100 feet in some areas of the aquifer have increased the demand for water deeper in the aquifer. The maximum saturated thickness of the aquifer ranged from 500 to 600 feet in 1999. As the demand for deeper water increases, it becomes increasingly important for resource managers to understand how the quality of water in the aquifer changes with depth. In 1998?99, 18 monitoring wells at nine sites in southwestern Kansas and the Oklahoma Panhandle were completed at various depths in the central High Plains aquifer, and one monitoring well was completed in sediments of Permian age underlying the aquifer. Water samples were collected once from each well in 1999 to measure vertical gradients in water chemistry in the aquifer. Tritium concentrations measured in ground water indicate that water samples collected in the upper 30 feet of the aquifer were generally recharged within the last 50 years, whereas all of the water samples collected at depths more than 30 feet below the water table were recharged more than 50 years ago. Dissolved oxygen was present throughout the aquifer, with concentrations ranging from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/L. Water in the central High Plains aquifer was predominantly a calcium-bicarbonate type that exhibited little variability in concentrations of dissolved solids with depth (290 to 642 mg/L). Exceptions occurred in some areas where there had been upward movement of mineralized water from underlying sediments of Permian age and areas where there had been downward movement of mineralized Arkansas River water to the aquifer. Calcium-sulfate and sodium-chloride waters dominated and concentrations of dissolved solids were elevated (862 to 4,030 mg/L) near the base of the aquifer in the areas of upward leakage. Dissolution of gypsum or anhydrite and halite

  14. SUBSURFACE WELL-LOG CORRELATION OF ARSENIC-BEARING LITHOFACIES IN THE PERMIAN GARBER SANDSTONE AND WELLINGTON FORMATION, CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA), CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fluvial Garber Sandstone and the underlying Wellington Formation are important sources of drinking water in central Oklahoma. These formations, which make up much of the COA, consist of amalgamated sandstones with some interbedded mudstones, siltstones, and local mudstone- a...

  15. Comparison of ground-water quality in samples from selected shallow and deep wells in the central Oklahoma aquifer, 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    The aquifer units of the Central Oklahoma aquifer underlie about 2,890 square miles of central Oklahoma and are used extensively to supply water for municipal, domestic, industrial, and agricultural needs. The Central Oklahoma aquifer also is commonly referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer because the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation yield the greatest quantities of usable water for domestic and high-capacity wells. The major water-quality concerns for the Central Oklahoma aquifer described by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program (1987 to 1992) were elevated concentrations of nitrate nitrogen in shallow water and the occurrence of arsenic, chromium, and selenium in parts of the aquifer. The quality of water from deep public-water supply wells in the Central Oklahoma aquifer is monitored by the State of Oklahoma. The chemical quality of water from shallow domestic wells is not monitored, and, therefore, there is a concern that well owners may be unknowingly ingesting water with nitrate nitrogen, arsenic, chromium, selenium, and other chemical constituents at concentrations that are considered harmful. As a result of this concern, the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Geological Survey collaborated on a study to sample water during June 2003 through August 2005 from 23 shallow wells (less than 200 feet in depth) and 28 deep wells (200 feet or greater in depth) completed in the bedrock aquifer units of the Central Oklahoma aquifer. The objectives of the study were to describe the chemical quality of water from shallow and deep wells and to determine if the differences in constituent concentrations are statistically significant. Water from shallow wells had significantly higher concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, and nitrate nitrogen than water from deep wells. There were no significant differences between concentrations of dissolved solids, sodium, and fluoride in

  16. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, G.P.; Runkle, Donna; Rea, Alan; Becker, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma. Ground water in 710 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer, composed of alluvial and terrace deposits, consists of sand, silt, clay, and gravel. The aquifer is underlain and in hydraulic connection with the upper zone of the Permian-age Garber-Wellington aquifer and the Pennsylvanian-age Ada-Vamoosa aquifer. Most of the lines in the four digital data sets were digitized from a published ground-water modeling report but portions of the aquifer boundary data set was extracted from published digital geologic data sets. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  17. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma aquifer, Oklahoma; hydrologic, water-quality, and quality-assurance data 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferree, D.M.; Christenson, S.C.; Rea, A.H.; Mesander, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents data collected from 202 wells between June 1987 and September 1990 as part of the Central Oklahoma aquifer pilot study of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The report describes the sampling networks, the sampling procedures, and the results of the ground-water quality and quality-assurance sample analyses. The data tables consist of information about the wells sampled and the results of the chemical analyses of ground water and quality-assurance sampling. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples in four sampling networks are presented: A geochemical network, a low-density survey bedrock network, a low-density survey alluvium and terrace deposits network, and a targeted urban network. The analyses generally included physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace substances, radionuclides, and organic constituents. The chemical analyses of the ground-water samples are presented in five tables: (1) Physical properties and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, and trace substances; (2) concentrations of radionuclides and radioactivities; (3) carbon isotope ratios and delta values (d-values) of selected isotopes; (4) concentrations of organic constituents; and (5) organic constituents not reported in ground-water samples. The quality of the ground water sampled varied substantially. The sum of constituents (dissolved solids) concentrations ranged from 71 to 5,610 milligrams per liter, with 38 percent of the wells sampled exceeding the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level of 500 milligrams per liter established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Values of pH ranged from 5.7 to 9.2 units with 20 percent of the wells outside the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level of 6.5 to 8.5 units. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.1 to 85 milligrams per liter with 8 percent of the wells exceeding the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of trace substances were highly variable

  18. Geohydrology of the Antlers aquifer (Cretaceous), southeastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Donald L.; Davis, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    The Antlers aquifer, which consists of as much as 900 feet of friable sandstone, silt, clay, and shale, crops out in an area of 1,860 square miles and underlies about 4,400 square miles in southeastern Oklahoma. Precipitation ranges from 35 to 50 inches per year across the outcrop area, which is well suited to allow high rates of infiltration. The aquifer contains an estimated 31,600,000 acre-feet of water having less than 1,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. The average saturated sand thickness is 250 feet. Aquifer tests in the confined part of the aquifer give an average storage coefficient of 0.0005 and an average transmissivity of 1,480 feet squared per day. The estimated specific yield of the unconfined part of the aquifer is 0.15; the transmissivity has not been determined. Large-capacity wells tapping the aquifer commonly yield 100 to 500 gallons per minute; the maximum measured yield is 1,700 gallons per minute. Water usage from the aquifer is very small owing to the availability of an abundance of surface water. Water quality throughout the central and northern part of the aquifer is generally acceptable for municipal use. A few wells, however, yield water containing concentrations of iron and manganese exceeding the limit recommended for municipal use by the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering (1972).

  19. OUTCROP-BASED HIGH RESOLUTION GAMMA-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF ARSENIC-BEARING LITHOFACIES IN THE PERMIAN GARBER SANDSTONE AND WELLINGTON FORMATION, CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA). CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The COA supplies drinking water to a number of municipalities in central Oklahoma. Two major stratigraphic units in the COA, the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, contain naturally occurring arsenic that exceeds government mandated drinking-water standards (EPA, 2001). ...

  20. Ground-water quality in the Central High Plains Aquifer, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Mark F.; Bruce, Breton W.; Pope, Larry M.; Andrews, William J.

    2002-01-01

    A network of 74 randomly distributed domestic water-supply wells completed in the central High Plains aquifer was sampled and analyzed from April to August 1999 as part of the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program to provide a broad-scale assessment of the ground-water-quality in this part of the High Plains aquifer. Water properties were relatively consistent across the aquifer, with water being alkaline and well oxidized. Water was mostly of the calcium and magnesium-bicarbonate type and very hard. Sulfate concentrations in water from three wells and chloride concentration in water from one well exceeded Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels. Fluoride concentration was equal to the Maximum Contaminant Level in one sample. Nitrate concentrations was relatively small in most samples, with the median concentration of 2.3 milligrams per liter. Dissolved organic carbon concentration was relatively low, with a median concentration of 0.5 milligram per liter. The Maximum Contaminant Level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for nitrate as nitrogen of 10 milligrams per liter was exceeded by water samples from three wells. Most samples contained detectable concentrations of the trace elements aluminum, arsenic, barium, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, zinc, and uranium. Only a few samples had trace element concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels. Fifty-five of the samples had radon concentrations exceeding the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level of 300 picocuries per liter. The greatest radon concentrations were detected where the Ogallala Formation overlies sandstones, shales and limestones of Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous age. Volatile organic compounds were detected in 9 of 74 samples. Toluene was detected in eight of those nine samples. All volatile organic compound concentrations were substantially less than Maximum Contaminant Levels. Detections of toluene

  1. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow and analysis of projected water use for the Canadian River alluvial aquifer, western and central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, John H.; Mashburn, Shana L.; Graves, Grant M.; Peterson, Steven M.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Fuhrig, Leland T.; Wagner, Derrick L.; Sanford, Jon E.

    2017-02-13

    This report describes a study of the hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow for the Canadian River alluvial aquifer in western and central Oklahoma conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The report (1) quantifies the groundwater resources of the Canadian River alluvial aquifer by developing a conceptual model, (2) summarizes the general water quality of the Canadian River alluvial aquifer groundwater by using data collected during August and September 2013, (3) evaluates the effects of estimated equal proportionate share (EPS) on aquifer storage and streamflow for time periods of 20, 40, and 50 years into the future by using numerical groundwater-flow models, and (4) evaluates the effects of present-day groundwater pumping over a 50-year period and sustained hypothetical drought conditions over a 10-year period on stream base flow and groundwater in storage by using numerical flow models. The Canadian River alluvial aquifer is a Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace unit consisting of beds of clay, silt, sand, and fine gravel sediments unconformably overlying Tertiary-, Permian-, and Pennsylvanian-age sedimentary rocks. For groundwater-flow modeling purposes, the Canadian River was divided into Reach I, extending from the Texas border to the Canadian River at the Bridgeport, Okla., streamgage (07228500), and Reach II, extending downstream from the Canadian River at the Bridgeport, Okla., streamgage (07228500), to the confluence of the river with Eufaula Lake. The Canadian River alluvial aquifer spans multiple climate divisions, ranging from semiarid in the west to humid subtropical in the east. The average annual precipitation in the study area from 1896 to 2014 was 34.4 inches per year (in/yr).A hydrogeologic framework of the Canadian River alluvial aquifer was developed that includes the areal and vertical extent of the aquifer and the distribution, texture variability, and hydraulic properties of

  2. Geohydrology of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer east-central Oklahoma with a section on chemical quality of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Lugosz, Joseph J.; McClaflin, Roger G.; Marcher, Melvin V.

    1986-01-01

    The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer, which underlies an area of about 2,320 mi2, consists principally of the Vamoosa Formation and the overlying Ada Group of Pennsylvanian age. Rocks comprising the aquifer were deposited in a nearshore environment ranging from marine on the west to nonmarine on the east. Because of changes in depositional environments with time and from place to place, the aquifer is a complex sequence of fine- to very fine-grained sandstone, siltstone, shale, and conglomerate, with interbedded very thin limestone. The aggregate thickness of water-bearing sandstones is greatest south of the Cimarron River, where it reaches a maximum of 550 ft in the vicinity of Seminole. North of the Cimarron River, the average aggregate thickness of the sandstones is about 100 ft, but locally it may be as much as 200 ft. Transmissivity values derived from seven aquifer tests made for this study range from 70 to 490 ft2 per day; values decrease from south to north with decreasing sandstone thickness. Hydraulic-conductivity values range from 2 to 4 ft per day. Storage coefficients for the confined part of the aquifer, as determined from four aquifer tests made during 1944, have an average value of 0.0002. The average storage coefficient for the unconfined part of the aquifer is estimated at 0.12, based on an analysis of geophysical logs and grain-size data. The specific capacity of wells tested is generally less than 1 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown. An approximate hydrologic budget for the aquifer for 1975 gives values, in acre-feet per year, of 93,000 for recharge, 233,000 for runoff, and 2,003,000 for evapotranspiration. The total of these values is almost equal to the average annual precipitation of 2,330,000 acre-ft per year. The estimated amount of water containing a maximum of 1,500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids stored in the aquifer is estimated at 60 million acre-ft. Of this amount, an estimated 36 million acre-ft is available for use. The quality of

  3. Water Flow in the High Plains Aquifer in Northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luckey, Richard R.; Osborn, Noel I.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.

    2000-01-01

    The High Plains is a major agricultural area, supported primarily by water from the High Plains aquifer, which is used to irrigate wheat and corn and to raise cattle and swine. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) began a study of the High Plains aquifer in 1996. One purpose of the study was to develop a ground-water flow model that the OWRB could use to allocate the amount of water withdrawn from the a aquifer. The study area in Oklahoma covers all or parts of Beaver, Cimarron, Dewey, Ellis, Harper, Texas, and Woodward Counties. To provide appropriate hydrologic boundaries for the ground-water flow model, the study area was expanded to include parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas.

  4. Groundwater quality and water-well characteristics in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 1948--2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, compiled historical groundwater-quality data collected from 1948 to 2011 and water-well completion information in parts of Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties in central Oklahoma to support the development of a comprehensive water-management plan for the Tribe’s jurisdictional area. In this study, water-quality data from 155 water wells, collected from 1948 to 2011, were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database; these data include measurements of pH, specific conductance, and hardness and concentrations of the major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides that have Maximum Contaminant Levels or Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels in public drinking-water supplies. Information about well characteristics includes ranges of well yield and well depth of private water wells in the study area and was compiled from the Oklahoma Water Resources Board Multi-Purpose Well Completion Report database. This report also shows depth to water from land surface by using shaded 30-foot contours that were created by using a geographic information system and spatial layers of a 2009 potentiometric surface (groundwater elevation) and land-surface elevation. Wells in the study area produce water from the North Canadian River alluvial and terrace aquifers, the underlying Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that compose the Garber–Wellington aquifer, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. Water quality varies substantially between the alluvial and terrace aquifers and bedrock aquifers in the study area. Water from the alluvial aquifer has relatively high concentrations of dissolved solids and generally is used for livestock only, whereas water from the terrace aquifer has low concentrations of dissolved solids and is used extensively by households in the study area. Water from the bedrock aquifer also is used extensively by

  5. Geohydrology and water quality of the Roubidoux Aquifer, northeastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.; Fairchild, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer is an important source of freshwater for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts in northeastern Oklahoma. Ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer in 1981 were estimated to be 4.8 million gallons per day, of which about 90 percent was withdrawn in Ottawa County. Wells drilled at the beginning of the 20th century originally flowed at the land surface, but in 1981 water levels ranged from 22 to 471 feet below land surface. A large cone of depression has formed as a result of ground water withdrawals near Miami. Wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer have yields that range from about 100 to more than 1,000 gallons per minute. An aquifer test and a digital ground-water flow model were used to estimate aquifer and confining-layer hydraulic characteristics. Using these methods, the transmissivity of the aquifer was estimated to be within a range of 400 to 700 square feet per day. The leakance of the confining layer was determined to be within a range from 0 to 0.13 per day, with a best estimate value in a range from 4.3 x 10-8 to 7.7 x 10-8 per day. Analyses of water samples collected as part of this study and of water-quality data from earlier work indicate that a large areal change in major-ion chemistry occurs in ground water in the Roubidoux aquifer in northeastern Oklahoma. The ground water in the easternmost part of the study unit has relatively small dissolved-solids concentrations (less than 200 milligrams per liter) with calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as the major ions. Ground water in the westernmost part of the study unit has relatively large dissolved-solids concentrations (greater than 800 milligrams per liter) with sodium and chloride as the major ions. A transition zone of intermediate sodium, chloride, and dissolved-solids concentrations exists between the easternmost and westernmost parts of the study unit. Three water-quality problems are apparent in the Roubidoux aquifer in northeast Oklahoma: (1

  6. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files The data sets in this report include digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma. The Enid isolated terrace aquifer covers approximately 82 square miles and supplies water for irrigation, domestic, municipal, and industrial use for the City of Enid and western Garfield County. The Quaternary-age Enid isolated terrace aquifer is composed of terrace deposits that consist of discontinuous layers of clay, sandy clay, sand, and gravel. The aquifer is unconfined and is bounded by the underlying Permian-age Hennessey Group on the east and the Cedar Hills Sandstone Formation of the Permian-age El Reno Group on the west. The Cedar Hills Sandstone Formation fills a channel beneath the thickest section of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in the midwestern part of the aquifer. All of the data sets were digitized and created from information and maps in a ground-water modeling thesis and report of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer. The maps digitized were published at a scale of 1:62,500. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  7. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Elk City Aquifer in western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma. The aquifer covers an area of approximately 193,000 acres and supplies ground water for irrigation, domestic, and industrial purposes in Beckham, Custer, Roger Mills, and Washita Counties along the divide between the Washita and Red River basins. The Elk City aquifer consists of the Elk City Sandstone and overlying terrace deposits, made up of clay, silt, sand and gravel, and dune sands in the eastern part and sand and gravel of the Ogallala Formation (or High Plains aquifer) in the western part of the aquifer. The Elk City aquifer is unconfined and composed of very friable sandstone, lightly cemented with clay, calcite, gypsum, or iron oxide. Most of the grains are fine-sized quartz but the grain size ranges from clay to cobble in the aquifer. The Doxey Shale underlies the Elk City aquifer and acts as a confining unit, restricting the downward movement of ground water. All of the data sets were digitized and created from information and maps in a ground-water modeling thesis and report of the Elk City aquifer. The maps digitized were published at a scale of 1:63,360. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  8. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains Aquifer in western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle counties of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver, and the western counties of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills. The High Plains aquifer underlies approximately 7,000 square miles of Oklahoma and is used extensively for irrigation. The High Plains aquifer is a water-table aquifer and consists predominately of the Tertiary-age Ogallala Formation and overlying Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits. In some areas the aquifer is absent and the underlying Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous-age rocks are exposed at the surface. These rocks are hydraulically connected with the aquifer in some areas. The High Plains aquifer is composed of interbedded sand, siltstone, clay, gravel, thin limestones, and caliche. The proportion of various lithological materials changes rapidly from place to place, but poorly sorted sand and gravel predominate. The rocks are poorly to moderately well cemented by calcium carbonate. The aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were created by extracting geologic contact lines from published digital surficial geology maps based on a scale of 1:125,000 for the panhandle counties and 1:250,000 for the western counties. The water-level elevation contours and some boundary lines were digitized from maps in a published water-level elevation map for 1980 based on a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity and recharge values in this report were used as input to the ground-water flow model on the High Plains aquifer. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and

  9. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Rush Springs Aquifer in western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, D.L.; Becker, M.F.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Rush Spring aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of Blaine, Caddo, Canadian, Comanche, Custer, Dewey, Grady, Stephens, and Washita Counties. These digital data sets were developed by Mark F. Becker to use as input into a computer model that simulated ground-water flow in the Rush Springs aquifer (Mark F. Becker, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1997). For the purposes of modeling the ground-water flow in the Rush Springs aquifer, Mark F. Becker (written commun., 1997) defined the Rush Springs aquifer to include the Rush Springs Formation, alluvial and terrace deposits along major streams, and parts of the Marlow Formations, particularly in the eastern part of the aquifer boundary area. The Permian-age Rush Springs Formation consists of highly cross-bedded sandstone with some interbedded dolomite and gypsum. The Rush Springs Formation is overlain by Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits that consist of unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The Rush Springs Formation is underlain by the Permian-age Marlow Formation that consists of interbedded sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, gypsum-anhydrite, and dolomite beds (Mark F. Becker, written commun., 1997). The parts of the Marlow Formation that have high permeability and porosity are where the Marlow Formation is included as part of the Rush Springs aquifer. The Rush Springs aquifer underlies about 2,400 square miles of western Oklahoma and is an important source of water for irrigation, livestock, industrial, municipal, and domestic use. Irrigation wells are reported to have well yields greater than 1,000 gallons per minute (Mark F. Becker, written commun., 1997). Mark F. Becker created some of the aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets by digitizing parts of previously published surficial geology

  10. Numerical simulation of the alluvium and terrace aquifer along the North Canadian River from Canton Lake to Lake Overholser, central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Alluvium and terrace deposits of Quaternary age, which cover an area of about 400 square miles along the North Canadian River between Canton Lake and Lake Overholser, locally yield as much as 500 gallons per minute to wells. The deposits are as much as 100 feet thick and consist of clay, silt, sand, and gravel, with sand-sized material dominating. The underlying bedrock is Permian sandstone and shale. The amount of water stored in the aquifer during 1980 was estimated to be 4.00 x 1010 cubic feet. A digital model was used to estimate the ability of the aquifer to continue to supply water for irrigation, industry, and domestic use. A block-centered, finite-difference model with 1 mile node spacing was used to project the amount and distribution of water in the aquifer in the future. The model was calibrated using the aquifer discharge to the North Canadian River and the difference between computed and measured heads. The model was calibrated using recharge rate of 1 inch per year, a horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 4.5 x 10 -4 feet per second and a specific yield of 0.16. Model simulations using the 1979 pumping rate, a projected pumping rate (based on expected increases in water use), and double the projected increase in pumping rate were made to 1993. With the 1979 pumping rate, the volume of water in storage in 1993 is 3.88 x 10 10 cubic feet and ground-water discharge to the North Canadian River is 10.9 cubic feet per second. With the projected pumping increase, the volume of water in storage is 3.81 x 1010 cubic feet and ground-water discharge to the stream is 6.91 cubic feet per second. At double the projected increase in pumping rate, the volume of water in storage is 3.74 x 1010 cubic feet and the ground-water discharge is 2.93 cubic feet per second.

  11. Parasitism of aphids in canola fields in central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter canola, Brassica napus L., production in Oklahoma has increased from essentially 0 ha in 2001 to 40,500 ha in 2011, and acreage is expected to continue to increase. Three aphid species typically infest canola fields in central Oklahoma, the turnip aphid Lypaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), the cab...

  12. Microgravity monitoring of recharge in a karst aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.A.; Ahern, J.L. . School of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-02-01

    Natural and artificial recharge of a shallow karst aquifer in Harmon County, Oklahoma, is being studied by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and the US Bureau of Reclamation. The aquifer, the Permian Blaine Formation, consists of interbedded gypsum, shale, and dolomite. It is the only significant fresh water aquifer developed in evaporite rocks in the USA. The Blaine Formation forms major cave systems locally and generally consists of an intricate network of caves, cavities, sinks, and dissolution-collapse structures affecting the five gypsum bed subunits. At the recharge-demonstration sites, the Blaine is roughly 200 feet thick. At each site, observations wells cluster about a central recharge well which injects rainfall runoff at the depth of maximum void space (approximately 100 to 200 feet) determining from drilling. Annual variation in water level is up to 50 feet. Local storms can cause a rise of several tens of feet in a few days and a gradual decrease over several weeks. This may lead to a regional increase in water table elevation near the recharge well ( mounding'), and localized filling of voids in the gypsum. Both of these effects are expected to cause changes in the local gravity field following a heavy rainfall. For example, the filling of a 5 meter radius cylindrical void at a depth of 25 meters would produce a 46 microgal anomaly, easily detectable by a microgravity meter after instrumental and tidal drift corrections are made. To look for these changes, microgravity profiles will be conducted across the recharge zones. If correlation of gravity with measured water levels and recharge volume is demonstrated, microgravity surveys may prove useful in siting recharge wells from surface measurements alone.

  13. Saturated thickness of the High Plains regional aquifer in 1980, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The 1980 saturated thickness of the High Plains regional aquifer in Oklahoma is shown for the eastern area (plate 1), consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties, and for the Panhandle area (plate 2), consisting of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties.

  14. A preliminary appraisal of the Garber-Wellington Aquifer, southern Logan and northern Oklahoma counties, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Jerry E.; Marcher, Melvin V.

    1977-01-01

    The Garber-Wellington aquifer, which dips westward at 30 to 40 feet per mile, consists of about 900 feet of interbedded sandstone, shale, and siltstone. Sandstone comprises 35 to 75 percent of the aquifer and averages about 50 percent. Water-table conditions generally exist in the upper 200 feet in the outcrop area of the aquifer; semi-artesian or artesian conditions exist below a depth of 200 feet and beneath rocks of the Hennessey Group (predominantly shale) where the aquifer is fully saturated. Water containing more than 1,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids occurs at various depths through the area. The altitude of the base of fresh water ranges from 250 feet above sea level in the south-central part of the area to 950 feet in the northwestern part. The thickness of the fresh-water zone ranges from less than 150 feet in the northern part of the area to about 850 feet in the southern part. The total amount of water stored in the fresh-water zone is estimated to be 21 million acre-feet based on specific yield of 0.20. Minimum recharge to the aquifer in 1975 is estimated to be 190 acre-feet per square mile or about 10 percent of the annual precipitation. Total minimum recharge to the aquifer in the study area in 1975 is estimated to be 129,000 acre-feet. Streams in the area are the principal means of ground-water discharge; the amount of discharge is essentially the same as recharge. The amount of groundwater used for municipal and rural water supply in 1975 is estimated to have been 5,000 acre-feet; a similar amount may have been used for industrial purposes. As a result of pumping, the potentiometric surface in 1975 had been lowered about 200 feet in the vicinity of Edmond and about 100 feet in the vicinity of Nichols Hills. Chemical analyses of water from the aquifer indicates that hardness is greater in the upper part of the aquifer than in the lower part, and that sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids increase with depth. Reported yields of wells more

  15. Water-level changes in the high plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma, predevelopment to 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The predevelopment to 1980 water-level changes in the High Plains regional aquifer in Oklahoma are shown for Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties, on the east, and for the Oklahoma Panhandle, consist- ing of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties, on the west. About 1,470 water-level measurements in the Panhandle were used in compiling the predevelopment water-table map (Havens, 1982c). In the remaining area to the east about 150 water-level measurements from the 1950's to the 1970's are representative of predevelopment water levels. For the 1980 water-table map, about 330 measurements were made in the Panhandle and about 350 measurements in the eastern area by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (Havens, 1982b).

  16. Generalized altitude and configuration of the base of the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1981-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. This report consists of two maps showing the altitude and configuration of the eroded pre-Ogallala bedrock surface (sheets 1 and 2) that forms the base of the aquifer. Bedrock slopes generally from west to east and is composed of rocks of Permian, Triassic-Jurassic, and Cretaceous age. The subcrop extent of these rocks is shown by Morton (1973) for Oklahoma and by Weeks and Gutentag (1981) for the entire High Plains study area. Altitudes of the aquifer base were determined from drillers' logs provided by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and from published and unpublished information in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. Where data were sparse, the total well depth was used as the aquifer base under the assumption that wells generally are not drilled very deep into non-water yielding bedrock.

  17. Altitude and configuration of the 1980 water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties (sheet 1), and for the Panhandle area, consisting of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties (sheet 2). Water levels were measured in January, February, and March 1980 by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board.

  18. Water type and concentration of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the Ozark aquifer in Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Davis, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    The Ozark aquifer is a thick sequence of water-bearing dolostone, limestone, and sandstone of latest Cambrian through Middle Devonian age that is widely used as a source of water throughout the Ozark Plateaus province (index map). The Ozark aquifer is the largest of three aquifers that form part of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. The aquifer was studied as part of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (CMRASA; Jorgensen and Signor, 1981), a study of regional aquifer systems in the midcontinent United States that includes parts of 10States. Because of its significance as a source of freshwater in parts of Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma, a subregional project was established to investigate the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in more detail than the regional study could provide.The geologic and hydrologic relation between the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and other regional aquifer systems of the Midwest is presented in Jorgensen and others (in press). The relation of the Ozark aquifer to the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system is explained in Imes [in press (a)]. A companion publication, Imes [1990 (b)], contains contour maps of the altitude of the top, thickness, and potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer. This report contains maps that show water type and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the Ozark aquifer. Most of the data from which these maps are compiled is stored in the CMRASA hydrochemical data base (R.B. Leonard, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1986). Data for Oklahoma were also taken from data published by Havens (1978). The maps in this report on the Ozark subregion may contain small differences from maps in other CMRASA publications because the criteria for data selection may be different and the subregional maps may contain additional data. However, regional trends in these maps are consistent with other maps published as part of the regional project.

  19. Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This digital data set represents the extent of the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The extent of the High Plains aquifer covers 174,000 square miles in eight states: Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This data set represents a compilation of information from digital and paper sources and personal communication. This boundary is an update to the boundary published in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, and this report supersedes Open-File Report 99-267. The purpose of this data set is to refine and update the extent of the High Plains aquifer based on currently available information. This data set represents a compilation of arcs from a variety of sources and scales that represent the 174,000 square-mile extent of the High Plains aquifer within the eight states. Where updated information was not available, the original boundary extent defined by OFR 99-267 was retained. The citations for the sources in each State are listed in the 00README.txt file. The boundary also contains internal polygons, or 'islands', that represent the areas within the aquifer boundary where the aquifer is not present due to erosion or non-deposition. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the U.S. Geological Survey's NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) Node, the links are provided on the sidebar.

  20. Effects of municipal ground-water withdrawals on the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, Pontotoc County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoca, M.E.; Bergman, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma consists of a thick sequence of folded and faulted carbonate and clastic rocks of Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age. Fractures and karst features locally increase the aquifer's capacity to transmit and store ground water. The aquifer is a principal source of water for municipal and rural users. A hydrologic study was conducted to evaluate the effects of municipal ground-water withdrawal from the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer on local ground-water levels and discharge from nearby springs and streams in south-central Pontotoc County. A municipal well was pumped for 63 hours at an average rate of 1,170 gallons per minute. A maximum observed drawdown of 0.3 feet was recorded half a mile from the pumping well. Drawdown was observed as far as 1.2 miles from the pumping well. No measurable response was observed at any of the surface-water-discharge measurement sites; however, recharge from precipitation may have masked any decreases in discharge caused by the pumping. Simultaneous pumping of two municipal wells for 241 hours at average rates of 1,170 and 2,730 gallons per minute resulted in a maximum observed drawdown of 1.3 feet recorded at an average distance of 0.80 miles from the pumping wells. The most distant drawdown observed was at an average distance 1.1 miles from the pumped wells. Less that 2 days after pumping stopped, increases in springflow were recorded at two springs; it is unknown whether these discharge responses reflect the effects of recharge from precipitation, or the combined effects of precipitation and the cessation of ground-water withdrawal. The effects of the stress tests on the hydrologic system were offset by recharge from concurrent precipitation. The maximum observed drawdown represents about 6 percent of the median natural water-level fluctuation during the study period. The effect of drawdown could become critical during extended periods of low precipitation, if water levels are

  1. Aquifer Tests and Characterization of Transmissivity, Ada-Vamoosa Aquifer on the Osage Reservation, Osage County, Oklahoma, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.; DeHay, Kelli

    2008-01-01

    The Ada-Vamoosa aquifer of northeastern Oklahoma is a sedimentary bedrock aquifer of Pennsylvanian age that crops out over 800 square miles of the Osage Reservation. The Osage Nation needed additional information regarding the production potential of the aquifer to aid them in future development planning. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Osage Nation, conducted a study of aquifer properties in the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer. This report presents the results of the aquifer tests from 20 wells in the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer and one well in a minor aquifer east of the Ada-Vamoosa outcrop on the Osage Reservation. Well information for 17 of the 21 wells in this report was obtained from the Indian Health Service. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during this investigation are pumping well data from four domestic wells collected during the summer of 2006. Transmissivity values were calculated from well pumping data or were estimated from specific capacity values depending on the reliability of the data. The estimated transmissivity values are 1.1 to 4.3 times greater than the calculated transmissivity values. The calculated and estimated transmissivity values range from 5 to 1,000 feet squared per day.

  2. Hydrologic data for the Antlers aquifer, southeastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Robert Ellis; Hart, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    The information in this report was obtained in the field, from published reports (Davis, 1960, Hart, 1974, Havens and Bergman, 1976), and from unpublished files of the U.S. Geological Survey. The stratigraphic nomenclature is that of the Oklahoma Geological Survey and does not necessarily agree with that of the U.S. Geological Survey. Acknowledgment is extended to the many individuals who have provided the data included in this report.

  3. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma. The Tillman terrace aquifer encompasses the unconsolidated terrace deposits and alluvium associated with the North Fork of the Red River and the Red River in the western half of Tillman County. These sediments consist of discontinuous layers of clay, sandy clay, sand, and gravel. The aquifer extends over an area of 285 square miles and is used for irrigation and domestic purposes. Granite and the Hennessey Formation outcrop in northern parts of the aquifer where alluvial deposits are absent. These outcrops were included as part of the aquifer in a thesis that modeled the ground-water flow in the aquifer. Most of the aquifer boundaries and some of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity and recharge data sets were extracted from a published digital surficial geology data set based on a scale of 1:250,000. Most of the lines in the hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and 1969 water-level elevation contour data sets, and one line in the aquifer boundary data set were digitized from a paper map published at a scale of 1:249,695 in a thesis in which the ground-water flow in the aquifer was modeled. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  4. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  5. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  6. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  7. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  8. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  9. Hydrogeologic data for the Blaine aquifer and associated units in southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, D.L.; Bergman, D.L.; Fabian, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    This report is a compilation of hydrogeologic data collected for an areal ground-water investigation of the Blaine aquifer and associated units in southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas. The study area includes parts of Greer, Harmon, and Jackson counties in Oklahoma and parts of Childress, Collingsworth, Hall, Hardeman, and Wilbarger counties in Texas. The Blaine aquifer consists of cavernous gypsum and dolomite beds. Water from the Blaine aquifer supports a local agriculture based mainly on irrigated cotton and wheat. The purpose of the study was to determine the availability, quantity, and quality of ground water from the Blaine aquifer and associated units. This report provides a reference for some of the data that was used as input into a computer ground-water flow model that simulates ground-water flow in the Blaine aquifer. The data in this report consists of: (1) Monthly or periodic water-level measurements in 134 wells; (2) daily mean water-level measurements for 11 wells equipped with water-level recorders; (3) daily total precipitation measurements from five precipitation gages; (4) low-flow stream-discharge measurements for 89 stream sites; (5) miscellaneous stream-discharge measurements at seven stream sites; (6) chemical analyses of surface water from 78 stream sites during low-flow periods; (7) chemical analyses of ground water from 41 wells; and (8) chemical analyses of runoff water collected at five sites.

  10. Water type and concentration of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the St. Francois aquifer in Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Davis, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    The St. Francois aquifer, the lowermost of three regional aquifers that form part of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, is composed of water-bearing sandstone and dolostone of Late Cambrian age. The aquifer was studied as part of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (CMRASA, Jorgensen and Signor, 1981), a study of regional aquifer systems in the midcontinent United States that includes parts of 10 States. Because of its significance as a source of freshwater in and adjacent to the Ozark Plateaus province (index map) of Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma, a subregional project was established to investigate the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in more detail than the regional study could provide.The geologic and hydrologic relation between the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and other regional aquifer systems of the Midwest is presented in Jorgensen an others (in press). The relation of the St. Francois aquifer to the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system is explained in Imes [in press (a)]. A companion publication, Imes [in press (b)], contains contour maps of the altitude of the top, thickness, and potentiometric surface of the St. Francois aquifer. This report contains maps that show water type and concentration of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the St. Francois aquifer. Most of the data from which these maps are compiled is stored in the CMRASA hydrochemical data base (R.B. Leonard, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1986). Only water quality analyses that ionically balanced to within 10 percent are included in this report. Because few water wells are completed in the St. Francois aquifer beyond the vicinity of the St. Francois Mountains in southeastern Missouri (index map), water-quality data, with few exceptions, are limited to a relatively small area near the outcrop of the aquifer.

  11. Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, Hunton anticline, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Bruce D.; Smith, David V.; Deszcz-Pan, Maryla; Blome, Charles D.; Hill, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This report is a digital data release for multiple geophysical surveys conducted in the Hunton anticline area of south-central Oklahoma. The helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic surveys were flown on March 16–17, 2007, in four areas of the Hunton anticline in south-central Oklahoma. The objective of this project is to improve the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The electromagnetic sensor for the helicopter electromagnetic survey consisted of six different transmitter-receiver orientations that measured the earth's electrical response at six distinct frequencies from approximately 500 Hertz to approximately 115,000 Hertz. The electromagnetic measurements were converted to electrical resistivity values, which were gridded and plotted on georeferenced maps. The map from each frequency represents a different depth of investigation for each area. The range of subsurface investigation is comparable to the depth of shallow groundwater. The four areas selected for the helicopter electromagnetic study, blocks A–D, have different geologic and hydrologic settings. Geophysical and hydrologic information from U.S. Geological Survey studies are being used by modelers and resource managers to develop groundwater resource plans for the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer.

  12. Variable seismic response to fluid injection in central Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keranen, K. M.; Hogan, C.; Savage, H. M.; Abers, G. A.; van der Elst, N.

    2013-12-01

    Seismicity in Oklahoma since 2009 has been concentrated in the central portion of the state, in the areas of Jones, Prague, and Luther. These three regions account for ~75% of earthquakes in the 2009-2013 Oklahoma Geological Survey catalog. A swarm in the Jones region began in late 2008, with a maximum magnitude of 4.0, and activity continuing to the present. After relocation, the initially diffuse earthquakes in the Jones swarm delineate multiple subparallel faults. The Wilzetta fault zone ruptured in the Prague region in 2010 and again in 2011, with magnitudes up to Mw5.7, and the Luther region experienced two earthquakes of M4.4 and M4.2, with related aftershocks, in 2013. The earthquakes near Prague have previously been linked to wastewater disposal; here we show that the earthquakes near Jones and Luther may also be induced by deep disposal based on the upsurge in seismicity in central Oklahoma coupled with local relationships to pumping and reservoir structure. The timing of each sequence with respect to injection and the distribution of seismic activity differs, highlighting the variability in seismic response to fluid injection related to local permeability structure.

  13. Floods in central, Southwest Oklahoma, October 17-23, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauth, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Storms of October 17-23, 1983, produced as much as 17 inches of rain as a result of Hurricane Tico. Rainfall amounts exceeded the 100-year, 24-hour storm frequency in some areas of the central and southwest parts of Oklahoma. An 11-county area experienced flooding with damages exceeding $12 million. Peak discharges were determined during and after the flood at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations and one miscellaneous location. Streamflow in some areas exceeded the estimated 100-year flood. Flood hydrographs and rainfall mass curves are presented for gaging stations located in areas of greater precipitation.

  14. Digital map of specific yield for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, J.R.; Becker, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    This digital data set consists of specific yield percentage contours and polygons for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to almost 106 degrees west longitude. The outcrop area covers 174,000 square miles and is present in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, South Dakota, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the specific yield percentage contours from a 1:1,000,000 base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  15. Altitude and configuration of the predevelopment water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area (sheet 1) and for the Panhandle area (sheet 2). In the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties, water levels measured from the 1950's to the 1970's represent predevelopment conditions and were obtained from published and unpublished data in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the Panhandle, predevelopment contours were based on measurements made from 1937 to 1940. Some water levels in Beaver County were measured as late as 1959 in areas where significant development had not occurred previously.

  16. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma and northeastern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Antlers Sandstone of Early Cretaceous age occurs in all or parts of Atoka, Bryan, Carter, Choctaw, Johnston, Love, Marshall, McCurtain, and Pushmataha Counties, a 4,400-square-mile area in southeastern Oklahoma parallel to the Red River. The sandstone comprising the Antlers aquifer is exposed in the northern one-third of the area, and ground water in the outcrop area is unconfined. Younger Cretaceous rocks overlie the Antlers in the southern two thirds of the study area where the aquifer is confined. The Antlers extends in the subsurface south into Texas where it underlies all or parts of Bowie, Cooke, Fannin, Grayson, Lamar, and Red River Counties. An area of approximately 5,400 square miles in Texas is included in the study. The Antlers Sandstone consists of sand, clay, conglomerate, and limestone deposited on an erosional surface of Paleozoic rocks. Saturated thickness in the Antlers ranges from 0 feet at the updip limit to probably more than 2,000 feet, 25 to 30 miles south of the Red River. Simulated recharge to the Antlers based on model calibration ranges from 0.32 to about 0.96 inch per year. Base flow increases where streams cross the Antlers outcrop, indicating that the aquifer supplies much of the base flow. Pumpage rates for 1980 in excess of 35 million gallons per year per grid cell for public supply, irrigation, and industrial uses total 872 million gallons in the Oklahoma part of the Antlers and 5,228 million gallons in the Texas part of the Antlers. Ground-water flow in the Antlers aquifer was simulated using one active layer in a three-dimensional finite-difference mathematical model. Simulated aquifer hydraulic conductivity values range from 0.87 to 3.75 feet per day. A vertical hydraulic conductivity of 1.5x10-4 foot per day was specified for the younger confining unit at the start of the simulation. An average storage coefficient of 0.0005 was specified for the confined part of the aquifer; a specific yield of 0.17 was specified for the

  17. Summary of U.S. Geological Survey studies conducted in cooperation with the Citizen Potawatomi Nation, central Oklahoma, 2011–14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Becker, Carol J.; Ryter, Derek W.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2016-01-19

    Numerical groundwater-flow models were created to characterize flow systems in aquifers underlying this study area and areas of particular interest within the study area. Those models were used to estimate sustainable groundwater yields from parts of the North Canadian River alluvial aquifer, characterize groundwater/surface-water interactions, and estimate the effects of a 10-year simulated drought on streamflows and water levels in alluvial and bedrock aquifers. Pumping of wells at the Iron Horse Industrial Park was estimated to cause negligible infiltration of water from the adjoining North Canadian River. A 10-year simulated drought of 50 percent of normal recharge was tested for the period 1990–2000. For this period, the total amount of groundwater in storage was estimated to decrease by 8.6 percent in the North Canadian River alluvial aquifer and approximately 0.2 percent in the Central Oklahoma aquifer, and groundwater flow to streams was estimated to decrease by 28–37 percent. This volume of groundwater loss showed that the Central Oklahoma aquifer is a bedrock aquifer that has relatively low rates of recharge from the land surface. The simulated drought decreased simulated streamflow, composed of base flow, in the North Canadian River at Shawnee, Okla., which did not recover to predrought conditions until the relatively wet year of 2007 after the simulated drought period.

  18. Rapid Recharge of Parts of the High Plains Aquifer Indicated by a Reconnaissance Study in Oklahoma, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Osborn, Noel I.; Luckey, Richard R.

    2000-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight states, including about 7,100 square miles in northwestern Oklahoma (fig. 1). This aquifer consists of the saturated part of the Ogallala Formation and saturated materials of Quaternary Age that are hydraulically connected to the Ogallala. The High Plains aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma is the primary source of water to an important agricultural region. Most water is withdrawn from the aquifer for irrigating wheat and other grain crops, with the remainder used for livestock (primarily cattle and swine), municipal, and domestic needs. Historically, water from precipitation was thought to take hundreds or thousands of years to reach the water table because the depth of the water table is greater than 100 feet over most of the aquifer and the low-permeability beds in the Ogallala would impede downward flow. It also was thought that land uses would take a similar period of time to affect water quality in the aquifer.

  19. Recharge processes in an alluvial aquifer riparian zone, Norman Landfill, Norman, Oklahoma, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, Martha; Christenson, Scott; Cozzarelli, Isabelle; Ferree, Dale; Jaeshke, Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    Analyses of stable isotope profiles (d2H and d18O) in the saturated zone, combined with water-table fluctuations, gave a comprehensive picture of recharge processes in an alluvial aquifer riparian zone. At the Norman Landfill U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology research site in Norman, Oklahoma, recharge to the aquifer appears to drive biodegradation, contributing fresh supplies of electron acceptors for the attenuation of leachate compounds from the landfill. Quantifying recharge is a first step in studying this process in detail. Both chemical and physical methods were used to estimate recharge. Chemical methods included measuring the increase in recharge water in the saturated zone, as defined by isotopic signature, specific conductance or chloride measurements; and infiltration rate estimates using storm event isotopic signatures. Physical methods included measurement of water-table rise after individual rain events and on an approximately monthly time scale. Evapotranspiration rates were estimated using diurnal watertable fluctuations; outflux of water from the alluvial aquifer during the growing season had a large effect on net recharge at the site. Evaporation and methanogenesis gave unique isotopic signatures to different sources of water at the site, allowing the distinction of recharge using the offset of the isotopic signature from the local meteoric water line. The downward movement of water from large, isotopically depleted rain events in the saturated zone yielded recharge rate estimates (2.2 - 3.3 mm/day), and rates also were determined by observing changes in thickness of the layer of infiltrated recharge water at the top of the saturated zone (1.5 - 1.6 mm/day). Recharge measured over 2 years (1998-2000) in two locations at the site averaged 37 percent of rainfall, however, part of this water had only a short residence time in the aquifer. Isotopes showed recharge water entering the ground-water system in winter and spring, then being

  20. Geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits of the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake, central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to describe the geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River between Lake Overholser and Eufaula Lake, an area of about 1,835 square miles, and to determine the maximum annual yield of ground water. A 1982 water-level map of the alluvial and terrace aquifer was prepared using field data and published records. Data from test holes and other data from the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board were used to establish the approximate thickness of the alluvial and terrace deposits. The North Canadian River from Lake Overholser, near Oklahoma City, to Eufaula Lake is paralleled by a 2- to 3-mile wide band of alluvium. Scattered terrace deposits on either side of the alluvium reach an extreme width of 8 miles. Rocks of Permian age bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from the west to the midpoint of the study area; Pennsylvanian rocks bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from that point eastward. Three major aquifers are present in the study area: the alluvial and terrace aquifer, consisting of alluvium and terrace deposits of Quaternary age in a narrow band on either side of the North Canadian River; the Garber-Wellington aquifer of Permian age, consisting of an upper unconfined zone and a lower confined zone separated by relatively impermeable shales; and the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer of Pennsylvanian age. At locations were the alluvial and terrace aquifer overlies either of the other aquifers, there is hydraulic continuity between the alluvial and terrace aquifer and the other aquifers, and water levels are the same. Most large-scale municipal and industrial pumping from the Garber-Wellington aquifer is from the lower zone and has little discernible effect upon the alluvial and terrace aquifer. The total estimated base flow of the North Canadian River for the studied reach is 264 cubic feet per second. Evapotranspiration from the basin in August is about 60 cubic

  1. Altitudes and thicknesses of hydrogeologic units of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westerman, Drew A.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Richards, Joseph M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Clark, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    A hydrogeologic framework of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system was constructed as the base for a groundwater flow model developed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Water Availability and Use Science Program to aid in the understanding of groundwater availability in select aquifer systems of the United States.  The Ozark Plateaus aquifer system study area (hereinafter referred to as the “Ozark system”) is nearly 70,000 square miles and includes parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma.  A hydrogeologic framework was constructed to represent the altitudes and thicknesses of nine hydrogeologic units within the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system - . the Western Interior Plains confining system, Springfield Plateau aquifer, the Ozark confining unit, Ozark aquifer (divided into the upper, middle, and lower Ozark aquifers to better capture the spatial variation in the hydrologic properties), the St. Francois confining unit, the St. Francois aquifer, and the Basement confining unit. The formations that make up the hydrogeologic units of the Ozark system range from Pennsylvanian to Cambrian age. The scope of effort included the compilation and interpretation of hydrogeologic altitudes from geophysical, lithologic driller description, and well cutting logs. The final compiled dataset included more than 23,000 individual altitude points (excluding synthetic points) representing the nine hydrogeologic units. Shorthand names were used to identify points, extents, and raster surfaces corresponding to each hydrogeologic unit. WIPCS = Western Interior Plains confining system SPA = Springfield Plateau aquifer OCU = Ozark confining unit UOA = upper Ozark aquifer MOA = middle Ozark aquifer LOA = lower Ozark aquifer SFCU = St. Francois confining unit SFA = St. Francois aquifer BCU = Basement confining unit 

  2. Altitudes and thicknesses of hydrogeologic units of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westerman, Drew A.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Richards, Joseph M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Clark, Brian R.

    2016-09-29

    A hydrogeologic framework was constructed to represent the altitudes and thicknesses of hydrogeologic units within the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system as part of a regional groundwater-flow model supported by the U.S. Geological Survey Water Availability and Use Science Program. The Ozark Plateaus aquifer system study area is nearly 70,000 square miles and includes parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Nine hydrogeologic units were selected for delineation within the aquifer system and include the Western Interior Plains confining system, the Springfield Plateau aquifer, the Ozark confining unit, the Ozark aquifer, which was divided into the upper, middle, and lower Ozark aquifers to better capture the spatial variation in the hydrologic properties, the St. Francois confining unit, the St. Francois aquifer, and the basement confining unit. Geophysical and well-cutting logs, along with lithologic descriptions by well drillers, were compiled and interpreted to create hydrologic altitudes for each unit. The final compiled dataset included more than 23,000 individual altitude points (excluding synthetic points) representing the nine hydrogeologic units within the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system.

  3. Potentiometric Surfaces in the Springfield Plateau and Ozark Aquifers of Northwestern Arkansas, Southeastern Kansas, Southwestern Missouri, and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Czarnecki, John B.; Mugel, Douglas N.

    2008-01-01

    The Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers are important sources of ground water in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. Water from these aquifers is used for agricultural, domestic, industrial, and municipal water sources. Changing water use over time in these aquifers presents a need for updated potentiometric-surface maps of the Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers. The Springfield Plateau aquifer consists of water-bearing Mississippian-age limestone and chert. The Ozark aquifer consists of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian age water-bearing rocks consisting of dolostone, limestone, and sandstone. Both aquifers are complex with areally varying lithologies, discrete hydrologic units, varying permeabilities, and secondary permeabilities related to fractures and karst features. During the spring of 2006, ground-water levels were measured in 285 wells. These data, and water levels from selected lakes, rivers, and springs, were used to create potentiometric-surface maps for the Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers. Linear kriging was used initially to construct the water-level contours on the maps; the contours were subsequently modified using hydrologic judgment. The potentiometric-surface maps presented in this report represent ground-water conditions during the spring of 2006. During the spring of 2006, the region received less than average rainfall. Dry conditions prior to the spring of 2006 could have contributed to the observed water levels as well. The potentiometric-surface map of the Springfield Plateau aquifer shows a maximum measured water-level altitude within the study area of about 1,450 feet at a spring in Barry County, Missouri, and a minimum measured water-level altitude of 579 feet at a well in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Cones of depression occur in Dade, Lawrence and Newton Counties in Missouri and Delaware and Ottawa Counties in Oklahoma. These cones of depression are associated with private wells. Ground water in the Springfield Plateau aquifer

  4. Gravity investigations of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheirer, Daniel S.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford

    2006-01-01

    The geological configuration of the Arbuckle Uplift in the vicinity of Chickasaw National Recreation Area in south-central Oklahoma plays a governing role in the distribution of fresh and mineral springs within the park and in the existence of artesian wells in and around the park. A confining layer of well-cemented conglomerate lies immediately below the surface of the recreation area, and groundwater migrates from an area of meteoric recharge where rocks of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer crop out as close as two kilometers to the east of the park. Prominent, Pennsylvanian-aged faults are exposed in the aquifer outcrop, and two of the fault traces project beneath the conglomerate cover toward two groups of springs within the northern section of the park. We conducted gravity fieldwork and analysis to investigate the subsurface extensions of these major faults beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area. By defining gravity signatures of the faults where they are exposed, we infer that the Sulphur and Mill Creek Faults bend to the south-west where they are buried. The South Sulphur Fault may project westward linearly if it juxtaposes rocks that have a density contrast opposite that of that fault's density configuration in the Sulphur Syncline area. The Sulphur Syncline, whose eastern extent is exposed in the outcrop area of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, does not appear to extend beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area nor the adjacent City of Sulphur. The South Sulphur Fault dips steeply northward, and its normal sense of offset suggests that the Sulphur Syncline is part of a graben. The Mill Creek Fault dips vertically, and the Reagan Fault dips southward, consistent with its being mapped as a thrust fault. The Sulphur and Mill Creek Synclines may have formed as pull-apart basins in a left-lateral, left-stepping strike-slip environment. The character of the gravity field of Chickasaw National Recreation Area is different from the lineated gravity field in the area

  5. Risk across disciplines: An interdisciplinary examination of water and drought risk in South-Central Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazrus, H.; Paimazumder, D.; Towler, E.; McPherson, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Drought is a challenge faced by communities across the United States, exacerbated by growing demands on water resources and climate variability and change. The Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer (ASA) in south-central Oklahoma, situated in the heart of the Chickasaw Nation, is the state's only sole-source groundwater basin and sustains the Blue River, the state's only free-flowing river. The recent comprehensive hydrological studies of the aquifer indicate the need for sustainable management of the amount of water extracted. However, the question of how to deal with that management in the face of increasing drought vulnerability, diverse demands, and climate variability and change remains. Water management carries a further imperative to be inclusive of tribal and non-tribal interests. To examine this question, we are conducting an investigation of drought risk from multiple disciplines. Anthropological data comes from stakeholder interviews that were designed to investigate conflict over water management by understanding how people perceive risk differently based on different opinions about the structure of the resource, varying levels of trust in authorities, and unequal access to resources. . The Cultural Theory of Risk is used to explain how people view risks as part of their worldviews and why people who hold different worldviews disagree about risks associated with water availability. Meteorological analyses of longitudinal data indicate periods of drought that are noted in stakeholder interviews. Analysis of stream gauge data investigates the influence of climate variability on local hydrologic impacts, such as changing groundwater levels and streamflows, that are relevant to planning and management decisions in the ASA. Quantitative assessment of future drought risk and associated uncertainty and their effect on type and scale of future economic and social impacts are achieved by combining elements of statistical and dynamical downscaling to improve predictions of

  6. Water quality and possible sources of nitrate in the Cimarron Terrace Aquifer, Oklahoma, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, Jason R.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2004-01-01

    Water from the Cimarron terrace aquifer in northwest Oklahoma commonly has nitrate concentrations that exceed the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (referred to as nitrate) set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for public drinking water supplies. Starting in July 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, conducted a study in the Cimarron terrace aquifer to assess the water quality and possible sources of nitrate. A qualitative and quantitative approach based on multiple lines of evidence from chemical analysis of nitrate, nitrogen isotopes in nitrate, pesticides (indicative of cropland fertilizer application), and wastewater compounds (indicative of animal or human wastewater) were used to indicate possible sources of nitrate in the Cimarron terrace aquifer. Nitrate was detected in 44 of 45 ground-water samples and had the greatest median concentration (8.03 milligrams per liter) of any nutrient analyzed. Nitrate concentrations ranged from <0.06 to 31.8 milligrams per liter. Seventeen samples had nitrate concentrations exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter. Nitrate concentrations in agricultural areas were significantly greater than nitrate concentrations in grassland areas. Pesticides were detected in 15 of 45 ground-water samples. Atrazine and deethylatrazine, a metabolite of atrazine, were detected most frequently. Deethylatrazine was detected in water samples from 9 wells and atrazine was detected in samples from 8 wells. Tebuthiuron was detected in water samples from 5 wells; metolachlor was detected in samples from 4 wells; prometon was detected in samples from 4 wells; and alachlor was detected in 1 well. None of the detected pesticide concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant level or health advisory level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Wastewater compounds were detected in 28 of

  7. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow, Resource Optimization, and Potential Effects of Prolonged Drought for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryter, Derek W.; Kunkel, Christopher D.; Peterson, Steven M.; Traylor, Jonathan P.

    2015-08-13

    The hypothetical decrease in recharge during the simulated drought caused groundwater in storage over the entire model in the study area to decrease by 361,500 acre-feet (14,100 acre-feet in the North Canadian River alluvial aquifer and 347,400 acre-feet in the Central Oklahoma aquifer), or approximately 0.2 percent of the total groundwater in storage over the drought period. This small percentage of groundwater loss showed that the Central Oklahoma aquifer as a bedrock aquifer has relatively low rates of recharge from the surface relative to the approximate storage. The budget for base flow to the North Canadian River indicated that the change in groundwater flow to the North Canadian River decreased during the 10-year drought by 386,500 acre-feet, or 37 percent. In all other parts of the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, base flow decreased by 292,000 acre-feet, or 28 percent. Streamflow in the North Canadian River at the streamflow-gaging station at Shawnee, Okla., decreased during the hypothetical drought by as much as 28 percent, and the mean change in streamflow decreased as much as 16 percent. Streamflow at the Shawnee streamflow-gaging station did not recover to nondrought conditions until about 3 years after the simulated drought ended, during the relatively wet year of 2007.

  8. Digital map of predevelopment water levels for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for aquifer boundaries of contours for predevelopment water-level elevations for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the contours for predevelopment water-level elevations from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data should not be used at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  9. Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountain area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, R.W.; Hanson, R.L.; Davis, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Water in the aquifer is confined in some parts of the area, while in other parts it is unconfined. The average saturated thickness of the aquifer is about 3,500 feet in the outcrop area. Water levels measured in wells fluctuated from 8 to 53 feet each year, primarily in response to recharge from rainfall. Recharge to the aquifer is estimated at about 4.7 inches per year. The average storage coefficient of the aquifer is estimated at 0.008, and the average transmissivity is estimated at 15,000 feet squared per day. Based on an average saturated thickness of about 3,500 feet and a storage coefficient of 0.008, the volume of ground water contained in the 500-square-mile outcrop area is about 9 million acre-feet. An undetermined amount of fresh water probably exists in the aquifer around the periphery of the aquifer outcrop. Base flow of streams that drain the aquifer accounts for about 60 percent of the total annual runoff from the outcrop area and is maintained by numerous springs. The close hydraulic connection between streams in the outcrop area and the aquifer is shown by a close correlation between base flow in Blue River and the fluctuation of ground-water levels in five wells in the Blue River basin. This correlation also exists between the discharge by Byrds Mill Spring and the fluctuation in water level in a nearby observation well; increase and decrease in spring discharge correspond to rise and fall of the water level in the well. The chemical quality of water from the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer is suitable for most industrial and municipal uses. The water is hard and of the bicarbonate type; the average hardness is about 340 milligrams per liter, and the average dissolved-solids concentration is about 360 milligrams per liter. Because springs issue from the aquifer and discharge to streams in the area, the quality of water from springs and base flow in streams is similar to that of ground water. The average dissolved-solids concentration of stream water is

  10. Aphids and parasitoids in wheat and nearby canola fields in central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In central Oklahoma, winter canola has recently become the primary rotational winter crop with wheat. Annual aphid pest outbreaks in canola have resulted in widespread insecticide applications. Insect parasitoids, which frequently suppress aphids in nearby wheat, may move to canola due to the larg...

  11. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial...

  12. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial...

  13. Effects of climate variations and soil conservation on sedimentation of a west-central Oklahoma reservoir

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the second half of the 20th century, extensive soil conservation practices were implemented on the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed in West-Central Oklahoma. Sediment and flow observations were made on major tributaries in 1943-1950 (pre-conservation time period), and again in 2004-2008 (post-co...

  14. A Systematic Approach to Process Evaluation in the Central Oklahoma Turning Point (COTP) Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Cheney, Marshall K.; Chrislip, David D.; Blankenship, Derek; Troup, Pam; Hann, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Formation is an important stage of partnership development. Purpose: To describe the systematic approach to process evaluation of a Turning Point initiative in central Oklahoma during the formation stage. The nine-month collaborative effort aimed to develop an action plan to promote health. Methods: A sound planning framework was used in the…

  15. Estimated predevelopment discharge to streams from the High Plains Aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma, southwestern Kansas, and northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luckey, R.R.; Becker, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the High Plains aquifer in Okla homa was initiated in 1996 to: (1) provide the information needed by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board to manage the quantity of water produced from the aquifer; and (2) provide base line water-chemistry data. The approach used to meet the first objective is to develop a digital ground-water flow model. The model will be cali brated, in part, by comparing simulated and esti mated predevelopment discharge from the aquifer to streams and cross-boundary flow. This report presents the estimated predevelopment discharge to streams from the High Plains aquifer. Streamflow data were the primary source of information used to estimate predevelopment dis charge from the High Plains aquifer. Data from 30 streamflow stations between the Arkansas and Canadian Rivers were considered in the analysis, and winter low-flow frequencies for 7-, 14-, and 30-day periods were determined for 25 stations. The 14-day low flow with a recurrence interval of 2 years was the primary value used to estimate pre development discharge from the aquifer. The streams that drain the eastern part of the High Plains aquifer in Kansas (generally east of 99.5 longitude) are estimated to have had large predevelopment discharge from the aquifer, and most of them received discharge from near their headwaters. For streams with more than one streamflow gage, the upper perennial reaches appeared to have gained more discharge from the aquifer than the lower reaches. The total predevel opment discharge from the aquifer in this area to several streams is estimated to have been about 312 cubic feet per second, not including discharge that probably went directly to the Arkansas River. The Cimarron River and its tributaries are estimated to have gained about 78 cubic feet per second, but nearly one-half that amount was lost in the lower reaches of the river. The cause of the loss in the lower reaches is unknown. The Beaver River and its tributaries are estimated to have

  16. Groundwater-Flow Model of the Ozark Plateaus Aquifer System, Northwestern Arkansas, Southeastern Kansas, Southwestern Missouri, and Northeastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Jones, Perry M.; Yeatts, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the effect that increased water use is having on the long-term availability of groundwater within the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, a groundwater-flow model was developed using MODFLOW 2000 for a model area covering 7,340 square miles for parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Vertically the model is divided into five units. From top to bottom these units of variable thickness are: the Western Interior Plains confining unit, the Springfield Plateau aquifer, the Ozark confining unit, the Ozark aquifer, and the St. Francois confining unit. Large mined zones contained within the Springfield Plateau aquifer are represented in the model as extensive voids with orders-of-magnitude larger hydraulic conductivity than the adjacent nonmined zones. Water-use data were compiled for the period 1960 to 2006, with the most complete data sets available for the period 1985 to 2006. In 2006, total water use from the Ozark aquifer for Missouri was 87 percent (8,531,520 cubic feet per day) of the total pumped from the Ozark aquifer, with Kansas at 7 percent (727,452 cubic feet per day), and Oklahoma at 6 percent (551,408 cubic feet per day); water use for Arkansas within the model area was minor. Water use in the model from the Springfield Plateau aquifer in 2005 was specified from reported and estimated values as 569,047 cubic feet per day. Calibration of the model was made against average water-level altitudes in the Ozark aquifer for the period 1980 to 1989 and against waterlevel altitudes obtained in 2006 for the Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers. Error in simulating water-level altitudes was largest where water-level altitude gradients were largest, particularly near large cones of depression. Groundwater flow within the model area occurs generally from the highlands of the Springfield Plateau in southwestern Missouri toward the west, with localized flow occurring towards rivers and pumping centers including the five largest pumping centers near Joplin

  17. STUDY OF THE ARBUCKLE-SIMPSON AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study directed by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and funded by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation will investigate the hydrogeology of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in south-central Oklahoma. The five year study will involve field investigations including the installation of ne...

  18. Regional potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, November 2014–January 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nottmeier, Anna M.

    2015-12-21

    The Ozark aquifer, within the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (herein referred to as the “Ozark system”), is the primary groundwater source in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province (herein referred to as the “Ozark Plateaus”) of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Groundwater from the Ozark system has historically been an important part of the water resource base, and groundwater availability is a concern in some areas; dependency on the Ozark aquifer as a water supply has caused evolving, localized issues. The construction of a regional potentiometric-surface map of the Ozark aquifer is needed to aid assessment of current and future groundwater use and availability. The regional potentiometric-surface mapping is part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Groundwater Resources Program initiative (http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/gwrp/activities/regional.html) and the Ozark system groundwater availability project (http://ar.water.usgs.gov/ozarks), which seeks to quantify current groundwater resources, evaluate changes in these resources over time, and provide the information needed to simulate system response to future human-related and environmental stresses.The Ozark groundwater availability project objectives include assessing (1) growing demands for groundwater and associated declines in groundwater levels as agricultural, industrial, and public supply pumping increases to address needs; (2) regional climate variability and pumping effects on groundwater and surface-water flow paths; (3) effects of a gradual shift to a greater surface-water dependence in some areas; and (4) shale-gas production requiring groundwater and surface water for hydraulic fracturing. Data compiled and used to construct the regional Ozark aquifer potentiometric surface will aid in the assessment of those objectives.

  19. Digital map of water levels in 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for contours for 1980 water-level elevations for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the 1980 water-level elevation contours from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer Systems-Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  20. Digital map of geologic faults for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for faults of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the faults from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  1. Contamination of wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer by abandoned zinc and lead mines, Ottawa County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott C.

    1995-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer in Ottawa County Oklahoma is used extensively as a source of water for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts. Water in the Roubidoux aquifer in eastern Ottawa County has relatively low dissolved-solids concentrations (less than 200 mg/L) with calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as the major ions. The Boone Formation is stratigraphically above the Roubidoux aquifer and is the host rock for zinc and lead sulfide ores, with the richest deposits located in the vicinity of the City of Picher. Mining in what became known as the Picher mining district began in the early 1900's and continued until about 1970. The water in the abandoned zinc and lead mines contains high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulfate, fluoride, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc. Water from the abandoned mines is a potential source of contamination to the Roubidoux aquifer and to wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer. Water samples were collected from wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer in the Picher mining district and from wells outside the mining district to determine if 10 public supply wells in the mining district are contaminated. The chemical analyses indicate that at least 7 of the 10 public supply wells in the Picher mining district are contaminated by mine water. Application of the Mann-Whitney test indicated that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination are different in water samples from wells in the mining area as compared to wells outside the mining area. Application of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination were higher in current (1992-93) data than in historic (1981-83) data, except for pH, which was lower in current than in historic data. pH and sulfate, alkalinity, bicarbonate, magnesium, iron, and tritium concentrations consistently

  2. A Study Of Fluid Pressure Migration Within The North-Central Oklahoma Seismic Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, C.; Keranen, K. M.; Sickbert, T.

    2015-12-01

    The rise in seismicity in Oklahoma since 2008 provides an unusual opportunity to study fluid migration and the interaction of fluids with faults. One unique area in north-central Oklahoma is a current seismic gap between large clusters in northern and central Oklahoma, providing a window into the temporal evolution of local seismicity. The gap in seismicity occurs across the NNE-SSW trending Nemaha uplift, with long faults relatively well-oriented in the regional stress field. Wastewater disposal occurs both within and on either side of the gap, and seismicity approached both sides of the uplift in 2014. To record seismicity and seismic migration through time within the uplift and along the bounding faults on either side, we deployed a ten station array of broadband sensors in April 2015. Our goal is to detect possible seismic signals related to fluid pressure migration and to ultimately increase our understanding of the fault response to perturbations in fluid pressure. Here we present local earthquake locations from the first months of data and initial focal mechanisms. We detect higher numbers of earthquakes happening within the Nemaha uplift than recorded in existing catalogs. The seismicity is typically

  3. Sharp increase in central Oklahoma seismicity 2009-2014 induced by massive wastewater injection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keranen, Kathleen M.; Abers, Geoffrey A.; Weingarten, Matthew; Bekins, Barbara A.; Ge, Shemin

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional oil and gas production provides a rapidly growing energy source; however high-producing states in the United States, such as Oklahoma, face sharply rising numbers of earthquakes. Subsurface pressure data required to unequivocally link earthquakes to injection are rarely accessible. Here we use seismicity and hydrogeological models to show that distant fluid migration from high-rate disposal wells in Oklahoma is likely responsible for the largest swarm. Earthquake hypocenters occur within disposal formations and upper-basement, between 2-5 km depth. The modeled fluid pressure perturbation propagates throughout the same depth range and tracks earthquakes to distances of 35 km, with a triggering threshold of ~0.07 MPa. Although thousands of disposal wells may operate aseismically, four of the highest-rate wells likely induced 20% of 2008-2013 central US seismicity.

  4. Induced earthquakes. Sharp increase in central Oklahoma seismicity since 2008 induced by massive wastewater injection.

    PubMed

    Keranen, K M; Weingarten, M; Abers, G A; Bekins, B A; Ge, S

    2014-07-25

    Unconventional oil and gas production provides a rapidly growing energy source; however, high-production states in the United States, such as Oklahoma, face sharply rising numbers of earthquakes. Subsurface pressure data required to unequivocally link earthquakes to wastewater injection are rarely accessible. Here we use seismicity and hydrogeological models to show that fluid migration from high-rate disposal wells in Oklahoma is potentially responsible for the largest swarm. Earthquake hypocenters occur within disposal formations and upper basement, between 2- and 5-kilometer depth. The modeled fluid pressure perturbation propagates throughout the same depth range and tracks earthquakes to distances of 35 kilometers, with a triggering threshold of ~0.07 megapascals. Although thousands of disposal wells operate aseismically, four of the highest-rate wells are capable of inducing 20% of 2008 to 2013 central U.S. seismicity.

  5. Plan of study for the High Plains regional aquifer-system analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, John B.

    1978-01-01

    The Ogallala Formation and associated Tertiary and Quarternary deposits from the principal aquifers supporting irrigation in the High Plains of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The volume of water in storage within the aquifers is declining in most of the High Plains because water is being withdrawn in excess of the rate of replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 5-year study of the High Plains aquifer system to develop the geohydrologic data base and computer models of the ground-water flow system needed to evaluate the response of the aquifer system to ground-water management alternatives. This report describes the objectives, plan, and organization of the study and outlines the work to be accomplished in each State in the study area. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Current distribution of North American river otters in central and eastern Oklahoma, with seven new county records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Dominic A.; Leslie,, David M.

    2010-01-01

    In 1984 and 1985, the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation reintroduced North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) from coastal Louisiana into eastern Oklahoma. Those reintroductions and immigration from Arkansas and possibly northeastern Texas allowed river otters to become reestablished in eastern Oklahoma. Our goals were to determine the contemporary distribution of river otters in central and eastern Oklahoma with voucher specimens, sign surveys, and mail surveys and to compare proportion of positive detections among watersheds. We report new distributional records with voucher specimens from seven counties (Adair, Bryan, Coal, Johnston, McIntosh, Okfuskee, Tulsa) in Oklahoma. We also provide locality information for specimens collected from four counties (Haskell, McCurtain, Muskogee, Wagoner) where river otters were described in published literature but no voucher specimens existed. During winter and spring 2006 and 2007, we visited 340 bridge sites in 28 watersheds in eastern and central Oklahoma and identified river otter signs in 16 counties where river otters were not previously documented in published literature or by voucher specimens. Proportion of positive sites within each watershed ranged 0–100%. Mail surveys suggested that river otters occurred in eight additional counties where they were not previously documented by published literature, voucher specimens, or sign-survey efforts.

  7. Geochemistry of the Springfield Plateau aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Geochemical data indicate that the Springfield Plateau aquifer, a carbonate aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in central USA, has two distinct hydrochemical zones. Within each hydrochemical zone, water from springs is geochemically and isotopically different than water from wells. Geochemical data indicate that spring water generally interacts less with the surrounding rock and has a shorter residence time, probably as a result of flowing along discrete fractures and solution openings, than water from wells. Water type throughout most of the aquifer was calcium bicarbonate, indicating that carbonate-rock dissolution is the primary geochemical process occurring in the aquifer. Concentrations of calcium, bicarbonate, dissolved oxygen and tritium indicate that most ground water in the aquifer recharged rapidly and is relatively young (less than 40 years). In general, field-measured properties, concentrations of many chemical constituents, and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from the northern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone A) than in samples from the southern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone B). Factors affecting differences in the geochemical composition of ground water between the two zones are difficult to identify, but could be related to differences in chert content and possibly primary porosity, solubility of the limestone, and amount and type of cementation between zone A than in zone B. In addition, specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, concentrations of many chemical constituents and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from wells than in samples from springs in each hydrochemical zone. In contrast, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite plus nitrate, and chloride generally were greater in samples from springs than in samples from wells. Water from springs generally flows rapidly through large conduits with minimum water-rock interactions. Water from wells flow through small fractures, which restrict

  8. Sulfur isotopic composition and water chemistry in water from the High Plains aquifer, Oklahoma Panhandle and southwestern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krothe, Noel C.; Oliver, Joseph W.

    1982-01-01

    The Ogallala Formation comprises the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma and southwestern Kansas. Regional ground-water flow is from west to east in the Ogallala Formation, and the concentration of dissolved solids in ground water increases in the direction of flow. This increase may be influenced by residence time, but underlying bedrock appears to control ground-water chemistry. The Ogallala Formation is underlain by Mesozoic rocks in the west and Permian rocks in the east. Mean concentration of dissolved solids in ground water from the Mesozoic rocks is 552 milligrams per liter and Permian rocks is 4,720 milligrams per liter. Mean concentration of dissolved solids for water in the Ogallala Formation is 396 milligrams per liter where it overlies Mesozoic rocks and 569 milligrams per liter where it overlies Permian rocks. Del sulfur-34 sulfate values range from a high of +6.9 parts per thousand to a low of -25.1 parts per thousand. Sulfate increases from about 20 milligrams per liter to more than 350 milligrams per liter from west to east. Increasing concentration of dissolved solids, lighter Del sulfur-34 values, and increasing sulfate concentration in the east implies that ground water or hydrogen sulfide from Permian rocks may be moving upward into the Ogallala Formation. (USGS)

  9. Digital-model projection of saturated thickness and recoverable water in the Ogallala Aquifer, Texas County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert B.

    1980-01-01

    A digital model was used to provide a quantitative description of the Ogallala aquifer in Texas County, Oklahoma, and to predict saturated thickness and water in storage from the aquifer at specified future times. The Ogallala aquifer, which consists of unconsolidated sand, gravel, and clay, is the principal source of ground water in Texas County. Saturated thickness ranged from 0 feet to over 600 feet. The estimated value used for specific yield in most of the areas was 0.15 but 0.05 was used in some places. Hydraulic conductivity ranged from 0 to more than 200 feet per day, and recharge from 0.2 to 2.2 inches per year. Irrigation pumpage was estimated using crop acreage and estimate of irrigation requirements. For projection simulations with large stress, a reasonable maximum stress using a minimum of 4 wells per square mile and 1972 pumping rate per well, if saturated thickness was more than 38 feet, was used. Four types of boundaries were used in the model. They are (1) a zero-flux (impermeable) boundary on the perimeter of the modeled area,(2) a constant-head boundary for a reach of the Cimarron River, (3) a boundary which is a constant-head boundary initially but converts to an impermeable boundary (depending on the potentiometric gradient at the boundary) for a reach of Beaver River, Palo Duro Creek, and south of Palo Duro Creek, and (4) a boundary which is a partially penetrating stream with leaky-stream bed for parts of Beaver River and Coldwater Creek. The base period for calibration was 1966. The model was calibrated by a simulation from 1966 to 1968 in which pumpage was modified until the 1968 calculated heads matched closely the 1968 observed heads. The model was verified by a simulation from 1966 to 1972, using the 1966 to 1972 pumpage stress, in order to determine the degree of conformity between 1972 calculated heads and 1972 observed heads. The agreement was acceptable.

  10. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, M; Opsahl, S P; Mahler, B J; Herrington, C; Sample, T L; Banta, J R

    2016-10-15

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3(-)) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3(-) in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008-12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3(-) stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(18)O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3(-) concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3(-) concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3(-) concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3(-). These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3(-) contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008-10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3(-) than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously unrecognized

  11. Hydrogeology, water use, and simulation of flow in the High Plains aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, northeastern New Mexico, and northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luckey, Richard L.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, began a three-year study of the High Plains aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma in 1996. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a ground-water flow model to provide the Water Board with the information it needs to manage the quantity of water withdrawn from the aquifer. The study area consists of about 7,100 square miles in Oklahoma and about 20,800 square miles in adjacent states to provide appropriate hydrologic boundaries for the flow model. The High Plains aquifer includes all sediments from the base of the Ogallala Formation to the potentiometric surface. The saturated thickness in Oklahoma ranges from more than 400 feet to less than 50 feet. Natural recharge to the aquifer from precipitation occurs throughout the area but is extremely variable. Dryland agricultural practices appear to enhance recharge from precipitation, and part of the water pumped for irrigation also recharges the aquifer. Natural discharge occurs as discharge to streams, evapotranspiration where the depth to water is shallow, and diffuse ground-water flow across the eastern boundary. Artificial discharge occurs as discharge to wells. Irrigation accounted for 96 percent of all use of water from the High Plains aquifer in the Oklahoma portion of the study area in 1992 and 93 percent in 1997. Total estimated water use in 1992 for the Oklahoma portion of the study area was 396,000 acre-feet and was about 3.2 million acre-feet for the entire study area. Since development of the aquifer, water levels have declined more than 100 feet in small areas of Texas County, Oklahoma, and more than 50 feet in areas of Cimarron County. Only a small area of Beaver County had declines of more than 10 feet, and Ellis County had rises of more than 10 feet. A flow model constructed using the MODFLOW computer code had 21,073 active cells in one layer and had a 6,000- foot grid in both the north-south and east

  12. Groundwater Availability of the Central Valley Aquifer, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faunt, Claudia C.

    2009-01-01

    California's Central Valley covers about 20,000 square miles and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. More than 250 different crops are grown in the Central Valley with an estimated value of $17 billion per year. This irrigated agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage. Approximately one-sixth of the Nation's irrigated land is in the Central Valley, and about one-fifth of the Nation's groundwater demand is supplied from its aquifers. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California's expanding urban population. Since 1980, the population of the Central Valley has nearly doubled from 2 million to 3.8 million people. The Census Bureau projects that the Central Valley's population will increase to 6 million people by 2020. This surge in population has increased the competition for water resources within the Central Valley and statewide, which likely will be exacerbated by anticipated reductions in deliveries of Colorado River water to southern California. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conservation of agricultural land, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS Groundwater Resources Program made a detailed assessment of groundwater availability of the Central Valley aquifer system, that includes: (1) the present status of groundwater resources; (2) how these resources have changed over time; and (3) tools to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate variability and change. This effort builds on previous investigations, such as the USGS Central Valley Regional Aquifer System and Analysis (CV-RASA) project and several other groundwater studies in the Valley completed by Federal, State and local agencies at differing scales. The

  13. Earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanisms in central Oklahoma reveal a complex system of reactivated subsurface strike-slip faulting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Herrmann, Robert B.; Bergman, Eric A.; Earle, Paul S.; Holland, Austin F.; Baldwin, Randy W.; Gassner, A.

    2015-01-01

    The sharp increase in seismicity over a broad region of central Oklahoma has raised concern regarding the source of the activity and its potential hazard to local communities and energy industry infrastructure. Since early 2010, numerous organizations have deployed temporary portable seismic stations in central Oklahoma in order to record the evolving seismicity. In this study, we apply a multiple-event relocation method to produce a catalog of 3,639 central Oklahoma earthquakes from late 2009 through 2014. RMT source parameters were determined for 195 of the largest and best-recorded earthquakes. Combining RMT results with relocated seismicity enabled us to determine the length, depth and style-of-faulting occurring on reactivated subsurface fault systems. Results show that the majority of earthquakes occur on near vertical, optimally oriented (NE-SW and NW-SE), strike-slip faults in the shallow crystalline basement. These are necessary first order observations required to assess the potential hazards of individual faults in Oklahoma.

  14. Earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanisms in central Oklahoma reveal a complex system of reactivated subsurface strike-slip faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Benz, H. M.; Herrmann, R. B.; Bergman, E. A.; Earle, P.; Holland, A.; Baldwin, R.; Gassner, A.

    2015-04-01

    The sharp increase in seismicity over a broad region of central Oklahoma has raised concern regarding the source of the activity and its potential hazard to local communities and energy industry infrastructure. Since early 2010, numerous organizations have deployed temporary portable seismic stations in central Oklahoma in order to record the evolving seismicity. In this study, we apply a multiple-event relocation method to produce a catalog of 3639 central Oklahoma earthquakes from late 2009 through 2014. Regional moment tensor (RMT) source parameters were determined for 195 of the largest and best recorded earthquakes. Combining RMT results with relocated seismicity enabled us to determine the length, depth, and style of faulting occurring on reactivated subsurface fault systems. Results show that the majority of earthquakes occur on near-vertical, optimally oriented (NE-SW and NW-SE), strike-slip faults in the shallow crystalline basement. These are necessary first-order observations required to assess the potential hazards of individual faults in Oklahoma.

  15. Identifying aquifer type in fractured rock aquifers using harmonic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rahi, Khayyun A; Halihan, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Determining aquifer type, unconfined, semi-confined, or confined, by drilling or performing pumping tests has inherent problems (i.e., cost and complex field issues) while sometimes yielding inconclusive results. An improved method to cost-effectively determine aquifer type would be beneficial for hydraulic mapping of complex aquifer systems like fractured rock aquifers. Earth tides are known to influence water levels in wells penetrating confined aquifers or unconfined thick, low-porosity aquifers. Water-level fluctuations in wells tapping confined and unconfined aquifers are also influenced by changes in barometric pressure. Harmonic analyses of water-level fluctuations of a thick (~1000 m) carbonate aquifer located in south-central Oklahoma (Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer) were utilized in nine wells to identify aquifer type by evaluating the influence of earth tides and barometric-pressure variations using signal identification. On the basis of the results, portions of the aquifer responded hydraulically as each type of aquifer even though there was no significant variation in lithostratigraphy. The aquifer type was depth dependent with confined conditions becoming more prevalent with depth. The results demonstrate that harmonic analysis is an accurate and low-cost method to determine aquifer type.

  16. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, Marylynn; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Herrington, Chris; Sample, Thomas; Banta, John (Ryan)

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3−) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3− in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3− stable isotopes (δ15N and δ18O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3− concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3− concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3− concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3−. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3− contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3−than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously

  17. Growth of Cities and Loss of Streams: Land Cover Change Impacts on Stream Channel Loss in Central Oklahoma from 1874 to 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central Oklahoma has undergone substantial land cover changes since the 1800’s. Accordingly, regional watersheds have been covered by impervious surfaces, peripheral agricultural areas have been subdivided or intensified, and large reservoirs have been constructed. Here, we...

  18. Ground water in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  19. Geochemistry of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott; Hunt, Andrew G.; Parkhurst, David L.; Osborn, Noel I.

    2009-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma provides water for public supply, farms, mining, wildlife conservation, recreation, and the scenic beauty of springs, streams, and waterfalls. A new understanding of the aquifer flow system was developed as part of the Arbuckle-Simpson Hydrology Study, done in 2003 through 2008 as a collaborative research project between the State of Oklahoma and the Federal government. The U.S. Geological Survey collected 36 water samples from 32 wells and springs in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in 2004 through 2006 for geochemical analyses of major ions, trace elements, isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, dissolved gases, and dating tracers. The geochemical analyses were used to characterize the water quality in the aquifer, to describe the origin and movement of ground water from recharge areas to discharge at wells and springs, and to determine the age of water in the aquifer.

  20. EPA Designates Mahomet Aquifer as Sole Source of Drinking Water in East-Central Illinois

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced a decision to designate a portion of the Mahomet Aquifer system as a sole source aquifer. More than half of the population in east-central Illinois relies on the Mahomet Aquifer system.

  1. Digital map of changes in water levels from predevelopment to 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for contours of predevelopment to 1980 water-level elevation changes for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the contours for predevelopment to 1980 water-level elevation change from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  2. Geohydrology and numerical simulation of the alluvium and terrace aquifer along the Beaver-North Canadian River from the Panhandle to Canton Lake, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Robert E.; Christenson, Scott C.

    1981-01-01

    A quantitative description of the hydrologic system in alluvium and terrace deposits along the Beaver-North Canadian River in northwestern Oklahoma is needed as a aid for planning and management of the aquifer. A two-dimensional finite-difference model was used to describe the aquifer and to predict the effects of future ground-water withdrawals. The aquifer principally consists of three geologic units: Alluvium with an average thickness of 30 feet, low terrace deposits with an average thickness of 50 feet, and high terrace deposits with an average thickness of 70 feet. A thin cover of dune sand overlies much of the area and provides an excellent catchment for recharge, but is generally unsaturated. Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer ranges from 0 to 160 feet per day and average 59 feet per day. Specific yield is estimated to be 0.29. Recharge to the aquifer is approximately 1 inch annually. Under present conditions (1978), most discharge is the result of ground-water flow to the Beaver-North Canadian River at a rate of 36 cubic feet per second and to pumpage for public-supply, industrial, and irrigation use at a rate of 28 cubic feet per second. In 1978, the aquifer had an average saturated thickness of 31 feet and contained 4.07 million acre-feet of water. The model was used to predict future head response in the aquifer to various pumping stresses. For any one area, the pumping stress was applied until the saturated thickness for that area was less than 5 feet, at which time the pumping ceased. The results of the modeled projections show that if the aquifer is stressed from 1978 to 1993 at the 1977 pumpage rates and well distribution, the average saturated thickness will decrease 1.0 foot and the volume of water in storage will be 3.94 million acre-feet, or 97 percent of the 1978 volume. If the aquifer is stressed at this same rate until 2020, the average saturated thickness will decrease an additional 0.7 foot and the volume of water in storage will be 3

  3. Geohydrology and simulation of steady-state flow conditions in regional aquifer systems in Cretaceous and older rocks underlying Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signor, D.C.; Helgesen, J.O.; Jorgensen, D.G.; Leonard, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    Three regional aquifers systems are the basis for describing the geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the central United States. The Great Plains aquifer system, composed of Lower Cretaceous sandstone, generally contains brackish water (1,000 to 10,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids); the Western Interior Plains aquifer system of lower Paleozoic rocks contains saline water and is laterally adjacent to the freshwater-bearing Ozark Plateaus aquifer system composed of rocks of the same age.

  4. Climatology of aerosol optical depth in North-Central Oklahoma: 1992-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Schwartz, S.; Denn, F.; Flynn, C.; Hodges, G.; Kiedron, P.; Koontz, A.; Schlemmer, J., and Schwartz, S. E

    2010-04-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow-band, interference-filter Sun radiometer with five aerosol bands in the visible and near infrared; however, AOD measurements have been made simultaneously and routinely at the site by as many as three different types of instruments, including two pointing Sun radiometers. Scatterplots indicate high correlations and small biases consistent with earlier comparisons. The early part of this 16 year record had a disturbed stratosphere with residual Mt. Pinatubo aerosols, followed by the cleanest stratosphere in decades. As such, the last 13 years of the record reflect changes that have occurred predominantly in the troposphere. The field calibration technique is briefly described and compared to Langley calibrations from Mauna Loa Observatory. A modified cloud-screening technique is introduced that increases the number of daily averaged AODs retrieved annually to about 250 days compared with 175 days when a more conservative method was employed in earlier studies. AODs are calculated when the air mass is less than six; that is, when the Sun's elevation is greater than 9.25{sup o}. The more inclusive cloud screen and the use of most of the daylight hours yield a data set that can be used to more faithfully represent the true aerosol climate for this site. The diurnal aerosol cycle is examined month-by-month to assess the effects of an aerosol climatology on the basis of infrequent sampling such as that from satellites.

  5. Climatology of aerosol optical depth in north-central Oklahoma: 1992–2008

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, Joseph; Denn, Frederick; Flynn, Connor; Hodges, Gary; Kiedron, Piotr; Koontz, Annette; Schlemmer, James; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2010-04-13

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow-band, interference-filter Sun radiometer with five aerosol bands in the visible and near infrared; however, AOD measurements have been made simultaneously and routinely at the site by as many as three different types of instruments, including two pointing Sun radiometers. Scatterplots indicate high correlations and small biases consistent with earlier comparisons. The early part of this 16 year record had a disturbed stratosphere with residual Mt. Pinatubo aerosols, followed by the cleanest stratosphere in decades. As such, the last 13 years of the record reflect changes that have occurred predominantly in the troposphere. The field calibration technique is briefly described and compared to Langley calibrations from Mauna Loa Observatory. A modified cloudscreening technique is introduced that increases the number of daily averaged AODs retrieved annually to about 250 days compared with 175 days when a more conservative method was employed in earlier studies. AODs are calculated when the air mass is less than six; that is, when the Sun’s elevation is greater than 9.25°. The more inclusive cloud screen and the use of most of the daylight hours yield a data set that can be used to more faithfully represent the true aerosol climate for this site. The diurnal aerosol cycle is examined month-by-month to assess the effects of an aerosol climatology on the basis of infrequent sampling such as that from satellites.

  6. An Integrated Approach to Determine Ground-water Surface Water Flux in a Contaminated Aquifer-Wetland System at the Norman Landfill Research Site, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, I.; Phanikumar, M.; McGuire, J. T.; Masoner, J.; Cozzarelli, I.

    2008-12-01

    An area of research in progress at the Norman Landfill Research Site in Oklahoma involves a small wetland that overlies a landfill leachate plume. The wetland-aquifer system actively exchanges contaminants and nutrients. These chemicals move from the wetland to the aquifer and vice versa depending on the ground- water/surface-water exchange rate and flow direction. The ground-water/surface-water flow has to be quantified in order to better understand the influence of contaminants and nutrients on the transport and fate of landfill leachates. Different types of data have been collected at the site over a period of ten years including isotopic composition of water samples, ion concentrations, water levels, evaporative and seepage fluxes and meteorological variables. After identifying key processes influencing the water exchange between the wetland and ground-water based on time series analysis, we used process-based modeling to determine the ground-water/surface-water flow rates in the system using an integrated water balance model. Other methods used to constrain processes and parameters in the study include: (a) ground-water inflow calculation with stable environmental isotopes mass balance (b) ground-water input to the wetland with solute mass balance, and (c) Darcy's flow calculation of ground-water/surface-water exchange based on measurements from a network of piezometers. Preliminary results show that it is possible to differentiate between regional and local ground-water influences, as well as precipitation and evapotranspiration contributions in the exchange behavior.

  7. Groundwater modeling of the Calera Aquifer region in Central Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Calera Aquifer is the main source of water for irrigated agriculture, industrial, and drinking water purposes in the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 80% of the total groundwater extracted from the Calera Aquifer. In recent years, ...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING: An Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment of the Paluxy Aquifer, Central Texas, USA, Using GIS and a Modified DRASTIC Approach.

    PubMed

    Fritch; McKnight; Yelderman; Arnold

    2000-03-01

    / The Paluxy aquifer in north-central Texas is composed primarily of Lower Cretaceous clastics. This aquifer provides water for both domestic and agricultural purposes in the region. The study area for this investigation incorporates the outcrop and recharge areas, as well as the confined and unconfined portions of the aquifer. The purpose of this investigation is to perform a groundwater vulnerability assessment on the Paluxy aquifer using the GRASS 4.1 geographic information system combined with a modified DRASTIC approach. DRASTIC is an acronym for the variables that control the groundwater pollution potential (Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media,Topography, Impact of the vadose zone, andConductivity of the aquifer). Using such an approach allows one to investigate the potential for groundwater contamination on a regional, rather than site-specific, scale. Based upon data from variables such as soil permeability, depth to water, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and topography, subjective numerical weightings have been assigned according to the variable's relative importance in regional groundwater quality. The weights for each variable comprise a GIS map layer. These map layers are combined to formulate the final groundwater pollution potential map. Using this method of investigation, the pollution potential map for the study area classifies 47% of the area as having low pollution potential, 26% as having moderate pollution potential, 22% as having high pollution potential, and 5% as having very high pollution potential.

  9. An aquifer vulnerability assessment of the Paluxy Aquifer, central Texas, USA, using GIS and a modified DRASTIC approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fritch, T.G.; McKnight, C.L.; Yelderman, J.C. Jr.; Arnold, J.G.

    2000-03-01

    The Paluxy aquifer in north-central Texas is composed primarily of Lower Cretaceous clastics. This aquifer provides water for both domestic and agricultural purposes in the region. The study area for this investigation incorporates the outcrop and recharge areas, as well as the confined and unconfined portions of the aquifer. The purpose of this investigation is to perform a groundwater vulnerability assessment on the Paluxy aquifer using the GRASS 4.1 geographic information system combined with a modified DRASTIC approach. DRASTIC is an acronym for the variables that control the groundwater pollution potential (Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of the vadose zone, and Conductivity of the aquifer). Using such an approach allows one to investigate the potential for groundwater contamination on a regional, rather than site-specific, scale. Based upon data from variables such as soil permeability, depth to water, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and topography, subjective numerical weightings have been assigned according to the variable's relative importance in regional groundwater quality. The weights for each variable comprise a GIS map layer. These map layers are combined to formulate the final groundwater pollution potential map. Using this method of investigation, the pollution potential map for the study area classified 47% of the area as having low pollution potential, 26% as having moderate pollution potential, 22% as having high pollution potential, and 5% as having very high pollution potential.

  10. Groundwater quality and the relation between pH values and occurrence of trace elements and radionuclides in water samples collected from private wells in part of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    From 1999 to 2007, the Indian Health Service reported that gross alpha-particle activities and concentrations of uranium exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels for public drinking-water supplies in water samples from six private wells and two test wells in a rural residential neighborhood in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, in central Oklahoma. Residents in this rural area use groundwater from Quaternary-aged terrace deposits and the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington aquifer for domestic purposes. Uranium and other trace elements, specifically arsenic, chromium, and selenium, occur naturally in rocks composing the Garber-Wellington aquifer and in low concentrations in groundwater throughout its extent. Previous studies have shown that pH values above 8.0 from cation-exchange processes in the aquifer cause selected metals such as arsenic, chromium, selenium, and uranium to desorb (if present) from mineral surfaces and become mobile in water. On the basis of this information, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, conducted a study in 2011 to describe the occurrence of selected trace elements and radionuclides in groundwater and to determine if pH could be used as a surrogate for laboratory analysis to quickly and inexpensively identify wells that might contain high concentrations of uranium and other trace elements. The pH and specific conductance of groundwater from 59 private wells were measured in the field in an area of about 18 square miles in Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties. Twenty of the 59 wells also were sampled for dissolved concentrations of major ions, trace elements, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activities, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, and radon-222 gas. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 24.7 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50

  11. Water quality of the Quaternary and Ada-Vamoosa aquifers on the Osage Reservation, Osage County, Oklahoma, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.

    2000-01-01

    The project was to provide information on the quality of ground water from rural-domestic-water wells within the Osage Reservation and compare the water-quality to proximity to oil wells. About 38,500 oil wells have been drilled in the Reservation since drilling began in 1896. About 1,480 square miles or 64 percent of the Reservation is within a quarter mile of an oil well. The unconfined Quaternary sand aquifer covers about 315 square miles or about 14 percent of the Reservation and the confined Ada-Vamoosa sandstone aquifer covers about 800 square miles or about 35 percent of the Reservation. Fifty-eight percent of the Quaternary aquifer and 69 percent of the outcrop area of the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer are within a quarter mile of an oil well . One hundred twenty domestic ground-water wells were sampled from the Quaternary and Ada-Vamoosa aquifers. Forty-nine percent of the Reservation is underlain by the aquifers. Ground-water quality is good on most of the Reservation, but the use of domestic water-supply wells tend to minimize water-quality problems. Existing water-supply wells commonly are located in areas that produce usable volumes of potable water. Several constituents in samples from the Ada-Vamoosa-aquifer within a quarter mile of an oil well were significantly greater than from the aquifer not near oil wells. The constituents include specific conductance, dissolved solids, sodium, sulfate, chloride, bromide, and silica. These ions are probably derived from brine water. In the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer subgroups, 57 percent of the samples near oil wells and 24 percent of the samples not near oil wells had dissolved-solids concentrations greater than 500 milligrams per liter. The water quality in the Quaternary and Ada-Vamoosa aquifers is similar in areas where no oil wells have been drilled but is significantly different for several constituents. Median concentrations of major constituents from the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer not near oil wells were less than or equal to

  12. Quality Characteristics of Ground Water in the Ozark Aquifer of Northwestern Arkansas, Southeastern Kansas, Southwestern Missouri, and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, L.M.; Mehl, H.E.; Coiner, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Because of water quantity and quality concerns within the Ozark aquifer, the State of Kansas in 2004 issued a moratorium on most new appropriations from the aquifer until results were made available from a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kansas Water Office. The purposes of the study were to develop a regional ground-water flow model and a water-quality assessment of the Ozark aquifer in northwestern Arkansas, southeastern Kansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma (study area). In 2006 and 2007, water-quality samples were collected from 40 water-supply wells completed in the Ozark aquifer and spatially distributed throughout the study area. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, dissolved solids and major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and selected isotopes. This report presents the results of the water-quality assessment part of the cooperative study. Water-quality characteristics were evaluated relative to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. Secondary Drinking-Water Regulations were exceeded for dissolved solids (11 wells), sulfate and chloride (2 wells each), fluoride (3 wells), iron (4 wells), and manganese (2 wells). Maximum Contaminant Levels were exceeded for turbidity (3 wells) and fluoride (1 well). The Maximum Contaminant Level Goal for lead (0 milligrams per liter) was exceeded in water from 12 wells. Analyses of isotopes in water from wells along two 60-mile long ground-water flow paths indicated that water in the Ozark aquifer was at least 60 years old but the upper age limit is uncertain. The source of recharge water for the wells along the flow paths appeared to be of meteoric origin because of isotopic similarity to the established Global Meteoric Water Line and a global precipitation relation. Additionally, analysis of hydrogen-3 (3H) and carbon-14 (14C) indicated that there was possible leakage of younger ground water into the lower part of the Ozark aquifer. This may

  13. Hydrogeology of the surficial and intermediate aquifers of central Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerr, A.D.; Wolansky, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The geohydrologic units underlying a 300 sq mi area in central Sarasota County, Florida, consist of the surficial aquifer, intermediate aquifers (Tamiami-upper Hawthorn and lower Hawthorn-upper Tampa aquifers) and confining units, the Floridan aquifer system, and the sub-Floridan confining unit. The saturated thickness of the surficial aquifer ranges from about 40 to 75 ft and the water table is generally within 5 ft of land surface. The Tamiami-upper Hawthorn is the uppermost intermediate aquifer. The top of the aquifer ranges from about 50 ft to about 75 below sea level and has an average thickness of about 100 ft. The lower Hawthorne-upper Tampa aquifer is the lowermost intermediate aquifer. The top of the aquifer ranges from about 190 to about 220 ft below sea level and its thickness ranges from about 200 to 250 ft. The quality of water in the surficial and the two intermediate aquifers is acceptable for potable use except near the coast. Water from the Floridan aquifer system is used primarily for agricultural purposes because it is too mineralized for most other uses; therefore, the surficial and intermediate aquifers are developed for water supply. The artesian pressure of the various aquifers generally increases with depth. A more detailed geohydrologic description is presented for the Ringling-MacArthur Reserve, a 51 sq mi area in the central part of the county that may be used by Sarasota County as a future water supply. Average annual rainfall is 56 inches and evapotranspiration is about 42 in at the Reserve. The area has a high water table, many sloughs and swamps, and undeveloped land, making it an attractive site as a potential source of water. (Author 's abstract)

  14. Predicting carbon mass of central Oklahoma soils with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in carbon (C) storage within agricultural soils of Oklahoma as an aid in reducing atmospheric greenhouse gasses, and cash flow land managers might access, has increased recently. Description of C mass requires measurement of both bulk density and C concentration, but the techniques used ar...

  15. Aquifers in Cretaceous rocks of the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Lyke, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    Aquifers in rocks of Cretaceous age are the major source of groundwater for public supplies in the central Coastal Plain. These aquifers consist of sand, gravel, and limestone beds of the Peedee, Black Creek, and the upper and lower Cape Fear aquifers, each separated by a confining unit composed of clay and silt beds. The aquifers and confining units (1) rest upon crystalline basement rocks; (2) dip and thicken to the east-southeast; and (3) are overlain by younger aquifers and confining units in deposits of Quaternary and Tertiary age. The top of the uppermost aquifer, the Peedee, ranges from 122 ft above to 595 ft below sea level. The maximum thickness of all aquifers and confining units in Cretaceous rocks is more than 1,600 ft. Aquifers and confining units were defined and correlated for this report using 125 geophysical logs and accompanying drillers ' logs, water level data, and water quality information regarding chloride concentrations in water. This analysis allowed the construction of seven hydrogeologic cross sections that depict the continuity of all the aquifers and confining units. These cross sections also show water levels and chloride concentrations in water from various test intervals and describe where chloride concentration in water exceeds 250 mg/L within each aquifer. Detailed maps of each Cretaceous aquifer show altitude of its top, thickness, areas of selected sand percentages, transition zones from fresh to saltwater, and the thickness of the confining unit.

  16. Investigating groundwater flow between Edwards and Trinity aquifers in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Wong, C I; Kromann, J S; Hunt, B B; Smith, B A; Banner, J L

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nature of communication between aquifers can be challenging when using traditional physical and geochemical groundwater sampling approaches. This study uses two multiport wells completed within Edwards and Trinity aquifers in central Texas to determine the degree of groundwater inter-flow between adjacent aquifers. Potentiometric surfaces, hydraulic conductivities, and groundwater major ion concentrations and Sr isotope values were measured from multiple zones within three hydrostratigraphic units (Edwards and Upper and Middle Trinity aquifers). Physical and geochemical data from the multiport wells were combined with historical measurements of groundwater levels and geochemical compositions from the region to characterize groundwater flow and identify controls on the geochemical compositions of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers. Our results suggest that vertical groundwater flow between Edwards and Middle Trinity aquifers is likely limited by low permeability, evaporite-rich units within the Upper and Middle Trinity. Potentiometric surface levels in both aquifers vary with changes in wet vs. dry conditions, indicating that recharge to both aquifers occurs through distinct recharge areas. Geochemical compositions in the Edwards, Upper, and Middle Trinity aquifers are distinct and likely reflect groundwater interaction with different lithologies (e.g., carbonates, evaporites, and siliceous sediments) as opposed to mixing of groundwater between the aquifers. These results have implications for the management of these aquifers as they indicate that, under current conditions, pumping of either aquifer will likely not induce vertical cross-formational flow between the aquifers. Inter-flow between the Trinity and the Edwards aquifers, however, should be reevaluated as pumping patterns and hydrogeologic conditions change.

  17. Hydrogeological framework of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Rene A.; Ardis, Ann F.

    1996-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system underlies about 42,000 square miles of west-central Texas, where mostly gently dipping Lower Cretaceous strata comprise three regional aquifers and two regional confining units. The aquifers are the Edwards Aquifer of the Balcones fault zone, the Trinity Aquifer of the Balcones fault zone and Hill County, and the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer of the Edwards Plateau and Trans-Pecos. The Navarro-Del Rio confining unit confines the downdip part of the Edwards Aquifer, and the Hammett confining unit confines the updip, basal part of the Trinity Aquifer and a small southeastern fringe of the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer. Transmissivity averages less than 10,000 feet squared per day throughout more than 90 percent of the study area as the result of widespread cementation and secondary mineral growth. However, in fractured and leached rocks in the Balcones fault zone, transmissivity averages about 750,000 feet squared per day in the Edwards aquifer, which occupies less than 10 percent of the area.

  18. Hydrogeology and water-quality characteristics of the Lower Floridan aquifer in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Spechler, Rick M.; McGurk, Brian E.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water-quality characteristics of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the relation of the Lower Floridan aquifer to the framework of the Floridan aquifer system were evaluated during a 6-year (1995-2001) study. The study area, a 7,500 square-mile area of east-central Florida, is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system, a carbonate-rock aquifer system composed of the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semiconfining unit, a middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer, is the major source of water supply to east-central Florida. The Upper Floridan aquifer provides much of the water required to meet the current (2002) demand; however, the Lower Floridan aquifer is being used increasingly as a source of freshwater, particularly for municipal needs. For this reason, a better understanding of the aquifer is needed. The Lower Floridan aquifer is present throughout east-central Florida. The aquifer is composed of alternating beds of limestone and dolomite, and is characterized by abundant fractured dolomite zones and solution cavities. The altitude of the top of the Lower Floridan aquifer ranges from less than 600 feet below sea level in the northern part of the study area to more than 1,600 feet below sea level in the southwestern part. Thickness of the unit ranges from about 910 to 1,180 feet. The top of the Lower Floridan aquifer generally is marked by an increase in formation resistivity and by an increase in the occurrence of fractures and solution cavities within the carbonates. Also, a noticeable increase in borehole flow often marks the top of the unit. The bottom of the Lower Floridan aquifer is based on the first occurrence of evaporites. Ground-water in the Lower Floridan aquifer generally moves in a southwest-to-northeast direction across the study area. In September 1998, the altitude of the potentiometric

  19. Generalized thickness and configuration of the top of the intermediate aquifer, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corral, Miguel A.; Wolansky, Richard M.

    1984-01-01

    Generalized map show the thickness and top of the intermediate aquifer in west-central Florida within the boundaries of the Southwest Florida Water Management District. The intermediate aquifer consists of a series of water-bearing units and confining beds between the surficial aquifer (water table) and the Floridan aquifer. This aquifer contains from one to several water-bearing units in west-central Florida. The aquifer and confining beds consist of the Tamiami and Hawthorn Formations of late and middle Miocene age and parts of the Tampa Limestone of early Miocene age. The top of the intermediate aquifer is about 100 feet above sea level in the north and slopes to about 100 feet below sea level in the south. The thickness ranges from zero in the north to more than 600 feet in the south. Despite the high mineral content of the water in some areas, the intermediate aquifer offers the best source of ground water to the coastal and southern areas of west-central Florida. (USGS)

  20. A Reconnaissance of selected organic compounds in streams in tribal lands in Central Oklahoma, January-February 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey worked in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma on two separate reconnaissance projects carried out concurrently. Both projects entailed the use of passive samplers as a sampling methodology to investigate the detection of selected organic compounds at stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes in central Oklahoma during January-February 2009. The focus of the project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was the detection of pesticides and pesticide metabolites using Semipermeable Membrane Devices at five stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes. The project with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma focused on the detection of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and synthetic organic compounds using Semipermeable Membrane Devices and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers at two stream sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The seven stream sites were located in central Oklahoma on the Cimarron River, Little River, North Canadian River, Deep Fork, and Washita River. Extracts from SPMDs submerged at five stream sites, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, were analyzed for 46 pesticides and 6 pesticide metabolites. Dacthal, a pre-emergent herbicide, was detected at all five sites. Pendimethalin, also a pre-emergent, was detected at one site. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and dieldrin were detected at three sites and p,p'-DDE, a metabolite of the insecticide DDT, also was detected at three sites. SPMDs and POCIS were submerged at the upstream edge and downstream edge of the Kickapoo tribal boundaries. Both sites are downstream from the Oklahoma City metropolitan area and multiple municipal wastewater treatment plants. Extracts from the passive samplers were analyzed for 62 pesticides, 10 pesticide metabolites, 3 polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, 35

  1. Spatial data for Eurycea salamander habitats associated With three aquifers in south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Reece, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    Eurycea salamander taxa comprise 12 known species that inhabit springs and caves in south-central Texas. Many of these are threatened or endangered species, and some are found only at one location. A number of the neotenic salamanders might be at risk from habitat loss associated with declines in ground-water levels. Eurycea salamander habitats are associated with three aquifers in south-central Texas: (1) the Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer, (2) the Edwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aquifer, and (3) the Trinity aquifer. The Edwards (Balcones fault zone) aquifer is commonly separated into three segments: from southwest to northeast, the San Antonio segment, the Barton Springs segment, and the northern segment. The Trinity aquifer south of the Colorado River can be divided into three permeable zones, the upper, middle, and lower zone. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, developed this report (geodatabase) to aggregate the spatial data necessary to assess the potential effects of ground-water declines on known Eurycea habitat locations in south-central Texas. The geodatabase provides information about spring habitats, spring flow, cave habitats, aquifers, and projected water levels.

  2. Quality of water in the Trinity and Edwards aquifers, south-central Texas, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fahlquist, Lynne; Ardis, Ann F.

    2004-01-01

    During 1996?98, the U.S. Geological Survey studied surface- and ground-water quality in south-central Texas. The ground-water components included the upper and middle zones (undifferentiated) of the Trinity aquifer in the Hill Country and the unconfined part (recharge zone) and confined part (artesian zone) of the Edwards aquifer in the Balcones fault zone of the San Antonio region. The study was supplemented by information compiled from four ground-water-quality studies done during 1996?98. Trinity aquifer waters are more mineralized and contain larger dissolved solids, sulfate, and chloride concentrations compared to Edwards aquifer waters. Greater variability in water chemistry in the Trinity aquifer likely reflects the more variable lithology of the host rock. Trace elements were widely detected, mostly at small concentrations. Median total nitrogen was larger in the Edwards aquifer than in the Trinity aquifer. Ammonia nitrogen was detected more frequently and at larger concentrations in the Trinity aquifer than in the Edwards aquifer. Although some nitrate nitrogen concentrations in the Edwards aquifer exceeded a U.S. Geological Survey national background threshold concentration, no concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency public drinking-water standard. Synthetic organic compounds, such as pesticides and volatile organic compounds, were detected in the Edwards aquifer and less frequently in the Trinity aquifer, mostly at very small concentrations (less than 1 microgram per liter). These compounds were detected most frequently in urban unconfined Edwards aquifer samples. Atrazine and its breakdown product deethylatrazine were the most frequently detected pesticides, and trihalomethanes were the most frequently detected volatile organic compounds. Widespread detections of these compounds, although at small concentrations, indicate that anthropogenic activities affect ground-water quality. Radon gas was detected throughout the Trinity

  3. Potentiometric surface of the Catahoula aquifer in central Louisiana, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fendick, Jr., Robert B.; Carter, Kayla

    2015-12-09

    The potentiometric surface of the Catahoula aquifer was constructed by using the altitude of water levels measured at 29 wells during the period May through September 2013. The altitude of water levels ranged from 0.02 ft above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD 29) in well Co-51 to 238 ft above NGVD 29 in well Na-317. Groundwater movement in the Catahoula aquifer is generally to the southeast and towards discharge areas beneath the Sabine, Red, Little, and Tensas River Valleys.

  4. The diurnal wind variation in the lowest 1500 ft in central Oklahoma - June 1966-May 1967.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, K. C.; Hudson, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    A one-year accumulation of wind data from a television tower in northern Oklahoma City has been analyzed on a diurnal basis. The annual mean speeds below the third level at 296 ft are lowest at night and highest during the day, and conversely the speeds up to the seventh level at 1458 ft are lowest during the day and highest at night. Generally, speed changes occur in short time periods shortly after sunrise and near sunset. Resultant wind directions veer most with height from 1700 to 1000 CST and least during midday. At all levels winds veer with time between 2100 and approximately 1100 CST and then back with time during the remaining hours.

  5. Processes affecting δ34S and δ18O values of dissolved sulfate in alluvium along the Canadian River, central Oklahoma, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Breit, George N.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2009-01-01

    The δ34S and δ18O values for dissolved sulfate in groundwater are commonly used in aquifer studies to identify sulfate reservoirs and describe biogeochemical processes. The utility of these data, however, often is compromised by mixing of sulfate sources within reservoirs and isotope fractionation during sulfur redox cycling. Our study shows that, after all potential sulfate sources are identified and isotopically characterized, the δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 values differentiate processes such as sulfate-source mixing, sulfide oxidation, barite dissolution, and organosulfur decomposition. During bacterial reduction of sulfate, the values reflect kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation and exchange of oxygen isotopes between sulfate and water. Detailed analysis of the chemistry (Cl and SO4 concentrations) and isotopic composition (δ2HH2Oand δ18OH2O) of groundwater in an alluvial aquifer in Central Oklahoma, USA allowed the identification of five distinct end members that supply water to the aquifer (regional groundwater flowing into the study area, river water, leachate from a closed landfill that operated within the site, rain, and surface runoff). The δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 values in each end member differentiated three sources of sulfate: sulfate dissolved from Early to Late Permian rocks within the drainage basin (δ34SSO4 = 8–12‰ and δ18OSO4 = 10‰), iron sulfides oxidized by molecular oxygen during low water-table levels (δ34SSO4 = − 16‰ and δ18OSO4 = 10‰), and organosulfur compounds (predominately ester sulfates) from decomposition of vegetation on the surface and from landfill trash buried in the alluvium (δ34SSO4 = 8‰ and δ18OSO4 = 6‰). During bacterial reduction of these sulfate sources, similar isotope fractionation processes are recorded in the parallel trends of increasing δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 values. When extensive reduction occurs, the kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation (estimated by εH2S–SO4 = − 23

  6. Regional Conference on Libraries (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, November 3, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capshaw, Ron, Ed.

    On November 3, 1975, a Regional Conference on Libraries was convened by the Association of Central Oklahoma Governments to make recommendations for library improvement based on perceived local needs. Four workshops had been held before the Conference in Logan, Canadian, Cleveland, and Oklahoma Counties. Recommendations from those workshops were…

  7. Preliminary projections of the effects of chloride-control structures on the Quaternary aquifer at Great Salt Plains, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    About 1,200 tons of chloride per day are added to the salt load of the Salt Fork of the Arkansas River at Great Salt Plains Lake from natural sources. The source of this chloride is brine discharge from the rocks of Permian age in the vicinity of the lake. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has planned a chloride-control project. The Corps requested that the U.S. Geological Survey use a digital model to project the effects of the chloride-control plan on ground water. Ground-water flow and ground-water transport models were calibrated to represent the Quaternary aquifer that is the near-surface part of the flow system. The models were used to project the effects of planned chloride-control structures. Based on model results, ground-water levels are projected to rise as much as 19 feet. However, these water-level rises will occur only in areas near three reservoirs. Changes in ground-water level caused by the project will be small throughout most of the area. Chloride concentration of ground water is projected to increase by more than 90,000 milligrams per liter at one location. However, significant increases in chloride concentration during the 50-year period simulated are projected to be limited to areas where the ground water already contains excessive chloride concentrations.

  8. Water-level changes in the high plains aquifer underlying parts of South Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas; predevelopment through nonirrigation season 1987-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kastner, W.M.; Schild, D.E.; Spahr, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The changes in water levels in the High Plains aquifer from the nonirrigation season 1986-87 through the nonirrigation season 1987-88 and from the nonirrigation season 1979-80 through the nonirrigation season 1987-88 are presented in maps for the entire High Plains aquifer area. Water level changes are caused by interacting changes in precipitation, land use, and annual pumpage. Water levels declined from conditions prior to development until 1980 through parts of the High Plains of Nebraska, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. From 1980 through 1987 water level changes were mixed, with declines of more than 10 ft in the highly developed areas of Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas and relatively stable to rising water tables throughout the remaining aquifer area. The net change was a rise of 0.8 ft. The 1981-87 period was generally wetter than normal and pumping for irrigated agriculture was therefore reduced. Water level changes were mixed during 1987. Declines continued in some highly developed areas, but water levels generally rose throughout most of the aquifer. The average area-weighted change was a rise of 0.28 ft. This rise was due to the generally greater than normal precipitation, decreased acreage under irrigation, and decreased pumpage for those areas irrigated. At the end of the growing season, the drought in the Midwest in 1988 affected only limited areas of the High Plains. The effects of the drought on water levels can not be assessed until the water-level measurements for the nonirrigation season of 1988-89 are compiled. (USGS)

  9. Occurrence of nitrous oxide in the central High Plains aquifer, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Bruch, B.W.; Becker, M.F.; Pope, L.M.; Dennehy, K.F.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen-enriched groundwater has been proposed as an important anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), yet few measurements of N2O in large aquifer systems have been made. Concentrations of N2O in water samples collected from the 124 000 km2 central High Plains aquifer in 1999 ranged from < 1 to 940 nM, with a median concentration of 29 nM (n = 123). Eighty percent of the N20 concentrations exceeded the aqueous concentration expected from equilibration with atmospheric N2O. Measurements of N2O, NO3-, and 3H in unsaturated-zone sediments, recently recharged groundwater, and older groundwater indicate that concentrations of N2O in groundwater increased over time and will likely continue to increase in the future as N-enriched water recharges the aquifer. Large concentrations of O2 and NO3- and small concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic carbon in the aquifer indicate that N2O in the central High Plains aquifer was produced primarily by nitrification. Calculations indicate that the flux of N2O from the central High Plains aquifer to the atmosphere from well pumping and groundwater discharge to streams was not a significant source of atmospheric N2O.Nitrogen-enriched groundwater has been proposed as an important anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), yet few measurements of N2O in large aquifer systems have been made. Concentrations of N2O in water samples collected from the 124000 km2 central High Plains aquifer in 1999 ranged from < 1 to 940 nM, with a median concentration of 29 nM (n = 123). Eighty percent of the N2O concentrations exceeded the aqueous concentration expected from equilibration with atmospheric N2O. Measurements of N2O, NO3-, and 3H in unsaturated-zone sediments, recently recharged groundwater, and older groundwater indicate that concentrations of N2O in groundwater increased over time and will likely continue to increase in the future as N-enriched water recharges the aquifer. Large concentrations of O2 and

  10. Can We Mitigate Climate Extremes using Managed Aquifer Recharge: Case Studies California Central Valley and South-Central Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Faunt, C. C.; Pool, D. R.; Uhlman, K.

    2015-12-01

    Frequent long-term droughts interspersed with intense floods in the southwestern U.S. underscore the need to store more water to manage these climate extremes. Here we show how managed aquifer recharge can enhance drought resilience in the southwestern U.S. with ~ 70% of California under extreme drought and 75% of Arizona under moderate drought. Data on water sources, transportation, and users were compiled for managed aquifer recharge systems in the Central Valley and south-central Arizona. Groundwater depletion of 115 to 145 km3 in the 1900s created large subsurface reservoirs in thick alluvial basins in these regions. Large canals and aqueducts up to several 100 km long allow water to be imported from reservoirs, mostly in more humid regions. Imported water is either used instead of groundwater or is applied in surface spreading basins primarily during wet periods (≤1.3 km3/yr Central Valley, ≤0.7 km3/yr Arizona) and is extracted during droughts. The dominant water users include irrigators and municipalities both within and outside the managed aquifer recharge systems. Groundwater modeling indicates that recharge basins significantly increase groundwater storage in the Central Valley. Managed aquifer recharge systems significantly enhance drought resilience and increase sustainability of water resources in semiarid regions, complementing surface water reservoirs and conjunctive surface water/groundwater use by providing longer term storage.

  11. Effects of brine on the chemical quality of water in parts of Creek, Lincoln, Okfuskee, Payne, Pottawatomie, and Seminole Counties, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of water-quality degradation due to brine contamination was made in an area of ~1,700 mi2 in east-central Oklahoma. The study area coincides in part with the outcrop of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer of Pennsylvanian age.

  12. Use of chlorofluorocarbons (CCl3F and CCl2F2) as hydrologic tracers and age-dating tools: The alluvium and terrace system of central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, L. Niel

    1992-01-01

    The use of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as an age-dating tool and tracer in shallow groundwaters has been investigated. New methodology for field sampling and preserving groundwaters containing parts per trillion concentrations of the CFCs, F-1l and F-12, is presented. Samples are analyzed by purge-and-trap gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. Physical and chemical processes that can alter natural concentrations (air-water equilibrium) of CFCs were investigated to assess dating uncertainties. CFC model recharge ages appear to be defined within 2 years under optimum conditions. The method was applied to central Oklahoma to demonstrate the usefulness of CFCs as (1) an age-dating tool of shallow groundwaters, (2) a tracer of sewage effluent in surface and shallow groundwaters, and (3) a tracer of shallow groundwater. Results of dating indicate two primary recharge periods in central Oklahoma over the past 45 years that correspond to the wet periods 1945–1960 and 1967–1975.

  13. Ground water investigations in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Leon V.

    1955-01-01

    Prior to 1937, ground-water work in Oklahoma consisted of broad scale early-day reconnaissance and a few brief investigations of local areas. The reconnaissance is distinguished by C. N. Gould's "Geology and Water Resources of Oklahoma" (Water-Supply Paper 148, 1905), which covers about half of the present State of Oklahoma. Among the shorter reports are two by Schwennesen for areas near Enid and Oklahoma City, one by Renick for Enid, and one by Thompson on irrigation possibilities near Gage. These reports are now inadequate by modern standards. Cooperative ground-water work in Oklahoma by the United States Geological Survey began in 1937, with the Oklahoma Geological Survey as cooperating agency. With the passage of the new ground-water law by the State Legislature in 1949, the need for more information on available ground waters and the safe yield of the various aquifers became very pressing. Accordingly, the Division of Water Resources of the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board, to which was delegated the responsibility of administering the Ground-Water Law, entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey, providing for an expansion of ground-water investigations. Both cooperators have consistently given full and enthusiastic cooperation, often beyond the requirements of the cooperative program. The first cooperative investigation was an evaluation of ground-water supplies available for irrigation in the Panhandle. In 1937 the Panhandle was still very much in the dust bowl, and it was hoped that irrigation would alleviate the drought. A bulletin on Texas County was published in 1939, and one on Cimarron County in 1943. Ground-water investigations during the World War II were restricted to the demands of Army and Navy installations, and to defense industries. Ground-water investigations since 1945 have included both country-wide and aquifer-type investigations. In Oklahoma it has been the policy for the State cooperator to publish the

  14. Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer of central Israel, its development and possible use as a storage reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1964-01-01

    The Cenomanian-Turonian formations constitute a highly permeable dolomite and limestone aquifer in central Israel. The aquifer is on the west limb of an anticlinorium that trends north-northeast. In places it may be as much as 800 meters thick, but in the report area, largely the foothills of the Judean-Ephraim Mountains where the water development is most intensive, its thickness is generally considerably less. In some places the aquifer occurs at or near the land surface, or it is covered by sandy and gravelly coastal-plain deposits. However, in a large part of the area, it is overlain by as much as 400 meters of relatively impermeable strata, and it is probably underlain by less permeable Lower Cretaceous strata. In general the aquifer water is under artesian pressure. The porosity of the aquifer is characterized mainly by solution channels and cavities produced by jointing and faulting. In addition to the generally high permeability of the aquifer, some regions, which probably coincide with ancient drainage patterns and (or) fault zones, have exceptionally high permeabilities. The source of most of the water in the aquifer is believed to be rain that falls on the foothills area. The westward movement of ground water from the mountainous outcrop areas appears to be impeded by a zone of low permeability which is related to structural and stratigraphic conditions along the western side of the mountains. Gradients of the piezometric surface are small, and the net direction of water movement is westward and northwestward under natural conditions. Locally, however, the flow pattern may be in other directions owing to spatial variations in permeability in the aquifer, the location of natural discharge outlets, and the relation of the aquifer to adjacent geologic formations. There probably is also a large vertical component of flow. Pumping has modified the flow pattern by producing several irregularly shaped shallow depressions in the piezometric surface although, to

  15. Saltwater in shallow aquifers in east-central and northeastern Louisiana and southeastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, G.F.; Bonck, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The chemistry of water from irrigation and monitor wells in east-central Louisiana indicates the presence of saltwater in the Mississippi River alluvial aquifer and the uppermost part of the Jasper aquifer system. The salinity of this groundwater makes it unsuitable for use in irrigation of salt-sensitive crops. The geochemistry of bromide (Br) and chloride (Cl) ions and strontium (Sr) isotopes indicated that this saltwater could have originated from the mixing of freshwater with briny water originating from the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer at altitudes from 5,800 to 6,800 feet below sea level. However, in the absence of data on the concentrations of Br and Cl ions and the values of (87)Sr/(86)Sr in water from the Catahoula, Cockfield, and Sparta aquifers within the study area, no conclusive statement can be made on the origin of saltwater in the alluvial aquifer and the uppermost part of the Jasper aquifer system. Analyses of water from irrigation wells in northeastern Louisiana and southeastern Arkansas indicated the presence of saltwater in the Mississippi River alluvial aquifer. Saltwater probably moves from southern Chicot County, Arkansas, into northeastern Louisiana by flowing to the southwest along a fluvial channel eroded into the Cockfield Formation. Saltwater in the Mississippi River alluvial aquifer in northeastern Louisiana and southeastern Arkansas can be hazardous to salt-sensitive crops, such as rice, when used for irrigation. The geochemistry of Br and Cl ions indicated that saltwater in the Mississippi River alluvial aquifer of southern Chicot County in southeastern Arkansas has two geochemically distinct sources. One source, which has Br/Cl ratios less than that of modern seawater, could be derived from saltwater present in aquifers of Tertiary age; this saltwater could enter the alluvial aquifer by upward flow from below as part of the natural regional groundwater flow pattern. The other source, which has Br/Cl ratios greater than that of modern sea

  16. Potentiometric surfaces of the intermediate aquifer system, west-central Florida, May, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mularoni, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The intermediate aquifer system underlies a 5000-sq-mi area including De Soto, Sarasota, Hardee, Manatee, and parts of Charlotte, Hillsborough, Highlands, and Polk Counties, Florida. It is overlain by the surf@cial aquifer system and underlain by the Floridan aquifer system. The potentiometric surface of the intermediate aquifer system was mapped by determining the altitude of water levels in a network of wells and represented on a map by contours that connect points of equal altitude. This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the spring dry season when ground- water withdrawals for agricultural use were high. The cumulative rainfall for the study area was 4.84 inches above normal for the period from June 1992 to May 1993. Hydrographs for selected wells indicated that the annual and seasonal fluctuations of the water levels were generally large (greater than 15 feet) in the central interior region where water demand for irrigation is high during the fall and spring. Seasonal fluctuations were smaller in the northern recharge area where water use is predominantly for public supply. Water levels measured in May 1993 for the composite intermediate aquifer potentiometric surface were lower than those measured in May or September 1992. A cone of depression exists in the potentiometric surface for the composite aquifer system at Warm Mineral Springs, which is a natural discharge point from this system.

  17. Characterization and simulation of flow in the lower Arkansas River alluvial aquifer, south-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jian, Xiaodong; Combs, Lanna J.; Hansen, Cristi V.

    2004-01-01

    Large parts of the lower Arkansas, Ninnescah, and Walnut River Basins in south-central Kansasan area that includes Wichita, the largest city in Kansasare experiencing rapid population growth and, consequently, increasing demands on surface- and ground-water resources in addition to agricultural irrigation in the area. The quantity and quality of water available in the lower Arkansas, Ninnescah, and Walnut River Basins in Butler, Cowley, Sedgwick, and Sumner Counties are crucial as population and water use continue to increase in the region. A steady-state model was constructed to simulate flow in the Arkansas River alluvial aquifer between Wichita and Arkansas City. Calibration was achieved using March 2001 measured water levels and streamflow gain using long-term (19402001) streamflow records. Average recharge about 5 inches per year; average aquifer hydraulic conductivity was about 500 feet per day; well pumpage (average of reported 19982001 use) was 56 cubic feet per second; and net flow from the alluvial aquifer to streams in the modeled area was computed by hydrograph separation to be 157 cubic feet per second. Nine hypothetical simulations were conducted with ground-water pumpage varying from zero to double authorized pumpage (206 cubic feet per second). Net remaining aquifer thickness declined for the largest simulated pumpage increases in comparison to 19982001 average pumping, as did flow from the aquifer to the Arkansas River. Simulated aquifer thickness decreases were more pronounced in areas where pumpage is currently (2004) greatest.

  18. The Mahomet aquifer: A transboundary resource in east-central Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.R.; Mehnert, E.; Herzog, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    Emerging intrastate transboundary issues focus on use of the Mahomet aquifer, which underlies about fifteen counties and many other political entities in east-central Illinois. This sand and gravel aquifer in the lower part of the buried Mahomet Bedrock Valley ranges between four and fourteen miles wide and from about 50 to 200 feet thick. Much of the region's rural population, several large communities, and many small towns obtain water from the Mahomet aquifer, as do industrial, agricultural, and commercial users. Increased development of the Mahomet aquifer to meet growing demands for water has caused conflicts over real or perceived adverse effects. One result has been the creation of fifteen resource protection zones and twelve water authorities. For groundwater supplies, resource protection zones help municipalities protect water-supply wells from potential adverse impacts. Many resource protection zones overlap one another, however, so this situation could lead to disputes over use of the resource. The reason that several of the twelve water authorities were organized was to meet a challenge perceived from a demand to be placed on the aquifer, in other words, a potential for conflict of use. Complicating the situation is that some of the water authorities overlap the resource protection zones. This could lead to disputes not only about water use, but also over which jurisdiction has the authority to settle a dispute. The Mahomet Aquifer Consortium was recently organized by concerned people representing diverse groundwater interests at the local level, including the private sector, professional organizations, and various governmental units. The consortium brings together representatives of some groups that typically did not communicate with each other in the past. The consortium may provide a forum through which emerging transboundary issues pertaining to use of the Mahomet aquifer can be addressed. Because the consortium is a voluntary organization that

  19. Multiple episodes of dolomitization in the Arbuckle Group, Arbuckle Mountains, south-central Oklahoma: Field, petrographic, and geochemical evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, G.; Land, L.S.; Elmore, R.D.

    1995-04-03

    The Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group in the Arbuckle Mountains, south-central Oklahoma, had a complex history of dolomitization that resulted in two different geometries of dolomite bodies: stratal dolomite, of stratigraphically consistent, widespread distribution, and non-stratal dolomite, of stratigraphically inconsistent, local occurrence. Stratal dolomite includes the Royer and Butterly units in the lower Arbuckle Group. Most stratal dolomite samples are coarsely crystalline and have {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios similar to Late Cambrian limestone and coeval seawater. All stratal dolomite and Arbuckle limestone samples have low {Delta}{sup 18}O values. Nonstratal dolomite is present in two areas: the Tishomingo Anticline and the Arbuckle Anticline. In the Tishomingo Anticline area, massive bodies (> 10 km{sup 2}) of nonstratal dolomite are present in a paleokarst system of pre-Middle Ordovician age. The petrographic and isotopic characteristics suggest that the nonstratal dolomite probably resulted from dolomitization of recrystallized limestone by post-Early Ordovician seawater. In the Arbuckle Anticline area, nonstratal dolomite is present as small irregular bodies that are related to Pennsylvanian faults and are associated with the margins of stratal Butterly dolomite. The nonstratal dolomite, medium to coarsely crystalline and brightly luminescent, is characterized by high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios values, and Fe and Mn concentrations, relative to all Arbuckle carbonates. Such compositions suggest that this type of dolomite probably originated from fluids that were derived from the adjacent basin(s) during late Paleozoic time.

  20. Mapping groundwater level and aquifer storage variations from InSAR measurements in the Madrid aquifer, Central Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béjar-Pizarro, Marta; Ezquerro, Pablo; Herrera, Gerardo; Tomás, Roberto; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Ruiz Hernández, José M.; Fernández Merodo, José A.; Marchamalo, Miguel; Martínez, Rubén

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater resources are under stress in many regions of the world and the future water supply for many populations, particularly in the driest places on Earth, is threatened. Future climatic conditions and population growth are expected to intensify the problem. Understanding the factors that control groundwater storage variation is crucial to mitigate its adverse consequences. In this work, we apply satellite-based measurements of ground deformation over the Tertiary detritic aquifer of Madrid (TDAM), Central Spain, to infer the spatio-temporal evolution of water levels and estimate groundwater storage variations. Specifically, we use Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) data during the period 1992-2010 and piezometric time series on 19 well sites covering the period 1997-2010 to build groundwater level maps and quantify groundwater storage variations. Our results reveal that groundwater storage loss occurred in two different periods, 1992-1999 and 2005-2010 and was mainly concentrated in a region of ∼200 km2. The presence of more compressible materials in that region combined with a long continuous water extraction can explain this volumetric deficit. This study illustrates how the combination of PSI and piezometric data can be used to detect small aquifers affected by groundwater storage loss helping to improve their sustainable management.

  1. Water and sediment yield response to multi-year precipitation variations in a central Oklahoma watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persistent, multi-year departures of annual precipitation from long term mean have been observed in various parts of the United States. The Dust Bowl years in the central plains and the recent drought in the West are examples of such persistent departures. Departures in annual precipitation that las...

  2. Potentiometric surface of the upper Floridan aquifer, west-central Florida, May 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Anita G.

    2011-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing freshwater are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2011. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when groundwater levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 45.74 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2010 through May 2011) was 6.85 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.59 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2011). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September from 1975 through 2010. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to

  3. Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer, west-central Florida, September 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing freshwater are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish-water desalination in coastal communties (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2005. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface, connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in a tightly cased well that taps a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 55.19 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2004 through September 2005) was 2.00 inches above the historical cumulative average of 53.19 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2005). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to the most recent calendar year) and are updated monthly by the SWFWMD. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the SWFWMD, is part of a semiannual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water

  4. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, May 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2007. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 41.21 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2006 through May 2007) was 11.63 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.84 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2007). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the

  5. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-central Florida, May 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2010. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when groundwater levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 55.21 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2009 through May 2010) was 2.55 inches above the historical cumulative average of 52.66 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2010). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the

  6. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, September 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing freshwater are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2006. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 46.06 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2005 through September 2006) was 6.91 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.97 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2006). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each

  7. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, September 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Anita G.

    2009-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2008. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 50.63 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2007 through September 2008) was 2.26 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.89 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2008). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each

  8. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2007. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 39.50 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2006 through September 2007) was 13.42 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.92 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2007). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each

  9. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, May 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2008. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 46.95 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2007 through May 2008) was 5.83 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.78 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2008). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the

  10. Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer, west-central Florida, May 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.; Blanchard, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing freshwater are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is a highly productive aquifer and supplies more than 10 times the amount of water pumped from either the surficial aquifer system or the intermediate aquifer system in most of the study area (Duerr and others, 1988). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2005. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in a tightly cased well that taps a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 67.27 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2004 through May 2005) was 14.20 inches above the historical cumulative average of 53.07 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), 2005). The above average precipitation is attributed to the active hurrican season for Florida in 2004. Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to the most recent completed calendar year) and are updated monthly by the SWFWMD. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the SWFWMD, is part of a semiannual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to

  11. Potentiometric surface, 2012, and water-level differences, 2005-12, of the Sparta Aquifer in north-central Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, Benton D.; Brantly, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    The Sparta aquifer is used in 15 parishes in north-central Louisiana, primarily for public supply and industrial purposes. Of those parishes, eight (Bienville, Claiborne, Jackson, Lincoln, Ouachita, Union, Webster, and Winn) rely on the Sparta aquifer as their principal source of groundwater. In 2010, withdrawals from the Sparta aquifer in Louisiana totaled 63.11 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), a reduction of more than 11 percent from 1995, when the highest rate of withdrawals (71.32 Mgal/d) from the Sparta aquifer were documented. The Sparta aquifer provides water for a variety of purposes which include public supply (34.61 Mgal/d), industrial (25.60 Mgal/d), rural domestic (1.50 Mgal/d), and various agricultural (1.40 Mgal/d). Of the 13 major aquifers or aquifer systems in Louisiana, the Sparta aquifer is currently (2012) the sixth most heavily pumped. The Sparta aquifer is the second most heavily pumped aquifer in Arkansas, which borders Louisiana to the north. In 2005, 170 Mgal/d were withdrawn from the Sparta aquifer in eastern and southern Arkansas; of that total, about 15.55 Mgal/d were withdrawn from the aquifer in Union County, which borders Claiborne and Union Parishes to the north. By 1997, a large cone of depression (a cone-shaped depression in the potentiometric surface caused by and centered on a pumping well or wells) in the Sparta aquifer centered over Union County had merged with the cone of depression at West Monroe. In 2004, the rate of withdrawal from the Sparta aquifer in Union County began to decline and water levels in the aquifer began to rise in nearby areas of Arkansas and Louisiana.

  12. Potential for water-quality degradation of interconnected aquifers in west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, P.A.; Brendle, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Thousands of deep artesian wells were drilled into the Upper Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida prior to well-drilling regulations adopted in the 1970's. The wells were usually completed with a short length of casing through the unconsolidated sediments and were left open to multiple aquifers containing water of varying quality. These open boreholes serve as a potential source of water-quality degradation within the aquifers when vertical internal borehole flow is induced by hydraulic-head differences. Thispotential for water-quality degradation exists in west-central Florida where both the intermediate aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer exist. Measurements of caliper, temperature, gamma, fluid conductivity, and flow were obtained in 87 wells throughout west-central Florida to determine the occurrence of interaquifer borehole flow between the intermediate aquifer system and the Upper Floridan aquifer. Flow measurements were made using an impeller flowmeter, a heat-pulse flowmeter, and a video camera with an impeller flowmeter attachment. Of the 87 wells measured with the impeller flowmeter, 17 had internal flow which ranged from 10 to 300 gallons per minute. A heat-pulse flowmeter was used in 19 wells in which flow was not detected using the impeller flowmeter. Of these 19 wells, 18 had internal flow which ranged from 0.3 to 10gallons per minute. Additionally, water-quality samples were collected from specific contributing zones in wells that had internal flow. Analysis of geophysical and water-quality data indicates degradation of water quality has occurred from mineralized ground water flowing upward from the Upper Floridan aquifer into the intermediate aquifer system through both uncased boreholes and corroded black-iron well casings. In areas where there is a downward component of flow, data indicate that potable water from the intermediate aquifer system is artificially recharging the Upper Floridan aquifer through open boreholes. A geographical

  13. Geologic provinces of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Northcutt, R.A.; Campbell, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    The geologic provinces of Oklahoma are mainly the product of tectonics and attendant sedimentation of Pennsylvanian age. Most boundaries are structural; thus, the provinces map is a generalized tectonic map. Permian and post-Paleozoic strata tend to mask those structures, but most of those strata have been removed by erosion, except in the Anadarko Basin and the Wichita Uplift provinces. The location of most of Oklahoma`s oil and gas resources are either influenced by, or are the direct result of Pennsylvanian tectonics and sedimentation patterns. Therefore, the present study also defines provinces in the subsurface on the basis of geological criteria. The authors have attempted to use the originally published names for the recognized provinces. However, we have also used the most geologically correct names, i.e., Nemaha Uplift, Nemaha Fault Zone, and Central Oklahoma Fault, in lieu of Nemaha {open_quotes}Ridge.{close_quotes} Oklahoma is separated into five major uplifts and five major basins. The Gulf Coastal Plain is not included in this study because it is a veneer of Cretaceous cover that masks significant structures. Faults are the most common boundary element. Although their precise age commonly is known only approximately, their geographic location is less controversial, except in detail. Stratigraphic/structural boundaries are based on less precise geological information. The major example of a surface stratigraphic/structural boundary is the southwestern limit of the Ozark Uplift in eastern Oklahoma. Stratigraphic/structural boundaries in the subsurface are commonly based on structural or isopachous contours from well or geophysical data, or on a structural trend, as well as the experience of the authors. Basement structure is preferred. An example is the boundary that separates the Marietta Basin from adjacent geologic elements.

  14. Base of Principal Aquifer for the Elkhorn-Loup Model Area, North-Central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.; Peterson, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    In Nebraska, the water managers in the Natural Resources Districts and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources are concerned with the effect of ground-water withdrawal on the availability of surface water and the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawal on ground- and surface-water resources. In north-central Nebraska, in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, ground water is used for irrigation, domestic supply, and public supply; surface water is used in this area for irrigation, recreation, and hydropower production. In recognition of these sometimes competing ground- and surface-water uses in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District, the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District, the Lower Loup Natural Resources District, the Lower Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Lower Platte North Natural Resources District, the Middle Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Upper Elkhorn Natural Resources District, and the Upper Loup Natural Resources District agreed to cooperatively study water resources in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins. The goals of the overall study were to construct and calibrate a regional ground-water flow model of the area and to use that flow model as a tool to assess current and future effects of ground-water irrigation on stream base flow and to help develop long-term water-resource management strategies for this area, hereafter referred to as the Elkhorn-Loup model area. The Elkhorn-Loup model area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and extends from the Niobrara River in the north to the Platte River in the south. The western boundary of the Elkhorn-Loup model area coincides with the western boundary of the Middle Niobrara, Twin Platte, and Upper Loup Natural Resources Districts; the eastern boundary coincides with the approximate location of the western extent of glacial till in eastern Nebraska. The principal aquifer in most of the Elkhorn-Loup model

  15. Water table in the surficial aquifer and potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer in selected well fields, west-central Florida, May 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Yobbi, D.K.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.

    1979-01-01

    The water table is the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are prepared showing water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels, and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 16 well fields which supplied 128 million gallons to municipalities on May 15, 1979. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. Water levels were significantly higher in May 1979 than in May 1978. Heavy rains on May 7 and 8th deluged the well-field areas with 2 to 18 inches of rain. The maximum increase in water levels from May 1978 to May 1979 was more than 8 feet at the Eldridge-Wilde well field. (USGS)

  16. Water table in the surficial aquifer and potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer in selected well fields, west-central Florida, May 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.; Mills, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer (sand) and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer (limestone) in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are prepared each May and September to coincide with seasonal low and high ground-water levels. The mapped area contains nine producing well fields which supplied 92.8 million gallons on May 12, 1976 to municipalities along the Gulf Coast. This pumpage came from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in the State of Florida. The effect of well-field withdrawals is shown on the maps as cones of depression in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. The May 1976 maps indicate that water levels have declined below sea level in some areas. The decline results from reduced recharge during the dry spring combined with an increase in pumpage for lawn irrigation.

  17. Water table in the surficial aquifer and potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer in selected well fields, west-central Florida, September 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Paul D.; Mills, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Florida aquifer in a 1200 square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U. S. Geological Survey. Maps are prepared on the basis of water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels, and in September, when levels are high. The mapped area contains nine producing well fields which supplied 67.2 million gallons on September 8, 1976, to municipalities along the Gulf Coast. The water is from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal of ground water is shown on the maps as cones of depression in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. The September 1976 maps show the seasonal rise in water levels from the low levels of the previous May.

  18. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, May 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Hydrologic Conditions in West-Central Florida The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2006. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 50.23 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2005 through May 2006) was 2.82 inches below the historical cumulative average of 53.05 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2006). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water

  19. Development of a Unified Hydrostratigraphic Framework for the Floridan Aquifer System in Central and Southern Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, R. S.

    2008-05-01

    The mostly carbonate Floridan aquifer system (FAS) of central and southern Florida is a widely used resource with a complex hydrostratigraphic framework that is managed primarily in a subregional context according to water management jurisdictional boundaries. As use of the FAS increases, a consistent regional hydrostratigraphic framework is needed for effective management across these boundaries. Stratigraphic marker horizons within and near the top of FAS were delineated and mapped to develop a preliminary, correlative stratigraphic framework. This framework was used to identify and determine aquifers, subaquifers, and confining units and map their spatial distribution. These horizons are based on lithologic changes and geophysical log signatures identified in previous studies, and they were extended throughout the study area primarily by correlation of natural gamma-ray logs. The FAS consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, middle confining unit, and Lower Floridan aquifer. A regional, productive zone is delineated and informally referred to as the Avon Park permeable zone. This zone is present over most of the study area and is characterized by thick units of dolostone with interbedded limestone and high fracture permeability. The zone has been identified in different regions in previous studies, either as the upper part of the Lower Floridan aquifer or as the lower part of the Upper Floridan aquifer. In this study it is generally considered to be within the middle confining unit. Transmissivity of the Avon Park permeable zone, a major source of water supply, generally ranges from less than 1x104 up to 1.6x106 ft2/day, and is greatest in central Florida where dolomite is developed as a major component of the zone. A large area of low transmissivity (less than 105 ft2/day) in southern Florida coincides with an area where limestone is the predominant lithology within the zone. Major uses of the FAS now include withdrawal for public and agricultural supply

  20. Heat flow in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranganu, Constantin

    Twenty new heat flow values are incorporated, along with 40 previously published data, into a heat flow map of Oklahoma. The new heat flow data were estimated using previous temperature measurements in boreholes made by American Petroleum Institute researchers and 1,498 thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings. The mean of 20 average thermal gradients is 30.50sp°C/km. In general, thermal gradients increase from SW (14.11sp°C/km) to NE (42.24sp°C/km). The range of 1,498 in situ thermal conductivity measurements (after corrections for anisotropy, in situ temperature, and porosity) is 0.90-6.1 W/m-K; the average is 1.68 W/m-K. Estimated near-surface heat flow (±20%) at 20 new sites in Oklahoma varies between 22 ± 4 mW/msp2 and 86 ± 17 mW/msp2; the average is 50 mW/msp2. Twenty-seven new heat-generation estimates, along with 22 previously published data, are used to create a heat generation map of Oklahoma. The range of heat production estimates is 1.1-3.5 muW/msp3, with an average of 2.5 muW/msp3. The heat flow regime in Oklahoma is primarily conductive in nature, except for a zone in northeast. Transient effects due to sedimentary processes and metamorphic/igneous activity, as well as past climatic changes, do not significantly influence the thermal state of the Oklahoma crust. Heat flow near the margins of the Arkoma and Anadarko Basins may be depressed or elevated by 5-13 mW/msp2 by refraction of heat from sedimentary rocks of relatively low thermal conductivity (1-2 W/m-K) into crystalline basement rocks of relatively high thermal conductivity (˜3-4 W/m-K). The heat generation-heat flow relationship shows a modest correlation. The relatively high heat flow (˜70-80 mW/msp2) in part of northeastern Oklahoma suggests that the thermal regime there may be perturbed by regional groundwater flow originating in the fractured outcrops of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in the Arbuckle Mountains.

  1. The surficial aquifer in east-central St Johns County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Eugene C.

    1981-01-01

    The surficial aquifer, a composite of confined and unconfined water-bearing zones overlying the Miocene Hawthorn Formation, is an important source of water in St. Johns County, Fla. The water from wells open to the surficial aquifer generally meets quality standards recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for public water supplies, except for concentrations of iron that for most wells are substantially greater than the recommended limit of 0.3 milligrams per liter. Data from 12 test wells drilled to the top of the Hawthorn formation, about 100 feet below land surface, indicate that the productive zones and confining beds in the surficial aquifer are discontinuous. Test well yields from individual zones range from less than 1 to 42 gallons per minute from depths between 20 and 100 feet below land surface. The most productive zones were generally found in the Tillman Ridge area, about 10 square miles in the west-central part of the area of investigation. Analysis of an aquifer test on a well in the Tillman Ridge area indicates a transmissivity of about 6,500 to 7,000 feet squared per day. The best local source of good quality water for development of a relatively large water supply is in the vicinity of Tillman Ridge. (USGS)

  2. Occurrence of minor toxic elements in volcanic-sedimentary aquifers: a case study in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivona, Raffaella; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Madé, Benoît; Giuliano, Giuseppe

    2007-09-01

    The occurrence of minor toxic elements (arsenic, vanadium and fluoride among others) in the volcanic aquifers of central Italy, with concentrations often above the national standards for drinking waters, has been recognized since the 1970s. However, these groundwaters are still often used for human consumption. With the aim of providing insight into the water-rock interaction processes, as well as into the evolution of arsenic and other elements, water-sampling campaigns where undertaken within a 100 km2 area at the eastern margin of the Viterbo region, where volcanites overlie an alluvial aquifer complex. The samples were analysed and geochemical modelling was applied to characterize the thermodynamic state of the waters. The results indicate the existence of direct relations among arsenic, vanadium and fluoride concentrations and of their inverse relationship with calcium concentration. An evolution scheme of groundwater composition from the upstream volcanic aquifer to the downstream sedimentary aquifer is also discussed. Two hypotheses are proposed which justify the observed decrease of the cited minor element concentrations, i.e. dilution processes and/or precipitation of fluorapatite, which can include in its structure small amounts of these elements. The precipitation hypothesis is supported by modelling results.

  3. Modeling saltwater upconing in a freshwater aquifer in south-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ma, T.-S.; Sophocleous, M.; Yu, Y.-S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Great Bend Prairie freshwater alluvial aquifer in south-central Kansas overlies a bedrock brine aquifer of Permian age. The continuous extraction of freshwater mainly for irrigation in this area has accelerated the upward movement of the saltwater, resulting in the deterioration of water quality. Predicting saltwater upconing is critical for maintaining a long-term supply of water of good quality to the Groundwater Management District No. 5. This paper uses a numerical model to predict the effect of saltwater upconing on the salinity of pumped water. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for estimating the effects of uncertainties in model parameters on the numerical results. The most important factors affecting the salinity of discharged water are found to be the location and nature of clay layers in the aquifer, the pumping rate, the location of the well screen, and the hydraulic conductivities of the medium. The effect of uncertainties in aquifer porosity and dispersivity on salinity is appreciable but not substantial, whereas that of recharge from precipitation in the study area is relatively insignificant. In addition, a numerical model based on the field conditions observed at the Siefkes site was constructed and calibrated to reproduce and project the variation of measured water levels and discharged groundwater concentration. Finally, a number of practical management recommendations based on this study are presented.

  4. Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer, west-central Florida, September 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water-level conditions, respectively. This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2010. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when groundwater levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 53.17 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2009 through September 2010) was 0.41 inches above the historical cumulative average of 52.76 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2010). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District.

  5. Machine-readable files developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Machine-readable files were developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project are stored on two magnetic tapes available from the U.S. Geological Survey. The first tape contains computer programs that were used to prepare, store, retrieve, organize, and preserve the areal interpretive data collected by the project staff. The second tape contains 134 data files that can be divided into five general classes: (1) Aquifer geometry data, (2) aquifer and water characteristics , (3) water levels, (4) climatological data, and (5) land use and water use data. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Geologic framework of the Edwards Aquifer and upper confining unit, and hydrogeologic characteristics of the Edwards Aquifer, south-central Uvalde County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Allan K.; Small, Ted A.

    1997-01-01

    The stratigraphic units of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Uvalde County generally are porous and permeable. The stratigraphic units that compose the Edwards aquifer in south-central Uvalde County are the Devils River Formation in the Devils River trend; and the West Nueces, McKnight, and Salmon Peak Formations in the Maverick Basin. The Balcones fault zone is the principal structural feature in Uvalde County; however, the displacement along the fault zone is less in Uvalde County than in adjacent Medina and Bexar Counties to the east. The Uvalde Salient is a structural high in south-central Uvalde County, and consists of several closely connected crustal uplifts that bring Edwards aquifer strata to the surface generally forming prominent hills. The crustal uplifts forming this structural high are the remnants of intrusive and extrusive magnatic activity. Six primary faults—Cooks, Black Mountain, Blue Mountain, Uvalde, Agape, and Connor—cross the length of the study area from the southwest to the northeast juxtaposing the Lower Cretaceous Salmon Peak Formation at the surface in the northwestern part of the study area against Upper Cretaceous formations in the central part of the study area. In the study area, the porosity of the rocks in the Edwards aquifer is related to depositional or diagenetic elements along specific stratigraphic horizons (fabric selective) and to dissolution and structural elements that can occur in any lithostratigraphic horizon (not fabric selective). Permeability depends on the physical properties of the rock such as size, shape, distribution of pores, and fissuring and dissolution. The middle 185 feet of the lower part of the Devils River Formation, the upper part of the Devils River Formation, and the upper unit of the Salmon Peak Formation probably are the most porous and permeable stratigraphic zones of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Uvalde County.

  7. Comparing flowmeter, aquifer test, and surface nuclear magnetic resonance data in Central Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, T.; Abraham, J. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Steele, G.; Hobza, C. M.; Li, Y.; McKenna, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    the earth's magnetic field. This necessitates locally calibrating the SNMR data against aquifer tests in order to derive a relation of the SNMR data to the local aquifers. After calibration, additional SNMR data can be used at sites with the same aquifer units to produce estimates of hydraulic properties. To test this methodology, SNMR, aquifer tests and flowmeter measurements were conducted at two sites within the High Plains Aquifer in Central Nebraska. A novel compressive inversion scheme was developed that simultaneously processes the entire SNMR dataset and accounts for electrical conductivity. The inverted porosity and decay times were then regressed against the aquifer and flowmeter tests to derive local calibration coefficients. Using this calibration, the SNMR derived hydraulic conductivity estimates were in good agreement with the aquifer test-derived estimates. Since the same calibration was appropriate at both sites, SNMR data can now be collected at additional sites in the area and used to estimate hydraulic properties.

  8. OUTCROP-BASED LITHOFACIES AND DEPOSITIONAL SETTING OF ARSENIC-BEARING PERMIAN RED BEDS IN THE CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA), CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In January 2001, the Environmental Protection Agency established safe drinking water standards for arsenic at a maximum concentration of 10 mg/L. Results from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (USGS), however, document the occurrence of arsenic concentrations in drin...

  9. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, May 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Anita G.

    2009-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2009. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 48.53 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2008 through May 2009) was 4.12 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.65 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2009). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the

  10. Ground-water data for the alluvial, buried channel, Basel Pleistocene and Dakota aquifer in West-Central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Pamela K.B.; Runkle, Donna L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the availability, quantity and quality of groundwater from three principal aquifers in West-Central Iowa, the alluvial, buried channel, Basal Pleistocene and the Dakota aquifers. Specific objectives were to: (1) determine the location, extent and the nature of these aquifers; (2) evaluate the occurrence and movement of groundwater, including the sources of recharge and discharge; (3) estimate the quantities of water stored in the aquifers; (4) estimate the potential yields of wells tapping the aquifers; (5) estimate the water use; and (6) describe the chemical quality of the groundwater. This report is the compilation of the data collected during the investigation and has the purpose of providing a reference for an interpretive report describing groundwater resources and a bedrock topography map of the study area.

  11. THE OKLAHOMA MESONET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Oklahoma Mesonet, operated and maintained by the Oklahoma Climatological Survey, is Oklahoma's premier climatological data collection system. For the area covered, which includes the entire state, no other system within the United States or internationally has the degree of ...

  12. Description of data files compiled for the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helgesen, John O.; Hansen, Cristi V.

    1989-01-01

    Several types of geologic and hydrologic data were collected and compiled as part of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis. The study described the hydrology of Cambrian-age through Cretaceous-age rocks in all of Kansas and Nebraska and parts of eight other states. Information from both water wells and petroleum wells was obtained from numerous State, Federal, and private sources. The completeness, quality, and distribution of the data varies considerably. Most data files contain data selected to represent the regional scope of the study. The log data file contains about 850 lithologic logs and about 750 geophysical logs. The hydraulic-head data file contains about 1 ,400 measured water levels and about 2,600 values of equivalent freshwater head derived from drill-stem-test analyses. The hydrochemical data file contains about 2,900 water quality analyses. The aquifer-property data file contains about 1,050 values. In addition to site-specific data, areal information in the form of model-data arrays is available for initial hydraulic head, transmissivity, and vertical leakance. These data describe the major geohydrologic units studied in terms of a three-dimensional grid, 28 rows x 33 columns x 5 layers. Parts of the hydraulic-head, hydrochemical, and aquifer-property data files are proprietary. The fluid-withdrawal data file was developed for study use only. Most other data described herein are available on magnetic tape from the U.S. Geological Survey in Lawrence, Kansas. (USGS)

  13. Calibrated models as management tools for stream-aquifer systems: the case of central Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.; Perkins, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    We address the problem of declining streamflows in interconnected stream-aquifer systems and explore possible management options to address the problem for two areas of central Kansas: the Arkansas River valley from Kinsley to Great Bend and the lower Rattlesnake Creek-Quivira National Wildlife Refuge area. The approach we followed implements, calibrates, and partially validates for the study areas a stream-aquifer numerical model combined with a parameter estimation package and sensitivity analysis. Hydrologic budgets for both predevelopment and developed conditions indicate significant differences in the hydrologic components of the study areas resulting from development. The predevelopment water budgets give an estimate of natural ground-water recharge, whereas the budgets for developed conditions give an estimate of induced recharge, indicating that major ground-water development changes the recharge-discharge regime of the model areas with time. Such stream-aquifer models serve to link proposed actions to hydrologic effects, as is clearly demonstrated by the effects of various management alternatives on the streamflows of the Arkansas River and Rattlesnake Creek. Thus we show that a possible means of restoring specified streamflows in the area is to implement protective stream corridors with restricted ground-water extraction. ?? 1993.

  14. Calibrated models as management tools for stream-aquifer systems: the case of central Kansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sophocleous, Marios; Perkins, Samuel P.

    1993-12-01

    We address the problem of declining streamflows in interconnected stream-aquifer systems and explore possible management options to address the problem for two areas of central Kansas: the Arkansas River valley from Kinsley to Great Bend and the lower Rattlesnake Creek-Quivira National Wildlife Refuge area. The approach we followed implements, calibrates, and partially validates for the study areas a stream-aquifer numerical model combined with a parameter estimation package and sensitivity analysis. Hydrologic budgets for both predevelopment and developed conditions indicate significant differences in the hydrologic components of the study areas resulting from development. The predevelopment water budgets give an estimate of natural ground-water recharge, whereas the budgets for developed conditions give an estimate of induced recharge, indicating that major ground-water development changes the recharge-discharge regime of the model areas with time. Such stream-aquifer models serve to link proposed actions to hydrologic effects, as is clearly demonstrated by the effects of various management alternatives on the streamflows of the Arkansas River and Rattlesnake Creek. Thus we show that a possible means of restoring specified streamflows in the area is to implement protective stream corridors with restricted ground-water extraction.

  15. Relationship between pyrite Stability and arsenic mobility during aquifer storage and recovery in southwest central Florida.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gregg W; Pichler, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    Elevated arsenic concentrations are common in water recovered from aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems in west-central Florida that store surface water. Investigations of the Suwannee Limestone of the Upper Floridan aquifer, the storage zone for ASR systems, have shown that arsenic is highest in pyrite in zones of high moldic porosity. Geochemical modeling was employed to examine pyrite stability in limestone during simulated injections of surface water into wells open only to the Suwannee Limestone with known mineralogy and water chemistry. The goal was to determine if aquifer redox conditions could be altered to the degree of pyrite instability. Increasing amounts of injection water were added to native storage-zone water, and resulting reaction paths were plotted on pyrite stability diagrams. Native storage-zone water plotted within the pyrite stability field, indicating that conditions were sufficiently reducing to allow for pyrite stability. Thus, arsenic is immobilized in pyrite, and its groundwater concentration should be low. This was corroborated by analysis of water samples, none of which had arsenic concentrations above 0.036 microg/L. During simulation, however, as injection/native storage-zone water ratios increased, conditions became less reducing and pyrite became unstable. The result would be release of arsenic from limestone into storage-zone water.

  16. Data for ground-water test hole near Butte City, Central Valley aquifer project, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides preliminary data for the third of seven test holes drilled as part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 32, T. 19 N., R. 1 W., Glenn County, California, about one-half mile south of the town of Butte City. Drilled to a depth of 1,432 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 82 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 592 feet, 968 feet, and 1,330 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Each screened interval has a cement plug above and below it to isolate it from other parts of the aquifer , and the well bore is filled between the plugs with sediment. Nine cores and 49 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, and chemical quality of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  17. Data for ground-water test hole near Nicolaus, Central Valley aquifer project, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, Gilbert L.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary data are provided for the third of seven test holes drilled as a part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 2, T.12N., R.3E., Sutter County, California, about 1 1/2 miles northwest of the town of Nicolaus. Drilled to a depth of 1,150 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 100 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 311, 711, and 1,071 feet. A 5-foot well screen is set in sand at the bottom of each piezometer. Each screened interval has a cement plug above and below it to isolate it from other parts of the aquifer, and the well bore is filled between the plugs with sediment. Thirty-one cores and 34 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for minerology, consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, thermal conductivity, and chemical analysis of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis of the three tapped zones and measured for water level. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  18. Potentiometric surface of the upper Floridan Aquifer, west-central Florida, September 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The potentiometric surface is the level to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that tap the Upper Floridan aquifer. The surface is mapped by determining the altitude of water levels in a network of wells and is represented on maps by contours that connect points of equal altitude. Maps of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida are prepared semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Maps for May and September show, respectively, the potentiometric surfaces of the normally expected annual low and high water level conditions. The potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer is shown for September 1985. Most of the water level data were collected during September 9-13. Supplemental data were collected by other agencies and companies. The map represents water level conditions near the end of the summer rainy season when groundwater withdrawals for agricultural use are low. Hence, the potentiometric surface is near its highest level for the year. (Lantz-PTT)

  19. Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, west-central Florida, September 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewelling, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    The potentiometric surface in the Upper Floridan aquifer was mapped by determining the altitude of water levels in a network of wells and is represented on maps by contours that connect points of equal altitude. Maps of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida are prepared semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps for May and September show, respectively, the potentiometric surface of the normally expected annual low and high water level conditions. Potentiometric surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971 to 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. The potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer is shown for September 1987. Most of the water level data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during the period of September 14-18. Supplemental data were collected by other agencies and companies. This map represents water level conditions near the end of the summer rainy season when groundwater withdrawals for agricultural use are low and therefore, when the potentiometric surface is near its highest level for the year. (See also W88-03126) (Lantz-PTT)

  20. Hydrogeology and analysis of aquifer characteristics in west-central Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broska, J.C.; Barnette, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pinellas County, Florida, conducted an investigation to describe the hydrogeology and analyze the aquifer characteristics in west-central Pinellas County. A production test well and four monitor wells were constructed in Pinellas County at Walsingham Park during 1996-97. Water-quality sampling, static and dynamic borehole geophysical surveys, and hydraulic tests were conducted at the wells to delineate the hydrogeology at Walsingham Park. A 9-day aquifer test was conducted to determine the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer system and observe the changes in water quality due to pumping. A numerical model was constructed to simulate the aquifer test and calculate values for hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient for permeable zones and confining units at Walsingham Park. Final calibrated values for hydraulic conductivity for the different permeable zones and confining units at the test site were 18 feet per day for Upper Zone A, 750 feet per day for Lower Zone A, 1 foot per day for Zone B, 1x10-4 feet per day for the intermediate confining unit, and 10 feet per day for the semiconfining unit separating Upper Zone A and Lower Zone A. Final calibrated values for storage coefficient were 3.1x10-4 for Upper Zone A, 8.6x10-5 for Lower Zone A, 2.6x10-5 for Zone B, 3.1x10-4 for the intermediate confining unit, and 4.3x10-5 for the semiconfining unit separating Upper Zone A and Lower Zone A. Estimates of transmissivity for Upper Zone A and Lower Zone A were about 2,500 and 37,500 feet squared per day, respectively.

  1. Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwater in the central part of the Dakota (Great Plains) aquifer, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosselin, D.C.; Harvey, F.E.; Frost, C.; Stotler, R.; Macfarlane, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota aquifer of the central and eastern Great Plains of the United States is an important source of water for municipal supplies, irrigation and industrial use. Although the regional flow system can be characterized generally as east to northeasterly from the Rocky Mountains towards the Missouri River, locally the flow systems are hydrologically complex. This study uses Sr isotopic data from groundwater and leached aquifer samples to document the complex subsystems within the Dakota aquifer in Nebraska and Kansas. The interaction of groundwater with the geologic material through which it flows has created spatial patterns in the isotopic measurements that are related to: long-term water-rock interaction, during which varying degrees of isotopic equilibrium between water and rock has been achieved; and the alteration of NaCl fluids by water-rock interaction. Specifically, Sr isotopic data distinguish brines from Kansas and western Nebraska from those in eastern Nebraska: the former are interpreted to reflect interaction with Permian rocks, whereas the latter record interaction with Pennsylvanian rocks. The Sr isotopic composition of groundwater from other parts of Nebraska and Kansas are a function of the dynamic interaction between groundwater and unlithified sediments (e.g., glacial till and loess), followed by interaction with oxidized and unoxidized sediments within the Dakota Formation. This study illustrates the power of combining Sr chemistry with more conventional geochemical data to obtain a more complete understanding of groundwater flow systems within regional aquifer systems where extensive monitoring networks do not exist. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimated Freshwater Withdrawals in Oklahoma, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents 1990 freshwater withdrawal estimates for Oklahoma by source and category. Withdrawal source is either ground water or surface water. Withdrawal categories include: irrigation, water supply, livestock, thermoelectric-power generation, domestic and commercial, and industrial and mining. Withdrawal data are aggregated by county, major aquifer, and principal river basin. Only the four major categories of irrigation, water supply, livestock, and thermoelectric-power generation are illustrated in this report, although data for all categories are tabulated. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established the National Water-Use Information Program in 1977 to collect uniform, current, and reliable information on water use. The Oklahoma District of the USGS and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board participate in a cooperative program to collect and publish water-use information for Oklahoma. Data contained in this report were made available through the cooperative program.

  3. Effect of frame size and season on enteric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions in Angus brood cows grazing native tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of frame size and season on enteric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Angus brood cows grazing native tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma, USA J.P.S. Neel USDA ARS, El Reno, OK A reduction in enteric CH4 production in ruminants is associated with improved production effic...

  4. Water Quality in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason J.; McMahon, Peter B.; Dennehy, Kevin; Qi, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999-2004 assessment of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings for principal and other aquifers and major river basins across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, regional, State, and national issues. Conditions in the aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as drinking-water quality, the effects of agricultural practices on water quality, source-water protection, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of ground water in areas near where they live and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the region and the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the High Plains aquifer summarized in this report are discussed in greater detail in other reports that can be accessed in Appendix 1 of http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1749/. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa). This report accompanies the detailed and technical report of water-quality conditions in the High Plains aquifer 'Water-quality assessment of the High Plains aquifer, 1999-2004' (http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1749/)

  5. Hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.; Adkins, Candice B.

    2012-01-01

    metamorphosed to some degree, thus rock types and their relationships vary over distance. Quaternary-age sediment and basalt compose the primary source of groundwater in the Wood River Valley aquifer system. These Quaternary deposits can be divided into three units: a coarse-grained sand and gravel unit, a fine-grained silt and clay unit, and a single basalt unit. The fine- and coarse-grained units were primarily deposited as alluvium derived from glaciation in the surrounding mountains and upper reaches of tributary canyons. The basalt unit is found in the southeastern Bellevue fan area and is composed of two flows of different ages. Most of the groundwater produced from the Wood River Valley aquifer system is from the coarse-grained deposits. The altitude of the pre-Quaternary bedrock surface in the Wood River Valley was compiled from about 1,000 well-driller reports for boreholes drilled to bedrock and about 70 Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) ambient-noise measurements. The bedrock surface generally mimics the land surface by decreasing down tributary canyons and the main valley from north to south; it ranges from more than 6,700 feet in Baker Creek to less than 4,600 feet in the central Bellevue fan. Most of the south-central portion of the Bellevue fan is underlain by an apparent topographically closed area on the bedrock surface that appears to drain to the southwest towards Stanton Crossing. Quaternary sediment thickness ranges from less than a foot on main and tributary valley margins to about 350 feet in the central Bellevue fan. Hydraulic conductivity for 81 wells in the study area was estimated from well-performance tests reported on well-driller reports. Estimated hydraulic conductivity for 79 wells completed in alluvium ranges from 1,900 feet per day (ft/d) along Warm Springs Creek to less than 1 ft/d in upper Croy Canyon. A well completed in bedrock had an estimated hydraulic conductivity value of 10 ft/d, one well completed in basalt had a value of

  6. Geologic Map of the Edwards Aquifer In Northern Medina and Northeastern Uvalde Counties, South-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Allan K.; Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Pedraza, Diana E.

    2006-01-01

    The southern segment of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas is one of the most productive subsurface reservoirs of potable water in the world, providing water of excellent quality to more than a million people in the San Antonio region, where the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared it to be a sole-source aquifer (van der Leeden and others, 1990). Depending on the depositional province within which the associated carbonate rocks originated (Maclay and Small, 1984), the Edwards aquifer is composed of several geologic formations (primarily limestone and dolostone) of Early Cretaceous age. Most water pumped from the Edwards aquifer comes form the Person and Kainer Formations, which were deposited over the San Marcos Platform. The principal source of ground water in study area is the Devils River Formation, which was deposited in the Devils River trend. The Devils River Formation provides large quantities of irrigation water to fertile bottomland areas of Medina and Uvalde Counties, where the success of farming and ranching activities has long depended upon water from the Edwards aquifer. The study area includes all of the Edwards aquifer recharge zone between the Sabinal River (on the west) and the Medina River (on the east) plus an updip fringe of the confined zone in east-central Uvalde and central Medina Counties. Over about ninety percent of the study area--within the Devils River trend--the Edwards aquifer is composed of the Georgetown Formation plus the underlying Devils River Formation. Over the remaining area--over the southwestern margin of the San Marcos platform--the Edwards aquifer consists of the Georgetown Formation plus the underlying Edwards Group (Rose, 1972), which comprises the Kainer and Person Formations.

  7. Geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks of the Biscayne aquifer in central Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wacker, Michael A.; Cunningham, Kevin J.; Williams, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluations of the lithostratigraphy, lithofacies, paleontology, ichnology, depositional environments, and cyclostratigraphy from 11 test coreholes were linked to geophysical interpretations, and to results of hydraulic slug tests of six test coreholes at the Snapper Creek Well Field (SCWF), to construct geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks for the study area in central Miami-Dade County, Florida. The resulting geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks are consistent with those recently described for the Biscayne aquifer in the nearby Lake Belt area in Miami-Dade County and link the Lake Belt area frameworks with those developed for the SCWF study area. The hydrogeologic framework is characterized by a triple-porosity pore system of (1) matrix porosity (mainly mesoporous interparticle porosity, moldic porosity, and mesoporous to megaporous separate vugs), which under dynamic conditions, produces limited flow; (2) megaporous, touching-vug porosity that commonly forms stratiform groundwater passageways; and (3) conduit porosity, including bedding-plane vugs, decimeter-scale diameter vertical solution pipes, and meter-scale cavernous vugs. The various pore types and associated permeabilities generally have a predictable vertical spatial distribution related to the cyclostratigraphy. The Biscayne aquifer within the study area can be described as two major flow units separated by a single middle semiconfining unit. The upper Biscayne aquifer flow unit is present mainly within the Miami Limestone at the top of the aquifer and has the greatest hydraulic conductivity values, with a mean of 8,200 feet per day. The middle semiconfining unit, mainly within the upper Fort Thompson Formation, comprises continuous to discontinuous zones with (1) matrix porosity; (2) leaky, low permeability layers that may have up to centimeter-scale vuggy porosity with higher vertical permeability than horizontal permeability; and (3) stratiform flow zones composed of fossil moldic porosity, burrow

  8. Hydrologic maps of Ogallala Aquifer, west-central Kansas, 1979-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spinazola, Joseph M.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical technique, called kriging, was programmed for a computer to interpolate hydrologic data based on a network of measured values in west-central Kansas. The computer program generated estimated values at the center of each 1-mile section in the Western Kansas Groundwater Management District No. 1 and facilitated contouring of selected hydrologic data that are needed in the effective management of ground water for irrigation. The kriging technique produced various maps that illustrated hydrologic conditions in the Ogallala aquifer, the principal source of water in west-central Kansas. Maps of the aquifer, which use a 3-year average, included the 1979-81 water-table altitudes, which ranged from about 2,580 to 3,720 feet; the 1979-81 saturated thicknesses, which ranged from about 0 to 250 feet; and the percentage changes in saturated thickness from 1950 to 1979-81, which ranged from about a 40-percent increase to a 100-percent decrease. A map showing errors of estimate also was provided as a measure of reliability for the 1979-81 water-table altitudes. Errors of estimate ranged from 2 to 24 feet. (USGS)

  9. Stress drop and its Uncertainty for Earthquakes M3.8-5.5 in Central California and Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Luyuan

    Stress drop is the stress that is effectively available to drive fault motion. It is a key parameter in predicting peak ground acceleration (PGA), since PGA∝, and it is very important in estimating ground motion. However, it is difficult to get an accurate estimation of stress drop. In order to get a more stable measurement of stress drop, we test two methods in this thesis: the first one is the Brune stress drop, which is more commonly applied, and the second one is the Arms stress drop, which less applied before and theoretically should have less uncertainty. By comparing these two methods we would like to test the feasibility and stability of the Arms method. We applied these two methods to data of earthquakes M3-5.5 in California and Oklahoma. We found that, taking Oklahoma results as an example, the mean value of Brune stress drop is 0.38 MPa, with a multiplicative uncertainty of 3.12, and the mean value of Arms stress drop is 1.04, with a multiplicative uncertainty of 1.79. Therefore we concluded that the Arms method is a good estimator of stress drop, with a smaller uncertainty. We determine the path attenuation so that we can increase the source-station distance of events studied to be as much as 76 km. The path seismic attenuation is a critical parameter that must be included in the analysis.

  10. Gravity constraints on lithosphere flexure and the structure of the late Paleozoic Ouachita orogen in Arkansas and Oklahoma, south central North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harry, Dennis L.; Mickus, Kevin L.

    1998-04-01

    Spectral analysis of Bouguer gravity anomalies in western central Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma indicates that the thickness of the crust in the Ouachita fold and thrust belt increases from 38 km in the western Ouachitas to 44 km in the eastern Ouachitas. The change in crustal thickness occurs near the western end of the Broken Bow uplift and coincides with an abrupt decrease in the flexural rigidity of the lithosphere from 1.8×1024 N m in the western Ouachitas to 5.0×1023 N m in the eastern Ouachitas. The flexural rigidity in the western Ouachitas is similar to values determined in the Appalachian fold and thrust belt and coincides with the depth of the 450°C isotherm predicted by conductive cooling models for the thermal evolution of the early Paleozoic southern Laurentian rifted continental margin. The thick crust in the eastern Ouachitas results in lithosphere that is anomalously weak for rifted continental crust of this age. The thicker crust is attributed to an eastward transition from a rift segment to a transform segment of the Paleozoic continental margin. A layered density model derived from the gravity data shows that strata interpreted to be deformed Ouachita facies rocks are thickest in the eastern Ouachitas and are consistent with a greater amount of shortening in the central thrust belt in Arkansas as compared to Oklahoma. The opposite relationship is observed in the frontal Ouachita province, where shortening appears greater in Oklahoma. The cross-strike changes in the locus of shortening, crustal thickness, flexural rigidity, and the inferred transition from rift to transform segments of the early Paleozoic continental margin all coincide with the location of a previously hypothesized zone of diffuse rightlateral shear located at the western end of the Benton uplift. Flexural modeling indicates that the load required to produce the observed Bouguer gravity low in the Arkoma foreland basin trends parallel to the Benton and Broken Bow uplifts but

  11. Description and Evaluation of Numerical Groundwater Flow Models for the Edwards Aquifer, South-Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, Richard J.; Taylor, Charles J.; Houston, Natalie A.

    2009-01-01

    A substantial number of public water system wells in south-central Texas withdraw groundwater from the karstic, highly productive Edwards aquifer. However, the use of numerical groundwater flow models to aid in the delineation of contributing areas for public water system wells in the Edwards aquifer is problematic because of the complex hydrogeologic framework and the presence of conduit-dominated flow paths in the aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, evaluated six published numerical groundwater flow models (all deterministic) that have been developed for the Edwards aquifer San Antonio segment or Barton Springs segment, or both. This report describes the models developed and evaluates each with respect to accessibility and ease of use, range of conditions simulated, accuracy of simulations, agreement with dye-tracer tests, and limitations of the models. These models are (1) GWSIM model of the San Antonio segment, a FORTRAN computer-model code that pre-dates the development of MODFLOW; (2) MODFLOW conduit-flow model of San Antonio and Barton Springs segments; (3) MODFLOW diffuse-flow model of San Antonio and Barton Springs segments; (4) MODFLOW Groundwater Availability Modeling [GAM] model of the Barton Springs segment; (5) MODFLOW recalibrated GAM model of the Barton Springs segment; and (6) MODFLOW-DCM (dual conductivity model) conduit model of the Barton Springs segment. The GWSIM model code is not commercially available, is limited in its application to the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, and lacks the ability of MODFLOW to easily incorporate newly developed processes and packages to better simulate hydrologic processes. MODFLOW is a widely used and tested code for numerical modeling of groundwater flow, is well documented, and is in the public domain. These attributes make MODFLOW a preferred code with regard to accessibility and ease of use. The MODFLOW conduit-flow model

  12. Water table in the surficial aquifer and potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer in selected well fields, west-central Florida, September 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Paul D.; Mills, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200 square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are prepared on the basis of water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels; and in September, when levels are high. The mapped area for this report contains nine producing wells fields which supplied 76.2 million gallons on September 21, 1977, to municipalities in the Tampa Bay area. The effect of localized withdrawal of groundwater from the Floridan aquifer is shown on the maps as cones of depression in both the potentiometric surface and water table. In September, water levels in observation wells in the Floridan aquifer were above those measured in May. These increases ranged from about 1 foot at the Eldridge-Wilde well field to about 25 feet at the Sun City well field. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. An exploration of nitrate concentrations in groundwater aquifers of central-west region of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Ratan K; Hasnat, Mohammad A; Hossain, Shahadat; Ikeue, Keita; Machida, Masato

    2008-11-30

    Groundwater and river water samples were collected from the study area to investigate the spatial distribution of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) in the central-west region of Bangladesh. The shallow and deep groundwater nitrate concentrations ranged from <0.10 to 75.12 and <0.10 to 40.78 mg/L, respectively. Major river water NO(3)(-) concentrations were ranged from 0.98 to 2.32 mg/L with an average of 1.8 mg/L. The average Cl(-)/NO(3)(-) ratio (4.9) of major river water has been considered as reference point to delineate denitrification processes. The alluvial fan, alluvial, deltaic and coastal deposits shallow groundwater having C1(-)/NO(3)(-) values less than that of the average river water value (4.9), suggested denitrification processes within the aquifers. On the other hand, denitrification processes are insignificant in the Pleistocene terraces area aquifers related to relatively higher concentrations of nitrate. Iron pyrite has been found as insignificant effect on denitrification.

  14. Data for ground-water test hole near Zamora, Central Valley Aquifer Project, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, J.J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary data are presented for the first of seven test holes drilled as a part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 34, T. 12 N. , R. 1 E., Yolo County, California, about 3 miles northeast of the town of Zamora. Drilled to a depth of 2,500 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 190 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 947, 1,401, and 2,125 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Eighteen cores and 68 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, diatom identification, thermal conductivity, and chemical analysis of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  15. Genetic sequence stratigraphy of upper Desmoinesian Oswego limestone along northern shelf margin of Anadarko basin, West-Central Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Derstine, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    The Pennsylvania Oswego limestone (upper Desmoinesian) in the vicinity of the northern shelf break of the Anadarko basin contains stratigraphic sequences and associated depositional facies that were controlled by eustatic variations in a slowly subsiding basin. Core descriptions, detailed well-log correlations, and facies maps of Oswego limestone in Dewey and Custer Counties, Oklahoma, supplemented by seismic data along dip profile, define at least two principal stratigraphic sequences separated by regional unconformities. In this area, oil and gas have been produced from phylloid algal-bank deposits that formed at the shelf margin. The algal-bank deposits that contain vuggy and moldic porosity are bound northward by wackestones of shelf facies and southward by tightly calcite-cemented packstones that formed on the seaward margin in relatively high-energy environments. The detailed well-log correlations that consider genetic units illustrate the evolution of these carbonate and locally clastic deposits along Oswego shelf-ramp-basin profiles as a consequence of sea level oscillations. Repeated succession of upward-coarsening shelf wackestones, algal-bank deposits with fringing packstones and scattered terrigenous clastics, and basinal shales are a depositional system tract associated with sea level lowstand. This lowstand system is capped in one of the principal stratigraphic sequences by a thin shale that reflects an episode of rapid relative sea level rise and flooding of the Oswego carbonate shelf. Black shales deposited during this rapid flooding event form a problematic downlapping unit, because terrigenous sediment was evidently supplied from both the Oklahoma-Kansas area to the north and the Wichita-Amarillo high to the south. Highstand carbonate facies system are not present in the shaly cyclic sequences indicating drowning or backstepping of carbonate sources.

  16. Ground-water flow analysis of the Mississippi Embayment aquifer system, South-Central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arthur, J.K.; Taylor, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Mississippi Embayment aquifer system is composed of six regional aquifers covering about 160,000 square miles in parts of Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. The flow analysis presented in this report as part of the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study pertains to five aquifers in sediments of the Wilcox and Claiborne groups of Tertiary age. In descending order, the aquifers are (1) the upper Claiborne, (2) the middle Claiborne, (3) the lower Claiborne-upper Wilcox, (4) the middle Wilcox, and (5) the lower Wilcox. The flow analysis of the sixth aquifer in the aquifer system, the Mississippi River valley alluvial aquifer in sediments of Holocene and Pleistocene age, is presented in chapter D of this Professional Paper.

  17. Stream and aquifer biology of south-central Texas; a literature review, 1973-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ourso, R.T.; Hornig, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes in table format 32 aquatic vertebrate (primarily fish), 54 aquatic invertebrate, and 13 aquatic plant studies available for the area of the South-Central Texas study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment. The studies, published mostly during 1973?97, pertain to the Guadalupe, San Antonio, and Nueces River Basins, the San Antonio-Nueces and Nueces-Rio Grande Coastal Basins, and the Edwards aquifer where it underlies the upper parts of the three river basins. The biology of the study-unit streams is determined mostly by the characteristics of the ecoregions they transect?the Edwards Plateau, Texas Blackland Prairies, East Central Texas Plains, Western Gulf Coastal Plain, and Southern Texas Plains. About 20 percent of the previous fish and invertebrate studies and about 75 percent of the aquatic plant surveys have centered on Comal Springs in Comal County and San Marcos Springs in Hays County. Although several important studies are available for the San Antonio region, documentation of aquatic biology for the remainder of the study unit is relatively sparse. The streams in the study unit, particularly in the Edwards Plateau, support three dominant biological groups?fish, aquatic invertebrates, and plants. Potential threats to these organisms include impoundments and flood-control projects, siltation from erosion, ground-water pumping, recreational activities, wastewater discharge, and introduction of non-native species. More than 30 non-native fish, invertebrate, and plant species have been introduced into the region. Of the 19 aquatic species Federally listed as endangered or threatened in Texas, 8 are associated with springs and spring runs in the study unit. All of the endangered species in the study unit are associated with springs and spring runs. A large number of endemic species in the study unit are associated with subterranean aquatic ecosystems, most likely a consequence of the unique proximity of the

  18. Modeling groundwater levels on the Calera Aquifer Region in Central Mexico using ModFLow.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A conceptual model for the Calera Aquifer has been created to represent the aquifer system beneath the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The CAR area was uniformly partitioned into a 500 X 500 m grid generating a high resolution model that represented the natural boundar...

  19. Potentiometric surface of the intermediate aquifer system, west- central Florida, May 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewelling, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    The intermediate aquifer system within the Southwest Florida Water Management District underlies a 5,000 sq mi area of De Soto, Sarasota, Hardee, Manatee, and parts of Charlotte, Hillsborough, Highlands, and Polk Counties. The intermediate aquifer system occurs between the overlying surficial aquifer system and the underlying Floridan aquifer system, and consists of layers of sand, shell, clay, marl, limestone, and dolom of the Tamiami, Hawthorn, and Tampa Formations of late Tertiary age. The intermediate aquifer system contains one or more water-bearing units separated by discontinuous confining units. This aquifer system is the principal source of potable water in the southwestern part of the study area and is widely used as a source of water in other parts where wells are open to the intermediate aquifer system or to both the intermediate and Floridan aquifer systems. Yields of individual wells open to the intermediate aquifer system range from a few gallons to several hundred gallons per minute. The volume of water withdrawn from the intermediate aquifer system is considerably less than that withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer system in the study area. The surface was mapped by determining the altitude of water levels in a network of wells and is represented on maps by contours that connect points of equal altitude. The compos potentiometric surface of all water-bearing units within the intermediate aquifer system is shown. In areas where multiple aquifers exist, wells open to all aquifers were selected for water level measurements whenever possible. In the southwestern and lower coastal region of the study area, two aquifers and confining units are described for the intermediate aquifer system: the Tamiami-upper Hawthorn aquifer and the underlying lower Hawthorn-upper Tampa aquifer. The potentiometric surface of the Tamiami-upper Hawthorn aquifer is also shown. Water levels are from wells drilled and open exclusively to that aquifer. The exact boundary for the

  20. Hydrogeological framework, numerical simulation of groundwater flow, and effects of projected water use and drought for the Beaver-North Canadian River alluvial aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryter, Derek W.; Correll, Jessica S.

    2016-01-14

    A hypothetical severe drought was simulated by using aquifer recharge flow rates during the drought year of 2011 for a period of 10 years. All other flows including evapotranspiration and groundwater pumping were set at estimated 2011 rates. The hypothetical drought caused a decrease in water in aquifer storage by about 7 percent in Reach I and 7 percent in Reach II. Another analysis of the effects of hypothetical drought estimated the effects of drought on streamflow and lake storage. The hypothetical drought was simulated by decreasing recharge by 75 percent for a selected 10-year period (1994–2004) during the 1980–2011 simulation. In Reach I, the amounts of water stored in Canton Lake and streamflow at the Seiling, Okla., streamflow-gaging station were analyzed. Streamflow at the Seiling station decreased by a mean of 75 percent and was still diminished by 10 percent after 2011. In Reach II, the effect of drought on the streamflow at the Yukon, Okla., streamflow-gaging station was examined. The greatest mean streamflow decrease was approximately 60 percent during the simulated drought, and after 2011, the mean decrease in streamflow was still about 5 percent. Canton Lake storage decreased by as much as 83 percent during the simulated drought and did not recover by 2011.

  1. Geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the middle Connecticut River basin, west-central New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Water Resources Division, to describe the geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the Middle Connecticut River Basin, west-central New Hampshire Stratified-drift aquifers discontinuously underlie 123 mi2 (square miles) of the Middle Connecticut River Basin, which has a total drainage area of 987 mi 2. Saturated thicknesses of stratified drift in the study area are locally greater than 500 feet but generally are less than 100 feet. Aquifer transmissivity locally exceeds 4,000 ft2/d (feet squared per day) but is generally less than 1,000 ft2/d. In only 17.2 mi2 of the study area are the aquifers identified as having a transmissivity greater than 1,000 ft2/d. As of 1990, total groundwater withdrawals from stratified drift for municipal supply were about 1.5 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) in the study area. Many of the stratified-drift aquifers underlying the study area are not developed to their fullest potential. The geohydrologic investigation of the stratified-drift aquifers focused on aquifer properties, including aquifer boundaries; recharge, discharge, and direction of ground-water flow; saturated thickness and storage; and transmissivity. Surficial-geologic mapping assisted in the determination of aquifer boundaries. Data from more than 1,000 wells, test borings, and springs were used to prepare maps of water-table altitude, saturated thickness, and transmissivity of stratified drift. More than 11 miles of seismic-refraction profiling at 95 sites was used in the preparation of the water-table-altitude and saturated-thickness maps. Seismic-reflection data collected along 1.6 miles of Mascoma Lake also were used in preparation of the saturated-thickness maps. Four stratified-drift aquifers in the towns of Franconia, Haverhill, and Lisbon were analyzed to estimate the water availability on the basis of analytical

  2. Geohydrologic Framework of the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers, South-Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, Charles D.; Faith, Jason R.; Ozuna, George B.

    2007-01-01

    This five-year USGS project, funded by the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program, is using multidisciplinary approaches to reveal the surface and subsurface geologic architecture of two important Texas aquifers: (1) the Edwards aquifer that extends from south of Austin to west of San Antonio and (2) the southern part of the Trinity aquifer in the Texas Hill Country west and south of Austin. The project's principal areas of research include: Geologic Mapping, Geophysical Surveys, Geochronology, Three-dimensional Modeling, and Noble Gas Geochemistry. The Edwards aquifer is one of the most productive carbonate aquifers in the United States. It also has been designated a sole source aquifer by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and is the primary source of water for San Antonio, America's eighth largest city. The Trinity aquifer forms the catchment area for the Edwards aquifer and it intercepts some surface flow above the Edwards recharge zone. The Trinity may also contribute to the Edwards water budget by subsurface flow across formation boundaries at considerable depths. Dissolution, karst development, and faulting and fracturing in both aquifers directly control aquifer geometry by compartmentalizing the aquifer and creating unique ground-water flow paths.

  3. Rescuing degrading aquifers in the Central Coastal Plain of North Carolina (USA): Just process, effective groundwater management policy, and sustainable aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manda, Alex K.; Klein, Wendy A.

    2014-07-01

    Strategic management of degrading coastal aquifers in eastern North Carolina (USA) became imperative after a severe imbalance occurred between withdrawal and recharge rates. To ameliorate this growing problem, an aggressive water policy was developed through public input by creating the Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area (CCPCUA) to maintain beneficial use of groundwater resources. Insights from social psychology, and socio-legal studies are used to evaluate how procedural justice and public participation played major roles to resolving groundwater resource management problems. A mixed methods approach uses archival data and interviews with various rule-making participants to assess the process of stakeholder involvement that led to creation of the policy. In addition, data analysis techniques are utilized to evaluate the effects of the policy on aquifer health (through water levels) over a ˜10 year period. Results suggest that not only did a stakeholder group participate in a process that was deemed fair, understandable, and relatively easy to administer for users and regulators, but public participation resulted in an effective plan that ensures the long-term sustainable use of groundwater. Declining groundwater withdrawals and recovering water levels suggest that the rule is achieving its intended goal of protecting the aquifers from depletion and degradation. This paper touches on global themes that are essential to water demand and consumption, water management techniques, and water resources protection.

  4. Hydrogeologic data for the Big River-Mishnock River stream-aquifer system, central Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craft, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogeology, ground-water development alternatives, and water quality in the BigMishnock stream-aquifer system in central Rhode Island are being investigated as part of a long-term cooperative program between the Rhode Island Water Resources Board and the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the ground-water resources throughout Rhode Island. The study area includes the Big River drainage basin and that portion of the Mishnock River drainage basin upstream from the Mishnock River at State Route 3. This report presents geologic data and hydrologic and water-quality data for ground and surface water. Ground-water data were collected from July 1996 through September 1998 from a network of observation wells consisting of existing wells and wells installed for this study, which provided a broad distribution of data-collection sites throughout the study area. Streambed piezometers were used to obtain differences in head data between surface-water levels and ground-water levels to help evaluate stream-aquifer interactions throughout the study area. The types of data presented include monthly ground-water levels, average daily ground-water withdrawals, drawdown data from aquifer tests, and water-quality data. Historical water-level data from other wells within the study area also are presented in this report. Surface-water data were obtained from a network consisting of surface-water impoundments, such as ponds and reservoirs, existing and newly established partial-record stream-discharge sites, and synoptic surface-water-quality sites. Water levels were collected monthly from the surface-water impoundments. Stream-discharge measurements were made at partial-record sites to provide measurements of inflow, outflow, and internal flow throughout the study area. Specific conductance was measured monthly at partial-record sites during the study, and also during the fall and spring of 1997 and 1998 at 41 synoptic sites throughout the study area. General geologic data, such as

  5. 3D geological modeling of the Kasserine Aquifer System, Central Tunisia: New insights into aquifer-geometry and interconnections for a better assessment of groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassen, Imen; Gibson, Helen; Hamzaoui-Azaza, Fadoua; Negro, François; Rachid, Khanfir; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2016-08-01

    The challenge of this study was to create a 3D geological and structural model of the Kasserine Aquifer System (KAS) in central Tunisia and its natural extension into north-east Algeria. This was achieved using an implicit 3D method, which honors prior geological data for both formation boundaries and faults. A current model is presented which provides defendable predictions for the spatial distribution of geology and water resources in aquifers throughout the model-domain. This work has allowed validation of regional scale geology and fault networks in the KAS, and has facilitated the first-ever estimations of groundwater resources in this region by a 3D method. The model enables a preliminary assessment of the hydraulic significance of the major faults by evaluating their influence and role on groundwater flow within and between four compartments of the multi-layered, KAS hydrogeological system. Thus a representative hydrogeological model of the study area is constructed. The possible dual nature of faults in the KAS is discussed in the context that some faults appear to be acting both as barriers to horizontal groundwater flow, and simultaneously as conduits for vertical flow. Also discussed is the possibility that two flow directions occur within the KAS, at a small syncline area of near Feriana. In summary, this work evaluates the influence of aquifer connectivity and the role of faults and geology in groundwater flow within the KAS aquifer system. The current KAS geological model can now be used to guide groundwater managers on the best placement for drilling to test and further refine the understanding of the groundwater system, including the faults connectivity. As more geological data become available, the current model can be easily edited and re-computed to provide an updated model ready for the next stage of investigation by numerical flow modeling.

  6. Dynamics of natural contamination by aluminium and iron rich colloids in the volcanic aquifers of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Viaroli, Stefano; Cuoco, Emilio; Mazza, Roberto; Tedesco, Dario

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of natural contamination by Al and Fe colloids in volcanic aquifers of central-southern Italy were investigated. Localized perched aquifers, and their relative discharges, are strongly affected by the presence of massive suspended solids, which confer a white-lacteous coloration to the water. This phenomenon occasionally caused the interruption of water distribution due to the exceeding of Al and Fe concentrations in aquifers exploited for human supply. The cause was ascribed to water seepage from perched aquifers. Water discharges affected by such contamination was investigated for the Rocca Ripesena area (north-eastern sector of Vulsini Volcanic District) and for the Rianale Stream Valley (Roccamonfina Volcanic Complex). Hydrogeological survey of both areas confirmed the presence of perched aquifers not previously considered due to their low productivity. Pluviometric data and chemical parameters were periodically monitored. Water mineralization decreased with increasing rainfall, conversely Al and Fe concentrations increased. Statistical analysis confirmed the dependence of all the chemical variables on rock leaching, with the sole exception of Al and Fe which were imputed to colloids mobilization from local, strongly pedogenized pyroclastic material. The similarities in hydrogeological settings and mobilization dynamics in both areas suggest that the Al and Fe colloidal contamination should be more abundant than currently known in quaternary volcanic areas.

  7. Effects of paved surfaces on recharge to the Floridan aquifer in east-central Florida : a conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tibbals, C.H.

    1978-01-01

    The proportionate amount of surface area that can be paved in Floridan aquifer recharge areas in east-central Florida without reducing the net recharge to the Floridan aquifer is a function of many variables that include rainfall, depth to water table, depth to potentiometric surface of the Floridan, evaporation from paved areas, evapotranspiration from unpaved areas, runoff, pattern of paving, and leakance coefficient of the confining beds. Equations that incorporate those variables, except pattern of paving, are developed and coupled to produce a conceptual model that estimates relative amounts of water available for recharge and percentage of unpaved area below which Floridan aquifer recharge rates must increase. The model is not intended to be used as a basis for engineering design. Rather, its purpose is to show approximate mathematical interrelations of rainfall, runoff, evapotranspiration, percentage of paving, and Floridan aquifer recharge, and to make quantitative estimates of amounts of water available for Floridan aquifer recharge before and after paving. The allowable percentage of paving calculated in four examples ranges from 86.8 percent to 3.6 percent. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Geomorphic and hydrologic assessment of erosion hazards at the Norman municipal landfill, Canadian River floodplain, Central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, J.A.; Whitney, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Norman, Oklahoma, municipal landfill closed in 1985 after 63 years of operation, because it was identified as a point source of hazardous leachate composed of organic and inorganic compounds. The landfill is located on the floodplain of the Canadian River, a sand-bed river characterized by erodible channel boundaries and by large variation in mean monthly discharges. In 1986, floodwaters eroded riprap protection at the southern end of the landfill and penetrated the landfill's clay cap, thereby exposing the landfill contents. The impact of this moderate-magnitude flood event (Q12) was the catalyst to investigate erosion hazards at the Norman landfill. This geomorphic investigation analyzed floodplain geomorphology and historical channel changes, flood-frequency distributions, an erosion threshold, the geomorphic effectiveness of discharge events, and other factors that influence erosion hazards at the landfill site. The erosion hazard at the Norman landfill is a function of the location of the landfill with respect to the channel thalweg, erosional resistance of the channel margins, magnitude and duration of discrete discharge events, channel form and hydraulic geometry, and cumulative effects related to a series of discharge events. Based on current climatic conditions and historical channel changes, a minimum erosion threshold is set at bankfull discharge (Q = 572 m3/s). The annual probability of exceeding this threshold is 0.53. In addition, this analysis indicates that peak stream power is less informative than total energy expenditures when estimating the erosion potential or geomorphic effectiveness of discrete discharge events. On the Canadian River, long-duration, moderate-magnitude floods can have larger total energy expenditures than shorter-duration, high-magnitude floods and therefore represent the most serious erosion hazard to floodplain structures.

  9. Carbonate aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

  10. A reconnaissance study of the effect of irrigated agriculture on water quality in the Ogallala Formation, Central High Plains Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began a regional study of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies an area of about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States. Because of its large size, the High Plains aquifer has been divided into three regions: the Southern High Plains, Central High Plains, and Northern High Plains (fig. 1A). Although an assessment of water quality in each of the three regions is planned, the initial focus will be the Central High Plains aquifer. Anyone who has flown over the Central High Plains in the summer and has seen the large green circles associated with center pivot sprinklers (fig. 2) knows that irrigated agriculture is a widespread land use. Pesticides and fertilizers applied on those irrigated fields will not degrade ground-water quality if they remain in or above the root zone (fig. 3). However, if those chemicals move downward through the unsaturated zone to the water table, they may degrade the quality of the ground water. Water is the principal agent for transporting chemicals from land surface to the water table, and in the semiarid Central High Plains, irrigation often represents the most abundant source of water during the growing season. One objective of NAWQA's High Plains Regional Ground-Water study is to evaluate the effect of irrigated agriculture on the quality of recently recharged water in the Ogallala Formation of the Central High Plains aquifer (figs. 1A and 1B). The Ogallala Formation is the principal geologic unit in the Central High Plains aquifer, and it consists of poorly sorted clay, silt, sand, and gravel that generally is unconsolidated (Gutentag and others, 1984). Approximately 23 percent of the cropland overlying the Ogallala Formation is irrigated (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1999). The NAWQA Program generally defines recently recharged ground water to be water recharged in the last 50 years. The water table in

  11. Reconnaissance of water quality in the High Plains Aquifer beneath agricultural lands, south-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stullken, L.E.; Stamer, J.K.; Carr, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The High Plains of western Kansas was one of 14 areas selected for preliminary groundwater quality reconnaissance by the U.S. Geological Survey 's Toxic Waste--Groundwater Contamination Program. The specific objective was to evaluate the effects of land used for agriculture (irrigated cropland and non-irrigated rangeland) on the water in the High Plains aquifer. Conceptual inferences, based on the information available, would lead one to expect groundwater beneath irrigated cropland to contain larger concentrations of sodium, sulfate, chloride, nitrite plus nitrate, and some water soluble pesticides than water beneath non-irrigated land (range-land) The central part of the Great Bend Prairie, an area of about 1,800 sq mi overlying the High Plains aquifer in south-central Kansas, was selected for the study of agricultural land use because it has sand soils, a shallow water table, relatively large annual precipitation, and includes large areas that are exclusively irrigated cropland or non-irrigated rangeland. As determined by a two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum test, concentrations of sodium and alkalinity were significantly larger at the 95% confidence level for water samples from beneath irrigated cropland than from beneath rangeland. No statistically significant difference in concentrations of sulfate, chloride, nitrite plus nitrate, and ammonia, was detected. Concentrations of 2,4-D found in water samples from beneath the rangeland were larger at the 99% confidence level as compared to concentrations of 2,4-D in samples from beneath irrigated cropland. Larger concentrations of sodium and alkalinity were found in water beneath irrigated cropland, and the largest concentration of the pesticide atrazine (triazines were found in three samples) was found in water from the only irrigation well sampled. The sodium and atrazine concentrations found in water from the irrigation well support the premise that water-level drawdown develops under irrigated fields. This diverts

  12. Percentage change in saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer, west-central Kansas, 1950 to average 1985-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dague, Barbara J.

    1987-01-01

    Continuing studies are being made in west-central Kansas to provide up-to-date information that will aid in the management of groundwater for irrigation. This report presents the results of the seventh in a series of studies that uses a statistical technique, called kriging, to produce hydrologic maps. The kriging technique interpolates water-level altitudes at the center of each 1-square-mile section in the study area on the basis of water-level measurements from 164 observation wells. These interpolated altitudes (1859 in all), along with bedrock-surface and base-year water-level altitudes were used to prepare a hydrologic map that illustrates percentage change in saturated thickness. Saturated thickness, as used in this report , is the thickness of the High Plains Aquifer between the groundwater surface, as indicated by water-level altitudes, and the bedrock surface. Because irrigation development in west-central Kansas was minimal prior to 1950, the saturated thickness during 1950 represented a nearly static condition in the aquifer. Thus, the decrease in saturated thickness of the aquifer since 1950 is related to the effects of irrigation withdrawals on the volume of water in storage. In general, percentage change in saturated thickness indicates the degree of stress on the aquifer in most areas resulting from irrigation pumpage. (Shidler-PTT)

  13. Percentage change in saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer, west-central Kansas, 1950 to average 1983-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dague, Barbara J.

    1985-01-01

    Continuing studies are being made in west-central Kansas to provide up-to-date information to aid in the management of groundwater for irrigation. This report presents the fifth in a series of studies that uses a statistical technique, called kriging, to produce hydrologic maps that are used as management tools. Kriging is a statistical technique that was used to interpolate water level altitudes at the center of each 1 sq mi section in the study area based on measured water levels at 165 observation wells. These interpolation altitudes (1,859 in all), along with bedrock surface and base year water table altitudes, were used to prepare a geohydrologic map illustrating percentage change in saturated thickness. Saturated thickness, as used in this report, is the thickness of the High Plains aquifer between the groundwater surface indicated by water table altitudes and the bedrock surface. Because irrigation development in west-central Kansas was minimal prior to 1950, the saturated thickness during 1950 represented a nearly static condition in the aquifer. Apparent increases in saturated thickness generally occurred in areas of sparse data or thin saturated thickness, and large errors were possible; therefore, zero and negative-change areas were not contoured. A decrease in saturated thickness of 100% may indicate that: (1) the aquifer has been dewatered, or (2) no saturated thickness occurred in that area during 1950. In general, percentage change in saturated thickness indicates the degree of stress on the aquifer in most areas due to irrigation pumpage. (Lantz-PTT)

  14. Effects of projected climate (2011–50) on karst hydrology and species vulnerability—Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, and Madison aquifer, western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Stamm, John F.; Poteet, Mary F.; Symstad, Amy J.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Long, Andrew J.; Norton, Parker A.

    2015-12-22

    Karst aquifers—formed by the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone—are critical groundwater resources in North America, and karst springs, caves, and streams provide habitat for unique flora and fauna. Springflow and groundwater levels in karst terrane can change greatly over short time scales, and therefore are likely to respond rapidly to climate change. How might the biological communities and ecosystems associated with karst respond to climate change and accompanying changes in groundwater levels and springflow? Sites in two central U.S. regions—the Balcones Escarpment of south-central Texas and the Black Hills of western South Dakota (fig. 1)—were selected to study climate change and its potential effects on the local karst hydrology and ecosystem. The ecosystems associated with the Edwards aquifer (Balcones Escarpment region) and Madison aquifer (Black Hills region) support federally listed endangered and threatened species and numerous State-listed species of concern, including amphibians, birds, insects, and plants. Full results are provided in Stamm and others (2014), and are summarized in this fact sheet.

  15. Analysis of Fault Permeability Using Mapping and Flow Modeling, Hickory Sandstone Aquifer, Central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto Camargo, Jorge E. Jensen, Jerry L.

    2012-09-15

    Reservoir compartments, typical targets for infill well locations, are commonly created by faults that may reduce permeability. A narrow fault may consist of a complex assemblage of deformation elements that result in spatially variable and anisotropic permeabilities. We report on the permeability structure of a km-scale fault sampled through drilling a faulted siliciclastic aquifer in central Texas. Probe and whole-core permeabilities, serial CAT scans, and textural and structural data from the selected core samples are used to understand permeability structure of fault zones and develop predictive models of fault zone permeability. Using numerical flow simulation, it is possible to predict permeability anisotropy associated with faults and evaluate the effect of individual deformation elements in the overall permeability tensor. We found relationships between the permeability of the host rock and those of the highly deformed (HD) fault-elements according to the fault throw. The lateral continuity and predictable permeability of the HD fault elements enhance capability for estimating the effects of subseismic faulting on fluid flow in low-shale reservoirs.

  16. Source and migration of dissolved manganese in the Central Nile Delta Aquifer, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, P. C.; El Shishtawy, A. M.; Sharp, J. M.; Atwia, M. G.

    2014-08-01

    Dissolved metals in waters in shallow deltaic sediments are one of the world's major health problems, and a prime example is arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The Central Nile Delta Aquifer, a drinking water source for more than 6 million people, can have high concentrations of dissolved manganese (Mn). Standard hydrochemical analyses coupled with sequential chemical extraction is used to identify the source of the Mn and to identify the probable cause of the contamination. Fifty-nine municipal supply wells were sampled and the results compared with published data for groundwaters and surface waters. Drill cuttings from 4 wells were collected and analyzed by sequential chemical extraction to test the hypothesized Mn-generating processes. The data from this research show that the Mn source is not deep saline water, microbial reduction of Mn oxides at the production depth, or leakage from irrigation drainage ditches. Instead, Mn associated with carbonate minerals in the surficial confining layer and transported down along the disturbed well annulus of the municipal supply wells is the likely source. This analysis provides a basis for future hydrogeological and contaminant transport modeling as well as remediation-modification of well completion practices and pumping schedules to mitigate the problem.

  17. A plan to study the aquifer system of the Central Valley of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertoldi, Gilbert L.

    1979-01-01

    Unconsolidated Quaternary alluvial deposits comprise a large complex aquifer system in the Central Valley of California. Millions of acre-feet of water is pumped from the system annually to support a large and expanding agribusiness industry. Since the 1950's, water levels have been steadily declining in many areas of the valley and concern has been expressed about the ability of the entire ground-water system to support agribusiness at current levels, not to mention its ability to function at projected expansion levels. At current levels of ground-water use, an estimated 1.5 to 2 million acre-feet is withdrawn from storage each year; that is, 1.5 to 2 million acre-feet of water is pumped annually in excess of annual replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 4-year study to develop geologic, hydrologic, and hydraulic information and to establish a valleywide ground-water data base that will be used to build computer models of the ground-water flow system. Subsequently, these models may be used to evaluate the system response to various ground-water management alternatives. This report describes current problems, objectives of the study, and outlines the general work to be accomplished in the study area. A bibliography of about 600 references is included. (Kosco-USGS)

  18. Percentage change in saturated thickness of the High Plains Aquifer, west-central Kansas, 1950 to average 1980-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical technique, called kriging, was programmed for a computer to interpolate hydrologic data based on a network of 296 measured values in west-central Kansas and eastern Colorado. The computer program generated estimated values of selected hydrologic data at the center of each 1-mile section in the Western Kansas Groundwater Management District No. 1. This program facilitated contouring of the data that are needed to aid in the management of ground water for irrigation. The kriging technique produced a map that illustrates the percentage change in saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer from 1950 to average 1980-82 in west-central Kansas. Estimated changes in saturated thickness of the aquifer, as shown on the map, range from about a 50% increase to a 100% decrease. (USGS)

  19. 78 FR 78318 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma AGENCY: Federal...), channel 51, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, requesting the substitution of channel 23 for channel 51 at Oklahoma City. While the Commission instituted a freeze on the acceptance of full power television...

  20. Chemical evolution and estimated flow velocity of water in the Trinity Aquifer, south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Sonya A.; Lee, Roger W.; Busby, John F.

    1997-01-01

    Three permeable zones with varying lithology and water chemistry compose the Trinity aquifer, a principal source of water in the 5,500- square-mile study area in south-central Texas. The upper permeable zone locally yields small quantities of water to wells and was not included in this study. The middle permeable zone primarily is composed of limestone with minor amounts of dolostone. Terrigenous sand and marine limestone, with minor amounts of dolostone, are the principal lithologic units in the lower permeable zone. Dissolved solids concentrations range from 329 to 1,820 milligrams per liter in water samples from the middle permeable zone and from 518 to 3,030 milligrams per liter in water samples from the lower permeable zone. Principal hydrochemical facies in the middle permeable zone are calcium magnesium bicarbonate and calcium magnesium sulfate. Hydrochemical facies in ground-water samples from the lower permeable zone vary. Tritium concentrations as large as 5.3 tritium units in the southeastern part of the study area are indicative of relatively recent recharge. Results of a geochemical mass balance simulation along a flowpath in the middle permeable zone indicate a mass transfer of 4.25 millimoles per liter of dolomite dissolved, 5.74 millimoles per liter of gypsum dissolved, 0.46 millimole per liter of sodium chloride dissolved, 8.07 millimoles per liter of calcite precipitated, and 0.67 millimole per liter of calcium-for-sodium cation exchange between solid and aqueous phases. These results support dedolomitization as a principal chemical process in the middle permeable zone of the Trinity aquifer. Results of a simulation along a flowpath in the lower permeable zone indicate a mass transfer of 0.41 millimole per liter of dolomite dissolved, 0.001 millimole per liter of gypsum dissolved, 9.58 millimoles per liter of sodium chloride dissolved, 1.09 millimoles per liter of calcite precipitated, and 1.11 millimoles per liter of sodium-forcalcium cation

  1. Aquifer tests at the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine, Pueblo of Laguna, west-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, D.W.; Davis, P.A.; Baldwin, J.A.; McaAda, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    The transmissivity of the Jackpile sandstone bed in the Brushy Basin Shale Member of the Morrison Formation, west-central New Mexico, was determined to be 24 sq ft/day at well M2 and 47 sq ft/day at well M3 from constant-discharge aquifer tests conducted at the Jackpile-Paguate Uranium Mine. The storage coefficient of the Jackpile sandstone bed was estimated to be 0.00018 at well M2 and 0.00029 at well M3 from the same tests. An aquifer test conducted at well M21 indicated the transmissivity of the Jackpile sandstone bed was 2.0 sq ft/day and the storage coefficient was 0.00002. The transmissivity of an unnamed sandstone bed in the Brushy Basin Shale Member of the Morrison Formation was estimated from ' slug-test ' results to be about 20 sq ft/day. Water levels in this sandstone probably did not change due to pumping from the overlying Jackpile sandstone bed for 88 hours at an average discharge of 15.3 gallons/min. A constant discharge aquifer test at well M4C indicated that the transmissivity of the alluvium at this location was about 430 sq ft/day. Water levels in the underlying Jackpile sandstone bed began declining within 15 minutes after withdrawals of groundwater from the alluvial aquifer began. (USGS)

  2. Hydrogeology of the Buffalo aquifer, Clay and Wilkin Counties, West-Central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Buffalo aquifer is the principal source of ground-water supplies in the Moorhead, Minnesota area. The aquifer is an elongate deposit of sand and gravel, which locally contains water under confined conditions. Although the Buffalo aquifer contains about 270 billion gallons of water in storage, only 120 billion gallons could be withdrawn. Largest well yields occur along the deep trough in the center of the aquifer. Induced streambed infiltration may be possible in certain areas where the stream overlies the aquifer and where the intervening lake sediments are thin or absent. A numerical model constructed for aquifer evaluation has shown that a considerable amount of ground water is discharged through the confining bed to the stream or leaves the area as underflow to the west. Water from the Buffalo aquifer generally is very hard and of the calcium bicarbonate type. The average discharge of the Buffalo River for the base period 1946-78 ranges from 0.229 cubic foot per second per square mile near Hawley to 0.108 cubic foot per second per square mile at Sabin. Surface water in the Buffalo River drainage system is dominantly a calcium bicarbonate type similar to ground water of the area, especially at low flow in the upper reaches of the tributaries.

  3. Hydrologic characteristics of soils in the High Plains, northern Great Plains, and Central Texas Carbonates Regional Aquifer Systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugan, Jack T.; Hobbs, Ryne D.; Ihm, Laurie A.

    1990-01-01

    Certain physical characteristics of soils, including permeability, available water capacity, thickness, and topographic position, have a measurable effect on the hydrology of an area. These characteristics control the rate at which precipitation infiltrates or is transmitted through the soil, and thus they have an important role in determining the rates of actual evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), groundwater recharge, and surface runoff. In studies of groundwater hydrology, it is useful to differentiate soils spatially according to their physical characteristics and to assign values that indicate their hydrologic responses.The principal purpose of this report is to describe the relation between the hydrologic characteristics of the soils in the study area and those environmental factors that affect the development and distribution of the soils. This objective will be achieved by (1) defining both qualitatively and quantitatively those soil characteristics that affect hydrology, and (2) classifying and delineating the boundaries of the soils in the study area according to these hydrologic characteristics.The study area includes the High Plains, Northern Great Plains, the Central Texas Carbonates, and parts of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer Systems as described by the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) Program (Sun, 1986, p.5and Sun, personal commun., June 1985) and shown in figures 1 through 5. The spatial patterns of the soils classified according to their quantifiable hydrologic characteristics will subsequently serve as an integral component in the analysis of actual evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), consumptive irrigation requirements, and potential ground-water recharge of the study area.The classification system used to describe the soils in this report is compatible with that of Dugan (1986). Dugan described the same characteristics of soils that are immediately underlain by principal aquifers of

  4. Groundwater flow and water budget in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Tiedeman, Claire R.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Burger, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A numerical transient model of the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida was developed to (1) increase the understanding of water exchanges between the surficial and the Floridan aquifer systems, (2) assess the recharge rates to the surficial aquifer system from infiltration through the unsaturated zone and (3) obtain a simulation tool that could be used by water-resource managers to assess the impact of changes in groundwater withdrawals on spring flows and on the potentiometric surfaces of the hydrogeologic units composing the Floridan aquifer system. The hydrogeology of east-central Florida was evaluated and used to develop and calibrate the groundwater flow model, which simulates the regional fresh groundwater flow system. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater flow model, MODFLOW-2005, was used to simulate transient groundwater flow in the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems from 1995 to 2006. The East-Central Florida Transient model encompasses an actively simulated area of about 9,000 square miles. Although the model includes surficial processes-rainfall, irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, infiltration, lake water levels, and stream water levels and flows-its primary purpose is to characterize and refine the understanding of groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system. Model-independent estimates of the partitioning of rainfall into ET, streamflow, and aquifer recharge are provided from a water-budget analysis of the surficial aquifer system. The interaction of the groundwater flow system with the surface environment was simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration method and the MODFLOW-2005 Unsaturated-Zone Flow, Lake, and Streamflow-Routing Packages. The model is intended to simulate the part of the groundwater system that contains freshwater. The bottom and lateral boundaries of the model were established at the estimated depths where the chloride concentration is 5,000 milligrams

  5. Groundwater flow and water budget in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Tiedeman, Claire R.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Davis, Jeffery B.; Burger, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A numerical transient model of the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida was developed to (1) increase the understanding of water exchanges between the surficial and the Floridan aquifer systems, (2) assess the recharge rates to the surficial aquifer system from infiltration through the unsaturated zone and (3) obtain a simulation tool that could be used by water-resource managers to assess the impact of changes in groundwater withdrawals on spring flows and on the potentiometric surfaces of the hydrogeologic units composing the Floridan aquifer system. The hydrogeology of east-central Florida was evaluated and used to develop and calibrate the groundwater flow model, which simulates the regional fresh groundwater flow system. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater flow model, MODFLOW-2005, was used to simulate transient groundwater flow in the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems from 1995 to 2006. The east-central Florida transient model encompasses an actively simulated area of about 9,000 square miles. Although the model includes surficial processes-rainfall, irrigation, evapotranspiration, runoff, infiltration, lake water levels, and stream water levels and flows-its primary purpose is to characterize and refine the understanding of groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system. Model-independent estimates of the partitioning of rainfall into evapotranspiration, streamflow, and aquifer recharge are provided from a water-budget analysis of the surficial aquifer system. The interaction of the groundwater flow system with the surface environment was simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration method and the MODFLOW-2005 Unsaturated-Zone Flow, Lake, and Streamflow-Routing Packages. The model is intended to simulate the part of the groundwater system that contains freshwater. The bottom and lateral boundaries of the model were established at the estimated depths where the chloride concentration is 5

  6. Arsenic-related water quality with depth and water quality of well-head samples from production wells, Oklahoma, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Greer, James R.; Smith, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey well profiler was used to describe arsenic-related water quality with well depth and identify zones yielding water with high arsenic concentrations in two production wells in central and western Oklahoma that yield water from the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington and Rush Springs aquifers, respectively. In addition, well-head samples were collected from 12 production wells yielding water with historically large concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) from the Garber-Wellington aquifer, Rush Springs aquifer, and two minor aquifers: the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer in southern Oklahoma and a Permian-aged undefined aquifer in north-central Oklahoma. Three depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Rush Springs aquifer had similar water-quality characteristics to the well-head sample and did not show any substantial changes with depth. However, slightly larger arsenic concentrations in the two deepest depth-dependent samples indicate the zones yielding noncompliant arsenic concentrations are below the shallowest sampled depth. Five depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer showed increases in arsenic concentrations with depth. Well-bore travel-time information and water-quality data from depth-dependent and well-head samples showed that most arsenic contaminated water (about 63 percent) was entering the borehole from perforations adjacent to or below the shroud that overlaid the pump. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10.4 to 124 micrograms per liter in 11 of the 12 production wells sampled at the well head, exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter for drinking water. pH values of the 12 well-head samples ranged from 6.9 to 9. Seven production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer had the largest arsenic concentrations ranging from 18.5 to 124 micrograms per liter. Large arsenic concentrations (10.4-18.5) and near neutral to slightly alkaline

  7. Groundwater-flow model for the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Jason C.; Bartolino, James R.; Wylie, Allan H.; Sukow, Jennifer; McVay, Michael

    2016-06-27

    Subsurface outflow beneath the Big Wood River near Stanton Crossing. Temporal changes in aquifer storage are most affected by areal recharge and groundwater pumping, and also contribute to changes in streamflow gains.

  8. Modeling CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoirs to Evaluate Regional CO2 Sequestration Potential of Ozark Plateau Aquifer System, South-Central Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watney, W. L.; Rush, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Paleozoic-age Ozark Plateau Aquifer System (OPAS) in southern Kansas consists of a thick (>450 m) and deeply buried (>1 km) succession of Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group strata (dolomite) overlain by Lower Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous-age carbonate, chert, and shale. The Arbuckle Group is a thick widespread saline aquifer in southern Kansas. A 500 meter core of the OPAS interval and immediate overlying Pennsylvanian shale caprock were cored in early 2011 in the BEREXCO Wellington KGS #1-32 well in Wellington Field, a nearly depleted oil field in Sumner County, in south-central Kansas. An exhaustive set of modern logs were run in the KGS #1-32 well including chemical, microresistivity imaging, dipole sonic, nuclear magnetic resonance, and standard porosity and resistivity wireline logs. In addition, routine and special core analyses provide vital means to calibrate these logs. Core also provide vital chemical analyses and rock samples to run flow experiments, including in situ conditions, to establish reaction kinetics of rock and connate brines with CO2. Core and logs also provide the means to calibrate a 26 km2 multicomponent 3D seismic survey that was acquired in Wellington Field in 2010. Studies of four oil fields, also part of this project, are underway in southwestern Kansas to provide additional calibration points for the western part of the regional study that covers 65,000 km2 where CO2 sequestration capacity will be measured. Several hundred deep wells have been identified to serve as type wells in the regional study area. Well logs and sample descriptions are being digitized, correlated, and mapped to define distribution of aquifers, oil reservoirs, and caprocks. Drill stem test data have been analyzed for deep wells to establish that the Arbuckle is an open aquifer connected to surface exposures 100s of km to east in central Missouri. Over 500 km2 of 3D seismic have been donated by industrial partners to aid in understanding fault and fracture

  9. Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

    2013-04-01

    The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the local residents of the Gio Linh district. This coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 and is situated between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The elevation varies from 0.5 m at the seaside in the East to 19.5 m further inland. During the rainy season from August to April the precipitation is on average 2000 to 2700 mm. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Drinking water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. A SEAWAT groundwater model will be built to study the effects on the groundwater system. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Historical production records of an operational groundwater production well-field are available to be used for validation of the model. Finally, to achieve a sustainable integrated water resources management in the Gio Linh district different adaptive scenarios will be developed.

  10. Ground-water quality beneath irrigated agriculture in the central High Plains aquifer, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, Breton W.; Becker, Mark F.; Pope, Larry M.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2003-01-01

    In 1999 and 2000, 30 water-quality monitoring wells were installed in the central High Plains aquifer to evaluate the quality of recently recharged ground water in areas of irrigated agriculture and to identify the factors affecting ground-water quality. Wells were installed adjacent to irrigated agricultural fields with 10- or 20-foot screened intervals placed near the water table. Each well was sampled once for about 100 waterquality constituents associated with agricultural practices. Water samples from 70 percent of the wells (21 of 30 sites) contained nitrate concentrations larger than expected background concentrations (about 3 mg/L as N) and detectable pesticides. Atrazine or its metabolite, deethylatrazine, were detected with greater frequency than other pesticides and were present in all 21 samples where pesticides were detected. The 21 samples with detectable pesticides also contained tritium concentrations large enough to indicate that at least some part of the water sample had been recharged within about the last 50 years. These 21 ground-water samples are considered to show water-quality effects related to irrigated agriculture. The remaining 9 groundwater samples contained no pesticides, small tritium concentrations, and nitrate concentrations less than 3.45 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. These samples are considered unaffected by the irrigated agricultural land-use setting. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicate that commercial fertilizer was the dominant source of nitrate in 13 of the 21 samples affected by irrigated agriculture. Nitrogen isotope ratios for 4 of these 21 samples were indicative of an animal waste source. Dissolved-solids concentrations were larger in samples affected by irrigated agriculture, with large sulfate concentrations having strong correlation with large dissolved solids concentrations in these samples. A strong statistical correlation is shown between samples affected by irrigated agriculture and sites with large rates of

  11. Hydrogeology of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Ronald L.; Cates, Steven W.

    1994-01-01

    The Travertine District (Park) of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, operated and maintained by the National Park Service, is near the City of Sulphur in south-central Oklahoma. The Park was established in 1902 because of its unique hydrologic setting, which includes Rock Creek, Travertine Creek, numerous mineralized and freshwater springs, and a dense cover of riparian vegetation. Since the turn of the century several flowing artesian wells have been drilled within and adjacent to the Park. Discharge from many of these springs and the numbers of flowing wells have declined substantially during the past 86 years. To determine the cause of these declines, a better understanding of the hydrologic system must be obtained. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, has appraised hydrologic information obtained for the Park from several studies conducted during 1902-87. The principal geologic units referred to in this report are the Arbuckle Group and the overlying Simpson Group. These rocks are of Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age and are composed of dolomitic limestone, with some sandstones and shales in the Simpson Group. Surface geologic maps give a general understanding of the regional subsurface geology, but information about the subsurface geology within the Park is poor. The Simpson and Arbuckle aquifers are the principal aquifers in the study area. The two aquifers are not differentiated readily in some parts of the study area because of the similarity of the Simpson and Arbuckle rocks; thus, both water-bearing units are referred to frequently as the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The aquifers are confined under the Park, but are unconfined east and south of the Park. Precipitation on the outcrop area of the Arbuckle aquifer northeast and east of the Park recharges the freshwater springs (Antelope and Buffalo Springs) near the east boundary of the Park. The source of water from mineralized springs located in the central

  12. Geophysical Log Analysis of Selected Test Holes and Wells in the High Plains Aquifer, Central Platte River Basin, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, J. Alton; Morin, Roger H.; Cannia, James C.; Williams, John H.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Central Platte Natural Resources District is investigating the hydrostratigraphic framework of the High Plains aquifer in the Central Platte River basin. As part of this investigation, a comprehensive set of geophysical logs was collected from six test holes at three sites and analyzed to delineate the penetrated stratigraphic units and characterize their lithology and physical properties. Flow and fluid-property logs were collected from two wells at one of the sites and analyzed along with the other geophysical logs to determine the relative transmissivity of the High Plains aquifer units. The integrated log analysis indicated that the coarse-grained deposits of the alluvium and the upper part of the Ogallala Formation contributed more than 70 percent of the total transmissivity at this site. The lower part of the Ogallala with its moderately permeable sands and silts contributed some measureable transmissivity, as did the fine-grained sandstone of the underlying Arikaree Group, likely as a result of fractures and bedding-plane partings. Neither the lower nor the upper part of the siltstone- and claystone-dominated White River Group exhibited measurable transmissivity. The integrated analysis of the geophysical logs illustrated the utility of these methods in the detailed characterization of the hydrostratigraphy of the High Plains aquifer.

  13. Percentage change in saturated thickness of the High Plains Aquifer, west-central Kansas, 1950 to average 1984-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dague, Barbara J.

    1986-01-01

    Continuing studies are being made in west-central Kansas to provide up-to-date information that will aid in the management of groundwater for irrigation. The results are presented of the sixth in a series of studies that used a statistical technique called kriging, to produce hydrologic maps. The kriging technique interpolates water level altitudes at the center of each 1 sq mi section in the study area on the basis of water level measurements from 169 observation wells. For this study, measurements made at each site during the winter months of 1984, 1985, and 1986 were averaged. These interpolated altitudes (1 ,859 in all), along with bedrock-surface and base yr water level altitudes, were used to prepare a hydrologic map that illustrates percentage change in saturated thickness. Saturated thickness is the thickness of the High Plains aquifer between the groundwater surface, as indicated by water level altitudes, and the bedrock surface. Because irrigation development in west-central Kansas was minimal prior to 1950, the saturated thickness during 1950 represented a nearly static condition in the aquifer. Thus, the decrease in saturated thickness of the aquifer since 1950 is related to the effects of irrigation withdrawals on the volume of water in storage. (Lantz-PTT)

  14. Hydrology of sand-and-gravel aquifer in central and southern Escambia County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trapp, Henry

    1975-01-01

    The sand-and-gravel aquifer is the only fresh-water aquifer in the Pensacola area. Problems related to development of the aquifer include maximum safe yield, local contamination, local salt-water intrusion, corrosiveness of the water, areas of high iron concentration, and increasing nitrate concentration. The city of Pensacola is seeking hydrologic information, including water-quality data, to plan for future expansion of the water-supply system. This report summarizes the third year's findings of a 6-year study of the sand-and-gravel aquifer. Although the thickness of the aquifer locally exceeds 1,000 feet (300 metres) most of the clean sand layers are no more than 450 feet (140 metres) below land surface. The highest head is at the north edge of the area; the head is drawn down below sea level in areas of heavy pumping. Ground water moves southward from the northern half of the county to be intercepted near Cantonment. Virtually all ground water discharged south of Cantonment derives from local precipitation. The report contains maps showing concentrations of carbon dioxide, nitrate, and iron in water from the aquifer, potentiometric maps, geohydrologic sections, and lithologic and radioactive logs of test holes.

  15. Urban flood analysis in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.; Huntzinger, T.L.; Bergman, D.L.; Patneaude, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    Flood insurance study information from the Federal Emergency Management Agency is utilized to estimate future flood hazard in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Techniques are described for estimating future urban runoff estimates. A method of developing stream cross section rating curves is explained. Future runoff estimates are used in conjuction with the rating curves to develop an estimate of 50- and 100- year flood profiles that would result from future urban development.

  16. Simulation of ground-water flow and solute transport in the Glen Canyon aquifer, East-Central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freethey, Geoffrey W.; Stolp, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of methane from coal beds in the Ferron coal trend in central Utah started in the mid-1980s. Beginning in 1994, water from the extraction process was pressure injected into the Glen Canyon aquifer. The lateral extent of the aquifer that could be affected by injection is about 7,600 square miles. To address regional-scale effects of injection over a decadal time frame, a conceptual model of ground-water movement and transport of dissolved solids was formulated. A numerical model that incorporates aquifer concepts was then constructed and used to simulate injection. The Glen Canyon aquifer within the study area is conceptualized in two parts-an active area of ground-water flow and solute transport that exists between recharge areas in the San Rafael Swell and Desert, Waterpocket Fold, and Henry Mountains and discharge locations along the Muddy, Dirty Devil, San Rafael, and Green Rivers. An area of little or negligible ground-water flow exists north of Price, Utah, and beneath the Wasatch Plateau. Pressurized injection of coal-bed methane production water occurs in this area where dissolved-solids concentrations can be more than 100,000 milligrams per liter. Injection has the potential to increase hydrologic interaction with the active flow area, where dissolved-solids concentrations are generally less than 3,000 milligrams per liter. Pressurized injection of coal-bed methane production water in 1994 initiated a net addition of flow and mass of solutes into the Glen Canyon aquifer. To better understand the regional scale hydrologic interaction between the two areas of the Glen Canyon aquifer, pressurized injection was numerically simulated. Data constraints precluded development of a fully calibrated simulation; instead, an uncalibrated model was constructed that is a plausible representation of the conceptual flow and solute-transport processes. The amount of injected water over the 36-year simulation period is about 25,000 acre-feet. As a result

  17. IMPLICATIONS OF NEW ARSENIC STANDARDS ON OKLAHOMA WATER RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The new national standard for arsenic in drinking water supplies, slated to take effect in 2006, is having an unexpected impact on a number of Oklahoma communities. Currently, several municipalities in north central Oklahoma are in compliance with existing arsenic standards (50 ...

  18. Estimating the uncertainty of the impact of climate change on alluvial aquifers. Case study in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Emanuele; Camici, Stefania; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso; Pica, Federico; Preziosi, Elisabetta

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence that the precipitation pattern in Europe is trending towards more humid conditions in the northern region and drier conditions in the southern and central-eastern regions. However, a great deal of uncertainty concerns how the changes in precipitations will have an impact on water resources, particularly on groundwater, and this uncertainty should be evaluated on the basis of that coming from 1) future climate scenarios of Global Circulation Models (GCMs) and 2) modeling chains including the downscaling technique, the infiltration model and the calibration/validation procedure used to develop the groundwater flow model. With the aim of quantifying the uncertainty of these components, the Valle Umbra porous aquifer (Central Italy) has been considered as a case study. This aquifer, that is exploited for human consumption and irrigation, is mainly fed by the effective infiltration from the ground surface and partly by the inflow from the carbonate aquifers bordering the valley. A numerical groundwater flow model has been developed through the finite difference MODFLOW2005 code and it has been calibrated and validated considering the recharge regime computed through a Thornthwaite-Mather infiltration model under the climate conditions observed in the period 1956-2012. Future scenarios (2010-2070) of temperature and precipitation have been obtained from three different GMCs: ECHAM-5 (Max Planck Institute, Germany), PCM (National Centre Atmospheric Research) and CCSM3 (National Centre Atmospheric Research). Each scenario has been downscaled (DSC) to the data of temperature and precipitation collected in the baseline period 1960-1990 at the stations located in the study area through two different statistical techniques (linear rescaling and quantile mapping). Then, stochastic rainfall and temperature time series are generated through the Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses model (NSRP) for precipitation and the Fractionally Differenced ARIMA model (FARIMA

  19. Denitrification in a Shallow Aquifer Underlying a Dairy Farm in the Central Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, B. K.; Beller, H. R.; Carle, S. F.; Hudson, G. B.; Kane, S. R.; McNab, W. W.; Moran, J. E.; Tompson, A. F.

    2004-12-01

    Nitrate loading to shallow aquifers from dairy farm operations presents a serious threat to critical groundwater resources in California. Less well known is the extent to which saturated zone denitrification may mitigate the problem by converting nitrate to the benign end-product nitrogen, before nitrate is transported to deeper aquifers used for drinking water. We are carrying out a multi-disciplinary study of saturated zone denitrification, in a dense network of monitoring points at a 1500-cow dairy in Kings County, California. Detailed vertical profiles of anion and cation concentrations, along with dissolved excess nitrogen were obtained at five-foot intervals using temporary direct-push wells. Results show nitrate concentrations in excess of 100 mg/L over the top few meters of the water column, abruptly falling to less than 5 mg/L below a depth of approximately 10m. Over the same interval, dissolved excess nitrogen concentrations sharply increase, indicating that denitrification is responsible for a significant fraction of the nitrate decrease. This pattern is in effect across the entire dairy site. A key aspect of the project is a concurrent focus on understanding the hydrogeology of the site. Regionally, overdraft over the past several decades has resulted in the development of separate shallow (10 m) and deeper (≥ 40 m) aquifer systems. Recharge to the shallow aquifer is derived from low TDS, isotopically depleted Kings River water from a nearby unlined irrigation canal. Local agricultural pumping from the shallow aquifer and infiltration from irrigation water are significant factors in the shallow system. The deeper aquifer is characterized by intensive regional pumping, rapidly decreasing water levels, and the apparent disposition of the shallow aquifer as a perched system for a 1-km2 or more area surrounding the farm. The air gap separating the aquifers is low in oxygen and undergoes pressure changes as water levels fluctuate below. Age dating and

  20. Heat flow in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cranganu, C.; Deming, D.

    1996-12-31

    Oklahoma is one area in which terrestrial heat flow data are sparse. The thermal state of the southern mid-continent, however, is a key to understanding several important geologic problems. These include thermal anomalies associated with Paleozoic fluid migrations and the formation of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, the thermal evolution of the Arkoma and Anadarko sedimentary basins, and the history of hydrocarbon generation and overpressuring in the Anadarko Basin. In the late 1920s, the American Petroleum Institute made a set of equilibrium temperature logs in idle oil wells. These temperature data are generally regarded as being high quality, accurate estimates of rock temperature and they cover the entire central part of Oklahoma. Average thermal gradients in the API survey range from 14 to 43 {sup 0}C/km (average 31.2 {sup 0}C/km) over depth intervals that extend from the surface to a an average depth of 961 m. Geothermal gradients decrease from NNE to SSW. The observed change in thermal gradients could be due to a number of factors. The change in thermal gradients could simply reflect changes in lithology and thermal conductivity. Alternatively, the variation in thermal gradients could be indicative of a change in heat flow related perhaps to variations in the concentration of radioactive heat-producing elements in the crust or heat transport by one or more regional groundwater flow systems. We are proceeding to reduce ambiguity in interpretation by estimating heat flow from thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings and heat production from available gamma-ray logs which penetrate basement rocks.

  1. Heat flow in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cranganu, C.; Deming, D. )

    1996-01-01

    Oklahoma is one area in which terrestrial heat flow data are sparse. The thermal state of the southern mid-continent, however, is a key to understanding several important geologic problems. These include thermal anomalies associated with Paleozoic fluid migrations and the formation of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, the thermal evolution of the Arkoma and Anadarko sedimentary basins, and the history of hydrocarbon generation and overpressuring in the Anadarko Basin. In the late 1920s, the American Petroleum Institute made a set of equilibrium temperature logs in idle oil wells. These temperature data are generally regarded as being high quality, accurate estimates of rock temperature and they cover the entire central part of Oklahoma. Average thermal gradients in the API survey range from 14 to 43 [sup 0]C/km (average 31.2 [sup 0]C/km) over depth intervals that extend from the surface to a an average depth of 961 m. Geothermal gradients decrease from NNE to SSW. The observed change in thermal gradients could be due to a number of factors. The change in thermal gradients could simply reflect changes in lithology and thermal conductivity. Alternatively, the variation in thermal gradients could be indicative of a change in heat flow related perhaps to variations in the concentration of radioactive heat-producing elements in the crust or heat transport by one or more regional groundwater flow systems. We are proceeding to reduce ambiguity in interpretation by estimating heat flow from thermal conductivity measurements on drill cuttings and heat production from available gamma-ray logs which penetrate basement rocks.

  2. Hydrogeology of the Helena Valley-fill aquifer system, west-central Montana. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Briar, D.W.; Madison, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    The report, which presents the study results, describes the hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system. Specific objectives were to: describe the geometry and the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer system; define the potentiometric surface and the direction of ground-water flow; locate and quantify sources of ground-water recharge and discharge including surface- and ground-water interactions; and characterize the water quality in terms of susceptibility of the aquifer system to contamination and in terms of concentrations, distribution, and sources of major ions, trace elements, and organic compounds. The results of the study will be useful to the development of a comprehensive management program for the use and protection of the ground-water resources of the Helena Valley.

  3. Water Use in Oklahoma 1950-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive planning for water resources development and use in Oklahoma requires a historical perspective on water resources. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, summarized the 1950-2005 water-use information for Oklahoma. This report presents 1950-2005 estimates of freshwater withdrawal for water use in Oklahoma by source and category in 5-year intervals. Withdrawal source was either surface water or groundwater. Withdrawal categories include: public supply, irrigation, livestock and aquaculture, thermoelectric-power generation (cooling water), domestic and commercial, and industrial and mining. Withdrawal data were aggregated and tabulated by county, major river basin, and principal aquifer. The purpose of this report is to summarize water-use data in Oklahoma through: (1) presentation of detailed information on freshwater withdrawals by source, county, major river basin, and principal aquifer for 2005; (2) comparison of water use by source, category, major river basin, and principal aquifer at 5-year intervals from 1990-2005; and (3) comparison of water use on a statewide basis by source and category at 5-year intervals from 1950-2005. Total withdrawals from surface-water and groundwater sources during 2005 were 1,559 million gallons per day-989 million gallons a day or 63 percent from surface-water sources and 570 million gallons per day or 37 percent from groundwater sources. The three largest water use categories were: public supply, 646 million gallons per day or 41 percent of total withdrawals; irrigation, 495 million gallons per day or 32 percent of total withdrawals; and livestock and aquaculture, 181 million gallons per day or 12 percent of total withdrawals. All other categories were 237 million gallons per day or 15 percent of total withdrawals. The influence of public supply on the total withdrawals can be seen in the eastern two-thirds of Oklahoma; whereas, the influence of irrigation on total

  4. Geologic history and hydrogeologic setting of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.A.; Bush, P.W.; Baker, E.T.

    1994-01-01

    Because the diagenetic effects of cementation, recrystallization, and mineral replacement diminish the hydraulic conductivity of most rocks composing the Trinity and Edwards-Trinity aquifers, transmissivity values average less than 10,000 feet squared per day over more than 90 percent of the study area. However, the effects of tectonic fractures and dissolution in the Balcones fault zone cause transmissivity values to average about 750,000 feet squared per day in the Edwards aquifer, which occupies less than 10 percent of the study area.

  5. Adaptations of indigenous bacteria to fuel contamination in karst aquifers in south-central Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byl, Thomas D.; Metge, David W.; Agymang, Daniel T.; Bradley, Michael W.; Hileman, Gregg; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The karst aquifer systems in southern Kentucky can be dynamic and quick to change. Microorganisms that live in these unpredictable aquifers are constantly faced with environmental changes. Their survival depends upon adaptations to changes in water chemistry, taking advantage of positive stimuli and avoiding negative environmental conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in 2001 to determine the capability of bacteria to adapt in two distinct regions of water quality in a karst aquifer, an area of clean, oxygenated groundwater and an area where the groundwater was oxygen depleted and contaminated by jet fuel. Water samples containing bacteria were collected from one clean well and two jet fuel contaminated wells in a conduit-dominated karst aquifer. Bacterial concentrations, enumerated through direct count, ranged from 500,000 to 2.7 million bacteria per mL in the clean portion of the aquifer, and 200,000 to 3.2 million bacteria per mL in the contaminated portion of the aquifer over a twelve month period. Bacteria from the clean well ranged in size from 0.2 to 2.5 mm, whereas bacteria from one fuel-contaminated well were generally larger, ranging in size from 0.2 to 3.9 mm. Also, bacteria collected from the clean well had a higher density and, consequently, were more inclined to sink than bacteria collected from contaminated wells. Bacteria collected from the clean portion of the karst aquifer were predominantly (,95%) Gram-negative and more likely to have flagella present than bacteria collected from the contaminated wells, which included a substantial fraction (,30%) of Gram-positive varieties. The ability of the bacteria from the clean portion of the karst aquifer to biodegrade benzene and toluene was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in laboratory microcosms. The rate of fuel biodegradation in laboratory studies was approximately 50 times faster under aerobic conditions as compared to anaerobic, sulfur-reducing conditions. The

  6. Estimation of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability with index-overlay and statistical methods: the case of eastern Kopaida, central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziritis, E.; Lombardo, L.

    2016-03-01

    The intrinsic vulnerability of a karstic aquifer system in central Greece was jointly assessed with the use of a statistical approach and PI method, as a function of topography, protective cover effectiveness and the degree to which this cover is bypassed due to flow conditions. The input data for the index-overlay PI method were derived from field works and 71 boreholes of the area; the information was obtained, subsequently its critical factors were compiled which included lithology, fissuring and karstification of bedrock, soil characteristics, hydrology, hydrogeology, topography and vegetation. The aforementioned parameters were processed jointly with the aid of a GIS and yielded the final estimation of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Results were compared with an equivalent spatially distributed probability map obtained through a stochastic approach. The calibration and test phase of the latter relied on morphometric conditions derived by terrain analyses of a digital elevation model as well as on geology and land use from thematic maps. This procedure allowed taking into account the topographic influences with respect to a deep system such as the local karstic aquifer of eastern Kopaida basin. Finally, results were validated with ground truth nitrate values obtained from 41 groundwater samples, highlighted the spatial delineation of susceptible areas to contamination in both cases and provided a robust tool for regional planning actions and water resources management schemes.

  7. Chlorine stable isotope evidence for salinization processes of confined groundwater in southwestern Nobi Plain aquifer system, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Masaru; Bottrell, Simon H.; Wu, Jiahong; Kumagai, Yoshihiro; Mori, Kazuki; Satake, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    A confined aquifer system, isolated from modern seawater, is developed in argillaceous marine and freshwater sediments of Pliocene-Holocene age in southwestern Nobi Plain (SWNP), central Japan. A tongue of brackish confined groundwater (Cl- >1000 mg/L), which extends from the shoreline of Ise Bay inland, mostly has negative δ37Cl values with -0.90‰ to 0.21‰. The Cl isotopic compositions are negatively correlated with paleo seawater Cl- concentrations discriminated by a Rayleigh distillation model with δ34S values, while they are not correlated with either total Cl- concentrations or δ34S values. Furthermore, Cl- concentrations from modern seawater are positively correlated with δ37Cl values. In addition to these observations, diffusion model calculations suggest that paleo seawater Cl- has diffused out from argillaceous marine sediments whereas modern seawater Cl- has not been affected by preferential diffusion of Cl isotopes because it has migrated by advection via both an unconfined aquifer and non-pumping wells. Moreover, the brackish groundwater is characterized by an excess of Na/Cl ratio and deficits of Mg/Cl and Ca/Cl ratios compared to those predicted from simple mixing of freshwater with seawater. This would be caused by cation exchange reactions in the confined aquifer system in which groundwater is freshening after salinization by both paleo seawater and/or modern seawater.

  8. Simulation of ground-water flow in aquifers in Cretaceous rocks in the central Coastal Plain, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eimers, J.L.; Lyke, W.L.; Brockman, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    The principal sources of water-supply in Cretaceous rocks in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina are the Peedee, Black Creek, and upper Cape Fear aquifers. Ground-water withdrawals from these aquifers have increased from about 0.25 million gallons per day in 1910 to over 29 million gallons per day in 1986, causing water-level declines as much as 160 feet. The maximum rate of water-level decline in 1986 is about 11 feet per year in the Black Creek aquifer. A quasi-three dimensional ground-water flow model was constructed and calibrated for the period 1900 to 1986 to simulate past water-level declines and to estimate the effects of future pumpage. Comparisons of 1,867 observed and model-computed heads were made at 323 well sites. The average difference between computed and observed water levels is -1 foot. About 68 percent of all the differences between computed and observed water levels falls in the range from -21.0 to 21.0 feet. Simulation indicates that the 29 million gallons per day of pumpage in 1986 was supplied by (1) increased recharge (net discharge of 2 million gallons per day in 1900 changed to net recharge of 18 million gallons per day in 1986), (2) increased lateral inflow to the aquifers of about 8 million gallons per day, and (3) depletion of ground-water storage of about 1 million gallons per day. Two pumping scenarios simulated head changes through 1991 and were based on (1) constant pumpage at the 1986 rates in each aquifer, and (2) continuing increases in pumping rates from 1986 through 1991 and rates varying from 10 to 19 percent per year for the three pumped aquifers. For scenario 1, water-level declines exceeded 5 feet locally; however, water-level rises of about 1 foot occurred in two areas. For scenario 2, water-level declines ranged from 1 foot to 30 feet in some pumping centers.

  9. Geochemistry, radiocarbon ages, and paleorecharge conditions along a transect in the central High Plains aquifer, southwestern Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Christenson, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Water samples from short-screen monitoring wells installed along a 90-km transect in southwestern Kansas were analyzed for major ions, trace elements, isotopes (H, B, C, N, O, S, Sr), and dissolved gases (He, Ne, N2, Ar, O2, CH4) to evaluate the geochemistry, radiocarbon ages, and paleorecharge conditions in the unconfined central High Plains aquifer. The primary reactions controlling water chemistry were dedolomitization, cation exchange, feldspar weathering, and O2 reduction and denitrification. Radiocarbon ages adjusted for C mass transfers ranged from 10 ka to reduce the average NO3 concentration in recent recharge to the Holocene background concentration.

  10. Oklahoma's Advanced School Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary

    A new means of funding school operations known as advanced school funding allows Oklahoma schools financing during the temporary cash shortfalls. The program consists of the Oklahoma Development Authority issuing revenue bonds purchased by E. F. Hutton and Company, Inc., which then sells the tax free bonds to investors throughout the country. A…

  11. Pride in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gordon; Blackburn, Bob L.

    This booklet is intended to be used as background material by social studies and history classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on Oklahoma's heritage. It includes background information on the land and people of Oklahoma (geology, climate, topography, vegetation, animals, prehistoric peoples, French explorers,…

  12. Oklahoma Tribes: A History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, Kevin

    1977-01-01

    Oklahoma is a microcosm of American Indian country. Water rights, tribal government impotence, jurisdiction, tribal membership, treaty rights, taxation, sovereignty, racism, and poor housing, education, and health are all vital issues facing the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. In order to understand the complexity of these issues, a review of the…

  13. Earthquake history of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The strongest and most widely felt earthquake in Oklahoma occured on April 9, 1952. The intensity VII (Modified Mercalli Scale) tremor was felt over 362,000 sqaure kilometres. A second intensity VII earthquake, felt over a very small area, occurred in October 1956. In addition, 15 other shocks, intensity V or VI, have originated within Oklahoma

  14. Ground-water quality in Quaternary deposits of the central High Plains aquifer, south-central Kansas, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Larry M.; Bruce, Breton W.; Hansen, Cristi V.

    2001-01-01

    Water samples from 20 randomly selected domestic water-supply wells completed in the Quaternary deposits of south-central Kansas were collected as part of the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The samples were analyzed for about 170 water-quality constituents that included physical properties, dissolved solids and major ions, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and radon. The purpose of this study was to provide a broad overview of ground-water quality in a major geologic subunit of the High Plains aquifer. Water from five wells (25 percent) exceeded the 500-milligrams-per-liter of dissolved solids Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water. The Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels of 250 milligrams per liter for chloride and sulfate were exceeded in water from one well each. The source of these dissolved solids was probably natural processes. Concentrations of most nutrients in water from the sampled wells were small, with the exception of nitrate. Water from 15 percent of the sampled wells had concentrations of nitrate greater than the 10-milligram-per-liter Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water. Water from 80 percent of the sampled wells showed nitrate enrichment (concentrations greater than 2.0 milligrams per liter), which is more than what might be expected for natural background concentrations. This enrichment may be the result of synthetic fertilizer applications, the addition of soil amendment (manure) on cropland, or livestock production. Most trace elements in water from the sampled wells were detected only in small concentrations, and few exceeded respective water-quality standards. Only arsenic was detected in one well sample at a concentration (240 micrograms per liter) that exceeded its proposed Maximum Contaminant Level (5.0 micrograms per liter). Additionally, one concentration of

  15. Stream base flow and potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in south-Central and southwestern Georgia, November 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Peck, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation to document groundwater levels and stream base flow in the lower Chattahoochee-Flint and western and central Aucilla-Suwanee-Ochlockonee River basins during low-flow conditions was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in November 2008. During most of 2008, moderate to severe drought conditions prevailed throughout southwestern Georgia. Groundwater levels were below median daily levels throughout most of 2008; however, in some wells, groundwater levels rose to median daily levels by November. Discharge in most of the streams in the study area also had risen to median levels by November. The potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer was constructed from water-level measurements collected in 21 counties from 376 wells during November 1-10, 2008. The potentiometric surface indicates that groundwater in the study area generally flows to the south and toward streams except in reaches discharging to the Upper Floridan aquifer. The degree of connection between the Upper Floridan aquifer and streams decreases east of the Flint River where the overburden is thicker. Decreased connectivity between ground and surface water is evident from the stream-stage altitudes measured in November 2008 east of the Flint River, which are not similar to water-level altitudes measured in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Stream-stage measurements were collected at 111 sites-26 U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging sites and 85 additional synoptic sites without gages. Streamflow measurements were made at 87 of the sites during November 2008 and were used to estimate base flow. The measurements indicate that stream reaches range from losing up to 10 cubic feet per second to gaining up to 4,559 cubic feet per second; five stream reaches were determined to be losing stream reaches. Of the 11 stream reaches in the Alapaha River subbasin, 7 were dry when measured in November 2008.

  16. CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

    2003-06-01

    Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned

  17. Quantification of aquifer properties with surface nuclear magnetic resonance in the Platte River valley, central Nebraska, using a novel inversion method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irons, Trevor P.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Steele, Gregory V.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Woodward, Duane D.

    2012-01-01

    Surface nuclear magnetic resonance, a noninvasive geophysical method, measures a signal directly related to the amount of water in the subsurface. This allows for low-cost quantitative estimates of hydraulic parameters. In practice, however, additional factors influence the signal, complicating interpretation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Platte Natural Resources District, evaluated whether hydraulic parameters derived from surface nuclear magnetic resonance data could provide valuable input into groundwater models used for evaluating water-management practices. Two calibration sites in Dawson County, Nebraska, were chosen based on previous detailed hydrogeologic and geophysical investigations. At both sites, surface nuclear magnetic resonance data were collected, and derived parameters were compared with results from four constant-discharge aquifer tests previously conducted at those same sites. Additionally, borehole electromagnetic-induction flowmeter data were analyzed as a less-expensive surrogate for traditional aquifer tests. Building on recent work, a novel surface nuclear magnetic resonance modeling and inversion method was developed that incorporates electrical conductivity and effects due to magnetic-field inhomogeneities, both of which can have a substantial impact on the data. After comparing surface nuclear magnetic resonance inversions at the two calibration sites, the nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived parameters were compared with previously performed aquifer tests in the Central Platte Natural Resources District. This comparison served as a blind test for the developed method. The nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived aquifer parameters were in agreement with results of aquifer tests where the environmental noise allowed data collection and the aquifer test zones overlapped with the surface nuclear magnetic resonance testing. In some cases, the previously performed aquifer tests were not designed fully to characterize

  18. Properties and chemical constituents in ground water from the lower Wilcox Aquifer, Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, Robert A.; Busby, John F.; Beckman, Jeffery D.

    1993-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is a study of regional aquifers composed of sediments of mostly Cenozoic age that underlie about 230,000 sq mi of the Gulf Coastal Plain. These regional aquifers are part of three aquifer systems: (1) the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, (2) the Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System, and (3) the Coastal Lowlands Aquifer System. The water chemistry of the Lower Wilcox Aquifer, which is part of the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System is presented by a series of maps. These maps show the areal distribution of (1) the concentration of dissolved solids and temperature, (2) the primary water types and pH, (3) the concentration of major ions and silica, and (4) the milliequivalent ratios of selected ions. Dissolved constituents, pH, temperature, and ratios are based on the median values of all samples in each 100-sq-mi area. The concentration of dissolved solids in water from the Lower Wilcox Aquifer ranges from 18 mg/L near the outcrop in western Tennessee to 122,000 mg/L in a down-dip area in southern Mississippi. The primary water type is calcium bicarbonate in the outcrop area and sodium bicarbonate in all other areas of the aquifer within the limits of available data. The concentrations of major ions generally increase from the outcrop area to the down-dip limit of the data in the southern part of the aquifer area east of the Mississippi River. The milliequivalent ratio maps of selected ions in water from the Lower Wilcox Aquifer indicate some trends. The milliequivalent ratio of magnesium plus calcium to bicarbonate ranges from less than 0.1 to 40.4 and generally decreases from outcrop to down-dip limit of the data in the southern part of the aquifer area east of the Mississippi River. The milliequivalent ratio of bicarbonate to chloride ranges from 0.01 in southern Mississippi to 52.3 in northwestern Mississippi. This ratio increases from the outcrop toward the Mississippi River and from north to south in the

  19. Interaction of Rahaliya-Ekhedhur groundwater with the aquifer rock, West Razzaza Lake, Central Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moutaz A.

    2016-09-01

    The groundwater of Dammam aquifer in Rahaliya-Ekhedhur area, West Razzaza, Iraq, was studied to identify the main hydrogeochemical processes and the groundwater-rock interaction. The results indicated that Na+ and SO4 2- are the dominant ions in the groundwater. The average contribution of cations in the aquifer is Na+ + K+ (24.7 %), Ca2+ (13.9 %), and Mg2+ (11.4 %), while anions contribution is SO4 2- (23.0 %), Cl- (20.7 %), and HCO3 - (6.3 %). The groundwater characterized by neutral to slightly alkaline hard water, excessively mineralized, and slightly brackish water type. Rock-water interaction processes are identified to include dissolution of carbonates, sulfates, halite, and clay minerals, leaching, and cation exchanges, with little impact of evaporation.

  20. Groundwater quality in the Coastal Lowlands aquifer system, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Jeannie R.B.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-19

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Coastal Lowlands aquifer system constitutes one of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 12 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 18 percent. Organic constituents were not detected at high or moderate concentrations in the study area.

  1. Water Quality in the Equus Beds Aquifer and the Little Arkansas River Before Implementation of Large-Scale Artificial Recharge, South-Central Kansas, 1995-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ziegler, Andrew C.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Finn, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Artificial recharge of the Equus Beds aquifer using runoff from the Little Arkansas River in south-central Kansas was first proposed in 1956 and was one of many options considered by the city of Wichita to preserve its water supply. Declining aquifer water levels of as much as 50 feet exacerbated concerns about future water availability and enhanced migration of saltwater into the aquifer from past oil and gas activities near Burrton and from the Arkansas River. Because Wichita changed water-management strategies and decreased pumping from the Equus Beds aquifer in 1992, water storage in the aquifer recovered by about 50 percent. This recovery is the result of increased reliance on Cheney Reservoir for Wichita water supply, decreased aquifer pumping, and larger than normal precipitation. Accompanying the water-level recovery, the average water-level gradient in the aquifer decreased from about 12 feet per mile in 1992 to about 8 feet per mile in January 2006. An important component of artificial recharge is the water quality of the receiving aquifer and the water being recharged (source water). Water quality within the Little Arkansas River was defined using data from two real-time surface-water-quality sites and discrete samples. Water quality in the Equus Beds aquifer was defined using sample analyses collected at 38 index sites, each with a well completed in the shallow and deep parts of the Equus Beds aquifer. In addition, data were collected at diversion well sites, recharge sites, background wells, and prototype wells for the aquifer storage and recovery project. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, radionuclides, organic compounds, and bacterial and viral indicators. Water-quality constituents of concern for artificial recharge are those constituents that frequently (more than 5 percent of samples) may exceed Federal [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)] and State drinking-water criteria in water samples from the receiving

  2. Hydrochemistry of the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer, East-Central Illinois: indicators of recharge and ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Cartwright, K.; Liu, Chao-Li

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual model of the ground-water flow and recharge to the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MVA), east-central Illinois, was developed using major ion chemistry and isotope geochemistry. The MVA is a 'basal' fill in the east-west trending buried bedrock valley composed of clean, permeable sand and gravel to thicknesses of up to 61 m. It is covered by a thick sequence of glacial till containing thinner bodies of interbedded sand and gravel. Ground water from the MVA was found to be characterized by clearly defined geochemical regions with three distinct ground-water types. A fourth ground-water type was found at the confluence of the MVA and the Mackinaw Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MAK) to the west. Ground water in the Onarga Valley, a northeastern tributary of the MVA, is of two types, a mixed cation-SO42- type and a mixed cation-HCO3- type. The ground water is enriched in Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42- which appears to be the result of an upward hydraulic gradient and interaction of deeper ground water with oxidized pyritic coals and shale. We suggest that recharge to the Onarga Valley and overlying aquifers is 100% from bedrock (leakage) and lateral flow from the MVA to the south. The central MVA (south of the Onarga Valley) is composed of relatively dilute ground water of a mixed cation-HCO3- type, with low total dissolved solids, and very low concentrations of Cl- and SO42-. Stratigraphic relationships of overlying aquifers and ground-water chemistry of these and the MVA suggest recharge to this region of the MVA (predominantly in Champaign County) is relatively rapid and primarily from the surface. Midway along the westerly flow path of the MVA (western MVA), ground water is a mixed cation-HCO3- type with relatively high Cl-, where Cl- increases abruptly by one to ??? two orders of magnitude. Data suggest that the increase in Cl- is the result of leakage of saline ground water from bedrock into the MVA. Mass-balance calculations indicate that approximately 9.5% of

  3. State summaries: Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krukowski, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, Oklahoma mines produced both industrial minerals and coal. No metals were mined in the state. Based on value, leading industrial minerals include crushed stone followed by cement, construction sand and gravel, industrial sand and gravel, iodine and gypsum. The Oklahoma Department of Mines (ODOM) reported that more than 343 mine operators produced nonfuel minerals from 405 mines in the state. However, 530 mining permitted sites were on file. The Oklahoma Miner Training Institute (OMTI) held 239 classes for 33,768 classroom hours of instruction, in which 84 coal miners and 4,587 metal/nonmetal miners were trained.

  4. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 4, Oklahoma, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    The two States, Oklahoma and Texas, that compose Segment 4 of this Atlas are located in the south-central part of the Nation. These States are drained by numerous rivers and streams, the largest being the Arkansas, the Canadian, the Red, the Sabine, the Trinity, the Brazos, the Colorado, and the Pecos Rivers and the Rio Grande. Many of these rivers and their tributaries supply large amounts of water for human use, mostly in the eastern parts of the two States. The large perennial streams in the east with their many associated impoundments coincide with areas that have dense populations. Large metropolitan areas such as Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Okla., and Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, and Austin, Tex., are supplied largely or entirely by surface water. However, in 1985 more than 7.5 million people, or about 42 percent of the population of the two States, depended on ground water as a source of water supply. The metropolitan areas of San Antonio and El Paso, Tex., and numerous smaller communities depend largely or entirely on ground water for their source of supply. The ground water is contained in aquifers that consist of unconsolidated deposits and consolidated sedimentary rocks. This chapter describes the geology and hydrology of each of the principal aquifers throughout the two-State area. Precipitation is the source of all the water in Oklahoma and Texas. Average annual precipitation ranges from about 8 inches per year in southwestern Texas to about 56 inches per year in southeastern Texas (fig. 1). In general, precipitation increases rather uniformly from west to east in the two States. Much of the precipitation either flows directly into rivers and streams as overland runoff or indirectly as base flow that discharges from aquifers where the water has been stored for some time. Accordingly, the areal distribution of average annual runoff from 1951 to 1980 (fig. 2) reflects that of average annual precipitation. Average annual runoff in the two-State area ranges

  5. Effects of aquifer storage and recovery activities on water quality in the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds Aquifer, south-central Kansas, 2011-14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Mandy L.; Garrett, Jessica D.; Poulton, Barry C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2016-07-18

    The Equus Beds aquifer in south-central Kansas is aprimary water source for the city of Wichita. The Equus Beds aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project was developed to help the city of Wichita meet increasing current (2016) and future water demands. The Equus Beds ASR project pumps water out of the Little Arkansas River during above-base flow conditions, treats it using drinking-water quality standards as a guideline, and recharges it into the Equus Beds aquifer for later use. Phase II of the Equus Beds ASR project currently (2016) includes a river intake facility and a surface-water treatment facility with a 30 million gallon per day capacity. Water diverted from the Little Arkansas River is delivered to an adjacent presedimentation basin for solids removal. Subsequently, waste from the surface-water treatment facility and the presedimentation basin is returned to the Little Arkansas River through a residuals return line. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Wichita, developed and implemented a hydrobiological monitoring program as part of the ASR project to characterize and quantify the effects of aquifer storage and recovery activities on the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds aquifer water quality.Data were collected from 2 surface-water sites (one upstream and one downstream from the residuals return line), 1 residuals return line site, and 2 groundwater well sites (each having a shallow and deep part): the Little Arkansas River upstream from the ASR facility near Sedgwick, Kansas (upstream surface-water site 375350097262800), about 0.03 mile (mi) upstream from the residuals return line site; the Little Arkansas River near Sedgwick, Kans. (downstream surface-water site 07144100), about 1.68 mi downstream from the residuals return line site; discharge from the Little Arkansas River ASR facility near Sedgwick, Kansas (residuals return line site 375348097262800); 25S 01 W 07BCCC01 SMW–S11 near CW36 (MW–7 shallow groundwater well

  6. Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsudduha, M.; Uddin, A.; Saunders, J. A.; Lee, M.-K.

    2008-07-01

    This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 µg/L to 191 µg/L with a mean concentration of 33 µg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO3 type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO4. The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 µg/L. Deeper aquifer (> 100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 µg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions.

  7. Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shamsudduha, M; Uddin, A; Saunders, J A; Lee, M-K

    2008-07-29

    This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 microg/L to 191 microg/L with a mean concentration of 33 microg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO(3) type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO(4). The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 microg/L. Deeper aquifer (>100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 microg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions.

  8. Oklahoma City Revitalization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Since the beginning of their Brownfields Program in 2003, Oklahoma City has been the recipient of nine EPA Brownfields Grants, creating a new city from the inside out. So far, 45 properties have been assessed and/or remediated.

  9. Earthquake activity in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. )

    1989-08-01

    Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb) earthquake was felt from Austin, Texas, to Des Moines, Iowa, and covered a felt area of approximately 362,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to 1962, all earthquakes in Oklahoma (59) were either known from historical accounts or from seismograph stations outside the state. Over half of these events were located in Canadian County. In late 1961, the first seismographs were installed in Oklahoma. From 1962 through 1976, 70 additional earthquakes were added to the earthquake database. In 1977, a statewide network of seven semipermanent and three radio-telemetry seismograph stations were installed. The additional stations have improved earthquake detection and location in the state of Oklahoma. From 1977 to 1988, over 570 additional earthquakes were located in Oklahoma, mostly of magnitudes less than 2.5. Most of these events occurred on the eastern margin of the Anadarko basin along a zone 135 km long by 40 km wide that extends from Canadian County to the southern edge of Garvin County. Another general area of earthquake activity lies along and north of the Ouachita Mountains in the Arkoma basin. A few earthquakes have occurred in the shelves that border the Arkoma and Anadarko basins.

  10. Key subsurface data help to refine Trinity aquifer hydrostratigraphic units, south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, Charles D.; Clark, Allan K.

    2014-01-01

    The geologic framework and hydrologic characteristics of aquifers are important components for studying the nation’s subsurface heterogeneity and predicting its hydraulic budgets. Detailed study of an aquifer’s subsurface hydrostratigraphy is needed to understand both its geologic and hydrologic frameworks. Surface hydrostratigraphic mapping can also help characterize the spatial distribution and hydraulic connectivity of an aquifer’s permeable zones. Advances in three-dimensional (3-D) mapping and modeling have also enabled geoscientists to visualize the spatial relations between the saturated and unsaturated lithologies. This detailed study of two borehole cores, collected in 2001 on the Camp Stanley Storage Activity (CSSA) area, provided the foundation for revising a number of hydrostratigraphic units representing the middle zone of the Trinity aquifer. The CSSA area is a restricted military facility that encompasses approximately 4,000 acres and is located in Boerne, Texas, northwest of the city of San Antonio. Studying both the surface and subsurface geology of the CSSA area are integral parts of a U.S. Geological Survey project funded through the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. This modification of hydrostratigraphic units is being applied to all subsurface data used to construct a proposed 3-D EarthVision model of the CSSA area and areas to the south and west.

  11. Fens, seasonal wetlands, and the unconfined pumice aquifer east of the Cascade Range, south-central Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, M. L.; Large, A.; Mowbray, A.; Weatherford, J.; Webb, B.

    2013-12-01

    Fens and seasonal wetlands in the headwaters of the Klamath and Deschutes river basins in south-central Oregon are present in an area blanketed by 2 to 3 m of pumice during the Holocene eruption of Mount Mazama. The lower pumice unit, moderately sorted coarse pumice lapilli to blocks (0.3 to 0.7 cm), phenocrysts, and lithics is 1.5 to 2 m thick; the upper pumice unit, poorly sorted lapilli to blocks (0.2 to 6 cm), minor phenocrysts, and lithics is 1 m thick. Pumice is a perched, unconfined aquifer over low permeability bedrock or pre-eruption fine-grained sediment. Early landscape response included partial erosion of pumice from pre-eruption valleys followed by partial filling by alluvium: phenocryst- and lithic-rich sand grading upward to glassy silt with rounded pumice pebbles. Groundwater-fed wetlands, fens, associated with the unconfined pumice aquifer occur as areas of diffuse groundwater discharge through gently sloping, convex surfaces underlain by up to 1.4 m of peat. Locally, focused discharge through the confining peat layer feeds low discharge streams. Carnivorous plants (sundews and pitcher plants) may be present. The sharp contact between peat and underlying pumice is an erosion surface that cuts progressively deeper into the upper and lower pumice units downslope. At the base of the slope peat with fen discharge feeding surface flow, alluvium with no surface flow, or a subtle berm separating the slope underlain by peat from the valley bottom underlain by alluvium may be present. Distinct vegetation changes take place at this transition. The erosion surface that underlies the peat layer in the fen is at the surface on the opposing valley wall and progressively rises up through the lower and upper pumice units: iron staining and cementation of pumice is locally prominent. Up to 1.5 m difference in water table occurs between the fen and opposing valley wall. Water table in piezometers screened in peat is at the surface. Locally, water table screened in

  12. Synthesis of the Hydrogeologic Framework of the Floridan Aquifer System and Delineation of a Major Avon Park Permeable Zone in Central and Southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.; Richardson, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The carbonate Floridan aquifer system of central and southern Florida (south of a latitude of about 29 degrees north) is an invaluable resource with a complex framework that has previously been mapped and managed primarily in a subregional context according to geopolitical boundaries. As interest and use of the Floridan aquifer system in this area increase, a consistent regional hydrogeologic framework is needed for effective management across these boundaries. This study synthesizes previous studies on the Floridan aquifer system and introduces a new regional hydrogeologic conceptual framework, linking physical relations between central and southern Florida and between the west and east coastal areas. The differences in hydrogeologic nomenclature and interpretation across the study area from previous studies were identified and resolved. The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, middle confining unit, and Lower Floridan aquifer. This study introduces and delineates a new major, regional productive zone or subaquifer, referred to as the Avon Park permeable zone. This zone is contained within the middle confining unit and synthesizes an extensive zone that has been referred to differently in different parts of the study area in previous studies. The name of this zone derives from the description of this zone as the ?Avon Park highly permeable zone? in west-central Florida in a previous study. Additionally, this zone has been identified previously in southeastern Florida as the ?middle Floridan aquifer.? An approximately correlative or approximate time-stratigraphic framework was developed and was used to provide guidance in the identification and determination of aquifers, subaquifers, and confining units within the Floridan aquifer system and to determine their structural relations. Two stratigraphic marker horizons within the Floridan aquifer system and a marker unit near the top of the aquifer system were delineated or mapped. The marker

  13. Child and Family Resource Program (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma). Program Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report describes the Oklahoma City, Oklahoma site of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP), a Head Start-affiliated program designed to elicit community and family involvement in fostering optimum development of preschool children and their families. The Oklahoma City site, serving a rural black community, is one of 11 demonstration…

  14. Incidence of Legionella pneumophila infections among Oklahoma pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed Central

    Flournoy, D. J.; Guthrie, P. J.; Lawrence, C. H.; Silberg, S. L.; Beaver, S.

    1990-01-01

    Prior studies by the authors suggested high levels of Legionella pneumophila in the recreational and water supply reservoirs in central Oklahoma. This high exposure potential was supported by a relatively high prevalence of seropositive, asymptomatic infections among healthy blood donors in the area. In contrast, the present 9-month laboratory-based study confirmed only one clinical Legionella infection among 117 unidentified pulmonary disease patients admitted to the Oklahoma City Veterans Administration Medical Center. Comparison with the reports of others and with reported legionellosis in Oklahoma indicates that differences in cohort definition and variations in utilization and interpretation of clinical analyses leads to wide variations in the reported incidence of legionellosis. PMID:2304095

  15. Hydrology of the alluvial, buried channel, basal Pleistocene and Dakota aquifers in west-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Dakota aquifer consists of the saturated sandstone and gravel units in the Dakota Formation. Isolated erosional remnants of the Dakota Formation form the caps of many bedrock ridges. The Dakota Formation is thickest where the bedrock surface is relatively high and flat, forming an ancient, buried, surface-water divide between southwest and southeast trending buried drainages in Audubon, Carroll, and Guthrie Counties. Sandstone thickness of as much as 150 feet exists in Guthrie County, but an average thickness of 30 feet is more common. Water from wells less than 200 feet deep generally is a calcium bicarbonate type and has an average dissolved-solids concentration of 650 milligrams per liter. Water from wells more than 200 feet deep generally is a calcium sulfate or sodium bicarbonate type and has an average dissolved-solids concentrations of 2,200 milligrams per liter.

  16. Hydrogeologic framework and geochemistry of the Edwards aquifer saline-water zone, south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groschen, George E.; Buszka, Paul M.

    1997-01-01

    Estimated in-place temperature of the samples collected indicates an increase with depth and (or) distance from the downdip limit of freshwater. The pH of the samples decreases with increasing distance from the downdip limit of freshwater, but the decrease is caused partly by the increase in temperature. Dissolved major ions and dissolved solids concentrations all indicate a progressive but monotonic increase in salinity from updip to downdip. The alkalinity of the water samples is predominantly bicarbonate because the low-molecular weight aliphatic-acid anion concentrations are small relative to the bicarbonate concentrations. The dissolved organic carbon concentrations also are lower than expected for an aquifer with economic amounts of oil and gas hydrocarbons.

  17. Preliminary delineation and description of the regional aquifers of Tennessee : the Central Basin system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brahana, J.V.; Bradley, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer about 65 feet thick underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The water table ranges in depth from 10 feet to 25 feet below land surface. Mathematical models indicate that ground-water flow ranges from 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Trichlorethylene leaked from a buried storage tank in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward in a plume, contaminating Base water-supply wells. Concentrations exceed 1,000 micrograms per liter in the most highly contaminated part of the plume. Purge pumping removed some of the trichloroethylene and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. (USGS)

  18. Vulnerability assessment of karst aquifer feeding Pertuso Spring (Central Italy): comparison between different applications of COP method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ferranti, Flavia; Luciani, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment of karst aquifers and vulnerability mapping are important tools for improved sustainable management and protection of karst groundwater resources. In this paper, to estimate the vulnerability degree of the karst aquifer feeding Pertuso Spring in Central Italy, two different implementations of COP method, supported by an open source GIS, were tested and a comparison of the vulnerability maps is proposed. The study area is a highly karstified carbonate aquifer located in the Upper Valley of the Aniene River, in the south-east part of Latium Region. The hydrogeological basin covers about 50 km2 and the karst aquifer provides a water supply of about 120.000 m3d-1. The well-developed karst features in this hydrogeological system is responsible of the fast infiltration of rainfall in the saturated zone and, consequently, of the high discharge rate of Pertuso Spring (up to 3 m3/s). Thus, in the aim of emphasizing the presence of these karst features, due to which, there are limited attenuation processes in the unsaturated zone, in this work COP method has been applied by the implementation of a new discretization methodology of the hydrogeological basin using polygonal layer. Therefore, the hydrogeological catchment basin has been divided into 52 polygonal layer, representative of outcropping lithology and karst features, to which COP method has been applied. The intrinsic vulnerability maps, produced using a GIS approach, has been examinated and compared with the maps obtained using traditional vulnerability assessment method, which provides the discretization of the study area generating a grid map to which associate the Vulnerability Indexes. The results of this study highlight vulnerability from low to very high. The maximum vulnerability degree is due to karstic features responsible of high recharge and high hydraulic conductivity. The new proposed discretization of the hydrogeological basin using polygonal layer raise four vulnerability

  19. Water movement through thick unsaturated zones overlying the central High Plains aquifer, southwestern Kansas, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.; Dennehy, K.F.; Michel, R.L.; Sophocleous, M.A.; Ellett, K.M.; Hurlbut, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    The role of irrigation as a driving force for water and chemical movement to the central High Plains aquifer is uncertain because of the thick unsaturated zone overlying the aquifer. Water potentials and profiles of tritium, chloride, nitrate, and pesticide concentrations were used to evaluate water movement through thick unsaturated zones overlying the central High Plains aquifer at three sites in southwestern Kansas. One site was located in rangeland and two sites were located in areas dominated by irrigated agriculture. In 2000?2001, the depth to water at the rangeland site was 50 meters and the depth to water at the irrigated sites was about 45.4 meters. Irrigation at the study sites began in 1955?56. Measurements of matric potential and volumetric water content indicate wetter conditions existed in the deep unsaturated zone at the irrigated sites than at the rangeland site. Total water potentials in the unsaturated zone at the irrigated sites systematically decreased with depth to the water table, indicating a potential existed for downward water movement from the unsaturated zone to the water table at those sites. At the rangeland site, total water potentials in the deep unsaturated zone indicate small or no potential existed for downward water movement to the water table. Postbomb tritium was not detected below a depth of 1.9 meters in the unsaturated zone or in ground water at the rangeland site. In contrast, postbomb tritium was detected throughout most of the unsaturated zone and in ground water at both irrigated sites. These results indicate post-1953 water moved deeper in the unsaturated zone at the irrigated sites than at the rangeland site. The depth of the interface between prebomb and postbomb tritium and a tritium mass-balance method were used to estimate water fluxes in the unsaturated zone at each site. The average water fluxes at the rangeland site were 5.4 and 4.4 millimeters per year for the two methods, which are similar to the average water

  20. Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.

    2009-04-01

    Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region Despite India's tremendous progress on all fronts after independence in 1947, the fact remains that it is one of the poorest nation in the world in terms of per capita income and energy consumption which is considered to be the gauge of the economic situation of any country. In case of India, it is nearly one tenth of the developed nations. If economic condition of its people is to be raised, then country has to boost its agriculture production which is largely monsoon dependent and to exploit its conventional and unconventional energy sources at a very rapid growth rate. Although, worldwide, 70% of the water that is withdrawn for human use is used for agriculture, 22% for industry and 8% is used for domestic services. But in India which is a low income country, 82% is used for agriculture, 10% for industry and 8% for domestic services. Therefore, India needs new sources of water to reduce the risk of dependency on the monsoon for the Sustainable Development of the country. It is in this connection that the Ambikapur Basin in the Central India has been studied for sustainable water withdrawal. At present, the crops in the Ambikapur region are totally monsoon dependent. However, with the initiatives of the State Government, 25 boreholes in an area of about 25 square kilometers have been drilled up to a depth of 500m and completed in the Gondwana sandstone. The water quality and the discharge rates have been established to sustain the crops of the area which is the only livelihood of the local people , in case the monsoon fails. The hydraulic properties of the aquifer like Transmissivity (T) and the Coefficient of Storage (S) were determined following the graphic method of Jacob and Theis. The rate of discharge (Q) of the pumped well was estimated at 4.05 x 10 to the power 3 cubic meters per second and the values of other parameters like T at

  1. Age of irrigation water in ground water from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Rupert, M.G.; Busenberg, E.; Schlosser, P.

    2000-01-01

    Stable isotope data (2H and 18O) were used in conjunction with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) data to determine the fraction and age of irrigation water in ground water mixtures from farmed parts of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) Aquifer in south-central Idaho. Two groups of waters were recognized: (1) regional background water, unaffected by irrigation and fertilizer application, and (2) mixtures of irrigation water from the Snake River with regional background water. New data are presented comparing CFC and 3H/3He dating of water recharged through deep fractured basalt, and dating of young fractions in ground water mixtures. The 3H/3He ages of irrigation water in most mixtures ranged from about zero to eight years. The CFC ages of irrigation water in mixtures ranged from values near those based on 3H/3He dating to values biased older than the 3H/3He ages by as much as eight to 10 years. Unsaturated zone air had CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations that were 60% to 95%, and 50% to 90%, respectively, of modern air concentrations and were consistently contaminated with CFC-11. Irrigation water diverted from the Snake River was contaminated with CFC-11 but near solubility equilibrium with CFC-12 and CFC-113. The dating indicates ground water velocities of 5 to 8 m/d for water along the top of the ESRP Aquifer near the southwestern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many of the regional background waters contain excess terrigenic helium with a 3He/4He isotope ratio of 7 x 10-6 to 11 x 10-6 (R/Ra = 5 to 8) and could not be dated. Ratios of CFC data indicate that some rangeland water may contain as much as 5% to 30% young water (ages of less than or equal to two to 11.5 years) mixed with old regional background water. The relatively low residence times of ground water in irrigated parts of the ESRP Aquifer and the dilution with low-NO3 irrigation water from the Snake River lower the potential for

  2. Assessment of nonpoint-source contamination of the High Plains Aquifer in south-central Kansas, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helgesen, John O.; Stullken, Lloyd E.; Rutledge, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water quality was assessed in a 5,000-square-mile area of the High Plains aquifer in south-central Kansas that is susceptible to nonpoint-source contamination from agricultural and petroleum-production activities. Of particular interest was the presence of agricultural chemicals and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons that might have been associated with brines that formerly were disposed into unlined ponds. Random sampling of ground water was done within a framework of discrete land-use areas (irrigated cropland, petroleum-production land containing former brine-disposal ponds, and undeveloped rangeland) of 3-10 square miles. Although true baseline water-quality conditions probably are rare, in this region they are represented most closely by ground water in areas of undeveloped rangeland. The sampling design enabled statistical hypothesis testing, using nonparametric procedures, of the effects of land use, unsaturated-zone lithology, and type of well sampled. Results indicate that regional ground-water quality has been affected by prevailing land-use activities, as shown by increased concentrations of several inorganic constituents. Ground water beneath irrigated cropland was characterized by significantly larger concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, potassium, fluofide, and nitrite plus nitrate than was water beneath undeveloped rangeland. Few nondegraded pesticides were detected in the aquifer, probably because of degradation and sorption. Atrazine was the most common, but only in small concentrations. round water beneath petroleum-production land was characterized by significantly larger concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride than was water beneath undeveloped rangeland. Nonpoint-source contamination by oil-derived hydrocarbons was not discernible. The occurrences of trace organic compounds were similar between petroleum-production land and undeveloped rangeland, which indicates a natural origin

  3. Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Qiang; Culbertson, Charles W.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Schalk, Charles W.; Johnson, Carole D.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Stute, Martin; Zheng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478 μg/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70-100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93-99%) in particulates (>0.45 μm). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560-13,000 g/kg of As and 14-35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5-20 mmol/mol) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000-100,000 L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1300 mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The δD and δ18O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes the oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater.

  4. Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Culbertson, Charles W.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Schalk, Charles W.; Johnson, Carole D.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Stute, Martin; Zheng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478 µg/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70–100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93–99%) in particulates (>0.45 µm). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560–13,000 mg/kg of As and 14–35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5–20 mmole/mole) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000–100,000 L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1,300 mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The δD and δ18O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater. PMID:24842411

  5. Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Culbertson, Charles W; Nielsen, Martha G; Schalk, Charles W; Johnson, Carole D; Marvinney, Robert G; Stute, Martin; Zheng, Yan

    2015-02-01

    To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478 μg/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70-100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93-99%) in particulates (>0.45 μm). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560-13,000 mg/kg of As and 14-35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5-20 mmol/mol) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000-100,000 L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1300 mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The δD and δ(18)O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes the oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater.

  6. Effects of three highway-runoff detention methods on water quality of the surficial aquifer system in central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffer, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Water quality of the surficial aquifer system in central Florida was evaluated at one exfiltration pipe, two ponds (detention and retention), and two swales in central Florida, representing three runoff-detention methods, to detect any effect from infiltrating highway runoff. Concentrations of major ions, metals, and nutrients in groundwater and bottom sediments were measured from 1984 through 1986. At each study area, constituent concentrations in groundwater near the structure were compared to concentrations in groundwater from an upgradient control site. Groundwater quality data were also pooled by detention method and statistically compared to detect any significant differences between methods. Significantly greater mean phosphorus concentrations in groundwater near the exfiltration pipe than those in the control well was the only evidence of increasing constituent concentrations in groundwater near structures. The quality of water was more variable, and had greater constituent concentrations in the unsaturated zone than in the saturated zone near the exfiltration pipe. Values of water quality variables measured in groundwater at all study areas generally were within State drinking water standards. The main exception was dissolved iron, which commonly exceeded 300 micrograms/L at one swale and the detention pond. Results of the study indicate that natural processes occurring in soils attenuate inorganic constituent concentrations prior to reaching the receiving groundwater. However, organic compounds detected in bottom sediments at the retention pond indicate a potential problem that may eventually affect the quality of the receiving groundwater. (USGS)

  7. Geochemistry of and radioactivity in ground water of the Highland Rim and Central Basin aquifer systems, Hickman and Maury counties, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hileman, G.E.; Lee, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    A reconnaissance of the geochemistry of and radioactivity in ground water from the Highland Rim and Central Basin aquifer systems in Hickman and Maury Counties, Tennessee, was conducted in 1989. Water in both aquifer systems typically is of the calcium or calcium magnesium bicarbonate type, but concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate are greater in water of the Central Basin system; differences in the concentrations are statistically significant. Dissolution of calcite, magnesium-calcite, dolomite, and gypsum are the primary geochemical processes controlling ground-water chemistry in both aquifer systems. Saturation-state calculations using the computer code WATEQF indicated that ground water from the Central Basin system is more saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, and gypsum than water from the Highland Rim system. Geochemical environments within each aquifer system are somewhat different with respect to dissolution of magnesium-bearing minerals. Water samples from the Highland Rim system had a fairly constant calcium to magnesium molar ratio, implying congruent dissolution of magnesium-bearing minerals, whereas water samples from the Central Basin system had highly variable ratios, implying either incongruent dissolution or heterogeneity in soluble constituents of the aquifer matrix. Concentrations of radionuclides in water were low and not greatly different between aquifer systems. Median gross alpha activities were 0.54 picocuries per liter in water from each system; median gross beta activities were 1.1 and 2.3 picocuries per liter in water from the Highland Rim and Central Basin systems, respectively. Radon-222 concentrations were 559 and 422 picocuries per liter, respectively. Concentrations of gross alpha and radium in all samples were substantially less than Tennessee?s maximum permissible levels for community water-supply systems. The data indicated no relations between concentrations of dissolved

  8. Simulations of flow in the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, E.L.; Holligan, K.Q.

    1994-01-01

    The transmissivity values used in the simulations were within estimated ranges and generally are: 1,000 to 10,000 ft2/d (feet squared per day) for the Edwards-Trinity and Trinity aquifers; 100,000 to greater than 1 million ft2/d for the Edwards aquifer; and less than 500 to 10,000 ft2/d in contiguous hydraulically connected units. Simulated flow through the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units is about 3 million acre-feet per year. Estimates of areally distributed recharge from the simulations range from 0.1 to 1 inch per year for the Edwards-Trinity aquifer and increase to 4 inches per year for the Trinity aquifer. Recharge to the Edwards aquifer occurs along streambeds that cross outcropped high-permeability rocks of the Edwards Group through joints and faults. Many of the streams are diverted completely underground during periods of no precipitation. The movement of a substantial quantity of water (about 400 cubic feet per second) from the Trinity and Edwards-Trinity aquifers into the Edwards aquifer was simulated. Results of the simulations indicate that anisotropy strongly influences flow in the Edwards aquifer. In the San Antonio and Austin areas, the Edwards aquifer is the most active part of the ground-water flow system with one-third of ground-water discharge occurring in 5 percent of the modeled area for both simulations.

  9. Potential for pollution of the Upper Floridan aquifer from five sinkholes and an internally drained basin in west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trommer, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Sinkholes are natural and common geologic features in west-central Florida, which is underlain by water soluble limestone deposits. Dissolution of these deposits is the fundamental cause of sinkhole development. Sinkholes and other karst features are more pronounced in the northern part of the study area, but sinkhole activity has occurred throughout the area. Fifty-eight sinkholes with known or suspected connection to the Upper Floridan aquifer are located in the study area. An internally drained basin near the city of Brandon and five sinkholes in Hillsborough, Pasco, and Hernando Counties were selected for detailed investigation. At all sites, chemical or biological constituents were detected that indicate pollutants had entered the aquifer. A generalized classification, based on the potential to pollute, was applied to the selected sites. Four of the sites have high potential and two have moderate potential to pollute the Upper Floridan aquifer. All of the sites investigated are capable of recharging large volumes of water to the Upper Floridan aquifer in short periods of time. Continued monitoring of the quality of water entering the sinkholes and of wells downgradient to the sinks is needed to assess the future impacts on the aquifer. (Author 's abstract)

  10. A century of induced earthquakes in Oklahoma?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.; Page, Morgan T.

    2015-01-01

    Seismicity rates have increased sharply since 2009 in the central and eastern United States, with especially high rates of activity in the state of Oklahoma. Growing evidence indicates that many of these events are induced, primarily by injection of wastewater in deep disposal wells. The upsurge in activity has raised two questions: What is the background rate of tectonic earthquakes in Oklahoma? How much has the rate varied throughout historical and early instrumental times? In this article, we show that (1) seismicity rates since 2009 surpass previously observed rates throughout the twentieth century; (2) several lines of evidence suggest that most of the significant earthquakes in Oklahoma during the twentieth century were likely induced by oil production activities, as they exhibit statistically significant temporal and spatial correspondence with disposal wells, and intensity measurements for the 1952 El Reno earthquake and possibly the 1956 Tulsa County earthquake follow the pattern observed in other induced earthquakes; and (3) there is evidence for a low level of tectonic seismicity in southeastern Oklahoma associated with the Ouachita structural belt. The 22 October 1882 Choctaw Nation earthquake, for which we estimate Mw 4.8, occurred in this zone.

  11. Nitrate contamination of shallow aquifer groundwater in the central districts of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Garg, Sunil; Sondhi, S K; Taneja, D S

    2012-01-01

    The increasing trend in nitrogenous fertilizer use and extensive irrigation in the agricultural production system in Punjab, India are the reasons of contamination of groundwater, which is the main source of drinking water. A study was conducted to determine the extent of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) contamination of groundwater in the shallow aquifers of Ludhiana district. Pre and post-monsoon groundwater samples from hand pumps of 36 villages, located at or near the nodes of 6-12 km grid, were collected during the years 1998 and 1999 and were analyzed for NO3-N concentration. During the period of study, the NO3-N concentration in 34.7%, 37.5%, 15.3%, 11.1% and 1.4% of the groundwater samples was between 0-5 mg/L, 6-10 mg/L, 11-15 mg/L, 16-20 mg/L and 21-25 mg/L, respectively. Around 72% of the groundwater samples were safe and did not exceed the critical limit of NO3-N concentration (10 mg/L) prescribed for drinking water. Although, statistically no change in the mean NO3-N concentration level has been observed during the study period and is within the safe limit in most of the samples (72%), yet there is every possibility of further contamination of groundwater due to continuous high N-fertilizer use and over irrigation which necessitates judicious and efficient N-fertilizer and irrigation water use in Punjab (India).

  12. Assessing the Vulnerability of Public-Supply Wells to Contamination: Central Valley Aquifer System near Modesto, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Burow, Karen R.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Modesto, California. The well selected for study pumps on average about 1,600 gallons per minute from the Central Valley aquifer system during peak summer demand. Water samples were collected at the public-supply well and at monitoring wells installed in the Modesto vicinity. Samples from the public-supply wellhead contained the undesirable constituents uranium, nitrate, arsenic, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and pesticides, although none were present at concentrations exceeding drinking-water standards. Of these contaminants, uranium and nitrate pose the most significant water-quality risk to the public-supply well because human activities have caused concentrations in groundwater to increase over time. Overall, study findings point to four primary factors that affect the movement and (or) fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Modesto: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer); (2) irrigation and agricultural and municipal pumping that drives contaminants downward into the primary production zone of the aquifer; (3) short-circuiting of contaminated water down the public-supply well during the low-pumping season; and (4) natural geochemical conditions of the aquifer. A local-scale computer model of groundwater flow and transport to the public-supply well was constructed to simulate long-term nitrate and uranium concentrations reaching the well. With regard to nitrate, two conflicting processes influence concentrations in the area contributing recharge to the well: (1) Beneath land that is being farmed or has recently been farmed (within the last 10 to 20 years), downward-moving irrigation waters contain elevated nitrate concentrations; yet (2) the proportion of agricultural land has decreased and the proportion of urban land has increased since 1960. Urban land use is associated with low nitrate

  13. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of glacial-drift aquifers, Leech Lake Indian Reservation, north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Water collected from wells completed in the unconfined aquifer in residential and recreational land-use areas had concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, and cyanide equal to or less than 6 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of organic-acid herbicides in water from three wells screened in the unconfined aquifer in managed-forest land-use areas were all below detection levels. Concentrations of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants in water from three wells screened in the unconfined aquifer and from one well screened in the uppermost confined aquifer were also all below detection levels.

  14. Regional evaluation of the hydrogeologic framework, hydraulic properties, and chemical characteristics of the intermediate aquifer system underlying southern west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.

    2006-01-01

    Three major aquifer systems-the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system, and the Floridan aquifer system-are recognized in the approximately 5,100-square-mile southern west-central Florida study area. The principal source of freshwater for all uses is ground water supplied from the three aquifer systems. Ground water from the intermediate aquifer system is considered only moderately abundant compared to the Upper Floridan aquifer, but it is an important source of water where the Upper Floridan aquifer contains water too mineralized for most uses. In the study area, the potential ground-water resources of the intermediate aquifer system were evaluated by regionally assessing the vertical and lateral distribution of hydrogeologic, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics. Although the intermediate aquifer system is considered a single entity, it is composed of multiple water-bearing zones separated by confining units. Deposition of a complex assemblage of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments during the late Oligocene to early Pliocene time resulted in discontinuities that are reflected in transitional and abrupt contacts between facies. Discontinuous facies produce water-bearing zones that may be locally well-connected or culminate abruptly. Changes in the depositional environment created the multilayered intermediate aquifer system that contains as many as three zones of enhanced water-bearing capacity. The water-bearing zones consist of indurated limestone and dolostone and in some places unindurated sand, gravel, and shell beds, and these zones are designated, in descending order, as Zone 1, Zone 2, and Zone 3. Zone 1 is thinnest (<80 feet thick) and is limited to <20 percent (southern part) of the study area. Zone 2, the only regionally extensive zone, is characterized by moderately low permeability. Zone 3 is found in about 50 percent of the study area, has the highest transmissivities, and generally is in good hydraulic connection with the

  15. Texas-Oklahoma

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... major geographic features. The south bank of the Red River marks the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. Traversing brush-covered ... flow eastward, their waters eventually discharging into the Mississippi River. A smoke plume to the north of the Ouachita Mountains and ...

  16. Oklahoma and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with Oklahoma and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to…

  17. Epidemiology of Testicular Cancer in Oklahoma and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shannon; Janitz, Amanda; Campbell, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Marked disparities in the development of this cancer exist, with testicular cancer being more common in Caucasian men and men of higher socioeconomic status. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing worldwide, and the reasons for this have not been well documented. It has been proposed that this increase may be due to highly prevalent environmental factors, or from exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, polyvinyl chloride, cigarette smoking, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). For our analysis, data were obtained from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program. Age-adjusted incidence rates and five-year relative survival were calculated for Oklahoma and for the US. Overall, incidence was lower in Oklahoma than the US, but no differences were observed between the US and Oklahoma regarding survival by year of diagnosis, race, age, and stage. PMID:27885307

  18. Occurrence of Radium-224, Radium-226 and Radium-228 in Water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifers, the Englishtown Aquifer System, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands, Southwestern and South-Central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is the first regionally focused study of the presence of natural radioactivity in water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands. Geologic materials composing the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands previously have been reported to contain radioactive (uranium-enriched) phosphatic strata, which is common in deposits from some moderate-depth coastal marine environments. The decay of uranium and thorium gives rise to natural radioactivity and numerous radioactive progeny, including isotopes of radium. Naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, especially those of radium, are of concern because radium is a known human carcinogen and ingestion (especially in water used for drinking) can present appreciable health risks. A regional network in southwestern and south-central New Jersey of 39 wells completed in the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, the Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands was sampled for determination of gross alpha-particle activity; concentrations of radium radionuclides, major ions, and selected trace elements; and physical properties. Concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were determined for water from 28 of the 39 wells, whereas gross alpha-particle activity was determined for all 39. The alpha spectroscopic technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 2.7 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5pCi/L, and of radium-226, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.2 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5 pCi/L. The beta-counting technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-228. The concentration of radium-228 ranged from less than 0.5 to 4.3 pCi/L with a median of less than 0.5. Radium-228, when quantifiable, had the greatest concentration of the three radium

  19. Hydrogeology and Analysis of Aquifer Characteristics in West-Central Pinellas County, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    the Study Area Pinellas County is a peninsula in west-central Florida bounded by Tampa Bay to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the west (fig. 1). The...packstones. The foraminiferal limestones in the unit commonly contain benthic foraminifera , bryozoan, echinoid, and mollusk fossils. The Ocala Limestone...county is part of the Gulf Coastal Lowlands physiographic region described by White (1970) which consists of low angle scarps and terraces formed

  20. Geohydrologic characteristics and simulated response to pumping stresses in the Sparta aquifer in East-Central Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Daniel J.; Kilpatrick, John M.; McWreath, Harry

    1990-01-01

    A finite difference digital model of the Sparta aquifer system in Arkansas was developed to aid in assessing the geohydrologic characteristics of the aquifer as well as the impact of withdrawals on water-level declines in the aquifer. The model consists of two layers. The Cockfield aquifer, represented by layer 1, was modeled as a constant head surface. The Sparta aquifer is represented by layer 2. The base of the Sparta aquifer was modeled as a no-flow boundary. The model boundaries to the north, south, and east in Mississippi were represented by specified heads, while boundaries to the west in Louisiana were represented as no flow. The model period of 1989 to 1985 was divided into 25 stress periods. Appropriate aquifer withdrawals were assigned to each stress period. Calibrated hydraulic conductivities of the Sparta aquifer, ranged from 1 to 35 ft/day. Calibrated hydraulic vertical conductivities of the Cook Mountain confining unit ranged from 0.0003 to 0.000009 ft/day. The calibrated storage coefficient of the aquifer was 0.0001. More than 80% of the recharge to the aquifer came from vertical leakage and from direct recharge on the outcrop. Greater than 90 % of outflow from the aquifer was from pumpage or leakage to rivers. Theoretical pumping schemes to the year 2005 indicated that virtually no change to the potentiometric surface occurred when 1985 pumping rates were extended to 2005. Doubling of pumpage over the entire study area resulted in additional water-level declines of up to 130 ft. (USGS)

  1. Configuration of freshwater/saline-water interface and geologic controls on distribution of freshwater in a regional aquifer system, central lower peninsula of Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westjohn, David B.; Weaver, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical-resistivity logs and water-quality data were used to delineate the fresh water/saline-water interface in a 22,000-square-mile area of the central Michigan Basin, where Mississippian and younger geologic units form a regional system of aquifers and confining units.Pleistocene glacial deposits in the central Lower Peninsula of Michigan contain freshwater, except in a 1,600-square-mile area within the Saginaw Lowlands, where these deposits typically contain saline water. Pennsylvanian and Mississippian sandstones are freshwater bearing where they subcrop below permeable Pleistocene glacial deposits. Down regional dip from subcrop areas, salinity of ground water progressively increases in Early Pennsylvanian and Mississippian sandstones, and these units contain brine in the central part of the basin. Freshwater is present in Late Pennsylvanian sandstones in the northern and southern parts of the aquifer system. Typically, saline water is present in Pennsylvanian sandstones in the eastern and western parts of the aquifer system.Relief on the freshwater/saline-water interface is about 500 feet. Altitudes of the interface are low (300 to 400 feet above sea level) along a north-south-trending corridor through the approximate center of the area mapped. In isolated areas in the northern and western parts of the aquifer system, the altitude of the base of freshwater is less than 400 feet, but altitude is typically more than 400 feet. In the southern and northern parts of the aquifer system where Pennsylvanian rocks are thin or absent, altitudes of the base of freshwater range from 700 to 800 feet and from 500 to 700 feet above sea level, respectively.Geologic controls on distribution of freshwater in the regional aquifer system are (1) direct hydraulic connection of sandstone aquifers and freshwater-bearing, permeable glacial deposits, (2) impedance of upward discharge of saline water from sandstones by lodgement tills, (3) impedance of recharge of freshwater to

  2. Oklahoma NASA EPSCoR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, Victoria Duca

    2002-01-01

    The mission of Oklahoma EPSCoR is to make Oklahoma researchers more successful in competing for research funding. Specific goals, objectives, and strategies were developed for each federal EPSCoR program, based on federal and state needs. A theme of stimulating collaboration among campuses and building on common research strengths is a strong component of the Oklahoma EPSCoR strategic plan. It extends also to our relationships with the federal agencies, and wherever possible, Oklahoma EPSCoR projects are developed collaboratively with federal research laboratories and program offices. Overall, Oklahoma EPSCoR seeks to capitalize on unique research capabilities and opportunities. The NASA EPSCoR Program in Oklahoma was developed through this grant as a joint effort between Oklahoma EPSCoR and the NASA Oklahoma Space Grant Consortium (OSGC). The major goal of the Oklahoma NASA EPSCoR Plan established in 1996 is to develop an academic research enterprise directed towards a long-term, self-sustaining, nationally competitive capability in areas of mutual self-interest to NASA and Oklahoma. Our final technical summary pie chart demonstrates the strong successes we have achieved during this period as a result of the award.

  3. Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

  4. Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

  5. A study of chlorinated solvent contamination of the aquifers of an industrial area in central Italy: a possibility of bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, Federica; Ercole, Claudia; Del Gallo, Maddalena

    2015-01-01

    Perchloroethene, trichloroethene, and other chlorinated solvents are widespread groundwater pollutants. They form dense non-aqueous phase liquids that sink through permeable groundwater aquifers until non-permeable zone is reached. In Italy, there are many situations of serious contamination of groundwater that might compromise their use in industry, agriculture, private, as the critical case of a Central Italy valley located in the province of Teramo ("Val Vibrata"), characterized by a significant chlorinated solvents contamination. Data from the various monitoring campaigns that have taken place over time were collected, and new samplings were carried out, resulting in a complete database. The data matrix was processed with a multivariate statistic analysis (in particular principal component analysis, PCA) and was then imported into geographic information system (GIS), to obtain a model of the contamination. A microcosm anaerobic study was utilized to assess the potential for in situ natural or enhanced bioremediation. Most of the microcosms were positive for dechlorination, particularly those inoculated with a mineral medium. This indicate the presence of an active native dechlorinating population in the subsurface, probably inhibited by co-contaminants in the groundwater, or more likely by the absence or lack of nutritional factors. Among the tested electron donors (i.e., yeast extract, lactate, and butyrate) lactate and butyrate enhanced dechlorination of chlorinated compounds. PCA and GIS studies allowed delimiting the contamination; the microcosm study helped to identify the conditions to promote the bioremediation of the area.

  6. A study of chlorinated solvent contamination of the aquifers of an industrial area in central Italy: a possibility of bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Matteucci, Federica; Ercole, Claudia; del Gallo, Maddalena

    2015-01-01

    Perchloroethene, trichloroethene, and other chlorinated solvents are widespread groundwater pollutants. They form dense non-aqueous phase liquids that sink through permeable groundwater aquifers until non-permeable zone is reached. In Italy, there are many situations of serious contamination of groundwater that might compromise their use in industry, agriculture, private, as the critical case of a Central Italy valley located in the province of Teramo (“Val Vibrata”), characterized by a significant chlorinated solvents contamination. Data from the various monitoring campaigns that have taken place over time were collected, and new samplings were carried out, resulting in a complete database. The data matrix was processed with a multivariate statistic analysis (in particular principal component analysis, PCA) and was then imported into geographic information system (GIS), to obtain a model of the contamination. A microcosm anaerobic study was utilized to assess the potential for in situ natural or enhanced bioremediation. Most of the microcosms were positive for dechlorination, particularly those inoculated with a mineral medium. This indicate the presence of an active native dechlorinating population in the subsurface, probably inhibited by co-contaminants in the groundwater, or more likely by the absence or lack of nutritional factors. Among the tested electron donors (i.e., yeast extract, lactate, and butyrate) lactate and butyrate enhanced dechlorination of chlorinated compounds. PCA and GIS studies allowed delimiting the contamination; the microcosm study helped to identify the conditions to promote the bioremediation of the area. PMID:26388862

  7. Plan of study to quantify the hydrologic relations between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system near Albuquerque, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAda, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin in central New Mexico covers an area of about 3,060 square miles. Ground water from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system of the Albuquerque Basin is the principal source of water for municipal, domestic, commercial, and industrial uses in the Albuquerque area, an area of about 410 square miles. Ground- water withdrawal in the basin has increased from about 97,000 acre-feet in 1970 to about 171,000 acre-feet in 1994. About 92 percent of the 1994 total was withdrawn in the Albuquerque area. Management of ground water in the Albuquerque Basin is related to the surface water in the Rio Grande. Because the aquifer system is hydraulically connected to the Rio Grande and water in the river is fully appropriated, the ability to reliably estimate the effects of ground-water withdrawals on flow in the river is important. This report describes the components of the Rio Grande/Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque area and the data availability and data and interpretation needs relating to those components, and presents a plan of study to quantify the hydrologic relations between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. The information needs related to the components of the river/aquifer system are prioritized. Information that is necessary to improve the understanding or quantification of a component in the river/aquifer system is prioritized as essential. Information that could add additional understanding of the system, but would not be necessary to improve the quantification of the system, is prioritized as useful. The study elements are prioritized in the same manner as the information needs; study elements designed to provide information considered necessary to improve the quantification of the system are prioritized as essential, and those designed to provide information that would add additional understanding of the system, but would not be necessary to improve the quantification of the system, are prioritized as useful.

  8. Historical potentiometric surface of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, Peter W.; Ardis, Ann F.; Wynn, Kirby H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a potentiometric-surface map of the principal aquifers of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system based on the earliest available data; to explain in general terms what the potentiometric surface represents relative to rainfall conditions and ground-water withdrawals; and to discuss the major factors that control the configuration of the potentiometric surface.

  9. Conjunctive-use optimization model and sustainable-yield estimation for the Sparta aquifer of southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Paul W.; Clark, Brian R.; Czarnecki, John B.

    2004-01-01

    Conjunctive-use optimization modeling was done to assist water managers and planners by estimating the maximum amount of ground water that hypothetically could be withdrawn from wells within the Sparta aquifer indefinitely without violating hydraulic-head or stream-discharge constraints. The Sparta aquifer is largely a confined aquifer of regional importance that comprises a sequence of unconsolidated sand units that are contained within the Sparta Sand. In 2000, more than 35.4 million cubic feet per day (Mft3/d) of water were withdrawn from the aquifer by more than 900 wells, primarily for industry, municipal supply, and crop irrigation in Arkansas. Continued, heavy withdrawals from the aquifer have caused several large cones of depression, lowering hydraulic heads below the top of the Sparta Sand in parts of Union and Columbia Counties and several areas in north-central Louisiana. Problems related to overdraft in the Sparta aquifer can result in increased drilling and pumping costs, reduced well yields, and degraded water quality in areas of large drawdown. A finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed for the Sparta aquifer using MODFLOW, primarily in eastern and southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana. Observed aquifer conditions in 1997 supported by numerical simulations of ground-water flow show that continued pumping at withdrawal rates representative of 1990 - 1997 rates cannot be sustained indefinitely without causing hydraulic heads to drop substantially below the top of the Sparta Sand in southern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana. Areas of ground-water levels below the top of the Sparta Sand have been designated as Critical Ground-Water Areas by the State of Arkansas. A steady-state conjunctive-use optimization model was developed to simulate optimized surface-water and ground-water withdrawals while maintaining hydraulic-head and streamflow constraints, thus determining the 'sustainable yield' for the aquifer. Initial attempts

  10. Naturally Occurring Arsenic in Ground Water, Norman, Oklahoma, 2004, and Remediation Options for Produced Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Christenson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reviewed the arsenic drinking water standard for public water supplies. Considering the available research and statistics on the health effects of arsenic ingestion, the EPA reduced the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for public drinking water from 50 micrograms per liter (?g/L) to 10 ?g/L (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001a). As a result of the more stringent standard, the EPA estimates that about 3,000 public water providers across the United States must take action to meet the new standard before it becomes effective on January 23, 2006 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001b). The City of Norman (City) is one of several Oklahoma municipalities affected by the new arsenic standard. About 20 percent of Norman?s water is supplied by wells completed in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer; the rest is supplied by Lake Thunderbird (fig. 1) or purchased from Oklahoma City. The Norman well field is composed of 24 active wells, and water produced from about half of the wells will not be in compliance with the new MCL (figs. 2 and 3). Chemical treatment of water with elevated arsenic is possible, but it is generally cost prohibitive. Another costly solution is simply to abandon the high-arsenic wells and replace them with new wells in low-arsenic areas. In the next phase of well construction beginning in 2005, the City plans to construct as many as 30 new wells in northeast Norman (Bryan Mitchell, City of Norman, oral commun., 2005). The new wells will replace production lost to the new arsenic standard and add new production to keep pace with rapidly growing consumer demand. Well modification to exclude arsenic-bearing water from existing wells is a more cost-effective solution, but it requires a great deal of knowledge about local aquifer properties and individual well dynamics to decide which wells are good candidates for modification. With the goal of determining if well modification

  11. Libraries in Oklahoma: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1308 Norman, OK 73070 405-307-1426 Oklahoma City INTEGRIS BAPTIST MEDICAL CENTER OF OKLAHOMA WANN LANGSTON ... NORTHWEST EXPRESSWAY Bldg D, Suite C-80 OKLAHOMA CITY, OK 73112 405-949-3766 http://integrisok.com ...

  12. Assessment of recharge and flowpaths in a limestone thermomineral aquifer system using environmental isotope tracers (Central Portugal).

    PubMed

    Marques, Jose M; Eggenkamp, Hans G M; Graca, Henrique; Carreira, Paula M; Jose Matias, Maria; Mayer, Bernhard; Nunes, Dina

    2010-06-01

    We conducted chemical and isotopic analyses to develop and test a hydrogeological model of thermomineral water circulation in a limestone aquifer system at Caldas da Rainha (Central Portugal), contributing to future borehole-drilling and development strategies, with the aim of extracting waters with the best possible flow and/or temperature. The thermomineral waters (T approximately 33 degrees C) discharge from springs and boreholes located close to a locally N-S-oriented oblique fault (60 degrees E) that places loamy and detritic Upper Jurassic rocks and Hettangian-Rhaetian marls (and evaporitic deposits) in contact. (14)C determinations indicate a pmC content between 29.33+/-0.14 and 44.39+/-0.20 pmC. The presence of HCO[image omitted] , Ca(2+) (and Mg(2+)) are ascribed to water-limestone interactions, while Na(+), Cl(-) and SO[image omitted] concentrations are mainly associated with the dissolution of halite and gypsum lenses found along the regional syncline structure. The delta(18)O values of Caldas da Rainha thermomineral water were slightly lower than those of shallow groundwater from the Upper Jurassic rocks, suggesting the existence of two distinct aquifer systems. The different isotopic composition of water also indicates that the main recharge of the thermomineral waters likely occurs in the Middle and Lower Jurassic limestone formations of the Candeeiros Mountains. The presence of (3)H (from 1.1 to 2.8 TU) in some thermomineral borehole waters (showing rather similar geochemical signatures) suggests mixing of small amounts of shallow groundwater with thermomineral waters, as a result of leaking borehole casing construction or a recharge when the (3)H content in the atmosphere was higher than that at present. Caldas da Rainha thermomineral waters having delta(34)S(sulphate) and delta(18)O(sulphate) values between+14.9 and+19.1 per thousand and+11.1 and+16.2 per thousand, respectively, indicate that the sulphate is the result of water-rock interaction

  13. Natural attenuation processes of nitrate in a saline lake-aquifer system: Pétrola Basin (Central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiente, Nicolas; Menchen, Alfonso; Jirsa, Franz; Hein, Thomas; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gomez-Alday, Juan Jose

    2016-04-01

    Saline wetlands associated with intense agricultural activities in semi-arid to arid climates are among the most vulnerable environments to NO3- pollution. The endorheic Pétrola Basin (High Segura River Basin, Central Spain) was declared vulnerable to NO3- pollution by the Regional Government of Castilla-La Mancha in 1998. The hypersaline lake was classified as a heavily modified waterbody, due to the inputs of pollutants from agricultural sources and urban waste waters, the latest are discharged directly into the lake without proper treatment. Previous studies showed that the aquifer system has two main flow components: regional groundwater flow from recharge areas into the lake, and a density-driven flow from the lake to the underlying aquifer. The NO3- inputs derived from agriculture originate from nitrification of synthetic ammonium fertilizers, and afterwards, NO3- is expected to be attenuated by denitrification (up to 60%) in the saltwater-freshwater interface around the lake. However, the spatial and temporal pattern of nitrate reduction in lake sediments is not known. In this study, an isotope pairing technique was used in order to clarify the main pathways for the NO3- attenuation linked to the sediment-water interface. For that purpose mesocosm experiments were performed: organic-rich lake sediment (up to 23% organic carbon content) was incubated for 96 hours with the addition of 15N nitrate tracer. During the experiments two factors were modified: light and oxic conditions. Analyzing inorganic N-species (n=20) over time (72 hours) showed that NO3- attenuation was coupled with an increment in the NH4+ concentration (from 0.8 mg/L up to 5.3 mg/L) and a decrease in redox values (from 135.1 mV up to -422 mV) in the water column. The main outcome of this study was to elucidate the importance of different microbial pathways denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), in controlling the fate

  14. Report on the Economic Impact of American Indians in the State of Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Margaret Abudu; And Others

    This report assesses the economic impact created by the presence of American Indians in Oklahoma. In 1980, American Indians in Oklahoma numbered 169,459, or 5.6% of the state's population. Most Indians lived in central and eastern counties. Compared to the general population, Indians were younger, less educated, and had higher unemployment and…

  15. Simulated response to pumping stress in the Sparta aquifer of southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana, 1998-2027

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, Phillip D.; Lovelace, John K.; Reed, Thomas B.

    1998-01-01

    The Sparta aquifer in southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana is a major water resource for municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses. In recent years, the demand for water in some areas has resulted in withdrawals from the Sparta that significantly exceed recharge to the aquifer. Considerable drawdown has occurred in the potentiometric surface, and water users and managers alike have begun to question the ability of the aquifer to supply water for the long term. Large cones of depression are centered beneath the Grand Prairie area and the cities of Pine Bluff and El Dorado in Arkansas, and Monroe in Louisiana. Water levels in the aquifer have declined at rates greater than 1 foot per year for more than a decade in much of southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana and are now below the top of the formation in parts of Union and Columbia Counties, Arkansas, and in several areas of Louisiana. Problems related to over draft in the Sparta could result in increased drilling and pumping costs, loss of yield, salt-water intrusion, and decrease in water quality in areas of large drawdown. The effects of current ground-water withdrawals and potential future withdrawals on water availability are major concerns of water managers and users as well as the general public in the two States. The Sparta model-a regional scale, digital ground-water flow model-was first calibrated in the mid-1980's. The model was updated and reverified using 1995-97 data. Visual inspection of the observed (1996-97) and simulated potentiometric surfaces, statistical analysis of the error for the original calibration and current reverification, and comparison of observed versus simulated hydro graphs indicates that the model is simulating conditions in the aquifer within acceptable error, and the quality of current (1998) model results is similar to the original model calibration results. When stressed with current withdrawal volumes and distributions, the model is able to simulate

  16. Prokaryotic community structure in deep bedrock aquifers of the Austrian Central Alps.

    PubMed

    Larentis, Michael; Psenner, Roland; Alfreider, Albin

    2015-03-01

    The bacterial and archaeal diversity of deep groundwater systems was investigated based on 16S rRNA-SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism) fingerprints. The study site included five boreholes along the projected Brenner Base Tunnel in the central Alps of Tyrol, Austria. To obtain representative samples, packer-sealed fractures were sampled at specific depths between 105 and 780 m below surface. Sequence analysis of SSCP bands obtained from 13 samples showed that between 29 and 62 % of the phylotypes belonged to a variety of Proteobacteria including representatives of typical freshwater bacteria of the genera Acidovorax, Aquabacterium, and Sphingomonas. Bacteroidetes (especially Flavobacterium), Firmicutes (Acetobacterium), and candidate division OP3-related sequences were observed in the majority of the analysed groundwaters. On average, 14 % of the detected prokaryotic phylotypes were affiliated with Archaea, comprising the phyla Euryarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Most of the archaeal sequences showed low similarities to known cultivated species, with exception of two sequences having 98 % similarity to Methanosaeta sp. A considerable number of thaumarchaeal sequences belonged to two groups related to Nitrososphaera and Nitrosopumilus phylotypes. An environmental clustering of the groundwater samples, based on the bacterial and archaeal phylogeny, revealed a clear distribution pattern of the samples (sites and depths) reflecting the hydrochemical characteristics and underlying geologies.

  17. Agriculture-related trends in groundwater quality of the glacial deposits aquifer, central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saad, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Measuring and understanding trends in groundwater quality is necessary for determining whether changes in land-management practices have an effect on groundwater quality. This paper describes an approach that was used to measure and understand trends using data from two groundwater studies conducted in central Wisconsin as part of the USGS NAWQA program. One of the key components of this approach, determining the age of sampled groundwater, gave a temporal component to the snapshots of water quality that were obtained through synoptic-sampling efforts. This approach can be used at other locations where groundwater quality data are collected, groundwater age can be determined, and associated temporal data are available. Results of these studies indicate measured concentrations of nitrate and atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to historical patterns of fertilizer and atrazine use. Concentrations of nitrate in groundwater have increased over time; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine increased and then decreased. Concentrations of nitrate also were correlated to screen depth below the water level and concentrations of dissolved O2; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to dissolved O2 and annual precipitation. To measure trends in concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine, the data, collected over a near-decadal period, were adjusted to account for changes in laboratory-reporting levels and analytical recoveries. Only after accounting for these changes was it apparent that the median concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine decreased over the near-decadal interval between sampling efforts. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  18. Oklahoma seismic network. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. |

    1993-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established rigorous guidelines that must be adhered to before a permit to construct a nuclear-power plant is granted to an applicant. Local as well as regional seismicity and structural relationships play an integral role in the final design criteria for nuclear power plants. The existing historical record of seismicity is inadequate in a number of areas of the Midcontinent region because of the lack of instrumentation and (or) the sensitivity of the instruments deployed to monitor earthquake events. The Nemaha Uplift/Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly is one of five principal areas east of the Rocky Mountain front that has a moderately high seismic-risk classification. The Nemaha uplift, which is common to the states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, is approximately 415 miles long and 12-14 miles wide. The Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly extends southward from Minnesota across Iowa and the southeastern corner of Nebraska and probably terminates in central Kansas. A number of moderate-sized earthquakes--magnitude 5 or greater--have occurred along or west of the Nemaha uplift. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, in cooperation with the geological surveys of Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, conducted a 5-year investigation of the seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha uplift and associated geologic features in the Midcontinent. This investigation was intended to provide data to be used to design nuclear-power plants. However, the information is also being used to design better large-scale structures, such as dams and high-use buildings, and to provide the necessary data to evaluate earthquake-insurance rates in the Midcontinent.

  19. Origin of the groundwater salinity and geochemical processes in detrital and carbonate aquifers: Case of Chougafiya basin (Central Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farid, Intissar; Zouari, Kamel; Rigane, Adel; Beji, Ridha

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive investigations of groundwaters were performed in the detrital and carbonate aquifers of the Chougafiya basin, central Tunisia. In the present review, hydrochemistry and isotopic tools were combined to get an insight into the processes controlling mineralization, recharge conditions, flow pattern of groundwater and C chemistry in the investigated hydrological system. Analysis of the dissolved constituents revealed that several processes controlled the observed chemical composition: (i) the dissolution of evaporitic minerals, (ii) cation exchange reactions, (iii) sulfate reduction under anaerobic conditions, (iv) incongruent dissolution of carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite) coupled with gypsum dissolution and calcite precipitation, and (v) silicates weathering. Data inferred from 18O and deuterium isotopes in groundwater samples indicated recharge with modern rainfall. Water characterized by lower δ18O and δ2H values is interpreted as recharged by non-evaporated rainfall originating from Mediterranean and Atlantic air masses. However, water with relatively enriched δ18O and δ2H contents is thought to reflect the occurrence of an evaporation process related to the long term practice of flood irrigation. The radiogenic (3H) isotope data provided insight into the presence of two recharge periods in the investigated groundwaters. Waters with 3H contents of <1 TU indicated a pre-nuclear recharge. Waters with 3H contents of >1 TU clearly suggested the occurrence of a contemporaneous recharge probably during the last two decades. Carbon isotopes provided some insights into the timescales of groundwater flow, but mainly revealed that main sources of C are active in the system. These are likely: dissolved biogenic CO2, carbonate dissolution and incongruent reaction of the carbonate matrix. Mean residence times were determined after correction of the initial activities for dead C from the rock matrix and suggest ages ranging from the present day to the

  20. Water quality assessment of carbonate aquifers in southern Latium region, Central Italy: a case study for irrigation and drinking purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-06-01

    In southern Latium region, Central Italy, groundwater and spring water resources in the carbonate aquifers are the major contributors of drinking and irrigation water supply. The aim of this study was to review hydrochemical processes that control the groundwater chemistry and to determine the suitability of springs and groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes on the basis of the water quality indices. Physical (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -) of springs and groundwater were determined. To assess the water quality, chemical parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness, Mg-hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na %), salinity hazard, permeability index, and Kelly's ratio were calculated based on the analytical results. A Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca to HCO3 recharge water, followed by mixing and reverse ion exchange processes, due to the respective dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-Cl water types. According to Gibbs's diagram plots, chemical weathering of rock forming minerals is the major driving force controlling water chemistry in this area. Groundwater and spring samples were grouped into six categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagram of US Salinity Laboratory classification and most of the water samples distributed in category C2-S1 and C3-S1 highlighting medium to high salinity hazard and low sodium content class. The results of hydrochemical analyses and the calculated water quality parameters suggest that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes, except for the samples influenced by seawater and enhanced water-rock interaction. High values of salinity, Na %, SAR, and MH at certain sites, restrict the suitability for agricultural uses.

  1. History of ground-water pumpage and water-level decline in the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers of the central coastal plain of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Lyke, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    Historical ground-water withdrawals and a general water-level decline in the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers of the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina are documented. Total municipal and industrial pumpage from these aquifers has increased from approximately 120,000 gal/day (gpd) in 1910 to >21 million gpd in 1980. Major pumpage, > 10,000 gpd, began around 1900. Since that time, per capita water use in the central Coastal Plain area has ranged from 17 to 172 gpd/person. The higher values partially represent the increasing availability and use of modern conveniences since the World War II era. The range of per capita water use can be subdivided according to general water-use and population characteristics for both urban and rural areas. The pumpage of ground water from the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers has created water-level declines from 0.5 to 4.9 ft/year since 1900. Approximately a third of the study area has experienced a decline > 50 ft up to the period 1979-1981, with 148 ft being the maximum.

  2. Hydrogeology, water quality, and potential for contamination of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Silver Springs ground-water basin, central Marion County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer, composed of a thick sequence of very porous limestone and dolomite, is the principal source of water supply in the Silver Springs ground-water basin of central Marion County, Florida. The karstic nature of the local geology makes the aquifer susceptible to contaminants from the land surface. Contaminants can enter the aquifer by seepage through surficial deposits and through sinkholes and drainage wells. Potential contaminants include agricultural chemicals, landfill leachates and petroleum products from leaking storage tanks and accidental spills. More than 560 sites of potential contamination sources were identified in the basin in 1990. Detailed investigation of four sites were used to define hydrologic conditions at representative sites. Ground-water flow velocities determined from dye trace studies ranged from about 1 foot per hour under natural flow conditions to about 10 feet per hour under pumping conditions, which is considerably higher than velocities estimated using Darcy's equation for steady-state flow in a porous medium. Water entering the aquifer through drainage wells contained bacteria, elevated concentrations of nutrients, manganese and zinc, and in places, low concentrations of organic compounds. On the basis of results from the sampling of 34 wells in 1989 and 1990, and from the sampling of water entering the Upper Floridan aquifer through drainage wells, there has been no widespread degradation of water quality in the study area. In an area of karst, particularly one in which fracture flow is significant, evaluating the effects from contaminants is difficult and special care is required when interpolating hydrogeologic data from regional studies to a specific. (USGS)

  3. Experimental studies in stream-aquifer interaction along the Arkansas River in Central Kansas - Field testing and analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.; Townsend, M.A.; Vogler, L.D.; McClain, T.J.; Marks, E.T.; Coble, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    During the last several years, streamflows of a number of Kansas streams have been reduced as a result of groundwater declines. In order to better understand and quantify stream-aquifer interrelationships, an eight-day comprehensive stream-aquifer pumping test, followed by recovery monitoring, was conducted along the Arkansas River near Great Bend, Kansas. In addition to water level monitoring in numerous observation wells, streamflow data, streambed hydraulic gradients, neutron probe-based water content of dewatered sediments, water chemistry and other data were collected. The alluvial aquifer is shown to be highly transmissive (T = 1803 m2d-1) with the pumping stress (9538 m3d-1) having a radius of influence larger than 1.77 km, impacting both the aquifer levels and the streamflow in the nearby Arkansas River. Drawdown and recharge boundary effects were observed in all observation wells, including those on the opposite side of the river. The alluvial aquifer did not exhibit a water table behavior and responded as a leaky confined aquifer. A semiconfining clay layer less than 3 m thick and an additional recharge source from a nearby stream-alluvial system were the probable causes of the observed phenomena. Actual streamflow depletion is shown to be appreciably less than the computed depletion based on analytical solutions. ?? 1988.

  4. Demonstration optimization analyses of pumping from selected Arapahoe aquifer municipal wells in the west-central Denver Basin, Colorado, 2010–2109

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, Edward R.; Paschke, Suzanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Declining water levels caused by withdrawals of water from wells in the west-central part of the Denver Basin bedrock-aquifer system have raised concerns with respect to the ability of the aquifer system to sustain production. The Arapahoe aquifer in particular is heavily used in this area. Two optimization analyses were conducted to demonstrate approaches that could be used to evaluate possible future pumping scenarios intended to prolong the productivity of the aquifer and to delay excessive loss of saturated thickness. These analyses were designed as demonstrations only, and were not intended as a comprehensive optimization study. Optimization analyses were based on a groundwater-flow model of the Denver Basin developed as part of a recently published U.S. Geological Survey groundwater-availability study. For each analysis an optimization problem was set up to maximize total withdrawal rate, subject to withdrawal-rate and hydraulic-head constraints, for 119 selected municipal water-supply wells located in 96 model cells. The optimization analyses were based on 50- and 100-year simulations of groundwater withdrawals. The optimized total withdrawal rate for all selected wells for a 50-year simulation time was about 58.8 cubic feet per second. For an analysis in which the simulation time and head-constraint time were extended to 100 years, the optimized total withdrawal rate for all selected wells was about 53.0 cubic feet per second, demonstrating that a reduction in withdrawal rate of about 10 percent may extend the time before the hydraulic-head constraints are violated by 50 years, provided that pumping rates are optimally distributed. Analysis of simulation results showed that initially, the pumping produces water primarily by release of water from storage in the Arapahoe aquifer. However, because confining layers between the Denver and Arapahoe aquifers are thin, in less than 5 years, most of the water removed by managed-flows pumping likely would be supplied

  5. InSAR detection of aquifer recovery: Case studies of Koehn Lake (central California) and Lone Tree Gold Mine (Basin and Range)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowinski, S.; Greene, F.; Amelung, F.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic intervention in groundwater flow and aquifer storage often results in vertical movements of Earth's surface, which are well detected by InSAR observations. Most anthropogenic intervention occurs due to groundwater extraction for both agriculture and human consumption and results in land subsidence. However in some cases, ending anthropogenic intervention can lead to aquifer recovery and, consequently, surface uplift. In this study we present two such cases of aquifer recovery. The first case is the aquifer beneath Koehn Lake in Central California, which was overused to meet agricultural demands until the 1990's. The second case is the Lone Tree Gold Mine in Nevada that during active mining in the 1991-2006 groundwater pumping disrupted the aquifer and cause subsidence. But after mining ceased, groundwater flow was recovered and resulted in uplift. In both cases we studied the surface uplift using InSAR time series observations. We conduct an ERS and Envisat InSAR survey over Koehn Lake in California and Lone Tree Gold Mine in Nevada between 1992 and 2010. We followed the SBAS algorithm to generate a time-series of ground displacements and average velocities of pixels, which remain coherent through time in the SAR dataset. A total of 100 and 80 combined ERS and Envisat SAR dates are inverted for Koehn Lake and Lone Tree Gold Mine respectively. Results for the Koehn Lake area indicate a rapid uplift of about 3.5 mm/yr between 1992-2000 and a slower uplift rate of 1.6 mm/yr between 2000-2004, suggesting a decrease in the recovery process. The observed uplift correlates well with groundwater level increase in the Koehn Lake area. Results for the Lone Tree Gold Mine show a constant subsidence (~ 1 cm/yr) due to groundwater extraction between 1992-2006, but uplift of ~1 cm/yr since the beginning of 2007. In both case studies, InSAR observations reveal that the aquifer recovery is accompanied by surface uplift. We plan to use the InSAR observations and the

  6. Thresholds for earthquake-induced hydrological changes in sedimentary aquifers: a record from 9 earthquakes and 107 boreholes in central New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Konrad; Cox, Simon; Holden, Caroline; Townend, John

    2016-04-01

    A dense hydrogeological network in central New Zealand has recorded groundwater fluctuations from 12 years of seismic events. Hydrological data over the past 15 years were assessed in 107 boreholes at depths of 4 - 405 m. Nine seismic events (M≥5.9) occurred at near- to far-field distances of 10 - 913 km, shaking the sedimentary aquifers at a wide range of 10-4 to 103 J/m3 seismic energy densities. The earthquakes produced 258 detectable hydrological responses, exhibiting different polarities (rise or fall), amplitudes (2 to 820 mm, -859 to -2 mm) and timescales (15 min to day [s]). Shaking parameters were calculated from 28 proximal GeoNet broadband seismometers, providing local estimates of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV), Arias intensity, and spectral amplitudes. ShakeMap model solutions, utilising ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), were also acquired at borehole sites. Continuous oceanic tidal responses of 38 boreholes were derived using Baytap08, with temporal transmissivity and earthquake-induced changes estimated from tidal properties. The earthquake-induced changes to groundwater level and tidal response are used to infer those events which caused aquifer deformation and changes to the groundwater flow regime. A transient (15 min to 2 hr) / permanent (15 min to day [s]) deformation boundary is observed when shaking reaches ˜1 %g PGA. As well as defining thresholds at which hydrological changes occurred, the central New Zealand dataset provided an opportunity to examine aquifer ability in resistance to the effects induced by earthquakes. Where monitoring is dense and continuous, the absence of responses under certain levels of shaking is equally informative and helps delineate causative processes. On-going work utilises data mining to assess the contribution of seismic, hydrological, and geological parameters to earthquake-induced hydrological changes in sedimentary aquifer systems.

  7. Dolomite dissolution rates and possible Holocene dedolomitization of water-bearing units in the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deike, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Rates of dolomite dissolution can be used to test the concept, based on geomorphologic evidence, that a major part of the Edwards aquifer could have formed within the Holocene, a timeframe of approximately 10,000 years. During formation of the aquifer in the Edwards limestone (Cretaceous, Albian) of the Balcones fault zone, dolomite dissolution and porosity development were synchronous and the result of mixing-zone dedolomitization. Initiation of the mixing zone in the early Holocene (???11,000 years before present) is suggested by the maximum age of formation of major discharge sites that allowed the influx of meteoric water into brine-filled, dolomitic preaquifer units. Dedolomitization, the dissolution of dolomite and net precipitation of calcite, has left aquifer units that are calcitic, and 40 vol.% interconnected pore space. The mass of dolomite missing is obtained by comparison of stratigraphically equivalent altered and unaltered units. One dissolution rate (1.76 ?? 10-4 mmol dolomite kgH2O-1yr-1) is determined from this mass, 104yr reaction time, and a log-linear function describing the increase in mass discharge (three orders of magnitude) during aquifer formation. The second estimated dissolution rate is obtained from the mass transfer of dolomite to solution calculated from the increase in magnesium in pore fluids selected from the modern aquifer to represent a typical flowpath during aquifer formation. A reaction time of 104yr for this mass transfer yields a rate of 0.56 ?? 10-4 mmol dolomite kgH2O-1yr-1. Both of these rates are comparable to modern rates of dolomite dissolution (0.3 to 4.5 ?? 10-4 mmol dolomite kgH2O-1yr-1) calculated from measured reaction times in the Tertiary Floridan aquifer system in Florida and the Madison aquifer in the Mississippian Madison Limestone of the Northern Great Plains. Similarity of these rates to the estimated paleo-rates of dolomite dissolution supports a 104 yr reaction timeframe. The Holocene reaction time also

  8. Effects of aquifer heterogeneity on ground-water flow and chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer near and within an active pumping well field, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tihansky, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Chloride concentrations have been increasing over time in water from wells within and near the Eldridge-Wilde well field, near the coast in west-central Florida. Variable increases in chloride concentrations from well to well over time are the combined result of aquifer heterogeneity and ground-water pumping within the Upper Floridan aquifer. Deep mineralized water and saline water associated with the saltwater interface appear to move preferentially along flow zones of high transmissivity in response to ground-water withdrawals. The calcium-bicarbonate-type freshwater of the Upper Floridan aquifer within the study area is variably enriched with ions by mixing with introduced deep and saline ground water. The amount and variability of increases in chloride and sulfate concentrations at each well are related to well location, depth interval, and permeable intervals intercepted by the borehole. Zones of high transmissivity characterize the multilayered carbonate rocks of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Well-developed secondary porosity within the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones and the Avon Park Formation has created producing zones within the Upper Floridan aquifer. The highly transmissive sections of the Avon Park Formation generally are several orders of magnitude more permeable than the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones, but both are associated with increased ground-water flow. The Ocala Limestone is less permeable and is dominated by primary, intergranular porosity. Acoustic televiewer logging, caliper logs, and borehole flow logs (both electromagnetic and heat pulse) indicate that the Tampa/Suwannee Limestone units are dominated by porosity owing to dissolution between 200 and 300 feet below land surface, whereas the porosity of the Avon Park Formation is dominated by fractures that occur primarily from 600 to 750 feet below land surface and range in angle from horizontal to near vertical. Although the Ocala Limestone can act as a semiconfining unit between the Avon Park

  9. A Century of Induced Earthquakes in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Page, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Seismicity rates have increased sharply since 2009 in the central and eastern United States, with especially high rates of activity in the state of Oklahoma. A growing body of evidence indicates that many of these events are induced, primarily by injection of wastewater in deep disposal wells. The upsurge in activity has raised the questions, what is the background rate of tectonic earthquakes in Oklahoma? And how much has the rate varied throughout historical and early instrumental times? We first review the historical catalog, including assessment of the completeness level of felt earthquakes, and show that seismicity rates since 2009 surpass previously observed rates throughout the 20th century. Furthermore, several lines of evidence suggest that most of the significant (Mw > 3.5) earthquakes in Oklahoma during the 20th century were likely induced by wastewater injection and/or enhanced oil recovery operations. We show that there is a statistically significant temporal and spatial correspondence between earthquakes and disposal wells permitted during the 1950s. The intensity distributions of the 1952 Mw5.7 El Reno earthquake and the 1956 Mw3.9 Tulsa county earthquake are similar to those from recent induced earthquakes, with significantly lower shaking than predicted given a regional intensity-prediction equation. The rate of tectonic earthquakes is thus inferred to be significantly lower than previously estimated throughout most of the state, but is difficult to estimate given scant incontrovertible evidence for significant tectonic earthquakes during the 20th century. We do find evidence for a low level of tectonic seismicity in southeastern Oklahoma associated with the Ouachita structural belt, and conclude that the 22 October 1882 Choctaw Nation earthquake, for which we estimate Mw4.8, occurred in this zone.

  10. Analysis of environmental setting, surface-water and groundwater data, and data gaps for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Oklahoma, through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Harich, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Shivers, Molly J.; Seger, Christian H.; Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    The Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, consisting of approximately 960 square miles in parts of three counties in central Oklahoma, has an abundance of water resources, being underlain by three principal aquifers (alluvial/terrace, Central Oklahoma, and Vamoosa-Ada), bordered by two major rivers (North Canadian and Canadian), and has several smaller drainages. The Central Oklahoma aquifer (also referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer) underlies approximately 3,000 square miles in central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland, Logan, Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties and much of the tribal jurisdictional area. Water from these aquifers is used for municipal, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supplies. The approximately 115,000 people living in this area used an estimated 4.41 million gallons of fresh groundwater, 12.12 million gallons of fresh surface water, and 8.15 million gallons of saline groundwater per day in 2005. Approximately 8.48, 2.65, 2.24, 1.55, 0.83, and 0.81 million gallons per day of that water were used for domestic, livestock, commercial, industrial, crop irrigation, and thermoelectric purposes, respectively. Approximately one-third of the water used in 2005 was saline water produced during petroleum production. Future changes in use of freshwater in this area will be affected primarily by changes in population and agricultural practices. Future changes in saline water use will be affected substantially by changes in petroleum production. Parts of the area periodically are subject to flooding and severe droughts that can limit available water resources, particularly during summers, when water use increases and streamflows substantially decrease. Most of the area is characterized by rural types of land cover such as grassland, pasture/hay fields, and deciduous forest, which may limit negative effects on water quality by human activities because of lesser emissions of man-made chemicals on such areas than

  11. Stable and radio-isotope analysis to determine recharge timing and paleoclimate of sandstone aquifers in central and southeast Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Faitouri, Mohamed; Sanford, William E.

    2015-02-01

    Stable isotopes of water and 14C activities (percent modern carbon, pmc) were used to estimate the timing of recharge and paleoclimatic conditions during recharge for three sandstone aquifers in Libya. These aquifers are part of the Nubian Aquifer System, with current and planned groundwater development designed to produce 106 m3/day of water. 14C activities from water samples collected at three wellfields (Sarir, Tazerbo and Al Kufra) indicate recharge during late Pleistocene and early Holocene. Stable isotope compositions from all three locations are significantly depleted relative to modern water, indicating that the climate was more humid than today. These results are in line with previous regional groundwater studies. This was the first study of its kind for the aquifers at Tazerbo and Sarir wellfield. The Tazerbo wellfield, which produces from the deepest aquifer, had the oldest estimated recharge ages (late Pleistocene). For Sarir, 14C activities ranged from 6.30 to 41.42 pmc; the Sarir aquifer is leaky confined and this range is likely due to mixing of shallow younger water with older deeper water. At Al Kufra, the 14C activity (5.27 pmc) of a well which is part of an agriculture project, is greater than the activity of wells sampled in 1973 (0.5-2.0 pmc). The greater activity is likely due to the lowering of the regional potentiometric surface causing younger water to be captured after four decades of wellfield operation. It is recommended that periodic monitoring be done in large wellfields to identify changes in isotope compositions as production continues.

  12. Karst in Permian evaporite rocks of western Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.S. )

    1993-02-01

    Bedded evaporites (gypsum and salt) of Permian age have been dissolved naturally by ground water to form a major evaporite-karst region in western Oklahoma. The Blaine Formation and associated evaporites comprise 100--800 ft of strata that dip gently into broad, structural basins. Outcropping gypsum, dolomite, and red-bed shales of the Blaine display typical karstic features, such as sinkholes, caves, disappearing streams, and springs. Large caves are developed in gypsum beds 10--30 ft thick at several places, and a major gypsum/dolomite karst aquifer provides irrigation water to a large region in southwestern Oklahoma, where salt layers above and below the Blaine Formation have been partly dissolved at depths of 30--800 ft below the land surface. Salt dissolution causes development of brine-filled cavities, into which overlying strata collapse, and the brine eventually is emitted at the land surface in large salt plains.

  13. Geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the Contoocook River basin, south-central New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, P.T.; Johnson, William

    1995-01-01

    Stratified-drift aquifers discontinuously underlie 121 mi2 (square miles) of the Contoocook River Basin, which has a total drainage area of 776 mi2. Maps of these aquifers, showing water-table configurations, saturated thicknesses, and transmissivities were prepared from well and test-hole data and seismic-refraction profiles. The distribution of stratified-drift aquifers is largely controlled by the Pleistocene glaciation process and the formation of multiple glacial lakes along the main stem of the Contoocook River. Locally, saturated thickness of stratified drift within these aquifers are as great as 200 feet. Estimated transmissivities exceed 8,000 ft2/d (squared feet per day) at three locations and is as high as 22,800 ft2/d at one location. Stratified-drift aquifers that have the greatest potential to supply additional amounts of water include the aquifers at Greenfield-Otter Brook and Hancock-Norway Pond. Potential yields to hypothetical supply wells were estimated for the Greenfield-Otter Brook, Hillsborough-Contoocook River, and Andover- Blackwater River aquifers by use of a analytical ground-water-flow model. The model results predict that the potential yields are greatest from the Greenfield-Otter Brook aquifer, yielding up to 1.85 gallons per day during half-year periods of no recharge. The effective ground-water recharge to the entire basin, which includes recharge to the till, bedrock, and stratified drift, is 13.9 in./yr (inches per year) (521 million gallons per day) on the basis of hydrograph separation of streamflow. The quality of water obtained from 11 observation wells and 10 municipal supply wells is generally suitable for drinking and most other domestic purposes. Ground water in the region has low alkalinity, is slightly acidic, and has low concentrations of dissolved solids. Concentrations of dissolved constituents in ground-water samples were generally less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's primary and secondary maximum

  14. Potentiometric surface of the lower Cape Fear Aquifer in the central coastal plain of North Carolina, December 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Lyke, William L.; Brockman, Allen R.

    1989-01-01

    Water level measurements were made in four wells open to the lower Cape Fear aquifer at the end of 1986 to determine the configuration of its potentiometric surface over an area of approximately 4,100 sq mi. Because of the scarcity of data, five earlier measurements were also used to help estimate the position of the potentiometric contours. These were one-time measurements in temporary observation wells. A broad cone of depression has formed in the area between Kinston and New Bern where the potentiometric surface is below sea level and seems likely related to large groundwater withdrawals from the aquifers overlying the lower Cape Fear in that area.

  15. Simulated effects of projected ground-water withdrawals in the Floridan aquifer system, greater Orlando metropolitan area, east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Louis C.; Halford, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water levels in the Floridan aquifer system within the greater Orlando metropolitan area are expected to decline because of a projected increase in the average pumpage rate from 410 million gallons per day in 1995 to 576 million gallons per day in 2020. The potential decline in ground-water levels and spring discharge within the area was investigated with a calibrated, steady-state, ground-water flow model. A wetter-than-average condition scenario and a drought-condition scenario were simulated to bracket the range of water-levels and springflow that may occur in 2020 under average rainfall conditions. Pumpage used to represent the drought-condition scenario totaled 865 million gallons per day, about 50 percent greater than the projected average pumpage rate in 2020. Relative to average 1995 steady-state conditions, drawdowns simulated in the Upper Floridan aquifer exceeded 10 and 25 feet for wet and dry conditions, respectively, in parts of central and southwest Orange County and in north Osceola County. In Seminole County, drawdowns of up to 20 feet were simulated for dry conditions, compared with 5 to 10 feet simulated for wet conditions. Computed springflow was reduced by 10 percent for wet conditions and by 38 percent for dry conditions, with the largest reductions (28 and 76 percent) occurring at the Sanlando Springs group. In the Lower Floridan aquifer, drawdowns simulated in southwest Orange County exceeded 20 and 40 feet for wet and dry conditions, respectively.

  16. Hydrogeology of stratified-drift aquifers and water quality in the Nashua Regional Planning Commission Area, south-central New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toppin, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nashua Regional Planning Commission area in south-central New Hampshire is a 12-community area that is experiencing increases in population and in demands for water supply. The study area is underlain by 129 sq mi (40% of the area) of stratified drift which, where sufficiently saturated and permeable, form the most productive aquifers in the area. Eight towns use the stratified-drift aquifers for municipal water supply. The saturated thickness of stratified drift in the study area ranges from 0 or < 20 ft near aquifer boundaries to more than 100 ft in the Souhegan and Merrimack River valleys. The transmissivity of stratified drift ranges from < 2,000 sq ft/day throughout much of the area to more than 8,000 sq ft/day in the communities of Amherst, Brookline, Hollis, Hudson, Litchfield, Merrimack, Milford, Nashua, and Pelham. Directions of groundwater flow are generally from valley walls to surface waters, which act as drains for the stratified drift aquifers. The estimated total yield of community water-supply systems in the study area (surface and groundwater combined) is 22 mgd (million gallons per day). Analytical modeling indicates that an additional 12 mgd could be obtained from six aquifers located in the communities of Amherst, Litchfield, Merrimack, Milford, and Pelham. Other aquifers in the area, not modeled in the study, could also provide increased amounts of water especially where yields could be augmented by induced recharge of surface water. Groundwater quality in the study area is characterized by naturally elevated levels of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). Of 32 wells sampled, 7 exceeded EPA recommended drinking water limits for both Fe and Mn, and 3 wells exceeded the Mn limit only. The average total dissolved solids concentration for 32 samples was 121 mg/L. Groundwater in the area is slightly corrosive; pH 's ranged from 5.0-7.3. Groundwater contamination has been detected at two ' Superfund ' sites in the study area located in Milford and

  17. Isotopic evidence for glacial meltwater recharge to the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer, north-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, D.I.; Mandle, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The chemistry of water in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer in six midwestern states has been studied as part of the Northern Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis of the U.S. Geological Survey. Dissolved-solids concentrations generally increase perpendicular to the direction of regional groundwater flow, from less than 400 mg/liter in southeast Minnesota, southwest Wisconsin, and northeast Iowa to more than 10,000 mg/liter in northwest Missouri. Isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen are significantly depleted from north to south, with an areal distribution approximately parallel to the distribution of dissolved solids. For example, ??18O in southern Iowa and northern Missouri is about 6 parts per thousand lighter than ??18O of modern recharge water in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Covariance between ??18O and ??D of the groundwater, similar to that of modern precipitation, suggests that the differences in isotopic ratios between groundwater and modern recharge water reflect meteoric signatures of water during past recharge events rather than geochemical processes such as isotopic exchange with aquifer materials. The pronounced parallelism between the distribution of isotopes and dissolved solids over large areas probably reflects largescale recharge of Pleistocene glacial meltwater into the aquifer system, which probably had a paleoflow system with a gradient from northeast to southwest rather than from northwest to southeast. ?? 1984.

  18. Determination of hydrogeological conditions in large unconfined aquifer: A case study in central Drava plain (NE Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keršmanc, Teja; Brenčič, Mihael

    2016-04-01

    In several countries, many unregulated landfills exits which releasing harmful contaminations to the underlying aquifer. The Kidričevo industrial complex is located in southeastern part of Drava plain in NW Slovenia. In the past during the production of alumina and aluminum approximately 11.2 million tons of wastes were deposit directly on the ground on two landfills covering an area of 61 hectares. Hydrogeological studies were intended to better characterized conditions bellow the landfill. Geological and hydrogeological conditions of Quaternary unconfined aquifer were analyzed with lithological characterization of well logs and cutting debris and XRF diffraction of silty sediments on 9 boreholes. Hydrogeological conditions: hydraulic permeability aquifer was determined with hydraulic tests and laboratory grain size analyses where empirical USBR and Hazen methods were applied. Dynamics of groundwater was determined by groundwater contour maps and groundwater level fluctuations. The impact of landfill was among chemical analyses of groundwater characterised by electrical conductivity measurements and XRF spectrometry of sand sediments. The heterogeneous Quaternary aquifer composed mainly of gravel and sand, is between 38 m and 47.5 m thick. Average hydraulic permeability of aquifer is within the decade 10-3 m/s. Average hydraulic permeability estimated on grain size curves is 6.29*10-3 m/s, and for the pumping tests is 4.0*10-3 m/s. General direction of groundwater flow is from west to east. During high water status the groundwater flow slightly changes flow direction to the southwest and when pumping station in Kidričevo (NW of landfill) is active groundwater flows to northeast. Landfills have significant impact on groundwater quality.

  19. Certified organic farming research and demonstration project by Oklahoma State University and USDA's Agricultural Research Service at Lane, Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2003, Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service, South Central Agricultural Research Laboratory received organic certification for 8 acres at the Lane Agricultural Center, Lane, OK. The certified organic land was used to develop a cooperative project with a diversity of a...

  20. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    H. Seay Nance

    2003-03-01

    This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

  1. Geophysical logs for selected wells in the Picher Field, northeast Oklahoma and southeast Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott C.; Thomas, Tom B.; Overton, Myles D.; Goemaat, Robert L.; Havens, John S.

    1991-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer in northeastern Oklahoma is used extensively as a source of water for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts. The Roubidoux aquifer may be subject to contamination from abandoned lead and zinc mines of the Picher field. Water in flooded underground mines contains large concentrations of iron, zinc, cadmium, and lead. The contaminated water may migrate from the mines to the Roubidoux aquifer through abandoned water wells in the Picher field. In late 1984, the Oklahoma Water Resources Board began to locate abandoned wells that might be serving as conduits for the migration of contaminants from the abandoned mines. These wells were cleared of debris and plugged. A total of 66 wells had been located, cleared, and plugged by July 1985. In cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, the U.S. Geological Survey took advantage of the opportunity to obtain geophysical data in the study area and provide the Oklahoma Water Resources Board with data that might be useful during the well-plugging operation. Geophysical logs obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey are presented in this report. The geophysical logs include hole diameter, normal, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, natural-gamma, gamma-gamma, and neutron logs. Depths logged range from 145 to 1,344 feet.

  2. Digital atlas of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, A.H.; Becker, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    This compact disc contains 25 digital map data sets covering the State of Oklahoma that may be of interest to the general public, private industry, schools, and government agencies. Fourteen data sets are statewide. These data sets include: administrative boundaries; 104th U.S. Congressional district boundaries; county boundaries; latitudinal lines; longitudinal lines; geographic names; indexes of U.S. Geological Survey 1:100,000, and 1:250,000-scale topographic quadrangles; a shaded-relief image; Oklahoma State House of Representatives district boundaries; Oklahoma State Senate district boundaries; locations of U.S. Geological Survey stream gages; watershed boundaries and hydrologic cataloging unit numbers; and locations of weather stations. Eleven data sets are divided by county and are located in 77 county subdirectories. These data sets include: census block group boundaries with selected demographic data; city and major highways text; geographic names; land surface elevation contours; elevation points; an index of U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangles; roads, streets and address ranges; highway text; school district boundaries; streams, river and lakes; and the public land survey system. All data sets are provided in a readily accessible format. Most data sets are provided in Digital Line Graph (DLG) format. The attributes for many of the DLG files are stored in related dBASE(R)-format files and may be joined to the data set polygon attribute or arc attribute tables using dBASE(R)-compatible software. (Any use of trade names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.) Point attribute tables are provided in dBASE(R) format only, and include the X and Y map coordinates of each point. Annotation (text plotted in map coordinates) are provided in AutoCAD Drawing Exchange format (DXF) files. The shaded-relief image is provided in TIFF format. All data sets except the shaded

  3. Prevalence and Mortality of Melanoma in Oklahoma Among Racial Groups, 2000-2008

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Jonathan; Janitz, Amanda E.; Erb-Alvarez, Julie; Snider, Cuyler; Campbell, Janis E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study assessed the period prevalence (2000-2008) and mortality rates of melanoma, in Oklahoma, among different racial/ethnic strata. Methods We analyzed incident cases of melanoma from 2000-2008 from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry and determined disease duration using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to calculate period prevalence of melanoma in Oklahoma. Using a series of Chi-Square tests, we compared period prevalence and mortality rates among the racial groups and compared mortality between Oklahoma and the US. Results White non-Hispanics in Oklahoma have the highest period prevalence (p<0.0001) among the racial strata. American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) individuals have the second highest period prevalence in Oklahoma (p<0.0001). Furthermore, white non-Hispanics (p<0.0001) and AI/AN individuals (p=0.0003) in Oklahoma had higher mortality rates compared to the US. Conclusions There are disparities in the prevalence and mortality of melanoma among the AI/AN population in Oklahoma, and prevention and education programs should focus on this population. PMID:27885301

  4. Oklahoma Downbursts and Their Asymmetry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    DTIC ELECTE 0 D Michael D. Elits Richard J. Dovtak National Severe Storms Laboratory 1313 Halley Circle Norman, OK 73096 November 1986 Final Report This...Name and Address 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) National Severe Storms Laboratory 1313 Halley Circle 11. Contract or Grant No. Norman, OK 73069 DTFAO1-80...Oklahoma thunderstorm environment. Sounding is for 27 May 1984 at 1330 CST from Edmond , Oklahoma. Downburst case 1 occurred on this day. Vi LIST OF

  5. Ground-water flow in the Gulf Coast aquifer systems, south central United States; a preliminary analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, A.K.; Grubb, H.F.; Weiss, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is to use digital models of regional groundwater flow systems to develop better understanding and to improve management of the resource. Modeling is used to synthesize information about the aquifer systems and to test hypotheses about the relative importance of the components of the systems. The 290,000-sq mile study area in the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain includes the Mississippi embayment, Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas, and the Continental Shelf that are underlain by deposits of Tertiary and younger age, which contain fresh and saline water. A 10-layer, finite-difference, variable density model, with blocks 10 miles on a side, was used to simulate groundwater flow before development and in 1980, assuming steady- state conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the major factors controlling predevelopment regional flow are the topography, land-surface outcrop pattern, and geometry of aquifers and confining units. Geologic structure and the distribution of precipitation were less significant factors. The density of saline water in the deeper parts of the aquifer system probably has a substantial effect on regional groundwater flow that extends into the freshwater part of the system. Variable water density may be a significant driving force that transports salt great distances in many directions, including updip. The distribution and rates of regional recharge and discharge have been substantially changed by development. Groundwater pumpage in 1980 was about five times the value of predevelopment regional recharge. About 80% of the pumpage was supplied from increased regional recharge. Also resistance to vertical flow caused by many fine-grained beds within the permeable zones can be as important as resistance caused by regional confining units. (USGS)

  6. Identification of aquifer potential by using resistivity method: A case study in Kedawung and Sambirejo district, Sragen, Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darsono; Legowo, B.; Koesuma, S.

    2016-11-01

    It has been done geophysics survey by using resistivity method with Schlumberger configuration in Sambirejo and Kedawung subdistrict, Sragen regency, Indonesia. This research aims to identification of aquifer potential in those area. Totally there are 22 site surveys where 11 sites located in Sambirejo and 11 sites located in Kedawung subdistrict. Data collection was performed by using Resistvitymeter OYO McOHM-EL with length of current electrode from 1,5 meter up to 350 meter. Data processing was done by using IP2win software, while cross section was processed using Rockwork software. The result shows that in Sambirejo subdistrict, the aquifer layer consist of clayey sand and sand, While in Kedawung subdistrict, The aquifer layers consist of clayey sand, sand, gravel sand, gravel and breccias. Identification of groundwater potential zones as good and very good category was show that the sounding point was have a huge of groundwater source for in Sambirejo subdistrict is TS2, TS5, TS7, TS8, and TS9, while in Kedawung subdistrict is TS13, TS14, T15, TS16,TS17,TS18, TS19, TS20, TS21 dan TS22, respectively.

  7. Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. The boundary of the ERWVFA was developed by combining information from two data sources. The first data source was a 1:250,000-scale geologic map of the Leadville quadrangle developed by Day and others (1999). The location of Quaternary sediments was used as a first approximation of the ERWVFA. The boundary of the ERWVFA was further refined by overlaying the geologic map with Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) scanned images of 1:24,000 topographic maps (U.S. Geological Survey, 2001). Where appropriate, the boundary of the ERWVFA was remapped to correspond with the edge of the valley-fill aquifer marked by an abrupt change in topography at the edge of the valley floor throughout the Eagle River watershed. The boundary of the ERWVFA more closely resembles a hydrogeomorphic region presented by Rupert (2003, p. 8) because it is based upon general geographic extents of geologic materials and not on an actual aquifer location as would be determined through a rigorous hydrogeologic investigation.

  8. Evolution of overpressured and underpressured oil and gas reservoirs, Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma, Texas, and Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Phillip H.; Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Departures of resistivity logs from a normal compaction gradient indicate that overpressure previously extended north of the present-day overpressured zone. These indicators of paleopressure, which are strongest in the deep basin, are mapped to the Kansas-Oklahoma border in shales of Desmoinesian age. The broad area of paleopressure has contracted to the deep basin, and today the overpressured deep basin, as determined from drillstem tests, is bounded on the north by strata with near normal pressures (hydrostatic), grading to the northwest to pressures that are less than hydrostatic (underpressured). Thus the pressure regime in the northwest portion of the Anadarko Basin has evolved from paleo-overpressure to present-day underpressure. Using pressure data from drillstem tests, we constructed cross sections and potentiometric maps that illustrate the extent and nature of present-day underpressuring. Downcutting and exposure of Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian strata along, and east of, the Nemaha fault zone in central Oklahoma form the discharge locus where pressure reaches near atmospheric. From east to west, hydraulic head increases by several hundred feet in each rock formation, whereas elevation increases by thousands of feet. The resulting underpressuring of the aquifer-supported oil and gas fields, which also increases from east to west, is a consequence of the vertical separation between surface elevation and hydraulic head. A 1,000-ft thick cap of Permian evaporites and shales isolates the underlying strata from the surface, preventing re-establishment of a normal hydrostatic gradient. Thus, the present-day pressure regime of oil and gas reservoirs, overpressured in the deep basin and underpressured on the northwest flank of the basin, is the result of two distinct geologic events-rapid burial and uplift/erosion-widely separated in time.

  9. Geohydrologic systems in Kansas, geohydrology of the Great Plains aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGovern, Harold E.; Wolf, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks of Late Cambrian through Early Cretaceous age in Kansas are part of a regional flow system of hydraulically connected aquifers and confining units. Future demands for water require that these deeply buried rocks be studied to describe hydrologic properties and ground-water-flow conditions and to provide information that will serve as the basis for decisions concerning the protection and the management of the water resources contained therein, Toward this end, the U.S. Geological Survey, as a part of its Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (CMRASA), began a 5-year hydrologic investigation of this regional flow system in Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Texas (Jorgensen and Signor, 1981).This chapter is one of nine contained in Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-722, which present a description of the physical framework (Chapters B-F) and the geohydrology (Chapters G-I} of principal aquifers and confining systems in Upper Cambrian through Lower Cretaceous rocks in Kansas; the stratigraphic relations of these geohydrologic systems are discussed in detail in Chapter A (Wolf and others, 1990). This chapter (G) describes the geohydrology of the Great Plains aquifer system; the physical framework of the Great Plains aquifer system is presented in Chapter B (Spinazola and others, 1992).The maps in this chapter are based on existing data from selected geophysical and lithologic logs, drill-stem tests, water-level measurements, water-quality analyses, and published maps of stratigraphically equivalent units. An index to the geohydrologic data compiled for the CMRASA in Kansas is presented in Spinazola and others (1987). For the most part, data used to construct the maps were collected over many years and do not reflect aquifer conditions for any specific time period.

  10. Reconnaissance of the hydrology of sandstone and limestone aquifers along the northwest flank of the Little Rocky Mountains, Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, north-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slagle, S.E.; Christensen, P.K.

    1993-01-01

    The geohydrology of aquifers was studied the south- western part of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in north-central Montana. The geologic units of interest are the Lodgepole Limestone, principally composed of thin-bedded limestone; the Mission Canyon Limestone, a massive limestone containing numerous solution cavities; the lower part of the Kootenai Formation, composed of sandstone; a sands- stone unit at the base of the Colorado Group; and the Virgelle Sandstone Member at the base of the Eagle Sandstone. These units were formed during Early Mississippian through Late Cretaceous time and have been subjected to uplift, folding, and the intrusion of the igneous core of Little Rocky Mountains. Dips of these units range from nearly vertical to about 10 degrees. Thirty-one test holes were drilled and 25 of the holes were completed as monitoring wells. Water-level fluctuations in most aquifers followed a seasonal pattern with the lowest levels occurring in the fall and winter and highest levels in the spring and summer. Seasonal fluctuations ranged from about 0.6 to 21 feet. Specific capacity of wells tested ranged from 0.02 gallon per minute per foot for a well completed in the Eagle Sandstone to 4.6 gallons per minute per foot for a well completed in the Mission Canyon Limestone. Eight aquifer tests indicated transmissivity values of 15 to 1,000 feet squared per day. Dissolved-solids concentration in water collected from 22 wells ranged from 263 to 1,930 milligrams per liter. The least mineralized water was obtained from the Mission Canyon Limestone and the most mineralized from the Eagle Sandstone.

  11. 40 CFR 81.337 - Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Washington County AQCR 187 Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Alfalfa County Beaver... AQCR 187 Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Alfalfa County Beaver County Blaine... Unclassifiable/Attainment. Atoka County Unclassifiable/Attainment. Beaver County...

  12. Integrated characterization of groundwater contamination in an alluvial system. Case study of Allier alluvial aquifer (Massif Central, France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Nabaz; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Batisson, Isabelle; Bardot, Corinne; Colombet, Jonathan; Huneau, Frédéric; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Clauzet, Marie-Laure; Lavastre, Véronique

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogeology is an intrinsically multi-disciplinary field because of the critical role water plays in both human health and natural ecosystems. The NAA (Nappe Alluviale de l'Allier) project proposes an integrated research (hydrodynamic, hydrochemistry and biology) on the shallow aquifer of the Allier River (one of the main tributaries of the Loire River). This aquifer plays an important role in the regional water supply for it represents more than 60% of the total water abstraction. As an example, the sampling site, located near the city of Clermont-Ferrand (France) constitutes the major source of drinking water supply for more than 100 000 inhabitants and then plays a major role on the local socio-economy. A biweekly following sampling, that concerns hydrodynamical parameters, major ions and isotopes (oxygen-18, deuterium and carbon-13), has been achieved during two years on 2 rivers, 1 pond, 2 springs and 17 boreholes with the aim of defining the functioning of the aquifer in terms of quality and quantity of the water resources and then on the main processes that governs hydrodynamic and hydrochemistry. Preliminary results allowed discriminating different origins of groundwater with a part due to surface waters/groundwater interactions and a secondary origin that implies water circulating from the surrounding hills. A monthly following sampling of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and traces ions provides information on contaminants sources. In parallel, the dynamics of the microbial communities (bacteria, pico-cyanobacteria and pico-eukaryotes) was followed by flow cytometer. The bacterial diversity has been measured through PCR-DGGE analysis in order to evaluate the impact of the occurrence of contaminants.

  13. The role of perched aquifers in hydrological connectivity and biogeochemical processes in vernal pool landscapes, Central Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cable Rains, Mark; Fogg, Graham E.; Harter, Thomas; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Williamson, Robert J.

    2006-03-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of perched aquifers in hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological processes of vernal pool landscapes. The objectives of this study are to introduce a perched aquifer concept for vernal pool formation and maintenance and to examine the resulting hydrological and biogeochemical phenomena in a representative catchment with three vernal pools connected to one another and to a seasonal stream by swales. A combined hydrometric and geochemical approach was used. Annual rainfall infiltrated but perched on a claypan/duripan, and this perched groundwater flowed downgradient toward the seasonal stream. The upper layer of soil above the claypan/duripan is 0.6 m in thickness in the uplands and 0.1 m in thickness in the vernal pools. Some groundwater flowed through the vernal pools when heads in the perched aquifer exceeded 0.1 m above the claypan/duripan. Perched groundwater discharge accounted for 30-60% of the inflow to the vernal pools during and immediately following storm events. However, most perched groundwater flowed under or around the vernal pools or was recharged by annual rainfall downgradient of the vernal pools. Most of the perched groundwater was discharged to the outlet swale immediately upgradient of the seasonal stream, and most water discharging from the outlet swale to the seasonal stream was perched groundwater that had not flowed through the vernal pools. Therefore, nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were lower (e.g. 0.17 to 0.39 mg l-1) and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were higher (e.g. 5.97 to 3.24 mg l-1) in vernal pool water than in outlet swale water discharging to the seasonal stream. Though the uplands, vernal pools, and seasonal stream are part of a single surface-water and perched groundwater system, the vernal pools apparently play a limited role in controlling landscape-scale water quality.

  14. Reconnaissance of the hydrology, water quality, and sources of bacterial and nutrient contamination in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and Cave Springs Branch of Honey Creek, Delaware County, Oklahoma, March 1999-March 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2000-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of hydrology and water quality was conducted to evaluate possible sources of bacteria and nutrient contamination in the Cave Springs Branch basin and the underlying karstic Ozark Plateau aquifer system. Objectives were to: (1) determine the directions of ground-water flow in the basin and determine whether Cave Springs Branch interacts with ground water, (2) compare water quality in Cave Springs Branch with water quality in nearby wells to determine whether the stream is contaminating nearby wells, and (3) determine sources of fecal coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination in Cave Springs Branch and ground water. Potential sources of bacteria and nitrate in the area include cultivated agriculture, cow and horse on pasture, poultry production, households, and wildlife. Presence of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria directly indicate fecal contamination and the potential for the presence of other pathogenic organisms in a water supply. Nitrate in drinking water poses health risks and may indicate the presence of additional contaminants. Fecal coliform bacteria colony counts were least in wells, intermediate in the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall and Honey Creek above the confluence with Cave Springs Branch, and greatest in Cave Springs Branch. Bacteria strains and resistance to antibiotics by some bacteria indicate that livestock may have been sources of some bacteria in the water samples. Multiple antibiotic resistances were not present in the isolates from the water samples, indicating that the bacteria may not be from human or poultry sources. Ribotyping indicates that Escherichia coli bacteria in water samples from the basin were from bird, cow, horse, dog, deer, and human sources. The presence of multiple ribotypes from each type of animal source except bird indicates that most of the bacteria are from multiple populations of source animals. Identifiable sources of bacteria in Cave Springs Branch at the

  15. Effects of land use on water quality of the Fountain Creek alluvial aquifer, east-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chafin, Daniel T.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected from the Fountain Creek alluvial aquifer in 1988 and 1989 as part of the Toxic-Waste Ground-Water Contamination Program. These data indicate that dissolved solids, most major ions, fluoride, ammonium, boron, lithium, selenium, and strontium were more concentrated in the agricultural land-use area than in the upgradient urban land-use area. Nitrate and phosphate had significantly larger concentrations, and volatile organic compounds had significantly greater detection frequencies in the urban land-use area.

  16. Statistical analysis of water-level, springflow, and streamflow data for the Edwards Aquifer in south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puente, Celso

    1976-01-01

    Water-level, springflow, and streamflow data were used to develop simple and multiple linear-regression equations for use in estimating water levels in wells and the flow of three major springs in the Edwards aquifer in the eastern San Antonio area. The equations provide daily, monthly, and annual estimates that compare very favorably with observed data. Analyses of geologic and hydrologic data indicate that the water discharged by the major springs is supplied primarily by regional underflow from the west and southwest and by local recharge in the infiltration area in northern Bexar, Comal, and Hays Counties.

  17. Biological assessment of environmental flows for Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, William L.; Seilheimer, Titus S.; Taylor, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale patterns in fish assemblage structure and functional groups are influenced by alterations in streamflow regime. In this study, we defined an objective threshold for alteration for Oklahoma streams using a combination of the expected range of 27 flow indices and a discriminant analysis to predict flow regime group. We found that fish functional groups in reference flow conditions had species that were more intolerant to flow alterations and preferences for stream habitat and faster flowing water. In contrast, altered sites had more tolerant species that preferred lentic habitat and slower water velocity. Ordination graphs of the presence and functional groups of species revealed an underlying geographical pattern roughly conforming to ecoregions, although there was separation between reference and altered sites within the larger geographical framework. Additionally, we found that reservoir construction and operation significantly altered fish assemblages in two different systems, Bird Creek in central Oklahoma and the Kiamichi River in southeastern Oklahoma. The Bird Creek flow regime shifted from a historically intermittent stream to one with stable perennial flows, and changes in fish assemblage structure covaried with changes in all five components of the flow regime. In contrast, the Kiamichi River flow regime did not change significantly for most flow components despite shifts in fish assemblage structure; however, most of the species associated with shifts in assemblage structure in the Kiamichi River system were characteristic of lentic environments and were likely related more to proximity of reservoirs in the drainage system than changes in flow. The spatial patterns in fish assemblage response to flow alteration, combined with different temporal responses of hydrology and fish assemblage structure at sites downstream of reservoirs, indicate that interactions between flow regime and aquatic biota vary depending on ecological setting. This

  18. Water quality of the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds Aquifer before and concurrent with large-scale artificial recharge, south-central Kansas, 1995-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappa, Daniel J.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.; Klager, Brian J.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Recharge activities at Phase I recharge wells have not resulted in substantial effects on groundwater quality in the area, likely because the total amount of water recharged is relatively small (1 billion gallons) compared to aquifer storage volume (greater than 990 billion gallons in winter 2012). The eastward movement of the Burrton chloride plume is likely being slowed by a line of recharge locations associated with Phase I; however, chloride concentrations in deep groundwater still advanced to less than one half mile from the central part of the study area. Water-quality constituents of concern (major ions, nutrients, trace elements, triazine herbicides, and fecal indicator bacteria) have not increased substantially and are likely more affected by climatological (natural recharge by precipitation) and natural (geochemical oxidation/reduction, metabolic and decay rates) processes than artificial recharge. Arsenic remains a water-quality constituent of concern because of natural and continued persistence of concentrations exceeding the Federal maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter, especially in the deeper parts of theEquus Beds aquifer.

  19. Chemical and isotopic composition and potential for contamination of water in the upper Floridan Aquifer, west-central Florida, 1986-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swancar, Amy; Hutchinson, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    Major ions, unstable field constitutents, and the environmental isotopes tritium, deuterium, and oxygen-18 were measured in water from 112 wells that are open to the uppermost producing zones of the upper Floridan Aquifer. Tritium analyses indicate that the unconfined aquifer in northern areas contains relatively young water that has entered the aquifer since 1953, whereas the confined aquifer in southern areas contains older water. The potential for contamination of the upper Floridan Aquifer generally is greatest in those areas where the aquifer is unconfined and recharge has been shown to be high.

  20. Estimated 2008 groundwater potentiometric surface and predevelopment to 2008 water-level change in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque area, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falk, Sarah E.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2011-01-01

    The water-supply requirements of the Albuquerque metropolitan area of central New Mexico have historically been met almost exclusively by groundwater withdrawal from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Previous studies have indicated that the large quantity of groundwater withdrawal relative to recharge has resulted in water-level declines in the aquifer system throughout the metropolitan area. Analysis of the magnitude and pattern of water-level change can help improve understanding of how the groundwater system responds to withdrawals and variations in the management of the water supply and can support water-management agencies' efforts to minimize future water-level declines and improve sustainability. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, presents the estimated groundwater potentiometric surface during winter (from December to March) of the 2008 water year and the estimated changes in water levels between predevelopment and water year 2008 for the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque and surrounding metropolitan and military areas. Hydrographs from selected wells are included to provide details of historical water-level changes. In general, water-level measurements used for this report were measured in small-diameter observation wells screened over short intervals and were considered to best represent the potentiometric head in the production zone-the interval of the aquifer, about 300 feet below land surface to 1,100 feet or more below land surface, in which production wells generally are screened. Water-level measurements were collected by various local and Federal agencies. The 2008 water year potentiometric surface map was created in a geographic information system, and the change in water-level elevation from predevelopment to water year 2008 was calculated. The 2008 water-level contours indicate that the general direction of

  1. Oklahoma's Federally-Recognized Indian Tribes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City. Indian Education Section.

    This document compiles lesson plans, classroom activities, and facts from previous Oklahoma state publications about Oklahoma's American Indian peoples. "Oklahoma's Indian People: Images of Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow" contains brief presentations and related class activities and writing assignments about the histories of…

  2. Oklahoma Higher Education: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denhart, Matthew; Matgouranis, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A major headline in recent years has been that cash-strapped state governments are cutting back support for many services, including public higher education. Oklahoma is no different. Indeed, in the most recent state budget crafted by Oklahoma policymakers, Oklahoma's public colleges and universities received a 5.8 percent cut in state…

  3. Ground-Water Budgets for the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho, 1995-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Haley, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system which consists of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the ground-water resource. To help address these concerns this report describes a ground-water budget developed for the Wood River Valley aquifer system for three selected time periods: average conditions for the 10-year period 1995-2004, and the single years of 1995 and 2001. The 10-year period 1995-2004 represents a range of conditions in the recent past for which measured data exist. Water years 1995 and 2001 represent the wettest and driest years, respectively, within the 10-year period based on precipitation at the Ketchum Ranger Station. Recharge or inflow to the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through seven main sources (from largest to smallest): infiltration from tributary canyons, streamflow loss from the Big Wood River, areal recharge from precipitation and applied irrigation water, seepage from canals and recharge pits, leakage from municipal pipes, percolation from septic systems, and subsurface inflow beneath the Big Wood River in the northern end of the valley. Total estimated mean annual inflow or recharge to the aquifer system for 1995-2004 is 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s). Total recharge for the wet year 1995 and the dry year 2001 is estimated to be 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s) and 220,000 acre-ft/yr (300 ft3/s), respectively. Discharge or outflow from the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through

  4. Effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and time scale on simulated ground-water exchange with Lake Starr, a seepage lake in central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swancar, Amy; Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2003-01-01

    Lake Starr and other lakes in the mantled karst terrain of Florida's Central Lake District are surrounded by a conductive surficial aquifer system that receives highly variable recharge from rainfall. In addition, downward leakage from these lakes varies as heads in the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer change seasonally and with pumpage. A saturated three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model was used to simulate the effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and model time scale on ground-water exchange with Lake Starr. The lake was simulated as an active part of the model using high hydraulic conductivity cells. Simulated ground-water flow was compared to net ground-water flow estimated from a rigorously derived water budget for the 2-year period August 1996-July 1998. Calibrating saturated ground-water flow models with monthly stress periods to a monthly lake water budget will result in underpredicting gross inflow to, and leakage from, ridge lakes in Florida. Underprediction of ground-water inflow occurs because recharge stresses and ground-water flow responses during rainy periods are averaged over too long a time period using monthly stress periods. When inflow is underestimated during calibration, leakage also is underestimated because inflow and leakage are correlated if lake stage is maintained over the long term. Underpredicted leakage reduces the implied effect of ground-water withdrawals from the Upper Floridan aquifer on the lake. Calibrating the weekly simulation required accounting for transient responses in the water table near the lake that generated the greater range of net ground-water flow values seen in the weekly water budget. Calibrating to the weekly lake water budget also required increasing the value of annual recharge in the nearshore region well above the initial estimate of 35 percent of the rainfall, and increasing the hydraulic conductivity of the deposits around and beneath the lake. To simulate the total

  5. InSAR analysis of aquifer-system response to 20 years of mine-dewatering in the Carlin gold trend, north-central Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. W.; Katzenstein, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Carlin trend in north-central Nevada has the second largest gold resources in the world, most of it produced from large open-pit mines. Heavy groundwater dewatering is required at the mines to lower water levels below the depth of mining which can exceed 400-500 m. The resulting water level declines have produced surface deformation (subsidence) that can be detected and modeled with InSAR to characterize the aquifer-system response and to estimate hydraulic parameters in order to test and refine groundwater models. In a series of studies we examined the effects of dewatering at mines operated by Newmont Mining Corporation and Barrick Gold of North America near Battle Mountain and Carlin, Nevada. The Lone Tree mine operated a large-scale dewatering program between 1992-2006 using deep bedrock wells that pumped between 64-92 hm3/yr (52,000-75,000 acre-ft/yr) and lowered bedrock water levels more than 120 m. InSAR analysis of ERS and Envisat data for the 1992-2000 and 2004-2010 periods showed that as much as 50 cm of aquifer-system compaction occurred in bedrock and in alluvial basin deposits with subsidence rates ranging between 3-6 cm/yr. Since dewatering ended in late 2006 and water levels began rising, only 7 cm of aquifer-system recovery (uplift) has occurred as of 2010 suggesting that most of the aquifer-system compaction was likely inelastic, apparently in the pumped fractured bedrock. The InSAR subsidence data differ significantly from the pre-pumping groundwater model which predicted 2.5 m of subsidence for the 1992-2000 period. The results yield bulk storage coefficients in the range of 7 x 10-3 to 5.6 x 10-5 with a most frequent value of 1.0 x 10-3 (Baffoe-Twum, 2007), InSAR-derived hydraulic values that can provide better constraints on specific storage estimates in future groundwater models. The Betze-Post mine has been dewatering continually since late 1989 with maximum pumping rates of greater than 140 hm3/yr (110,000 acre-ft/yr) in the early and

  6. The quality of our Nation's waters: water quality in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, south-central United States, 1994-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kingsbury, James A.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Katz, Brian G.; Welch, Heather L.; Tollett, Roland W.; Fahlquist, Lynne S.

    2015-01-01

    About 8 million people rely on groundwater from the Mississippi embayment—Texas coastal uplands aquifer system for drinking water. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer also provides drinking water for domestic use in rural areas but is of primary importance to the region as a source of water for irrigation. Irrigation withdrawals from this aquifer are among the largest in the Nation and play a key role in the economy of the area, where annual crop sales total more than $7 billion. The reliance of the region on both aquifers for drinking water and irrigation highlights the importance of long-term management to sustain the availability and quality of these resources.

  7. Were the 2011 Prague, Oklahoma Earthquakes Natural, Induced, or Something in Between?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.

    2013-12-01

    Two hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of the Prague, Oklahoma earthquake sequence, which is under debate. I offer a third explanation, whereby this sequence was triggered by approximately 12 million cubic m of wastewater injected into the epicentral zone, from five high-volume injection wells. This sequence included three earthquakes of M5 or greater: a M5 foreshock, the M5.7 main shock, and a M5 aftershock (Keranen et al., Geology, 2013). The main shock, which caused substantial damage, is of exceptional importance in the central and eastern United States because it is the second largest earthquake that has been recorded in this vast region. Because of its importance in assessing seismic hazard, especially in central Oklahoma, there is an urgent need to understand its origin. The first hypothesis argues that the Prague earthquakes are of natural origin (Keller and Holland, OGS website, 2013). As shown by Ellsworth et al. (abstract, SSA Meeting, 2012,), the seismicity in central Oklahoma has increased dramatically starting in 2009. This increase is inconsistent with natural processes that are likely to occur in this geologically stable area. Instead, it seems more likely that the increase in seismicity is related to the increase of fluid injection activities related to expanding oil and gas operations. Even so, the Prague earthquakes themselves could be a natural sequence. The second hypothesis argues that the M5 foreshock was triggered by pore pressure increase due to wastewater injected from two wells near the northeast end of the epicentral zone. This M5 event, in turn, increased the Coulomb stress on a pre-existing fault triggering the M5.7 mainshock and its numerous aftershocks (Keranen, et al., 2013). This hypothesis focuses on two nearly co-located disposal wells, Stasta 1 and 2, that together injected nearly 100,000 cubic m of wastewater into the basal aquifer during the years leading up to the Prague earthquakes. There are, however, five much

  8. Buried aquifers in the Brooten-Belgrade and Lake Emily areas, west-central Minnesota--Factors related to developing water for irrigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Potential water problems include slow rate of recharge to buried aquifers, and head loss caused by screening of the surficial and buried aquifers in the same well, and by allowing well to flow unabated. Another potential problem is possible pollution of the buried aquifers through the boreholes of multiaquifer wells.

  9. Potentiometric surface of the upper Cape Fear Aquifer in the central coastal plain of North Carolina, December 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Lyke, William L.; Brockman, Allen R.

    1989-01-01

    Water-level measurements were made in 84 wells open to the upper Cape Fear aquifer at the end of 1986 to determine the configuration of its potentiometric surface over an area of approximately 5,500 sq mi. The major feature of the potentiometric surface is the development of a large, almost circular cone of depression as a result of the merging of a number of smaller cones. The center of the large cone lies along an axis between Greenville and Kinston. The potentiometric surface in the upper Cape Fear is nearly 100 ft below sea level at Greenville; it is more than 100 ft above sea level south of the Neuse River near Colorado.

  10. Constraints on recent earthquake source parameters, fault geometry and aftershock characteristics in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Benz, H.; Herrmann, R. B.; Bergman, E. A.; McMahon, N. D.; Aster, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    In late 2009, the seismicity of Oklahoma increased dramatically. The largest of these earthquakes was a series of three damaging events (Mw 4.8, 5.6, 4.8) that occurred over a span of four days in November 2011 near the town of Prague in central Oklahoma. Studies suggest that these earthquakes were induced by reactivation of the Wilzetta fault due to the disposal of waste water from hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") and other oil and gas activities. The Wilzetta fault is a northeast trending vertical strike-slip fault that is a well known structural trap for oil and gas. Since the November 2011 Prague sequence, thousands of small to moderate (M2-M4) earthquakes have occurred throughout central Oklahoma. The most active regions are located near the towns of Stillwater and Medford in north-central Oklahoma, and Guthrie, Langston and Jones near Oklahoma City. The USGS, in collaboration with the Oklahoma Geological Survey and the University of Oklahoma, has responded by deploying numerous temporary seismic stations in the region in order to record the vigorous aftershock sequences. In this study we use data from the temporary seismic stations to re-locate all Oklahoma earthquakes in the USGS National Earthquake Information Center catalog using a multiple-event approach known as hypo-centroidal decomposition that locates earthquakes with decreased uncertainty relative to one another. Modeling from this study allows us to constrain the detailed geometry of the reactivated faults, as well as source parameters (focal mechanisms, stress drop, rupture length) for the larger earthquakes. Preliminary results from the November 2011 Prague sequence suggest that subsurface rupture lengths of the largest earthquakes are anomalously long with very low stress drop. We also observe very high Q (~1000 at 1 Hz) that explains the large felt areas and we find relatively low b-value and a rapid decay of aftershocks.

  11. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in Southwestern USA: Comparison between texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012.The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characteriza...

  12. Estimated 2012 groundwater potentiometric surface and drawdown from predevelopment to 2012 in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Rachel I.; McKean, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the water-supply requirements of the Albuquerque metropolitan area of central New Mexico were met almost exclusively by groundwater withdrawal from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. In response to water-level declines, the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began diverting water from the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project in December 2008 to reduce the use of groundwater to meet municipal demand. Modifications in the demand for water and the source of the supply of water for the Albuquerque metropolitan area have resulted in a variable response in the potentiometric surface of the production zone (the interval of the aquifer, from within about 200 feet below the water table to 900 feet or more, in which supply wells generally are screened) of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Analysis of the magnitude and spatial distribution of water-level change can help improve the understanding of how the groundwater system responds to withdrawals and variations in the management of the water supply and can support water-management agencies’ efforts to minimize future water-level declines and improve sustainability. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the ABCWUA, has developed an estimate of the 2012 potentiometric surface of the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area. This potentiometric surface is the latest in a series of reports depicting the potentiometric surface of the area. This report presents the estimated potentiometric surface during winter (from December to March) of water year 2012 and the estimated changes in potentiometric surface between predevelopment (pre-1961) and water year 2012 for the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area. Hydrographs from selected piezometers are included to provide details of historical water-level changes. In general, water-level measurements used for this report were

  13. Seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha Uplift in Oklahoma. Part V. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr.

    1983-02-01

    The Nemaha Ridge is composed of a number of crustal blocks typically 3 to 5 miles (5 to 8 km) wide and 5 to 20 miles (8 to 32 km) long. Structure-contour maps prepared of the top of the Viola Formation (Ordovician), the base of the Pennsylvanian, and the top of the Oswego Formation (Middle Pennsylvanian) reveal a complex fault pattern associated with the Nemaha Uplift. This fault pattern is dominated by several discontinuous uplifts, such as the Oklahoma City, Lovell, Garber, and Crescent Uplifts. A detailed study of the Oklahoma City Uplift suggests that a number of the Nemaha-related faults were developed in pre-Mississippian time. Many of these faults exhibit both increasing and decreasing displacements from early to late Paleozoic time. However, the displacement for most of the Oklahoma City faults took place between the end of Oswego time and the end of Hunton time. A lineament map was prepared for north-central Oklahoma. A detailed gravity map was prepared for the Kingfisher and Medford maxima. A total-intensity aeromagnetic map for the Enid and Oklahoma City 1/sup 0/ by 2/sup 0/ Quadrangles was prepared. A regional seismograph network was established to supplement existing seismological capability. A local earthquake-location program, named HYPERCUBE, was developed. From 1897 through 1976, Oklahoma has had approximately 128 known earthquakes. After the network became operational in late 1977, 255 additional earthquakes were detected in Oklahoma (through 1981). A study of earthquake distribution and intensity values in Oklahoma led to the development of a seismic-source map for Oklahoma and parts of the adjacent states. Six seismic-source zones were identified. For each zone except one, a magnitude-frequency relationship was determined.

  14. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  15. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Oklahoma Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Oklahoma state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  16. Effects of climate, vegetation, and soils on consumptive water use and ground-water recharge to the Central Midwest Regional aquifer system, Mid-continent United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugan, J.T.; Peckenpaugh, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Central Midwest aquifer system, in parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Texas, is a region of great hydrologic diversity. This study examines the relationships between climate, vegetation, and soil that affect consumptive water use and recharge to the groundwater system. Computations of potential recharge and consumptive water use were restricted to those areas where the aquifers under consideration were the immediate underlying system. The principal method of analysis utilized a soil moisture computer model. This model requires four types of input: (1) hydrologic properties of the soils, (2) vegetation types, (3) monthly precipitation, and (4) computed monthly potential evapotranspiration (PET) values. The climatic factors that affect consumptive water use and recharge were extensively mapped for the study area. Nearly all the pertinent climatic elements confirmed the extreme diversity of the region. PET and those factors affecting it--solar radiation, temperature, and humidity--showed large regional differences; mean annual PET ranged from 36 to 70 inches in the study area. The seasonal climatic patterns indicate significant regional differences in those factors affecting seasonal consumptive water use and recharge. In the southern and western parts of the study area, consumptive water use occurred nearly the entire year; whereas, in northern parts it occurred primarily during the warm season (April through September). Results of the soil-moisture program, which added the effects of vegetation and the hydrologic characteristics of the soil to computed PET values, confirmed the significant regional differences in consumptive water use or actual evapotranspiration (AET) and potential groundwater recharge. Under two different vegetative conditions--the 1978 conditions and pre-agricultural conditions consisting of only grassland and woodland--overall differences in recharge were minimal. Mean annual recharge under

  17. Oklahoma DOE EPSCoR Trainees. Final Report for the Period September 30, 1991 to March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, R.C.

    2000-11-01

    This report presents the results of the State of Oklahoma DOE EPSCOR Traineeship program. The program was carried out at the three major research universities in the state: the University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University, and the University of Tulsa. Each of the three universities selected a central thrust area for the DOE EPSCOR traineeships that was in keeping with research strengths of the institution. These thrust areas are related closely enough to be mutually supportive, but are sufficiently distinct to minimize duplication of effort among the institutions. The University of Tulsa emphasized its programs in petroleum exploration, development and processing. The University of Oklahoma is emphasized research related to the supply and applications of natural gas and environmental concerns. Oklahoma State University focused on advanced materials and manufacturing, particularly as they relate to the oil and gas industries.

  18. Hydrogeochemical and stable isotope data of groundwater of a multi-aquifer system: Northern Gafsa basin - Central Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokadem, Naziha; Demdoum, Abedslem; Hamed, Younes; Bouri, Salem; Hadji, Rihab; Boyce, Adrian; Laouar, Rabah; Sâad, Abedaziz

    2016-02-01

    The hydrodynamic of the multi-aquifer system (the Continental Intercalaire " C.I " and the Complex Terminal " C.T ") of the North Gafsa basin is largely determined by tectonics (Tebessa - Gafsa fault). The composition of groundwater is controlled by complex reactions at gas-liquid-solid "mineralogical composition of associated rocks" interfaces, which depend on the natural surrounding and potential anthropogenic impact. The hydrochemical data (major ion geochemistry) indicate that these groundwaters are characterized by the dominance a Ca-Mg-HCO3/SO4 and Na-Cl-NO3 water types. Geochemical pattern is mainly controlled by the dissolution of halite, gypsum and/or anhydrite as well as by the incongruent dissolution of carbonate minerals. The pH of these samples range from 6.54 to 8.89, supporting the conclusion that the H2CO3/HCO3 couple control pH buffering. Oxygen-18 (δ18O‰SMOW) and deuterium (dD‰SMOW) isotopic data show the exchange between the groundwater and the rock (water-rock interaction) and the evaporation effect. The isotopic content of the boreholes waters is of mixed Mediterranean - Atlantic origin and is opposite to the quantity of rainwater distribution, both in space and time in the study area. This is due to its geographical situation in the southern and south-western of the Mediterranean Sea and between the Atlas area and the Sahara Platform. The concentrations of the isotopic composition of the groundwater are significantly higher than the rainwater. This is indicative of the dissolution of salts and other processes modifying the rainwater geochemical composition during infiltration into the vadose zone. The hydraulic interconnection of these components of the system has led to the evolution of these interesting groundwater types.

  19. Simulation of groundwater withdrawal scenarios for the Redwall-Muav and Coconino Aquifer Systems of northern and central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, D.R.

    2016-09-23

    . Simulated changes in discharge for scenarios 2 and 3 are less than for scenario 1 because of lower rates of groundwater withdrawal. Scenario 3 resulted in greater groundwater discharge than scenarios 1 and 2 at all major groundwater discharge features from 2006 through 2105 except for Clear and Chevelon Creeks, where the same groundwater discharge was simulated by each of the three scenarios.Changes in groundwater discharge are expected to occur after 2105 to all major surface features that discharge from the Redwall-Muav and Coconino aquifers because change in aquifer storage was occurring at the end of the simulation in 2105. The accuracy of simulated changes resulting from the Coconino Plateau Water Advisory Council groundwater withdrawal scenarios is dependent on the persistence of several hydrologic assumptions that are inherent in the Northern Arizona Regional Groundwater Flow Model including, but not limited to, the reasonably accurate simulation of (1) transmissivity distributions, (2) distributions of vertical hydraulic properties, (3) distributions of spatial rates of withdrawal and incidental recharge, (4) aquifer extents, and (5) hydrologic barriers and conduits.

  20. Testing the sensitivity of pumpage to increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well-field area, West-Central Florida : an optimization technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, Dann K.

    2002-01-01

    Tampa Bay depends on ground water for most of the water supply. Numerous wetlands and lakes in Pasco County have been impacted by the high demand for ground water. Central Pasco County, particularly the area within the Cypress Creek well field, has been greatly affected. Probable causes for the decline in surface-water levels are well-field pumpage and a decade-long drought. Efforts are underway to increase surface-water levels by developing alternative sources of water supply, thus reducing the quantity of well-field pumpage. Numerical ground-water flow simulations coupled with an optimization routine were used in a series of simulations to test the sensitivity of optimal pumpage to desired increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well field. The ground-water system was simulated using the central northern Tampa Bay ground-water flow model. Pumping solutions for 1987 equilibrium conditions and for a transient 6-month timeframe were determined for five test cases, each reflecting a range of desired target recovery heads at different head control sites in the surficial aquifer system. Results are presented in the form of curves relating average head recovery to total optimal pumpage. Pumping solutions are sensitive to the location of head control sites formulated in the optimization problem and as expected, total optimal pumpage decreased when desired target head increased. The distribution of optimal pumpage for individual production wells also was significantly affected by the location of head control sites. A pumping advantage was gained for test-case formulations where hydraulic heads were maximized in cells near the production wells, in cells within the steady-state pumping center cone of depression, and in cells within the area of the well field where confining-unit leakance is the highest. More water was pumped and the ratio of head recovery per unit decrease in optimal pumpage was more than double for test cases where hydraulic heads

  1. Configuration of the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and hydrogeology of the underlying pre-Cretaceous rocks, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Rene A.; Ardis, Ann F.

    1992-01-01

    The most permeable pre-Cretaceous rocks are in the eastern half of the study area where they compose the Hickory aquifer (in Upper Cambrian rocks), Ellenburger-San Saba aquifer (Upper Cambrian- Lower Ordovician), and Marble Falls aquifer (Lower Pennsylvanian). These aquifers are hydraulically connected to the northeastern fringe of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, as their up-turned margins crop out around the flanks of the breached Llano uplift. The Rustler aquifer in rocks of Late Permian age underlies parts of the Trans-Pecos region, where it yields small amounts of greatly mineralized water for industrial and agricultural purposes. The Dockum aquifer in rocks of Late Triassic age directly underlies the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in western parts of the study area, and locally increases the saturated thickness of the ground-water-flow system by an average of about 200 feet. Despite these notable exceptions, the collective effect of the pre-Cretaceous rocks is that 01 a barrier to ground-water flow, which limits the exchange of water across the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system.

  2. Integrating borehole logs and aquifer tests in aquifer characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Reese, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Integration of lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydraulic tests is critical in characterizing heterogeneous aquifers. Typically only a limited number of aquifer tests can be performed, and these need to be designed to provide hydraulic properties for the principle aquifers in the system. This study describes the integration of logs and aquifer tests in the development of a hydrostratigraphic model for the surficial aquifer system in and around Big Cypress National Preserve in eastern Collier County, Florida. Borehole flowmeter tests provide qualitative permeability profiles in most of 26 boreholes drilled in the Study area. Flow logs indicate the depth of transmissive units, which are correlated across the study area. Comparison to published studies in adjacent areas indicates that the main limestone aquifer of the 000000Tamiami Formation in the study area corresponds with the gray limestone aquifer in western Dade County and the water table and lower Tamiami Aquifer in western Collier County. Four strategically located, multiwell aquifer tests are used to quantify the qualitative permeability profiles provided by the flowmeter log analysis. The hydrostratigraphic model based on these results defines the main aquifer in the central part of the study area as unconfined to semiconfined with a transmissivity as high as 30,000 m2/day. The aquifer decreases in transmissivity to less than 10,000 m2/day in some parts of western Collier County, and becomes confined to the east and northeast of the study area, where transmissivity decreases to below 5000 m2/day.Integration of lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydraulic tests is critical in characterizing heterogeneous aquifers. Typically only a limited number of aquifer tests can be performed, and these need to be designed to provide hydraulic properties for the principle aquifers in the system. This study describes the integration of logs and aquifer tests in the development of a hydrostratigraphic model for the

  3. Record Rainfall and Flooding in Texas and Oklahoma, May 2015; Extent and Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy rains began in Texas and Oklahoma in early May 2015 and continued through the end of the month. Both states set all-time records for mean statewide precipitation; Texas - 227mm (8.93 in), Oklahoma - 357mm (14.06 in) -- for the period of record (1895-2015). These new statewide records were set despite the fact that the western portions of both Texas and Oklahoma received only modest rainfall. Parameters used in this study to evaluate the magnitude and historical perspective of the May 2015 rainfall included daily and total storm precipitation, stream flow, changes in the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and changes in reservoir water levels. Although the Dallas-Fort Worth area and the cities of Austin, Houston and Oklahoma City sustained the most serious flood events, more than 100 localities in the two states reported some flooding. The region with the largest amounts of precipitation extended from north-central Texas northeastward into eastern Oklahoma. Cumulative May rainfall in this region exceeded 508 mm (20 in). Provisional stream flow data for the river basins most affected -- Red River, Brazos, Colorado, and Trinity rivers -- reveal significant peaks, but the peaks generally are within the ranges of the historical record. With the exception of the Red River the most significant flooding relative to historic flood peaks, occurred on tributaries to the major rivers. Comparison of the PDSI for the months of April and June reveals the dramatic impact of the precipitation during May. By the first week of June both states are classified as moderately moist - with the exception of the extreme northeastern corner of Oklahoma. Changes in Reservoir levels (as a percent of capacity) between April and June was greatest for the Rolling Plains region (+ 15.5%), with lesser, but significant gains in South and Central Texas and the Central Oklahoma region.

  4. Aerobiology of Juniperus Pollen in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levetin, Estelle; Bunderson, Landon; VandeWater, Pete; Luvall, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from members of the Cupressaceae are major aeroallergens in many parts of the world. In the south central and southwest United States, Juniperus pollen is the most important member of this family with J. ashei (JA) responsible for severe winter allergy symptoms in Texas and Oklahoma. In New Mexico, pollen from J. monosperma (JM) and other Juniperus species are important contributors to spring allergies, while J. pinchotii (JP) pollinates in the fall affecting sensitive individuals in west Texas, southwest Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico. Throughout this region, JA, JM, and JP occur in dense woodland populations. Generally monitoring for airborne allergens is conducted in urban areas, although the source for tree pollen may be forested areas distant from the sampling sites. Improved pollen forecasts require a better understanding of pollen production at the source. The current study was undertaken to examine the aerobiology of several Juniperus species at their source areas for the development of new pollen forecasting initiatives.

  5. Geothermal resource assessment in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.E.; Luza, K.V.; Prater, M.L.; Cheung, P.K.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    The procedures and methods used to develop a geothermal gradient map of Oklahoma are discussed. Two areas, Haskell and Pittsburg Counties, in the Arkoma Basin, are discussed in detail. Three sandstone units, the Spiro, Cromwell, and Hartshorne were selected as potential low-temperature geothermal water sources. The average temperature ranged from 103/sup 0/F at Hartshorne to 158/sup 0/F at Cromwell. (MJF)

  6. Cancers of the Thyroid: Overview and Statistics in the United States and Oklahoma

    PubMed Central

    Deen, Munim H; Burke, Kaitlin M; Janitz, Amanda; Campbell, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an apparent increase in thyroid cancer in the United States. Whether is due to an actual increase or increased screening is disputed. We analyzed thyroid cancer incidence and mortality across age and racial groups in Oklahoma (using data from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry) against Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program national data – using SEER*Stat software for mortality. In the US and Oklahoma, females had a higher AAIR compared to males, but it was lower in Oklahoma than in the US (Females: US 15.5 per 100,000, OK 10.9 per 100,000; Males: US 5.4 per 100,000, OK 3.8 per 100,000). Overall, five-year relative survival was lower, yet still high, for Oklahoma than in the US (92.1% v. 97.1%). Survival by stage was lower in Oklahoma compared to the United States for localized (97.8% v. 99.8%), regional (92.0% v. 97.0%), and distant (36.6% v. 55.3%) stage cancers. PMID:27885302

  7. Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  8. Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in a shallow alluvial aquifer around oxbow lakes (Osong area, central Korea).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Chae, Gi-Tak; Joo, Yongsung; Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Hyoung-Soo

    2009-07-21

    Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of 16 physicochemical parameters of 45 groundwater samples from a riverside alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area in Osong, central Korea, were performed in this study to understand the spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in terms of biogeochemical processes occurring near oxbow lakes within a fluvial plain. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater showed a large variability from 0.1 to 190.6 mg/L (mean=35.0 mg/L) with significantly lower values near oxbow lakes. The evaluation of hydrochemical data indicated that the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination) is mainly controlled by two competing processes: 1) agricultural contamination and 2) redox processes. In addition, results of factorial kriging, consisting of two steps (i.e., co-regionalization and factor analysis), reliably showed a spatial control of the concentrations of nitrate and other redox-sensitive species; in particular, significant denitrification was observed restrictedly near oxbow lakes. The results of this study indicate that sub-oxic conditions in an alluvial groundwater system are developed geologically and geochemically in and near oxbow lakes, which can effectively enhance the natural attenuation of nitrate before the groundwater discharges to nearby streams. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  9. Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in a shallow alluvial aquifer around oxbow lakes (Osong area, central Korea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Chae, Gi-Tak; Joo, Yongsung; Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Hyoung-Soo

    2009-07-01

    Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of 16 physicochemical parameters of 45 groundwater samples from a riverside alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area in Osong, central Korea, were performed in this study to understand the spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in terms of biogeochemical processes occurring near oxbow lakes within a fluvial plain. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater showed a large variability from 0.1 to 190.6 mg/L (mean = 35.0 mg/L) with significantly lower values near oxbow lakes. The evaluation of hydrochemical data indicated that the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination) is mainly controlled by two competing processes: 1) agricultural contamination and 2) redox processes. In addition, results of factorial kriging, consisting of two steps (i.e., co-regionalization and factor analysis), reliably showed a spatial control of the concentrations of nitrate and other redox-sensitive species; in particular, significant denitrification was observed restrictedly near oxbow lakes. The results of this study indicate that sub-oxic conditions in an alluvial groundwater system are developed geologically and geochemically in and near oxbow lakes, which can effectively enhance the natural attenuation of nitrate before the groundwater discharges to nearby streams. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  10. Probability of Elevated Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  11. Estimated effects of projected ground-water withdrawals on movement of the saltwater front in the Floridan aquifer, 1976-2000, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, William Edward

    1982-01-01

    Maps of observed 1976 and simulated 2000 potentiometric surfaces were used to estimate rates of saltwater encroachment and theoretical predevelopment equilibrium positions of the saltwater-freshwater interface in west-central Florida. The observed saltwater front, defined by the 19,000 milligrams-per-liter line of equal chloride concentration in the lower part of the Floridan aquifer, corresponds closely to a theoretical predevelopment equilibrium position of a saltwater-freshwater interface. The interface position was computed by the Ghyben-Herzberg method, using heads from a map of the predevelopment potentiometric surface. In maps of both the observed May 1976 and simulated May 2000 potentiometric surface, the saltwater front was within a large seasonal cone of depression in parts of Hillsborough, Manatee, and Sarasota Counties. Average landward flow rate of the front was computed to be 0.30 foot per day in May 1976 and 0.36 foot per day in May 2000. Seaward potentiometric-surface gradient under simulated October 2000 conditions averaged 8.8 x 10-5 foot per foot less than under observed September 1976 conditions. Regional observation wells are desirable for monitoring potentiometric-level changes in western Hardee County and eastern Manatee County and for monitoring water-quality changes along the saltwater front, on its landward side, from mid-Sarasota County northward to Hillsborough County. Net landward movement of the saltwater front in the lower part of the Floridan aquifer is probably occurring under existing conditions. Pumping during 1976-2000 would probably increase slightly the rate of movement. However, rates are so slow that on a regional basis saltwater encroachment under existing and projected conditions is not presently a threat to the existing freshwater resources. The maximum projected regional landward movement, under 'worst case' conditions, of the saltwater front between 1976 and 2000 is estimated to be about one-half mile. Significant local

  12. Linkage between fluid-rock-interactions and facial, petrographical, and geochemical properties of Buntsandstein aquifer sandstones of the Thuringian Basin, Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilse, U.; Beyer, D.; Kunkel, C.; Aehnelt, M.; Pudlo, D.; Voigt, T.; Gaupp, R.

    2012-04-01

    This study is part of a collaborative research project examining the basin wide movement of fluids in the subsurface (INFLUINS - integrated fluid dynamics in sediment basins). The Lower Triassic Buntsandstein is a major aquifer in Thuringia and adjacent areas in central Germany. The sediments exhibit an overall trend of base level and associated environmental changes. In the Lower Buntsandstein, deposition started with sediments indicating a playa-like setting. The Middle Buntsandstein consists of sediments of wide floodplains with very shallow rivers and eolian reworking in the lower part, and of deeper, long-ranged braided to meandering river systems in the upper part. Outcrop samples and core material were used for investigations and following discussion. For understanding fluid-rock-interactions in these sediments it is important to investigate the linkage between facies, rock composition, and mineral surfaces exposed to the pore space, as well as bulk rock and mineral chemistry. Compared to the clay rich lacustrine sediments of the Lower Buntsandstein the more porous fluvial and eolian sandstones of the Middle Buntsandstein represent better pathways for fluid migration in the present and past. The lacustrine and fluvial sandstones are mostly arkoses and subarkoses, whereas the eolian sandstones are often characterized by quartzarenitic composition. Facies variations and associated compositional differences are reflected in the geochemical composition of the rocks determined by ICP-MS/OES and XRF measurements. Sandstones of the Lower Buntsandstein are characterized by high contents of e.g. Al, Na, K, Fe, and Li, caused by the enrichment of clays and feldspars in the lacustrine sediments. Due to their higher compositional maturity, the fluvial (and eolian) sediments of the Middle Buntsandstein exhibit an increase of stable minerals towards the top, which is also reflected in geochemical data (increasing Si by decreasing Al, Na, K). By scanning electron

  13. Development and calibration of a ground-water flow model for the Sparta Aquifer of southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana and simulated response to withdrawals, 1998-2027

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Paul W.; Clark, Brian R.

    2003-01-01

    The Sparta aquifer, which consists of the Sparta Sand, in southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana is a major water resource and provides water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses. In recent years, the demand in some areas has resulted in withdrawals from the Sparta aquifer that substantially exceed replenishment of the aquifer. Considerable drawdown has occurred in the potentiometric surface forming regional cones of depression as water is removed from storage by withdrawals. These cones of depression are centered beneath the Grand Prairie area and the cities of Pine Bluff and El Dorado in Arkansas, and Monroe in Louisiana. The rate of decline for hydraulic heads in the aquifer has been greater than 1 foot per year for more than a decade in much of southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana where hydraulic heads are now below the top of the Sparta Sand. Continued hydraulic-head declines have caused water users and managers alike to question the ability of the aquifer to supply water for the long term. Concern over protecting the Sparta aquifer as a sustainable resource has resulted in a continued, cooperative effort by the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Geological Survey to develop, maintain, and utilize numerical ground-water flow models to manage and further analyze the ground-water system. The work presented in this report describes the development and calibration of a ground-water flow model representing the Sparta aquifer to simulate observed hydraulic heads, documents major differences in the current Sparta model compared to the previous Sparta model calibrated in the mid-1980's, and presents the results of three hypothetical future withdrawal scenarios. The current Sparta model-a regional scale, three-dimensional numerical ground-water flow model-was constructed and calibrated using available hydrogeologic, hydraulic, and water-use data from 1898 to 1997. Significant changes

  14. Hydrogeology, water quality, and water-resources development potential of the upper Floridan Aquifer in the Valdosta area, south-central Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, J.B.; Hacke, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Valdosta, Georgia area is adversely affected by direct recharge from the Withlacoochee River. Water enters the aquifer along a short reach of the river where sinkholes have formed in the stream bed. The water receives little filtration as it recharges the Upper Floridan aquifer through these sinkholes. Naturally occurring organic material in the river provides a readily available source of energy for the growth of microbiota in the aquifer. Microbiological processes and chemical reactions in the aquifer produce methane and hydrogen sulfide as the water from the river mixes with ground water and moves downgradient in the aquifer. Humic substances associated with the organic material in the ground water in this area can form trihalomethanes when the water is chlorinated for public supply. To assess areas most suitable for ground-water supply development, areal distributions of total organic carbon, total sulfide, and methane in the Upper Floridan aquifer were mapped and used to evaluate areas affected by recharge from the Withlacoochee River. Areas where concentrations of total organic carbon, total sulfide, and methane were less than or equal to 2.0 milligrams per liter, 0.5 milligrams per liter, and 100 micrograms per liter, respectively, were considered to be relatively unaffected by recharge from the river and to have the greatest potential for water- resources development.

  15. Use of double-mass curves to determine drawdown in a long-term aquifer test in north-central Volusia County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    A test well withdrew water from the upper Floridan aquifer system at an average of 530 gallons per minute from June 1978 to July 1979. Ground-water levels were monitored in wells open to the upper Floridan (artesian) aquifer system and in wells open to the surficial (water-table) aquifer. Double-mass curves were used to separate drawdown from natural water-level fluctuations. Drawdowns in the Floridan were 4.3 feet at a site 350 feet away from the pumped well, 4.1 feet at a site 1,000 feet away, 1.0 foot at a site 1.0 mile away, and 0.4 foot at a site 5.8 miles away. After an initial drawdown of 0.2 foot at a surficial aquifer well 1,000 feet from the pumped well, there was some recovery, and long-term drawdown averaged less than 0.2 foot. In a five-day aquifer test during a period of no rainfall in 1976, the ratio of surficial aquifer drawdown to Floridan aquifer system drawdown reached equilibrum at 0.05. The results of the long-term test indicate that this ratio is the upper limit of long-term drawdown because of capture of evapotranspiration and runoff during the long-term test. (USGS)

  16. 40 CFR 81.424 - Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oklahoma. 81.424 Section 81.424 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.424 Oklahoma. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  17. Oklahoma, EPA study rivers, lakes and streams

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (July 29, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Oklahoma Office of the Secretary of Energy and Environment (OSEE) are continuing to work on analyzing the condition of wetlands in Oklahoma, as part of a national initia

  18. Onion transplant production system for Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions are a valuable specialty crop. Unfortunately, commercially available transplants in Oklahoma are often produced in a different area of the country and shipped into Oklahoma, resulting in a limited cultivar selection, non-adapted cultivars, poor crop stands, high bolting incidence, and low pro...

  19. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  20. Quality of Shallow Groundwater and Drinking Water in the Mississippi Embayment-Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System and the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, South-Central United States, 1994-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Heather L.; Kingsbury, James A.; Tollett, Roland W.; Seanor, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system is an important source of drinking water, providing about 724 million gallons per day to about 8.9 million people in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, and Alabama. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer ranks third in the Nation for total withdrawals of which more than 98 percent is used for irrigation. From 1994 through 2004, water-quality samples were collected from 169 domestic, monitoring, irrigation, and public-supply wells in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in various land-use settings and of varying well capacities as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical properties and about 200 water-quality constituents, including total dissolved solids, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radon, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, pesticide degradates, and volatile organic compounds. The occurrence of nutrients and pesticides differed among four groups of the 114 shallow wells (less than or equal to 200 feet deep) in the study area. Tritium concentrations in samples from the Holocene alluvium, Pleistocene valley trains, and shallow Tertiary wells indicated a smaller component of recent groundwater than samples from the Pleistocene terrace deposits. Although the amount of agricultural land overlying the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer was considerably greater than areas overlying parts of the shallow Tertiary and Pleistocene terrace deposits wells, nitrate was rarely detected and the number of pesticides detected was lower than other shallow wells. Nearly all samples from the Holocene alluvium and Pleistocene valley trains were anoxic, and the reducing conditions in these aquifers likely result in denitrification of nitrate. In contrast, most samples from the

  1. Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    1991-11-17

    The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics that can be applied to the subsurface in the adjacent Anadarko and Ardmore basins. Numerous reports and guidebooks have been written concerning the Arbuckle Mountains. A few important general publications are provided in the list of selected references. The purpose of this handout is to provide general information on the geology of the Arbuckle Mountains and specific information on the four field trip stops, adapted from the literature. The four stops were at: (1) Sooner Rock and Sand Quarry; (2) Woodford Shale; (3) Hunton Anticline and Hunton Quarry; and (4) Tar Sands of Sulfur Area. As part of this report, two papers are included for more detail: Paleomagnetic dating of basinal fluid migration, base-metal mineralization, and hydrocarbon maturation in the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma and Laminated black shale-bedded chert cyclicity in the Woodford Formation, southern Oklahoma.

  2. 75 FR 5015 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications... Griffin Licensing, L.L.C. (``Griffin''), the licensee of KWTV-DT, channel 9, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Griffin requests the substitution of channel 39 for channel 9 at Oklahoma City. DATES: Comments must...

  3. Characterizing Earthquake Clusters in Oklahoma Using Subspace Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, N. D.; Benz, H.; Aster, R. C.; McNamara, D. E.; Myers, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    Subspace detection is a powerful and adaptive tool for continuously detecting low signal to noise seismic signals. Subspace detectors improve upon simple cross-correlation/matched filtering techniques by moving beyond the use of a single waveform template to the use of multiple orthogonal waveform templates that effectively span the signals from all previously identified events within a data set. Subspace detectors are particularly useful in event scenarios where a spatially limited source distribution produces earthquakes with highly similar waveforms. In this context, the methodology has been successfully deployed to identify low-frequency earthquakes within non-volcanic tremor, to characterize earthquakes swarms above magma bodies, and for detailed characterization of aftershock sequences. Here we apply a subspace detection methodology to characterize recent earthquakes clusters in Oklahoma. Since 2009, the state has experienced an unprecedented increase in seismicity, which has been attributed by others to recent expansion in deep wastewater injection well activity. Within the last few years, 99% of increased Oklahoma earthquake activity has occurred within 15 km of a Class II injection well. We analyze areas of dense seismic activity in central Oklahoma and construct more complete catalogues for analysis. For a typical cluster, we are able to achieve catalog completeness to near or below magnitude 1 and to continuously document seismic activity for periods of 6 months or more. Our catalog can more completely characterize these clusters in time and space with event numbers, magnitudes, b-values, energy, locations, etc. This detailed examination of swarm events should lead to a better understanding of time varying earthquake processes and hazards in the state of Oklahoma.

  4. Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1986-01-01

    The major Paleozoic artesian aquifers, the aquifers most favorable for continued development, in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming are the Tensleep Sandstone, the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite (Madison-Bighorn aquifer), and the Flathead Sandstone. The minor aquifers include the Goose Egg and Park City Formations (considered in the Ten Sleep area to be the lateral equivalent of the Phosphoria Formation) and the Amsden Formation. Most wells completed in the major and minor aquifers flow at the land surface. Wellhead pressures generally are less than 50 pounds per square inch for the Tensleep Sandstone, 150-250 pounds per square inch for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, and more than 400 pounds per square inch for the Flathead Sandstone. Flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and the Flathead Sandstone yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute. The initial test of one well completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer indicated a flow rate of 14,000 gallons per minute. Transmissivities range from 500 to 1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and from about 90 to 325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Significant secondary permeability from fracturing in the Paleozoic aquifers allows local upward interformational movement of water, and this affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces of the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Water moves upward from the Tensleep and other formations, through the Goose Egg Formation, to discharge at the land surface as springs. Much of the spring flow is diverted for irrigation or is used for rearing fish. Decreases from original well pressures were not apparent in wells completed in the Tensleep Sandstone or in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer in the study area except for a few wells in or near the town of Ten Sleep. Most wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone, which also are open to the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, show a decrease of

  5. Fluorine in the rocks and sediments of volcanic areas in central Italy: total content, enrichment and leaching processes and a hypothesis on the vulnerability of the related aquifers.

    PubMed

    De Rita, Donatella; Cremisini, Carlo; Cinnirella, Alessandro; Spaziani, Fabio

    2012-09-01

    Rock, sediment and water samples from areas characterised by hydrothermal alterations in the Sabatini and Vico Volcanic Districts, near Rome and the large city of Viterbo, respectively, were collected and analysed to determine the total fluorine (F) content and to understand the F geochemical background level in the volcanic districts of central Italy. Leaching and alteration processes controlling the high concentration of F in water were also investigated. Fluorine concentrations were directly determined (potentiometrically) by an F selective electrode in water samples, while the procedure for rock samples included preliminary F dissolution through alkaline fusion. F concentrations higher than 800 mg kg(-1) were commonly found in the analysed rocks and sediments; the concentration depended on the lithology and on the distance from the alteration areas. A specific successive sampling campaign was conducted in three areas where the F content in sediments was particularly high; in the same areas, measurements of CO(2) flux were also performed to investigate the possible deep origin of F. To verify the relationships among the high F contents in rocks and sediments, the leaching processes involved and the presence of F in the aquifer, we also collected water samples in the western sector of the Sabatini Volcanic District, where hydrothermal manifestations and mineral springs are common. The data were processed using a GIS system in which the F distribution was combined with morphological and geological observations. The main results of our study are that (1) F concentrations are higher in volcanic and recently formed travertine (especially in hydrothermally altered sediments) than in sedimentary rocks and decrease with distance from hydrothermal alteration areas, (2) F is more easily leached from hydrothermally altered rocks and from travertine and (3) sediments enriched with F may indicate the presence of deep regional fractures that represent direct pathways of

  6. Groundwater Quality, Age, and Probability of Contamination, Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    The Eagle River watershed is located near the destination resort town of Vail, Colorado. The area has a fastgrowing permanent population, and the resort industry is rapidly expanding. A large percentage of the land undergoing development to support that growth overlies the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA), which likely has a high predisposition to groundwater contamination. As development continues, local organizations need tools to evaluate potential land-development effects on ground- and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. To help develop these tools, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, conducted a study in 2006-2007 of the groundwater quality, age, and probability of contamination in the ERWVFA, north-central Colorado. Ground- and surface-water quality samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, tritium, dissolved gases, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determined with very low-level laboratory methods. The major-ion data indicate that groundwaters in the ERWVFA can be classified into two major groups: groundwater that was recharged by infiltration of surface water, and groundwater that had less immediate recharge from surface water and had elevated sulfate concentrations. Sulfate concentrations exceeded the USEPA National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (250 milligrams per liter) in many wells near Eagle, Gypsum, and Dotsero. The predominant source of sulfate to groundwater in the Eagle River watershed is the Eagle Valley Evaporite, which is a gypsum deposit of Pennsylvanian age located predominantly in the western one-half of Eagle County.

  7. Water-level, borehole geophysical log, and water-quality data from wells transecting the freshwater/saline-water interface of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards Aquifer, South-Central Texas, 1999-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Nyman, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    As a part of a 9-year (1999-2007) study done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System to improve understanding of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, in and near the freshwater/saline-water transition zone of the aquifer, the U.S. Geological Survey collected water-level, borehole geophysical, and water-quality data during 1999-2007 from 37 wells arranged in nine transects (except for two wells) across the freshwater/saline-water interface of the aquifer. This report presents the data collected and also describes the data-collection, analytical, and quality-assurance methods used. The wells, constructed with casing from land surface into the upper part of the aquifer and completed as open hole in the aquifer, are in Uvalde County (East Uvalde transect), in Medina County (South Medina and Devine wells), in Bexar County (Pitluk, Mission, and San Antonio transects), in Comal and Guadalupe Counties (Tri-County transect), in Comal County (New Braunfels transect), and in Hays County (Fish Hatchery, San Marcos, and Kyle transects). Data collected included continuous water level at 18 wells; fluid electrical conductivity and temperature with depth (fluid profiles) obtained by borehole geophysical logging of 15 wells; discrete (periodic) samples for major ions and trace elements at 36 wells; stable isotopes or stable isotopes and tritium at 27 wells; dissolved gases obtained by pumping (or collecting flow) of 19 wells; and continuous specific conductance and temperature at three of the wells equipped with continuous water-level sensors.

  8. Geohydrology of alluvium and terrace deposits of the Cimarron River from freedom to Guthrie, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, G.P.; Bergman, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Ground water in 1,305 square miles of Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie, Oklahoma, is used for irrigation, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. As much as 120 feet of clay, silt, sand, and gravel form an unconfined aquifer with an average saturated thickness of 28 feet. The 1985-86 water in storage, assuming a specific yield of 0.20, was 4.47 million acre-feet. The aquifer is bounded laterally and underlain by relatively impermeable Permian geologic units. Regional ground-water flow is generally southeast to southwest toward the Cimarron River, except where the flow direction is affected by perennial tributaries. Estimated average recharge to the aquifer is 207 cubic feet per second. Estimated average discharge from the aquifer by seepage and evapotranspiration is 173 cubic feet per second. Estimated 1985 discharge by withdrawals from wells was 24.43 cubic feet per second. Most water in the terrace deposits varied from a calcium bicarbonate to mixed bicarbonate type, with median dissolved-solids concentration of 538 milligrams per liter. Cimarron River water is a sodium chloride type with up to 16,600 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. A finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed and calibrated to test the conceptual model of the aquifer under steady-state conditions. The model was calibrated to match 1985-86 aquifer heads and discharge to the Cimarron River between Waynoka and Dover.

  9. Water quality of the Ogallala Formation, central High Plains aquifer within the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District, Texas Panhandle, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Haynie, Monti M.; Beussink, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    In cooperation with the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District (NPGCD), the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water-quality samples at 30 groundwater monitor wells in the NPGCD in the Texas Panhandle. All of the wells were completed in the Ogallala Formation of the central High Plains aquifer. Samples from each well were collected during February–March 2012 and in March 2013. Depth to groundwater in feet below land surface was measured at each well before sampling to determine the water-quality sampling depths. Water-quality samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and trace metals, and 6 of the 30 samples were analyzed for pesticides. There was a strong relation between specific conductance and dissolved solids as evidenced by a coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.98. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from five wells exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Water from 3 of these 5 wells was near the north central part of the NPGCD. Nitrate values exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in 2 of the 30 wells. A sodium-adsorption ratio of 23.4 was measured in the sample collected from well Da-3589 in Dallam County, with the next largest sodium-adsorption ratio measured in the sample collected from well Da-3588 (12.5), also in Dallum County. The sodium-adsorption ratios measured in all other samples were less than 10. The groundwater was generally a mixed cation-bicarbonate plus carbonate type. Twenty-three trace elements were analyzed, and no concentrations exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard or maximum contaminant level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water supplies. In 2012, 6 of the 30 wells were sampled for commonly used pesticides. Atrazine and its degradate 2-Chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine were detected in

  10. Hydrogeochemistry of regional aquifer systems from Tuscany (central Italy): the state of the art before the definition of a geochemical baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisi, Barbara; Battaglini, Raffaele; Raco, Brunella

    2013-04-01

    European Community Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its derivative regulations have recognized the urgent need to adopt specific measures against the contamination of water bodies by individual pollutants that may significantly affect the quality of water itself. Italian regulation takes into account the EU Directives, and charges the regional authorities to create monitoring networks and produce assessment reports on the contamination of groundwater. The knowledge of "natural baseline" for various dissolved elements in groundwaters on a regional scale becomes of primary importance to distinguish natural sources and anthropogenic inputs. The studied area includes the whole Tuscan regional district (central Italy) and covers an area of about 23,000 km2. From a geolithological point of view, Tuscan territory consists of several complexes outcropping regionally, the most typical features being the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate and evaporitic formations, overlain by flysch sequences, as well as granite intrusions and volcanic rocks. Moreover, two geothermal areas (Larderello and Mt. Amiata), a large number of thermal springs and CO2-rich gas vents are mostly present in the central-southern part of Tuscany. Finally in southern Tuscany (e.g. Campiglia M.Ma, Mt. Amiata, Elba Island), mining districts, predominantly characterized by polimetallic sulphides ore deposits, were exploited since the Etruscan time. In this work statistical distribution models are used to develop summary statistics and estimate probabilities of exceeding water-quality standards according to the National Legislative Decree 152/06. Descriptive statistics on solute concentrations are based on geochemical data from the main Tuscan aquifers and investigated by the CNR-IGG (Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Pisa, Italy) and Department of Earth Sciences (University of Florence, Italy). The data processing was carried out on 4,767 water samples collected from 1997 to 2009. According to

  11. Report on the projected future climate of the Fort Cobb Watershed, Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report provides technical information on projected climate change and associated monotonic trends of precipitation and air temperature at the ARS Fort Cobb Experimental Watershed in west-central Oklahoma. The report is an attachment to the full report of the multi-location project MLP 464: “Est...

  12. Water used by grazed pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan(L) Millsp] in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water use by the warm-season annual pulse pigeon pea must be described to effectively use this legume as forage to support late-summer grazing by stocker cattle in the southern Great Plains (SGP). This study was conducted in central Oklahoma during 2008 to 2010 to quantify water and water use effici...

  13. Faculty Productivity. Report & Recommendations to the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    A review of Oklahoma higher education faculty productivity at state supported institutions resulted in recommendations to enhance quality while working within policy goals. The review identified faculty workload as the central issue and found that studies consistently show that full-time faculty members work 50 to 65 hours a week with about half…

  14. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  15. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

  16. Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Major Paleozoic artesian aquifers in the southeastern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming area, in descending order, the Tensleep Sandstone; the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite, which together form the Madison-Bighorn aquifer; and the Flathead Sandstone. Operating yields commonly are more than 1,000 gallons per minute from flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. The initial test of one well indicated a flow of 14,000 gallons per minute. Wellhead pressures range from less than 50 to more than 400 pounds per square inch. Transmissivities are 500-1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and 90-325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Despite extensive development for irrigation there have been few decreases in pressure. Some decreases in pressure have occurred in wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone. Fractures along linear structural features result in significant secondary permeability and allow upward interformational movement of water that affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces in the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Upward-moving water from the Tensleep and other formations discharges at the land surface as springs along or near these lineations. Water from the aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but has excessive hardness. The water is satisfactory for irrigation and other purposes when hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 degrees to 27.5 degrees C, giving a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 degrees C per 100 feet. (USGS)

  17. Hydrologic and chemical interaction of the Arkansas River and the Equus Beds aquifer between Hutchinson and Wichita, south-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, N.C.; Hargadine, G.D.; Gillespie, Joe B.

    1996-01-01

    Large chloride concentrations in Arkansas River water may degrade water quality in the adjacent Equus beds aquifer. A ground-water flow-model program (MODFLOW) was used to simulate hydrologic interaction of the Arkansas River and the Equus beds aquifer. A particle-tracking program (MODPATH) was used to simulate the movement of chloride from the river through the aquifer. Model-simulation results indicate that declining water levels in the Equus beds aquifer have caused net base-flow gains in the Arkansas and Little Arkansas Rivers to decrease from about 21 and 67 ft3/s (cubic feet per second), respectively, in 1940 to about -52 and 27 ft3/s, respectively, by the end of 1989. In hypothetical simulations (1990-2019) where only pumpage varied, net base-flow loss from the Arkansas River ranged from about 59 to 117 ft3/s for no increase in pumpage and a 3-percent per year increase in pumpage since 1989, respectively. Estimated chloride discharge from the Arkansas River Iassuming a chloride concentration of 630 milligrams per liter) to the aquifer increased from about 21 ton/d (tons per day) in 1940 to about 100 ton/d by the end of 1989 and was estimated to range from about 110 to 200 ton/d by 2019, depending on pumpage and climate conditions. Particle-tracking simulations show that the distribution of particles representing chloride from the Arkansas River expanded from relatively narrow bands near the river to a wider distribution within the aquifer, and may have reached the edge of the Wichita well field by 1963.

  18. Estimating Groundwater Concentrations from Mass Releases to the Aquifer at Integrated Disposal Facility and Tank Farm Locations Within the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Freeman, Eugene J.

    2005-06-09

    This report summarizes groundwater-related numerical calculations that will support groundwater flow and transport analyses associated with the scheduled 2005 performance assessment of the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site. The report also provides potential supporting information to other ongoing Hanford Site risk analyses associated with the closure of single-shell tank farms and related actions. The IDF 2005 performance assessment analysis is using well intercept factors (WIFs), as outlined in the 2001 performance assessment of the IDF. The flow and transport analyses applied to these calculations use both a site-wide regional-scale model and a local-scale model of the area near the IDF. The regional-scale model is used to evaluate flow conditions, groundwater transport, and impacts from the IDF in the central part of the Hanford Site, at the core zone boundary around the 200 East and 200 West Areas, and along the Columbia River. The local-scale model is used to evaluate impacts from transport of contaminants to a hypothetical well 100 m downgradient from the IDF boundaries. Analyses similar to the regional-scale analysis of IDF releases are also provided at individual tank farm areas as additional information. To gain insight on how the WIF approach compares with other approaches for estimating groundwater concentrations from mass releases to the unconfined aquifer, groundwater concentrations were estimated with the WIF approach for two hypothetical release scenarios and compared with similar results using a calculational approach (the convolution approach). One release scenario evaluated with both approaches (WIF and convolution) involved a long-term source release from immobilized low-activity waste glass containing 25,550 Ci of technetium-99 near the IDF; another involved a hypothetical shorter-term release of {approx}0.7 Ci of technetium over 600 years from the S-SX tank farm area. In addition, direct simulation results for both release

  19. Quartz Mountain/Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frates, Mary Y.; Madeja, Stanley S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Quartz Mountain Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute program. It is designed to nurture artistic talent and to provide intensive arts experiences in music, dance, theater, and the visual arts for talented students aged 14-18. (AM)

  20. 78 FR 23622 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00070

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster OK-00070 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and...

  1. Not-so-inactive fault in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, Henry

    1986-01-01

    In connection with a search for geologically quiet areas for sitting large engineering ventures such as dams and nuclear power plants, geologists have recently started looking at the Meers fault in southwestern Oklahoma with an intense interest.

  2. Oil extraction linked to Oklahoma earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Marcus

    2014-08-01

    Pumping waste water into the ground - a by-product of new oil and gas extraction processes - was the likely cause of a recent surge of earthquakes in the US state of Oklahoma, according to researchers in the US.

  3. Digital-simulation and projection of water-level declines in basalt aquifers of the Odessa-Lind area, east-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luzier, J.E.; Skrivan, James A.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer program using finite-difference techniques simulates an intensively pumped, multilayered basalt-aquifer system near Odessa. The aquifers now developed are in the upper 1,000 feet of a regionally extensive series of southwesterly dipping basalt flows of the Columbia River Group. Most of the aquifers are confined. Those in the depth range of about 500 to 1,000 feet are the chief source of ground water pumped from irrigation wells. Transmissivity of these aquifers ranges from less than 2,700 feet squared per day to more than 40,000 feet squared per day, and storage coefficients range from 0.0015 to 0.006. Shallower aquifers are generally much less permeable, but they are a source of recharge to deeper aquifers with lower artesian heads; vertical leakage occurs along joints in the basalt and down uncased wells, which short circuit the aquifer system. For model analysis, the deeper, pumped aquifers were grouped and treated as a single layer with drawdown-dependent leakage from an overlying confining layer. Verification of the model was achieved primarily by closely matching observed pumpage-related head declines ranging from about 10 feet to more than 40 feet over the 4-year period from March 1967 to March 1971. Projected average annual rates of decline in the Odessa-Lind area during the 14-year period from March 1967 to March 1981 are: from 1 to 9 feet per year if pumpage is maintained at the 1970 rate of 117,000 acre-feet per year; or, from 3 to 33 feet per year if 1970 pumpage is increased to 233,000 acre-feet per year, which includes 116,000 acre-feet per year covered by water-right applications held in abeyance. In each case, projected drawdown on the northeast side of a major ground-water barrier is about double that on the southwest side because of differences in transmissivity and storage coefficient and in sources of recharge.

  4. Oklahoma Space Industry Development Authority

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to increase the awareness of students of space sciences and commerce through experimentation. This objective was carried out through the award and administration, by OSIDA, the Oklahoma Space Industry Development Authority, of eleven smaller grants to fund thirteen projects at schools determined by competitive application. Applications were graded on potential outreach, experimentation objectives and impact on students' awareness of space sciences. We chose projects from elementary, middle and high schools as well as colleges that would encourage students through research and experimentation to consider education and careers in related disciplines. Each organization did not receive an equal share of the grant; instead, OSIDA distributed the money to each project based on the organization's need. A copy of the dispersement record is enclosed with this final grant report. The projects covered topics such as: space colonization, space stations, constellations, model rocketry, and space commerce.

  5. Modeling Seismicity Rate Changes in Oklahoma and Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, A. L.; Michael, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The rate of M≥3 earthquakes in the central and eastern US increased beginning in 2009, particularly in regions such as Oklahoma and central Arkansas where fluid injection has occurred (Ellsworth et al., SSA abs, 2012; Horton, SRL, 2012). We compare rate changes observed in Oklahoma, which had a low background seismicity rate before 2009, to rate changes observed in central Arkansas, which had swarms prior to the start of wastewater injection (Chiu et al., BSSA, 1984; Horton, SRL, 2012). In both cases, stochastic Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) models (Ogata, JASA, 1988) and statistical tests demonstrate that the background rate of independent events and the aftershock productivity must increase in 2009 in order to explain the observed increase in seismicity. Productivity is lower during the earlier tectonic swarms in Arkansas. The change in aftershock productivity may provide a way to distinguish manmade from natural earthquake rate changes and could provide insights into the physical mechanisms of induced seismicity. We fit the ETAS model, which is based on empirical aftershock scaling laws such as Omori's Law and the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution, to a 1973-2011 USGS PDE catalog of M≥3 Oklahoma earthquakes and a 1982-2012 ANSS catalog of M≥2.2 Arkansas earthquakes. To determine whether a rate increase is due to a change in background seismicity rate, aftershock productivity, or some combination of the two, we do the following: 1) fit the model parameters to the data, 2) convert origin times to transformed times (Ogata, JGR, 1992), and 3) use Runs and autocorrelation function tests to test the null hypothesis that the transformed times are drawn from a Poisson distribution with constant rate (as expected when no external processes trigger earthquakes besides a constant tectonic loading rate). In both cases a single set of parameters cannot fit the entire time period, suggesting that significant changes in the underlying process occurred

  6. Confirmation of Aedes taeniorhynchus in Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-01-01

    Richardson 3 and Joseph E. Farlow ABSTRACT. A single female collected in 1971 confirms the presence of Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) in Oklahoma. This...from Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas (Eldridge et al. 1972). Although most of these specimens were pooled for virus isolation attempts...infrequent specimens were pinned and retained for further study. Included among the latter was a single female of Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) from

  7. Preliminary Oklahoma Optimal Fault Orientations Determined by Focal Mechanism Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darold, A. P.; Holland, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Six hundred and eighty-eight focal mechanisms were calculated between 2010 and 2015 and used to determine optimally oriented fault orientations within the contemporary stress field in Oklahoma. The contemporary stress, maximum horizontal stress (shmax) orientation of N85°E, is determined from the orientation of the P- and T-axes of the 688 focal mechanisms used. The majority of the focal mechanism solutions were computed using earthquakes occurring in central and north-central Oklahoma, a region where the greatest numbers of recent earthquakes have occurred. The focal mechanisms used in this compilation include Regional Moment Tensor solutions and first-motion focal mechanisms. We determined a mean shmax of 83.2° with a standard deviation of 21.3° azimuth. The median shmax is 84.8° with 633 observations. From the probability density functions, it is possible to define orientations of optimal, moderately optimal and sub-optimal fault strikes. The focal mechanism distribution is dominated by strike-slip motion on steeply dipping faults and thus fault strike is restricted to the range of 0° to 180°. Optimal fault strike orientation ranges between 45°-60°, 105°-120° and 135°-150° and represent fault orientations most likely for failure. Moderately optimal fault strike orientation ranges between 15°-45°, 60°-75°, 90°-105° and 120°-135° and represent fault orientations moderately likely for failure. All other orientations of fault strike are sub-optimal orientations and have a low likelihood of failure. These results do not indicate that failure cannot occur on sub-optimal fault strikes, but suggest that they are less likely. We apply these results to the most comprehensive Oklahoma fault map to date. Identifying optimal fault orientations is important for determining the potential earthquake hazard of both naturally occurring and triggered seismicity.

  8. Analyses of Water-Level Differentials and Variations in Recharge between the Surficial and Upper Floridan Aquifers in East-Central and Northeast Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Louis C.

    2007-01-01

    Continuous (daily) water-level data collected at 29 monitoring-well cluster sites were analyzed to document variations in recharge between the surficial (SAS) and Floridan (FAS) aquifer systems in east-central and northeast Florida. According to Darcy's law, changes in the water-level differentials (differentials) between these systems are proportional to changes in the vertical flux of water between them. Variations in FAS recharge rates are of interest to water-resource managers because changes in these rates affect sensitive water resources subject to minimum flow and water-level restrictions, such as the amount of water discharged from springs and changes in lake and wetland water levels. Mean daily differentials between 2000-2004 ranged from less than 1 foot at a site in east-central Florida to more than 114 feet at a site in northeast Florida. Sites with greater mean differentials exhibited lower percentage-based ranges in fluctuations than did sites with lower mean differentials. When averaged for all sites, differentials (and thus Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) recharge rates) decreased by about 18 percent per site between 2000-2004. This pattern can be associated with reductions in ground-water withdrawals from the UFA that occurred after 2000 as the peninsula emerged from a 3-year drought. Monthly differentials exhibited a well-defined seasonal pattern in which UFA recharge rates were greatest during the dry spring months (8 percent above the 5-year daily mean in May) and least during the wetter summer/early fall months (4 percent below the 5-year daily mean in October). In contrast, differentials exceeded the 5-year daily mean in all but 2 months of 2000, indicative of relatively high ground-water withdrawals throughout the year. On average, the UFA received about 6 percent more recharge at the project sites in 2000 than between 2000-2004. No statistically significant correlations were detected between monthly differentials and precipitation at 27 of the

  9. Regional ground-water-flow models of surficial sand and gravel aquifers along the Mississippi River between Brainerd and St. Cloud, central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.; Cowdery, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Calibrated values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and areal recharge for the aquifer in a southern model area were 70 m/d and 6.0x10-4 m/d, respectively. This model was sensitive mostly to horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Net areal recharge and ground-water discharge to perennial streams were the major sources of net inflow and outflow, respectively.

  10. Proceedings: Oklahoma School Plant Manager's Workshop (4th, Oklahoma City, OK, April 20-21, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Nineteen addresses given at the 1982 Oklahoma School Plant Manager's Workshop are presented in this document. Following a welcoming speech, an overview of the issues currently facing school plant managers in Oklahoma, and a general address by a representative of the Arkansas Department of Education, the speakers focused on a number of specific…

  11. Use of Numerical Models to Simulate Transport of Sewage-Derived Nitrate in a Coastal Aquifer, Central and Western Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    The unconsolidated glacial sediments underlying Cape Cod, Massachusetts compose a regional aquifer system that is used both as a source of drinking water and as a disposal site for wastewater; in addition, the discharge of clean ground water from the aquifer system is needed for the maintenance of freshwater and marine ecosystems throughout the region. Because these uses of the aquifer conflict with one another in many areas of the Cape, local and regional planners have begun to develop sustainable wastewater plans that will facilitate the disposal of wastewater while protecting water supplies and improving the health of aquatic ecosystems. To assist local and regional planners in these efforts, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year investigation to (1) assist local and regional planners in the evaluation of potential wastewater scenarios, (2) use results and interpretation from these analyses to develop hydrologic concepts transferable throughout the region, and (3) establish and test methods that would be of use in future evaluations. Wastewater-disposal scenarios need to be evaluated in the context of the regional ground-water-flow system. For a given rate of disposal, wastewater from sites at or near a regional ground-water divide is transported in a wider arc of flow directions, flows deeper in the system, and contaminates a larger part of the aquifer than does wastewater discharged from sites farther from the divide. Also, traveltimes of wastewater from sites near a ground-water divide to receptors are longer (as much as several hundred years) than traveltimes from sites farther from the divide. Thus, wastewater disposal at or near a divide will affect a larger part of the aquifer and likely contribute wastewater to more receptors than wastewater disposal farther from a divide; however, longer traveltimes could allow for more attenuation of wastewater-derived nitrate from those sites. Ground-water-flow models and particle tracking can be used to

  12. Regional groundwater-flow model of the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and alluvial basin aquifer systems of northern and central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, D.R.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Leake, Stanley A.; Graser, Leslie F.

    2011-01-01

    A numerical flow model (MODFLOW) of the groundwater flow system in the primary aquifers in northern Arizona was developed to simulate interactions between the aquifers, perennial streams, and springs for predevelopment and transient conditions during 1910 through 2005. Simulated aquifers include the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and basin-fill aquifers. Perennial stream reaches and springs that derive base flow from the aquifers were simulated, including the Colorado River, Little Colorado River, Salt River, Verde River, and perennial reaches of tributary streams. Simulated major springs include Blue Spring, Del Rio Springs, Havasu Springs, Verde River headwater springs, several springs that discharge adjacent to major Verde River tributaries, and many springs that discharge to the Colorado River. Estimates of aquifer hydraulic properties and groundwater budgets were developed from published reports and groundwater-flow models. Spatial extents of aquifers and confining units were developed from geologic data, geophysical models, a groundwater-flow model for the Prescott Active Management Area, drill logs, geologic logs, and geophysical logs. Spatial and temporal distributions of natural recharge were developed by using a water-balance model that estimates recharge from direct infiltration. Additional natural recharge from ephemeral channel infiltration was simulated in alluvial basins. Recharge at wastewater treatment facilities and incidental recharge at agricultural fields and golf courses were also simulated. Estimates of predevelopment rates of groundwater discharge to streams, springs, and evapotranspiration by phreatophytes were derived from previous reports and on the basis of streamflow records at gages. Annual estimates of groundwater withdrawals for agriculture, municipal, industrial, and domestic uses were developed from several sources, including reported withdrawals for nonexempt wells, estimated crop requirements for agricultural wells, and estimated per

  13. Geochemical Effects of Induced Stream-Water and Artificial Recharge on the Equus Beds Aquifer, South-Central Kansas, 1995-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Heather C. Ross; Ziegler, Andrew C.; Parkhurst, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Artificial recharge of the Equus Beds aquifer is part of a strategy implemented by the city of Wichita, Kansas, to preserve future water supply and address declining water levels in the aquifer of as much as 30 feet caused by withdrawals for water supply and irrigation since the 1940s. Water-level declines represent a diminished water supply and also may accelerate migration of saltwater from the Burrton oil field to the northwest and the Arkansas River to the southwest into the freshwater of the Equus Beds aquifer. Artificial recharge, as a part of the Equus Beds Ground-Water Recharge Project, involves capturing flows larger than base flow from the Little Arkansas River and recharging the water to the Equus Beds aquifer by means of infiltration or injection. The geochemical effects on the Equus Beds aquifer of induced stream-water and artificial recharge at the Halstead and Sedgwick sites were determined through collection and analysis of hydrologic and water-quality data and the application of statistical, mixing, flow and solute-transport, and geochemical model simulations. Chloride and atrazine concentrations in the Little Arkansas River and arsenic concentrations in ground water at the Halstead recharge site frequently exceeded regulatory criteria. During 30 percent of the time from 1999 through 2004, continuous estimated chloride concentrations in the Little Arkansas River at Highway 50 near Halstead exceeded the Secondary Drinking-Water Regulation of 250 milligrams per liter established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Chloride concentrations in shallow monitoring wells located adjacent to the stream exceeded the drinking-water criterion five times from 1995 through 2004. Atrazine concentrations in water sampled from the Little Arkansas River had large variability and were at or near the drinking-water Maximum Contaminant Level of 3.0 micrograms per liter as an annual average established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Atrazine

  14. Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

  15. Water quality of the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds Aquifer before and concurrent with large-scale artificial recharge, south-central Kansas, 1995-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappa, Daniel J.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet describes baseline water quality of the Equus Beds aquifer and Little Arkansas River and water-quality effects of artificial recharge by the city of Wichita associated with Phase I (2007–present) of the Aquifer Storage and Recovery project. During 1995 through 2012, more than 8,800 surface water and groundwater water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for more than 400 compounds, including most of the compounds on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s primary drinking-water standards maximum contaminant level list and secondary drinkingwater regulations secondary maximum contaminant level list. Water-quality constituents of concern discussed in detail in this fact sheet are chloride, arsenic, total coliform bacteria, and atrazine. Sulfate, nitrate, iron, manganese, oxidation-reduction potential, and specific conductance also are constituents of concern and are discussed to a lesser extent.

  16. Improved regional groundwater flow modeling using drainage features: a case study of the central northern karst aquifer system of Puerto Rico (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Yu, Xue; Butscher, Christoph; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2016-09-01

    In northern Puerto Rico (USA), subsurface conduit networks with unknown characteristics, and surface features such as springs, rivers, lagoons and wetlands, drain the coastal karst aquifers. In this study, drain lines connecting sinkholes and springs are used to improve the developed regional model by simulating the drainage effects of conduit networks. Implemented in an equivalent porous media (EPM) approach, the model with drains is able to roughly reproduce the spring discharge hydrographs in response to rainfall. Hydraulic conductivities are found to be scale dependent and significantly increase with higher test radius, indicating scale dependency of the EPM approach. Similar to other karst regions in the world, hydraulic gradients are steeper where the transmissivity is lower approaching the coastline. This study enhances current understanding of the complex flow patterns in karst aquifers and suggests that using a drainage feature improves modeling results where available data on conduit characteristics are minimal.

  17. 75 FR 13236 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications... Licensing, L.L.C., the licensee of KWTV-DT, channel 9, Oklahoma City, requesting the substitution of channel 39 for channel 9 at Oklahoma City. DATES: This rule is effective March 19, 2010. FOR...

  18. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Railroads in Oklahoma. 169.24 Section 169.24 Indians....24 Railroads in Oklahoma. (a) The Act of February 28, 1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way.... Except when otherwise determined by the Secretary, railroad rights-of-way in Oklahoma granted under...

  19. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Railroads in Oklahoma. 169.24 Section 169.24 Indians....24 Railroads in Oklahoma. (a) The Act of February 28, 1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way.... Except when otherwise determined by the Secretary, railroad rights-of-way in Oklahoma granted under...

  20. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroads in Oklahoma. 169.24 Section 169.24 Indians....24 Railroads in Oklahoma. (a) The Act of February 28, 1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way.... Except when otherwise determined by the Secretary, railroad rights-of-way in Oklahoma granted under...

  1. 25 CFR 169.24 - Railroads in Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railroads in Oklahoma. 169.24 Section 169.24 Indians....24 Railroads in Oklahoma. (a) The Act of February 28, 1902 (32 Stat. 43), authorizes right-of-way.... Except when otherwise determined by the Secretary, railroad rights-of-way in Oklahoma granted under...

  2. Drought and grazing effects on Oklahoma phlox (Polemoniaceae, Phlox oklahomensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oklahoma phlox (Phlox oklahomensis Wherry) is endemic to Butler, Chautauqua, Comanche, Cowley, and Elk Counties of Kansas and Woods and Woodward Counties of Oklahoma. The species comprises populations of a few scattered individuals to several hundred in mixed-grass prairie sites in Oklahoma where co...

  3. Muriel Wright: Telling the Story of Oklahoma Indian Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesar, Dana; Smith, Joan K.; Noley, Grayson

    2004-01-01

    The Wright family, descended from the patriarch Allen Wright, who arrived in the new Choctaw Nation after surviving the "Trail of Tears," played an important role in Oklahoma politics and society. Following removal to Oklahoma, Allen went on to become Principal Chief of the Choctaw Nation and gave the name, Oklahoma, to the southwest territory. He…

  4. Social and Economic Consequences of Indian Gaming in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kenneth W., II; Spilde, Katherine A.; Taylor, Jonathan B.

    2004-01-01

    The balancing framework of Indian gaming as it operates in Oklahoma constrains Oklahoma Indian nations from operating facilities according to the dictates of the marketplace on a large-scale Class III basis. Indian gaming actually brings substantial net economic benefits to the state, contrary to claims that Oklahoma Indian gaming benefits come at…

  5. Petroleum production and exploration in Ouachita region of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Suneson, N.H.; Campbell, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    Petroleum production in the Ouachita region of southeastern Oklahoma occurs in three geographic areas parallel to regional structure. The frontal gas, central oil, and central gas belts are distinguished by differences in structural setting, reservoir strata, and types of hydrocarbons. In the frontal belt, nearly 1 trillion ft/sup 3/ of dry gas has been produced from thrusted and subthrust Morrowan and Atokan sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Over 8000 bbl of oil have been produced in the central oil belt, southeast of the Ti Valley fault. Structures consist of imbricate thrusts and isoclinal to overturned folds. The fields are typically small, associated with asphaltite or tar sands, and produce from Carboniferous sandstone reservoirs. Farther southeast, small fields within the central gas belt have produced minor gas from Ordovician, Devonian, and Mississippian reservoirs. Six Ordovician through Mississippian Ouachita-facies shales are potential petroleum source rocks and occur in the middle to lower part of the oil window. However, Devonian and Mississippian strata are composed primarily of terrestrial organic matter and are probably gas prone. Oil in Carboniferous reservoirs probably migrated upward stratigraphically from older sources. Recent exploration has focused on extending production from Pennsylvanian reservoirs in the frontal gas belt. However, a significant Arbuckle discovery (ARCO 2 Yourman) and a Broken Bow uplift test (Sohio 1-22 Weyerhauser) in 1987 indicate that Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group carbonates may be prospective beneath all of the Oklahoma Ouachitas. Near-future rank-wildcat exploration will probably focus on subthrust, structurally and stratigraphically favorable Arbuckle plays.

  6. A Legal Analysis of Litigation against Oklahoma Educators and School Districts under the Oklahoma Governmental Tort Claims Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacefield, Kevin Lee

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation analyzed public court decisions in cases against Oklahoma school districts and their employees involving sovereign immunity claims filed under Oklahoma's Governmental Tort Claims Act. The questions addressed were: (1) How have the Oklahoma courts interpreted the Governmental Tort Claims Act, (Okla. Stat. tit. 51 Section 151 et…

  7. Conodont biostratigraphy of lower Ordovician rocks, Arbuckle Group, southern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dresbach, R.I.; Ethington, R.L. )

    1989-08-01

    The Arbuckle Group of southern Oklahoma displays the only complete exposure of the shallow-water carbonates that characterize the Lower Ordovician of interior North America. Trilobites have been described from some parts of this sequence and sporadic occurrences of other invertebrates are known, but much of the sequence is sparingly fossiliferous. As a consequence, these magnificent exposures have not contributed notably to continuing efforts toward development of a comprehensive biostratigraphic scheme for the Lower Ordovician of the North American platform. Samples collected at 25-ft intervals through the Arbuckle Group along and adjacent to Interstate Highway 35 on the south flank of the Arbuckle anticline near Ardmore, Oklahoma, produced conodonts in abundances ranging from a few tens to over a thousand elements per kilogram and displaying good to excellent preservation with low CAI. These conodonts document a biostratigraphic continuum that provides a standard for correlation of Lower Ordovician rocks in the subsurface of central US and of the many localized and incomplete outcrops of generally equivalent strata in the Ozark and Upper Mississippi Valley regions. The stratigraphic continuity of the collections makes the I-35 section an ideal standard reference section for graphic correlation of Lower Ordovician rocks containing conodonts of the Mid-Continent Province.

  8. Book review: Oklahoma Breeding Bird Atlas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterjohn, Bruce G.

    2004-01-01

    The first North American breeding bird atlases were initiated during the 1970s. With atlases completed or ongoing in more than 40 U.S. states and most Canadian provinces, these projects are now familiar to professional ornithologists and amateur birders. This book provides the results of the Oklahoma Breeding Bird Atlas, the data for which were collected during 1997–2001. Its appearance less than 3 years after completing fieldwork is remarkable and everyone associated with its timely publication should be congratulated for their efforts.Review info: Oklahoma Breeding Bird Atlas. By Dan L. Reinking, 2004. ISBN: 0806136146, 528 pp.

  9. Historical and projected climate (1901–2050) and hydrologic response of karst aquifers, and species vulnerability in south-central Texas and western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamm, John F.; Poteet, Mary F.; Symstad, Amy J.; Musgrove, MaryLyn