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Sample records for central serous retinopathy

  1. Microperimetry in patients with central serous retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Toonen, F; Remky, A; Janssen, V; Wolf, S; Reim, M

    1995-09-01

    In patients with acute central serous retinopathy (CSR), evaluation of visual acuity alone may not represent visual function. In patients with acute CSR, visual function may be disturbed by localized scotomas, distortion, and waviness. For the assessment of localized light sensitivity and stability of fixation, patients with CSR were evaluated by fundus perimetry with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO 101, Rodenstock Instruments). In all, 21 patients with acute CSR and 19 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Diagnosis of CSR was established by ophthalmoscopy and digital video fluorescein angiography. All patients and volunteers underwent static suprathreshold perimetry with the SLO. Light sensitivity was quantified by presenting stimuli with different light intensities (intensity, 0-27.9 dB above background; size, Goldmann III; wavelength, 633 nm) using an automatic staircase strategy. Stimuli were presented with simultaneous real-time monitoring of the retina. Fixation stability was quantified by measuring the area encompassing 75% of all points of fixation. Light sensitivity was 18-20 dB in affected areas, whereas in healthy eyes and outside the affected area, values of 22-24 dB were obtained. Fixation stability was significantly decreased in the affected eye as compared with normal eyes (33 +/- 12 versus 21 +/- 4 min of arc; P < 0.01). Static perimetry with an SLO is a useful technique for the assessment of localized light sensitivity and fixation stability in patients with macular disease. This technique could provide helpful information in the management of CSR.

  2. Central serous retinopathy with permanent visual deficit in a commercial air transport pilot: a case report.

    PubMed

    Newman, David G

    2002-11-01

    This report describes a case of central serous retinopathy (CSR) in the right eye of a commercial air transport pilot which resulted in a permanent reduction in visual acuity and the loss of his license. The previously fit and well pilot developed sudden loss of central vision, which resolved spontaneously. He then went on to experience recurrent episodes of fluctuating visual acuity (down to 6/60) and visual dysfunction in the right eye. His left eye remained unaffected. Eventually his condition stabilized, and he was left with a permanent reduction in right visual acuity (6/36) with intact peripheral visual fields and a completely normal left eye. After a period of grounding of 12 mo, he sought to have his license reinstated. He was considered to be a functionally monocular pilot, and as such was granted a conditional Class 1 medical category. The aeromedical disposition of this pilot and the issues involved in determining the fitness to fly of pilots with permanent visual defects arising from CSR are discussed.

  3. [Bilateral abnormalities in central serous chorioretinopathy seen in optical coherence tomography, ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography and microperimetry--case report].

    PubMed

    Tylus, Magdalena; Święch-Zubilewicz, Anna; Dolar-Szczasny, Joanna; Mackiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy is a common retinopathy, which is manifested by the idiopathic detachment of the neurosensory retina in the posterior pole, secondary to fluid leakage from choroidal vessels at the level of retinal pigment epithelium. The disease is typically unilateral and affects young men. We present a case of a 48-year old man, admitted to the Department of Vitreo-Retinal Surgery, Medical University in Lublin, reporting vision impairment in his right eye. The bilateral ocular exam followed by optical coherence tomography, ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography and microperimetry revealed bilateral central serous chorioretinopathy. This case presents a bilateral manifestation of central serous chorioretinopathy and emphasizes the role of advanced diagnostic imaging techniques in analyzing retinal function and disease management.

  4. Finasteride for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Forooghian, Farzin; Meleth, Annal D; Cukras, Catherine; Chew, Emily Y; Wong, Wai T; Meyerle, Catherine B

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of finasteride, an inhibitor of dihydrotestosterone synthesis, in the treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Five patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy were prospectively enrolled in this pilot study. Patients were administered finasteride (5 mg) daily for 3 months, after which study medication was withheld and patients were observed for 3 months. Main outcome measures included best-corrected visual acuity, central subfield macular thickness, and subretinal fluid volume as assessed by optical coherence tomography. Serum dihydrotestosterone, serum testosterone, and urinary cortisol were also measured. There was no change in mean best-corrected visual acuity. Mean center-subfield macular thickness and subretinal fluid volume reached a nadir at 3 months and rose to levels that were below baseline by 6 months. The changes in both optical coherence tomography parameters paralleled those in serum dihydrotestosterone level. In four patients, center-subfield macular thickness and/or subretinal fluid volume increased after discontinuation of finasteride. In the remaining patient, both optical coherence tomography parameters normalized with finasteride and remained stable when the study medication was discontinued. Finasteride may represent a novel medical treatment for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Larger controlled clinical trials are needed to further assess the efficacy of finasteride for the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy.

  5. FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE LIFETIMES AND CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Dysli, Chantal; Berger, Lieselotte; Wolf, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify retinal fluorescence lifetimes in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and to identify disease specific lifetime characteristics over the course of disease. Methods: Forty-seven participants were included in this study. Patients with central serous chorioretinopathy were imaged with fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) and compared with age-matched controls. Retinal autofluorescence was excited using a 473-nm blue laser light and emitted fluorescence light was detected in 2 distinct wavelengths channels (498–560 nm and 560–720 nm). Clinical features, mean retinal autofluorescence lifetimes, autofluorescence intensity, and corresponding optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were further analyzed. Results: Thirty-five central serous chorioretinopathy patients with a mean visual acuity of 78 ETDRS letters (range, 50–90; mean Snellen equivalent: 20/32) and 12 age-matched controls were included. In the acute stage of central serous chorioretinopathy, retinal fluorescence lifetimes were shortened by 15% and 17% in the respective wavelength channels. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that fluorescence lifetimes were significantly influenced by the disease duration (P < 0.001) and accumulation of photoreceptor outer segments (P = 0.03) but independent of the presence or absence of subretinal fluid. Prolonged central macular autofluorescence lifetimes, particularly in eyes with retinal pigment epithelial atrophy, were associated with poor visual acuity. Conclusion: This study establishes that autofluorescence lifetime changes occurring in central serous chorioretinopathy exhibit explicit patterns which can be used to estimate perturbations of the outer retinal layers with a high degree of statistical significance. PMID:28099314

  6. FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE LIFETIMES AND CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY.

    PubMed

    Dysli, Chantal; Berger, Lieselotte; Wolf, Sebastian; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2017-11-01

    To quantify retinal fluorescence lifetimes in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and to identify disease specific lifetime characteristics over the course of disease. Forty-seven participants were included in this study. Patients with central serous chorioretinopathy were imaged with fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) and compared with age-matched controls. Retinal autofluorescence was excited using a 473-nm blue laser light and emitted fluorescence light was detected in 2 distinct wavelengths channels (498-560 nm and 560-720 nm). Clinical features, mean retinal autofluorescence lifetimes, autofluorescence intensity, and corresponding optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were further analyzed. Thirty-five central serous chorioretinopathy patients with a mean visual acuity of 78 ETDRS letters (range, 50-90; mean Snellen equivalent: 20/32) and 12 age-matched controls were included. In the acute stage of central serous chorioretinopathy, retinal fluorescence lifetimes were shortened by 15% and 17% in the respective wavelength channels. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that fluorescence lifetimes were significantly influenced by the disease duration (P < 0.001) and accumulation of photoreceptor outer segments (P = 0.03) but independent of the presence or absence of subretinal fluid. Prolonged central macular autofluorescence lifetimes, particularly in eyes with retinal pigment epithelial atrophy, were associated with poor visual acuity. This study establishes that autofluorescence lifetime changes occurring in central serous chorioretinopathy exhibit explicit patterns which can be used to estimate perturbations of the outer retinal layers with a high degree of statistical significance.

  7. Central serous choroidopathy in the Hallermann-Streiff Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Blair, N P; Brockhurst, R J; Lee, W

    1981-08-01

    Central serous choroidopathy was observed in a young patient with the Hallermann-Streiff syndrome. Typical features of this syndrome include microphthalmos, proportionate dwarfism, dyscephaly with birdlike facies, dental abnormalities, and hypotrichosis. Exceptional aspects of this case include age of onset (11 years), high hyperopic refractive error (+ 13.00 sphere), and multiple recurrences caused by six separate documented leaks from the choroid. Fundus changes previously reported in the Hallermann-Streiff syndrome, interpreted as chorioretinal pigmentary changes, may have been secondary to previous undiagnosed central serous choroidopathy. Periodic ophthalmoscopy should be performed and may detect unrecognized episodes of central serous choroidopathy for which photocoagulation would be beneficial.

  8. Long-term results and recurrence rates after spironolactone treatment in non-resolving central serous chorio-retinopathy (CSCR).

    PubMed

    Herold, Tina Rike; Rist, Kristina; Priglinger, Siegfried Georg; Ulbig, Michael Werner; Wolf, Armin

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the long-term results of spironolactone in non-resolving central serous chorio-retinopathy (CSCR) and recurrence rates of CSCR. Interventional uncontrolled open-label prospective clinical trial of patients with non-resolving CSCR who were treated with spironolactone 50 mg daily (Spironolacton AL® 50 mg, ALIUD PHARMA) for up to 16 weeks. Follow-up visits were performed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Retreatment criteria for recurrence were: gain in sub-retinal fluid (SRF) of more than 25 % plus/or increase of central retinal thickness (CRT) of more than 50 μm plus visual symptoms compared to last visit. 12-month efficacy of upload treatment with spironolactone. Secondary outcome measure was the recurrence rate at 6, 9, and 12 months. Of the 21 study eyes treated, 71 % (n = 15) showed significant improvement or complete regression on OCT examination over 12 months. Nineteen percent of the patients (n = 4) showed a stable course from visit 1 to visit 12. The overall reduction of sub-retinal fluid from visit 1 (156 μm ± 131 SD) to visit 12 (53 μm ± 93 SD) was statistically significant (p = 0.003). The change of mean visual acuity (log MAR) from 0.25 (± 0.17 SD) at baseline to 0.17 (± 0.18 SD) at visit 12 was statistically significant, with p = 0.044. Our results confirm a positive effect of spironolactone in non-resolving CSCR in 71 % of cases. Evaluation of recurrence rates and retreatments showed good results in patients who responded to spironolactone primarily. A prospective randomized trial may provide better data about this non-invasive treatment.

  9. Dark and white lesions observed in central serous chorioretinopathy on optical coherence tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    De Bats, Flore; Cornut, Pierre-Loïc; Wolff, Benjamin; Kodjikian, Laurent; Mauget-Faÿsse, Martine

    2018-03-01

    To describe abnormal dark (hyposignal) and white (hypersignal) lesions observed on optical coherence tomography angiography in central serous chorioretinopathy. Prospective, multicenter, and descriptive study including patients with active or quiescent central serous chorioretinopathy. All patients had undergone a complete ophthalmic examination. Abnormal dark lesions were detected as "dark spots" and "dark areas" on optical coherence tomography angiography. A "dark spot" could correspond to six different abnormalities: pigment epithelium detachment, subretinal deposit, "Lucency" within surrounding subretinal fibrin, choroidal cavitation, choroidal excavation, and choroidal fluid. A "dark area" could be related to a serous retinal detachment or choriocapillary compression. Abnormal white lesions were also detected: A "white spot" could correspond with the leaking point on fluorescein angiography or with hyper-reflective dots; A "white filamentous pattern" at the Brüch's membrane level corresponded to abnormal choroidal neovascular vessels. A semiology is described using optical coherence tomography angiography in central serous chorioretinopathy as abnormal dark and white lesions. Multimodal imaging is mandatory in addition to optical coherence tomography angiography to diagnose non-neovascular retinal and choroidal central serous chorioretinopathy lesions. However, optical coherence tomography angiography alone is helpful in detecting choroidal neovascular membrane in central serous chorioretinopathy.

  10. Biometric characteristics of eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jong-Hyun; Oh, Jaeryung; Togloom, Ariunaa; Kim, Seong-Woo; Huh, Kuhl

    2014-03-13

    To investigate the biometric characteristics of eyes with idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Medical records of 52 consecutive patients with unilateral CSC were reviewed. Central serous chorioretinopathy was diagnosed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fluorescein angiography. Data collected for comparison with fellow eyes were refractive error, biometric measurements using partial coherence interferometry, and SD-OCT parameters. Mean time from subjective symptom onset to initial visit was 8.3 ± 12.29 weeks. Mean axial length (AL) was shorter in CSC eyes than in fellow eyes by 0.24 ± 0.379 mm (P < 0.001), and mean anterior chamber depth (ACD) was shallower in CSC eyes than in fellow eyes by 0.03 ± 0.088 mm (P = 0.021). Central serous chorioretinopathy eyes also had thicker subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) than fellow eyes by 34.0 ± 45.93 μm (P < 0.001). Differences in spherical equivalents between CSC and fellow eyes correlated with AL differences (r = -0.690, P < 0.001) and CT differences (r = 0.473, P = 0.001). On multiple linear regression analysis, the differences in ACD between CSC and fellow eyes were significantly correlated with AL differences (P = 0.032) and symptom duration (P = 0.019). Biometric characteristics such as AL and ACD were different between eyes with CSC and fellow eyes. Variations in biometry, which correlated with CT differences, might be related to differences in refractive errors between eyes.

  11. CONCOMITANT MACULAR HOLE AND CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY AFTER BLUNT EYE TRAUMA.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Kemal; Citirik, Mehmet; Atalay, Muhammed; Teke, Mehmet Yasin

    2018-01-01

    To report concomitant macular hole and central serous chorioretinopathy after blunt trauma. Case presentation. A 31-year-old man presented with a complaint of a reduction in visual acuity and blurred vision in the right eye after blunt eye trauma. The patient did not have a history of any systemic disorders and drug administration. On ocular examination, best corrected visual acuity was 2/20 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. His intraocular pressures were 14 mmHg right eye and 13 mmHg left eye by applanation tonometry. Dilated fundus examination of the right eye showed macular hole and serous macular detachment, whereas the left eye was completely normal. Optical coherence tomography confirmed the full-thickness macular hole and subretinal fluid in the right eye, and ink-blot leakage pattern was determined in fundus fluorescein angiography. The patient was followed up without systemic therapy. Three months later, the vision was 10/20 in the right eye with completely closed macular hole and complete resolution of subretinal fluid. This is the first case which describes concomitant macular hole and central serous chorioretinopathy after blunt eye trauma. This presentation demonstrates that macular hole and central serous chorioretinopathy can be developed after blunt trauma. Both pathology may result with spontaneous closure of macular hole and spontaneous resolution of subretinal fluid within 3 months.

  12. Central serous chorioretinopathy due to tadalafil use.

    PubMed

    Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Yüksel, Harun; Şahin, Alparslan; Murat, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Yaşar; Çaça, Ihsan

    2013-04-01

    Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors are commonly used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. There are a small number of case reports that associate this agent with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Our report presents the treatment approach to a 42-year-old patient who described blurred vision and metamorphopsia and was diagnosed with CSCR following the use of tadalafil, a PDE5 inhibitor.

  13. Features of central serous chorioretinopathy presenting at a tertiary care hospital in Lahore.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Ahmad Zeeshan; Mirza, Khurram Azam; Qazi, Zaheer Uddin Aqil; Iqbal, Wasim; Khaliq, Javed; Fawad-ur-Rahman; Ahmed, Arslan

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical, angiographic and optical coherence tomographic features of central serous chorioretinopathy in patients presenting at a tertiary care centre in Lahore. The observational study was conducted at the Layton Rehmatulla Benevolent Trust Eye and Cancer Hospital Lahore from July 15, 2010 to December 15, 2011. Patients who had received prior treatment for the condition and allergy to fluorescein were excluded. There were 86 eyes of 64 adult patients with central serous chorioretinopathy. The following data was recorded: history, signs and symptoms, best corrected visual acuity, fundus fluorescein angiography, and central macular thickness measurement with optical coherence tomography. Data was analyzed using SPSS 17. Mean age of patients who presented during the study duration was 39.52 +/- 8.85 years.There were 53 (82.8%) males and 11(17.2%) females. Of the total, 42 (65.6%) cases had unilateral and 22 (34.4%) cases had bilateral involvement. Chronic central serous chorioretinopathy was seen in 27 (42.2%) cases while 37 (57.8%) cases were acute presentations. Retinal pigment epithelial detachment was observed in 29 (45.3%) cases. On fundus fluorescein angiography, there were 62 (72.1%) eyes that showed ink blot pattern. Median visual acuity at presentation was 0.25. Median central macular thickness at presentation was 550.5micro. Central serous chorioretinopathy in the study sample was associated with pigment epithelial detachment, bilateral involvement, and presence of systemic diseases.

  14. Risk Factors for Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: Multivariate Approach in a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Chatziralli, Irini; Kabanarou, Stamatina A; Parikakis, Efstratios; Chatzirallis, Alexandros; Xirou, Tina; Mitropoulos, Panagiotis

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the potential risk factors associated independently with central serous retinopathy (CSR) in a Greek population, using multivariate approach. Participants in the study were 183 consecutive patients diagnosed with CSR and 183 controls, matched for age. All participants underwent complete ophthalmological examination and information regarding their sociodemographic, clinical, medical and ophthalmological history were recorded, so as to assess potential risk factors for CSR. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. Univariate analysis showed that male sex, high educational status, high income, alcohol consumption, smoking, hypertension, coronary heart disease, obstructive sleep apnea, autoimmune disorders, H. pylori infection, type A personality and stress, steroid use, pregnancy and hyperopia were associated with CSR, while myopia was found to protect from CSR. In multivariate analysis, alcohol consumption, hypertension, coronary heart disease and autoimmune disorders lost their significance, while the remaining factors were all independently associated with CSR. It is important to take into account the various risk factors for CSR, so as to define vulnerable groups and to shed light into the pathogenesis of the disease.

  15. Finasteride for Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Forooghian, Farzin; Meleth, Annal D.; Cukras, Catherine; Chew, Emily Y.; Wong, Wai T.; Meyerle, Catherine B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of finasteride, an inhibitor of dihyroxytestosterone (DHT) synthesis, in the treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods Five patients with chronic CSC were prospectively enrolled in this pilot study. Patients were administered finasteride (5mg) daily for 3 months, following which study medication was withheld and patients were observed for 3 months. Main outcome measures included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), center-subfield macular thickness and subretinal fluid volume as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Serum DHT, serum testosterone, and urinary cortisol were also measured. Results There was no change in mean BCVA. Mean center-subfield macular thickness and subretinal fluid volume reached a nadir at 3 months, and rose to levels that were below baseline by 6 months. The changes in both OCT parameters paralleled changes in serum DHT level. In four patients, center-subfield macular thickness and/or subretinal fluid volume increased following discontinuation of finasteride. In the remaining patient, both OCT parameters normalized with finasteride and remained stable when the study medication was discontinued. Conclusion Finasteride may represent a novel medical treatment for chronic CSC. Larger controlled clinical trials are needed to further assess the efficacy of finasteride for the treatment of CSC. Summary Pilot study to evaluate finasteride for treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy suggests efficacy and tolerability. PMID:21273946

  16. Bilateral simultaneous central serous chorioretinopathy in a teenage girl with systemic arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Alwassia, Ahmad A; Adhi, Mehreen; Duker, Jay S

    2013-02-01

    We present a case of bilateral simultaneous central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) in a teenage girl with a history of systemic arterial hypertension. A 19-year-old Caucasian female, with a history of systemic arterial hypertension, presented with gradual decrease in her central vision for 1 month. She was diagnosed with bilateral simultaneous CSCR, based on the findings of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), indocyanine green angiography (ICG), fundus auto-fluorescence, fluorescein angiography and color fundus photographs, which are described. Blood pressure was 134/95 mmHg at presentation. Systemic evaluation failed to reveal a cause for the high blood pressure, and included a panel of blood tests, which were all normal. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/30 OD and 20/25 OS. Dilated fundus examination showed normal optic discs and retinal vasculature, with no evidence of hypertensive retinopathy. However, shallow retinal fluid associated with pigmentary changes was noted in the center of both maculae. OCT and ICG findings were consistent with the diagnosis of bilateral CSCR. CSCR can manifest in patients with demographics outside the range of those previously reported. This is the first report of CSCR occurring in a teenage girl, with a history of systemic arterial hypertension. It is important to consider this disease in any patient who has a clinically compatible presentation.

  17. Diagnosed a Patient with Central Serous Chorioretinopathy? Now What?: Management of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Goldhagen, Brian E; Goldhardt, Raquel

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the management options for central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). The majority of cases of acute CSCR may be managed with observation and cessation of corticosteroids, if possible, as well as life-style modifications including stress reduction and control of hypertension. The management of chronic disease is more challenging and may include either medication or laser-based treatment. Management of CSCR necessitates an individualized and selective treatment approach. There is overall poor evidence for the use of systemic and intravitreal medications. From this class of treatments, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists appear to have the greatest potential. Although conventional thermal photocoagulation may be used in select cases, the most promising treatment options at this time for chronic CSCR are photodynamic therapy, either half-dose or half-fluence, and non-damaging (subthreshold) retinal laser therapy.

  18. Bilateral exudative retinal detachment associated with central serous chorioretinopathy in a patient treated with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Rueda, T; Sánchez-Vicente, J L; Llerena-Manzorro, L; Medina-Tapia, A; González-García, L; Alfaro-Juárez, A; Vital-Berral, C; López-Herrero, F; Muñoz-Morales, A; Ortega, L S; Herrador-Montiel, Á

    2017-10-01

    The case is presented on a 54-year-old woman with a central serous chorioretinopathy, misdiagnosed as Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, and treated with systemic corticosteroids. The patient presented with a bilateral bullous exudative retinal detachment. Discontinuation of corticosteroid therapy, surgical drainage of subretinal fluid, and photodynamic therapy, led to anatomical and functional improvement. The recognition of an atypical presentation of central serous chorioretinopathy may avoid complications of the inappropriate treatment with corticosteroids. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. THE EFFECT OF PHOTOPIGMENT BLEACHING ON FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE IN ACUTE CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kwang-Eon; Yun, Cheolmin; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Seong-Woo; Oh, Jaeryung; Huh, Kuhl

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of photobleaching on fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images in acute central serous chorioretinopathy. We obtained prephotobleaching and postphotobleaching images using an Optomap 200Tx, and photobleaching was induced with a Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2. Degrees of photobleaching were assessed as grayscale values in Optomap images. Concordances among the three kinds of images were analyzed. Hyper-AF lesions in prephotobleaching images were classified as Type 1 (changed to normal-AF after photobleaching) and Type 2 (unchanged after photobleaching). The FAF composite patterns of central serous chorioretinopathy lesions were classified as diffuse or mottled. Initial and final best-corrected visual acuity, central retinal thickness, and disease duration were compared according to fovea FAF type. Forty-one eyes of 41 patients were analyzed. The lesion brightness of postphotobleaching Optomap FAF showed greater concordance with Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2 FAF (94.74%) than the prephotobleaching Optomap FAF (80.49%). Eyes with Type 1 fovea had greater initial and final best-corrected visual acuity (20/23 vs. 20/41, 20/21 vs. 20/32, P < 0.0001, P = 0.001, respectively) and shorter disease duration (19.68 ± 12.98 vs. 51.55 ± 44.98 days, P = 0.043) than those with Type 2 fovea. However, eyes with diffuse Type 2 fovea had only lower initial and final best-corrected visual acuity (20/23 vs. 20/45, 20/21 vs. 20/36, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively) than those with Type 1 fovea. Understanding the photobleaching effect is necessary for the accurate interpretation of FAF images. Furthermore, comparing prephotobleaching and postphotobleaching FAF images may be helpful for estimation of lesion status in central serous chorioretinopathy.

  20. Central Serous Retinopathy Treatment

    MedlinePlus

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  1. Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy in a Patient with Pigment Dispersion Syndrome: A Possible Correlation.

    PubMed

    Kourkoutas, Dimitrios; Tsakonas, George; Karamaounas, Aristotelis; Karamaounas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a progressive chorioretinopathy with widespread atrophic RPE abnormalities and serous retinal detachments (SRDs) present for 6 months or longer. We report a case of CSCR in a 38-year-old patient with Pigment Dispersion Syndrome (PDS). In the presented case of CSCR, the chronic course of the disease may in part be associated with an underlying generalized degenerative dysfunction of the pigmented cells of the eye on grounds of PDS. We suggest that a chronic course of disease may be suspected in the setting of CSCR with concurrent RPE pathology, such as what is found in PDS.

  2. 75 FR 4623 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... reasons, including amblyopia, optic nerve hyperplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, macular hole, central serous retinopathy, prosthesis, macular degeneration, cataract, extropia, diabetic retinopathy, aphakia...

  3. CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN RECEIVING EXOGENOUS TESTOSTERONE.

    PubMed

    Conway, Mandi D; Noble, Jason A; Peyman, Gholam A

    2017-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) is a serous detachment of the neurosensory retina commonly associated with male sex, Type-A personality and corticosteroid use. Exogenous administration of androgens and development of CSR in men has been reported. Only one case of CSR in a postmenopausal woman receiving exogenous androgen therapy has been reported. The authors describe three cases of chronic CSR in postmenopausal women receiving exogenous testosterone therapy. Diagnosis was based on characteristic clinical, fluorescein angiographic, and optical coherence tomography findings. The three women were being treated with exogenous testosterone and progesterone therapy for symptoms of menopause and libido loss. Average age at presentation was 54.7 years (53-56 years), average duration of exogenous androgen use was 61 months (36-87 months), with average 19.7-month follow-up. Resolution of symptoms seemed correlated with cessation of androgen use despite treatment with oscillatory photodynamic therapy and intravitreal pharmacotherapy with antivascular endothelial growth factor agents. Exogenous testosterone is increasingly prescribed for menopausal symptoms and libido loss. Treatment with oscillatory photodynamic therapy, supplemental bevacizumab intravitreal pharmacotherapy, and cessation of exogenous androgen therapy was successful in three cases of chronic, therapy-resistant CSR. Ophthalmologists should inquire about androgen usage in patients who present with CSR, especially in the setting of therapy resistance.

  4. Optical quality in central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyungmin; Sohn, Joonhong; Choi, Jong Gil; Chung, Sung Kun

    2014-12-02

    To assess optical quality and intraocular scattering using the Optical Quality Analysis System (OQAS) in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and to determine the effects of retinal changes on optical quality. This was a prospective, case-control study. Participants were 29 patients with diagnosis of CSC. The control group consisted of the patients' unaffected eyes. Initial logMAR visual acuity, central macular thickness (by spectral domain optical coherence tomography), and optical quality parameters including modulation transfer function (MTF) cutoff frequency, Strehl (2-dimensional) ratio, and OQAS values at 100%, 20%, and 9% contrast levels were investigated. Objective scattering index (OSI) at 4.0-mm pupil size was assessed in both eyes by using the OQAS. After 3 months of treatment, which included observation and focal laser or injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor, every CSC-affected eye was followed. Main outcome measures were differences between clinical parameters of the CSC-affected eye and those of the control eye and changes in those parameters according to the clinical course of CSC over 3 months. In CSC-affected eyes, the MTF cutoff was significantly reduced (P = 0.01), and OSI was significantly increased (P = 0.03). As macular thickness decreased, OSI decreased but did not become normalized compared to the control eye, nor was it statistically significantly correlated with central macular thickness change. Retinal change affected optical quality and intraocular scatter. Therefore, when the severity of a cataract is assessed using the OQAS, retinal status should be considered when interpreting OQAS values. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  5. A nationwide study of ovarian serous borderline tumors in Denmark 1978-2002. Risk of recurrence, and development of ovarian serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Vang, Russell; Junge, Jette; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kurman, Robert J; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2017-01-01

    Absolute risk and risk factors for recurrence and ovarian serous carcinoma following ovarian serous borderline tumors (SBTs) is not well-established. We included all women with SBTs in Denmark, 1978-2002. Diagnoses were confirmed by centralized pathology review and classified as atypical proliferative serous tumor (APST) or noninvasive low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC). Implants were classified as noninvasive or invasive. Medical records were collected and reviewed, and follow-up was obtained. Subsequent diagnoses were also confirmed by centralized pathology review. We examined absolute risk and risk factors for recurrent APST and serous carcinoma using Cox regression. The absolute serous carcinoma risk after, respectively, 5 and 20years was 5.0% and 13.9% for noninvasive LGSC, and 0.9% and 3.7% for APST. Serous carcinoma risk was significantly higher following noninvasive LGSC compared with APST among stage I patients/patients without implants (HR=5.3; 95% CI: 1.7-16.3), whereas no significant association with tumor type was found in advanced stage patients/patients with implants. Advanced stage - notably invasive implants - bilaterality, surface involvement, and residual disease increased serous carcinoma risk. However, women with stage I APST also had a higher risk than the general population. This largest population-based cohort of verified SBTs revealed that women with noninvasive LGSC are significantly more likely to develop serous carcinoma than women with APST, which could not entirely be explained by invasive implants. Although invasive implants was a strong risk factor for serous carcinoma, even women with stage I APST were at increased risk compared with the general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the Precision of the Microperimetry Function of the Spectral OCT/SLO

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-03

    Age-Related Macular Degeneration; Geographic Atrophy; Diabetic Retinopathy; Macular Edema; Retinal Vein Occlusion; Central Serous Retinopathy; Pattern Dystrophy of Macula; Epiretinal Membrane; Macular Hole

  7. Short-term efficacy of intravitreal dobesilate in central serous chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the anatomic and functional outcome of intravitreal dobesilate to treat recurrent central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods This is an interventional case report in which dobesilate was intravitreally injected in a case of recurrent CSC. Main measures included fundoscopy, Snellen visual acuity (VA) testing, fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Results We present anatomical and functional evidences, obtained as early as eleven days after the treatment, of the efficacy of intravitreal dobesilate, in the treatment of chronic CSC condition. The effect after intravitreal dobesilate injection for CSC might be related to the normalization of retinal architecture. Conclusions Intravitreal dobesilate may be an effective treatment option for recurrent CSC. PMID:22788836

  8. In patients suffering from idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy, anxiety scores are higher than in healthy controls, but do not vary according to sex or repeated central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Bazzazi, Nooshin; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Siamak; Seif Rabiei, Mohammad Ali; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a relatively common ophthalmic disorder characterized by the development of a serous detachment of the sensory retina. Psychophysiological factors may trigger or maintain CSCR, though, surprisingly, the association between CSCR and anxiety has yet to be studied. The aims of the present study were threefold: to determine whether 1) Iranian patients with CSCR have higher scores for anxiety, 2) anxiety is lower, if CSCR has been experienced twice, and whether 3) anxiety scores differ between sexes. A total of 30 patients with CSCR and 30 healthy age-and sex-matched controls took part in the study. A brief face-to-face interview was conducted covering demographic variables and history and occurrence of CSCR and assessing anxiety. Compared to healthy controls, anxiety was significantly higher in both first-time and second-time CSCR patients. In CSCR patients, anxiety scores did not differ between sexes. Higher anxiety scores were observed in Iranian patients with CSCR, irrespective of whether this was the first or second occurrence of CSCR. This suggests there is no psychological adaptation in terms of reduced anxiety among patients with repeated CSCR.

  9. In patients suffering from idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy, anxiety scores are higher than in healthy controls, but do not vary according to sex or repeated central serous chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bazzazi, Nooshin; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Siamak; Seif Rabiei, Mohammad Ali; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a relatively common ophthalmic disorder characterized by the development of a serous detachment of the sensory retina. Psychophysiological factors may trigger or maintain CSCR, though, surprisingly, the association between CSCR and anxiety has yet to be studied. The aims of the present study were threefold: to determine whether 1) Iranian patients with CSCR have higher scores for anxiety, 2) anxiety is lower, if CSCR has been experienced twice, and whether 3) anxiety scores differ between sexes. Methods A total of 30 patients with CSCR and 30 healthy age-and sex-matched controls took part in the study. A brief face-to-face interview was conducted covering demographic variables and history and occurrence of CSCR and assessing anxiety. Results Compared to healthy controls, anxiety was significantly higher in both first-time and second-time CSCR patients. In CSCR patients, anxiety scores did not differ between sexes. Conclusion Higher anxiety scores were observed in Iranian patients with CSCR, irrespective of whether this was the first or second occurrence of CSCR. This suggests there is no psychological adaptation in terms of reduced anxiety among patients with repeated CSCR. PMID:25995637

  10. Choroidal hemodynamic changes during isometric exercise in patients with inactive central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Tittl, Michael; Maar, Noemi; Polska, Elzbieta; Weigert, Günther; Stur, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2005-12-01

    Imaging studies suggest that the choroidal vasculature may be altered in central serous chorioretinopathy. Little is known, however, about the regulation of ocular blood flow in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The hypothesis for the present study was that choroidal blood flow changes during an increase in ocular perfusion pressure induced by isometric exercise may be altered in CSC. An observer-masked, two-cohort study was performed in 14 nonsmoking patients with chronic-relapsing but inactive CSC and in 14 healthy nonsmoking volunteers. Both groups were matched for age and sex. Subfoveal choroidal blood flow (CBF) was assessed with laser Doppler flowmetry, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) was calculated from mean arterial pressure (MAP) and intraocular pressure (IOP). Changes of CBF during isometric exercise over a period of 6 minutes were measured. Whereas the increase of MAP, the pulse rate, and the OPP were comparable between the two study groups, subfoveal CBF increased significantly more in the group of patients with CSC (P < 0.001). IOP remained unchanged in both groups during isometric exercise. At an 85% increase in OPP, subfoveal CBF was approximately twice as high in the patients with CSC compared with the healthy control group. The data indicate an abnormal subfoveal CBF regulation in patients with relapsing CSC compared with age-matched, nonsmoking, healthy volunteers during isometric exercise.

  11. Can long-term corticosteriods lead to blindness? A case series of central serous chorioretinopathy induced by corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Loo, Jing-Liang; Lee, Shu-Yen; Ang, Chong-Lye

    2006-07-01

    Long-term, high-dose corticosteroid therapy is well-known to cause systemic and ocular complications. A lesser known complication is chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Although idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is known to be mild with spontaneous recovery and minimal effects on the final visual acuity, chronic CSCR as a complication of long- term steroid therapy behaves differently, and may cause irreversible visual impairment. Three cases of chronic, recurrent CSCR were precipitated by longterm corticosteroids prescribed for post-renal transplant immunosuppressive therapy, postpituitary surgery and pemphigus vulgaris. Two cases resolved with tapering of corticosteroids while one case was treated by focal laser photocoagulation. Two eyes had severe impairment of vision as a result of subretinal scar formation while the other 4 eyes had mild reduction of visual acuity from retinal epithelium pigment atrophy. Long-term corticosteroid therapy can be complicated by severe, chronic and recurrent CSCR and occasionally peripheral exudative retinal detachment. This may result in subretinal fibrosis and permanent loss of vision.

  12. Central serous chorioretinopathy treatment with spironolactone: a challenge-rechallenge case.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Edwin H; Pulido, Christine M

    2015-01-01

    To present a case of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) treatment with spironolactone in a challenge-rechallenge pattern. At presentation, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and enhanced depth imaging ocular coherence tomography were performed in both eyes. The patient was prescribed 25 mg spironolactone daily along with serum potassium monitoring. At follow-ups, spectral domain optical coherence tomography and enhanced depth imaging ocular coherence tomography were performed. A 37-year-old white male accountant presenting with CSC. Spironolactone treatment resolved the CSC. After the patient discontinued treatment, it returned. After returning to daily treatment, the CSC again resolved. Spironolactone was an effective treatment of CSC in this case. Other groups have reported similar findings with eplerenone, a similar drug.

  13. Imaging Polarimetry in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    MIURA, MASAHIRO; ELSNER, ANN E.; WEBER, ANKE; CHENEY, MICHAEL C.; OSAKO, MASAHIRO; USUI, MASAHIKO; IWASAKI, TAKUYA

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate a noninvasive technique to detect the leakage point of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR), using a polarimetry method. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. METHODS SETTING Institutional practice. PATIENTS We examined 30 eyes of 30 patients with CSR. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Polarimetry images were recorded using the GDx-N (Laser Diagnostic Technologies). We computed four images that differed in their polarization content: a depolarized light image, an average reflectance image, a parallel polarized light image, and a birefringence image. Each polarimetry image was compared with abnormalities seen on fluorescein angiography. RESULTS In all eyes, leakage area could be clearly visualized as a bright area in the depolarized light images. Michelson contrasts for the leakage areas were 0.58 ± 0.28 in the depolarized light images, 0.17 ± 0.11 in the average reflectance images, 0.09 ± 0.09 in the parallel polarized light images, and 0.11 ± 0.21 in the birefringence images from the same raw data. Michelson contrasts in depolarized light images were significantly higher than for the other three images (P < .0001, for all tests, paired t test). The fluid accumulated in the retina was well-visualized in the average and parallel polarized light images. CONCLUSIONS Polarization-sensitive imaging could readily localize the leakage point and area of fluid in CSR. This may assist with the rapid, noninvasive assessment of CSR. PMID:16376644

  14. Diabetic retinopathy in a remote Indigenous primary healthcare population: a Central Australian diabetic retinopathy screening study in the Telehealth Eye and Associated Medical Services Network project.

    PubMed

    Brazionis, L; Jenkins, A; Keech, A; Ryan, C; Brown, A; Boffa, J; Bursell, S

    2018-05-01

    To determine diabetic retinopathy prevalence and severity among remote Indigenous Australians. A cross-sectional diabetic retinopathy screening study of Indigenous adults with Type 2 diabetes was conducted by locally trained non-ophthalmic retinal imagers in a remote Aboriginal community-controlled primary healthcare clinic in Central Australia and certified non-ophthalmic graders in a retinal grading centre in Melbourne, Australia. The main outcome measure was prevalence of any diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Among 301 participants (33% male), gradable image rates were 78.7% (n = 237) for diabetic retinopathy and 83.1% (n = 250) for diabetic macular oedema, and 77.7% (n = 234) were gradable for both diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema. For the gradable subset, the median (range) age was 48 (19-86) years and known diabetes duration 9.0 (0-24) years. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 47% (n = 110) and for diabetic macular oedema it was 14.4% (n = 36). In the fully gradable imaging studies, sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy prevalence was 16.2% (n = 38): 14.1% (n = 33) for clinically significant macular oedema, 1.3% (n = 3) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 0.9% (n = 2) for both. Sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy had been treated in 78% of detected cases. A novel telemedicine diabetic retinopathy screening service detected a higher prevalence of 'any' diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in a remote primary care setting than reported in earlier surveys among Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Whether the observed high prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was attributable to greater detection, increasing diabetic retinopathy prevalence, local factors, or a combination of these requires further investigation and, potentially, specific primary care guidelines for diabetic retinopathy management in remote Australia. Clinical Trials registration number: Australia and

  15. Effect of photodynamic therapy on short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence in eyes with acute central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Stefan; Ansari-Shahrezaei, Siamak; Smretschnig, Eva; Glittenberg, Carl; Krebs, Ilse; Steiner, Irene; Binder, Susanne

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate short-wavelength FAF as a parameter of retinal pigment epithelium function in eyes with acute symptomatic central serous chorioretinopathy after indocyanine green angiography-guided verteporfin photodynamic therapy with half-fluence rate. A retrospective review over a period of 1 year of short-wavelength FAF images of 15 consecutive patients treated with half-fluence rate (25 J/cm) indocyanine green angiography-guided verteporfin photodynamic therapy due to acute symptomatic central serous chorioretinopathy was performed. Short-wavelength (488 nm) FAF gray values were evaluated with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope at a 350-μm diameter and a 1,200-μm diameter circle centered on the fovea. The change in short-wavelength (488 nm) FAF gray values for the 2 circles was evaluated by calculating the differences of respective values between the first month after treatment and the 3, 6, 9, and 12 months follow-up. Mean differences (95% confidence interval) in short-wavelength (488 nm) FAF gray values of the 350-μm and 1,200-μm diameter circle between the 1-month and the 3-month (n = 15) follow-up were -0.03 (-0.11 to 0.05) (P = 0.46) and -0.03 (-0.17 to 0.10) (P = 0.6). Respective differences between the 1 month and the 6 (n = 15), 9 (n = 14), and 12 months (n = 13) of follow-up were -0.03 (-0.11 to 0.05) (P = 0.42) and -0.04 (-0.16 to 0.08) (P = 0.5); -0.05 (-0.12 to 0.03) (P = 0.23) and -0.06 (-0.18 to 0.07) (P = 0.33); -0.03 (-0.12 to 0.07) (P = 0.57) and -0.07 (-0.20 to 0.05) (P = 0.22). Half-fluence rate (25 J/cm) indocyanine green angiography-guided verteporfin photodynamic therapy did not significantly affect short-wavelength FAF at a 350-μm diameter and a 1,200-μm diameter circle in eyes with resolved acute symptomatic central serous chorioretinopathy throughout 12 months of follow-up.

  16. Cushing disease revealed by bilateral atypical central serous chorioretinopathy: case report.

    PubMed

    Giovansili, Iama; Belange, Georeges; Affortit, Aude

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with Cushing disease revealed by bilateral central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). We present the clinical history, physical findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies of a 53-year-old Chinese woman with a Cushing disease revealed by bilateral CSCR. The association with CSCR and the pertinent literature are reviewed. A 53-year-old patient initially presented to the Department of Ophthalmology with a 4-week history of decreased vision in the left eye. Standard ophthalmologic examination and fluorescein angiography established the diagnosis of bilateral CSCR. Systemic clinical signs and biochemical analysis indicated hypercortisolism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland showed a left-side lesion compatible with a microadenoma. The diagnosis of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing syndrome secondary to a pituitary microadenoma was selected. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery was performed and the pituitary adenoma was successfully removed. The histology confirmed the presence of ACTH-immunopositive pituitary adenoma. Early postoperative morning cortisol levels indicated early remission. At 6 weeks postoperatively, the patient's morning cortisol remains undetectable, and serous retinal detachments had regressed. CSCR is an uncommon manifestation of endogenous Cushing syndrome. It can be the first presentation of hypercortisolism caused by Cushing disease. CSCR should be considered when assessing patients with Cushing syndrome complaining of visual disorders. On the other hand, it is useful in patients with an atypical form of CSCR to exclude Cushing's syndrome.

  17. Association of Helicobacter pylori with central serous chorioretinopathy: hypotheses regarding pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Cristiano

    2004-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a serous macular detachment that usually affects young people and leads fortunately to a spontaneous resolution and a good visual prognosis in most patients. Nevertheless, although in a small percentage of subjects only, it may also develop a chronic or progressive disease with widespread decompensation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and severe vision loss. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is still not completely understood and no effective treatment is available at this time. However, an interesting association has been recently highlighted between CSC and the Helicobacter pylori infection. In particular, in a first case report recurrences of the disease were always associated with HP-positivity whereas improvements of both retinal findings and visual acuity were significantly correlated with a successful eradication of the bacterium using the conventional antimicrobial triple-therapy. In a second study, the prevalence of HP infection was found to be significantly higher in CSC-affected subjects compared to age- and sex-matched controls from the same country. Much speculation surrounds the role potentially played by HP in determining CSC. In particular, CSC seems not to be more a merely RPE disease but the final result of a general involvement of the choroidal microcirculation. In fact, several vascular abnormalities, such as localized vasoconstriction and impaired fibrinolysis, have been demonstrated during CSC whose "end-points" might be a focal occlusion of the choriocapillaries with decreased foveal choroidal blood flow, secondary RPE defects and serous macular detachment. Moreover, a HP-dependent immune mechanism, based on a "molecular mimicry" between pathogenic antigens expressed on the bacterium and homologous host proteins (e.g., those of the endothelial vascular wall), might also be involved in the pathophysiology of CSC. In this case, a genetically determined susceptibility of the subject could be

  18. Fundus autofluorescence imaging patterns in central serous chorioretinopathy according to chronicity.

    PubMed

    Lee, W J; Lee, J-H; Lee, B R

    2016-10-01

    PurposeTo investigate the time-period characteristics associated with morphologic changes in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) using fundus autofluorescence (FAF).Patients and methodsRetrospective, cross-sectional observational case series. Patients were classified into three groups: acute and chronic according to the onset of subjective symptoms of 6 weeks and sequelae patients who have history and symptoms but no serous retinal detachment (SRD). We compared FAF images to obtain characteristic findings according to the chronicity.ResultsA total of 52 eyes were included in this study. Acute CSC eyes were characterized by decreased FAF intensity at the leakage point in 13/22 eyes (56.5%) and staining patterns with various levels of fluorescence signal (hyperautofluorescent (10 eyes, 43.5%), hypoautofluorescent (1 eye, 4.3%), and minimal changes (12 eyes, 52.2%)) in the area of SRD. In chronic CSC eyes, hyperautofluorescent (14 eyes, 63.6%) or minimal changes (8 eyes, 36.4%) were observed in the area of SRD. Discrete dots with increased FAF intensity were observed in chronic CSC eyes (P<0.001). Eyes with sequelae of CSC had mixed FAF patterns over areas of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy in seven eyes (100%, P<0.001)) and descending tracts which showed various FAF intensities according to the RPE and photoreceptor status (P<0.001).ConclusionFAF imaging patterns in CSC eyes differ according to the course of the disease, reflecting RPE and outer retinal changes. Detailed investigation using FAF could help to estimate the duration of CSC and determine the proper treatment modality.

  19. Central macular thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without clinical retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Demir, Mehmet; Oba, Ersin; Dirim, Burcu; Ozdal, Erhan; Can, Efe

    2013-04-09

    An increase in macular thickness due to fluid accumulation in the macula in patients with diabetes mellitus. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been shown to be highly reproducible in measuring macular thickness in normal individuals and diabetic patients. OCT can detect subtle changes of macular thickness. The aim of this study is to compare central macular thickness (CMT) of diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes without clinical retinopathy and normal controls, in order to assess possible increased macular thickness associated with diabetes mellitus. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements were performed in 124 eyes of 62 subjects with diabetes mellitus without clinically retinopathy (study group: 39 female, 23 male, mean age: 55.06 ± 9.77 years) and in 120 eyes of 60 healthy subjects (control group: 35 female, 25 male, mean age: 55.78 ± 10.34 years). Blood biochemistry parameters were analyzed in all cases. The data for central macular thickness (at 1 mm) and the levels of the fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were compared in both groups. The mean central macular thickness was 232.12 ±24.41 μm in the study group and 227.19 ± 29.94 μm in the control group.The mean HbA1c level was 8.92 ± 2.58% in the study group and 5.07 ± 0.70% in the control group (p=0.001). No statistically significant relationship was found between CMT, HbA1c, and fasting plasma glucose level in either group (p=0.05). Central macular thickness was not significantly thicker in patients with type 2 diabetes without clinical retinopathy than in healthy subjects.

  20. Serum erythropoietin levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Burak; Ilhan, Nevin; Uyar, Fatma Yayla; Celiker, Ulku; Demir, Tamer; Koca, Suleyman Serdar

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in the serum in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). An institutional comperative clinical study. The serum EPO levels were measured with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, of 15 patients with active CSC (Group 1), 15 patients with inactive CSC (Group 2) and 15 healthy volunteers (Group 3). Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. The patient and control groups were matched for age and sex. There was no statistically significant variation with regard to age and gender among the groups ( P > 0.05). The mean serum EPO concentrations in patients with active CSC (Group 1), inactive CSC (Group 2) and in healthy controls (Group 3) were 11.39 ± 3.01 mlU/mL, 11.79 ± 3.78 mlU/mL and 11.95 ± 3.27 mlU/mL, respectively. There was no significant variation among the serum EPO concentrations of the study groups ( P > 0.05). These findings suggest no role of serum EPO in pathogenesis of CSC.

  1. Vision-related quality of life in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Şahin, Alparslan; Bez, Yasin; Yüksel, Harun; Cinar, Yasin; Kürşat Cingü, Abdullah; Çaça, İhsan

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate vision-related quality of life in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Prospective, cross-sectional study. The interviewer-administered National Eye Institute visual function questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) was used in 30 adult consecutive patients with chronic CSCR patients. The controls were 30 gender- and age-matched people with normal visual function who came from the same socioeconomic and educational background as the participants. Patients with CSCR had statistically significant lower scores than controls for all the subscales, except for general health. In the study group, all subscale scores of vision-related quality of life, except general health, showed statistically significant negative correlations with the visual acuity. People with CSCR have worse vision-related quality of life than people without the condition.

  2. A Brief Guide to Color Vision Testing for Ophthalmology Residents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    degeneration (ARMD), diabetic retinopathy, central serous retinopathy, cystoid macular edema (CME), and chloroquine toxicity. Uptic nerve problems may be due to...blue caps if the macula is normal. Pseudo-Isochromtic Plates Test If the visual acuity is 20/200 or better, the patient should have no trouble

  3. Correlation between fundus autofluorescence and central visual function in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Eandi, Chiara M; Piccolino, Felice Cardillo; Alovisi, Camilla; Tridico, Federico; Giacomello, Daniela; Grignolo, Federico M

    2015-04-01

    To find possible correlations between the morphologic macular changes revealed by fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and the functional parameters such as visual acuity and retinal sensitivity in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Prospective, cross-sectional study. Forty-six eyes (39 consecutive patients) with chronic CSC were studied with FAF and microperimetry (MP). Retinal sensitivity value maps were exactly superimposed over FAF images. The following microperimetric parameters were applied: central 10-degree visual field, 4-2-1 strategy, 61 stimulation spots, white monochromatic background, stimulation time 200 ms, stimulation spot size Goldmann III. A possible relationship between MP and FAF was investigated. Mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/32 (median 20/25, range 20/20-20/200). BCVA was significantly correlated with FAF findings (Mann-Whitney test; P < .0001). A positive concordance between FAF and MP evaluation was also found (total concordance of 0.720 with a kappa of Cohen of 0.456). The hypo-autofluorescent areas showed decreased retinal sensitivity, while adjacent areas of increased FAF could be associated to both normal and decreased retinal sensitivity. Absolute scotoma, defined as 0 dB retinal sensitivity, corresponded with absence of autofluorescence. Altered FAF in chronic CSC patients has a functional correlation quantified by microperimetry. This study confirms the impact of FAF changes on retinal sensitivity and their value to reflect the functional impairment in chronic CSC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum erythropoietin levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Burak; Ilhan, Nevin; Uyar, Fatma Yayla; Celiker, Ulku; Demir, Tamer; Koca, Suleyman Serdar

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in the serum in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods An institutional comperative clinical study. The serum EPO levels were measured with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, of 15 patients with active CSC (Group 1), 15 patients with inactive CSC (Group 2) and 15 healthy volunteers (Group 3). Kruskal–Wallis variance analysis and Mann–Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Results The patient and control groups were matched for age and sex. There was no statistically significant variation with regard to age and gender among the groups (P > 0.05). The mean serum EPO concentrations in patients with active CSC (Group 1), inactive CSC (Group 2) and in healthy controls (Group 3) were 11.39 ± 3.01 mlU/mL, 11.79 ± 3.78 mlU/mL and 11.95 ± 3.27 mlU/mL, respectively. There was no significant variation among the serum EPO concentrations of the study groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest no role of serum EPO in pathogenesis of CSC. PMID:28539767

  5. PRESENTATION OF CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY IN TWO HUSBAND AND WIFE COUPLES.

    PubMed

    Kanesa-Thasan, Aditya; Fawzi, Amani A; Gill, Manjot K

    2018-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a disease in which serous detachment of the neurosensory retina occurs over an area of leakage from the choriocapillaris through the retinal pigment epithelium. Associations have been drawn between high-stress personality types and steroid exposure. This article aims to describe a unique case series of two husband and wife couples with CSC. All methods were approved by the authors' institution's institutional review board. History, physical examination, and imaging data were obtained from the electronic medical records of the patients in question and from the providers who cared for these patients. Couple 1: A 35-year-old man presented with "dark spots" in his right eye. He reported no recent steroid use. Visual acuity at presentation was 20/30 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. On fundus examination, there was subretinal fluid in the right eye. His wife presented on the same day with a "wavy section" in the right eye for 6 weeks. She also had no recent steroid use. Visual acuity at presentation was 20/20 in both eyes with blunting of the foveal reflex in the right eye. Optical coherence tomography showed a thick choroid with a pigment epithelial detachment in the right eye. Couple 2: A 34-year-old man presented with "blurry vision" in his right eye for one month. He was taking oral and nasal steroids for chronic sinusitis. Visual acuity was 20/30 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green confirmed the diagnosis of CSC. After 3 months of persistent subretinal fluid, he received photodynamic therapy in the right eye. Three days after his photodynamic therapy, his 38-year-old wife presented with subjective blurring in both eyes. Visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes, but optical coherence tomography showed thick choroid in both eyes, a large central pigment epithelial detachment in the right eye, and 3 small pigment epithelial detachments in the left eye. She had no

  6. Finasteride is effective for the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Moisseiev, E; Holmes, A J; Moshiri, A; Morse, L S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of finasteride treatment in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods Retrospective review of 29 eyes of 23 patients who were treated with finasteride for CSC. Previous medical and ocular history, steroid use, length of finasteride treatment, additional treatments for CSC, visual acuity (VA), central macular thickness (CMT), and presence of subretinal fluid (SRF) throughout the follow-up period, and the occurrence of any complications were recorded. Results Initial VA was 0.29±0.31 logMAR, and a trend towards improved VA was noted after 3 months (0.25±0.36 logMAR; P=0.07). VA was significantly improved at the final follow-up (0.23±0.27 logMAR; P=0.024). Initial CMT was 354±160 μm, and was significantly reduced after 1 month of treatment (284±77 μm; P=0.002) and this was maintained to the end of follow-up (247±85 μm; P=0.001). A significant reduction in SRF presence was found at all time points, with an overall 75.9% rate of complete resolution. Following discontinuation, SRF recurrence was noted in 37.5% of cases. No adverse events were recorded. Conclusions Finasteride is a safe and effective treatment for CSC. It may be a possible new option for the initial management of patient with CSC, and a suggested treatment approach is presented. PMID:27055675

  7. Smokestack leak in central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Bujarborua, Dhiren; Nagpal, Pran N; Deka, Manab

    2010-03-01

    To study the demography, various morphological patterns and fluid dynamics of the smokestack leak by fluorescein angiography (FA) in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Part I (clinical): review of the medical records and angiographic documents of 69 consecutive cases of CSC with smokestack leak. Part II (experimental): documentation of the movement of various concentrations of fluorescein dye due to convection currents in a laboratory model that roughly represents a closed chamber similar to that of CSC in human eyes. The clinical study (Part I) revealed that 14.40% of 479 consecutive cases had smokestack leak, of which 70% occurred in first acute episode (p-value: <0.001), 27.14% in acute recurrent episodes (50% fresh leak) and 2.85% in chronic stage. Patients were predominantly male (84.05%) with a median age of 34.00 +/- 8.14 years. The median symptom duration excluding the chronic cases was 15 +/- 34.28 days. This type of leak was mostly (48.57%) seen in medium-sized CSC, and the majority were in the parafoveal superonasal quadrant (31.42%). The ascending type of leak was predominant (94.28%). In four eyes, an atypical pattern and in two eyes more than one smokestack leak were seen within the same detached area. The experimental study (Part II) demonstrated that fluid containing a low concentration of fluorescein ascended due to convection currents, whereas highly concentrated dye descended. The clinical study revealed smokestack leaks to be significantly more common in a primary acute episode, and they usually develop in the early part of the acute phase of the disease (average duration 15 +/- 34.28 days). Rarely, this type of leak can occur in the chronic stage, and multiple leaks may develop in the same detached space. The various patterns of dye movement due to convection currents in the experimental model resembled the dye movement in certain cases of CSC of the present series. The experimental study also hinted at the probability of drainage of

  8. Prognostic indicators in ovarian serous borderline tumours.

    PubMed

    Malpica, Anais; Longacre, Teri A

    2018-02-01

    There have been great strides in our understanding of the serous group of borderline and malignant pelvic epithelial neoplasms in the past decade. While most serous borderline tumours have a favourable prognosis, recurrences and progression to carcinoma occur, often following a protracted clinical course. Clinical and pathological risk factors tend to co-vary, but the presence and type of extraovarian disease is the most important predictor for progression. Progression usually takes the form of low-grade serous carcinoma, although transformation to high-grade carcinoma is occasionally seen. A serous borderline - low-grade serous carcinoma pathway analogous to neoplastic transformation pathways seen in other organ systems has been proposed, based on global gene expression profiling, shared mutations in KRAS or BRAF, and in most cases, the presence of serous borderline tumour in de novo low-grade serous carcinoma. This discussion focuses on the key prognostic factors that predispose to disease progression and/or transformation to carcinoma in serous borderline tumours. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. [Selective retina therapy in central serous chorioretinopathy with detachment of the pigmentary epithelium].

    PubMed

    Klatt, C; Elsner, H; Pörksen, E; Brinkmann, R; Bunse, A; Birngruber, R; Roider, J

    2006-10-01

    Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) is a new and innovative laser treatment modality that selectively treats the retinal pigmentary epithelium while sparing the photoreceptors. This therapeutic concept appears to be particularly suitable for treating patients with acute or chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). We present preliminary results obtained in five patients who had CSC associated with pigmentary epithelium detachment (PED) and serous subretinal fluid (SRF) and who were treated with SRT. This case series was made up of five male patients (mean age 47 years) with chronic CSC and SRF resulting from PED. Examinations performed before and at 1 month and 3 months after the treatment were: BCVA, FLA, OCT (Zeiss OCT III). For SRT, confluent treatment of the PED (area of leakage) was carried out using a pulsed frequency-doubled, Q-switched Nd-YLF prototype laser (lambda=527 nm, t= 1.7 s, 100 Hz, energy = 150-250 J). Best corrected visual acuity at baseline was 0.53, while after 4 weeks it was 0.56 and after 12 weeks, 0.5. At baseline leakage was seen at the PED on fluorescein angiography in all patients. After 4 weeks leakage activity was no longer noted on angiography in 4 of 5 patients. OCT at baseline showed SRF at the edge of the PED in all patients, but in 4 of the 5 patients this was no longer detectable after 4 weeks. SRT is a safe and effective treatment for patients with CSC in which PED has caused SRF. Not a single case of rip syndrome was observed in this study, even though the PED was treated confluently. Since SRT spares the photoreceptors it is particularly suitable for the treatment of CSC, especially when the origin of leakage is located close to the fovea. The results indicate that SRT leads to reconstruction of the outer blood-retina barrier.

  10. Purtscher-like retinopathy in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chan; Dai, Rongping; Dong, Fangtian; Wang, Qian

    2014-12-01

    To investigate clinical characteristics of Purtscher-like retinopathy and its clinical implications among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Observational case series. setting: Tertiary medical center. patient population: Patients with SLE who were diagnosed with Purtscher-like retinopathy between 2002 and 2013. observation procedures: Assessment and follow-up in the ophthalmology department. main outcome measure: Visual acuity and funduscopic examination at presentation and at 6 month follow-up, with analysis of the association between Purtscher-like retinopathy and other systemic involvement of SLE and overall disease activity. Among 5688 patients with SLE evaluated, 8 cases of Purtscher-like retinopathy were diagnosed. Typical fundus abnormalities included Purtscher flecken, cotton-wool spots, retinal hemorrhages, macular edema, optic disk swelling, and a pseudo-cherry red spot. Fluorescein angiography abnormalities included areas of capillary nonperfusion corresponding to the retinal whitening, late leakage, peripapillary staining, precapillary occlusion, and slower filling of vessels. The prevalence of central nervous system lupus was significantly higher among those with Purtscher-like retinopathy (6/8) than among 240 patients randomly sampled from those without Purtscher-like retinopathy. A very high SLE Disease Activity Index (≥20) was present in all 8 patients with Purtscher-like retinopathy. All patients received corticosteroids combined with immunosuppressants. For the majority of patients, optic atrophy developed during follow-up with persistent low visual acuity. As a rare and severe ophthalmic complication of SLE, Purtscher-like retinopathy was associated with central nervous system lupus and highly active disease. Visual acuity recovery was usually poor despite prompt treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-grade serous ovarian cancer: A review.

    PubMed

    Kaldawy, Anis; Segev, Yakir; Lavie, Ofer; Auslender, Ron; Sopik, Victoria; Narod, Steven A

    2016-11-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancers can be divided into the more common, aggressive type II cancers and the less common, slow-growing type I cancers. Under this model, serous ovarian carcinomas can be subdivided into high-grade (type II) and low-grade (type I) tumours. The two-tier system for grading serous ovarian carcinomas is superior to more detailed grading systems in terms of predicting survival. Low-grade serous carcinomas typically present in young women and have a relatively good prognosis, despite being resistant to chemotherapy. Low-grade serous cancers have a high prevalence of KRAS and BRAF mutations, but a low prevalence of TP53 mutations (which are characteristic of high-grade serous cancers). Among women with low-grade serous ovarian cancer, the presence of a KRAS/BRAF mutation is a favorable prognostic factor. Studies of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor in low-grade serous ovarian cancer suggest that identifying MAPK mutations might eventually be useful in guiding treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The relation of somatotypes and stress response to central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Roy; Rozenberg, Assaf; Loewenstein, Anat; Goldstein, Michaella

    2017-12-01

    To investigate a possible relationship between central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and specific body types and compositions (somatotypes), and to examine the cortisol stress response among CSC patients of different somatotypes in comparison with healthy subjects. Prospective case-control study. A group of 28 patients with a previous or current diagnosis of CSC was compared with a group of 26 healthy subjects. Anthropometric measurements were used to estimate somatotype ratings in all subjects. Serum cortisol was measured at rest and following a stress-inducing computerized test in order to estimate response to stress in both groups. The main outcome measures included somatotype categorization and the change in serum cortisol following stress in both groups. No significant difference in somatotype composition was found between the groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the elevation of cortisol following the stress-inducing test. The sample size was too small to exclude or find any significant difference between the different 13 subgroups of somatotype composition in the elevation of cortisol. Our study did not show a typical somatotype related to CSC. While previous studies showed higher cortisol values in CSC patients, we did not see a higher elevation in blood cortisol following a stress response in this group in comparison with healthy subjects.

  13. QT interval dispersion in the patients with central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Dagli, Necati; Turgut, Burak; Tanyildizi, Rumeysa; Kobat, Sabiha; Kobat, Mehmet Ali; Dogdu, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate QT dispersion (QTD) in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). This clinical, comperative, case-control study included 30 patients with CSC at acute phase (Group 1) and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (Group 2, the control group). From all subjects, a 12-lead surface electrocardiography was obtained. The heart rate (HR), QT maximum (QTmax), QT minimum (QTmin), QT corrected (QTc), QTD and Tmean were manually measured and analyzed. Student's t-test and Pearson's method of correlation were used for statistical analysis. The patient and control groups were matched for age, smoking status (rate and duration) and gender. There were no significant differences with regard to these among the groups (P>0.05). The participants included 19 men (63.3%) and 11 women (36.7%) in Group 1, 20 men (66.7%) and 10 women (33.3%) in Group 2. QTmax, QTD and QTc were significantly higher than those of healthy controls (P<0.001 for QTmax, P=0.01 for QTD and P=0.001 for QTc). QTmin, Tmean and HR did not differ significantly between the study groups (P=0.28 for QTmin, P=0.56 for Tmean and P>0.05 for HR). No significant correlation was found between duration of the disorder and QTD values (r=0.13, P>0.05). These findings suggest that CSC may be associated with an increase in QTD and that the patients might be at risk for ventricular arrhythmia.

  14. Topical fundus pulsation measurement in patients with active central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Tittl, Michael; Polska, Elzbieta; Kircher, Karl; Kruger, Andreas; Maar, Noemi; Stur, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2003-07-01

    To determine regional pulsatile choroidal blood flow using laser interferometry in patients with active central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study compared an equally sized age-, sex-, and refractive error-matched control group of healthy volunteers obtained from the Department of Clinical Pharmacology with 18 consecutive patients who had newly diagnosed active, unilateral CSC obtained from the University of Vienna Eye Clinic, Vienna, Austria. Regional fundus pulsation amplitude as assessed using laser interferometry. The median age of the patients was 40 years; the male-female ratio was 16:2. Foveal fundus pulsation amplitude was significantly higher in eyes with CSC (mean [SD], 5.5 [1.7] micro m) than in the eyes of the control subjects (4.1 [1.1] micro m; P =.005). In addition, eyes with CSC had a significantly higher variability in fundus pulsation amplitude (mean [SD], 48% [20%]) assessed at different fundus locations around the leak than the controls did (20% [9%]; P<.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study that measures topical fundus pulsations in patients who have active, unilateral CSC. These data indicate a generally increased foveal pulsatile choroidal blood flow and an abnormal distribution of fundus pulsation amplitude in the area close to the leak. Whether these findings reinforce the concept that choroidal perfusion abnormalities play a role in the pathogenesis of CSC remains to be established.

  15. QT interval dispersion in the patients with central serous chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dagli, Necati; Turgut, Burak; Tanyildizi, Rumeysa; Kobat, Sabiha; Kobat, Mehmet Ali; Dogdu, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate QT dispersion (QTD) in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS This clinical, comperative, case-control study included 30 patients with CSC at acute phase (Group 1) and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (Group 2, the control group). From all subjects, a 12-lead surface electrocardiography was obtained. The heart rate (HR), QT maximum (QTmax), QT minimum (QTmin), QT corrected (QTc), QTD and Tmean were manually measured and analyzed. Student's t-test and Pearson's method of correlation were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS The patient and control groups were matched for age, smoking status (rate and duration) and gender. There were no significant differences with regard to these among the groups (P>0.05). The participants included 19 men (63.3%) and 11 women (36.7%) in Group 1, 20 men (66.7%) and 10 women (33.3%) in Group 2. QTmax, QTD and QTc were significantly higher than those of healthy controls (P<0.001 for QTmax, P=0.01 for QTD and P=0.001 for QTc). QTmin, Tmean and HR did not differ significantly between the study groups (P=0.28 for QTmin, P=0.56 for Tmean and P>0.05 for HR). No significant correlation was found between duration of the disorder and QTD values (r=0.13, P>0.05). CONCLUSION These findings suggest that CSC may be associated with an increase in QTD and that the patients might be at risk for ventricular arrhythmia. PMID:25709909

  16. Characteristics of intraretinal deposits in acute central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Plateroti, Andrea M; Witmer, Matthew T; Kiss, Szilárd; D'Amico, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    To describe the temporal and spatial characteristics of intraretinal deposits in patients with acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients that presented with acute CSC to Weill Cornell Medical College from January 2012 to May 2013. Acute CSC was defined as a diagnosis of CSC within 4 months of the onset of symptoms. Only one eye per patient was included in the study. Each patient was imaged with spectral domain OCT at the initial office visit. The decision to reimage these patients was made by the treating physician. A total of 25 patients (25 eyes; 17 men and eight nonpregnant women) were included in this review. Seven of 25 patients (28%) demonstrated intraretinal deposits within the outer plexiform layer during the initial OCT, with deposits appearing as early as the same day as the onset of symptoms. A total of 25 of 25 patients (100%) demonstrated intraretinal deposits in the outer nuclear layer upon initial (76%) or follow-up OCT, as early as 2 days after the onset of symptoms. A total of 24 of 25 patients (96%) demonstrated deposits in the external limiting membrane upon a follow-up OCT, as early as 7 days from symptoms appearing. A total of 24 of 25 patients (96%) developed intraretinal deposits in the inner segment/outer segment layer upon follow-up OCT, appearing as early as 14 days after symptom onset. At the time of resolution of subretinal fluid, 20 of 25 patients (80%) demonstrated intraretinal deposits. Intraretinal deposits are present in the outer retinal layers in patients with acute CSC, with the deposits appearing progressively deeper within the retina as the condition evolves. Upon resolution of subretinal fluid, the deposits slowly resolve.

  17. Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein-IgG-positive Recurrent Bilateral Optic Papillitis with Serous Retinal Detachment: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kon, Tomoya; Hikichi, Hiroki; Ueno, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Chieko; Nunomura, Jinichi; Kaneko, Kimihiko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Ichiro; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2018-05-18

    Autoantibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) have been detected in inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system diseases. A 30-year-old woman had blurred vision, marked optic nerve disc swelling, serous retinal detachment at the macular on optic coherence tomography, and MOG-IgG seropositivity. The patient was thought to have optic papillitis associated with MOG-IgG. Her symptoms rapidly improved after high-dose methylprednisolone therapy. We hypothesize that serous retinal detachment was secondary, arising from optic papillitis. This is the first report of the concurrence of optic papillitis with MOG-IgG and serous retinal detachment. MOG-IgG should be tested in patients with marked optic disc swelling.

  18. Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma: a case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Pathiraja, P; Dhar, S; Haldar, K

    2013-01-01

    Minimal uterine serous cancer (MUSC) or serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) has been described by many different names since 1998. There have been very few cases reported in literature since EIC/MUSC was recognized as a separate entity. The World health Organization (WHO) Classification favors the term serous EIC. Although serous EIC is confined to the uterine endometrium at initial histology diagnosis, a significant number of patients could have distal metastasis at diagnosis, without symptoms. Serous EIC is considered as being the precursor of uterine serous cancer (USC), but pure serous EIC also has an aggressive behavior similar to USC. It is therefore prudent to have an accurate diagnosis and appropriate surgical staging. There are very few published articles in literature that discuss the pure form of serous EIC. The aim of this series is to share our experience and review evidence for optimum management of serous EIC. We report a series of five women treated in our institute in the last 3 years. We reviewed the relevant literature on serous EIC and various management strategies, to recommend best clinical practice. Pure serous EIC is a difficult histopathological diagnosis, which requires ancillary immunohistochemical staining. It can have an aggressive clinical behavior with early recurrence and poor survival. Optimum surgical staging, with appropriate adjuvant treatment, should be discussed when treating these patients.

  19. Interventions for central serous chorioretinopathy: a network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Mahsa; Wenick, Adam S; Law, Hua Andrew; Evans, Jennifer R; Gehlbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is characterized by serous detachment of the neural retina with dysfunction of the choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The effects on the retina are usually self limited, although some people are left with irreversible vision loss due to progressive and permanent photoreceptor damage or RPE atrophy. There have been a variety of interventions used in CSC, including, but not limited to, laser treatment, photodynamic therapy (PDT), and intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents. However, it is not known whether these or other treatments offer significant advantages over observation or other interventions. At present there is no evidence-based consensus on the management of CSC. Due in large part to the propensity for CSC to resolve spontaneously or to follow a waxing and waning course, the most common initial approach to treatment is observation. It remains unclear whether this is the best approach with regard to safety and efficacy. Objectives To compare the relative effectiveness of interventions for central serous chorioretinopathy. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to February 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 October 2015. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any intervention for CSC with any other intervention for CSC or control. Data collection and analysis Two

  20. Does a p53 "Wild-type" Immunophenotype Exclude a Diagnosis of Endometrial Serous Carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Roma, Andres A; Parkash, Vinita; Zheng, Wenxin; Walavalkar, Vighnesh

    2018-01-01

    combined with p53-wild-type immunophenotype, including analytic limitations, a nonserous histotype displaying morphologic mimicry of serous carcinoma, and true biological phenomena (including the possibility of a TP53-independent pathway of endometrial serous carcinogenesis). Ultimately, our central thematic question is provisionally answered in the negative. At present, the available data would not support a categorical conclusion that a p53 alteration is a necessary and obligate component in the genesis and/or diagnosis of endometrial serous carcinoma. On the basis of their collective experience, the authors proffer some recommendations on the use of p53 immunohistochemistry in the histotyping of endometrial carcinomas.

  1. Personal Visual Aids for Aircrew.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    oedema or areas of pigmentation or depigmentation, such as central serous retinopathy or focal choroiditis of differing aetiology. Heat induced lenticular ...Fig 11). a. Normal grid pattern b. Pincushion distortion c. Astigmatic distortion d. Para central scotoma Fig 11. Amsler grids illustrating visual...ML). Ophtalmologie. Maladie yeux. Astigmatisme . Corne. Prothbse. Pilotes. Vision. Lunettes. 46. A propos du vol et de la correction des presbytes

  2. Testing for NRAS Mutations in Serous Borderline Ovarian Tumors and Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Grzanka, Dariusz; Grabiec, Marek

    2018-01-01

    The Idylla NRAS Mutation Test, performed on the Biocartis Idylla system, is an in vitro diagnostic tool for the qualitative assessment of 18 NRAS mutations in codons 12, 13, 59, 61, 117, and 146. Low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSC) represents less than 10% of all serous ovarian carcinomas. LGSCs are believed to arise from preexisting cystadenomas or serous borderline tumors (SBOTs) that eventually progress to an invasive carcinoma. The molecular analysis of cancer-causing mutations and the development of targeted biological therapies constitute a milestone in the diagnosis and therapy of ovarian malignancies. According to some authors, NRAS may be an important oncogene for the progression of SBOT to a frankly invasive disease. The primary aim of this study was to verify if a fully integrated, real-time PCR-based Idylla system can be used for the rapid determination of the NRAS mutation status in patients with serous borderline ovarian tumors and low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. The study included tissue specimens from 12 patients with histopathologically verified ovarian masses, operated on at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz (Poland), between January 2009 and June 2012. The mean age of the study patients was 52.5 years (range 27–80 years). NRAS mutation in codon 13 (G13D, p.Gly13Asp; nucleotide: c.38G>A) was found in one patient, a woman with low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, our experiment was the first published study using the novel Idylla NRAS Mutation Test for the evaluation of ovarian tumors in a clinical setting. The Idylla platform is an interesting ancillary first-line rapid and fully automated instrument to detect NRAS mutations in SBOTs and LGSCs. However, the clinical usefulness of this method still needs to be verified in larger groups of cancer patients. PMID:29682098

  3. Color Doppler Imaging Analysis of Retrobulbar Blood Flow Velocities in Diabetic Patients Without or With Retinopathy: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Nana; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yue; Ma, Jinlan; Li, Hao; Qu, Yi

    2014-08-01

    To analyze hemodynamic changes in retrobulbar blood vessels using color Doppler imaging in diabetic patients without or with retinopathy. Pertinent publications were retrieved from 3 databases. Changes in peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistive index (RI) of the ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery, and short posterior ciliary artery of diabetic eyes without or with retinopathy and healthy controls were evaluated by color Doppler imaging. Comparisons were conducted in 3 groups: group 1, no retinopathy versus control; group 2, retinopathy versus control; and group 3, no retinopathy versus retinopathy. In group 1, eyes without retinopathy had a significant increase in ophthalmic artery PSV (P = .002), with no heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity = 0.09; inconsistency index [I(2)] = 46%); however, significant reductions in central renal artery PSV and EDV were shown (P = .002; P = .007, respectively), with significant heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity < .00001; I(2) = 85%; Pheterogeneity = .008, I(2) = 68%). A significant increase in ophthalmic artery RI (P = .02) was found in eyes without retinopathy, with heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity = .0009; I(2) = 74%). In group 2, central retinal artery PSV and EDV in eyes with retinopathy decreased significantly (P < 0.00001). Similar results were found for ophthalmic and short posterior ciliary artery EDVs (P= .0003; P< .00001). Ophthalmic artery RI was significantly higher in eyes with retinopathy than controls (P = .0008), with heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity < .00001; I(2) = 84%). In group 3, ophthalmic artery PSV was lower in eyes with retinopathy (P= .04) than eyes without, and central retinal artery PSV and EDV decreased significantly (P = .004; P < .00001) in eyes with retinopathy compared to eyes without. Differences in ophthalmic and central retinal artery RIs were also found in eyes with retinopathy (P = .05; P < .00001). Significant changes in retrobulbar blood flow were found in eyes

  4. Fundus autofluorescence findings in central serous chorioretinopathy using two different confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes: correlation with functional and structural status.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joo Youn; Choi, Hun Jin; Lee, Jonghyun; Choi, Moonjung; Chung, Byunghoon; Byeon, Suk Ho

    2016-08-01

    To compare autofluorescence (AF) findings using wide-field (Optomap) and conventional (HRA-AF) confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) systems in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), and to investigate the correlations between AF findings and functional and anatomical status. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and AF images were compared in 73 eyes with serous retinal detachment (SRD) (group A) and 30 eyes without SRD (group B). We evaluated AF findings from the SRD region, atrophic area, and foveola. Correlations between AF findings and outer retinal abnormalities in OCT and visual acuity (VA) were analyzed. Optomap-AF was more effective than HRA-AF in identifying the margins of a detached area (P = 0.001) in group A, and for monitoring mild outer retinal damage (P = 0.041) in group B. The foveolar AF grades in both instruments were significantly correlated with VA and central foveal thickness (CFT) in both group A (Optomap, VA r s = 0.33, P = 0.012; CFT r s = -0.38, P = 0.002; HRA, VA r s = 0.62, P < 0.001; CFT r s = -0.70, P < 0.001) and group B (Optomap, VA r s = 0.71, P < 0.001, CFT r s = -0.78, P < 0.001; HRA, VA r s = 0.40, P = 0.026, CFT r s = -0.40, P = 0.030). Optomap-AF was found to be advantageous for monitoring subretinal status in eyes with SRD, and more accurately reflected mild outer retinal changes in eyes without SRD. Foveolar AF grades of both imaging modalities were significantly correlated with functional and anatomical status.

  5. Incidence of Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinoma (STIC) by Algorithm Classification in Serous Ovarian Tumor Associated with PAX8 Expression in Tubal Epithelia: A Study of Single Institution in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    Serous ovarian carcinoma is now hypothesized to originate from fallopian tube epithelium (FTE). We investigated the FTE abnormalities in the patients with epithelial ovarian tumors. Our study included 55 cases of serous tumors (24 carcinomas, 8 borderline tumors, and 23 adenomas), 14 mucinous carcinomas, 22 endometrioid carcinomas, 5 clear cell carcinomas, and 2 malignant Brenner tumors. FTE was diagnosed by the diagnostic algorithm, which combines the data of morphology, and p53, Ki-67 immunostaining, as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, serous tubal intraepithelial lesion, p53 signature, and normal/reactive. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, serous tubal intraepithelial lesion, p53 signature, and normal/reactive were observed in 5, 3, 0, and 16 cases in serous carcinoma; 0, 3, 0, and 5 cases in serous borderline tumor; 0, 1, 1, and 21 cases in serous adenoma; 0, 0, 1, and 13 cases in mucinous carcinoma; 0, 0, 3, and 19 cases in endometrioid carcinoma; 0, 0, 0, and 5 cases in clear cell carcinoma; and 0, 1, 0, and 1 case in malignant Brenner tumor. Among tumors of serous histology and between carcinomas, FTE abnormalities differed significantly (P<0.05). Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas were only found in serous carcinoma. The incidence of secretory cell proliferation (SCP) was examined by PAX8 expression. The rate of SCP was extremely high in serous carcinoma (96%). Among tumors of serous histology and between carcinomas, an incidence of SCP differed significantly (P<0.05). Patients with SCP were significantly older (P<0.0001). Our observations were concordant with the hypothesis of serous ovarian carcinogenesis. The SCP has a meaningful association with serous ovarian cancer. PMID:25473747

  6. Central serous chorioretinopathy and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors: a case-control postmarketing surveillance study.

    PubMed

    French, Dustin D; Margo, Curtis E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an increased risk of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) associated with prescription exposure to phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. A case-control study linking 2 National Veterans Health Administration databases (clinical and pharmacy) for fiscal years 2004 to 2005. The likelihood of past exposure to PDE-5 inhibitors among newly diagnosed patients with CSC, identified through International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification codes, was compared with 2 age-matched control groups after excluding subjects with risk factors for CSC. Among 577 men, aged 59 years and younger with newly diagnosed CSC during the study year, 111 were prescribed a PDE-5 inhibitor (19.2%). The proportions of age-matched controls prescribed a PDE-5 inhibitor in the 2 groups were 18.5% and 21.5%. The odds ratio of exposure was 1.05 (95% confidence limit: 0.74-1.22) and 0.87 (95% confidence limit: 0.68-1.12). Patients with CSC had no increase in prescription exposure to PDE-5 inhibitors than did age-matched control subjects. Although the findings in this study do not support an association between CSC and PDE-5 inhibitors, postmarketing surveillance methods for drug-related side effects have acknowledged limitations.

  7. Retinopathy in non diabetics, diabetic retinopathy and oxidative stress: a new phenotype in Central Africa?

    PubMed

    Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Mvitu Muaka, Moise; Masamba, Wayiza; Muizila Kini, Lucien; Longo Phemba, Igor; Kibokela Ndembe, Dalida; Tulomba Mona, Doris

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the rates of retinopathy without diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR), associated with some markers of oxidative stress, antioxidants and cardiometabolic risk factors. We determined the prevalence of DR in 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, that of retinopathy in 50 non diabetics, the levels of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, lipids, 8-isoprostane, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), gamma-glutamyl transferase GT (GGT), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), uric acid, creatinine, albumin, total antioxidant status (TAOS), zinc, selenium, magnesium, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, glucose, apolipoprotein B (ApoB). The prevalences of DR at 53y and Rtp at 62y were 44% (n=66) and 10% (n=5), respectively. The highest levels of 8-isoprostane, 8-OHdG, TBARS, SOD, and OxLDL were in DR. The lowest levels of vitamin D, vitamin C, TAOS, and vitamin E were in DR. In the case-control study discriminant analysis, the levels of vitamin C, vitamin D, ApoB, 8-OHdG, creatinine, Zn, vitamin E, and WC distinguished significantly non-diabetics without DR (controls), T2DM patients without DR and T2DM patients with DR. Anticipation of DR onset is significantly associated with the exageration of oxidative stress biomarkers or decrease of antioxidants in African type 2 diabetics. Prevention of oxidative stress and abdominal obesity is needed. Supplementation in vitamin C, D, and E should be recommended as complement therapies of T2DM.

  8. Serous Tubal Carcinogenesis: The Recent Concept of Origin of Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal and Fallopian Tube High-Grade Serous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kar, Tushar; Kar, Asaranti; Dhal, Ipsita; Panda, Sasmita; Biswal, Priyadarshini; Nayak, Bhagyalaxmi; Rout, Niranjan; Samantray, Sagarika

    2017-12-01

    Pelvic (non-uterine) high-grade serous carcinomas (PHGSC) including ovarian, tubal and primary peritoneal serous carcinomas have increased death: incidence ratio due to presentation at advanced stage, rapid progression, poor prognosis and high morbidity. Ambiguity regarding their pathogenesis and lack of a proper screening method is the cause of their late detection and high fatality rate. This study was undertaken to assess the fallopian tube for the presence of precursor lesions in pelvic serous carcinoma. This was a prospective case-control study carried out in a tertiary care center. Consecutive specimens of 55 cases of pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma and 41 controls inclusive of 21 low-grade serous carcinoma, 10 benign adnexal masses and 10 normal adnexa were included in the study. Both side fallopian tubes in each case were subjected to histopathological examination and p53, Ki67 immunohistochemistry. There were 55 cases of PHGSC comprising of 50 cases of ovarian HGSC, two cases of primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) and three cases of tubal carcinoma. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) was detected in 14 cases (28%), p53 signature in 13 cases (26%) and tubal intraepithelial lesion in transition in 10 cases (20%) of ovarian HGSC. One case (50%) of PPC and one (33%) case of tubal carcinoma revealed the presence of STIC. None of the controls exhibited any precursor lesion except ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma where p53 was detected in 20% of cases. This revelation concludes that fallopian tubes are the sites of precursors of PHGSC to a large extent. In the absence of a proper screening method of HGSC, prophylactic bilateral salpingectomy at hysterectomy for benign diseases can achieve ultimate goal of reduction in incidence of PHGSC.

  9. Retinopathy of prematurity: molecular pathology and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Mechoulam, Hadas; Pierce, Eric A

    2003-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an ischemia-induced proliferative retinopathy, which affects premature infants with low birth weight. It is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in children, and shares pathophysiological characteristics with other common ocular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, central vein occlusion, and age-related macular degeneration. Pathologically similar inherited diseases such as Norrie disease suggest a possible genetic component in the susceptibility to ROP. The process of retinal neovascularization in ROP and in animal models of oxygen-induced retinopathy is complex, and involves angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, and basement membrane components. Potential medical therapies for ROP, including modulators of angiogenic factors, inhibitors of basement membrane changes, endogenous inhibitors such as pigment epithelium derived factor, and anti-inflammatory drugs, have shown efficacy against neovascularization in several animal models. Some of these therapies are in clinical trials now for diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, and in the future may prove efficacious for the treatment of ROP.

  10. Targeting Neovascularization in Ischemic Retinopathy: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed; Elsherbiny, Mohamed; Nussbaum, Julian; Othman, Amira; Megyerdi, Sylvia; Tawfik, Amany

    2014-01-01

    Pathological retinal neovascularization (RNV) is a common micro-vascular complication in several retinal diseases including retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and central vein occlusion. The current therapeutic modalities of RNV are invasive and although they may slow or halt the progression of the disease they are unlikely to restore normal acuity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop treatment modalities, which are less invasive and therefore associated with fewer procedural complications and systemic side effects. This review article summarizes our understanding of the pathophysiology and current treatment of RNV in ischemic retinopathies; lists potential therapeutic targets; and provides a framework for the development of future treatment modalities. PMID:25598837

  11. Comparing half-dose photodynamic therapy with high-density subthreshold micropulse laser treatment in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (the PLACE trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Breukink, Myrte B; Downes, Susan M; Querques, Giuseppe; van Dijk, Elon H C; den Hollander, Anneke I; Blanco-Garavito, Rocio; Keunen, Jan E E; Souied, Eric H; MacLaren, Robert E; Hoyng, Carel B; Fauser, Sascha; Boon, Camiel J F

    2015-09-21

    Chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC) is an eye disease characterized by an accumulation of serous fluid under the retina. It is postulated that this fluid accumulation results from hyperpermeability and swelling of the choroid, the underlying vascular tissue of the eye, causing a dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium. This fluid accumulation causes neuroretinal detachment. A prolonged neuroretinal detachment in the macula can lead to permanent vision loss. Therefore, treatment is aimed primarily at achieving resolution of subretinal fluid, preferably within the first 4 months after diagnosis of the disease. A broad spectrum of treatment modalities has been investigated in cCSC, but no consensus exists on the optimal treatment of cCSC. Currently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) and high-density subthreshold micropulse laser treatment (HSML) are among the most frequently cited treatments in obtaining successful neuroretinal reattachment. This is a randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter trial comparing the efficacy of half-dose PDT to HSML in treating patients with cCSC. A total of 156 patients will be recruited, 78 patients in each treatment arm, with a maximum follow-up duration of 8 months after the first treatment. A complete ophthalmological examination with vision-related quality of life (NEI VFQ-25) and stress questionnaires, will be performed at baseline, 6 to 8 weeks after the first treatment, 6 to 8 weeks after a second treatment (if necessary), and at the final follow-up visit at 7 to 8 months after the first treatment. Treatment visits will be scheduled within 3 weeks after the baseline visit, and within 3 weeks after the first control visit, if a second treatment is required. Both half-dose PDT and HSML may be effective treatments in cCSC, but because of the lack of prospective randomized controlled trials, which treatment should be the first choice remains unclear. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of half-dose PDT

  12. Retinopathy in non diabetics, diabetic retinopathy and oxidative stress: a new phenotype in Central Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Mvitu Muaka, Moise; Masamba, Wayiza; Muizila Kini, Lucien; Longo Phemba, Igor; Kibokela Ndembe, Dalida; Tulomba Mona, Doris

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the rates of retinopathy without diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR), associated with some markers of oxidative stress, antioxidants and cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS We determined the prevalence of DR in 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, that of retinopathy in 50 non diabetics, the levels of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, lipids, 8-isoprostane, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), gamma-glutamyl transferase GT (GGT), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), uric acid, creatinine, albumin, total antioxidant status (TAOS), zinc, selenium, magnesium, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, glucose, apolipoprotein B (ApoB). RESULTS The prevalences of DR at 53y and Rtp at 62y were 44% (n=66) and 10% (n=5), respectively. The highest levels of 8-isoprostane, 8-OHdG, TBARS, SOD, and OxLDL were in DR. The lowest levels of vitamin D, vitamin C, TAOS, and vitamin E were in DR. In the case-control study discriminant analysis, the levels of vitamin C, vitamin D, ApoB, 8-OHdG, creatinine, Zn, vitamin E, and WC distinguished significantly non-diabetics without DR (controls), T2DM patients without DR and T2DM patients with DR. CONCLUSION Anticipation of DR onset is significantly associated with the exageration of oxidative stress biomarkers or decrease of antioxidants in African type 2 diabetics. Prevention of oxidative stress and abdominal obesity is needed. Supplementation in vitamin C, D, and E should be recommended as complement therapies of T2DM. PMID:24790873

  13. Automated static perimetry to evaluate diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Federman, J L; Lloyd, J

    1984-01-01

    The Octopus automated static perimeter was used to evaluate patients with early diabetic retinopathy. It showed islands of threshold sensitivity depression that were equal to areas of nonperfusion seen on fluorescein angiography. The geographic area of the fundus at risk of developing these field defects was found to be between 20 and 45 degrees, representing the central area of the midperiphery. This procedure has potential as an excellent screening test for early diabetic retinopathy. Images FIGURE 1 (Cont'd) C PMID:6549516

  14. Restoration of outer segments of foveal photoreceptors after resolution of central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Yumiko; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yamashiro, Kenji; Ooto, Sotaro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2010-01-01

    To study morphologically and functionally the prognosis of damaged outer segments of the foveal photoreceptor layer in eyes with resolved central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). We studied retrospectively the medical records of 70 patients (74 eyes) with resolved CSC. Optical coherence tomography was used to detect the junctions between inner and outer segments of the photoreceptors (IS/OS) as a hallmark of the integrity of the outer photoreceptor layer. In 53 eyes (71.6%), the IS/OS line was clearly detected beneath the fovea immediately after resolution of the retinal detachment, with good visual acuity (VA). In the remaining 21 eyes (28.4%), however, the foveal IS/OS line could not be detected shortly after resolution of CSC, and VA was variable, ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 (median, 0.9). Of these 21 eyes, 15 had a follow-up examination with OCT, and in four the foveal IS/OS line was not detected at the follow-up and vision in these eyes remained poor. However, nine eyes showed recovery of the foveal IS/OS line during follow-up, and these eyes had substantial visual recovery. Immediately after resolution of active CSC, although the IS/OS line cannot be detected beneath the fovea, it often shows restoration over time, with visual recovery, though in some eyes no restoration takes place and the prognosis remains poor.

  15. Retinal flavoprotein autofluorescence as a measure of retinal health.

    PubMed

    Elner, Susan G; Elner, Victor M; Field, Matthew G; Park, Seung; Heckenlively, John R; Petty, Howard R

    2008-01-01

    To establish that increased autofluorescence of mitochondrial flavoproteins, an indicator of mitochondrial oxidative stress, correlates with retinal cell dysfunction. Retinal flavoprotein autofluorescence (FA) was imaged in humans with a fundus camera modified with 467DF8-nm excitation and 535-nm emission filters and a back-illuminated, electron-multiplying, charge-coupled device camera interfaced with a computer equipped with customized image capture software. Multiple digital images, centered on the fovea, were obtained from each eye. Histograms of pixel intensities in grayscale units were analyzed for average intensity and average curve width. Adults with diabetes mellitus, age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), central serous retinopathy, and retinal dystrophies, as well as healthy control volunteers, were imaged. Monolayers of cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (HRPE) cells, HRPE cells exposed to sublethal doses of H2O2, and HRPE cells exposed to H2O2 in the presence of antioxidants were imaged for FA using fluorescent photomicroscopy. Control patients demonstrated low levels of retinal FA, which increased progressively with age. Diabetics without visible retinopathy demonstrated increased FA levels compared to control volunteers (P < .001). Diabetics with retinopathy demonstrated significantly higher FA values than those without retinopathy (P < .04). Patients with ARMD, central serous retinopathy, or retinal dystrophies also demonstrated significantly increased FA. Compared to control RPE cells, cells oxidatively stressed with H2O2 had significantly elevated FA (P < .05), which was prevented by antioxidants (P < .05). Retinal FA is significantly increased with age and diseases known to be mediated by oxidative stress. Retinal FA imaging may provide a novel, noninvasive method of assessing retinal health and retinal dysfunction prior to retinal cell death.

  16. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetic retinopathy: Beyond hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Mbata, Osinakachukwu; Abo El-Magd, Nada Fawzy; El-Remessy, Azza Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most feared ocular manifestation of diabetes. DR is characterized by progressive retinal damage that may eventually result in blindness. Clinically, this blindness is caused by progressive damage to the retinal microvasculature, which leads to ischemia, retinal swelling, and neovascularization. Retinopathy is associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, with DR being the leading cause of new onset blindness in United States adults. Despite this strong association with diabetes, it must be noted that the development of retinopathy lesions is multifactorial and may occur in individuals without an established history of diabetes. Metabolic syndrome is a multifactorial condition of central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, fasting hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. Although several studies examined the individual components observed in the metabolic syndrome in relation to the development of DR, there is conflicting data as to the association of the metabolic syndrome with the development of retinopathy lesions in non-diabetic subjects. This review will summarize the current literature on the evidence of the metabolic syndrome on retinopathy in subjects with and without an established history of diabetes. This review will also discuss some of the mechanisms through which metabolic syndrome can contribute to the development of retinopathy. PMID:28751954

  17. Purtscher-like retinopathy: A rare complication of peribulbar anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Siddharth; Saravanan, V R; Pereira, Merlyn

    2016-06-01

    Purtscher and Purtscher-like retinopathy is a distinctive retinal syndrome characterized by ischemic retinal whitening in a peripapillary pattern. We report a case of Purtscher-like retinopathy in a healthy 64-year-old man after a routine peribulbar anesthetic injection for cataract surgery. Although peribulbar anesthesia is considered to be a safer alternative to retrobulbar anesthesia, it has been associated with unusual but grave complications including central retinal artery occlusion.

  18. CHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY ASSESSED WITH SWEPT-SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY.

    PubMed

    Laíns, Inês; Talcott, Katherine E; Santos, Ana R; Marques, João H; Gil, Pedro; Gil, João; Figueira, João; Husain, Deeba; Kim, Ivana K; Miller, Joan W; Silva, Rufino; Miller, John B

    2018-01-01

    To compare the choroidal thickness (CT) of diabetic eyes (different stages of disease) with controls, using swept-source optical coherence tomography. A multicenter, prospective, cross-sectional study of diabetic and nondiabetic subjects using swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging. Choroidal thickness maps, according to the nine Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) subfields, were obtained using automated software. Mean CT was calculated as the mean value within the ETDRS grid, and central CT as the mean in the central 1 mm. Diabetic eyes were divided into four groups: no diabetic retinopathy (No DR), nonproliferative DR (NPDR), NPDR with diabetic macular edema (NPDR + DME), and proliferative DR (PDR). Multilevel mixed linear models were performed for analyses. The authors included 50 control and 160 diabetic eyes (n = 27 No DR, n = 51 NPDR, n = 61 NPDR + DME, and n = 21 PDR). Mean CT (ß = -42.9, P = 0.022) and central CT (ß = -50.2, P = 0.013) were statistically significantly thinner in PDR eyes compared with controls, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Controlling for age, DR eyes presented a significantly decreased central CT than diabetic eyes without retinopathy (β = -36.2, P = 0.009). Swept-source optical coherence tomography demonstrates a significant reduction of CT in PDR compared with controls. In the foveal region, the choroid appears to be thinner in DR eyes than in diabetic eyes without retinopathy.

  19. Half-Fluence Photodynamic Therapy for Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: Predisposing Factors for Visual Acuity Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Matušková, Veronika; Vysloužilová, Daniela; Uher, Michal

    2017-12-18

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is characterised by a serous detachment of the neurosensory retina in the macula. Chronic CSC tends to affect older individuals with a less favourable visual outcome. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin is a possible therapeutic approach in cases of CSC with no tendency for spontaneous resorption. PDT has shown good anatomic and functional results in treating chronic CSC. For the purpose of diminishing side effects, modifications of the standard protocol were used. This is a retrospective study of 32 eyes with CSC of 32 patients treated by half-fluence PDT. The patients underwent complete ophthalmology examination. On optical coherence tomography (OCT) we measured central retinal thickness (CRT), the outer nuclear layer (ONL), presence of subfoveolar detachment of retinal pigment epithelium (PED), disturbance of external limiting membrane (ELM), morphological changes in the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) line and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy. We evaluated at baseline, 3 and 12 months after PDT. The mean BCVA at baseline was 0.41 ± 0.23 log MAR, the mean BCVA at 3 months was 0.24 ± 0.20 and at the end of the follow-up it was 0.23 ± 0.200. We observed statistically significant improvements of visual acuity after 3 and 12 months (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon test). The mean central retinal thickness at baseline was 373 ± 87 µm, the mean CRT after 3 months was 234 ± 42 µm and after 12 months 223 ± 39 µm. A significant reduction from baseline was seen after 3 months and 12 months (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon test). Baseline ONL reached 80 ± 27 µm, after 3 months it was 78 ± 20 and after 12 months it was 74 ± 20 µm. We observed a statistically significant change in diminishing the amount of PED after PDT after 3 months and after 12 months (p = 0.021, McNemar's test). We observed that in patients with RPE ablation, there is lower chance for the restitution of the IS

  20. Effects of smoking on visual acuity of central serous chorioretinopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Yüksel, Harun; Sahin, Alparslan; Cinar, Yasin; Cingü, Kürşat; Arı, Seyhmus; Sahin, Muhammed; Altındağ, Suat; Caça, Ihsan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences, in terms of visual outcome and treatment needs, between smokers and non-smokers central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) patients. The files of 252 patients diagnosed with CSCR who had presented to the Retina Unit of the Ophthalmology Clinic at Dicle University Medical School in Turkey were retrospectively evaluated. Eighty-four smokers, with a known history of smoking of at least one pack-year, and 133 non-smokers were included, whereas 35 patients with additional pathologies were excluded from the study. Of the patients, 192 (88.5%) were male and 25 (11.5%) were female. The mean patient age was 38.8 ± 8.1 years (range: 20-68 years). Visual acuity (VA) of the smoker and non-smoker groups was measured as 0.45 ± 0.35 and 0.24 ± 0.28 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMar), respectively, at the first visit; 0.19 ± 0.29 and 0.06 ± 0.14 logMar at the sixth month; and 0.07 ± 0.14 and 0.02 ± 0.05 logMar at the ninth month. VA measurements at presentation and during all examinations (1th, 6th and 9th month) were significantly different for the two groups. VA was lower in the smoker group. In 27 patients (12.4%), an additional treatment modality was needed. Of the 27 patients, only 8 (6%) were non-smokers, whereas 19 (22.6%) were smokers. There was no difference between groups in the recurrence rate during follow-up (p = 0.907); 14 (16.7%) smokers and 8 (19.0%) non-smokers experienced a recurrence. This study has shown that patients selected and who are current smokers have poorer vision and need longer treatment.

  1. Purtscher-like retinopathy: A rare complication of peribulbar anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Siddharth; Saravanan, V R; Pereira, Merlyn

    2016-01-01

    Purtscher and Purtscher-like retinopathy is a distinctive retinal syndrome characterized by ischemic retinal whitening in a peripapillary pattern. We report a case of Purtscher-like retinopathy in a healthy 64-year-old man after a routine peribulbar anesthetic injection for cataract surgery. Although peribulbar anesthesia is considered to be a safer alternative to retrobulbar anesthesia, it has been associated with unusual but grave complications including central retinal artery occlusion. PMID:27488158

  2. Transconjunctival drainage of serous and hemorrhagic choroidal detachment.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Flávio A; Kickinger, Mônica C; Li, Gisèle; Prado, Renata F; Regis, Luiz Gustavo T

    2012-02-01

    To describe a novel surgical technique for drainage of bullous serous and hemorrhagic choroidal detachments. A prospective, consecutive case series of 6 eyes with serous and/or hemorrhagic choroidal detachments secondary to intraocular surgery was documented to evaluate the feasibility of using the 25-gauge and 20-gauge transconjunctival trocar/cannula systems to drain choroidal detachments. Two eyes had expulsive hemorrhagic choroidal detachments and 4 eyes had serous choroidal detachments after glaucoma surgeries. A 25-gauge infusion line was placed in the anterior chamber. A 20-gauge (in eyes with hemorrhagic choroidal detachments) or a 25-gauge (in eyes with serous detachments) trocar/cannula system was inserted into the suprachoroidal space 7.0 mm from limbus. After drainage, the cannulas were removed and no sutures were placed. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed only in eyes with concomitant pathology that demanded the additional procedure. The primary outcome measure was presence of choroidal detachment at 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1 month postoperatively. Secondary outcome measures were visual acuity at 6 months and intraocular pressure at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Drainage of hemorrhagic choroidal detachments resulted in resolution of the detachments by 1 month postoperatively. In eyes with serous detachments, resolution was achieved by 1 week postdrainage. In both groups, intraocular pressure increased to at least 10 mmHg by postoperative Week 1. The visual acuity improved in all eyes. No complications related to the transconjunctival technique were noted. Transconjunctival drainage of serous and hemorrhagic choroidal detachments seems to be a feasible and simple surgical option with minimal scleral and conjunctival damage. Pars plana vitrectomy may not be necessary when draining choroidal detachments in this manner.

  3. Cushing's Syndrome and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Hyperactivity in Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    van Haalen, Femke M; van Dijk, Elon H C; Dekkers, Olaf M; Bizino, Maurice B; Dijkman, Greet; Biermasz, Nienke R; Boon, Camiel J F; Pereira, Alberto M

    2018-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), a specific form of macular degeneration, has been reported as presenting manifestation of Cushing's syndrome. Furthermore, CSC has been associated with both exogenous hypercortisolism and endogenous Cushing's syndrome. It is important to know whether CSC patients should be screened for Cushing's syndrome. Although hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity in CSC has been suggested, no detailed evaluation of the HPA axis has been performed in a large cohort of CSC patients. This study aimed to investigate whether Cushing's syndrome prevalence is increased among chronic CSC (cCSC) patients and whether detailed endocrinological phenotyping indicates hyperactivity of the HPA axis. Cross-sectional study. 86 cCSC patients and 24 controls. Prevalence of Cushing's syndrome, HPA axis activity. None of the cCSC patients met the clinical or biochemical criteria of Cushing's syndrome. However, compared to controls, HPA axis activity was increased in cCSC patients, reflected by higher 24 h urinary free cortisol, and accompanying higher waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure, whereas circadian cortisol rhythm and feedback were not different. Chronic CSC patients did not report more stress or stress-related problems on questionnaires. No case of Cushing's syndrome was revealed in a large cohort of cCSC patients. Therefore, we advise against screening for Cushing's syndrome in CSC patients, unless additional clinical features are present. However, our results indicate that cCSC is associated with hyperactivity of the HPA axis, albeit not accompanied with perception of more psychosocial stress.

  4. Automated segmentation of serous pigment epithelium detachment in SD-OCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhuli; Shi, Fei; Xiang, Dehui; Chen, Haoyu; Chen, Xinjian

    2015-03-01

    Pigment epithelium detachment (PED) is an important clinical manifestation of multiple chorio-retinal disease processes, which can cause the loss of central vision. A 3-D method is proposed to automatically segment serous PED in SD-OCT images. The proposed method consists of five steps: first, a curvature anisotropic diffusion filter is applied to remove speckle noise. Second, the graph search method is applied for abnormal retinal layer segmentation associated with retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deformation. During this process, Bruch's membrane, which doesn't show in the SD-OCT images, is estimated with the convex hull algorithm. Third, the foreground and background seeds are automatically obtained from retinal layer segmentation result. Fourth, the serous PED is segmented based on the graph cut method. Finally, a post-processing step is applied to remove false positive regions based on mathematical morphology. The proposed method was tested on 20 SD-OCT volumes from 20 patients diagnosed with serous PED. The average true positive volume fraction (TPVF), false positive volume fraction (FPVF), dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and positive predictive value (PPV) are 97.19%, 0.03%, 96.34% and 95.59%, respectively. Linear regression analysis shows a strong correlation (r = 0.975) comparing the segmented PED volumes with the ground truth labeled by an ophthalmology expert. The proposed method can provide clinicians with accurate quantitative information, including shape, size and position of the PED regions, which can assist diagnose and treatment.

  5. Evidence from a natural experiment that malaria parasitemia is pathogenic in retinopathy-negative cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Small, Dylan S; Taylor, Terrie E; Postels, Douglas G; Beare, Nicholas Av; Cheng, Jing; MacCormick, Ian Jc; Seydel, Karl B

    2017-06-07

    Cerebral malaria (CM) can be classified as retinopathy-positive or retinopathy-negative, based on the presence or absence of characteristic retinal features. While malaria parasites are considered central to the pathogenesis of retinopathy-positive CM, their contribution to retinopathy-negative CM is largely unknown. One theory is that malaria parasites are innocent bystanders in retinopathy-negative CM and the etiology of the coma is entirely non-malarial. Because hospitals in malaria-endemic areas often lack diagnostic facilities to identify non-malarial causes of coma, it has not been possible to evaluate the contribution of malaria infection to retinopathy-negative CM. To overcome this barrier, we studied a natural experiment involving genetically inherited traits, and find evidence that malaria parasitemia does contribute to the pathogenesis of retinopathy-negative CM. A lower bound for the fraction of retinopathy-negative CM that would be prevented if malaria parasitemia were to be eliminated is estimated to be 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 1).

  6. Prediction of chemo-response in serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Bosquet, Jesus; Newtson, Andreea M; Chung, Rebecca K; Thiel, Kristina W; Ginader, Timothy; Goodheart, Michael J; Leslie, Kimberly K; Smith, Brian J

    2016-10-19

    Nearly one-third of serous ovarian cancer (OVCA) patients will not respond to initial treatment with surgery and chemotherapy and die within one year of diagnosis. If patients who are unlikely to respond to current standard therapy can be identified up front, enhanced tumor analyses and treatment regimens could potentially be offered. Using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) serous OVCA database, we previously identified a robust molecular signature of 422-genes associated with chemo-response. Our objective was to test whether this signature is an accurate and sensitive predictor of chemo-response in serous OVCA. We first constructed prediction models to predict chemo-response using our previously described 422-gene signature that was associated with response to treatment in serous OVCA. Performance of all prediction models were measured with area under the curves (AUCs, a measure of the model's accuracy) and their respective confidence intervals (CIs). To optimize the prediction process, we determined which elements of the signature most contributed to chemo-response prediction. All prediction models were replicated and validated using six publicly available independent gene expression datasets. The 422-gene signature prediction models predicted chemo-response with AUCs of ~70 %. Optimization of prediction models identified the 34 most important genes in chemo-response prediction. These 34-gene models had improved performance, with AUCs approaching 80 %. Both 422-gene and 34-gene prediction models were replicated and validated in six independent datasets. These prediction models serve as the foundation for the future development and implementation of a diagnostic tool to predict response to chemotherapy for serous OVCA patients.

  7. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, total antioxidant capacity, and total oxidant status in central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Yüksel, Harun; Yüksel, Hatice; Sahin, Alparslan; Cinar, Yasin; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Sahin, Muhammed; Caça, Ihsan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) levels in patients diagnosed with acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) and control samples. The TAC, TOS, and DHEA-S levels were assessed in the plasma of 46 CSCR patients and compared with 40 control samples. The TAC level was 1.16 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.09 mmol Trolox eq./l; TOS level was 28.77 ± 33.33 and 19.95 ± 10.42 μmol H202/l; DHEA-S level was 203.79 ± 84.75 μg/dl and 249.36 ± 122.93 μg/dl in the CSCR group and in the control group, respectively. The plasma TAC and DHEA-S values were significantly lower in the CSCR group than in the control group (p = 0.027 and p = 0.046, respectively). There was no significant difference between the CSCR and the control groups in terms of age, gender, and TOS levels (p > 0.05). We demonstrated that the levels of plasma DHEA-S and antioxidative parameters were reduced in CSCR. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense system may be inadequate or corrupted in CSCR. Reduced DHEA-S level is one of the factors that trigger this insufficiency.

  8. Is the two-tier ovarian serous carcinoma grading system potentially useful in stratifying uterine serous carcinoma? A large multi-institutional analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Quratulain; Hussein, Yaser; Hayek, Kinda; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Semaan, Assaad; Abdul-Karim, Fadi; Al-Wahab, Zaid; Munkarah, Adnan R; Elshaikh, Mohamed A; Alosh, Baraa; Nucci, Marisa R; Van de Vijver, Koen K; Morris, Robert T; Oliva, Esther; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba

    2014-02-01

    A subset of uterine serous carcinoma (USC) may have better clinical behavior bringing up the possibility that there may be morphologic features, which would help in their categorization. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential use of the MD Anderson Cancer Center 2-tier grading system for ovarian carcinoma in USC. Tumors assigned a combined score included in this analysis were 1) low-grade: tumors without marked atypia and 12 mitoses/10 high power field (HPF) and 2) high grade: tumors with severe nuclear atypia and >12 mitoses/10 HPF. Clinicopathologic parameters evaluated included patients' age, tumor size, myometrial invasion (MI), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), lymph node (LN), FIGO stage, and patient outcome. 140 patients with USC were included, 30 low grade uterine serous carcinoma (LGUSC) and 110 high grade uterine serous carcinoma (HGUSC). Of all parameters only 2 (MI and stage IA) reached statistical significance. 67% of LGUSC cases showed myometrial invasion versus 93.6% HGUSC cases (p = 0.003). A higher percentage of LGUSC (63.3%) versus HGUSC (32.7%) were in stage IA (p = 0.01). However, by multivariate analysis including age, LVI, stage and tumor grade only stage was an independent prognostic factor. The presence of atypia and mitosis across a uterine serous carcinoma is notoriously variable in magnitude and extent, potentially making evaluation of these features difficult and subsequent grading subjective. Our findings thus show that actual prognostic utility of application of MDACC two-tier grading system to uterine serous carcinoma may not be applicable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of intravitreal pharmacotherapies including antivascular endothelial growth factor and corticosteroid agents on diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Wykoff, Charles C

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is common and increasing in prevalence. Pharmacologic management of diabetic macular edema (DME) has improved tremendously over the last decade with the use of two families of intravitreally administered medications: antivascular endothelial growth factor-specific agents and corticosteroids. Clinical evaluation of these pharmaceuticals has demonstrated that they can have a substantial impact on diabetic retinopathy severity levels and the underlying retinal vasculature itself. Phase 3 trials employing ranibizumab, aflibercept, and fluocinolone acetonide enrolling eyes with center-involving DME causing visual acuity loss have demonstrated impressive alteration of the natural history of progressive diabetic retinopathy worsening over time through blunted progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy, improving diabetic retinopathy severity levels, and slowing progressive retinal nonperfusion, the underlying disease process central to diabetic retinopathy itself. Accumulating data indicate that the threshold to initiate ocular-specific pharmacologic treatment for diabetic retinopathy, previously predominately limited to eyes with visual loss because of center-involved DME or proliferative diabetic retinopathy, is being lowered to earlier stages of diabetic retinopathy. Ongoing clinical trials and secondary analyses continue to further explore the impact and durability of vascular endothelial growth factor blockade and corticosteroids on modification of diabetic retinopathy and the underlying retinal vasculature itself.

  10. Increased incidence of peptic ulcer disease in central serous chorioretinopathy patients: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, San-Ni; Lian, Iebin; Chen, Yi-Chiao; Ho, Jau-Der

    2015-02-01

    To investigate peptic ulcer disease and other possible risk factors in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) using a population-based database. In this population-based retrospective cohort study, longitudinal data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were analyzed. The study cohort comprised 835 patients with CSR and the control cohort comprised 4175 patients without CSR from January 2000 to December 2009. Conditional logistic regression was applied to examine the association of peptic ulcer disease and other possible risk factors for CSR, and stratified Cox regression models were applied to examine whether patients with CSR have an increased chance of peptic ulcer disease and hypertension development. The identifiable risk factors for CSR included peptic ulcer disease (adjusted odd ratio: 1.39, P = 0.001) and higher monthly income (adjusted odd ratio: 1.30, P = 0.006). Patients with CSR also had a significantly higher chance of developing peptic ulcer disease after the diagnosis of CSR (adjusted odd ratio: 1.43, P = 0.009). Peptic ulcer disease and higher monthly income are independent risk factors for CSR. Whereas, patients with CSR also had increased risk for peptic ulcer development.

  11. Diabetic Retinopathy in a Multi-ethnic Cohort in the United States

    PubMed Central

    WONG, TIEN YIN; KLEIN, RONALD; ISLAM, F.M. AMIRUL; COTCH, MARY FRANCES; FOLSOM, AARON R.; KLEIN, BARBARA E.K.; SHARRETT, A. RICHEY; SHEA, STEVEN

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in a multi-ethnic US population of whites, blacks, hispanics, and chinese. DESIGN Cross-sectional study of 778 individuals from ages 45 to 85 years with diabetes, participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). METHODS Retinal photographs were obtained with a 45° nonmydriatic digital fundus camera. Presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy were graded at a central reading center on the basis of a modification of the Airlie House classification system. All participants underwent a standardized interview, examination, and laboratory investigations. RESULTS In this population with diabetes, the prevalence of any retinopathy was 33.2% and macular edema 9.0%. The prevalence of any diabetic retinopathy and macular edema was significantly higher in blacks (36.7% and 11.1%) and hispanics (37.4% and 10.7%) than in whites (24.8% and 2.7%) and chinese (25.7% and 8.9%) (P = .01 and P = .007, comparing racial/ethnic differences for retinopathy and macular edema, respectively). Significant independent predictors of any retinopathy were longer duration of diabetes, higher fasting serum glucose, use of diabetic oral medication or insulin, and greater waist-hip ratio. Race was not an independent predictor of any retinopathy. CONCLUSIONS This study provides contemporary data on the prevalence of and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy among whites, blacks, hispanics, and chinese participating in the MESA. PMID:16490489

  12. Lutein facilitates physiological revascularization in a mouse model of retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhongjie; Meng, Steven S; Burnim, Samuel B; Smith, Lois Eh; Lo, Amy Cy

    2017-07-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is one of the leading causes of childhood blindness worldwide, with vessel growth cessation and vessel loss in phase I followed by neovascularization in phase II. Ischaemia contributes to its pathogenesis, and lutein protects against ischaemia-induced retinal damages. We aimed to investigate the effects of lutein on a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Mouse pups were exposed to 75% oxygen for 5 days and returned to room air for another 5 days. Vascular obliteration, neovascularization and blood vessel leakage were examined. Immunohistochemistry for glial cells and microglia were performed. Compared with vehicle controls, mouse pups receiving lutein treatment displayed smaller central vaso-obliterated area and reduced blood vessel leakage. No significant difference in neovascular area was found between lutein and vehicle controls. Lutein promoted endothelial tip cell formation and maintained the astrocytic template in the avascular area in oxygen-induced retinopathy. No significant changes in Müller cell gliosis and microglial activation in the central avascular area were found in lutein-treated pups. Our observations indicated that lutein significantly promoted normal retinal vascular regrowth in the central avascular area, possibly through promoting endothelial tip cell formation and preserving astrocytic template. Our results indicated that lutein might be considered as a supplement for the treatment of proliferative retinopathy of prematurity because of its role in facilitating the revascularization of normal vasculature. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. Evidence from a natural experiment that malaria parasitemia is pathogenic in retinopathy-negative cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Small, Dylan S; Taylor, Terrie E; Postels, Douglas G; Beare, Nicholas AV; Cheng, Jing; MacCormick, Ian JC; Seydel, Karl B

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) can be classified as retinopathy-positive or retinopathy-negative, based on the presence or absence of characteristic retinal features. While malaria parasites are considered central to the pathogenesis of retinopathy-positive CM, their contribution to retinopathy-negative CM is largely unknown. One theory is that malaria parasites are innocent bystanders in retinopathy-negative CM and the etiology of the coma is entirely non-malarial. Because hospitals in malaria-endemic areas often lack diagnostic facilities to identify non-malarial causes of coma, it has not been possible to evaluate the contribution of malaria infection to retinopathy-negative CM. To overcome this barrier, we studied a natural experiment involving genetically inherited traits, and find evidence that malaria parasitemia does contribute to the pathogenesis of retinopathy-negative CM. A lower bound for the fraction of retinopathy-negative CM that would be prevented if malaria parasitemia were to be eliminated is estimated to be 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 1). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23699.001 PMID:28590246

  14. Ultra-widefield imaging with autofluorescence and indocyanine green angiography in central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Pang, Claudine E; Shah, Vinnie P; Sarraf, David; Freund, K Bailey

    2014-08-01

    To describe the spectrum of ultra-widefield autofluorescence (AF) and indocyanine green (ICG) angiographic findings in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Retrospective observational case series. In 37 patients, 65 eyes with CSC from 2 vitreoretinal clinical practices were imaged using ultra-widefield AF and 24 of these eyes with ultra-widefield ICG angiography. Images were correlated with clinical findings and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). In 37 (57%) eyes, a variety of altered AF patterns, including gravitational tracts, extended beyond the posterior 50 degrees of retina. Hyper-AF corresponded to areas of subretinal fluid (SRF) on spectral-domain OCT and was found to persist in 44 (70%) eyes for up to 8 years despite resolution of SRF. These areas corresponded to outer retinal atrophy with viable retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) on spectral-domain OCT and may be explained by the unmasking of normal background RPE AF. Ultra-widefield ICG angiography revealed dilated choroidal vessels and choroidal hyperpermeability in areas corresponding to altered AF on ultra-widefield AF in all 24 eyes. In 20 (83.3%) eyes, dilated vessels were observed in association with 1 or more congested vortex veins ampullas, suggesting that outflow congestion may be a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of CSC. Ultra-widefield AF and ICG angiography in CSC revealed more widespread disease in a single image than with standard field imaging and may be useful for identifying peripheral areas of previous or ongoing SRF and choroidal hyperpermeability that can assist in the diagnosis of CSC, surveillance of recurrent disease and treatment of active disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Are all pelvic (nonuterine) serous carcinomas of tubal origin?

    PubMed

    Przybycin, Christopher G; Kurman, Robert J; Ronnett, Brigitte M; Shih, Ie-Ming; Vang, Russell

    2010-10-01

    It has been proposed that the presence of tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (TIC), in association with one-third to nearly half of pelvic serous carcinomas, is evidence of fallopian tube origin for high-grade serous carcinomas that would have been otherwise classified as primary ovarian or peritoneal. To address this hypothesis, we evaluated a series of 114 consecutive pelvic (nonuterine) gynecologic carcinomas at our institution (2006 to 2008) to determine the frequency of TIC in 52 cases in which all the resected fallopian tube tissue was examined microscopically. These 52 cases were classified as ovarian (n=37), peritoneal (n=8), or fallopian tube (n=7) in origin as per conventional criteria based on disease distribution. The presence of TIC and its location and relationship to invasive carcinoma in the fallopian tubes and ovaries were assessed. Among the 45 cases of ovarian/peritoneal origin, carcinoma subtypes included 41 high-grade serous, 1 endometrioid, 1 mucinous, 1 high-grade, not otherwise specified, and 1 malignant mesodermal mixed tumor. TIC was identified in 24 cases (59%) of high-grade serous carcinoma but not among any of the other subtypes; therefore, the term serous TIC (STIC) is a more specific appellation. STICs were located in the fimbriated end of the tube in 22 cases (92%) and in the ampulla in 2 (8%); they were unilateral in 21 (88%) and bilateral in 3 (13%). STICs in the absence of an associated invasive carcinoma in the same tube were detected in 7 cases (30%) and with invasive carcinoma in the same tube in 17 (71%). Unilateral STICs were associated with bilateral ovarian involvement in 15 cases and unilateral (ipsilateral) ovarian involvement in 5 (the remaining case with a unilateral STIC had a primary peritoneal tumor with no ovarian involvement); the bilateral STICs were all associated with bilateral ovarian involvement. Six of the 7 primary tubal tumors were high-grade serous carcinomas, and 4 of these 6 (67%) had STICs. Based on

  16. Keratin 5 overexpression is associated with serous ovarian cancer recurrence and chemotherapy resistance.

    PubMed

    Ricciardelli, Carmela; Lokman, Noor A; Pyragius, Carmen E; Ween, Miranda P; Macpherson, Anne M; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew; Hoffmann, Peter; Oehler, Martin K

    2017-03-14

    This study investigated the clinical significance of keratin 5 and 6 expression in serous ovarian cancer progression and chemotherapy resistance. KRT5 and KRT6 (KRT6A, KRT6B & KRT6C) gene expression was assessed in publically available serous ovarian cancer data sets, ovarian cancer cell lines and primary serous ovarian cancer cells. Monoclonal antibodies which detect both K5/6 or only K5 were used to assess protein expression in ovarian cancer cell lines and a cohort of high grade serous ovarian carcinomas at surgery (n = 117) and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 21). Survival analyses showed that high KRT5 mRNA in stage III/IV serous ovarian cancers was significantly associated with reduced progression-free (HR 1.38, P < 0.0001) and overall survival (HR 1.28, P = 0.013) whilst high KRT6 mRNA was only associated with reduced progression-free survival (HR 1.2, P = 0.031). Both high K5/6 (≥ 10%, HR 1.78 95% CI; 1.03-2.65, P = 0.017) and high K5 (≥ 10%, HR 1.90, 95% CI; 1.12-3.19, P = 0.017) were associated with an increased risk of disease recurrence. KRT5 but not KRT6C mRNA expression was increased in chemotherapy resistant primary serous ovarian cancer cells compared to chemotherapy sensitive cells. The proportion of serous ovarian carcinomas with high K5/6 or high K5 immunostaining was significantly increased following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. K5 can be used to predict serous ovarian cancer prognosis and identify cancer cells that are resistant to chemotherapy. Developing strategies to target K5 may therefore improve serous ovarian cancer survival.

  17. Risk factors for benign serous and mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Susan J; Green, Adèle C; Whiteman, David C; Webb, Penelope M

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the risk factors for benign serous and mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors. Cases were women newly diagnosed with benign serous ovarian tumors (n=230) or benign mucinous tumors (n=133) between 2002 and 2005. Control women were selected at random from the general population (n=752). All participants completed a comprehensive reproductive and lifestyle questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and to simultaneously adjust for potential confounding factors. Current smoking was associated with a three-fold increase in risk of benign mucinous tumors (OR 3.25, 95% CI 1.97-5.34), and there was a trend of increasing risk with increasing amount smoked (P<.001). Both recent obesity (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.30-2.88) and obesity at age 20 (OR 4.38, 95% CI 1.88-10.20) were associated with increased risk of benign serous ovarian tumors, and having had a hysterectomy was also related to increased risk of serous (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.90-3.96), but not mucinous tumors. Ever having had a term pregnancy was inversely associated with both tumor types (combined OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.43-0.97), although greater numbers of pregnancies did not decrease risk further. Use of hormonal contraceptives was unrelated to risk. Our results suggest some differences in risk factors between benign serous and mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors and that risk factors for benign serous tumors differ from those well established for ovarian cancer. The results also suggest that there is potential for prevention of these common conditions through avoidance of smoking and obesity. II.

  18. Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Alicia J; Joglekar, Mugdha V; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A; Keech, Anthony C; O'Neal, David N; Januszewski, Andrzej S

    2015-01-01

    There is a global diabetes epidemic correlating with an increase in obesity. This coincidence may lead to a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. There is also an as yet unexplained increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes, which is not related to adiposity. Whilst improved diabetes care has substantially improved diabetes outcomes, the disease remains a common cause of working age adult-onset blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes; it is greatly feared by many diabetes patients. There are multiple risk factors and markers for the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy, yet residual risk remains. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is recommended to facilitate early detection and treatment. Common biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy and its risk in clinical practice today relate to the visualization of the retinal vasculature and measures of glycemia, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, smoking, and pregnancy status. Greater knowledge of novel biomarkers and mediators of diabetic retinopathy, such as those related to inflammation and angiogenesis, has contributed to the development of additional therapeutics, in particular for late-stage retinopathy, including intra-ocular corticosteroids and intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors ('anti-VEGFs') agents. Unfortunately, in spite of a range of treatments (including laser photocoagulation, intraocular steroids, and anti-VEGF agents, and more recently oral fenofibrate, a PPAR-alpha agonist lipid-lowering drug), many patients with diabetic retinopathy do not respond well to current therapeutics. Therefore, more effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy are necessary. New analytical techniques, in particular those related to molecular markers, are accelerating progress in diabetic retinopathy research. Given the increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, and the limited capacity of healthcare systems to screen and treat

  19. Determining diabetic retinopathy screening interval based on time from no retinopathy to laser therapy.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Daniel; Nair, Sunil; Harvey, John N

    2017-12-01

    Objectives To determine the necessary screening interval for retinopathy in diabetic patients with no retinopathy based on time to laser therapy and to assess long-term visual outcome following screening. Methods In a population-based community screening programme in North Wales, 2917 patients were followed until death or for approximately 12 years. At screening, 2493 had no retinopathy; 424 had mostly minor degrees of non-proliferative retinopathy. Data on timing of first laser therapy and visual outcome following screening were obtained from local hospitals and ophthalmology units. Results Survival analysis showed that very few of the no retinopathy at screening group required laser therapy in the early years compared with the non-proliferative retinopathy group ( p < 0.001). After two years, <0.1% of the no retinopathy at screening group required laser therapy, and at three years 0.2% (cumulative), lower rates of treatment than have been suggested by analyses of sight-threatening retinopathy determined photographically. At follow-up (mean 7.8 ± 4.6 years), mild to moderate visual impairment in one or both eyes due to diabetic retinopathy was more common in those with retinopathy at screening (26% vs. 5%, p < 0.001), but blindness due to diabetes occurred in only 1 in 1000. Conclusions Optimum screening intervals should be determined from time to active treatment. Based on requirement for laser therapy, the screening interval for diabetic patients with no retinopathy can be extended to two to three years. Patients who attend for retinal screening and treatment who have no or non-proliferative retinopathy now have a very low risk of eventual blindness from diabetes.

  20. Unilateral pigmentary retinopathy--a review of literature and case presentation.

    PubMed

    Stamate, Alina-Cristina; Burcea, Marian; Zemba, Mihail

    2016-01-01

    To report a rare case of unilateral pigmentary retinopathy and describe the clinical and visual field characteristics of this particular case. We present the case of a 30-year-old male patient with a gradual loss of the visual field on his left eye (LE) for the past 10 years, with further gradual painless loss of his central visual field in the last year, and no similar symptoms in his right eye. His past medical and ocular history were unremarkable. No family history of acquired or inherited diseases was determined. Based on the history, clinical findings, and visual field examination, the diagnosis of unilateral pigmentary retinopathy was established. Visual acuity and visual field in the left eye (LE) were severely affected, while in the right eye (RE), they were completely normal. In this case, distinct features of pigmentary retinopathy were observed only in one eye, with the fellow eye being unaffected. The diagnosis requires a long follow-up period, visual field and electrophysiological testing to rule out a delayed onset of a bilateral form of pigmentary retinopathy.

  1. Central serous chorioretinopathy fundus autofluorescence comparison with two different confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Tae; Yun, Cheol Min; Kim, Jee Taek; Yang, Kyung-Sook; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Seong-Woo; Oh, Jaeryung; Huh, Kuhl

    2015-12-01

    To compare the lesion characteristics of two different types of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) autofluorescence (AF) images in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study included 63 eyes of 61 patients; 63 pairs of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images were compared before CSC resolution in 63 eyes, FAF images of 31 eyes were also compared after CSC resolution. The lesion characteristics (brightness and composite pattern) were compared between Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2 (HRA2; Heidelberg Engineering, Germany) and Optomap Tx (Optomap; Optos, Scotland) FAF images. The lesion composite pattern was categorized as diffuse or granular. Diffuse AF was defined as homogenously increased or decreased AF, and granular AF was defined as dot-like, coarse changes in AF. The mean disease duration and subretinal fluid (SRF) height in the spectral domain optical coherence tomography were compared according to the FAF image characteristics. Lesion brightness before CSC resolution was hypo-AF in 48 eyes (76.2 %), hyper-AF in three (4.8 %), and mixed-AF in 12 (19.0 %) in HRA2 FAF images. In comparison, nine (14.3 %) images were hypo-AF, 44 (69.8 %) were hyper-AF, and 10 (15.9 %) were mixed-AF in Optomap FAF images (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in lesion composite pattern between the two FAF image wavelengths. Patients with lesions that were hyper-AF in Optomap FAF and hypo-AF in HRA2 FAF had a shorter disease duration and greater SRF height (1 month, 281 um) than those who were hyper-AF in both Optomap and HRA2 images (26 months, 153 um; P = 0.004, 0.001). The two types of FAF images of CSC showed different lesion brightness before and after CSC resolution but demonstrated similar lesion composite patterns.

  2. Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Alicia J.; Joglekar, Mugdha V.; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A.; Keech, Anthony C.; O'Neal, David N.; Januszewski, Andrzej S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a global diabetes epidemic correlating with an increase in obesity. This coincidence may lead to a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. There is also an as yet unexplained increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes, which is not related to adiposity. Whilst improved diabetes care has substantially improved diabetes outcomes, the disease remains a common cause of working age adult-onset blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes; it is greatly feared by many diabetes patients. There are multiple risk factors and markers for the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy, yet residual risk remains. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is recommended to facilitate early detection and treatment. Common biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy and its risk in clinical practice today relate to the visualization of the retinal vasculature and measures of glycemia, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, smoking, and pregnancy status. Greater knowledge of novel biomarkers and mediators of diabetic retinopathy, such as those related to inflammation and angiogenesis, has contributed to the development of additional therapeutics, in particular for late-stage retinopathy, including intra-ocular corticosteroids and intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors ('anti-VEGFs') agents. Unfortunately, in spite of a range of treatments (including laser photocoagulation, intraocular steroids, and anti-VEGF agents, and more recently oral fenofibrate, a PPAR-alpha agonist lipid-lowering drug), many patients with diabetic retinopathy do not respond well to current therapeutics. Therefore, more effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy are necessary. New analytical techniques, in particular those related to molecular markers, are accelerating progress in diabetic retinopathy research. Given the increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, and the limited capacity of healthcare systems to screen and treat

  3. The frequency and significance of WT-1 expression in serous endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Catherine; Sriraksa, Ruethairat; Showeil, Rania; Van Noorden, Susan; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2014-09-01

    Serous endometrial carcinoma is an aggressive type of endometrial carcinoma. Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT-1) is commonly expressed in ovarian serous carcinomas and considered a diagnostic marker of these tumors. However, it is generally believed that WT-1 is rarely expressed by endometrial serous carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and significance of WT-1 expression in endometrial serous carcinoma. We studied the expression of WT-1 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor sections from 77 cases of endometrial serous carcinoma. Thirty-four tumors showed positive expression for WT-1 (44%). There was a statistically significant association between the presence of WT-1 expression and disease-free survival (DFS), where patients with tumors expressing WT-1 had a shorter DFS compared with those with no WT-1 expression (P = .031; median DFS, 15 and 38 months, respectively). By multivariate Cox regression analysis, DFS was independent from other clinicopathological data (tumor stage, presence of lymphovascular space invasion, cervical involvement, and extrauterine spread), indicating that WT-1 expression is independently associated with DFS. Our study shows that WT-1 is expressed in a considerable percentage of endometrial serous carcinomas, suggesting a role for WT-1 in the pathology of these tumors. This has therapeutic significance, as WT-1 is an emerging target for immunotherapy. Moreover, our results show that WT-1 has prognostic value, being predictive of DFS. As a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target, we recommend that WT-1 expression should be included in histopathologic reports of endometrial serous carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Why and how should serous otitis media be treated?].

    PubMed

    François, M; Bonfils, P; Van Haver, K; Narcy, P

    1992-10-01

    Serous otitis media is an extremely commonplace condition in pediatric patients and tends to resolve spontaneously. Only some forms warrant treatment. Indications for treatment include frequent superinfections, lasting hearing impairment with adverse consequences on socialization, or debilitation of the tympanic membrane carrying a risk for the ear. Tympanostomy tubes are a palliative treatment for serous otitis which restores hearing within a few hours and eliminates unfixated retractions of the tympanic membrane within a few weeks. Tympanostomy tubes may lead to complications including otorrhea and perforation of the tympanic membrane and should therefore be used only in patients with severe otitis media. Etiologic treatment of serous otitis rests on restoration of satisfactory nasal ventilation (education to improve nose-blowing, adenoidectomy), improvement of eustachian tube patency (corticosteroids), and modification of the characteristics of middle ear secretions (mucolytic agents and mucomodifying agents).

  5. [Solar retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Kawa, P; Mańkowska, A; Mackiewicz, J; Zagórski, Z

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the present clinical evaluation of 21 patients (number of affected eyes--33), who watched eclipse of the sun on 12 October 1996. All patients had general ophthalmic examination with emphasis on visual acuity, visual field, Amsler test, fluorescein angiography and fundus appearance. Eleven out of 21 patients had at least one follow up examination (number of affected eyes--17). None of the patient received any treatment. All patients revealed tiny, central scotomata--positive Amsler test and decreased visual acuity on the first visit; reading Snellen chart could be improved in all patients by adequate head tilt or eye movement (improvement up to 3 Snellen chart lines). No signs of retinopathy were observed in two eyes with uncorrected refractive error and one amblyopic eye. After 7-8 weeks the visual acuity was decreased to 5/30 in two eyes and to 5/10 in ten eyes. In all those eyes persisted a tiny, central scotoma. Looking at the eclipse of the sun in spite of using primitive eye protection may cause irreversible retinal damage. Return of visual acuity to 5/5 does not always imply complete recovery because of persistent central scotoma.

  6. Massive Bilateral Serous Retinal Detachment in a Case of Hypertensive Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Villalba-Pinto, Luis; Hernández-Ortega, M. Ángeles; de los Mozos, F. Javier Lavid; Pascual-Camps, Isabel; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Arevalo, J. Fernando; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Systemic high blood pressure is related to a variety of retinal manifestations. We present an atypical case of hypertensive chorioretinopathy with massive bilateral serous retinal detachment. Case Report A 26-year-old male with a genitourinary malformation and secondary grade IV chronic kidney failure as well as high blood pressure complained of acute vision loss. Dilated fundus examination evidenced a bilateral serous retinal detachment with macular involvement. The patient was unresponsive to oral antihypertensive therapy and dialysis treatment. The serous retinal detachment progressively decreased after the restoration of dialysis and antihypertensive therapy. The final visual acuity was 0.50 in both eyes. Discussion In cases of serous macular detachment, it is mandatory to rule out different systemic and ocular diseases. The presence of uncontrolled high blood pressure may produce aggressive bilateral retinal changes, thus hypertension must be under early and strict control in order to improve the visual outcomes. PMID:25120474

  7. Bone marrow-CNS connections: Implications in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Yellowlees; Bhatwadekar, Ashay D.; Shaw, Lynn C.; Carnegie, Debra; Caballero, Sergio; Li, Quihong; Calzi, Sergio Li; Raizada, Mohan K.; Stitt, Alan W.; Grant, Maria B.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the fourth most common cause of blindness in adults. Current therapies, including anti-VEGF therapy, have partial efficacy in arresting the progression of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. This review provides an overview of a novel, innovative approach to viewing diabetic retinopathy as the result of an inflammatory cycle that affects the bone marrow (BM) and the central and sympathetic nervous systems. Diabetes associated inflammation may be the result of BM neuropathy which skews haematopoiesis towards generation of increased inflammatory cells but also reduced production of endothelial progenitor cells responsible for maintaining healthy endothelial function and renewal. The resulting systemic inflammation further impacts the hypothalamus, promoting insulin resistance and diabetes, and initiates an inflammatory cascade that adversely impacts both macrovascular and microvascular complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). This review examines the idea of using anti-inflammatory agents that cross not only the blood-retinal barrier to enter the retina but also have the capability to target the central nervous system and cross the blood-brain barrier to reduce neuroinflammation. This neuroinflammation in key sympathetic centers serves to not only perpetuate BM pathology but promote insulin resistance which is characteristic of type 2 diabetic patients (T2D) but is also seen in T1D. A case series of morbidly obese T2D patients with retinopathy and neuropathy treated with minocycline, a well-tolerated antibiotic that crosses both the blood-retina and blood-brain barrier is presented. Our results indicates that minocycine shows promise for improving visual acuity, reducing pain from peripheral neuropathy, promoting weight loss and improving blood pressure control and we postulate that these observed beneficial effects are due to a reduction of chronic inflammation. PMID:22609081

  8. Petaloid-pattern pigmentary retinopathy: a novel case report.

    PubMed

    Padhi, Tapas Ranjan; Jalali, Subhadra; Panda, Krushna Gopal; Mukherjee, Sujoy; Mohan, Neha; Agroiya, Pushpalata; Das, Taraprasad

    2014-10-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old girl with an unusual petaloid-pattern pigmentary retinopathy associated with nyctalopia and reduction of vision which had been invariably static over the past 5 years. We performed a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including fundoscopy, autofluorescent imaging, electroretinography and optical coherence tomography. There were diffuse retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) washout areas with blotches of pigment distributed in the pattern of a petal with marked chorioretinal atrophy and scar at the fovea. The arterial caliber was normal. Investigations ruled out intrauterine and neonatal infection. Systemically, she was healthy with normal intellect but with 3-month delayed milestones of development. She had used valproic acid for seizure disorder (without any organic central nervous system lesion) from 2-5 years of age. Electroretinography showed extinguished scotopic responses with slight reduction in cone responses. Optical coherence tomography showed a scar with attenuated RPE-choriocapillary complex at the macula. Her clinical profile did not fully match with any previously described pigmentary retinopathies except rod-cone dystrophy and choroidal dystrophy to a certain extent. The pigmentary retinopathy reported here is a combination of a petaloid pattern of pigmentary disturbance, stationary reduction of vision, nyctalopia, normal intellect and marginal delayed milestones. In the absence of such a description in the literature we named this disorder as petaloid-pattern pigmentary retinopathy.

  9. Delay in diabetic retinopathy screening increases the rate of detection of referable diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, P H; Aldington, S J; Stratton, I M

    2014-04-01

    To assess whether there is a relationship between delay in retinopathy screening after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and level of retinopathy detected. Patients were referred from 88 primary care practices to an English National Health Service diabetic eye screening programme. Data for screened patients were extracted from the primary care databases using semi-automated data collection algorithms supplemented by validation processes. The programme uses two-field mydriatic digital photographs graded by a quality assured team. Data were available for 8183 screened patients with diabetes newly diagnosed in 2005, 2006 or 2007. Only 163 with type 1 diabetes were identified and were insufficient for analysis. Data were available for 8020 with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Of these, 3569 were screened within 6 months, 2361 between 6 and 11 months, 1058 between 12 and 17 months, 366 between 18 and 23 months, 428 between 24 and 35 months, and 238 at 3 years or more after diagnosis. There were 5416 (67.5%) graded with no retinopathy, 1629 (20.3%) with background retinopathy in one eye, 753 (9.4%) with background retinopathy in both eyes and 222 (2.8%) had referable diabetic retinopathy. There was a significant trend (P = 0.0004) relating time from diagnosis to screening detecting worsening retinopathy. Of those screened within 6 months of diagnosis, 2.3% had referable retinopathy and, 3 years or more after diagnosis, 4.2% had referable retinopathy. The rate of detection of referable diabetic retinopathy is elevated in those who were not screened promptly after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  10. Comparison of tumor markers and clinicopathological features in serous and mucinous borderline ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Alanbay, I; Aktürk, E; Coksuer, H; Ercan, C M; Karaşahin, E; Dede, M; Yenen, M C; Ozan, H; Dilek, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess tumor markers and clinicopathological findings of patients with serous and mucinous borderline ovarian tumor (BOT) features. The study consisted of 50 patients that were diagnosed with and treated for BOT between 2005-2010 in three centers. CA125, CA19-9, and CA125+CA19-9 levels and clinicopathological features were compared in serous and mucinous histotypes. In serous and mucinous BOTs, correlations between tumor markers and demographics such as age, menopausal status, parity, clinical findings (stage, relapse, adjuvant chemotherapy, cytology, lymph node involvement and tumoral morphology (cystic-solid content, papilla, septation) were evaluated. There were no significant differences between serous and mucinous tumors in the clinicopathological features such as stage, tumor markers, age, menopausal status, or cytology. In serous BOTs we found a significant relation between elevated CA125+ CA19-9, CA19-9 and recurrence (p < 0.05). Also there was a significant relation between elevated CA125+ CA19-9, CA19-9 and cytology positivity (p < 0.05). We found a significant relation in serous BOTs between elevated CA125+CA19-9, adjuvant chemotherapy and lymph node metastases (p < 0.05). Also In mucinous BOTs with papilla formation we found a significant relation between elevated CA125 and CA125+ CA19-9 (p < 0.05). There was significant relation between cytology positivity and elevated CA19-9 in mucinous BOTs (p < 0.05). Serum tumor markers of serous and mucinous BOTs were different in relation to their clinicopathological features. This may reflect differences of serous and mucinous BOTs.

  11. Macular micropseudocysts in early stages of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Tremolada, Gemma; Pierro, Luisa; de Benedetto, Umberto; Margari, Sergio; Gagliardi, Marco; Maestranzi, Gisella; Calori, Giliola; Lorenzi, Mara; Lattanzio, Rosangela

    2011-01-01

    To identify by noninvasive means early retinal abnormalities that may predict diabetic macular edema. The authors analyzed retrospectively data from consecutive patients with Type 1 (n = 16) or Type 2 (n = 23) diabetes who presented for routine follow-up of early retinopathy, had no clinical signs or symptoms of diabetic macular edema, and were evaluated with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Age- and gender-matched nondiabetic subjects provided normative data. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed in the macular region of diabetic patients small hyporeflective areas (median diameter, 55 μm) contained within discrete retinal layers that we named micropseudocysts (MPCs). Micropseudocysts are associated with vascular leakage. The patients showing MPCs had more frequently systemic hypertension and increased central foveal thickness than those without MPCs. The association with increased central foveal thickness was only in the patients with Type 2 diabetes. Macular MPCs in patients with mild diabetic retinopathy appear to reflect leakage and can precede macular thickening. The association of MPCs with increased central foveal thickness in patients with Type 2 diabetes, but not in patients with Type 1 diabetes, points to a greater tendency to retinal fluid accumulation in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Studies in larger cohorts will determine the usefulness of MPCs in strategies to abort diabetic macular edema.

  12. Pneumatic Displacement with Perfluoropropane Gas and Intravitreal Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Subretinal Subfoveal Hemorrhage after Focal Laser Photocoagulation in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Juan V.; Lasave, Andres F.; Savino-Zari, Dario; Arevalo, Fernando A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To report the visual and anatomic outcomes of pneumatic displacement with perfluoropropane (C3F8) gas and intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator (IVTPA) for subretinal subfoveal hemorrhage after focal laser photocoagulation in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Method. Interventional, retrospective case report of one eye (one patient). Outcome measures included visual acuity (VA), central macular thickness (CMT), and size of the lesion at two weeks of followup. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) were used to measure anatomic outcomes. Results. A 35-year-old man with history of chronic CSCR received focal laser photocoagulation in the right eye two days before presentation. At initial examination, VA was 20/200 (ETDRS chart), CMT was 398 μ, and a subretinal subfoveal hemorrhage was seen. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) at a dose of 25 µg/0.1 mL was injected intravitreally before intravitreal C3F8 injection, and prone positioning was indicated postoperatively. At 24 hours, the hemorrhage had been displaced inferiorly and VA improved to 20/100. Two weeks later, VA improved to 20/80, CMT decreased to 225 μ, and the hemorrhage decreased without foveal involvement. Conclusions. The technique seems safe and effective in treating visually significant subretinal subfoveal hemorrhage. PMID:25485161

  13. Central chorioretinopathy associated with topical use of minoxidil 2% for treatment of baldness.

    PubMed

    Scarinci, Fabio; Mezzana, Paolo; Pasquini, Paola; Colletti, Michelle; Cacciamani, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Minoxidil is one of the drugs approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. This article presents a case of central serous chorioretinopathy after application of topical minoxidil solution. We examined a 37-year-old man who complained of a positive relative scotoma, metamorphopsia and impaired dark adaptation involving the right eye. The patient reported an 8 month history of daily topical use but denied previous treatment with other drugs. Dilated fundus examination of right eye revealed central swelling located over the macula. Optical coherence tomography showed the presence of subretinal fluid. Fluorescein angiography disclosed one focal hyperfluorescent spot in the foveal area with minimal pigmentary changes limitated to that area. The patient was diagnosed with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) potentially related to an 8 month topical minoxidil solution administration. One month after the drug was discontinued, normal findings were found upon reexamination. The patient reported no previous episode of CSC. Major systemic side effects from topical solution of minoxidil are rare. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a central serous chorioretinopathy associated with long-term use of this drug.

  14. Predicted impact of extending the screening interval for diabetic retinopathy: the Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Screening programme.

    PubMed

    Looker, H C; Nyangoma, S O; Cromie, D T; Olson, J A; Leese, G P; Philip, S; Black, M W; Doig, J; Lee, N; Briggs, A; Hothersall, E J; Morris, A D; Lindsay, R S; McKnight, J A; Pearson, D W M; Sattar, N A; Wild, S H; McKeigue, P; Colhoun, H M

    2013-08-01

    The aim of our study was to identify subgroups of patients attending the Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Screening (DRS) programme who might safely move from annual to two yearly retinopathy screening. This was a retrospective cohort study of screening data from the DRS programme collected between 2005 and 2011 for people aged ≥12 years with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Scotland. We used hidden Markov models to calculate the probabilities of transitions to referable diabetic retinopathy (referable background or proliferative retinopathy) or referable maculopathy. The study included 155,114 individuals with no referable diabetic retinopathy or maculopathy at their first DRS examination and with one or more further DRS examinations. There were 11,275 incident cases of referable diabetic eye disease (9,204 referable maculopathy, 2,071 referable background or proliferative retinopathy). The observed transitions to referable background or proliferative retinopathy were lower for people with no visible retinopathy vs mild background retinopathy at their prior examination (respectively, 1.2% vs 8.1% for type 1 diabetes and 0.6% vs 5.1% for type 2 diabetes). The lowest probability for transitioning to referable background or proliferative retinopathy was among people with two consecutive screens showing no visible retinopathy, where the probability was <0.3% for type 1 and <0.2% for type 2 diabetes at 2 years. Transition rates to referable diabetic eye disease were lowest among people with type 2 diabetes and two consecutive screens showing no visible retinopathy. If such people had been offered two yearly screening the DRS service would have needed to screen 40% fewer people in 2009.

  15. The hyper-fluorescent transitional bands in ultra-late phase of indocyanine green angiography in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Hua, Rui; Yao, Kai; Xia, Fan; Li, Jun; Guo, Lei; Yang, Guoxing; Tao, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is regarded as a type of severe diffuse retinal pigment epitheliopathy. There is an atrophic tract at level of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) due to hyper-permeability of choroidal vessels, along with photoreceptor (PR) atrophy. Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) is considered a gold standard for diagnosis. The purpose of this work is to investigate the hyper-fluorescent transitional bands (HFTB) between hypo-fluorescent and normal regions of the retina in the ultra-late phase of ICGA in CSCR. 26 chronic CSCR eyes and 12 relative normal eyes received spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and ICGA at the 24th hour after indocyanine green (ICG) intravenous injection. In the ultra-late phase, images showed homogenous fluorescence in all normal eyes. On the contrary, geographical hypofluorescent lesions with atrophy of RPE was noted in 26 chronic CSCR eyes. Moreover, HFTB with intact RPE and disrupted PR was detected in 20 out of 26 chronic CSCR eyes (76.9%). The HFTB may indicate the early damage in chronic CSCR. Ultra-late ICGA can monitor not only metabolic status by endogenous melanin, but also membrane function in RPE by exogenous ICG molecule. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The effect of oral acetazolamide on cystoid macular edema in hydroxychloroquine retinopathy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eun Hee; Ahn, Seong Joon; Lim, Han Woong; Lee, Byung Ro

    2017-07-12

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy can accompany other retinal complications such as cystoid macular edema (CME), which leads to central visual loss. We report a case of CME with HCQ retinopathy that improved with the use of oral acetazolamide, and discussed the possible mechanisms of CME in HCQ retinopathy using multimodal imaging modalities. A 62-year-old patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and HCQ retinopathy developed bilateral CME with visual decline. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed fluorescein leakage in the macular and midperipheral area. After treatment with oral acetazolamide (250 mg/day) for one month, CME was completely resolved, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved from 20/50 to 20/25, and FA examination showed decreased dye leakage in the macular and midperipheral areas. In cases of vision loss in HCQ retinopathy, it is important to consider not only progression of maculopathy, but also development of CME, which can be effectively treated with oral acetazolamide.

  17. Recent clinically relevant highlights from the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network.

    PubMed

    Krick, Tracy W; Bressler, Neil M

    2018-05-01

    To present some recent clinically relevant results from Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research (DRCR) Network trials that may guide management of diabetic macular edema (DME) or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Among eyes with DME and visual acuity 20/50 or worse, aflibercept, on average, had greater improvement in visual acuity over 2 years compared with bevacizumab or ranibizumab. Aflibercept is associated with higher rates of improvements in diabetic retinopathy severity among eyes with PDR and vision-impairing DME at baseline compared with bevacizumab or ranibizumab. Among eyes with persistent central-involved DME after at least six antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections, no difference in mean visual acuity improvement was observed between eyes that received continued ranibizumab and sham injections versus ranibizumab and intravitreous sustained dexamethasone drug-delivery system, especially for phakic eyes. For eyes with PDR, ranibizumab was associated with lower rates of developing PDR-worsening events compared with panretinal photocoagulation, especially among eyes that did not receive ranibizumab for central-involved DME at baseline. Ranibizumab is cost-effective for PDR for eyes with, not without, vision-impairing central-involved DME, highlighting challenges when safety and efficacy results are at odds with cost-effectiveness results. Aflibercept for DME, in certain circumstances, is more likely to have superior visual acuity and anatomical outcomes compared with bevacizumab or ranibizumab. No vision benefits are apparent, especially for phakic eyes, by adding intravitreous corticosteroids for persistent DME following anti-VEGF injections.

  18. The Role of Microglia in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby, Jeffery G.; Cardona, Sandra M.; Pouw, Cindy E.; Muniz, Alberto; Mendiola, Andrew S.; Tsin, Andrew T. C.; Allen, Donald M.; Cardona, Astrid E.

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that chronic inflammation plays a role in both the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy. There is also evidence that molecules produced as a result of hyperglycemia can activate microglia. However the exact contribution of microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, to retinal tissue damage during diabetes remains unclear. Current data suggest that dysregulated microglial responses are linked to their deleterious effects in several neurological diseases associated with chronic inflammation. As inflammatory cytokines and hyperglycemia disseminate through the diabetic retina, microglia can change to an activated state, increase in number, translocate through the retina, and themselves become the producers of inflammatory and apoptotic molecules or alternatively exert anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, microglial genetic variations may account for some of the individual differences commonly seen in patient's susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25258680

  19. Revisiting the role of radiation treatment for non-serous subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G

    2013-01-01

    Except for its palliative use, radiation has been largely abandoned in the management of ovarian cancers because of the recognized efficacy of chemotherapy agents. Whole abdominal irradiation (WAR), however, has been shown to be of adjuvant and curative value in ovarian cancer with microscopic or minimal residual disease in the pelvis, the so-called "intermediate risk group." Recent hypothesis generating data from the use of adjuvant radiation following adjuvant chemotherapy in ovarian cancer has shown an incremental survival benefit for the rarer non-serous ovarian subtypes including clear cell, endometrioid, and mucinous. No incremental benefit was observed for the more common serous subtype. A retrospective examination of early trials using WAR as the sole postoperative treatment in ovarian cancer has determined that the majority of patients in these studies and cured by radiation actually had the non-serous subtypes. The recognition that the non-serous subtypes differ from the serous cancers in their stage of presentation, their molecular characteristics, their response to classic chemotherapy, and their outcomes suggest the non-serous subtypes should be treated as rare and different cancers. In addition to specific targeting therapies that may be developed, radiation should be reconsidered as part of the treatment armamentarium for these diseases.

  20. Prognosis for advanced-stage primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma and serous ovarian cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, Kuan-Chong; Chen, Yi-Jen; Juang, Chi-Mou; Lau, Hei-Yu; Wen, Kuo-Chang; Sung, Pi-Lin; Fang, Feng-Ying; Twu, Nae-Fang; Yen, Ming-Shyen

    2013-03-01

    To compare the prognosis of patients with advanced-stage primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma (PSPC) or papillary serous ovarian cancer (PSOC). This was a retrospective case-control study and included two study groups: one with stage III/IV PSPC (n = 38) patients and the other with PSOC (n = 53) patients. Patients were matched for histologic subtype (serous tumor), tumor stage, tumor grade, residual disease at the end of debulking surgery (primary or interval), and age (±5 years). Mean age was significantly greater for patients with PSPC (63.03 ± 11.88 years) than for patients with PSOC (55.92 ± 12.56 years, p = 0.008). Optimal debulking surgery was performed initially in 71.9% of PSPC patients and 66.0% of PSOC patients. In addition, 93.9% of PSPC patients and 92.3% of PSOC patients were treated with platinum-paclitaxel chemotherapy. The frequency of high-grade tumors was significantly higher in the PSPC (100%) than in the PSOC group (68.3%; p < 0.001). Progression-free survival (PFS) was similar in the PSPC [median 12 months, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.3-16.7] and PSOC groups (median 16.7 months, 95% CI 12.9-20.4; p = 0.470). Overall survival was shorter in the PSPC (median 62 months, 95% CI 19.6-104.4) than in the PSOC group (median 77.5 months, 95% CI 69.7-85.2; p = 0.006, log-rank statistic). PFS was similar for advanced-stage PSPC and PSOC patients. Since the PSPC patients tended to be older and have more high-grade tumors, OS was shorter for PSPC than for POSC patients. Thus, management of the two types of cancer should not differ. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization in zebrafish embryos: a potential model of retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chao-Yuan; Kao, Alex; Hsi, Brian; Lee, Shwu-Huey; Chen, Yau-Hung; Wang, I-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity, formerly known as a retrolental fibroplasia, is a leading cause of infantile blindness worldwide. Retinopathy of prematurity is caused by the failure of central retinal vessels to reach the retinal periphery, creating a nonperfused peripheral retina, resulting in retinal hypoxia, neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, vitreoretinal fibrosis, and loss of vision. We established a potential retinopathy of prematurity model by using a green fluorescent vascular endothelium zebrafish transgenic line treated with cobalt chloride (a hypoxia-inducing agent), followed by GS4012 (a vascular endothelial growth factor inducer) at 24 hours postfertilization, and observed that the number of vascular branches and sprouts significantly increased in the central retinal vascular trunks 2-4 days after treatment. We created an angiography method by using tetramethylrhodamine dextran, which exhibited severe vascular leakage through the vessel wall into the surrounding retinal tissues. The quantification of mRNA extracted from the heads of the larvae by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed a twofold increase in vegfaa and vegfr2 expression compared with the control group, indicating increased vascular endothelial growth factor signaling in the hypoxic condition. In addition, we demonstrated that the hypoxic insult could be effectively rescued by several antivascular endothelial growth factor agents such as SU5416, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab. In conclusion, we provide a simple, highly reproducible, and clinically relevant retinopathy of prematurity model based on zebrafish embryos; this model may serve as a useful platform for clarifying the mechanisms of human retinopathy of prematurity and its progression.

  2. Hypoxia-Induced Retinal Neovascularization in Zebrafish Embryos: A Potential Model of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Alex; Hsi, Brian; Lee, Shwu-Huey; Chen, Yau-Hung; Wang, I-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity, formerly known as a retrolental fibroplasia, is a leading cause of infantile blindness worldwide. Retinopathy of prematurity is caused by the failure of central retinal vessels to reach the retinal periphery, creating a nonperfused peripheral retina, resulting in retinal hypoxia, neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, vitreoretinal fibrosis, and loss of vision. We established a potential retinopathy of prematurity model by using a green fluorescent vascular endothelium zebrafish transgenic line treated with cobalt chloride (a hypoxia-inducing agent), followed by GS4012 (a vascular endothelial growth factor inducer) at 24 hours postfertilization, and observed that the number of vascular branches and sprouts significantly increased in the central retinal vascular trunks 2–4 days after treatment. We created an angiography method by using tetramethylrhodamine dextran, which exhibited severe vascular leakage through the vessel wall into the surrounding retinal tissues. The quantification of mRNA extracted from the heads of the larvae by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed a twofold increase in vegfaa and vegfr2 expression compared with the control group, indicating increased vascular endothelial growth factor signaling in the hypoxic condition. In addition, we demonstrated that the hypoxic insult could be effectively rescued by several antivascular endothelial growth factor agents such as SU5416, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab. In conclusion, we provide a simple, highly reproducible, and clinically relevant retinopathy of prematurity model based on zebrafish embryos; this model may serve as a useful platform for clarifying the mechanisms of human retinopathy of prematurity and its progression. PMID:25978439

  3. Overexpression and oncogenic function of HMGA2 in endometrial serous carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Linxuan; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Wenjing; Wei, Yuyan; Li, Yingwei; Zhang, Qing; Dong, Ruifen; Kwon, Jungeun Sarah; Liu, Zhaojian; Zheng, Wenxin; Kong, Beihua

    2016-01-01

    The high-mobility group A protein 2 (HMGA2) is a non-histone chromatin factor highly expressed in fetal tissue and malignant tumors but rarely detected within normal adult tissues. The clinical implications and biological functions of HMGA2 in endometrial carcinoma are largely unknown. Here we report that HMGA2 expression was barely detected in benign endometrium samples (2 of 28 samples). However, HMGA2 expression increased significantly from precancerous lesion endometrial glandular dysplasia (7 of 17, 41.2%), to serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (5 of 8, 62.5%) and to full blown endometrial serous carcinoma (39 of 59, 66.1%). Functional characterization of HMGA2 revealed that the gene has both tumor growth promotion and metastasis. In addition, HMGA2 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through modulation vimentin and β-catenin. Furthermore, HMGA2 overexpression started from endometrial serous precancers, non-invasive cancers, as well as in full blown carcinomas in a p53 knockout mouse model we recently established in our laboratory. Our findings suggest that HMGA2 may serve as a useful diagnostic marker in the assessment of endometrial serous cancer and its precursor lesions. PMID:27186400

  4. [Crystalline retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Rasquin, F

    2007-01-01

    Crystalline retinopathy is characterized by intraretinal crystalline deposits that, according to their etiology, can be localized in the macular area or, indeed, be found in the entire retina. These deposits can be associated or not to visual loss and electrophysiological perturbations. Among the toxic drugs leading to this retinopathy are tamoxifen, canthaxanthine, methoxyflurane, talc and nitrofurantoin. A detailed description of tamoxifen and canthaxanthine toxicity is reported in this chapter.

  5. Integrative understanding of macular morphologic patterns in diabetic retinopathy based on self-organizing map.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tomoaki; Ueda-Arakawa, Naoko; Nishijima, Kazuaki; Uji, Akihito; Horii, Takahiro; Ogino, Ken; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-03-28

    To integrate parameters on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) based on the self-organizing map and objectively describe the macular morphologic patterns. A total of 336 consecutive eyes of 216 patients with DR for whom clear SD-OCT images were available were retrospectively reviewed. Eleven OCT parameters and the logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) were measured. These multidimensional data were analyzed based on the self-organizing map on which similar cases were near each other according to the degree of their similarities, followed by the objective clustering. Self-organizing maps indicated that eyes with greater retinal thickness in the central subfield had greater thicknesses in the superior and temporal subfields. Eyes with foveal serous retinal detachment (SRD) had greater thickness in the nasal or inferior subfield. Eyes with foveal cystoid spaces were arranged to the left upper corner on the two-dimensional map; eyes with foveal SRD to the left lower corner; eyes with thickened retinal parenchyma to the lower area. The following objective clustering demonstrated the unsupervised pattern recognition of macular morphologies in diabetic macular edema (DME) as well as the higher-resolution discrimination of DME per se. Multiple regression analyses showed better association of logMAR with retinal thickness in the inferior subfield in eyes with SRD and with external limiting membrane disruption in eyes with foveal cystoid spaces or thickened retinal parenchyma. The self-organizing map facilitates integrative understanding of the macular morphologic patterns and the structural/functional relationship in DR.

  6. Preventing radiation retinopathy with hyperfractionation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Monroe, Alan T.; Bhandare, Niranjan; Morris, Christopher G.

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with the development of radiation retinopathy in a large series of patients with head-and-neck cancer. In particular, we addressed whether the use of hyperfractionated radiation therapy was effective in reducing the risk of retinopathy. Methods and materials: One hundred eighty-six patients received a significant dose to the retina as part of curative radiotherapy. Primary sites included: nasopharynx, 46; paranasal sinus, 64; nasal cavity, 69; and palate, 7. Prescription doses varied depending on primary site and histology. Hyperfractionated (twice-daily) radiation was delivered to 42% of the patients in this study,more » typically at 1.10 to 1.20 Gy per fraction. The remainder were treated once-daily. Retinal doses were determined from computerized dosimetry plans when available. For all other patients, retinal doses were retrospectively calculated using reconstructed off-axis dosimetry taken from contours through the center of the globes. Retinal dose was defined as the minimum dose received by at least 25% of the globe. The median retinal dose was 56.85 Gy. Patients were followed for a median of 7.6 years. Results: Thirty-one eyes in 30 patients developed radiation retinopathy, resulting in monocular blindness in 25, bilateral blindness in 1, and decreased visual acuity in 4. The median time to the diagnosis of retinopathy was 2.6 years (range, 11 months to 5.3 years). The actuarial incidence of developing radiation retinopathy was 20% at both 5 and 10 years. The incidence of developing ipsilateral blindness due to retinopathy was 16% at 5 years and 17% at 10 years. Site-specific incidences varied considerably, with ethmoid sinus (9 of 25, 36%), nasal cavity (13 of 69, 19%), and maxillary sinus (6 of 35, 17%) being the most common sites associated with radiation retinopathy. Three of 72 patients (4%) receiving retinal doses less than 50 Gy developed retinopathy. Higher retinal doses

  7. Identification and Characterization of Genomic Amplifications in Ovarian Serous Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    lower cost. As a result, we have analyzed more than 40 affinity purified ovarian serous tumors and our results demonstrated that CCNE1, Notch3 , Rsf-1...serous tumors. In addition, we have further characterized the biological functions of the two of the commonly amplified genes, Notch3 and Rsf-1, in...analyses, we have focused on two of the most frequently amplified regions, 11q13.2 (Rsf-1 locus) and 19p13 ( Notch3 locus), for detailed mapping and

  8. Color Doppler imaging of the retrobulbar vessels in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Pauk-Domańska, Magdalena; Walasik-Szemplińska, Dorota

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by elevated blood glucose level due to impaired insulin secretion and activity. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to functional disorders of numerous organs and to their damage. Vascular lesions belong to the most common late complications of diabetes. Microangiopathic lesions can be found in the eyeball, kidneys and nervous system. Macroangiopathy is associated with coronary and peripheral vessels. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common microangiopathic complication characterized by closure of slight retinal blood vessels and their permeability. Despite intensive research, the pathomechanism that leads to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy is not fully understood. The examinations used in assessing diabetic retinopathy usually involve imaging of the vessels in the eyeball and the retina. Therefore, the examinations include: fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography of the retina, B-mode ultrasound imaging, perimetry and digital retinal photography. There are many papers that discuss the correlations between retrobulbar circulation alterations and progression of diabetic retinopathy based on Doppler sonography. Color Doppler imaging is a non-invasive method enabling measurements of blood flow velocities in small vessels of the eyeball. The most frequently assessed vessels include: the ophthalmic artery, which is the first branch of the internal carotid artery, as well as the central retinal vein and artery, and the posterior ciliary arteries. The analysis of hemodynamic alterations in the retrobulbar vessels may deliver important information concerning circulation in diabetes and help to answer the question whether there is a relation between the progression of diabetic retinopathy and the changes observed in blood flow in the vessels of the eyeball. This paper presents the overview of literature regarding studies on blood flow in the vessels of the eyeball in patients with diabetic

  9. Neuropeptides degranulate serous cells of ferret tracheal glands

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gashi, A.A.; Borson, D.B.; Finkbeiner, W.E.

    1986-08-01

    To determine whether serous or mucous cells in tracheal submucosal glands respond to the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The authors studied the peptide-induced changes in gland cell morphology accompanying release of TVSO4-labeled macromolecules from tracheal explants of ferrets. Explants were labeled for 1 h in medium containing TVSO4 and washed for 3.5 additional hours. Base-line secretion in the absence of drugs declined between 1.5 and 3.5 h after the pulse. Between 2.5 and 3.5 h, the average percent change in counts per minute recovered per sample period was not significantly different from zero. Substance Pmore » and VIP added 4 h after labeling each increased greatly the release of TVSO4-labeled macromolecules above base line. Bethanechol, a muscarinic-cholinergic agonist, increased secretion by an average of 142% above base line. Light and electron microscopy of the control tissues showed glands with narrow lumens and numerous secretory granules. Glands treated with SP or VIP had enlarged lumens and the serous cells were markedly degranulated. These phenomena were documented by morphometry and suggest that SP and VIP cause secretion from glands at least partially by stimulating exocytosis from serous cells.« less

  10. Arginase in Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, S. Priya; Rojas, Modesto; Suwanpradid, Jutamas; Toque, Haroldo A.; Caldwell, R. William; Caldwell, Ruth B.

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic retinopathies, such as diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinopathy of prematurity and retinal vein occlusion are a major cause of blindness in developed nations worldwide. Each of these conditions is associated with early neurovascular dysfunction. However, conventional therapies target clinically significant macula edema or neovascularization, which occur much later. Intraocular injections of anti-VEGF show promise in reducing retinal edema, but the effects are usually transient and the need for repeated injections increases the risk of intraocular infection. Laser photocoagulation can control pathological neovascularization, but may impair vision and in some patients the retinopathy continues to progress. Moreover, neither treatment targets early stage disease or promotes repair. This review examines the potential role of the ureahydrolase enzyme arginase as a therapeutic target for the treatment of ischemic retinopathy. Arginase metabolizes L-arginine to form proline, polyamines and glutamate. Excessive arginase activity reduces the L-arginine supply for nitric oxide synthase (NOS), causing it to become uncoupled and produce superoxide and less NO. Superoxide and NO react and form the toxic oxidant peroxynitrite. The catabolic products of polyamine oxidation and glutamate can induce more oxidative stress and DNA damage, both of which can cause cellular injury. Studies indicate that neurovascular injury during retinopathy is associated with increased arginase expression/activity, decreased NO, polyamine oxidation, formation of superoxide and peroxynitrite and dysfunction and injury of both vascular and neural cells. Furthermore, data indicate that the cytosolic isoform arginase I (AI) is involved in hyperglycemia-induced dysfunction and injury of vascular endothelial cells whereas the mitochondrial isoform arginase II (AII) is involved in neurovascular dysfunction and death following hyperoxia exposure. Thus, we postulate that activation of the arginase

  11. Retinopathy of Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinweg, Sue Byrd; Griffin, Harold C.; Griffin, Linda W.; Gingras, Happy

    2005-01-01

    The eyes of premature infants are especially vulnerable to injury after birth. A serious complication is called retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is abnormal growth of the blood vessels in an infant's eye. Retinopathy of prematurity develops when abnormal blood vessels grow and spread throughout the retina, which is the nerve tissue at the…

  12. Retinopathy of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois E H; Dammann, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    The immature retinas of preterm neonates are susceptible to insults that disrupt neurovascular growth, leading to retinopathy of prematurity. Suppression of growth factors due to hyperoxia and loss of the maternal–fetal interaction result in an arrest of retinal vascularisation (phase 1). Subsequently, the increasingly metabolically active, yet poorly vascularised, retina becomes hypoxic, stimulating growth factor-induced vasoproliferation (phase 2), which can cause retinal detachment. In very premature infants, controlled oxygen administration reduces but does not eliminate retinopathy of prematurity. Identification and control of factors that contribute to development of retinopathy of prematurity is essential to prevent progression to severe sight-threatening disease and to limit comorbidities with which the disease shares modifiable risk factors. Strategies to prevent retinopathy of prematurity will depend on optimisation of oxygen saturation, nutrition, and normalisation of concentrations of essential factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as curbing of the effects of infection and inflammation to promote normal growth and limit suppression of neurovascular development. PMID:23782686

  13. Retinal changes in diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Alina Gabriela; Istrate, Sinziana Luminita; Iancu, Raluca Claudia; Guta, Oana Maria; Ciuluvica, Radu; Voinea, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure retinal vessel caliber and to examine early changes in macular thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We evaluated to what extend vascular caliber and macular thickness differed between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without diabetic retinopathy compared with healthy individuals. 26 diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy and 26 normal participants without any retinal and optic nerve diseases underwent ophthalmic examination, fundus photography, and OCT imaging. Temporal inferior retinal vessel diameters were measured using OCT. Also, we measured macular thickness in nine ETDRS subfields using Cirrus OCT. The mean age in the diabetic group was 61.5 years and in the control group, 55.5 years. Wider retinal arterioles and venules were found in patients with diabetes compared with healthy subjects (120 µm versus 96 µm, p<0.005 and 137 µm versus 120.5 µm, p value <0.001, respectively). In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, central macular thickness was significantly thinner than that of control eyes (243.5 µm versus 269.9 µm, p value <0.001). Our results support the hypothesis that the association between vascular damage and structural changes of the neuroretina is an early indicator of retinal impairment in patients with diabetes without diabetic retinopathy.

  14. Purtscher-like retinopathy associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Ting, Darren Shu Jeng; Smith, Jonathan; Talks, Stephen James

    2018-02-01

    To describe a previously unreported case of Purtscher-like retinopathy secondary to severe acute renal failure associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. This is a case report. A 31-year-old female presented with a week history of acute abdominal pain, vomiting and severe renal failure followed by a sudden onset of bilateral visual loss. Vision was hand movement in either eye with central scotoma. Ophthalmic examination demonstrated bilateral retinal thickening and whitening with intraretinal hemorrhages localized to the peripapillary area, consistent with the diagnosis of Purtscher-like retinopathy. Further systemic examination revealed bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to underlying undiagnosed cervical carcinoma. Patient was treated with a short course of high-dose steroids. At 2 months, patient vision remained poor despite the resolution of retinal edema and hemorrhages. This case serves as the first report of Purtscher-like retinopathy secondary to acute renal failure associated with cervical carcinoma, expanding the list of causes of Purtscher's or Purtscher-like retinopathies. In the presence of significant uremia and absence of previously known association, the authors postulate that the sudden surge of uremia causes increase of endothelin-1 (a potent vasoconstrictor), resulting in downstream endothelin-induced vasculopathy with subsequent occlusion of the pre-capillary arteriolar network.

  15. Effect of Tubal Sterilization Technique on Risk of Serous Ovarian and Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LESSARD-ANDERSON, Collette R.; HANDLOGTEN, Kathryn S.; MOLITOR, Rochelle J.; DOWDY, Sean C.; CLIBY, William A.; WEAVER, Amy L.; SAUVER, Jennifer ST.; BAKKUM-GAMEZ, Jamie N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of excisional tubal sterilization on subsequent development of serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) or primary peritoneal cancer (PPC). Methods We performed a population-based, nested case-control study using the Rochester Epidemiology Project. We identified all patients with a diagnosis of serous EOC or PPC from 1966 through 2009. Each case was age-matched to 2 controls without either diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated from conditional logistic regression models. Models were adjusted for prior hysterectomy, prior salpingo-oophorectomy, oral contraceptive use, endometriosis, infertility, gravidity, and parity. Results In total, we identified 194 cases of serous EOC and PPC during the study period and matched them with 388 controls (mean [SD] age, 61.4 [15.2] years). Fourteen cases (7.2%) and 46 controls (11.9%) had undergone tubal sterilization. Adjusted risk of serous EOC or PPC was slightly lower after any tubal sterilization (OR, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.29–1.17]; P=.13). The rate of excisional tubal sterilization was lower in cases than controls (2.6% vs 6.4%). Adjusted risk of serous EOC and PPC was decreased by 64% after excisional tubal sterilization (OR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.13–1.02]; P=.054) compared with those without sterilization or with nonexcisional tubal sterilization. Conclusions We present a population-based investigation of the effects of excisional tubal sterilization on the risk of serous EOC and PPC. Excisional methods may confer greater risk reduction than other sterilization methods. PMID:25316178

  16. Molecular Analysis of Mixed Endometrioid and Serous Adenocarcinoma of the Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Lawrenson, Kate; Pakzamir, Elham; Liu, Biao; Lee, Janet M.; Delgado, Melissa K.; Duncan, Kara; Gayther, Simon A.; Liu, Song; Roman, Lynda; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    Background The molecular biology and cellular origins of mixed type endometrial carcinomas (MT-ECs) are poorly understood, and a Type II component of 10 percent or less may confer poorer prognoses. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 10 cases of MT-EC (containing endometrioid and serous differentiation), 5 pure low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC) and 5 pure uterine serous carcinoma (USC). Endometrioid and serous components of the MT-ECs were macrodissected and the expression of 60 candidate genes compared between MT-EC, pure USC and pure EAC. We found that four genes were differentially expressed when MT-ECs were compared to pure low-grade EAC: CDKN2A (P = 0.006), H19 (P = 0.010), HOMER2 (P = 0.009) and TNNT1 (P = 0.006). Also while we found that even though MT-ECs closely resembled the molecular profiles of pure USCs, they also exhibit lower expression of PAX8 compared to all pure cases combined (P = 0.035). Conclusion Our data suggest that MT-EC exhibits the closest molecular and epidemiological similarities to pure USC and supports clinical observations that suggest patients with MT-EC should receive the same treatment as patients with pure serous carcinoma. Novel specific markers of MT-EC could be of diagnostic utility and could represent novel therapeutic targets in the future. PMID:26132201

  17. Pancreatic mixed serous neuroendocrine neoplasm with clear cells leading to diagnosis of von Hippel Lindau disease.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Aanchal; Sharma, Mehar C; Yadav, Rajni; Panwar, Rajesh; Mathur, Sandeep R; Iyer, Venkateswaran K; Sahni, Peush

    2016-08-01

    Mixed serous neuroendocrine neoplasms are extremely rare tumors that are usually seen in female patients and are often associated with von Hippel Lindau (VHL) disease. We describe the case of a 38-year-old male who presented with complaints of anorexia, weight loss, and abdominal pain. CT abdomen showed a mass in the head of the pancreas, multiple small nodules in the body of pancreas, and bilateral adrenal masses. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from the mass showed features of a neuroendocrine tumor, with many of the cells demonstrating abundant clear cytoplasm. Histopathological examination of the pancreaticoduodenectomy specimen showed a mixed serous neuroendocrine neoplasm with two components viz. serous cystadenoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) World Health Organization (WHO) grade 2. In addition, he was diagnosed to have bilateral pheochromocytomas and a paraganglioma. The synchronicity of these tumors suggested the possibility of VHL disease. Thus, identification of a NET with clear cells or of a mixed serous neuroendocrine neoplasm should raise suspicion of VHL disease. In a mixed tumor, FNAC may identify only one of the two components. Thorough processing of all pancreatic serous tumors for pathological examination is recommended, as NET may occur as a small nodule within the serous cystadenoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Diabetic Retinopathy: Nature and Extent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, W. Ronald; Patz, Arnall

    1978-01-01

    The authors discuss the incidence and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in juvenile and maturity onset diabetics, background and proliferative retinopathy, and current modalities of treatment. (Author)

  19. Solar retinopathy. A study from Nepal and from Germany.

    PubMed

    Rai, N; Thuladar, L; Brandt, F; Arden, G B; Berninger, T A

    1998-01-01

    319 patients with a solar retinopathy were seen in an eye clinic in Nepal within 20 months. All patients had either a positive history of sun-gazing or typical circumscribed scars in the foveal area. In more than 80% of the patients the visual acuity was 6/12 or better and did not deteriorate over time. 126 (40%) patients had a history of gazing at the sun during an eclipse, 33 (10%) were sun worshipers and 4 (1%) were in both categories. Three years later 29 patients were re-examined in a follow-up study. Only 16 had had visual disturbances directly after they had gazed into the sun. No colour vision defects were seen in any of the 44 affected eyes, when tested with Panel D 15, while four patients (6 eyes) had some uncertainty with the tritan plates of the Ishihara test charts. Metamorphopsia were recorded in 11 eyes. Five German patients with solar retinopathy were examined in more detail. Colour contrast sensitivity (CCS) was tested for the central and the peripheral visual field. CCS for tritan axis was raised in all patients for the central visual field, while it was normal for the peripheral visual field.

  20. Correlational Study of Diabetic Retinopathy and Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Ooley, Caroline; Jun, Weon; Le, Kim; Kim, Allen; Rock, Nathan; Cardenal, Molly; Kline, Rebecca; Aldrich, Drew; Hayes, John

    2017-03-01

    Our research goal was to complete a retrospective chart review to determine if there is a correlation between the level of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic neurosensory hearing loss. A retrospective analysis of 175 Department of Veterans Affairs Computerized Patient Record System charts was completed at the VA Portland Health Care System. Subjects were classified by degree of diabetic retinopathy as follows: no diabetic retinopathy (n = 80), mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (n = 51), moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (n = 25), and combined severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) (n = 17). Degree of sensorineural hearing was collected for each ear. Additionally, measures of diabetic control, including hemoglobin A1C, and creatinine, were recorded. After controlling for diabetic control, as measured by HbA1C and creatinine, level of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with hearing loss severity in both ears (right ear, P = .018 and left ear, P = .007). When adjusted to include diabetes control, the severity of diabetic retinopathy showed a correlation with degree of hearing loss at most levels. Because of this association, recommendation for hearing evaluations may be considered for those with mild, moderate, or severe nonproliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

  1. Retinal micropseudocysts in diabetic retinopathy: prospective functional and anatomic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Forte, Raimondo; Cennamo, Gilda; Finelli, Maria Luisa; Bonavolontà, Paola; Greco, Giovanni Maria; de Crecchio, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence, progression and functional predictive value of retinal micropseudocysts (MPCs) in diabetic patients. Prospective controlled observational study. From among all the type 2 diabetic patients evaluated during a period of 5 months between September 2009 and January 2010, we enrolled all patients with retinal MPCs at spectral-domain scanning laser ophthalmoscope/optical coherence tomography (SD-SLO/OCT) not previously treated for diabetic retinopathy. Forty diabetic patients without MPCs served as the control group. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), macular sensitivity and stability of fixation at SD-SLO/OCT microperimetry were measured monthly for 12 months. 22/156 patients with type 2 diabetes (14.1%, 32 eyes) met the inclusion criteria. The 95% confidence interval for the prevalence estimate of MPCs was 12.3-16.6%. Mean BCVA, CRT and central retinal sensitivity at baseline were 77.53 ± 2.2 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters, 242.31 ± 31.0 µm and 15.95 ± 0.61 dB, respectively. Fixation was stable in all cases. Compared to the control group, eyes with MPCs had similar BCVA but greater CRT (p = 0.01) and reduced macular sensitivity (p = 0.001) at baseline and at each follow-up visit. Over time, CRT remained stable in eyes with MPCs, whereas macular sensitivity progressively decreased. MPCs in diabetic retinopathy are associated, temporally or causally, with a progressive reduction of macular sensitivity despite a stable BCVA, CRT and fixation. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Blood antioxidant parameters in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Siemianowicz, Krzysztof; Gminski, Jan; Telega, Alicja; Wójcik, Aneta; Posielezna, Barbara; Grabowska-Bochenek, Rozalia; Francuz, Tomasz

    2004-09-01

    It has been postulated that enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may take part in a pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complication - retinopathy. There are two types of diabetic retinopathy, non-proliferative (simplex) and proliferative. ROS are anihilated by an intracelluar enzymatic system composed mainly of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Beta-carotene, tocopherols and ascorbic acid are major components of serum antioxidants. All serum antioxidants are usually measured together as total antioxidant status (TAS). Erythrocyte activities of GPx, SOD, CAT and TAS were measured in diabetic patients without retinopathy, with non-proliferative and proliferative retinopathy. Obtained results were correlated with a period of diabetic history and a period of insulin treatment. SOD was significantly elevated in diabetics with non-proliferative retinopathy compared to patients without retinopathy. TAS was significantly lower in patients with proliferative retinopathy than in diabetics not developing retinopathy. Only CAT was significantly negatively correlated with the period of insulin treatment. This significant negative correlation was also observed in a subgroup of patients with proliferative retinopathy.

  3. Malarial Retinopathy in Bangladeshi Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sayeed, Abdullah Abu; Maude, Richard J.; Hasan, Mahtab Uddin; Mohammed, Noor; Hoque, M. Gofranul; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Faiz, M. Abul

    2011-01-01

    To establish if assessment of malarial retinopathy in adult malaria using ophthalmoscopy by non-ophthalmologists has clinical and prognostic significance, 210 Bangladeshi adults were assessed by both direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy; 20 of 20 healthy subjects and 20 of 20 patients with vivax malaria showed no retinal changes, whereas in patients with falciparum malaria, indirect ophthalmoscopy revealed malarial retinopathy (predominantly retinal hemorrhages) in 18 of 21 (86%) fatal, 31 of 75 (41%) cerebral, 16 of 64 (25%) non-cerebral but severe, and 1 of 31 (3%) uncomplicated cases. Direct ophthalmoscopy missed retinopathy in one of these cases and found fewer retinal hemorrhages (mean difference = 3.09; 95% confidence interval = 1.50–4.68; P < 0.0001). Severity of retinopathy increased with severity of disease (P for trend < 0.0001), and renal failure, acidosis, and moderate/severe retinopathy were independent predictors of mortality by both ophthalmoscopic techniques. Direct ophthalmoscopy by non-ophthalmologists is an important clinical tool to aid diagnosis and prognosis in adults with severe malaria, and indirect ophthalmoscopy by non-ophthalmologists, although more sensitive, provides minimal additional prognostic information. PMID:21212217

  4. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, I H; Sharma, S; Luqmani, R; Downes, S M

    2017-06-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ; Plaquenil) is used increasingly in the management of a variety of autoimmune disorders, with well established roles in dermatology and rheumatology and emerging roles in oncology. Hydroxychloroquine has demonstrated a survival benefit in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus; some clinicians advocate its use in all such patients. However, Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine (CQ) have been associated with irreversible visual loss due to retinal toxicity. Hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity is far more common than previously considered; an overall prevalence of 7.5% was identified in patients taking HCQ for greater than 5 years, rising to almost 20% after 20 years of treatment. This review aims to provide an update on HCQ/CQ retinopathy. We summarise emerging treatment indications and evidence of efficacy in systemic disease, risk factors for retinopathy, prevalence among HCQ users, diagnostic tests, and management of HCQ retinopathy. We highlight emerging risk factors such as tamoxifen use, and new guidance on safe dosing, reversing the previous recommendation to use ideal body weight, rather than actual body weight. We summarise uncertainties and the recommendations made by existing HCQ screening programmes. Asian patients with HCQ retinopathy may demonstrate an extramacular or pericentral pattern of disease; visual field testing and retinal imaging should include a wider field for screening in this group. HCQ is generally safe and effective for the treatment of systemic disease but because of the risk of HCQ retinal toxicity, modern screening methods and ideal dosing should be implemented. Guidelines regarding optimal dosing and screening regarding HCQ need to be more widely disseminated.

  5. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, I H; Sharma, S; Luqmani, R; Downes, S M

    2017-01-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ; Plaquenil) is used increasingly in the management of a variety of autoimmune disorders, with well established roles in dermatology and rheumatology and emerging roles in oncology. Hydroxychloroquine has demonstrated a survival benefit in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus; some clinicians advocate its use in all such patients. However, Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine (CQ) have been associated with irreversible visual loss due to retinal toxicity. Hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity is far more common than previously considered; an overall prevalence of 7.5% was identified in patients taking HCQ for greater than 5 years, rising to almost 20% after 20 years of treatment. This review aims to provide an update on HCQ/CQ retinopathy. We summarise emerging treatment indications and evidence of efficacy in systemic disease, risk factors for retinopathy, prevalence among HCQ users, diagnostic tests, and management of HCQ retinopathy. We highlight emerging risk factors such as tamoxifen use, and new guidance on safe dosing, reversing the previous recommendation to use ideal body weight, rather than actual body weight. We summarise uncertainties and the recommendations made by existing HCQ screening programmes. Asian patients with HCQ retinopathy may demonstrate an extramacular or pericentral pattern of disease; visual field testing and retinal imaging should include a wider field for screening in this group. HCQ is generally safe and effective for the treatment of systemic disease but because of the risk of HCQ retinal toxicity, modern screening methods and ideal dosing should be implemented. Guidelines regarding optimal dosing and screening regarding HCQ need to be more widely disseminated. PMID:28282061

  6. Selective Retina Therapy in Acute and Chronic-Recurrent Central Serous Chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Framme, Carsten; Walter, Andreas; Berger, Lieselotte; Prahs, Philipp; Alt, Clemens; Theisen-Kunde, Dirk; Kowal, Jens; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Selective retina therapy (SRT), the confined laser heating and destruction of retinal pigment epithelial cells, has been shown to treat acute types of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) successfully without damaging the photoreceptors and thus avoiding laser-induced scotoma. However, a benefit of laser treatment for chronic forms of CSC is questionable. In this study, the efficacy of SRT by means of the previously used 1.7-µs and shorter 300-ns pulse duration was evaluated for both types of CSC, also considering re-treatment for nonresponders. In a two-center trial, 26 patients were treated with SRT for acute (n = 10) and chronic-recurrent CSC (n = 16). All patients presented with subretinal fluid (SRF) in OCT and leakage in fluorescein angiography (FA). SRT was performed using a prototype SRT laser system (frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd:YLF-laser, wavelength 527 nm) with adjustable pulse duration. The following irradiation settings were used: a train of 30 laser pulses with a repetition rate of 100 Hz and pulse durations of 300 ns and 1.7 µs, pulse energy 120-200 µJ, retinal spot size 200 µm. Because SRT lesions are invisible, FA was always performed 1 h after treatment to demonstrate laser outcome (5-8 single spots in the area of leakage). In cases where energy was too low, as indicated by missing FA leakage, energy was adjusted and the patient re-treated immediately. Observation intervals were after 4 weeks and 3 months. In case of nonimprovement of the disease after 3 months, re-treatment was considered. Of 10 patients with active CSC that presents focal leakage in FA, 5 had completely resolved fluid after 4 weeks and all 10 after 3 months. Mean visual acuity increased from 76.6 ETDRS letters to 85.0 ETDRS letters 3 months after SRT. Chronic-recurrent CSC was characterized by less severe SRF at baseline in OCT and weaker leakage in FA than in acute types. Visual acuity changed from baseline 71.6 to 72.8 ETDRS letters after 3 months. At this time, SRF

  7. A nationwide study of serous "borderline" ovarian tumors in Denmark 1978-2002: centralized pathology review and overall survival compared with the general population.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Vang, Russell; Junge, Jette; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaerbye-Thygesen, Anette; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Tabor, Ann; Kurman, Robert J; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2014-08-01

    To describe the study population and estimate overall survival of women with a serous "borderline" ovarian tumor (SBT) in Denmark over 25 years relative to the general population. The Danish Pathology Data Bank and the Danish Cancer Registry were used to identify 1487 women diagnosed with SBTs from 1978 to 2002. The histologic slides were collected from Danish pathology departments and reviewed by expert pathologists and classified as SBT/atypical proliferative serous tumor (APST) or noninvasive low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC). Associated implants were classified as noninvasive or invasive. Medical records were collected from hospital departments and reviewed. Data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and relative survival was estimated with follow-up through September 2, 2013. A cohort of 1042 women with a confirmed SBT diagnosis was identified. Women with stage I had an overall survival similar to the overall survival expected from the general population (p=0.3), whereas women with advanced stage disease had a poorer one (p<0.0001). This was evident both in women with noninvasive (p<0.0001) and invasive implants (p<0.0001). Only among women with advanced stage, overall survival of women with SBT/APST (p<0.0001) and noninvasive LGSC (p<0.0001) was poorer than expected from the general population. To date this is the largest nationwide cohort of SBTs where all tumors have been verified by expert pathologists. Only in women with advanced stage SBT, overall survival is poorer than in the general population which applies both to women with noninvasive and invasive implants as well as to women with SBT/APST and noninvasive LGSC. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Lesion detection in ultra-wide field retinal images for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenkova, Anastasia; Sowmya, Arcot; Kalloniatis, Michael; Ly, Angelica; Ho, Arthur

    2018-02-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) leads to irreversible vision loss. Diagnosis and staging of DR is usually based on the presence, number, location and type of retinal lesions. Ultra-wide field (UWF) digital scanning laser technology provides an opportunity for computer-aided DR lesion detection. High-resolution UWF images (3078×2702 pixels) may allow detection of more clinically relevant retinopathy in comparison with conventional retinal images as UWF imaging covers a 200° retinal area, versus 45° by conventional cameras. Current approaches to DR diagnosis that analyze 7-field Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) retinal images provide similar results to UWF imaging. However, in 40% of cases, more retinopathy was found outside the 7- field ETDRS fields by UWF and in 10% of cases, retinopathy was reclassified as more severe. The reason is that UWF images examine both the central retina and more peripheral regions. We propose an algorithm for automatic detection and classification of DR lesions such as cotton wool spots, exudates, microaneurysms and haemorrhages in UWF images. The algorithm uses convolutional neural network (CNN) as a feature extractor and classifies the feature vectors extracted from colour-composite UWF images using a support vector machine (SVM). The main contribution includes detection of four types of DR lesions in the peripheral retina for diagnostic purposes. The evaluation dataset contains 146 UWF images. The proposed method for detection of DR lesion subtypes in UWF images using two scenarios for transfer learning achieved AUC ≈ 80%. Data was split at the patient level to validate the proposed algorithm.

  9. Diabetic retinopathy screening: global and local perspective.

    PubMed

    Gangwani, R A; Lian, J X; McGhee, S M; Wong, D; Li, K Kw

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus has become a global epidemic. It causes significant macrovascular complications such as coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke; as well as microvascular complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy is known to be the leading cause of blindness in the working-age population and may be asymptomatic until vision loss occurs. Screening for diabetic retinopathy has been shown to reduce blindness by timely detection and effective laser treatment. Diabetic retinopathy screening is being done worldwide either as a national screening programme or hospital-based project or as a community-based screening programme. In this article, we review different methods of screening including grading used to detect the severity of sight-threatening retinopathy and the newer screening methods. This review also includes the method of systematic screening being carried out in Hong Kong, a system that has helped to identify diabetic retinopathy among all attendees in public primary care clinics using a Hong Kong-wide public patients' database.

  10. Patterns of peripheral retinal and central macula ischemia in diabetic retinopathy as evaluated by ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography.

    PubMed

    Sim, Dawn A; Keane, Pearse A; Rajendram, Ranjan; Karampelas, Michael; Selvam, Senthil; Powner, Michael B; Fruttiger, Marcus; Tufail, Adnan; Egan, Catherine A

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the association between peripheral and central ischemia in diabetic retinopathy. Retrospective, cross-sectional. Consecutive ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography images were collected from patients with diabetes over a 12-month period. Parameters quantified include the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, peripheral ischemic index, peripheral leakage index, and central retinal thickness measurements, as well as visual acuity. The peripheral ischemia or leakage index was calculated as the area of capillary nonperfusion or leakage, expressed as a percentage of the total retinal area. Forty-seven eyes of 47 patients were included. A moderate correlation was observed between the peripheral ischemia index and FAZ area (r = 0.49, P = .0001). A moderate correlation was also observed between the peripheral leakage index and FAZ area, but only in eyes that were laser naïve (r = 0.44, P = .02). A thinner retina was observed in eyes with macular ischemia (217 ± 81.8 μm vs 272 ± 36.0 μm) (P = .02), but not peripheral ischemia (258 ± 76.3 μm vs 276 ± 68.0 μm) (P = .24). The relationships between different patterns of peripheral and central macular pathology and visual acuity were evaluated in a step-wise multivariable regression model, and the variables that remained independently associated were age (r = 0.33, P = .03), FAZ area (r = 0.45, P = .02), and central retinal thickness (r = 0.38, P = .01), (R(2)-adjusted = 0.36). Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography provides an insight into the relationships between diabetic vascular complications in the retinal periphery and central macula. Although we observed relationships between ischemia and vascular leakage in the macula and periphery, it was only macular ischemia and retinal thinning that was independently associated with a reduced visual function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab on Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Patients Who Visited Feiz Hospital during 2014–2015 Period

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Mohamad Reza; Nasrollahi, Cobra; Namgar, Seyed Mohamad; Kianersi, Farzan; Dehghani, Ali Reza; Arefpour, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Aim of this clinical trial is the evaluation of the effect of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab on acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Materials and Methods: In a nonrandomized clinical trial, 36 CSC eyes (with <1-month disease history) were examined. Initially, all the patients underwent posterior and anterior segment examinations as well as complete eye examination to evaluate the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA). Then, optical coherence tomography was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The patients were divided to the two groups each of 18 subjects, which 18 patients received intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.25 mg) and the rest of them did not receive any treatment (control group). The patients were health checked by the end of the 1st and 3rd months. Significance level was considered as P < 0.05. Results: In the BSCVA, no significant difference in visual improvement was observed in baseline vision compared to each other (P = 0.481). There was also no significant difference in the vision of intervention and control groups 1 and 3 months after injection (P = 0.379 and P = 0.557). A significant decrement existed in the intervention group compared with the control group in the maximum central macular thickness at 1 month after injection (P = 0.001); however, the difference was not significant when comparing the two groups at baseline and 3 months after injection (P = 0.925 and P = 0.338). Conclusion: In general, according to the results of this study, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab was not effective in improvement of patients with acute CSC, although it had no side effects. PMID:29142888

  12. Retinopathy and chronic kidney disease in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study.

    PubMed

    Grunwald, Juan E; Alexander, Judith; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Daniel, Ebenezer; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker, Candace; McWilliams, Kathleen; Lo, Joan C; Go, Alan; Townsend, Raymond; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Lash, James P; Fink, Jeffrey C; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W; Xie, Dawei; Jaar, Bernard G

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the association between retinopathy and chronic kidney disease. In this observational, cross-sectional study, 2605 patients of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, a multicenter study of chronic kidney disease, were offered participation. Nonmydriatic fundus photographs of the disc and macula in both eyes were obtained in 1936 of these subjects. The photographs were reviewed in a masked fashion at a central photograph reading center using standard protocols. Presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive, or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed by trained graders and a retinal specialist using protocols developed for large epidemiologic studies. Kidney function measurements and information on traditional and nontraditional risk factors for decreased kidney function were obtained from the CRIC study. Greater severity of retinopathy was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate after adjustment for traditional and nontraditional risk factors. The presence of vascular abnormalities usually associated with hypertension was also associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate. We found no strong direct relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate and average arteriolar or venular calibers. Our findings show a strong association between severity of retinopathy and its features and level of kidney function after adjustment for traditional and nontraditional risk factors for chronic kidney disease, suggesting that retinovascular pathology reflects renal disease.

  13. BILATERAL SEROUS MACULAR DETACHMENT IN A PATIENT WITH NEPHROTIC SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Ayse D; Yaylali, Sevil A; Yavuz, Sara; Simsek, İlke B

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report a case of a woman with nephrotic syndrome who presented with blurred vision because of bilateral serous macular detachment. Case report and literature review. A 55-year-old woman with a history of essential hypertension, diabetes, and nephrotic syndrome was presented with blurred vision in both eyes. Her fluorescein angiography revealed dye leakage in the early and subretinal pooling in the late phases, and optical coherence tomography scans confirmed the presence of subretinal fluid in the subfovel area. In nephrotic syndrome cases especially with accompaniment of high blood pressure, fluid accumulation in the retina layer may occur. Serous macular detachment must be kept in mind when treating these patients.

  14. [Eclipse retinopathy : A case series after the partial solar eclipse on 20 March 2015].

    PubMed

    Bachmeier, I; Helbig, H; Greslechner, R

    2017-01-01

    Solar retinopathy refers to damage to the central macula caused by exposure to intense solar radiation, most frequently observed after a solar eclipse. Description of the morphological changes in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and the clinical course in patients with acute solar retinopathy. The study included a retrospective analysis of 12 eyes from 7 patients with solar retinopathy after the partial solar eclipse on 20 March 2015. Best corrected visual acuity, fundus changes and SD-OCT findings were analyzed. Out of the 7 patients 5 underwent treatment with 1 mg prednisolone per kg body weight. The average age of the patients was 30.1±13.1 years. Best corrected visual acuity was 0.65 at initial presentation. In the acute stage all affected eyes showed a small yellowish lesion in the centre of the fovea in the fundoscopic examination. In SD-OCT the continuity of all layers in the foveola appeared disrupted. In the follow-up examination these changes were partially resolved. After 2 months SD-OCT revealed a small defect of the ellipsoid zone. In one patient the defect could not be shown due to slightly excentric imaging sections. Best corrected visual acuity increased to 0.97. The SD-OCT is an appropriate tool to determine the exact localization of the site of damage and for follow-up examination in solar retinopathy. In the acute phase it shows a disruption of the continuity of all layers in the foveola. Despite good recovery of visual acuity a small central defect of the ellipsoid zone remains in the long term.

  15. Receptor for advanced glycation end product expression in experimental diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yumei; Vom Hagen, Franziska; Pfister, Frederick; Bierhaus, Angelika; Feng, Yuxi; Gans, Reinhold; Hammes, Hans-Peter

    2008-04-01

    The advanced glycation end product (AGE)-receptor for AGE (RAGE) pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular damage. The special distribution of RAGE and its engagement has an impact on the development of diabetic retinopathy. In the present study, we used immunofluorescence and confocal laser microscopy to study RAGE expression with special emphasis on Müller glia in Sprague Dawley rats. RAGE expression was low in nondiabetic retinae and was found in ganglion cells and Müller cell end feet. In diabetic retinae, upregulated RAGE was predominantly expressed in retinal glia. Since Müller cells are important in the regulation of important features of early retinal vascular damage, such as vascular permeability, homeostasis, and response to stress, RAGE appears to be a central modulator in diabetic retinopathy.

  16. Corneal and Retinal Neuronal Degeneration in Early Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Dehghani, Cirous; Pritchard, Nicola; Edwards, Katie; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan

    2017-12-01

    To examine the neuronal structural integrity of cornea and retina as markers for neuronal degeneration in nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Participants were recruited from the broader Brisbane community, Queensland, Australia. Two hundred forty-one participants (187 with diabetes and 54 nondiabetic controls) were examined. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was graded according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale. Corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL), corneal nerve branch density (CNBD), corneal nerve fiber tortuosity (CNFT), full retinal thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), focal (FLV) and global loss volumes (GLV), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), nephropathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular measures were examined. The central zone (P = 0.174), parafoveal thickness (P = 0.090), perifovea (P = 0.592), RNFL (P = 0.866), GCC (P = 0.798), and GCC GLV (P = 0.338) did not differ significantly between the groups. In comparison to the control group, those with very mild NPDR and those with mild NPDR had significantly higher focal loss in GCC volume (P = 0.036). CNFL was significantly lower in those with mild NPDR (P = 0.004) in comparison to the control group and those with no DR. The CNBD (P = 0.094) and CNFT (P = 0.458) did not differ between the groups. Both corneal and retinal neuronal degeneration may occur in early stages of diabetic retinopathy. Further studies are required to examine these potential markers for neuronal degeneration in the absence of clinical signs of DR.

  17. Dyslipidemia and Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yo-Chen; Wu, Wen-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major microvascular complications of diabetes. In developed countries, it is the most common cause of preventable blindness in diabetic adults. Dyslipidemia, a major systemic disorder, is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of suffering from dyslipidemia concurrently. The aim of this article is to review the association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and traditional/nontraditional lipid markers, possible mechanisms involving lipid metabolism and diabetic retinopathy, and the effect of lipid-lowering therapies on diabetic retinopathy. For traditional lipid markers, evidence is available that total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with the presence of hard exudates in patients with DR. The study of nontraditional lipid markers is advancing only in recently years. The severity of DR is inversely associated with apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), whereas ApoB and the ApoB-to-ApoA1 ratio are positively associated with DR. The role of lipid-lowering medication is to work as adjunctive therapy for better control of diabetes-related complications including DR. PMID:24380088

  18. Polymorphisms in the FGF2 gene and risk of serous ovarian cancer: results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Johnatty, Sharon E.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Spurdle, Amanda B.; deFazio, Anna; Webb, Penelope M; Goode, Ellen L.; Rider, David N.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Anderson, Stephanie; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm; Van Den Berg, David; Moysich, Kirsten; Ness, Roberta; Doherty, Jennifer; Rossing, Mary-Anne; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 (basic) is a potent angiogenic molecule involved in tumour progression, and is one of several growth factors with a central role in ovarian carcinogenesis. We hypothesised that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FGF2 gene may alter angiogenic potential and thereby susceptibility to ovarian cancer. We analysed 25 FGF2 tgSNPs using five independent study populations from the United States and Australia. Analysis was restricted to non-Hispanic White women with serous ovarian carcinoma (1269 cases and 2829 controls). There were no statistically significant associations between any FGF2 SNPs and ovarian cancer risk. There were two nominally statistically significant associations between heterozygosity for two FGF2 SNPs (rs308379 and rs308447; p<0.05) and serous ovarian cancer risk in the combined dataset, but rare homozygous estimates did not achieve statistical significance, nor were they consistent with the log additive model of inheritance. Overall genetic variation in FGF2 does not appear to play a role in susceptibility to ovarian cancer. PMID:19456219

  19. Conceptual analysis of diabetic retinopathy in Ayurveda.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Prasanta Kumar; Fiaz, Shamsa

    Inclusion of Prameha among the eight major disorders in Charaka Samhita shows the importance of the disease given by ancient seers. The risk of development of blindness in diabetics increases by 20-25 times as compared to the normal population. High prevalence rate of Diabetic Retinopathy (34.6%), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (7%), diabetic macular edema (6.8%), and Vision threatening Diabetic retinopathy (10.2%) in diabetics was great concerns which led to search and analyze the disease process on the basis of modern pathogenesis and different Timirvyadhi mentioned in Ayurvedic authoritative texts. Thus the present study endeavors to discuss the similarities and differences among the various components of Prameha/Madhumehajanya Timir with Diabetic retinopathy and its stages. To establish a probable etiopathogenesis of the disease from Ayurveda prospective, all the important literature of both modern medicine and Ayurveda along with online sources were searched and analyzed. All the three dosha along with Raktadosha and Saptadhatu with four internal Dristipatals of eye are affected in Madhumehajanya timir in different stages of the disease. Avarana and Dhatu kshaya too have important role in development of diabetic retinopathy due to prolonged and uncontrolled hyperglycemia. Agnimandya related Ama formation has a role in pathology of diabetic retinopathy which is quite similar to oxidative theory of diabetic retinopathy explained in modern pathology. Urdhwaga raktapitta, Ojas kshaya, Raktavritta vata, and Pranavritta vyana are other causes in development of diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pericentral retinopathy and racial differences in hydroxychloroquine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Melles, Ronald B; Marmor, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    To describe patterns of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy distinct from the classic parafoveal (bull's eye) maculopathy. Retrospective case series. Patients from a large multi-provider group practice and a smaller university referral practice diagnosed with hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Patients with widespread or "end-stage" retinopathy were excluded. Review of ophthalmic studies (fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, multifocal electroretinography, visual fields) and classification of retinopathy into 1 of 3 patterns: parafoveal (retinal changes 2°-6° from the fovea), pericentral (retinal changes ≥ 8° from the fovea), or mixed (retinal changes in both parafoveal and pericentral areas). Relative frequency of different patterns of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy and comparison of risk factors. Of 201 total patients (18% Asian) with hydroxychloroquine retinopathy, 153 (76%) had typical parafoveal changes, 24 (12%) also had a zone of pericentral damage, and 24 (12%) had pericentral retinopathy without any parafoveal damage. Pericentral retinopathy alone was seen in 50% of Asian patients but only in 2% of white patients. Patients with the pericentral pattern were taking hydroxychloroquine for a somewhat longer duration (19.5 vs. 15.0 years, P < 0.01) and took a larger cumulative dose (2186 vs. 1813 g, P = 0.02) than patients with the parafoveal pattern, but they were diagnosed at a more severe stage of toxicity. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy does not always develop in a parafoveal (bull's eye) pattern, and a pericentral pattern of damage is especially prevalent among Asian patients. Screening practices may need to be adjusted to recognize pericentral and parafoveal hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical activity and its correlation to diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Praidou, Anna; Harris, Martin; Niakas, Dimitrios; Labiris, Georgios

    2017-02-01

    The lack of physical activity, along with obesity, smoking, hypertension and hyperglycaemia are considered as risk factors for the occurrence of diseases such as diabetes. Primary objective of the study was to investigate potential correlation between physical activity and diabetic retinopathy. Three hundred and twenty patients were included in the study: 240 patients with diabetes type 2 (80 patients with mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 80 patients with severe to very severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 80 ones with proliferative diabetic retinopathy) were compared with 80 non-diabetic patients (control group). Physical activity of patients was assessed by the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ, 2002). HbA1c and BMI were also measured in diabetic patients. Group comparisons were attempted for levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Total physical activity was decreased in patients with severe to very severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy as compared to patients with mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and to the control group (p<0.05). Significant negative correlation was detected between HbA1c levels, BMI and physical activity (both p<0.05). Moreover, significant negative correlation between the severity of diabetic retinopathy and physical activity has been demonstrated (p<0.05). Increased physical activity is associated with less severe levels of diabetic retinopathy, independent of the effects of HbA1c and BMI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Retinal thickness on Stratus optical coherence tomography in people with diabetes and minimal or no diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Bressler, Neil M; Edwards, Allison R; Antoszyk, Andrew N; Beck, Roy W; Browning, David J; Ciardella, Antonio P; Danis, Ronald P; Elman, Michael J; Friedman, Scott M; Glassman, Adam R; Gross, Jeffrey G; Li, Helen K; Murtha, Timothy J; Stone, Thomas W; Sun, Jennifer K

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate optical coherence tomography (OCT) thickness of the macula in people with diabetes but minimal or no retinopathy and to compare these findings with published normative data in the literature from subjects reported to have no retinal disease. Cross-sectional study. In a multicenter community- and university-based practices setting, 97 subjects with diabetes with no or minimal diabetic retinopathy and no central retinal thickening on clinical examination and a center point thickness of 225 microm or less on OCT (Stratus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California, USA) were recruited. Electronic Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study best-corrected visual acuity, seven-field stereoscopic color fundus photographs, and Stratus OCT fast macular scan were noted. Main outcome measures were central subfield (CSF) thickness measured on Stratus OCT. On average, CSF thickness was 201 +/- 22 microm. CSF thickness was significantly greater in retinas from men than retinas from women (mean +/- standard deviation, 209 +/- 18 microm vs 194 +/- 23 microm; P < .001). After adjusting for gender, no additional factors were found to be associated significantly with CSF thickness (P > .10). CSF thicknesses on Stratus OCT in people with diabetes and minimal or no retinopathy are similar to thicknesses reported from a normative database of people without diabetes. CSF thickness is greater in men than in women, consistent with many, but not all, previous reports. Studies involving comparisons of retinal thickness with expected norms should consider different mean values for women and men.

  3. Validated System for Centralized Grading of Retinopathy of Prematurity: Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-Phase Retinopathy of Prematurity (e-ROP) Study.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Ebenezer; Quinn, Graham E; Hildebrand, P Lloyd; Ells, Anna; Hubbard, G Baker; Capone, Antonio; Martin, E Revell; Ostroff, Candace P; Smith, Eli; Pistilli, Maxwell; Ying, Gui-Shuang

    2015-06-01

    Measurable competence derived from comprehensive and advanced training in grading digital images is critical in studies using a reading center to evaluate retinal fundus images from infants at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Details of certification for nonphysician trained readers (TRs) have not yet been described. To describe a centralized system for grading ROP digital images by TRs in the Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-Phase Retinopathy of Prematurity (e-ROP) Study. Multicenter observational cohort study conducted from July 1, 2010, to June 30, 2014. The TRs were trained by experienced ROP specialists and certified to detect ROP morphology in digital retinal images under supervision of an ophthalmologist reading center director. An ROP reading center was developed with standard hardware, secure Internet access, and customized image viewing software with an electronic grading form. A detailed protocol for grading was developed. Based on results of TR gradings, a computerized algorithm determined whether referral-warranted ROP (RW-ROP; defined as presence of plus disease, zone I ROP, and stage 3 or worse ROP) was present in digital images from infants with birth weight less than 1251 g enrolled from May 25, 2011, through October 31, 2013. Independent double grading was done by the TRs with adjudication of discrepant fields performed by the reading center director. Digital retinal images. Intragrader and intergrader variability and monitoring for temporal drift. Four TRs underwent rigorous training and certification. A total of 5520 image sets were double graded, with 24.5% requiring adjudication for at least 1 component of RW-ROP. For individual RW-ROP components, the adjudication rate was 3.9% for plus disease, 12.4% for zone I ROP, and 16.9% for stage 3 or worse ROP. The weighted κ for intergrader agreement (n = 80 image sets) was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.52-0.93) for RW-ROP, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.37-0.77) for plus disease, 0.43 (95% CI, 0

  4. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas associated with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chen, F; Gaitskell, K; Garcia, M J; Albukhari, A; Tsaltas, J; Ahmed, A A

    2017-05-01

    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) have been documented in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs). However, the rate of association between STICs and HGSOCs and, therefore, the fraction of HGSOCs that are likely to have originated from the fallopian tube (FT), has remained unclear. To appraise the literature describing the association between STICs and established HGSOCs. Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched. Studies were included if they evaluated the frequency of STICs in HGSOCs, and were published in an English peer-reviewed journal. Appropriate studies were evaluated for their compliance with the 'Strengthening and Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE)' criteria. Ten articles met the study selection criteria. The reported coexistence between STICs and HGSOCs ranged from 11% to 61% (mean: 31%, 95% CI: 17-46%). STICs were rarely found in other gynaecological cancers. Small sample size, lack of objective criteria to identify STICs and the retrospective nature of the studies contributed to the variability in reporting the rate of the association. STICs were identified commonly in the FTs of women with HGSOC. Finding the true rate of association between STICs and HGSOCs will require further investigations. While there is evidence that a fraction of HGSOCs arise from the FTs, an accurate estimate of that fraction remains to be determined. The lack of an accurate estimate of the association makes it difficult to evaluate the potential magnitude of reduction of HGSOCs following prophylactic salpingectomy. A systematic review of the incidence of STICs in HGSOCs identifies significant methodological inconsistencies. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Diabetic retinopathy grading by digital curvelet transform.

    PubMed

    Hajeb Mohammad Alipour, Shirin; Rabbani, Hossein; Akhlaghi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    One of the major complications of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy. As manual analysis and diagnosis of large amount of images are time consuming, automatic detection and grading of diabetic retinopathy are desired. In this paper, we use fundus fluorescein angiography and color fundus images simultaneously, extract 6 features employing curvelet transform, and feed them to support vector machine in order to determine diabetic retinopathy severity stages. These features are area of blood vessels, area, regularity of foveal avascular zone, and the number of micro-aneurisms therein, total number of micro-aneurisms, and area of exudates. In order to extract exudates and vessels, we respectively modify curvelet coefficients of color fundus images and angiograms. The end points of extracted vessels in predefined region of interest based on optic disk are connected together to segment foveal avascular zone region. To extract micro-aneurisms from angiogram, first extracted vessels are subtracted from original image, and after removing detected background by morphological operators and enhancing bright small pixels, micro-aneurisms are detected. 70 patients were involved in this study to classify diabetic retinopathy into 3 groups, that is, (1) no diabetic retinopathy, (2) mild/moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, (3) severe nonproliferative/proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and our simulations show that the proposed system has sensitivity and specificity of 100% for grading.

  6. Microaneurysm turnover is a predictor of diabetic retinopathy progression.

    PubMed

    Pappuru, Rajeev K R; Ribeiro, Luísa; Lobo, Conceição; Alves, Dalila; Cunha-Vaz, José

    2018-04-26

    To analyse retinopathy phenotypes and microaneurysm (MA) turnover in mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) as predictors of progression to diabetic central-involved macular oedema (CIMO) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in two different ethnic populations. 205 patients with type 2 DM and mild NPDR were followed in a prospective observational study for 2 years or until development of CIMO, in two centres from different regions of the world. Ophthalmological examinations, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus photography with RetmarkerDR analysis, and optical coherence tomography (OCT), were performed at baseline and 6 12 and 24 months. 158 eyes/patients reached either the study endpoint, CIMO (24) or performed the last study visit (24-month visit) without developing CIMO (134). From the eyes/patients in analysis, 27 eyes (17.1%) progressed to more advanced ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) levels: 6 progressed to mild NPDR (level 35), 15 progressed to moderate NPDR (level 43), 5 progressed to moderately severe NPDR (level 47) and 1 progressed to high risk PDR (level 71). Worsening in ETDRS level is associated with phenotype C (p=0.005). From the 130 eyes/patients with a low MA turnover, 18 (13.8%) eyes/patients had an increase in ETDRS level, and from the 19 eyes/patients with a high MA turnover, 9 (47.4%) had an increase in ETDRS level (p<0.001). Eyes in the initial stages of diabetic retinopathy show different phenotypes with different risks for progression to CIMO. In phenotype C, MA turnover correlates with ETDRS grading worsening and development of CIMO. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Retinopathy and Cognitive Impairment in Adults With CKD

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, Kristine; Ackerson, Lynn; Hoang, Tina D.; Go, Alan S.; Maguire, Maureen G.; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Daniel, Ebenezer; Bazzano, Lydia A.; Coleman, Martha; Cohen, Debbie L.; Kusek, John W.; Ojo, Akinlolu; Seliger, Stephen; Xie, Dawei; Grunwald, Juan E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Retinal microvascular abnormalities have been associated with cognitive impairment, possibly serving as a marker of cerebral small vessel disease. This relationship has not been evaluated among persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD), a condition associated with increased risk of both retinal pathology and cognitive impairment. Study Design Cross-sectional study Setting & Participants 588 participants ≥ 52 years old with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study Predictor Retinopathy graded using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale and diameters of retinal vessels. Outcomes Neuropsychological battery of six cognitive tests Measurements Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of retinopathy, individual retinopathy features, and retinal vessel diameters with cognitive impairment (≤1 SD from the mean), and linear regression models were used to compare cognitive test scores across levels of retinopathy adjusting for age, race, sex, education, and medical comorbidities. Results The mean age of the cohort was 65.3 +/− 5.6 (SD) years; 51.9% were non-White, and 52.6% were male. The prevalence of retinopathy was 30.1% and 14.3% for cognitive impairment. Compared to those without retinopathy, participants with retinopathy had increased likelihood of cognitive impairment on executive function (35.1% vs. 11.5%; OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.0-6.0), attention (26.7% vs. 7.3%; OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.8-4.9), and naming (26.0% vs. 10.0%; OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.4) after multivariable adjustment. Increased level of retinopathy was also associated with lower cognitive performance on executive function and attention. Microaneurysms were associated with cognitive impairment on some domains, but there were no significant associations with other retinal measures after multivariable adjustment. Limitations Unknown temporal relationship between retinopathy and impairment. Conclusions In adults with CKD, retinopathy is

  8. Fundus fluorescence Angiography in diagnosing diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuhui; Zuo, Yuqin; Wang, Ning; Tong, Bin

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the manifestation characteristics of fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA) and its values in diagnosing diabetic retinopathy through comparing direct ophthalmoscopy. Two hundred fifty patients (500 eyes) who were suspected as diabetic retinopathy and admitted to the hospital between February 2015 and December 2016 were selected. They underwent direct ophthalmoscopy and FFA. The manifestation characteristics of FFA in the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy were summarized. The two examination methods were compared. In the diagnosis with direct ophthalmoscopy, 375 eyes out of 500 eyes were diagnosed as diabetic retinopathy (75%); there were 74 eyes at stage I, 88 eyes at stage II, 92 eyes at stage III, 83 eyes of stage IV, 28 eyes of stage V and 10 eyes of stage VI. In the diagnosis with FFA, 465 eyes out of 500 eyes were diagnosed as diabetic retinopathy (93%); there were 94 eyes at stage I, 110 eyes at stage II, 112 at stage III, 92 eyes at stage IV, 41 eyes at stage V and 16 eyes at stage VI. The detection rate of diabetic retinopathy using FFA was significantly higher than that using direct ophthalmoscopy (P<0.05). FFA found that 316 eyes had non-proliferative retinopathy (67.96%), 75 eyes had pre-proliferative lesions (16.13%), 149 eyes had proliferative lesions (32.04%), 135 eyes had diabetic maculopathy (29.03%) and 31 eyes had diabetic optic disc lesions (6.67%). The detection rate of diabetic retinopathy using FFA is higher than that using direct ophthalmoscopy. FFA could accurately determine clinical stage. Therefore, it is an important approach in treatment efficacy evaluation and treatment guidance, suggesting a significant application value.

  9. IMPACT OF RETINOPATHY SCREENINGS FOR PROSPECTIVE HEART TRANSPLANT CANDIDATES.

    PubMed

    Simon, Shira S; Wilcox, Jane E; Lyon, Alice T; Jampol, Lee M

    2017-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of retinopathy among patients undergoing heart transplantation screening and to determine the impact of this finding on eligibility for transplantation. A retrospective case series was collected to perform an institutional review of all inpatient consults for dilated eye examinations on potential heart transplant candidates over 5.5 years-from March 27, 2008 to October 10, 2014. Measured outcomes included the presence or absence of retinopathy and the effect of retinopathy, if present, on a patient's eligibility for cardiac transplantation. A total of 155 heart transplant candidates underwent bedside ophthalmologic examination as part of their heart transplant candidacy workup. Retinopathy was found in 16 (10%) of these patients: diabetic retinopathy in 13 (8.4%) and hypertensive retinopathy in 3 (1.9%). None of these patients were excluded from the transplant candidacy based on the presence of retinopathy. On bedside ophthalmologic examination, retinopathy is an uncommon finding among cardiac transplant candidates. Retinopathy did not preclude transplantation in these patients. We question the utility of the present system of bedside ophthalmic consultation of heart transplant candidates. This may not be an optimal allocation of provider resources. Further studies are warranted to determine an appropriate protocol for ocular evaluation of these patients.

  10. Pattern of HER-2 Gene Amplification and Protein Expression in Benign, Borderline, and Malignant Ovarian Serous and Mucinous Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Rabab A A; Makboul, Rania; Elsers, Dalia A H; Elsaba, Tarek M A M; Thalab, Abeer M A B; Shaaban, Omar M

    2017-01-01

    Amplification of HER-2 gene and overexpression of HER-2 receptor play a significant role in the progression of a number of malignancies such as breast cancer. Trastuzumab (anti-HER-2 therapeutic agent) has been used successfully in treatment of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of HER-2 gene amplification and of HER-2 receptor expression in a spectrum of serous and mucinous ovarian tumors to determine whether HER-2 is altered in these neoplasms similar to that occurring in breast cancer. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded microarray tissue sections from 212 specimens were stained with HER-2 antibody using immunohistochemistry and with anti-HER-2 DNA probe using chromogenic in situ hybridization. Specimens consisted of 65 benign tumors (50 serous and 15 mucinous), 26 borderline (13 serous and 13 mucinous), 73 malignant tumors (53 serous carcinoma and 20 mucinous carcinoma), 18 metastatic deposits (13 serous and 5 mucinous), in addition to 30 normal tissues (16 ovarian surface and 14 normal fallopian tube). HER-2 protein-positive expression was not detected in the normal or the benign tissues. Borderline neoplasms showed positive staining, but no overexpression. HER-2 overexpression was seen only in 4 carcinoma specimens: 1/53 (1.8%) primary serous carcinomas and 3/20 (15%) primary mucinous carcinomas. HER-2 gene amplification was seen in 4 specimens: 2 primary mucinous carcinomas and 2 malignant deposits of these 2 mucinous carcinomas. In conclusion, alteration of HER-2 was not detected in ovarian serous neoplasms; however, in mucinous carcinoma, HER-2 amplification and overexpression occur.

  11. Choroidal Thinning Associated With Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Seong Joon; Ryu, So Jung; Joung, Joo Young; Lee, Byung Ro

    2017-11-01

    To investigate choroidal thickness in patients using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and compare choroidal thickness between eyes with and without HCQ retinopathy. Retrospective case series. Setting: Institutional. We included 124 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis who were treated with HCQ. The patients were divided into an HCQ retinopathy group and a control group, according to the presence or absence of HCQ retinopathy. Total choroidal thickness and choriocapillaris-equivalent thickness were measured manually by 2 independent investigators using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT; DRI-OCT, Topcon Inc, Tokyo, Japan). These measurements were made at the fovea and at nasal and temporal locations 0.5, 1.5, and 3 mm from the fovea. Medium-to-large vessel layer thickness was calculated accordingly. The thicknesses were compared between the HCQ retinopathy and control groups. We performed correlation analyses between choroidal thicknesses and details regarding HCQ use. Total choroidal thickness and choriocapillaris-equivalent thickness. Choroidal thicknesses were significantly decreased (P < .05) in the HCQ retinopathy group compared to the control group, except at the temporal choroid 1.5 mm from the fovea. Choriocapillaris-equivalent thicknesses were significantly different in all choroidal locations between the groups. In contrast, the medium-to-large vessel layer thickness was only significantly different at a few locations. The cumulative dose/body weight was significantly correlated with subfoveal choroidal and choriocapillaris-equivalent thicknesses (both P = .001). The association between presence of HCQ retinopathy and choroidal thicknesses was also statistically significant after adjusting for age, diagnosis for HCQ use, refractive errors, and duration of HCQ use (P = .001 and P = .003 for subfoveal choroidal and choriocapillaris-equivalent thickness, respectively). These results all suggest that HCQ retinopathy is

  12. Operational Components of Telemedicine Programs for Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Horton, Mark B; Silva, Paolo S; Cavallerano, Jerry D; Aiello, Lloyd Paul

    2016-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of new-onset vision loss worldwide. Treatments supported by large clinical trials are effective in preserving vision, but many persons do not receive timely diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy, which is typically asymptomatic when most treatable. Telemedicine evaluation to identify diabetic retinopathy has the potential to improve access to care and improve outcomes, but incomplete implementation of published standards creates a risk to program utility and sustainability. In a prior article, we reviewed the literature regarding the impact of imaging device, number and size of retinal images, pupil dilation, type of image grader, and diagnostic accuracy on telemedicine assessment for diabetic retinopathy. This article reviews the literature regarding the impact of automated image grading, cost effectiveness, program standards, and quality assurance (QA) on telemedicine assessment of diabetic retinopathy. Telemedicine assessment of diabetic retinopathy has the potential to preserve vision, but greater attention to development and implementation of standards is needed to better realize its potential.

  13. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Do, Diana V; Wang, Xue; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Marrone, Michael; Sleilati, Gina; Hawkins, Barbara S; Frank, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure. Objectives The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes. Search methods We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. Selection criteria We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Data collection and analysis Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We extracted data regarding trial

  14. Regional differences in the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy: a multi center study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Karla Rezende Guerra; Malerbi, Fernando Korn; Morales, Paulo Henrique; Mattos, Tessa Cerqueira Lemos; Pinheiro, André Araújo; Mallmann, Felipe; Perez, Ricardo Vessoni; Leal, Franz Schubert Lopes; de Melo, Laura Gomes Nunes; Gomes, Marília Brito

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy has a significant impact in every healthcare system. Despite that fact, there are few accurate estimates in the prevalence of DR in Brazil's different geographic regions, particularly proliferative DR and diabetic macular edema. This study aims to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Brazil's five continental regions and its determinant factors. This multi center, cross-sectional, observational study, conducted between August 2011 and December 2014, included patients with type 1 diabetes from the 5 Brazilian geographic regions (South, Southeast, North, Northeast and Midwest). During a clinical visit, a structured questionnaire was applied, blood sampling was collected and each patient underwent mydriatic binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy evaluation. Data was obtained from 1644 patients, aged 30.2 ± 12 years (56.1% female, 54.4% Caucasian), with a diabetes duration of 15.5 ± 9.3 years. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 242 (36.1%) in the Southeast, 102 (42.9%) in the South, 183 (29.9%) in the North and Northeast and 54 (41.7%) in the Midwest. Multinomial regression showed no difference in the prevalence of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in each geographic region, although, prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (p = 0.022), and diabetic macular edema (p = 0.003) was higher in the Midwest. Stepwise analyses reviled duration of diabetes, level of HbA1c and hypertension as independent variables. The prevalence of non proliferative diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes was no different between each geographic region of Brazil. The Midwest presented higher prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. Duration of DM and glycemic control is of central importance to all. Hypertension is another fundamental factor to every region, at special in the South and Southeast. Glycemic control and patients in social and economic vulnerability deserves

  15. Results of a diabetic retinopathy screening. Risk markers analysis.

    PubMed

    Ancochea, G; Martín Sánchez, M D

    2016-01-01

    To identify risk markers for retinopathy in patients from our geographic area, and to compare them with those published in other studies. To design a screening interval strategy, taking into account these results, and compare it with intervals suggested in published studies. Cross-sectional observational study on 383 diabetic patients with no previous retinopathy diagnosis, who were screened for diabetic retinopathy. An analysis was made on the possible association between patient factors and presence of retinopathy. A greater probability for finding retinopathy in diabetic patients was associated to insulin treatment in our study, with a statistical significance level of 95%. In patients with less than 10year onset of their diabetes, only mild retinopathy without macular oedema was found. Insulin treatment and time of onset of diabetes should be taken into account when designing efficient screening strategies for diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytometric analysis of retinopathies in retinal trypsin digests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanian, Zahra; Staniszewski, Kevin; Sorenson, Christine M.; Sheibani, Nader; Ranji, Mahsa

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this work was to design an automated image cytometry tool for determination of various retinal vascular parameters including extraction of features that are relevant to postnatal retinal vascular development, and the progression of diabetic retinopathy. To confirm the utility and accuracy of the software, retinal trypsin digest from TSP1-/- and diabetic Akita/+; TSP1-/- mice were analyzed. TSP1 is a critical inhibitor of development of retinopathies and lack of TSP1 exacerbates progression of early diabetic retinopathies. Loss of vascular cells of and gain more acellular capillaries as two major signs of diabetic retinopathies were used to classify a retina as normal or injured. This software allows quantification and high throughput assessment of retinopathy changes associated with diabetes.

  17. Association of serum N(ε)-Carboxy methyl lysine with severity of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nibha; Saxena, Sandeep; Shukla, Rajendra K; Singh, Vinita; Meyer, Carsten H; Kruzliak, Peter; Khanna, Vinay K

    2016-04-01

    To correlate serum levels of N-epsilon-carboxy methyl lysine (N(ε)-CML) with severity of retinopathy, in vivo macular edema and disruption of external limiting membrane (ELM) and photoreceptor ellipsoid zone in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Consecutive cases of type 2 DM [diabetes mellitus with no retinopathy (No DR) (n=20); non- proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) with diabetic macular edema (n=20); proliferative diabetic retinopathy with diabetic macular edema (PDR) (n=20)] and healthy controls (n=20) between the ages of 40 and 65 years were included (power of study=93.8%). In vivo histology of retinal layers was assessed using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Every study subject underwent macular thickness analysis using the macular cube 512×128 feature. Disruption of ELM and photoreceptor ellipsoid zone was graded: grade 0, no disruption of ELM and ellipsoid zone; grade 1, ELM disrupted and ellipsoid zone intact; grade 2, both ELM and ellipsoid zone disrupted. Data were statistically analyzed. The mean levels of N(ε)-CML were 31.34±21.23 ng/ml, 73.88±35.01 ng/ml, 91.21±66.65 ng/ml, and 132.08±84.07 ng/ml in control, No DR, NPDR and PDR respectively. N(ε)-CML level was significantly different between the study groups (control, No DR, NPDR and PDR) (p<0.001). Mean logMAR visual acuity decreased with increased levels of N(ε)-CML (p<0.001). The association of N(Ɛ)CML with the grades of disruption was found to be statistically significant (F value=18.48, p<0.001). Univariate analysis was done with N(Ɛ)-CML as a dependent variable. The values of N(Ɛ)-CML were normalized (log10) and were subjected to univariate analysis with fasting blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin, central subfield macular thickness and cube average thickness among the diseased groups (NPDR and PDR) that act as confounders. It was found that none of the variables had significant effect on N(Ɛ)-CML (fasting blood glucose p=0.12, HBA1c p=0.65, central

  18. Evolution of platinum resistance in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Susanna L; Brenton, James D

    2011-11-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancers account for most ovarian-cancer mortality. Although this disease initially responds well to platinum-based chemotherapy, relapse and progression to chemotherapy resistance are frequently seen. Time to relapse after first-line therapy is a predictor of response to secondary platinum treatment: more than 12 months is associated with high chance of a secondary response, whereas relapses within 6 months generally indicate platinum resistance. In this Personal View we discuss whether patterns of response, relapse, and the development of drug resistance in high-grade serous ovarian cancers are related to distinct underlying molecular and cellular biological characteristics. In particular, we propose that rapid relapse with platinum-resistant disease is due to minor subpopulations of intrinsically resistant cancer cells at presentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High Grade Serous Cystadenocarcinoma of Testis-Case Report of a Rare Ovarian Epithelial Type Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Nayanar, Sangeetha K; Varadharajaperumal, R; Satheeshbabu, TV; Balasubramanian, Satheesan

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian epithelial type tumour of testis are extremely rare tumours that resemble ovarian surface epithelial tumours. They usually present as testicular or paratesticular tumours and can be serous, mucinous, endometrioid or Brenner tumour. Serous and mucinous types account for the majority of tumours. The tumours are benign, borderline or malignant, commonly borderline. Here, we report a case of high grade serous cyst adenocarcinoma of testis which manifested as extensive metastasis in supraclavicular, mediastinal and abdominopelvic groups of lymph nodes, lung and adrenal gland without clinical evidence of an overt primary tumour. We report this case so as to make clinicians and pathologists aware of this rare entity and to stress on the fact that this rare entity should be kept in mind when evaluating cases of metastatic adenocarcinoma in male patients. PMID:28764180

  20. Global DNA methylation as a possible biomarker for diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Maghbooli, Zhila; Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Larijani, Bagher; Amini, Manochehr; Keshtkar, Abbasali

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated whether global levels of DNA methylation status were associated with retinopathy as well as providing a predictive role of DNA methylation in developing retinopathy in a case-control study of 168 patients with type 2 diabetes. The 5-methylcytosine content was assessed by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography of peripheral blood leukocytes to determine an individual's global DNA methylation status in the two groups, either with or without retinopathy. The global DNA methylation levels were significantly higher in diabetic retinopathy patients compared with those in non-retinopathy patients (4.90 ± 0.12 vs. 4.22 ± 0.13, respectively; p = 0.001). There was a significant increasing trend in global DNA methylation levels in terms of progressing retinopathy (without retinopathy, 4.22 ± 0.13; non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 4.62 ± 0.17; proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 5.07 ± 0.21) (p = 0.006). Additionally, global DNA methylation independent of retinopathy risk factors, which include dyslipidaemia, hypertension, hyperglycaemia and duration of diabetes, was a predictive factor for retinopathy (OR = 1.53, p = 0.015). Global DNA methylation is modulated during or possibly before the primary stage of diabetes. This observation verifies the metabolic memory effect of hyperglycaemia in early stage of an aetiological process that leads to type 2 diabetes and its associated complications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Clinical Components of Telemedicine Programs for Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Horton, Mark B; Silva, Paolo S; Cavallerano, Jerry D; Aiello, Lloyd Paul

    2016-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of new-onset vision loss worldwide. Treatments supported by large clinical trials are effective in preserving vision, but many persons do not receive timely diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy, which is typically asymptomatic when most treatable. Telemedicine evaluation to identify diabetic retinopathy has the potential to improve access to care, but there are no universal standards regarding camera choice or protocol for ocular telemedicine. We review the literature regarding the impact of imaging device, number and size of retinal images, pupil dilation, type of image grader, and diagnostic accuracy on telemedicine assessment for diabetic retinopathy. Telemedicine assessment of diabetic retinopathy has the potential to preserve vision, but further development of telemedicine specific technology and standardization of operations are needed to better realize its potential.

  2. New pharmacologic approaches to treating diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Gina J

    2007-09-01

    The goal of treatment of diabetic retinopathy, limitations of laser photocoagulation, endpoints used in clinical studies of diabetic retinopathy treatments, and the mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety of several new and emerging therapies targeting the biochemical pathways that link chronic hyperglycemia with microvascular damage in patients with diabetic retinopathy are discussed. Improving or preserving vision is the primary goal of treatment for diabetic retinopathy. Limitations of laser photocoagulation include a lack of efficacy in some cases, discomfort from the procedure, the need for repeated treatment, and a risk of retinal damage and scarring. Visual acuity, quality of life, and macular thickness are used as endpoints in clinical studies of diabetic retinopathy treatments. Microvascular damage in patients with chronic hyperglycemia is mediated by interrelated pathways involving aldose reductase, advanced glycation end products, protein kinase C (PKC), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Oral aldose reductase inhibitors have been studied with some success only in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The oral PKC inhibitor midostaurin and oral selective PKC beta inhibitor ruboxistaurin appear promising for improving or maintaining visual acuity, with gastrointestinal complaints the most commonly reported adverse effects. Intra-vitreal injection of corticosteroids or VEGF inhibitors is associated with short-lived improvement in or maintenance of visual acuity, a need for repeated injection, and a risk of local adverse effects. A variety of promising new therapies for diabetic retinopathy targeting the biochemical pathways that cause microvascular damage are under investigation. Additional clinical research is needed to determine the role of these new therapies in treating diabetic retinopathy.

  3. Long-term Effect of Panretinal Photocoagulation on Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Measurements in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeng-Jin; Kang, Tae-Seen; Kwak, Baek-Soo; Jo, Young-Joon; Kim, Jung-Yeul

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of panretinal photocoagulation on spectral domain optical coherence tomography measurements in diabetic retinopathy by comparing the thicknesses of the central macula, retinal nerve fiber layer, and ganglion cell layer, we used a Cirrus HD OCT® (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) in normal and diabetic retinopathy cohorts. We analyzed patients who visited our retinal clinic between May 2013 and July 2014. The patients were classified into four groups: normal (Group A), diabetes without diabetic retinopathy (Group B), severe nonproliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (Group C), and at least 3 years after panretinal photocoagulation treatment (Group D). The mean thicknesses of the macula, retinal nerve fiber layer, and ganglion cell layer in each group were compared by measuring a macular cube 512 × 128 scan and an optic disc cube 200 × 200 scan twice. In total, 154 patients were enrolled. The mean thickness of the central macula in groups A to D was 257.2, 256.8, 257.4, and 255.6 µm, respectively, and did not differ significantly. The mean thickness of the RNFL in group A to D was 96.8, 96.5, 97.2, and 92.8 µm, respectively, and was significantly lower in group D (decreased in the inferior, superior, and nasal sectors, but increased in the temporal). The mean thickness of the ganglion cell layer was also significantly lower in group D (A, 84.5 µm; B, 84.4 µm; C, 82.5 µm; D, 78.5 µm). The mean thicknesses of the retinal nerve fiber and ganglion cell layers were decreased significantly in eyes with diabetic eye disease treated with panretinal photocoagulation compared to normal or eyes with diabetic eye disease that had not been laser-treated. Laser treatment might have altered the thickness of the inner layer of the retina, and such changes should be considered in diabetic retinopathy patients after panretinal photocoagulation treatment.

  4. Role of Inflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rübsam, Anne; Parikh, Sonia; Fort, Patrice E.

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness among the working-age population. For decades, diabetic retinopathy was considered only a microvascular complication, but the retinal microvasculature is intimately associated with and governed by neurons and glia, which are affected even prior to clinically detectable vascular lesions. While progress has been made to improve the vascular alterations, there is still no treatment to counteract the early neuro-glial perturbations in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia along with dyslipidemia, hypoinsulinemia and hypertension. Increasing evidence points to inflammation as one key player in diabetes-associated retinal perturbations, however, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Interlinked molecular pathways, such as oxidative stress, formation of advanced glycation end-products and increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor have received a lot of attention as they all contribute to the inflammatory response. In the current review, we focus on the involvement of inflammation in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy with special emphasis on the functional relationships between glial cells and neurons. Finally, we summarize recent advances using novel targets to inhibit inflammation in diabetic retinopathy. PMID:29565290

  5. Screening and treatments using telemedicine in retinopathy of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Thanos, Aristomenis; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Todorich, Bozho; Moshfeghi, Darius M; Trese, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have validated the role of telemedicine as a new powerful screening and diagnostic tool for retinal disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity. With regard to retinopathy of prematurity, bedside examination with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy has been the gold standard technique for screening, yet with several limitations. Herein, we review the current evidence that supports the role of telemedicine for the screening of infants with retinopathy of prematurity. PMID:28539810

  6. PARACENTRAL ACUTE MIDDLE MACULOPATHY IN PURTSCHER RETINOPATHY.

    PubMed

    Rivera-De La Parra, David; Fromow-Guerra, Jans

    2017-12-27

    To describe paracentral acute middle maculopathy associated with Purtscher retinopathy, particularly in Purtscher flecken lesions as a retinal complication in a case secondary to fractures of long bones. Case report. A 16-year-old boy with bilateral paracentral scotomata presented with bilateral paracentral acute middle maculopathy as part of Purtscher retinopathy in both eyes as consequence of tibia and fibula fractures. Paracentral acute middle maculopathy is one of the optical coherence tomography findings in Purtscher retinopathy.

  7. Malarial retinopathy in northern Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, I; Ibrahim, U Y; Mukhtar, M; Farouq, Z; Obiagwu, P N; Yashua, A H

    2010-01-01

    This is a prospective study involving two centres. Children younger than 16 years old who had severe malaria underwent funduscopy. In one centre, direct ophthalmoscopy was performed by both an ophthalmologist and a non-ophthalmologist physician. At the other, two ophthalmologists performed a funduscopy on each patient using different methods (one using direct and the other indirect ophthalmoscopy). The objective was to determine the frequency of retinopathy and evaluate the effectiveness of direct ophthalmoscopy in detecting retinopathy in constantly dilated eyes. Of 62 children seen at both centres, 37% were found to have malarial retinopathy. Macula whitening was the most common finding. There was substantial agreement between the ophthalmologists using either the direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy techniques (Kappa value 0.604). However, at the centre using only direct ophthalmoscopy, there was poor agreement between the ophthalmologist and the non-ophthalmologist (kappa value -0.244). Direct ophthalmoscopy seemed to be effective in detecting malarial retinopathy, but only when performed by experienced personnel.

  8. Frequency of Evidence-Based Screening for Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nathan, David M; Bebu, Ionut; Hainsworth, Dean; Klein, Ronald; Tamborlane, William; Lorenzi, Gayle; Gubitosi-Klug, Rose; Lachin, John M

    2017-04-20

    In patients who have had type 1 diabetes for 5 years, current recommendations regarding screening for diabetic retinopathy include annual dilated retinal examinations to detect proliferative retinopathy or clinically significant macular edema, both of which require timely intervention to preserve vision. During 30 years of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and its longitudinal follow-up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, retinal photography was performed at intervals of 6 months to 4 years. We used retinal photographs from the DCCT/EDIC study to develop a rational screening frequency for retinopathy. Markov modeling was used to determine the likelihood of progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy or clinically significant macular edema in patients with various initial retinopathy levels (no retinopathy or mild, moderate, or severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy). The models included recognized risk factors for progression of retinopathy. Overall, the probability of progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy or clinically significant macular edema was limited to approximately 5% between retinal screening examinations at 4 years among patients who had no retinopathy, 3 years among those with mild retinopathy, 6 months among those with moderate retinopathy, and 3 months among those with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. The risk of progression was also closely related to mean glycated hemoglobin levels. The risk of progression from no retinopathy to proliferative diabetic retinopathy or clinically significant macular edema was 1.0% over 5 years among patients with a glycated hemoglobin level of 6%, as compared with 4.3% over 3 years among patients with a glycated hemoglobin level of 10%. Over a 20-year period, the frequency of eye examinations was 58% lower with our practical, evidence-based schedule than with routine annual examinations, which resulted in substantial cost savings

  9. Imaging in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Salz, David A; Witkin, Andre J

    2015-01-01

    While the primary method for evaluating diabetic retinopathy involves direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, various imaging modalities are of significant utility in the screening, evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of different presentations and manifestations of this disease. This manuscript is a review of the important imaging modalities that are used in diabetic retinopathy, including color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, B-scan ultrasonography, and optical coherence tomography. The article will provide an overview of these different imaging techniques and how they can be most effectively used in current practice.

  10. The value of digital imaging in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Sharp, P F; Olson, J; Strachan, F; Hipwell, J; Ludbrook, A; O'Donnell, M; Wallace, S; Goatman, K; Grant, A; Waugh, N; McHardy, K; Forrester, J V

    2003-01-01

    To assess the performance of digital imaging, compared with other modalities, in screening for and monitoring the development of diabetic retinopathy. All imaging was acquired at a hospital assessment clinic. Subsequently, study optometrists examined the patients in their own premises. A subset of patients also had fluorescein angiography performed every 6 months. Research clinic at the hospital eye clinic and optometrists' own premises. Study comprised 103 patients who had type 1 diabetes mellitus, 481 had type 2 diabetes mellitus and two had secondary diabetes mellitus; 157 (26.8%) had some form of retinopathy ('any') and 58 (9.9%) had referable retinopathy. A repeat assessment was carried out of all patients 1 year after their initial assessment. Patients who had more severe forms of retinopathy were monitored more frequently for evidence of progression. Detection of retinopathy, progression of retinopathy and determination of when treatment is required. Manual grading of 35-mm colour slides produced the highest sensitivity and specificity figures, with optometrist examination recording most false negatives. Manual and automated analysis of digital images had intermediate sensitivity. Both manual grading of 35-mm colour slides and digital images gave sensitivities of over 90% with few false positives. Digital imaging produced 50% fewer ungradable images than colour slides. This part of the study was limited as patients with the more severe levels of retinopathy opted for treatment. There was an increase in the number of microaneurysms in those patients who developed from mild to moderate. There was no difference between the turnover rate of either new or regressed microaneurysms for patients with mild or with sight-threatening retinopathy. It was not possible in this study to ascertain whether digital imaging systems determine when treatment is warranted. In the context of a national screening programme for referable retinopathy, digital imaging is an effective

  11. Novel molecular subtypes of serous and endometrioid ovarian cancer linked to clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Tothill, Richard W; Tinker, Anna V; George, Joshy; Brown, Robert; Fox, Stephen B; Lade, Stephen; Johnson, Daryl S; Trivett, Melanie K; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Locandro, Bianca; Traficante, Nadia; Fereday, Sian; Hung, Jillian A; Chiew, Yoke-Eng; Haviv, Izhak; Gertig, Dorota; DeFazio, Anna; Bowtell, David D L

    2008-08-15

    The study aim to identify novel molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer by gene expression profiling with linkage to clinical and pathologic features. Microarray gene expression profiling was done on 285 serous and endometrioid tumors of the ovary, peritoneum, and fallopian tube. K-means clustering was applied to identify robust molecular subtypes. Statistical analysis identified differentially expressed genes, pathways, and gene ontologies. Laser capture microdissection, pathology review, and immunohistochemistry validated the array-based findings. Patient survival within k-means groups was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. Class prediction validated k-means groups in an independent dataset. A semisupervised survival analysis of the array data was used to compare against unsupervised clustering results. Optimal clustering of array data identified six molecular subtypes. Two subtypes represented predominantly serous low malignant potential and low-grade endometrioid subtypes, respectively. The remaining four subtypes represented higher grade and advanced stage cancers of serous and endometrioid morphology. A novel subtype of high-grade serous cancers reflected a mesenchymal cell type, characterized by overexpression of N-cadherin and P-cadherin and low expression of differentiation markers, including CA125 and MUC1. A poor prognosis subtype was defined by a reactive stroma gene expression signature, correlating with extensive desmoplasia in such samples. A similar poor prognosis signature could be found using a semisupervised analysis. Each subtype displayed distinct levels and patterns of immune cell infiltration. Class prediction identified similar subtypes in an independent ovarian dataset with similar prognostic trends. Gene expression profiling identified molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer of biological and clinical importance.

  12. Granular cutaneous glands in the frog Physalaemus biligonigerus (Anura, Leptodactylidae): comparison between ordinary serous and 'inguinal' glands.

    PubMed

    Delfino, G; Brizzi, R; Alvarez, B B; Gentili, M

    1999-12-01

    Beside the ordinary granular (or serous) glands, the skin of the leptodactylid frog Physalaemus biligonigerus possesses peculiar clusters of large granular units, the 'inguinal' glands, located in the dorsolateral areas of the pelvic girdle. Both gland types store their specific products within the syncytial cytoplasm of the secretory unit. These secretory materials consist of spheroidal or ellipsoidal bodies (granules) with a repeating substructure. The subcellular features of the immature products of the ordinary serous and inguinal glands are identical. However, these products undergo divergent maturative processes, leading to fluidation on the one hand and condensation on the other. Secretory release into the small gland lumen was observed in both cases, involving merocrine mechanisms. On the basis of the analysis of cutaneous serous gland polymorphism in anurans, the inguinal units in P. biligonigerus do not appear to be an independent line. Rather, these large units belong to the ordinary serous type and represent a gland population specialized in the storage of remarkable amounts of product used in chemical defence of the skin.

  13. New Therapeutic Approaches in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Kamyar; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Relhan, Nidhi; Kishor, Krishna S.; Flynn Jr, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. It affects a substantial proportion of US adults over age 40. The condition is a leading cause of visual loss. Much attention has been given to expanding the role of current treatments along with investigating various novel therapies and drug delivery methods. In the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME), intravitreal pharmacotherapies, especially anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents, have gained popularity. Currently, anti-VEGF agents are often used as first-line agents in center-involved DME, with recent data suggesting that among these agents, aflibercept leads to better visual outcomes in patients with worse baseline visual acuities. While photocoagulation remains the standard treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), recent FDA approvals of ranibizumab and aflibercept in the management of diabetic retinopathy associated with DME may suggest a potential for pharmacologic treatments of PDR as well. Novel therapies, including small interfering RNAs, chemokines, kallikrein-kinin inhibitors, and various anti-angiogenic agents, are currently being evaluated for the management of diabetic retinopathy and DME. In addition to these strategies, novel drug delivery methods such as sustained-release implants and refillable reservoir implants are either under active evaluation or have recently gained FDA approval. This review provides an update on the novel developments in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26676668

  14. High definition spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in three patients with solar retinopathy and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kevin C; Jung, Jesse J; Aizman, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    To describe ocular findings in 3 cases of solar retinopathy using high definition, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and review the literature for optical coherence tomography (OCT) characteristics associated with worse vision. Case series and retrospective review of clinical features and Spectralis SD-OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Vista, California, United States of America). A literature review of OCT findings in cases of solar retinopathy reported on MEDLINE was also performed and analyzed. Six eyes of 3 patients with solar retinopathy revealed significant foveal pathology. Visual acuity ranged from Snellen 20/30 to 20/50. High definition SD-OCT demonstrated defects at the level of the inner and outer segment junction of the photoreceptors as well as in the inner high reflective layer. There was a significant correlation between chronic disruption of the inner photoreceptor junction with worse vision based on the current case series and literature review. Screening patients with exposure to central foveal damage from solar retinopathy with high definition SD-OCT improves diagnosis and assessment of photoreceptor damage and vision loss.

  15. Papillary Tubal Hyperplasia. The Putative Precursor of Ovarian Atypical Proliferative (Borderline) Serous Tumors, Noninvasive Implants and Endosalpingiosis

    PubMed Central

    Kurman, Robert J.; Vang, Russell; Junge, Jette; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the controversy regarding the terminology and behavior of ovarian noninvasive low-grade serous tumors (atypical proliferative serous tumor [APST] and serous borderline tumor [SBT]), little attention has been directed to their origin. Similarly, until recently, proliferative lesions in the fallopian tube have not been extensively studied. The recent proposal that ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas are derived from intraepithelial carcinoma in the fallopian tube prompted us to evaluate the possible role of the fallopian tube in the genesis of low-grade serous tumors. We have identified a lesion, designated “papillary tubal hyperplasia (PTH)”, characterized by small rounded clusters of tubal epithelial cells and small papillae, with or without associated psammoma bodies, that are present within the tubal lumen and which are frequently associated with APSTs. Twenty-two cases in this study were selected from a population-based study in Denmark of approximately 1000 patients with low-grade ovarian serous tumors in whom implants were identified on the fallopian tube. Seven additional cases were seen recently in consultation at The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH). These 7 cases were not associated with an ovarian tumor. Papillary tubal hyperplasia was found in 20 (91%) of the 22 cases in the Danish study. Based on this association of PTH with APSTs with implants and the close morphologic resemblance of PTH, not only to the primary ovarian APSTs but also to the noninvasive epithelial implants and endosalpingiosis, we speculate that the small papillae and clusters of cells from the fallopian tubes implant on ovarian and peritoneal surfaces to produce these lesions. The 7 JHH cases of PTH that were not associated with an ovarian tumor support the view that PTH is the likely precursor lesion. We propose a model for the development of ovarian and extraovarian low-grade serous proliferations (APST, noninvasive epithelial implants and endosalpingiosis) that

  16. GRAFT-VERSUS-HOST DISEASE PANUVEITIS AND BILATERAL SEROUS DETACHMENTS: MULTIMODAL IMAGING ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jesse J; Chen, Michael H; Rofagha, Soraya; Lee, Scott S

    2017-01-01

    To report the multimodal imaging findings and follow-up of a case of graft-versus-host disease-induced bilateral panuveitis and serous retinal detachments after allogenic bone marrow transplant for acute myeloid leukemia. A 75-year-old black man presented with acute decreased vision in both eyes for 1 week. Clinical examination and multimodal imaging, including spectral domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, and swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (Investigational Device; Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc) were performed. Clinical examination of the patient revealed anterior and posterior inflammation and bilateral serous retinal detachments. Ultra-widefield fundus autofluorescence demonstrated hyperautofluorescence secondary to subretinal fluid; and fluorescein angiography revealed multiple areas of punctate hyperfluorescence, leakage, and staining of the optic discs. Spectral domain and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography demonstrated subretinal fluid, a thickened, undulating retinal pigment epithelium layer, and a thickened choroid in both eyes. En-face swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography did not show any retinal vascular abnormalities but did demonstrate patchy areas of decreased choriocapillaris flow. An extensive systemic infectious and malignancy workup was negative and the patient was treated with high-dose oral prednisone immunosuppression. Subsequent 6-month follow-up demonstrated complete resolution of the inflammation and bilateral serous detachments after completion of the prednisone taper over a 3-month period. Graft-versus-host disease panuveitis and bilateral serous retinal detachments are rare complications of allogenic bone marrow transplant for acute myeloid leukemia and can be diagnosed with clinical and multimodal imaging analysis. This form of autoimmune inflammation may occur after the recovery of T-cell activity within the donor graft targeting the host

  17. Acute Solar Retinopathy Imaged With Adaptive Optics, Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography, and En Face Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chris Y; Jansen, Michael E; Andrade, Jorge; Chui, Toco Y P; Do, Anna T; Rosen, Richard B; Deobhakta, Avnish

    2018-01-01

    Solar retinopathy is a rare form of retinal injury that occurs after direct sungazing. To enhance understanding of the structural changes that occur in solar retinopathy by obtaining high-resolution in vivo en face images. Case report of a young adult woman who presented to the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary with symptoms of acute solar retinopathy after viewing the solar eclipse on August 21, 2017. Results of comprehensive ophthalmic examination and images obtained by fundus photography, microperimetry, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy, OCT angiography, and en face OCT. The patient was examined after viewing the solar eclipse. Visual acuity was 20/20 OD and 20/25 OS. The patient was left-eye dominant. Spectral-domain OCT images were consistent with mild and severe acute solar retinopathy in the right and left eye, respectively. Microperimetry was normal in the right eye but showed paracentral decreased retinal sensitivity in the left eye with a central absolute scotoma. Adaptive optics images of the right eye showed a small region of nonwaveguiding photoreceptors, while images of the left eye showed a large area of abnormal and nonwaveguiding photoreceptors. Optical coherence tomography angiography images were normal in both eyes. En face OCT images of the right eye showed a small circular hyperreflective area, with central hyporeflectivity in the outer retina of the right eye. The left eye showed a hyperreflective lesion that intensified in area from inner to middle retina and became mostly hyporeflective in the outer retina. The shape of the lesion on adaptive optics and en face OCT images of the left eye corresponded to the shape of the scotoma drawn by the patient on Amsler grid. Acute solar retinopathy can present with foveal cone photoreceptor mosaic disturbances on adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy imaging. Corresponding reflectivity changes can be seen on en face OCT, especially

  18. Diabetic retinopathy screening using deep neural network.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Nishanthan; Hong, Sheng Chiong; Sime, Mary J; Wilson, Graham A

    2017-09-07

    There is a burgeoning interest in the use of deep neural network in diabetic retinal screening. To determine whether a deep neural network could satisfactorily detect diabetic retinopathy that requires referral to an ophthalmologist from a local diabetic retinal screening programme and an international database. Retrospective audit. Diabetic retinal photos from Otago database photographed during October 2016 (485 photos), and 1200 photos from Messidor international database. Receiver operating characteristic curve to illustrate the ability of a deep neural network to identify referable diabetic retinopathy (moderate or worse diabetic retinopathy or exudates within one disc diameter of the fovea). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity and specificity. For detecting referable diabetic retinopathy, the deep neural network had an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.901 (95% confidence interval 0.807-0.995), with 84.6% sensitivity and 79.7% specificity for Otago and 0.980 (95% confidence interval 0.973-0.986), with 96.0% sensitivity and 90.0% specificity for Messidor. This study has shown that a deep neural network can detect referable diabetic retinopathy with sensitivities and specificities close to or better than 80% from both an international and a domestic (New Zealand) database. We believe that deep neural networks can be integrated into community screening once they can successfully detect both diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  19. Unilateral cancer-associated retinopathy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Javaid, Zartash; Rehan, Shahzaib M; Al-Bermani, Ayad; Payne, Gareth

    2016-08-01

    We write to report a rare case of unilateral cancer-associated retinopathy previously undocumented in the literature. Cancer-associated retinopathy is an uncommon paraneoplastic syndrome. It is characterised by retinal antigen autoantibodies causing rod and cone dysfunction and abnormal electroretinography findings with consequent progressive visual loss.Our patient, known to have a primary cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, presented with unilateral blurred vision as well as a disturbance in colour and night vision. Electroretinography findings of reduced a and b waves in the right eye, together with a fundoscopic appearance of a mottled retinal pigment epithelium, attenuated blood vessels and optic disc pallor were consistent with unilateral cancer-associated retinopathy. Posterior subtenon injections of triamcinolone were administered to control active disease. With periocular steroid injections, at 4 years, our patient's visual acuity remained relatively stable and her condition persisted strictly unilaterally. Cancer-associated retinopathy may be the first presenting sign of an underlying malignancy or may indicate its recurrence. Moreover, in patients with a diagnosed gynaecological malignancy, visual symptoms could reflect cancer-associated retinopathy. In our patient visual symptoms came secondary to the diagnosis of cancer. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Ultra-wide-field imaging in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Falavarjani, Khalil; Tsui, Irena; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2017-10-01

    Since 1991, 7-field images captured with 30-50 degree cameras in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study were the gold standard for fundus imaging to study diabetic retinopathy. Ultra-wide-field images cover significantly more area (up to 82%) of the fundus and with ocular steering can in many cases image 100% of the fundus ("panretinal"). Recent advances in image analysis of ultra-wide-field imaging allow for precise measurements of the peripheral retinal lesions. There is a growing consensus in the literature that ultra-wide-field imaging improves detection of peripheral lesions in diabetic retinopathy and leads to more accurate classification of the disease. There is discordance among studies, however, on the correlation between peripheral diabetic lesions and diabetic macular edema and optimal management strategies to treat diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Presumed topiramate retinopathy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Tiffany L M; Li, Patrick S H; Li, Kenneth K W

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of peripheral pigmentary retinopathy and visual field loss following topiramate use for uncontrolled seizures. Such side effects have not been well documented despite the increasing use of topiramate in the past 10 years. A thorough search of available English literature revealed only a small number of reports of topiramate-induced retinopathy or visual field defects in humans. One similar case has been described. We are concerned about the possible rare instances of this occurrence in future patients and hence would like to propose a presumed correlation. A 48-year-old Chinese woman developed blurred vision after 9 months of topiramate use. Her visual acuity dropped from 1.2 to 0.7 in both eyes, with bilateral diffuse pigmentary retinopathy and a constricted visual field. Despite an improvement in visual acuity after cessation of the drug, the other clinical findings remained. The temporal relationship between the initiation of topiramate and the visual disturbance suggests that topiramate could be the cause of such signs and symptoms. Topiramate potentially causes pigmentary retinopathy and constricted visual field.

  2. Connective tissue growth factor as a novel therapeutic target in high grade serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Moran-Jones, Kim; Gloss, Brian S; Murali, Rajmohan; Chang, David K; Colvin, Emily K; Jones, Marc D; Yuen, Samuel; Howell, Viive M; Brown, Laura M; Wong, Carol W; Spong, Suzanne M; Scarlett, Christopher J; Hacker, Neville F; Ghosh, Sue; Mok, Samuel C; Birrer, Michael J; Samimi, Goli

    2015-12-29

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among women with gynecologic cancer. We examined molecular profiles of fibroblasts from normal ovary and high-grade serous ovarian tumors to identify novel therapeutic targets involved in tumor progression. We identified 2,300 genes that are significantly differentially expressed in tumor-associated fibroblasts. Fibroblast expression of one of these genes, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. CTGF protein expression in ovarian tumor fibroblasts significantly correlated with gene expression levels. CTGF is a secreted component of the tumor microenvironment and is being pursued as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. We examined its effect in in vitro and ex vivo ovarian cancer models, and examined associations between CTGF expression and clinico-pathologic characteristics in patients. CTGF promotes migration and peritoneal adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. These effects are abrogated by FG-3019, a human monoclonal antibody against CTGF, currently under clinical investigation as a therapeutic agent. Immunohistochemical analyses of high-grade serous ovarian tumors reveal that the highest level of tumor stromal CTGF expression was correlated with the poorest prognosis. Our findings identify CTGF as a promoter of peritoneal adhesion, likely to mediate metastasis, and a potential therapeutic target in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. These results warrant further studies into the therapeutic efficacy of FG-3019 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

  3. Connective tissue growth factor as a novel therapeutic target in high grade serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moran-Jones, Kim; Gloss, Brian S.; Murali, Rajmohan; Chang, David K.; Colvin, Emily K.; Jones, Marc D.; Yuen, Samuel; Howell, Viive M.; Brown, Laura M.; Wong, Carol W.; Spong, Suzanne M.; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Hacker, Neville F.; Ghosh, Sue; Mok, Samuel C.; Birrer, Michael J.; Samimi, Goli

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among women with gynecologic cancer. We examined molecular profiles of fibroblasts from normal ovary and high-grade serous ovarian tumors to identify novel therapeutic targets involved in tumor progression. We identified 2,300 genes that are significantly differentially expressed in tumor-associated fibroblasts. Fibroblast expression of one of these genes, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. CTGF protein expression in ovarian tumor fibroblasts significantly correlated with gene expression levels. CTGF is a secreted component of the tumor microenvironment and is being pursued as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. We examined its effect in in vitro and ex vivo ovarian cancer models, and examined associations between CTGF expression and clinico-pathologic characteristics in patients. CTGF promotes migration and peritoneal adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. These effects are abrogated by FG-3019, a human monoclonal antibody against CTGF, currently under clinical investigation as a therapeutic agent. Immunohistochemical analyses of high-grade serous ovarian tumors reveal that the highest level of tumor stromal CTGF expression was correlated with the poorest prognosis. Our findings identify CTGF as a promoter of peritoneal adhesion, likely to mediate metastasis, and a potential therapeutic target in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. These results warrant further studies into the therapeutic efficacy of FG-3019 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. PMID:26575166

  4. Early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy in primary care.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Baez, Maria Valeria; Marquez-Gonzalez, Horacio; Barcenas-Contreras, Rodolfo; Morales Montoya, Carlos; Espinosa-Garcia, Laura Fatima

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a strategy for early detection of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) in Quintana Roo, México. Study transversal, observational, prospective, analytical, eight primary care units from Mexican Social Security Institute in the northern delegation of the State of Quintana Roo, Mexico were included. A program for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in adult 376,169 was designed. Were diagnosed 683 cases of type 2 diabetes, in 105 patients randomized was conducted to direct ophthalmoscopy were subjected to a secondary hospital were assigned. Will determine the degree of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema was performed. In population were 55.2% female, mean age 48+11.1 years, 23.8 % had some degree of DR, 28.0% with mild non- proliferative diabetic retinopathy 48.0 % moderate 16.0% and severe and 8.0% showed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Those over age 30 are 2.8 times more risk of developing DR, OR= 2.8; 95%CI: 0.42-18.0, and OR= 1.7; 95%CI: 1.02-2.95 women. The implementation of programs aimed at the early detection of debilitating conditions such as diabetic retinopathy health impact beneficiaries, effective links between primary care systems and provide second level positive health outcomes for patient diseases.

  5. Alcohol- and light-induced electro-oculographic responses in age-related macular degeneration & central serous chorioretinopathy. alcohol- and light-induced EOG responses in ARMD & CSC.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kathy H C; Marmor, Michael F

    2005-01-01

    The non-photic electro-oculographic (EOG) response induced by alcohol has been proposed as an indicator of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) integrity, and reported to be abnormal in age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). To evaluate this proposal, we have measured the alcohol-EOG as well as the ISCEV-standard EOG in patients with ARMD (n=11 patients, 4 eyes with drusen, 8 eyes with 'dry' and 7 eyes with 'wet' lesions) and central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC, n=11 patients, 7 eyes with active and 6 eyes with inactive lesions), compared with 29 normal controls. We recorded the alcohol-induced EOG response after a single oral administration of ethanol at 160 mg/kg, followed by an ISCEV-standard EOG. Blood alcohol levels were monitored with a breath analyzer. We found that neither the alcohol-EOG nor the light-induced EOG response showed any difference between either ARMD or CSC patients and normal controls. Nor was there difference among eyes of different ARMD or CSC subgroups. In addition, blood alcohol concentrations near the time of the alcohol-EOG peak showed no obvious relationship with peak/baseline ratios. These data suggest that neither the alcohol- nor the light-induced EOG is a sensitive indicator of these diseases.

  6. Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma presenting as inflammatory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Khalifeh, Ibrahim; Deavers, Michael T; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Coleman, Robert L; Malpica, Anais; Gilcrease, Michael Z

    2009-01-01

    Metastasis to the breast from extramammary malignancies is rare. Nevertheless, its recognition is important because the prognosis and treatment differ from that of primary breast cancer. We report a unique case of primary peritoneal serous carcinoma that initially presented as inflammatory breast cancer. The patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer and subsequently underwent bilateral total mastectomy and bilateral sentinel lymph node biopsy. She was found to have extensive intralymphatic carcinoma in both breasts, with only focal minimal breast parenchymal involvement, and residual metastatic carcinoma in bilateral sentinel lymph nodes. Further work-up revealed pelvic ascites and omental nodularities. The patient underwent laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, which revealed high-grade serous carcinoma involving both ovaries and fallopian tubes. Molecular testing of tumor from the ovary and axillary lymph node showed an identical pattern of allelic loss, confirming a common origin for both tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an extramammary primary malignancy that not only presented as inflammatory breast cancer but also was diagnosed and initially treated as such.

  7. Automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy features in ultra-wide field retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenkova, Anastasia; Sowmya, Arcot; Kalloniatis, Michael; Ly, Angelica; Ho, Arthur

    2017-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major cause of irreversible vision loss. DR screening relies on retinal clinical signs (features). Opportunities for computer-aided DR feature detection have emerged with the development of Ultra-WideField (UWF) digital scanning laser technology. UWF imaging covers 82% greater retinal area (200°), against 45° in conventional cameras3 , allowing more clinically relevant retinopathy to be detected4 . UWF images also provide a high resolution of 3078 x 2702 pixels. Currently DR screening uses 7 overlapping conventional fundus images, and the UWF images provide similar results1,4. However, in 40% of cases, more retinopathy was found outside the 7-field ETDRS) fields by UWF and in 10% of cases, retinopathy was reclassified as more severe4 . This is because UWF imaging allows examination of both the central retina and more peripheral regions, with the latter implicated in DR6 . We have developed an algorithm for automatic recognition of DR features, including bright (cotton wool spots and exudates) and dark lesions (microaneurysms and blot, dot and flame haemorrhages) in UWF images. The algorithm extracts features from grayscale (green "red-free" laser light) and colour-composite UWF images, including intensity, Histogram-of-Gradient and Local binary patterns. Pixel-based classification is performed with three different classifiers. The main contribution is the automatic detection of DR features in the peripheral retina. The method is evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation on 25 UWF retinal images with 167 bright lesions, and 61 other images with 1089 dark lesions. The SVM classifier performs best with AUC of 94.4% / 95.31% for bright / dark lesions.

  8. Correlation between morphological characteristics in spectral-domain-optical coherence tomography, different functional tests and a patient's subjective handicap in acute central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gerendas, Bianca S; Kroisamer, Julia-Sophie; Buehl, Wolf; Rezar-Dreindl, Sandra M; Eibenberger, Katharina M; Pablik, Eleonore; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Sacu, Stefan

    2018-01-16

    The purpose of this study was to identify quantitatively measurable morphologic optical coherence tomography (OCT) characteristics in patients with an acute episode of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and evaluate their correlation to functional and psychological variables for their use in daily clinical practice. Retinal thickness (RT), the height, area and volume of subretinal fluid (SRF)/pigment epithelium detachments were evaluated using the standardized procedures of the Vienna Reading Center. These morphologic characteristics were compared with functional variables [best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity (CS), retinal sensitivity/microperimetry, fixation stability], and patients' subjective handicap from CSC using the National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). Data from 39 CSC patients were included in this analysis. Three different SRF height measures showed a high negative correlation (r = -0.7) to retinal sensitivity within the central 9°, which was also negatively correlated with SRF area and volume (r = -0.6). The CS score and fixation stability (fixation points within 2°) showed a moderate negative correlation (r = -0.4) with SRF height variables. Comparison of the subjective handicap with morphological characteristics in spectral-domain (SD)-OCT showed SRF height had the highest correlation (r = -0.4) with the subjective problems reported and overall NEI VFQ-25 score. In conclusion, SRF height measured in SD-OCT showed the best correlation with functional variables and patients' subjective handicap caused by the disease and therefore seems to be the best variable to look at in daily clinical routine. Even though area and volume also show a correlation, these cannot be so easily measured as height and are therefore not suggested for daily clinical routine. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in various ethnic groups: a worldwide perspective.

    PubMed

    Sivaprasad, Sobha; Gupta, Bhaskar; Crosby-Nwaobi, Roxanne; Evans, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The alarming rise in diabetes prevalence is a global public health and economic problem. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common complication of diabetes and the leading cause of blindness among working-age populations in the Western world. Screening and prompt treatment of diabetic retinopathy are not top priorities in many regions of the world, because the impacts of other causes of preventable blindness remain an issue. Ethnicity is a complex, independent risk factor for diabetic retinopathy. Observations from white populations cannot be extrapolated fully to other ethnic groups. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy, and clinically significant macular edema are higher in people of South Asian, African, Latin American, and indigenous tribal descent compared to the white population. Although all ethnic groups are susceptible to the established risk factors of diabetic retinopathy-such as length of exposure and severity of hyperglycemia, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia-ethnic-specific risk factors also may influence these rates. Such risk factors may include differential susceptibility to conventional risk factors, insulin resistance, differences in anthropometric measurements, truncal obesity, urbanization, variations in access to healthcare systems, genetic susceptibility, and epigenetics. The rates of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy appear to be declining in the United States, supporting the observation that better medical management of diabetes and prompt treatment of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy substantially improve the long-term diabetic retinopathy incidence; studies from other parts of the world are limited and do not mirror this finding, however. We examine the ethnicity and region-based prevalence of diabetic retinopathy around the world and highlight the need to reinforce ethnicity-based screening and treatment thresholds in diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Baez, Maria Valeria; Barcenas-Contreras, Rodolfo; Morales Montoya, Carlos; Espinosa-Garcia, Laura Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a strategy for early detection of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) in Quintana Roo, México. Methods: Study transversal, observational, prospective, analytical, eight primary care units from Mexican Social Security Institute in the northern delegation of the State of Quintana Roo, Mexico were included. A program for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in adult 376,169 was designed. Were diagnosed 683 cases of type 2 diabetes, in 105 patients randomized was conducted to direct ophthalmoscopy were subjected to a secondary hospital were assigned. Will determine the degree of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema was performed. Results: In population were 55.2% female, mean age 48+11.1 years, 23.8 % had some degree of DR, 28.0% with mild non- proliferative diabetic retinopathy 48.0 % moderate 16.0% and severe and 8.0% showed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Those over age 30 are 2.8 times more risk of developing DR, OR= 2.8; 95%CI: 0.42-18.0, and OR= 1.7; 95%CI: 1.02-2.95 women. Conclusions: The implementation of programs aimed at the early detection of debilitating conditions such as diabetic retinopathy health impact beneficiaries, effective links between primary care systems and provide second level positive health outcomes for patient diseases. PMID:26019380

  11. CT Features of Ovarian Tumors: Defining Key Differences Between Serous Borderline Tumors and Low-Grade Serous Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Lakhman, Yulia; Molinari, Nicolas; Feier, Diana; Scelzo, Chiara; Vargas, Hebert A; Sosa, Ramon E; Hricak, Hedvig; Soslow, Robert A; Grisham, Rachel N; Sala, Evis

    2018-04-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate whether the CT features of serous borderline tumors (SBTs) differ from those of low-grade serous carcinomas (LGSCs) and to evaluate if mutation status is associated with distinct CT phenotypes. This retrospective study included 59 women, 37 with SBT and 22 with LGSC, who underwent CT before primary surgical resection. Thirty of 59 patients were genetically profiled. Two radiologists (readers 1 and 2) independently and retrospectively reviewed CT examinations for qualitative features and quantified total tumor volumes (TTVs), solid tumor volumes (STVs), and solid proportion of ovarian masses. Univariate and multivariate associations of the CT features with histopathologic diagnoses and mutations were evaluated, and interreader agreement was determined. At multivariate analysis, the presence of bilateral ovarian masses (p = 0.03), the presence of peritoneal disease (PD) (p = 0.002), and higher STV of ovarian masses (p = 0.002) were associated with LGSC. The presence of nodular PD pattern (p < 0.001 each reader) and the presence of PD calcifications (reader 1, p = 0.02; reader 2, p = 0.003) were associated with invasive peritoneal lesions (i.e., LGSC). The presence of bilateral ovarian masses (p = 0.04 each reader), PD (reader 1, p = 0.01; reader 2, p = 0.004), and higher STV (p = 0.03 for each reader) were associated with the absence of BRAF mutation (i.e., wild type [wt]-BRAF). The CT features of LGSCs were distinct from those of SBTs. The CT manifestations of LGSC and the wt-BRAF phenotype were similar.

  12. Characterization of Retinal Disease Progression in a 1-Year Longitudinal Study of Eyes With Mild Nonproliferative Retinopathy in Diabetes Type 2.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luisa; Bandello, Francesco; Tejerina, Amparo Navea; Vujosevic, Stela; Varano, Monica; Egan, Catherine; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Menon, Geeta; Massin, Pascale; Verbraak, Frank D; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Martinez, Jose P; Jürgens, Ignasi; Smets, Erica; Coriat, Caroline; Wiedemann, Peter; Ágoas, Victor; Querques, Giuseppe; Holz, Frank G; Nunes, Sandrina; Neves, Catarina; Cunha-Vaz, José

    2015-08-01

    To identify eyes of patients with diabetes type 2 that show progression of retinal disease within a 1-year period using noninvasive techniques. Three hundred seventy-four type 2 diabetic patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study [ETDRS] level 20 or 35) were included in a 12-month prospective observational study to identify retinopathy progression. Four visits were scheduled at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months. Microaneurysm (MA) activity using the RetmarkerDR and retinal thickness using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were assessed by a central reading center at all visits and ETDRS severity level in the first and last visits. Three hundred thirty-one eyes/patients completed the study. Microaneurysm formation rate greater than or equal to 2 was present in 68.1% of the eyes and MA turnover greater than or equal to 6 in 54.0% at month 6. Higher MA turnover values were registered in eyes that showed progression in ETDRS severity level (P < 0.03). There were also significant correlations between increased microaneurysm activity and increases in retinal thickness. Spectral-domain OCT identified clinical macular edema in 24 eyes/patients (6.7%) and subclinical macular edema in 104 eyes/patients (28.9%) at baseline. Progression of retinal thickening was registered in eyes that had either subclinical or clinical macular edema at baseline. Changes in MA activity measured with RetmarkerDR and in central retinal thickness in eyes with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetes type 2 are able to identify eyes at risk of progression. These eyes/patients should be selected for inclusion in future clinical trials of drugs targeted to prevent diabetic retinopathy progression to vision-threatening complications. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01145599.)

  13. Association between human breast milk and retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Luciana Teixeira; Senna, Denise C; Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Silveira, Rita de Cássia; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the possible protective effect of breast milk against retinopathy of prematurity by comparing the amount of breast milk received by patients who developed retinopathy of prematurity and those who did not and to determine both the required minimum amount of breast milk and the time of life during which neonates need to receive breast milk for this effect to be significant. Cohort study of newborns with a birth weight of <1500 g or gestational age of <32 weeks, or both, born between January 2011 and October 2014 and hospitalized within the first 24 h of life in the Hospital Criança Conceição Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. The prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity of any degree was 31% (100 of 323 patients) and that of severe retinopathy of prematurity was of 9% (29 of 323 patients). The median amounts of breast milk received daily by patients with and without retinopathy of prematurity were 4.9 mL/kg (interquartile range, 0.3-15.4) and 10.2 mL/kg (1.5-25.5), respectively. The amount of breast milk received in the first 6 weeks of life was inversely associated with the incidence of both retinopathy of prematurity of any degree and severe retinopathy of prematurity in the univariate analyses. However, the statistical significance was maintained only during the sixth week of life in a per-period multivariate analysis controlling for confounding factors. Small amounts of breast milk are inadequate to prevent retinopathy of prematurity in premature newborns at risk for the disease.

  14. Retinopathy of Prematurity: Clinical Features, Classification, Natural History, Management and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Shah, Parag K; Prabhu, Vishma; Ranjan, Ratnesh; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran

    2016-11-07

    Retinopathy of prematurity is an avoidable cause of childhood blindness. Proper understanding of the classification and treatment methods is a must in tackling this disease. Literature search with PubMed was conducted covering the period 1940-2015 with regards to retinopathy of prematurity, retrolental fibroplasia, its natural history, classification and treatment. The clinical features, screening and staging of retinopathy of prematurity according to International classification of retinopathy of prematurity (ICROP) has been included with illustrations. The standard current treatment indications, modalities and outcomes from landmark randomized controlled trials on retinopathy of prematurity have been mentioned. This review would help pediatricians to update their current knowledge on classification and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity, in India, should be performed in all preterm neonates who are born <34 weeks gestation and/or <1750 grams birthweight; as well as in babies 34-36 weeks gestation or 1750-2000 grams birthweight if they have risk factors for ROP. Screening should start by one month after birth.

  15. Vibration perception threshold for sight-threatening retinopathy screening in type 2 diabetic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Hu, Yanyun; Liu, Fang; Zeng, Hui; Li, Lianxi; Zhao, Jun; Zhao, Jungong; Zheng, Taishan; Lu, Huijuan; Lu, Fengdi; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the relationship between vibration perception threshold and diabetic retinopathy and verified the screening value of vibration perception threshold for severe diabetic retinopathy. A total of 955 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and divided into three groups according to their fundus oculi photography results: no diabetic retinopathy (n = 654, 68.48%), non-sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (n = 189, 19.79%) and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (n = 112, 11.73%). Their clinical and biochemical characteristics, vibration perception threshold and the diabetic retinopathy grades were detected and compared. There were significant differences in diabetes duration and blood glucose levels among three groups (all p < 0.05). The values of vibration perception threshold increased with the rising severity of retinopathy, and the vibration perception threshold level of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy group was significantly higher than both non-sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy and no diabetic retinopathy groups (both p < 0.01). The prevalence of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in vibration perception threshold >25 V group was significantly higher than those in 16-24 V group (p < 0.01). The severity of diabetic retinopathy was positively associated with diabetes duration, blood glucose indexes and vibration perception threshold (all p < 0.01). Multiple stepwise regression analysis proved that glycosylated haemoglobin (β = 0.385, p = 0.000), diabetes duration (β = 0.275, p = 0.000) and vibration perception threshold (β = 0.180, p = 0.015) were independent risk factors for diabetic retinopathy. Receiver operating characteristic analysis further revealed that vibration perception threshold higher than 18 V was the optimal cut point for reflecting high risk of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio = 4.20, 95% confidence interval = 2.67-6.59). There was a close association between vibration perception

  16. En face choroidal vascular feature imaging in acute and chronic central serous chorioretinopathy using swept source optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won June; Lee, Jung Wook; Park, Seung Hun; Lee, Byung Ro

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the variable depth tomographic features of choroidal vasculature in acute and chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) using swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) en face imaging. We retrospectively reviewed the en face SS-OCT images of 29 patients that presented with acute (12 eyes) or chronic (17 eyes) CSC. All of the patient eyes underwent 6×6 macular scans with SS-OCT (DRI OCT-1, Topcon, Tokyo, Japan), fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography. The en face image was used to investigate the choroidal vasculature of each layer. Moreover, we determined that some parts corresponded to choriocapillaris and Sattler's layer attenuation, whereas choroidal vessel dilatation was associated with Haller's layer. At Haller's layer level, choroidal vessel dilatation was observed in 11 of 12 acute CSC (91.7%) and 15 of 17 chronic CSC (88.2%). In acute CSC, choroidal vessel dilatation was divided into focal (9/11; 81.8%) and diffuse (2/11; 18.2%) patterns. The chronic CSC cases demonstrated different patterns of choroidal vessel dilatation: focal (5/15; 33.3%) and diffuse (10/15; 66.6%). Ten of the acute CSC eyes (83.3%) and 14 of the chronic CSC eyes (82.4%) were found to have obscured choriocapillaris and Sattler's layers on en face imaging. En face imaging of SS-OCT is useful when combined with angiography in CSC for evaluating choroidal vessel dilatation at Haller's layer and to identify obscured upper layers. We identified different choroidal vessel dilatation patterns between acute and chronic CSC. These findings might be useful for pathophysiological understanding of CSC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of digital retinal imaging for screening diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Bastida, J; Cabrera-Lopez, F; Serrano-Aguilar, P

    2007-04-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a non-mydriatic digital camera (45 degrees -30 degrees photographs) compared with the reference method for screening diabetic retinopathy. Type 1 and 2 diabetic patients (n = 773; 1546 eyes) underwent screening for diabetic retinopathy in a prospective observational study. Hospital-based non-mydriatic digital retinal imaging by a consultant specialist in retinal diseases was compared with slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy through dilated pupils, as a gold standard, previously performed in a community health centre by another consultant specialist in retinal diseases. The main outcome measures were sensitivity and specificity of screening methods and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy. The prevalence of any form of diabetic retinopathy was 42.4% (n = 328); the prevalence of sight-threatening including macular oedema and proliferative retinopathy was 9.6% (n = 74). Sensitivity of detection of any diabetic retinopathy by digital imaging was 92% (95% confidence interval 90, 94). Specificity of detection of any diabetic retinopathy was 96% (95, 98). The predictive value of the negative tests was 94% and of a positive test 95%. For sight-threatening retinopathy digital imaging had a sensitivity of 100%. A high sensitivity and specificity are essential for an effective screening programme. These results confirm digital retinal imaging with a non-mydriatic camera as an effective option in community-based screening programmes for diabetic retinopathy.

  18. Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in Africa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, P I; MacCormick, I J C; Harding, S P; Bastawrous, A; Beare, N A V; Garner, P

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aim To summarize findings from studies reporting the prevalence and incidence of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy in African countries in light of the rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Methods Using a predefined search strategy, we systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation index and Conference Proceedings Citation index, African Index Medicus and the grey literature database ‘OpenSIGLE’ for studies published between January 1990 and February 2011. Included studies reported prevalence or incidence of diabetic retinopathy or diabetic maculopathy of subjects with diabetes resident in African countries. Results Sixty-two studies from 21 countries were included: three population-based surveys; two cohort studies; five case–control studies; 32 diabetes clinic-based, nine eye clinic-based and 11 other hospital-based surveys. Included studies varied considerably in terms of patient selection, method of assessing the eye and retinopathy classification. In population-based studies, the reported prevalence range in patients with diabetes for diabetic retinopathy was 30.2 to 31.6%, proliferative diabetic retinopathy 0.9 to 1.3%, and any maculopathy 1.2 to 4.5%. In diabetes clinic-based surveys, the reported prevalence range for diabetic retinopathy was 7.0 to 62.4%, proliferative diabetic retinopathy 0 to 6.9%, and any maculopathy 1.2 to 31.1%. No obvious association between prevalence and income level of the country was detected. Conclusions Large, community-based cross-sectional and cohort studies are needed to investigate rates and determinants of prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, incidence and progression in Africa. Consensus is needed on the most appropriate methods of identification and classification of retinopathy for research and clinical practice. Estimates of prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy are comparable with recent European and American studies. PMID:22817387

  19. Retinopathy in an obesity WHO III cohort: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mattern, Juri; Lammert, Alexander; Otto, Mirko; Hammes, Hans-Peter

    2017-11-01

    To assess retinopathy and its risk factors in an obesity WHO III cohort. In the Mannheim Obesity Study , 277 subjects with obesity WHO III aged 18-64 years were examined in a cross-sectional approach. Screening for retinopathy was performed using 3-field retinal photography. Endothelial function was assessed using arteriole-to-venule ratio and flicker light analysis. Subjects with and without retinopathy were analysed for anthropometry, metabolic, vascular and renal parameters. Retinopathy was found in 18 of the 277 subjects (6.5%). Prevalence of retinopathy was 16.7% in subjects with and 3.4% in subjects without diabetes mellitus. Between subjects with and without retinopathy there were significant differences in diabetes prevalence (61.1% vs 21.7%, p<0.001), systolic blood pressure (145.56 vs 131.73 mm Hg, p=0.005), intima-media thickness (0.7 vs 0.59 mm, p=0.034), dilatation of retinal veins in response to flicker light (2.24% vs 4.28%, p=0.004) and creatinine (0.92 vs 0.83 mg/dL, p=0.011). Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of diabetes mellitus led to an 8.3-fold increased risk for retinopathy (OR 8.3, p=0.049, 95% CI 1.01 to 67.49), whereas risk for retinopathy decreased by nearly 50% (OR 0.54, p=0.032, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.95) with each percentage increase in venous dilatation in response to flicker light. Retinopathy prevalence in our obesity WHO III cohort is low. Presence of diabetes mellitus is the most important risk factor for retinopathy. Preserved venular function indicates protection from retinopathy. NCT00770276, Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Pathways to Genome-targeted Therapies in Serous Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Joshua; Delaney, Joe

    2017-07-01

    Genome sequencing technologies and corresponding oncology publications have generated enormous publicly available datasets for many cancer types. While this has enabled new treatments, and in some limited cases lifetime management of the disease, the treatment options for serous ovarian cancer remain dismal. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of ovarian cancer, with a focus on heterogeneity, functional genomics, and actionable data.

  1. Clinical application of optical coherence tomography in combination with functional diagnostics: advantages and limitations for diagnosis and assessment of therapy outcome in central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Schliesser, Joshua A; Gallimore, Gary; Kunjukunju, Nancy; Sabates, Nelson R; Koulen, Peter; Sabates, Felix N

    2014-01-01

    While identifying functional and structural parameters of the retina in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) patients, this study investigated how an optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based diagnosis can be significantly supplemented with functional diagnostic tools and to what degree the determination of disease severity and therapy outcome can benefit from diagnostics complementary to OCT. CSCR patients were evaluated prospectively with microperimetry (MP) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to determine retinal sensitivity function and retinal thickness as outcome measures along with measures of visual acuity (VA). Patients received clinical care that involved focal laser photocoagulation or pharmacotherapy targeting inflammation and neovascularization. Correlation of clinical parameters with a focus on functional parameters, VA, and mean retinal sensitivity, as well as on the structural parameter mean retinal thickness, showed that functional measures were similar in diagnostic power. A moderate correlation was found between OCT data and the standard functional assessment of VA; however, a strong correlation between OCT and MP data showed that diagnostic measures cannot always be used interchangeably, but that complementary use is of higher clinical value. The study indicates that integrating SD-OCT with MP provides a more complete diagnosis with high clinical relevance for complex, difficult to quantify diseases such as CSCR.

  2. Impact of the Ovarian Microenvironment on Serous Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Collagen is a well-established matrix utilized by serous cancer cells, of unknown origin, to seed metastatic sites, such as the mesothelium. An RNAseq...analysis will be performed between human TEC adhered to collagen matrix compared to tissue culture plastic and used to identify gene expression...changes responsible for adhesion on collagen . Ovarian conditioned medium (OCM) with and without H2O2 treatment will be added to normal and our series of

  3. Downregulated Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Pathophysiology of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Behl, Tapan; Kotwani, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophin growth factor family, physiologically mediates induction of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, promotes neuronal growth and survival and maintains synaptic plasticity and neuronal interconnections. Unlike the central nervous system, its secretion in the peripheral nervous system occurs in an activity-dependent manner. BDNF improves neuronal mortality, growth, differentiation and maintenance. It also provides neuroprotection against several noxious stimuli, thereby preventing neuronal damage during pathologic conditions. However, in diabetic retinopathy (a neuromicrovascular disorder involving immense neuronal degeneration), BDNF fails to provide enough neuroprotection against oxidative stress-induced retinal neuronal apoptosis. This review describes the prime reasons for the downregulation of BDNF-mediated neuroprotective actions during hyperglycemia, which renders retinal neurons vulnerable to damaging stimuli, leading to diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Giant ovarian serous cystadenoma in a postmenopausal woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Sunkavalli Chinna

    2009-01-01

    A case of 66-year-old South Indian post menopausal woman presenting a giant ovarian serous cyst adenoma weighing 23 kg is reported here. A 66-year-old woman was referred to our clinic from a local medical center. When she was seen first at our outpatient clinic, she had gross abdominal distension since 2 years and she was unable to walk. On abdominal ultrasound, a giant cyst was found which encompassed the whole abdomen. At laparotomy, a giant, totally cystic, vascularized and smooth mass attached to the right ovary was encountered. Staging laparotomy was performed. On the postoperative tenth day, she was discharged without any problem. Her pathology report disclosed a 60×47×30 cm serous cyst adenoma weighing 23 kg. This is the largest ovarian cyst that ever reported from our hospital and one of the largest among the reported cases in the literature. PMID:19830023

  5. Ultrastructure of neurovascular changes in human diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Fehér, János; Taurone, Samanta; Spoletini, Marialuisa; Biró, Zsolt; Varsányi, Balázs; Scuderi, Gianluca; Orlando, Maria Patrizia; Turchetta, Rosaria; Micera, Alessandra; Artico, Marco

    2018-01-01

    The previous concept regarding diabetic retinopathy assigned a primary role to hyperglycemia-induced microvascular alterations, while neuronal and glial abnormalities were considered to be secondary to either ischemia or exudation. The aim of this study was to reveal the potential role of neuronal and glial cells in initial and advanced alterations of the retinopathy in human type 2 diabetes. Electron microscopy and histochemical studies were performed on 38 surgically removed human eyes (28 obtained from diabetic patients and 10 from non-diabetic patients). Morphometric analysis of basement membrane material and lipids was performed. An accumulation of metabolic by-products was found in the capillary wall with aging: this aspect was significantly more pronounced in diabetics. Müller glial cells were found to contribute to alterations of the capillary wall and to occlusion, as well as to the development of proliferative retinopathy and cystoid degeneration of the retina. Our results showed morphological evidence regarding the role of neuronal and glial cells in the pathology of diabetic retinopathy, prior and in addition to microangiopathy. These morphological findings support a neurovascular pathogenesis at the origin of diabetic retinopathy, thus the current treatment approach should be completed by neuroprotective measures.

  6. Retinal vascular geometry in Asian persons with diabetes and retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Carol Yim-lui; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Ikram, M Kamran; Sasongko, M Bayu; Ding, Jie; Zheng, Yingfeng; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin

    2012-05-01

    Our purpose was to examine the relationship of retinal vascular parameters with diabetes and retinopathy in an older Asian population. Retinal photographs from participants of a population-based survey of Asian Malay persons aged 40-80 years were analyzed. Specific retinal vascular parameters (tortuosity, branching angle, fractal dimension, and caliber) were measured using a semiautomated computer-based program. Diabetes was defined as random plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/liter, the use of diabetes medication, or physician-diagnosed diabetes. Retinopathy signs were graded from photographs using the modified Airlie House classification system. A total of 2735 persons were included in the study. Persons with diabetes (n = 594) were more likely to have straighter (less tortuous) arterioles and wider arteriolar and venular caliber than those without diabetes (n = 2141). Among subjects with diabetes, those with retinopathy had wider venular caliber than those without retinopathy (211.3 versus 204.9 mm, p = .001). Among nondiabetic subjects, however, those with retinopathy had more tortuous venules than those without retinopathy [5.19(×10(4)) versus 4.27(×10(4)), p < .001]. Retinal vascular parameters varied by diabetes and retinopathy status in this older Asian cohort. Our findings suggest that subtle alterations in retinal vascular architecture are influenced by diabetes. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. Posterior microphthalmos pigmentary retinopathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pehere, Niranjan; Jalali, Subhadra; Deshmukh, Himanshu; Kannabiran, Chitra

    2011-04-01

    Posterior Microphthalmos Pigmentary Retinopathy Syndrome (PMPRS). Posterior microphthalmos (PM) is a relatively infrequent type of microphthalmos where posterior segment is predominantly affected with normal anterior segment measurements. Herein, we report two siblings with posterior microphthalmos retinopathy syndrome with postulated autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. A 13-year-old child had PM and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and his 7-year-old sister had PM, RP, and foveoschisis. The genetics of this syndrome and variable phenotype is discussed. Importance of being aware of posterior microphthalmos and its posterior segment associations is highlighted.

  8. [Diabetic retinopathy: pathogenesis and therapeutic implications].

    PubMed

    Pelikánová, Terezie

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) develops in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and is the major cause of vision loss and blindness in the working population. The main risk factor of DR is hyperglycemia accompanied by enhanced mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and hexosamines, increase in polyol metabolism of glucose. The severity of vascular injury depends on the individual genetic background and is modified by other epigenetic, metabolic and haemodynamic factors, including hypertension, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress. In diabetes, damage to the retina occurs in the vasculature (endothelial cells and pericytes), neurons and glia, pigment epithelial cells and infiltrating immunocompetent cells: monocytes, granulocytes, lymfocytes. These activated cells change the production pattern of a number of mediators such as growth factors, proinflammatory cytokines, vasoactive molecules, coagulation factors and adhesion molecules resulting in increased blood flow, increased capillary permeability, proliferation of extracellular matrix and thickening of basal membranes, altered cell turnover (apoptosis, proliferation, hypertrophy), procoagulant and proaggregant pattern, and finally in angiogenesis and tissue remodelling. Brain, liver, adipose tissue, GUT, skeletal muscle and other tissues could be another source of mediators. Therapeutic approaches used for patients with or at risk for diabetic retinopathy include drug therapy to reduce modifiable risk factors, laser photocoagulation, intravitreous administration of anti-VEGF agents/steroids and intraocular surgery. Screening plays an important role in early detection and intervention to prevent the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Described insights into pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for DR, could help in the development of more targeted approach for prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. anti

  9. Purtscher's retinopathy associated with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hamp, Ania M; Chu, Edward; Slagle, William S; Hamp, Robert C; Joy, Jeffrey T; Morris, Robert W

    2014-02-01

    Purtscher's retinopathy is a rare condition that is associated with complement-activating systemic diseases such as acute pancreatitis. After pancreatic injury or inflammation, proteases such as trypsin activate the complement system and can potentially cause coagulation and leukoembolization of retinal precapillary arterioles. Specifically, intermediate-sized emboli are sufficiently small enough to pass through larger arteries yet large enough to remain lodged in precapillary arterioles and cause the clinical appearance of Purtscher's retinopathy. This pathology may present with optic nerve edema, impaired visual acuity, visual field loss, as well as retinal findings such as cotton-wool spots, retinal hemorrhage, artery attenuation, venous dilation, and Purtscher flecken. A 57-year-old white man presented with an acute onset of visual field scotomas and decreased visual acuity 1 week after being hospitalized for acute pancreatitis. The retinal examination revealed multiple regions of discrete retinal whitening surrounding the disk, extending through the macula bilaterally, as well as bilateral optic nerve hemorrhages. The patient identified paracentral bilateral visual field defects on Amsler Grid testing, which was confirmed with subsequent Humphrey visual field analysis. Although the patient presented with an atypical underlying etiology, he exhibited classic retinal findings for Purtscher's retinopathy. After 2 months, best corrected visual acuity improved and the retinal whitening was nearly resolved; however, bilateral paracentral visual field defects remained. Purtscher's retinopathy has a distinctive clinical presentation and is typically associated with thoracic trauma but may be a sequela of nontraumatic systemic disease such as acute pancreatitis. Patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis should have an eye examination to rule out Purtscher's retinopathy. Although visual improvement is possible, patients should be educated that there may be permanent

  10. Femoral metastases from ovarian serous/endometroid adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Beresford–Cleary, NJA; Mehdi, SA; Magowan, B

    2012-01-01

    Bony metastases from ovarian cancer are rare, tend to affect the axial skeleton and are associated with abdomino-pelvic disease. The median time interval between diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma and presentation of bony metastases is 44 months (1). We describe a rare case of high grade left ovarian serous / endometrioid adenocarcinoma presenting with a pathological right femoral fracture 4 weeks following diagnosis and optimal debulking of the ovarian tumour. Orthopaedic surgeons must be vigilant when planning treatment of fractures presenting in patients with a history of ovarian cancer. PMID:24960734

  11. CDKN2D-WDFY2 is a cancer-specific fusion gene recurrent in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kalpana; Coarfa, Cristian; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Hawkins, Shannon M; Matzuk, Martin M; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Yen, Laising

    2014-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women. Almost 70% of ovarian cancer deaths are due to the high-grade serous subtype, which is typically detected only after it has metastasized. Characterization of high-grade serous cancer is further complicated by the significant heterogeneity and genome instability displayed by this cancer. Other than mutations in TP53, which is common to many cancers, highly recurrent recombinant events specific to this cancer have yet to be identified. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of seven patient samples combined with experimental validation at DNA, RNA and protein levels, we identified a cancer-specific and inter-chromosomal fusion gene CDKN2D-WDFY2 that occurs at a frequency of 20% among sixty high-grade serous cancer samples but is absent in non-cancerous ovary and fallopian tube samples. This is the most frequent recombinant event identified so far in high-grade serous cancer implying a major cellular lineage in this highly heterogeneous cancer. In addition, the same fusion transcript was also detected in OV-90, an established high-grade serous type cell line. The genomic breakpoint was identified in intron 1 of CDKN2D and intron 2 of WDFY2 in patient tumor, providing direct evidence that this is a fusion gene. The parental gene, CDKN2D, is a cell-cycle modulator that is also involved in DNA repair, while WDFY2 is known to modulate AKT interactions with its substrates. Transfection of cloned fusion construct led to loss of wildtype CDKN2D and wildtype WDFY2 protein expression, and a gain of a short WDFY2 protein isoform that is presumably under the control of the CDKN2D promoter. The expression of short WDFY2 protein in transfected cells appears to alter the PI3K/AKT pathway that is known to play a role in oncogenesis. CDKN2D-WDFY2 fusion could be an important molecular signature for understanding and classifying sub-lineages among heterogeneous high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas.

  12. Quantitative assessment of early diabetic retinopathy using fractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ning; Donaghue, Kim C; Liew, Gerald; Rogers, Sophie L; Wang, Jie Jin; Lim, Shueh-Wen; Jenkins, Alicia J; Hsu, Wynne; Li Lee, Mong; Wong, Tien Y

    2009-01-01

    Fractal analysis can quantify the geometric complexity of the retinal vascular branching pattern and may therefore offer a new method to quantify early diabetic microvascular damage. In this study, we examined the relationship between retinal fractal dimension and retinopathy in young individuals with type 1 diabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 729 patients with type 1 diabetes (aged 12-20 years) who had seven-field stereoscopic retinal photographs taken of both eyes. From these photographs, retinopathy was graded according to the modified Airlie House classification, and fractal dimension was quantified using a computer-based program following a standardized protocol. In this study, 137 patients (18.8%) had diabetic retinopathy signs; of these, 105 had mild retinopathy. Median (interquartile range) retinal fractal dimension was 1.46214 (1.45023-1.47217). After adjustment for age, sex, diabetes duration, A1C, blood pressure, and total cholesterol, increasing retinal vascular fractal dimension was significantly associated with increasing odds of retinopathy (odds ratio 3.92 [95% CI 2.02-7.61] for fourth versus first quartile of fractal dimension). In multivariate analysis, each 0.01 increase in retinal vascular fractal dimension was associated with a nearly 40% increased odds of retinopathy (1.37 [1.21-1.56]). This association remained after additional adjustment for retinal vascular caliber. Greater retinal fractal dimension, representing increased geometric complexity of the retinal vasculature, is independently associated with early diabetic retinopathy signs in type 1 diabetes. Fractal analysis of fundus photographs may allow quantitative measurement of early diabetic microvascular damage.

  13. Optical coherence tomography of the preterm eye: from retinopathy of prematurity to brain development

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Adam L; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Chen, Xi; Toth, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants with retinopathy of prematurity are at increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Because the neurosensory retina is an extension of the central nervous system, anatomic abnormalities in the anterior visual pathway often relate to system and central nervous system health. We describe optical coherence tomography as a powerful imaging modality that has recently been adapted to the infant population and provides noninvasive, high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging of the infant eye at the bedside. Optical coherence tomography has increased understanding of normal eye development and has identified several potential biomarkers of brain abnormalities and poorer neurodevelopment. PMID:28539807

  14. Risk of Radiation Retinopathy in Patients With Orbital and Ocular Lymphoma

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kaushik, Megha; Pulido, Jose S.; Schild, Steven E.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: Radiation retinopathy is a potential long-term complication of radiation therapy to the orbit. The risk of developing this adverse effect is dose dependent; however, the threshold is unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the risk of developing radiation retinopathy at increasing radiation doses. Methods and Materials: A 40-year retrospective review was performed of patients who received external beam radiation therapy for ocular/orbital non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Results: Sixty-seven patients who had at least one ophthalmic follow-up examination were included in this study. Most patients (52%) were diagnosed with NHL involving the orbit. Patients received external beam radiationmore » therapy at doses between 1886 and 5400 cGy (mean, 3033 {+-} 782 cGy). Radiation retinopathy developed in 12% of patients, and the median time to diagnosis was 27 months (range, 15-241months). The mean prescribed radiation dose in patients with retinopathy was 3309 {+-} 585 cGy, and the estimated retinal dose (derived by reviewing the dosimetry) was 3087 {+-} 1030 cGy. The incidence of retinopathy increased with dose. The average prescribed daily fractionated dose was higher in patients who developed retinopathy than in patients who did not (mean, 202 cGy vs 180 cGy, respectively; P = .04). More patients with radiation retinopathy had comorbid diabetes mellitus type 2 than patients without retinopathy (P = .015). In our study, the mean visual acuity of the eyes that received radiation was worse than that of the eyes that did not (P = .027). Other postradiotherapy ocular findings included keratitis (6%), dry eyes (39%), and cataract (33%). Conclusions: Radiation retinopathy, a known complication of radiotherapy for orbital tumors, relates to vascular comorbidities and dose. Higher total doses and larger daily fractions (>180 cGy) appear to be related to higher rates of retinopathy. Future larger studies are required to identify a statistically significant threshold

  15. The role of retinopathy distribution and other lesion types for the definition of examination intervals during screening for diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ometto, Giovanni; Erlandsen, Mogens; Hunter, Andrew; Bek, Toke

    2017-06-01

    It has previously been shown that the intervals between screening examinations for diabetic retinopathy can be optimized by including individual risk factors for the development of the disease in the risk assessment. However, in some cases, the risk model calculating the screening interval may recommend a different interval than an experienced clinician. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of factors unrelated to diabetic retinopathy and the distribution of lesions for discrepancies between decisions made by the clinician and the risk model. Therefore, fundus photographs from 90 screening examinations where the recommendations of the clinician and a risk model had been discrepant were evaluated. Forty features were defined to describe the type and location of the lesions, and classification and ranking techniques were used to assess whether the features could predict the discrepancy between the grader and the risk model. Suspicion of tumours, retinal degeneration and vascular diseases other than diabetic retinopathy could explain why the clinician recommended shorter examination intervals than the model. Additionally, the regional distribution of microaneurysms/dot haemorrhages was important for defining a photograph as belonging to the group where both the clinician and the risk model had recommended a short screening interval as opposed to the other decision alternatives. Features unrelated to diabetic retinopathy and the regional distribution of retinal lesions may affect the recommendation of the examination interval during screening for diabetic retinopathy. The development of automated computerized algorithms for extracting information about the type and location of retinal lesions could be expected to further optimize examination intervals during screening for diabetic retinopathy. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Aurora-A overexpression and aneuploidy predict poor outcome in serous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lassus, Heini; Staff, Synnöve; Leminen, Arto; Isola, Jorma; Butzow, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Aurora-A is a potential oncogene and therapeutic target in ovarian carcinoma. It is involved in mitotic events and overexpression leads to centrosome amplification and chromosomal instability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of Aurora-A and DNA ploidy in serous ovarian carcinoma. Serous ovarian carcinomas were analysed for Aurora-A protein by immunohistochemistry (n=592), Aurora-A copy number by CISH (n=169), Aurora-A mRNA by real-time PCR (n=158) and DNA ploidy by flowcytometry (n=440). Overexpression of Aurora-A was found in 27% of the tumors, cytoplasmic overexpression in 11% and nuclear in 17%. The cytoplasmic and nuclear overexpression were nearly mutually exclusive. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear overexpression were associated with shorter survival, high grade, high proliferation index and aberrant p53. Interestingly, only cytoplasmic expression was associated with aneuploidy and expression of phosphorylated Aurora-A. DNA ploidy was associated with poor patient outcome as well as aggressive clinicopathological parameters. In multivariate analysis, Aurora-A overexpression appeared as an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival, together with grade, stage and ploidy. Aurora-A protein expression is strongly linked with poor patient outcome and aggressive disease characteristics, which makes Aurora-A a promising biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in ovarian carcinoma. Cytoplasmic and nuclear Aurora-A protein may have different functions. DNA aneuploidy is a strong predictor of poor prognosis in serous ovarian carcinoma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Surgical staging and prognosis in serous borderline ovarian tumours (BOT): A subanalysis of the AGO ROBOT study

    PubMed Central

    Trillsch, F; Mahner, S; Vettorazzi, E; Woelber, L; Reuss, A; Baumann, K; Keyver-Paik, M-D; Canzler, U; Wollschlaeger, K; Forner, D; Pfisterer, J; Schroeder, W; Muenstedt, K; Richter, B; Fotopoulou, C; Schmalfeldt, B; Burges, A; Ewald-Riegler, N; de Gregorio, N; Hilpert, F; Fehm, T; Meier, W; Hillemanns, P; Hanker, L; Hasenburg, A; Strauss, H-G; Hellriegel, M; Wimberger, P; Kommoss, S; Kommoss, F; Hauptmann, S; du Bois, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Incomplete surgical staging is a negative prognostic factor for patients with borderline ovarian tumours (BOT). However, little is known about the prognostic impact of each individual staging procedure. Methods: Clinical parameters of 950 patients with BOT (confirmed by central reference pathology) treated between 1998 and 2008 at 24 German AGO centres were analysed. In 559 patients with serous BOT and adequate ovarian surgery, further recommended staging procedures (omentectomy, peritoneal biopsies, cytology) were evaluated applying Cox regression models with respect to progression-free survival (PFS). Results: For patients with one missing staging procedure, the hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence was 1.25 (95%-CI 0.66–2.39; P=0.497). This risk increased with each additional procedure skipped reaching statistical significance in case of two (HR 1.95; 95%-CI 1.06–3.58; P=0.031) and three missing steps (HR 2.37; 95%-CI 1.22–4.64; P=0.011). The most crucial procedure was omentectomy which retained a statistically significant impact on PFS in multiple analysis (HR 1.91; 95%-CI 1.15–3.19; P=0.013) adjusting for previously established prognostic factors as FIGO stage, tumour residuals, and fertility preservation. Conclusion: Individual surgical staging procedures contribute to the prognosis for patients with serous BOT. In this analysis, recurrence risk increased with each skipped surgical step. This should be considered when re-staging procedures following incomplete primary surgery are discussed. PMID:25562434

  18. Surgical staging and prognosis in serous borderline ovarian tumours (BOT): a subanalysis of the AGO ROBOT study.

    PubMed

    Trillsch, F; Mahner, S; Vettorazzi, E; Woelber, L; Reuss, A; Baumann, K; Keyver-Paik, M-D; Canzler, U; Wollschlaeger, K; Forner, D; Pfisterer, J; Schroeder, W; Muenstedt, K; Richter, B; Fotopoulou, C; Schmalfeldt, B; Burges, A; Ewald-Riegler, N; de Gregorio, N; Hilpert, F; Fehm, T; Meier, W; Hillemanns, P; Hanker, L; Hasenburg, A; Strauss, H-G; Hellriegel, M; Wimberger, P; Kommoss, S; Kommoss, F; Hauptmann, S; du Bois, A

    2015-02-17

    Incomplete surgical staging is a negative prognostic factor for patients with borderline ovarian tumours (BOT). However, little is known about the prognostic impact of each individual staging procedure. Clinical parameters of 950 patients with BOT (confirmed by central reference pathology) treated between 1998 and 2008 at 24 German AGO centres were analysed. In 559 patients with serous BOT and adequate ovarian surgery, further recommended staging procedures (omentectomy, peritoneal biopsies, cytology) were evaluated applying Cox regression models with respect to progression-free survival (PFS). For patients with one missing staging procedure, the hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence was 1.25 (95%-CI 0.66-2.39; P=0.497). This risk increased with each additional procedure skipped reaching statistical significance in case of two (HR 1.95; 95%-CI 1.06-3.58; P=0.031) and three missing steps (HR 2.37; 95%-CI 1.22-4.64; P=0.011). The most crucial procedure was omentectomy which retained a statistically significant impact on PFS in multiple analysis (HR 1.91; 95%-CI 1.15-3.19; P=0.013) adjusting for previously established prognostic factors as FIGO stage, tumour residuals, and fertility preservation. Individual surgical staging procedures contribute to the prognosis for patients with serous BOT. In this analysis, recurrence risk increased with each skipped surgical step. This should be considered when re-staging procedures following incomplete primary surgery are discussed.

  19. Screening Intervals for Diabetic Retinopathy and Implications for Care.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Peter H

    2017-09-05

    The purpose of this study is to review the evidence that lower risk groups who could safely be screened less frequently for sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (DR) than annually. Data have demonstrated that people with no DR in either eye are at a low risk of progression to sight-threatening DR over a 2-year period (event rate 4.8 per 1000 person years), irrespective of whether the screening method is one-field non-mydriatic or two-field mydriatic digital photography. Low risk has been defined as no retinopathy on two consecutive screening episodes or no retinopathy on one screening episode combined with risk factor data. The risk of an extension to 2 years is less than 5 per 1000 person years in a population with a national screening programme, and the general standard of diabetes care is relatively good, whether low risk is defined as no retinopathy on two consecutive screening episodes or no retinopathy on one screening episode combined with other risk factor data. The definition used in different populations is likely to depend on the availability of data.

  20. Computer-based detection of diabetes retinopathy stages using digital fundus images.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U R; Lim, C M; Ng, E Y K; Chee, C; Tamura, T

    2009-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycaemia and the long-term complications are retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiomyopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the progressive pathological alterations in the retinal microvasculature, leading to areas of retinal nonperfusion, increased vascular permeability, and the pathological proliferation of retinal vessels. Hence, it is beneficial to have regular cost-effective eye screening for diabetes subjects. Nowadays, different stages of diabetes retinopathy are detected by retinal examination using indirect biomicroscopy by senior ophthalmologists. In this work, morphological image processing and support vector machine (SVM) techniques were used for the automatic diagnosis of eye health. In this study, 331 fundus images were analysed. Five groups were identified: normal retina, mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Four salient features blood vessels, microaneurysms, exudates, and haemorrhages were extracted from the raw images using image-processing techniques and fed to the SVM for classification. A sensitivity of more than 82 per cent and specificity of 86 per cent was demonstrated for the system developed.

  1. Targeting VEGF in canine oxygen-induced retinopathy - a model for human retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    McLeod, D Scott; Lutty, Gerard A

    2016-01-01

    Development of the dog superficial retinal vasculature is similar to the mechanism of human retinal vasculature development; they both develop by vasculogenesis, differentiation, and assembly of vascular precursors called angioblasts. Canine oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) was first developed by Arnall Patz in an effort to experimentally determine the effects of hyperoxia on the development of the retinal vasculature. The canine OIR model has many characteristics in common with human retinopathy of prematurity. Exposure of 1-day-old dogs to hyperoxia for 4 days causes a vaso-obliteration throughout the retina. Vasoproliferation, after the animals have returned to room air, is robust. The initial small preretinal neovascular formations anastomose to form large preretinal membranes that eventually cause tractional retinal folds. The end-stage pathology of the canine model is similar to stage IV human retinopathy of prematurity. Therefore, canine OIR is an excellent forum to evaluate the response to drugs targeting VEGF and its receptors. Evaluation of an antibody to VEGF-R2 and the VEGF-Trap demonstrated that doses should be titered down so that preretinal neovascularization is inhibited but retinal revascularization is able to proceed, vascularizing peripheral retina and preventing it from being a source of VEGF.

  2. Col4a1 mutations cause progressive retinal neovascular defects and retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Marcel V.; Mao, Mao; Pawlikowski, Bradley T.; Kvezereli, Manana; Duncan, Jacque L.; Libby, Richard T.; John, Simon W. M.; Gould, Douglas B.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in collagen, type IV, alpha 1 (COL4A1), a major component of basement membranes, cause multisystem disorders in humans and mice. In the eye, these include anterior segment dysgenesis, optic nerve hypoplasia and retinal vascular tortuosity. Here we investigate the retinal pathology in mice carrying dominant-negative Col4a1 mutations. To this end, we examined retinas longitudinally in vivo using fluorescein angiography, funduscopy and optical coherence tomography. We assessed retinal function by electroretinography and studied the retinal ultrastructural pathology. Retinal examinations revealed serous chorioretinopathy, retinal hemorrhages, fibrosis or signs of pathogenic angiogenesis with chorioretinal anastomosis in up to approximately 90% of Col4a1 mutant eyes depending on age and the specific mutation. To identify the cell-type responsible for pathogenesis we generated a conditional Col4a1 mutation and determined that primary vascular defects underlie Col4a1-associated retinopathy. We also found focal activation of Müller cells and increased expression of pro-angiogenic factors in retinas from Col4a1+/Δex41mice. Together, our findings suggest that patients with COL4A1 and COL4A2 mutations may be at elevated risk of retinal hemorrhages and that retinal examinations may be useful for identifying patients with COL4A1 and COL4A2 mutations who are also at elevated risk of hemorrhagic strokes. PMID:26813606

  3. Exploratory analysis of the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab or triamcinolone on worsening of diabetic retinopathy in a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bressler, Susan B; Qin, Haijing; Melia, Michele; Bressler, Neil M; Beck, Roy W; Chan, Clement K; Grover, Sandeep; Miller, David G

    2013-08-01

    The standard care for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) usually is panretinal photocoagulation, an inherently destructive treatment that can cause iatrogenic vision loss. Therefore, evaluating the effects of therapies for diabetic macular edema on development or worsening of PDR might lead to new therapies for PDR. To evaluate the effects of intravitreal ranibizumab or triamcinolone acetonide, administered to treat diabetic macular edema, on worsening of diabetic retinopathy. Exploratory analysis was performed on worsening of retinopathy, defined as 1 or more of the following: (1) worsening from no PDR to PDR, (2) worsening of 2 or more severity levels on reading center assessment of fundus photographs in eyes without PDR at baseline, (3) having panretinal photocoagulation, (4) experiencing vitreous hemorrhage, or (5) undergoing vitrectomy for the treatment of PDR. Community- and university-based ophthalmology practices. Individuals with central-involved diabetic macular edema causing visual acuity impairment. Eyes were assigned randomly to sham with prompt focal/grid laser, 0.5 mg of intravitreal ranibizumab with prompt or deferred (≥24 weeks) laser, or 4 mg of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide with prompt laser. Three-year cumulative probabilities for retinopathy worsening. For eyes without PDR at baseline, the 3-year cumulative probabilities for retinopathy worsening (P value comparison with sham with prompt laser) were 23% using sham with prompt laser, 18% with ranibizumab with prompt laser (P = .25), 7% with ranibizumab with deferred laser (P = .001), and 37% with triamcinolone with prompt laser (P = .10). For eyes with PDR at baseline, the 3-year cumulative probabilities for retinopathy worsening were 40%, 21% (P = .05), 18% (P = .02), and 12% (P < .001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Intravitreal ranibizumab appears to be associated with a reduced risk of diabetic retinopathy worsening in eyes with or without PDR. Intravitreal

  4. Outcome of retinopathy in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with peginterferon and ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Nilesh; Murthy, Uma K; Kaul, Vivek; Alpert, Samuel; Abruzzese, Gerald; Teitelbaum, Charles

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the incidence and outcome of retinopathy in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with peginterferon and ribavirin. A total of 74 hepatitis C patients with baseline eye exams and eye exams during therapy were included. Retinopathy was defined as development of cotton wool spots and/or intra-retinal hemorrhage. Demographics, hepatitis C viral characteristics, treatment and laboratory data, and eye exam findings were compared in groups with and without retinopathy. Retinopathy developed in 28 (38%), early in therapy. Pre-treatment eye exams did not predict risk of retinopathy. Therapy was continued in all but one; cotton wool spots resolved in 24 of 26. All nine patients with intra-retinal hemorrhage had resolution. No patient had retinopathy-related visual deterioration. Retinopathy is common with peginterferon therapy, but the outcome is favorable. Cessation of therapy for retinopathy is not warranted. Severe visual disturbances and scotomas deserve further evaluation.

  5. Impairment of Colour Vision in Diabetes with No Retinopathy: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study (SNDREAMS- II, Report 3).

    PubMed

    Gella, Laxmi; Raman, Rajiv; Kulothungan, Vaitheeswaran; Pal, Swakshyar Saumya; Ganesan, Suganeswari; Sharma, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    To assess impairment of colour vision in type 2 diabetics with no diabetic retinopathy and elucidate associated risk factors in a population-based cross-sectional study. This is part of Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular-genetics Study (SN-DREAMS II) which was conducted between 2007-2010. FM 100 hue-test was performed in 253 subjects with no clinical evidence of diabetic retinopathy. All subjects underwent detailed ophthalmic evaluation including cataract grading using LOCS III and 45° 4-field stereoscopic fundus photography. Various ocular and systemic risk factors for impairment of colour vision (ICV) were assessed in subjects with diabetes but no retinopathy. P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of the study sample was 57.08 ± 9.21 (range: 44-86 years). Gender adjusted prevalence of ICV among subjects with diabetes with no retinopathy was 39.5% (CI: 33.5-45.5). The mean total error score in the study sample was 197.77 ± 100 (range: 19-583). The risk factors for ICV in the study were women OR: 1.79 (1.00-3.18), increased resting heart rate OR: 1.04 (1.01-1.07) and increased intraocular pressure OR: 1.12 (1.00-1.24). Significant protective factor was serum high-density lipoprotein OR: 0.96 (0.93-0.99). Acquired ICV is an early indicator of neurodegenerative changes in the retina. ICV found in diabetic subjects without retinopathy may be of non-vascular etiology.

  6. A Review on Recent Developments for Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Amin, Javeria; Sharif, Muhammad; Yasmin, Mussarat

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is caused by the retinal micro vasculature which may be formed as a result of diabetes mellitus. Blindness may appear as a result of unchecked and severe cases of diabetic retinopathy. Manual inspection of fundus images to check morphological changes in microaneurysms, exudates, blood vessels, hemorrhages, and macula is a very time-consuming and tedious work. It can be made easily with the help of computer-aided system and intervariability for the observer. In this paper, several techniques for detecting microaneurysms, hemorrhages, and exudates are discussed for ultimate detection of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Blood vessels detection techniques are also discussed for the diagnosis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Furthermore, the paper elaborates a discussion on the experiments accessed by authors for the detection of diabetic retinopathy. This work will be helpful for the researchers and technical persons who want to utilize the ongoing research in this area.

  7. A Review on Recent Developments for Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is caused by the retinal micro vasculature which may be formed as a result of diabetes mellitus. Blindness may appear as a result of unchecked and severe cases of diabetic retinopathy. Manual inspection of fundus images to check morphological changes in microaneurysms, exudates, blood vessels, hemorrhages, and macula is a very time-consuming and tedious work. It can be made easily with the help of computer-aided system and intervariability for the observer. In this paper, several techniques for detecting microaneurysms, hemorrhages, and exudates are discussed for ultimate detection of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Blood vessels detection techniques are also discussed for the diagnosis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Furthermore, the paper elaborates a discussion on the experiments accessed by authors for the detection of diabetic retinopathy. This work will be helpful for the researchers and technical persons who want to utilize the ongoing research in this area. PMID:27777811

  8. Endothelium dysfunction markers in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Siemianowicz, Krzysztof; Francuz, Tomasz; Gminski, Jan; Telega, Alicja; Syzdól, Marcin

    2005-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus leads to endothelium dysfunction and an accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. Vascular complications of diabetes mellitus can affect not only large and medium arteries resulting in coronary heart disease and peripheral arteries diseases, but also small vessels leading to retinopathy and nephropathy. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin and von Willebrand factor (vWF) are considered as markers of endothelium dysfunction. The aim of our study was to evaluate plasma levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and vWF in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving insulin therapy and who had diabetic non-proliferative retinopathy, proliferative retinopathy, or did not develop diabetic retinopathy. There were no statistically significant differences between studied groups in any of evaluated endothelium dysfunction markers. There was no statistically significant correlation between measured parameters and a period of diabetic history. None of the studied markers presented a significant correlation with a period of insulin treatment.

  9. Inflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Johnny; Kern, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes causes a number of metabolic and physiologic abnormalities in the retina, but which of these abnormalities contribute to recognized features of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is less clear. Many of the molecular and physiologic abnormalities that have been found to develop in the retina in diabetes are consistent with inflammation. Moreover, a number of anti-inflammatory therapies have been found to significantly inhibit development of different aspects of DR in animal models. Herein, we review the inflammatory mediators and their relationship to early and late DR, and discuss the potential of anti-inflammatory approaches to inhibit development of different stages of the retinopathy. We focus primarily on information derived from in vivo studies, supplementing with information from in vitro studies were important. PMID:21635964

  10. Recessive Stargardt Disease Phenocopying Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Noupuu, Kalev; Lee, Winston; Zernant, Jana; Greenstein, Vivienne C.; Tsang, Stephen; Allikmets, Rando

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe a series of Stargardt disease (STGD1) patients exhibiting a phenotype usually associated with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy on spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Observational case series from Columbia University Medical Center involving 8 patients with genetically-confirmed STGD1. Patients selected for the study presented no history of HCQ use. Horizontal macular SD-OCT scans and accompanying 488nm autofluorescence (AF) images, color fundus photographs, and full-field electroretinograms were analyzed. Results All study patients exhibited an abrupt thinning of the parafoveal region or disruption of the outer retinal layers on SD-OCT resembling the transient HCQ retinopathy phenotype. Funduscopy and AF imaging revealed variations of bull’s eye maculopathy (BEM). Five patients exhibited local fleck-like deposits around the lesion. Genetic screening confirmed two disease-causing ABCA4 mutations in 5 patients and one mutation in 3 patients. Conclusions A transient SD- OCT phenotype ascribed to patients with HCQ retinopathy is associated with an early subtype of STGD1. This finding may also present with HCQ retinopathy-like BEM lesions on AF imaging and funduscopy. A phenotypic overlap may not be surprising given certain shared mechanistic disease processes between the two conditions. A thorough work-up, including screening of genes that are causal in retinal dystrophies associated with foveal sparing, may prevent the misdiagnoses of more ambiguous cases. PMID:26311262

  11. ND:YAG laser for preretinal hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Kontadakis, Georgios A; Flanagan, Declan

    2018-06-01

    To present fundus images of a case with severe preretinal hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy that was treated with posterior hyaloidotomy with an Nd:YAG laser. A 35-year-old diabetic patient presented with sudden painless loss of vision due to severe preretinal hemorrhage over the macular area and high risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Her visual acuity was counting fingers. Posterior hyaloid face was treated with Nd:YAG laser (posterior hyaloidotomy). Panretinal laser photocoagulation was first performed to control the proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Blood drained inferiorly into the vitreous cavity with clearance of the premacular area. Prompt treatment with Panretinal laser photocoagulation followed by posterior hyaloidotomy with the YAG laser is a viable option in order to avoid further proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications and vision loss. The current image clearly depicts treatment efficacy.

  12. Adrenal Metastasis from Uterine Papillary Serous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Singh Lubana, Sandeep; Singh, Navdeep; Tuli, Sandeep S; Seligman, Barbara

    2016-04-27

    Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is a highly malignant form of endometrial cancer with a high propensity for metastases and recurrences even when there is minimal or no myometrial invasion. It usually metastasizes to the pelvis, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, upper abdomen, and peritoneum. However, adrenal metastases from UPSC is extremely rare. Here, we present a case of UPSC with adrenal metastasis that occurred 6 years after the initial diagnosis. A 60-year-old woman previously diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma at an outside facility presented in September of 2006 with postmenopausal bleeding. She underwent comprehensive surgical staging with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage 2. Post-operatively, the patient was treated with radiation and chemotherapy. The treatment was completed in April of 2007. The patient had no evidence of disease until July 2009 when she was found to have a mass highly suspicious for malignancy. Subsequently, she underwent right upper lobectomy. The morphology of the carcinoma was consistent with UPSC. She refused chemotherapy due to a previous history of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. The patient was followed up with regular computed tomography (CT) scans. In October 2012 a new right adrenal nodule was seen on CT, which showed intense metabolic uptake on positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy. Pathology of the surgical specimen was consistent with UPSC. UPSC is an aggressive variant of endometrial cancer associated with high recurrence rate and poor prognoses. Long-term follow-up is needed because there is a possibility of late metastases, as in this case.

  13. Retinal vascular geometry and 6 year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Law, Antony Kwan-Pui; Kumari, Neelam; Ting, Daniel Shu-Wei; Tan, Gavin; Mitchell, Paul; Cheng, Ching Yu; Wong, Tien Yin

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to examine prospectively the association between a range of retinal vascular geometric variables measured from retinal photographs and the 6 year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. We conducted a prospective, population-based cohort study of Asian Malay individuals aged 40-80 years at baseline (n = 3280) who returned for a 6 year follow-up. Retinal vascular geometric variables (tortuosity, branching, fractal dimension, calibre) were measured from baseline retinal photographs using a computer-assisted program (Singapore I Vessel Assessment). Diabetic retinopathy was graded from baseline and follow-up photographs using the modified Airlie House classification system. Incidence of diabetic retinopathy was defined as a severity of ≥15 at follow-up among those without diabetic retinopathy at baseline. Incidence of referable diabetic retinopathy was defined as moderate or severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy or diabetic macular oedema at follow-up in participants who had had no or mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy at baseline. Progression of diabetic retinopathy was defined as an increase in severity of ≥2 steps at follow-up. Log-binomial models with an expectation-maximisation algorithm were used to estimate RR adjusting for age, sex, diabetes duration, HbA 1c level, BP, BMI, estimated GFR and total and HDL-cholesterol at baseline. A total of 427 individuals with diabetes participated in the baseline and 6 year follow-up examinations. Of these, 19.2%, 7.57% and 19.2% developed incidence of diabetic retinopathy, incidence of referable diabetic retinopathy and diabetic retinopathy progression, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, greater arteriolar simple tortuosity (mean RR [95% CI], 1.34 [1.04, 1.74]), larger venular branching angle (RR 1.26 [1.00, 1.59]) and larger venular branching coefficient (RR 1.26 [1.03, 1.56]) were associated with incidence of diabetic retinopathy

  14. Decision support system for diabetic retinopathy using discrete wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Noronha, K; Acharya, U R; Nayak, K P; Kamath, S; Bhandary, S V

    2013-03-01

    Prolonged duration of the diabetes may affect the tiny blood vessels of the retina causing diabetic retinopathy. Routine eye screening of patients with diabetes helps to detect diabetic retinopathy at the early stage. It is very laborious and time-consuming for the doctors to go through many fundus images continuously. Therefore, decision support system for diabetic retinopathy detection can reduce the burden of the ophthalmologists. In this work, we have used discrete wavelet transform and support vector machine classifier for automated detection of normal and diabetic retinopathy classes. The wavelet-based decomposition was performed up to the second level, and eight energy features were extracted. Two energy features from the approximation coefficients of two levels and six energy values from the details in three orientations (horizontal, vertical and diagonal) were evaluated. These features were fed to the support vector machine classifier with various kernel functions (linear, radial basis function, polynomial of orders 2 and 3) to evaluate the highest classification accuracy. We obtained the highest average classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of more than 99% with support vector machine classifier (polynomial kernel of order 3) using three discrete wavelet transform features. We have also proposed an integrated index called Diabetic Retinopathy Risk Index using clinically significant wavelet energy features to identify normal and diabetic retinopathy classes using just one number. We believe that this (Diabetic Retinopathy Risk Index) can be used as an adjunct tool by the doctors during the eye screening to cross-check their diagnosis.

  15. The Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy Among Known Diabetic Population in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S K; Pant, B P; Subedi, P

    2016-01-01

    Background The worldwide prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was found to be 34.6%. WHO estimates that DR is responsible for 4.8% of the 37 million cases of blindness throughout the world. In a study undertaken in urban population in Nepal, M.D. Bhattarai found the prevalence of diabetes among people aged 20 years and above to be 14.6% and the prevalence among people aged 40 years and above to be 19%. Studies on DR, to our knowledge, have mostly been hospital based in Nepal. Little information is available about prevalence of DR at the community level in Nepal. Objective To investigate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors among known diabetic population of Nepal. Method A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among individuals aged 30 and more using cluster sampling method. The study sites were Kathmandu metropolitan city and Birgunj sub-metropolitan city. A sample size of 5400 was calculated assuming 5% prevalence rate with 95% confidence level, 5% worst acceptable level and 1.5 cluster sampling design effect. Study participants were interviewed, anthropometric measurements and fundus photograph was taken from participants with diabetes. Fundus photographs were used to grade retinopathy. Result Around 12% of the respondents were diabetic, mean age 55.43±11.86 years, of which slightly more than half were females (50.2%). Among these diabetic respondents 9.9% had some forms of diabetic retinopathy, mean age 54.08±10.34 years, 56.7% were male. When severe grade of retinopathy in any eye was considered as overall grade of retinopathy for the individual, prevalence of Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy, Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy and complete vision loss was found to be 9.1%, 0.5% and 0.3%. Prevalence of Diabetic Macular Edema was 5.5%. Duration of diabetes, family history of diabetes and blood pressure at the day of survey was found to be associated with having any retinopathy. Conclusion Diabetic retinopathy

  16. Ultrastructural Evidence of Serous Gland Polymorphism in the Skin of the Tungara Frog Engystomops pustulosus (Anura Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Delfino, Giovanni; Giachi, Filippo; Malentacchi, Cecilia; Nosi, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    Three types of serous products were detected in the syncytial cutaneous glands of the leptodactylid tungara frog, Engystomops pustulosus: type Ia, granules with wide halos and variable density cores; type Ib, high density granules without halos; and type II, vesicles containing a finely dispersed product. Ultrastructural evidence revealed that these products were manufactured by different serous gland types and excluded that they represented different steps in the secretory cycle of a single gland type. Indeed, secretory maturation affecting the products released by the Golgi apparatus proceeded through different mechanisms: confluence (vesicles), interactions between syncytium and secretory product (type Ib granules), and a combination of both processes (type Ia granules). In conclusion, this investigation of secretory maturation was shown to be a suitable approach for the identification of serous gland polymorphism and demonstrated that the tungara frog belongs to the minority of anuran species characterized by this peculiar morpho-functional trait. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Pancreatic serous cystadenoma associated with pancreatic heterotopia].

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hedfi; Dorra, Belghachem; Hela, Bouhafa; Cherif, Abdelhedi; Azza, Sridi; Karim, Sassi; Khadija, Bellil; Adnen, Chouchene

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic heterotopias (HP) are rare. They can occur at any age with a slight male predominance. These lesions are usually asymptomatic and they are often found incidentally during upper or lower GI endoscopy or during the anatomo-pathological examination of an organ which was resected for other reasons; they can be isolated or associated with a digestive pathology. We report, through observation, the association of HP with serous cystadenoma of the pancreas discovered during examinations to identify the etiology of isolated abdominal pain. The aim of this study is to analyse clinical and histological features of this rare pathology.

  18. Efficacy of Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Stage 3+ Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Mintz-Hittner, Helen A.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Chuang, Alice Z.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Retinopathy of prematurity is a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Peripheral retinal ablation with conventional (confluent) laser therapy is destructive, causes complications, and does not prevent all vision loss, especially in cases of retinopathy of prematurity affecting zone I of the eye. Case series in which patients were treated with vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors suggest that these agents may be useful in treating retinopathy of prematurity. METHODS We conducted a prospective, controlled, randomized, stratified, multicenter trial to assess intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy for zone I or zone II posterior stage 3+ (i.e., stage 3 with plus disease) retinopathy of prematurity. Infants were randomly assigned to receive intravitreal bevacizumab (0.625 mg in 0.025 ml of solution) or conventional laser therapy, bilaterally. The primary ocular outcome was recurrence of retinopathy of prematurity in one or both eyes requiring retreatment before 54 weeks’ postmenstrual age. RESULTS We enrolled 150 infants (total sample of 300 eyes); 143 infants survived to 54 weeks’ postmenstrual age, and the 7 infants who died were not included in the primary-outcome analyses. Retinopathy of prematurity recurred in 4 infants in the bevacizumab group (6 of 140 eyes [4%]) and 19 infants in the laser-therapy group (32 of 146 eyes [22%], P = 0.002). A significant treatment effect was found for zone I retinopathy of prematurity (P = 0.003) but not for zone II disease (P = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS Intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy, as compared with conventional laser therapy, in infants with stage 3+ retinopathy of prematurity showed a significant benefit for zone I but not zone II disease. Development of peripheral retinal vessels continued after treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab, but conventional laser therapy led to permanent destruction of the peripheral retina. This trial was too small to assess safety. PMID:21323540

  19. Assessing Progress in Retinopathy Outcomes in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    LeCaire, Tamara J.; Palta, Mari; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Study (WDRS) cohort consisted of patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in the same geographic region as, but 8–34 years later than the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy (WESDR) cohort, providing a unique opportunity to assess changes in complications. We estimated the current prevalence and severity of diabetic retinopathy at 20 years of diabetes duration, compared these between eras, and evaluated the influence of diabetes management. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty-year examinations, including fundus photographs, were completed on 305 WDRS subjects during 2007–2011. A subgroup of the WESDR cohort participated in one of four study visits during 1980–1996, at similar diabetes duration (n = 583). Adjusted ordinal logistic regression with three retinopathy severity categories was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of more severe retinopathy with diagnosis during an earlier era. RESULTS Mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was lower in WDRS than in WESDR (8.0% vs. 9.3% [P < 0.001], and 93.4% vs. 21.3% [P < 0.001]) used ≥3 daily insulin injections or an insulin pump. In WDRS, 18% had vision-threatening levels of retinopathy vs. 43% in WESDR. The adjusted OR of more severe retinopathy in the earlier era (OR 3.0 [95% CI 2.2–4.0]) was reduced by including 20-year HbA1c in the model (OR 2.2 [1.6–3.0]). CONCLUSIONS Retinopathy severity at a diabetes duration of 20 years is lower in the more recent era of type 1 diabetes. Updated projections should be used when informing newly diagnosed individuals of prognosis and for health care cost assessments. Current glycemic control explained a limited amount of the difference. PMID:23193204

  20. Prevalence of blindness and diabetic retinopathy in northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Rabiu, Mansur M; Al Bdour, Muawyah D; Abu Ameerh, Mohammed A; Jadoon, Muhammed Z

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, diabetes, and diabetic retinopathy in north Jordan (Irbid) using the rapid assessment of avoidable blindness and diabetic retinopathy methodology. A multistage cluster random sampling technique was used to select participants for this survey. A total of 108 clusters were selected using probability proportional to size method while subjects within the clusters were selected using compact segment method. Survey teams moved from house to house in selected segments examining residents 50 years and older until 35 participants were recruited. All eligible people underwent a standardized examination protocol, which included ophthalmic examination and random blood sugar test using digital glucometers (Accu-Chek) in their homes. Diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients was assessed through dilated fundus examination. A total of 3638 out of the 3780 eligible participants were examined. Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of blindness, severe visual impairment, and visual impairment with available correction were 1.33% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-1.73), 1.82% (95% CI 1.35-2.25), and 9.49% (95% CI 8.26-10.74), respectively, all higher in women. Untreated cataract and diabetic retinopathy were the major causes of blindness, accounting for 46.7% and 33.2% of total blindness cases, respectively. Glaucoma was the third major cause, accounting for 8.9% of cases. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 28.6% (95% CI 26.9-30.3) among the study population and higher in women. The prevalence of any retinopathy among diabetic patients was 48.4%. Cataract and diabetic retinopathy are the 2 major causes of blindness and visual impairment in northern Jordan. For both conditions, women are primarily affected, suggesting possible limitations to access to services. A diabetic retinopathy screening program needs to proactively create sex-sensitive awareness and provide easily accessible screening services with prompt treatment.

  1. Detection of Hypertension Retinopathy Using Deep Learning and Boltzmann Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triwijoyo, B. K.; Pradipto, Y. D.

    2017-01-01

    hypertensive retinopathy (HR) in the retina of the eye is disturbance caused by high blood pressure disease, where there is a systemic change of arterial in the blood vessels of the retina. Most heart attacks occur in patients caused by high blood pressure symptoms of undiagnosed. Hypertensive retinopathy Symptoms such as arteriolar narrowing, retinal haemorrhage and cotton wool spots. Based on this reasons, the early diagnosis of the symptoms of hypertensive retinopathy is very urgent to aim the prevention and treatment more accurate. This research aims to develop a system for early detection of hypertension retinopathy stage. The proposed method is to determine the combined features artery and vein diameter ratio (AVR) as well as changes position with Optic Disk (OD) in retinal images to review the classification of hypertensive retinopathy using Deep Neural Networks (DNN) and Boltzmann Machines approach. We choose this approach of because based on previous research DNN models were more accurate in the image pattern recognition, whereas Boltzmann machines selected because It requires speedy iteration in the process of learning neural network. The expected results from this research are designed a prototype system early detection of hypertensive retinopathy stage and analysed the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed methods.

  2. Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trief, E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has increased due to a high incidence of premature, low birthweight infants. Stages of severity range from no visual damage to total blindness, and educational problems of ROP children parallel those of other visually impaired children, early intervention being crucial. Treatments are either pharmacological or…

  3. Prevention of Ovarian High Grade Serous Carcinoma by Elucidating Its Early Changes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    journals including J Pathol (PMID: 23378270), Am J Surg Pathol (PMID: 22892598) and Mod Pathology (PMID: 25216223). Task 2d. Telomere FISH on STICs...STICs have shorter telomere length and lower degree of centrosome amplification than the adjacent high- grade serous carcinomas (HGSC). Therefore, our

  4. Correlation between Cystatin C and retinopathy of type-two diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Qian, C; Wan, G M; Yan, P S; Wang, W Z; Liang, S Z; Dong, Y

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of most common diabetic microvascular complications. In recent years the incidence of the disease has increased, hence early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance. In order to find reliable biological indexes to diagnose and treat type-two diabetes mellitus promptly, this study focused on the correlation between Cystatin C (Cys C) and retinopathy of type-two diabetes mellitus patients. One hundred and eighty type-two diabetes mellitus patients and one hundred healthy controls (the control group) were chosen in this study. Of the patients ninety-eight patients had typetwo diabetes mellitus without retinopathy (non-diabetic retinopathy group) and eighty-two had typetwo diabetes mellitus with retinopathy (diabetic retinopathy group). Correlation of Cys C and typetwo diabetic retinopathy was analyzed by examining the waist-hip ratio, fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and Cys C of both groups. The results showed that FBG, TC, TG, LDL-C, HbA1c, Cys C in the type-two diabetes mellitus patients group were higher than those of the control group (P less than 0.05). Age, course of diabetes, FBG, HbA1c, and Cys C levels were statistically significant in both the DR group and NDR group (P less than 0.05). The result of logistic regression analysis indicates that there was a positive correlation between type-two diabetic retinopathy development and age, course of diabetes, and Cys C level (P less than 0.05). Thus, it can be seen that changes of Cys C levels can assist early diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy to some extent. The patients with high Cys C level, long course of diabetes, and old age are more likely to have diabetic retinopathy.

  5. Mucosal Proliferations in Completely Examined Fallopian Tubes Accompanying Ovarian Low-grade Serous Tumors: Neoplastic Precursor Lesions or Normal Variants of Benign Mucosa?

    PubMed

    Wolsky, Rebecca J; Price, Matt A; Zaloudek, Charles J; Rabban, Joseph T

    2018-05-01

    Malignant transformation of the fallopian tube mucosa, followed by exfoliation of malignant cells onto ovarian and/or peritoneal surfaces, has been implicated as the origin of most pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma. Whether a parallel pathway exists for pelvic low-grade serous tumors [ovarian serous borderline tumor (SBT) and low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC)] remains to be fully elucidated. The literature is challenging to interpret due to variation in the diagnostic criteria and terminology for cytologically low-grade proliferations of the fallopian tube mucosa, as well as variation in fallopian tube specimen sampling. Recently, a candidate fallopian tube precursor to ovarian SBT, so-called papillary tubal hyperplasia, was described in advanced stage patients. The current study was designed to identify fallopian tube mucosal proliferations unique to patients with low-grade serous ovarian tumors (serous cystadenoma, SBT, LGSC) and to determine if they may represent precursors to the ovarian tumors. Fallopian tubes were thinly sliced and entirely examined microscopically, including all of the fimbriated and nonfimbriated portions of the tubes, from patients with ovarian serous cystadenoma (35), SBT (61), and LGSC (11) and from a control population of patients with ovarian mucinous cystadenoma (28), mature cystic teratoma (18) or uterine leiomyoma (14). The slides of the fallopian tubes were examined in randomized order, without knowledge of the clinical history or findings in the ovaries or other organs. Alterations of the mucosa of the fallopian tube were classified as type 1: nonpapillary proliferation of cytologically bland tubal epithelium exhibiting crowding, stratification, and/or tufting without papillary fibrovascular cores or as type 2: papillary alterations consisting of a fibrovascular core lined by a cytologically bland layer of tubal epithelium. A third abnormality, type 3, consisted of detached intraluminal papillae, buds, or nests of epithelium that

  6. Retinopathy of prematurity - from recognition of risk factors to treatment recommendations.

    PubMed

    Fagerholm, Reija; Vesti, Eija

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a proliferative retinal disorder diagnosed exclusively in prematurely born infants. In retinopathy of prematurity, growth of the retinal vasculature is disturbed, leading to hypoxia-induced pathological changes typical of retinopathy of prematurity, in the worst case resulting in retinal detachment. The most typical risk factors predisposing to the disease include hyperoxemia, low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and low birth weight in relation to weeks of pregnancy. Laser therapy of peripheral retina is the currently established form of treatment. Screening is applied in order to recognize the pathological changes in retinopathy of prematurity early enough.

  7. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Thomas S.; Jia, Yali; Gao, Simon S.; Bailey, Steven T.; Lauer, Andreas K.; Flaxel, Christina J.; Wilson, David J.; Huang, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography features of diabetic retinopathy Methods Using a 70kHz OCT and the split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm, 6 × 6 mm 3-dimensional angiograms of the macula of 4 patients with diabetic retinopathy were obtained and compared with fluorescein angiography (FA) for features catalogued by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study. Results OCT angiography detected enlargement and distortion of the foveal avascular zone, retinal capillary dropout, and pruning of arteriolar branches. Areas of capillary loss obscured by fluorescein leakage on FA were more clearly defined on OCT angiography. Some areas of focal leakage on FA that were thought to be microaneurysms were found to be small tufts of neovascularization that extended above the inner limiting membrane. Conclusion OCT angiography does not show leakage, but can better delineate areas of capillary dropout and detect early retinal neovascularization. This new noninvasive angiography technology may be useful for routine surveillance of proliferative and ischemic changes in diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26308529

  8. Diabetic retinopathy in patients with diabetic foot syndrome in South India

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Thoiba; Kamath, Yogish Subraya; Rao, Lavanya G; Rao, Krishna Addoor; Shenoy, Shailaja Bhat; Bhandary, Sulatha V

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to study the retinopathy status in diabetic patients with a risk of diabetic foot (DF) syndrome visiting a tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods: In this cross sectional study all patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) with a risk of DF syndrome, visiting a tertiary care hospital during the study period, underwent an ophthalmological evaluation for documentation of their retinopathy status. Results: One hundred and eighty-two patients diagnosed to have a risk profile for DF syndrome were included in the study. Their mean age was 59.28 years and 75.27% were males. The mean duration of Type 1 and Type 2 variants of DM was 14.9 years and 10.9 years, respectively. Of the 182 patients, 67.58% had retinopathy changes. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR) constituted 17.88% of the total patients with retinopathy. An increased presence of retinopathy in patients with an increased risk grade of DF was found significant by the Chi-square test (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study found an increased presence of DR in a South Indian cohort with DF syndrome. The severity of retinopathy was greater in patients with higher grades of risk for DF. The establishment of an association between DR and DF syndrome will help in developing an integrated management strategy for these two debilitating consequences of diabetes. PMID:29582817

  9. Diabetic retinopathy in patients with diabetic foot syndrome in South India.

    PubMed

    Karam, Thoiba; Kamath, Yogish Subraya; Rao, Lavanya G; Rao, Krishna Addoor; Shenoy, Shailaja Bhat; Bhandary, Sulatha V

    2018-04-01

    The purpose was to study the retinopathy status in diabetic patients with a risk of diabetic foot (DF) syndrome visiting a tertiary care hospital in South India. In this cross sectional study all patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) with a risk of DF syndrome, visiting a tertiary care hospital during the study period, underwent an ophthalmological evaluation for documentation of their retinopathy status. One hundred and eighty-two patients diagnosed to have a risk profile for DF syndrome were included in the study. Their mean age was 59.28 years and 75.27% were males. The mean duration of Type 1 and Type 2 variants of DM was 14.9 years and 10.9 years, respectively. Of the 182 patients, 67.58% had retinopathy changes. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR) constituted 17.88% of the total patients with retinopathy. An increased presence of retinopathy in patients with an increased risk grade of DF was found significant by the Chi-square test (P < 0.001). Our study found an increased presence of DR in a South Indian cohort with DF syndrome. The severity of retinopathy was greater in patients with higher grades of risk for DF. The establishment of an association between DR and DF syndrome will help in developing an integrated management strategy for these two debilitating consequences of diabetes.

  10. The retinal renin-angiotensin system: implications for therapy in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Sjølie, A K; Chaturvedi, N

    2002-08-01

    Retinopathy is the most common complication of diabetes, and a leading cause of blindness in people of working age. Optimal blood pressure and metabolic control can reduce the risk of diabetic retinopathy, but are difficult to achieve in clinical practice. In the EUCLID Study, the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor lisinopril reduced the risk of progression of retinopathy by approximately 50%, and also significantly reduced the risk of progression to proliferative retinopathy. These findings are consistent with extensive evidence that the renin-angiotensin system is expressed in the eye, and that adverse effects of angiotensin II on retinal angiogenesis and function can be inhibited by ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II-receptor blockers. However, in the EUCLID Study retinopathy was not a primary end-point and the study was not sufficiently powered for the eye-related outcomes. Hence, the Diabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials (DIRECT) programme has been established to determine whether AT(1)-receptor blockade with candesartan can prevent the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. This programme comprises three studies, involving a total of 4500 patients recruited from about 300 centres worldwide. The patients are normotensive or treated hypertensive individuals, and so the DIRECT programme should assess the potential of an AT(1)-receptor blocker to protect against the pathological changes in the eye following diabetes.

  11. SDF-1 is both necessary and sufficient to promote proliferative retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Jason M.; Guthrie, Steven M.; Koc, Mehmet; Afzal, Aqeela; Caballero, Sergio; Brooks, H. Logan; Mames, Robert N.; Segal, Mark S.; Grant, Maria B.; Scott, Edward W.

    2005-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults. It is caused by oxygen starvation in the retina inducing aberrant formation of blood vessels that destroy retinal architecture. In humans, vitreal stromal cell–derived factor–1 (SDF-1) concentration increases as proliferative diabetic retinopathy progresses. Treatment of patients with triamcinolone decreases SDF-1 levels in the vitreous, with marked disease improvement. SDF-1 induces human retinal endothelial cells to increase expression of VCAM-1, a receptor for very late antigen–4 found on many hematopoietic progenitors, and reduce tight cellular junctions by reducing occludin expression. Both changes would serve to recruit hematopoietic and endothelial progenitor cells along an SDF-1 gradient. We have shown, using a murine model of proliferative adult retinopathy, that the majority of new vessels formed in response to oxygen starvation originate from hematopoietic stem cell–derived endothelial progenitor cells. We now show that the levels of SDF-1 found in patients with proliferative retinopathy induce retinopathy in our murine model. Intravitreal injection of blocking antibodies to SDF-1 prevented retinal neovascularization in our murine model, even in the presence of exogenous VEGF. Together, these data demonstrate that SDF-1 plays a major role in proliferative retinopathy and may be an ideal target for the prevention of proliferative retinopathy. PMID:15630447

  12. Network-Based Integration of GWAS and Gene Expression Identifies a HOX-Centric Network Associated with Serous Ovarian Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Kar, Siddhartha P; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Li, Qiyuan; Lawrenson, Kate; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie T; Beckmann, Matthias W; Berchuck, Andrew; Bisogna, Maria; Bjørge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Yian Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas F; Edwards, Robert P; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus K; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; Paul, James; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kelemen, Linda E; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Iain A; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Narod, Steven A; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B; Nevanlinna, Heli; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Phelan, Catherine M; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Ramus, Susan J; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Tangen, Ingvild L; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Sellers, Thomas A; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Freedman, Matthew L; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul D P

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have so far reported 12 loci associated with serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. We hypothesized that some of these loci function through nearby transcription factor (TF) genes and that putative target genes of these TFs as identified by coexpression may also be enriched for additional EOC risk associations. We selected TF genes within 1 Mb of the top signal at the 12 genome-wide significant risk loci. Mutual information, a form of correlation, was used to build networks of genes strongly coexpressed with each selected TF gene in the unified microarray dataset of 489 serous EOC tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genes represented in this dataset were subsequently ranked using a gene-level test based on results for germline SNPs from a serous EOC GWAS meta-analysis (2,196 cases/4,396 controls). Gene set enrichment analysis identified six networks centered on TF genes (HOXB2, HOXB5, HOXB6, HOXB7 at 17q21.32 and HOXD1, HOXD3 at 2q31) that were significantly enriched for genes from the risk-associated end of the ranked list (P < 0.05 and FDR < 0.05). These results were replicated (P < 0.05) using an independent association study (7,035 cases/21,693 controls). Genes underlying enrichment in the six networks were pooled into a combined network. We identified a HOX-centric network associated with serous EOC risk containing several genes with known or emerging roles in serous EOC development. Network analysis integrating large, context-specific datasets has the potential to offer mechanistic insights into cancer susceptibility and prioritize genes for experimental characterization. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Mapping of photoreceptor dysfunction using high resolution three-dimensional spectral optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, B. L.; Szkulmowski, M.; Kałużny, J. J.; Bajraszewski, T.; Kowalczyk, A.; Wojtkowski, M.

    2008-02-01

    The ability to obtain reliable information on functional status of photoreceptor layer is essential for assessing vision impairment in patients with macular diseases. The reconstruction of three-dimensional retinal structure in vivo using Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (Spectral OCT) became possible with a recent progress of the OCT field. Three-dimensional data collected by Spectral OCT devices comprise information on light intensity back-reflected from the junction between photoreceptor outer and inner segments (IS/OS) and thus can be used for evaluating photoreceptors impairment. In this paper, we introduced so called Spectral OCT reflectivity maps - a new method of selecting and displaying the spatial distribution of reflectivity of individual retinal layers. We analyzed the reflectivity of the IS/OS layer in various macular diseases. We have measured eyes of 49 patients with photoreceptor dysfunction in course of age-related macular degeneration, macular holes, central serous chorioretinopathy, acute zonal occult outer retinopathy, multiple evanescent white dot syndrome, acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy, drug-induced retinopathy and congenital disorders.

  14. Relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Kabataş, Emrah Utku; Dinlen, Nurdan Fettah; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegül; Dilli, Dilek; Beken, Serdar; Okumuş, Nurullah

    2017-11-01

    Aim To evaluate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, 25 (OH) D, levels and retinopathy of prematurity. Methods and Results Serum 25 (OH) D levels were measured in 97 very low birth weight infants, prior to vitamin D supplementation. The development of retinopathy of prematurity and its treatment requirement were evaluated. At follow-up, retinopathy of prematurity developed in 71 (73.2%) infants. Serum 25 (OH) D levels were significantly lower in infants with retinopathy of prematurity than ones without retinopathy of prematurity ( P < 0.001). The infants who required treatment had lower 25 (OH) D levels compared with the infants who did not required treatment (7.1 ± 5.2 ng/ml vs. 11.9 ± 6.5 ng/ml; P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that lower serum 25 (OH) D levels may be a risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity development [OR: 1.14, 95% CI (1.02-1.27), P = 0.02]. Conclusion Lower 25 (OH) D levels in the first days of life may be related to retinopathy of prematurity development and treatment requirement in premature infants.

  15. Diabetic Retinopathy Awareness among Diabetic Patients Attending COMS-TH.

    PubMed

    Dahal, P; Adhikari, H

    Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness in Nepal. Objective The main objective of the study is to know the awareness of diabetic retinopathy among new cases of diabetes mellitus (DM) attending the college of medical science- teaching hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal. Method All the diabetic cases referred for ophthalmic consultation and also referred outpatient department cases from other departments to ophthalmic outpatient department was carried out. Detailed demographics of the subjects and their awareness of potential ocular problems from diabetes mellitus were noted. Result Total one hundred and thirty-one patients were enrolled during the study period from 15 November 2016 to 15 May 2017. Brahmin 39.69% and 19.08% Mongolian were the most predominant ethnical group. The predominant group of patients were housewives (41.22%) then followed by service (19.85%), business (13.74%), agriculture (12.21%), others (12.98%). Among 36.64% of the literate patients, 19.85% had passed school level, 9.92% had passed intermediate level, 88.55% were aware of Diabetic retinopathy. Among them majority 88.55% were referred by physician. Family history were present in 35.68% and fundus evaluation was done for the first time in almost half of diabetic cases (64.12%) and diabetic retinopathy was found in 32.06% of total cases in right eye and 30.53% of total cases in left eye. Conclusion Along with the awareness, routine dilated fundoscopy is mandatory for slight threating stage of retinopathy and to reduce the burden of blindness from diabetic retinopathy in Nepal.

  16. Radiation retinopathy: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abha; Dhawahir-Scala, Felipe; Smith, Amy; Young, Lorna; Charles, Steve

    2007-04-05

    Ocular damage from radiation treatment is a well established phenomenon. Many factors are now known to influence the incidence of radiation retinopathy, including total dosage and daily fraction size. Patients who are diabetic, hypertensive or received previous chemotherapy are more susceptible to radiation retinopathy. A 55 year old male was referred from the oncology department with epiphora. His medical history included Type 2 Insulin treated Diabetes Mellitus and hypertension. One year prior to presentation he had undergone a total rhinectomy with a 4 week course of post-operative radiotherapy for an aggressive sqaumous cell carcinoma of the nose. On examination the visual acuity was noted to be 6/36 left eye and 6/9 right eye. Posterior segment examination revealed marked retinal ischaemia present in the posterior pole and macular region of both eyes. The appearance was not thought to be typical of diabetic changes, radiation retinopathy being the more likely diagnosis especially in view of his history. Over the next four months the vision in both eyes rapidly deteriorated to 3/60 left eye and 1/60 right eye. Bilateral pan retinal photocoagulation was thought to be appropriate treatment at this point. This case highlights the importance for ophthalmologists and oncologists to be aware of the close relationship between diabetes and radiation treatment and the profound rapid impact this combination of factors may have on visual function. Radiation is being used with increasing frequency for ocular and orbital disease, because of this more cases of radiation retinopathy may become prevalent. Factors which may potentiate radiation retinopathy should be well known including, increased radiation dosage, increased fraction size, concomitant systemic vascular disease and use of chemotherapy. Counselling should be offered in all cases at risk of visual loss. As no effective treatment currently exists to restore visual function, monitoring of visual acuity in all cases

  17. Central serous choroidopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is unknown. Men are affected more often than women, and the condition is most common at around age 45. However, anyone can be affected. Stress appears to be a risk factor. Early studies found that people with aggressive, "type A" personalities who are under a lot ...

  18. Chromosome 3 Anomalies Investigated by Genome Wide SNP Analysis of Benign, Low Malignant Potential and Low Grade Ovarian Serous Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Ashley H.; Arcand, Suzanna L.; Oros, Kathleen K.; Rahimi, Kurosh; Watters, A. Kevin; Provencher, Diane; Greenwood, Celia M.; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Tonin, Patricia N.

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian carcinomas exhibit extensive heterogeneity, and their etiology remains unknown. Histological and genetic evidence has led to the proposal that low grade ovarian serous carcinomas (LGOSC) have a different etiology than high grade carcinomas (HGOSC), arising from serous tumours of low malignant potential (LMP). Common regions of chromosome (chr) 3 loss have been observed in all types of serous ovarian tumours, including benign, suggesting that these regions contain genes important in the development of all ovarian serous carcinomas. A high-density genome-wide genotyping bead array technology, which assayed >600,000 markers, was applied to a panel of serous benign and LMP tumours and a small set of LGOSC, to characterize somatic events associated with the most indolent forms of ovarian disease. The genomic patterns inferred were related to TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations. An increasing frequency of genomic anomalies was observed with pathology of disease: 3/22 (13.6%) benign cases, 40/53 (75.5%) LMP cases and 10/11 (90.9%) LGOSC cases. Low frequencies of chr3 anomalies occurred in all tumour types. Runs of homozygosity were most commonly observed on chr3, with the 3p12-p11 candidate tumour suppressor region the most frequently homozygous region in the genome. An LMP harboured a homozygous deletion on chr6 which created a GOPC-ROS1 fusion gene, previously reported as oncogenic in other cancer types. Somatic TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations were not observed in benign tumours. KRAS-mutation positive LMP cases displayed significantly more chromosomal aberrations than BRAF-mutation positive or KRAS and BRAF mutation negative cases. Gain of 12p, which harbours the KRAS gene, was particularly evident. A pathology review reclassified all TP53-mutation positive LGOSC cases, some of which acquired a HGOSC status. Taken together, our results support the view that LGOSC could arise from serous benign and LMP tumours, but does not exclude the possibility that HGOSC may derive

  19. Chromosome 3 anomalies investigated by genome wide SNP analysis of benign, low malignant potential and low grade ovarian serous tumours.

    PubMed

    Birch, Ashley H; Arcand, Suzanna L; Oros, Kathleen K; Rahimi, Kurosh; Watters, A Kevin; Provencher, Diane; Greenwood, Celia M; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Tonin, Patricia N

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian carcinomas exhibit extensive heterogeneity, and their etiology remains unknown. Histological and genetic evidence has led to the proposal that low grade ovarian serous carcinomas (LGOSC) have a different etiology than high grade carcinomas (HGOSC), arising from serous tumours of low malignant potential (LMP). Common regions of chromosome (chr) 3 loss have been observed in all types of serous ovarian tumours, including benign, suggesting that these regions contain genes important in the development of all ovarian serous carcinomas. A high-density genome-wide genotyping bead array technology, which assayed >600,000 markers, was applied to a panel of serous benign and LMP tumours and a small set of LGOSC, to characterize somatic events associated with the most indolent forms of ovarian disease. The genomic patterns inferred were related to TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations. An increasing frequency of genomic anomalies was observed with pathology of disease: 3/22 (13.6%) benign cases, 40/53 (75.5%) LMP cases and 10/11 (90.9%) LGOSC cases. Low frequencies of chr3 anomalies occurred in all tumour types. Runs of homozygosity were most commonly observed on chr3, with the 3p12-p11 candidate tumour suppressor region the most frequently homozygous region in the genome. An LMP harboured a homozygous deletion on chr6 which created a GOPC-ROS1 fusion gene, previously reported as oncogenic in other cancer types. Somatic TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations were not observed in benign tumours. KRAS-mutation positive LMP cases displayed significantly more chromosomal aberrations than BRAF-mutation positive or KRAS and BRAF mutation negative cases. Gain of 12p, which harbours the KRAS gene, was particularly evident. A pathology review reclassified all TP53-mutation positive LGOSC cases, some of which acquired a HGOSC status. Taken together, our results support the view that LGOSC could arise from serous benign and LMP tumours, but does not exclude the possibility that HGOSC may derive

  20. The spectrum of retinopathy in adults with Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Maude, Richard J.; Beare, Nicholas A.V.; Sayeed, Abdullah Abu; Chang, Christina C.; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Faiz, M. Abul; Hossain, Amir; Yunus, Emran Bin; Hoque, M. Gofranul; Hasan, Mahtab Uddin; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P.J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary A specific retinopathy has been described in African children with cerebral malaria, but in adults this has not been extensively studied. Since the structure and function of the retinal vasculature greatly resembles the cerebral vasculature, study of retinal changes can reveal insights into the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria. A detailed observational study of malarial retinopathy in Bangladeshi adults was performed using high-definition portable retinal photography. Retinopathy was present in 17/27 adults (63%) with severe malaria and 14/20 adults (70%) with cerebral malaria. Moderate or severe retinopathy was more frequent in cerebral malaria (11/20, 55%) than in uncomplicated malaria (3/15, 20%; P = 0.039), bacterial sepsis (0/5, 0%; P = 0.038) or healthy controls (0/18, 0%; P < 0.001). The spectrum of malarial retinopathy was similar to that previously described in African children, but no vessel discolouration was observed. The severity of retinal whitening correlated with admission venous plasma lactate (P = 0.046), suggesting that retinal ischaemia represents systemic ischaemia. In conclusion, retinal changes related to microvascular obstruction were common in adults with severe falciparum malaria and correlated with disease severity and coma, suggesting that a compromised microcirculation has important pathophysiological significance in severe and cerebral malaria. Portable retinal photography has potential as a valuable tool to study malarial retinopathy. PMID:19344925

  1. The spectrum of retinopathy in adults with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Maude, Richard J; Beare, Nicholas A V; Abu Sayeed, Abdullah; Chang, Christina C; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Faiz, M Abul; Hossain, Amir; Yunus, Emran Bin; Hoque, M Gofranul; Hasan, Mahtab Uddin; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2009-07-01

    A specific retinopathy has been described in African children with cerebral malaria, but in adults this has not been extensively studied. Since the structure and function of the retinal vasculature greatly resembles the cerebral vasculature, study of retinal changes can reveal insights into the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria. A detailed observational study of malarial retinopathy in Bangladeshi adults was performed using high-definition portable retinal photography. Retinopathy was present in 17/27 adults (63%) with severe malaria and 14/20 adults (70%) with cerebral malaria. Moderate or severe retinopathy was more frequent in cerebral malaria (11/20, 55%) than in uncomplicated malaria (3/15, 20%; P=0.039), bacterial sepsis (0/5, 0%; P=0.038) or healthy controls (0/18, 0%; P<0.001). The spectrum of malarial retinopathy was similar to that previously described in African children, but no vessel discolouration was observed. The severity of retinal whitening correlated with admission venous plasma lactate (P=0.046), suggesting that retinal ischaemia represents systemic ischaemia. In conclusion, retinal changes related to microvascular obstruction were common in adults with severe falciparum malaria and correlated with disease severity and coma, suggesting that a compromised microcirculation has important pathophysiological significance in severe and cerebral malaria. Portable retinal photography has potential as a valuable tool to study malarial retinopathy.

  2. [Serous cysts of the spleen treated by laparoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Alecu, L; Deacu, Adriana; Costan, I; Viţalariu, Adriana; Gulinescu, L

    2002-01-01

    The authors present two case of a 25 years and 32 years old male patients with serous cysts of spleen that were detected on an random abdominal ultrasonography. Abdominal pain in the left hypocondrium was only symptom of this patients. The patients was operated by laparoscopic method, with Ultra-Shears and intraoperative ultrasonography examination. This kind of techniques give us the opportunity to performed the ablation of the cysts with preservation of the spleen with fast full recovery.

  3. [Outcomes of surgical management of retinopathy of prematurity--an overview].

    PubMed

    Kuprjanowicz, Leszek; Kubasik-Kładna, Katarzyna; Modrzejewska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    According to the guidelines by the ETROP (Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity) study group, laser therapy is the gold standard in the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. However, progression of the disease is seen in 12% of eyes despite the treatment. Since there is no causal treatment, new therapies of retinopathy of prematurity, are continually sought, such as anti-VEGF agents, beta-blockers, or insulin-like growth factor gene therapy. In cases with concomitant retinal detachment, surgery is performed. The standard therapy for retinopathy of prematurity stages 4-5 involves pars plicata vitrectomy and lensectomy (stage 5), ab externo surgery (scleral buckling) and lens-sparing vitrectomy (some cases of stage 4). Classic vitrectomy with lensectomy is reserved only for cases with advanced retinal tractions, retina-lens apposition or for cases of intraoperative lens damage during the lens-sparing vitrectomy. The ab externo surgery does not eliminate vitreous tractions, but it stabilises the neovascular membrane activity (transforming it into a scar). The indication for this type of operation is stage 4 retinopathy of prematurity with peripheral proliferations, except for the posterior--aggressive form of retinopathy of prematurity. Many papers have been published on combined therapy involving vitrectomy and conservative treatment. In conclusion, optimal timing of surgical intervention is difficult to determine in stages 4 and 5, because the anatomical and functional outcomes in stage 5 are unfavourable. Both, ab externo surgery and vitrectomy tend to produce poor macular vision in eyes with advanced retinopathy of prematurity, therefore surgical intervention at stage 4 just before the local macular retinal detachment provides better anatomical and functional outcomes.

  4. Automated detection of fundus photographic red lesions in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Michael; Godt, Jannik; Larsen, Nicolai; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Sjølie, Anne Katrin; Agardh, Elisabet; Kalm, Helle; Grunkin, Michael; Owens, David R

    2003-02-01

    To compare a fundus image-analysis algorithm for automated detection of hemorrhages and microaneurysms with visual detection of retinopathy in patients with diabetes. Four hundred fundus photographs (35-mm color transparencies) were obtained in 200 eyes of 100 patients with diabetes who were randomly selected from the Welsh Community Diabetic Retinopathy Study. A gold standard reference was defined by classifying each patient as having or not having diabetic retinopathy based on overall visual grading of the digitized transparencies. A single-lesion visual grading was made independently, comprising meticulous outlining of all single lesions in all photographs and used to develop the automated red lesion detection system. A comparison of visual and automated single-lesion detection in replicating the overall visual grading was then performed. Automated red lesion detection demonstrated a specificity of 71.4% and a resulting sensitivity of 96.7% in detecting diabetic retinopathy when applied at a tentative threshold setting for use in diabetic retinopathy screening. The accuracy of 79% could be raised to 85% by adjustment of a single user-supplied parameter determining the balance between the screening priorities, for which a considerable range of options was demonstrated by the receiver-operating characteristic (area under the curve 90.3%). The agreement of automated lesion detection with overall visual grading (0.659) was comparable to the mean agreement of six ophthalmologists (0.648). Detection of diabetic retinopathy by automated detection of single fundus lesions can be achieved with a performance comparable to that of experienced ophthalmologists. The results warrant further investigation of automated fundus image analysis as a tool for diabetic retinopathy screening.

  5. Periodontitis is associated with diabetic retinopathy in non-obese adults.

    PubMed

    Song, Su Jeong; Lee, Seong-Su; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Jun-Beom

    2017-04-01

    Patients with diabetes retinopathy appear to show increased susceptibility to periodontal disease. This study was performed to assess the relationship between periodontitis and the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in a large probability sample of the Korean population. A subgroup analysis was performed using body mass index <25 kg/m 2 as the criterion to evaluate the effect of obesity on this relationship. This study is based on data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the Korean population, conducted between 2008 and 2010. The presence of diabetic retinopathy in relation to demographic variables and anthropometric characteristics of the participants is presented as means with their standard errors. The presence of periodontitis and presence of retinopathy categorized by body mass index (<25 and ≥25 kg/m 2 ) were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations between periodontitis and diabetic retinopathy after adjustment with variables, including age, sex, smoking, drinking, exercise, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, HbA1c, and duration of diabetes mellitus. There was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of periodontitis in individuals who had proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] of prevalence of diabetic retinopathy were 1.193 [0.757-1.881] for the whole population after adjustments with confounding factors. Subgroup analysis after adjustments with confounding factors showed that the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] of prevalence were 2.206 [1.114-4.366] and 0.588 [0.326-1.061] among participants with body mass index <25 kg/m 2 and body mass index 37 ≥25 kg/m 2 , respectively. The diabetic retinopathy was positively associated with the presence of periodontitis in non-obese diabetic Korean adults after adjustment with confounding variables. Our findings suggest that when a periodontist finds the presence of

  6. Educational paper: Retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Casteels, Ingele; Cassiman, Catherine; Van Calster, Joachim; Allegaert, Karel

    2012-06-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a proliferative retinal vascular disease affecting the premature infant with an incompletely vascularized retina. The spectrum of ophthalmological findings in ROP exists from minimal sequelae, which do not affect vision, to bilateral retinal detachment and total blindness. With the increased survival of very small infants, retinopathy of prematurity has become one of the leading causes of childhood blindness. Over the past two decades, major advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of ROP, to a large extent as a result of changes in clinical risk factors (oxygen and non-oxygen related) and characteristics observed in ROP cases. This article provides a literature review on the evolution in clinical characteristics, classification and treatment modalities and indications of ROP. Special attention is hereby paid to the neonatal factors influencing the development of ROP and to the necessity for everyone caring for premature babies to have a well-defined screening and treatment protocol for ROP. Such screening protocol needs to be based on a unit-specific ROP risk profile and, consequently, may vary between different European regions. Retinopathy of prematurity is an important cause of ocular morbidity and blindness in children. With better understanding of the pathogenesis, screening and treatment guidelines have changed over time and are unit specific.

  7. The Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Workflow

    PubMed Central

    Bolster, Nigel M.; Giardini, Mario E.; Bastawrous, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Complications of diabetes mellitus, namely diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy, are the leading cause of blindness in working aged people. Sufferers can avoid blindness if identified early via retinal imaging. Systematic screening of the diabetic population has been shown to greatly reduce the prevalence and incidence of blindness within the population. Many national screening programs have digital fundus photography as their basis. In the past 5 years several techniques and adapters have been developed that allow digital fundus photography to be performed using smartphones. We review recent progress in smartphone-based fundus imaging and discuss its potential for integration into national systematic diabetic retinopathy screening programs. Some systems have produced promising initial results with respect to their agreement with reference standards. However further multisite trialling of such systems’ use within implementable screening workflows is required if an evidence base strong enough to affect policy change is to be established. If this were to occur national diabetic retinopathy screening would, for the first time, become possible in low- and middle-income settings where cost and availability of trained eye care personnel are currently key barriers to implementation. As diabetes prevalence and incidence is increasing sharply in these settings, the impact on global blindness could be profound. PMID:26596630

  8. Peripheral Blood Mitochondrial DNA Damage as a Potential Noninvasive Biomarker of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Manish; Lillvis, John; Seyoum, Berhane; Kowluru, Renu A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the development of diabetic retinopathy, retinal mitochondria become dysfunctional, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is damaged. Because retinopathy is a progressive disease, and circulating glucose levels are high in diabetes, our aim was to investigate if peripheral blood mtDNA damage can serve as a potential biomarker of diabetic retinopathy. Methods Peripheral blood mtDNA damage was investigated by extended-length PCR in rats and mice, diabetic for 10 to 12 months (streptozotocin-induced, type 1 model), and in 12- and 40-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF, type 2). Mitochondrial copy number (in gDNA) and transcription (in cDNA) were quantified by qPCR. Similar parameters were measured in blood from diabetic patients with/without retinopathy. Results Peripheral blood from diabetic rodents had significantly increased mtDNA damage and decreased copy numbers and transcription. Lipoic acid administration in diabetic rats, or Sod2 overexpression or MMP-9 knockdown in mice, the therapies that prevent diabetic retinopathy, also ameliorated blood mtDNA damage and restored copy numbers and transcription. Although blood from 40-week-old ZDF rats had significant mtDNA damage, 12-week-old rats had normal mtDNA. Diabetic patients with retinopathy had increased blood mtDNA damage, and decreased transcription and copy numbers compared with diabetic patients without retinopathy and nondiabetic individuals. Conclusions Type 1 diabetic rodents with oxidative stress modulated by pharmacologic/genetic means, and type 2 animal model and patients with/without diabetic retinopathy, demonstrate a strong relation between peripheral blood mtDNA damage and diabetic retinopathy, and suggest the possibility of use of peripheral blood mtDNA as a noninvasive biomarker of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:27494345

  9. Multicolor Scanning Laser Imaging in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mohammad S Z; Carrim, Zia Iqbal

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common cause of blindness in individuals younger than 60 years. Screening for retinopathy is undertaken using conventional color fundus photography and relies on the identification of hemorrhages, vascular abnormalities, exudates, and cotton-wool spots. These can sometimes be difficult to identify. Multicolor scanning laser imaging, a new imaging modality, may have a role in improving screening outcomes, as well as facilitating treatment decisions. Observational case series comprising two patients with known diabetes who were referred for further examination after color fundus photography revealed abnormal findings. Multicolor scanning laser imaging was undertaken. Features of retinal disease from each modality were compared. Multicolor scanning laser imaging provides superior visualization of retinal anatomy and pathology, thereby facilitating risk stratification and treatment decisions. Multicolor scanning laser imaging is a novel imaging technique offering the potential for improving the reliability of screening for diabetic retinopathy. Validation studies are warranted.

  10. Retinopathy predicts progression of fasting plasma glucose: An Early Diabetes Intervention Program (EDIP) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Yash R.; Kirkman, M. Sue; Considine, Robert V; Hannon, Tamara S; Mather, Kieren J

    2017-01-01

    Background Retinopathy is increasingly recognized in prediabetic populations, and may herald increased risk of metabolic worsening. The Early Diabetes Intervention Program (EDIP) evaluated worsening of glycemia in screen-detected Type 2 diabetes, following participants for up to 5 years. Here we have evaluated whether the presence of retinopathy at the time of detection of diabetes was associated with accelerated progression of glycemia. Methods We prospectively studied 194 participants from EDIP with available baseline retinal photographs. Retinopathy was determined at baseline using 7-field fundus photography and defined as an Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study Scale grading score of ≥20. Results At baseline, 12% of participants had classical retinal lesions indicating retinopathy. In univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, the presence of retinopathy at baseline was associated with a doubled risk of progression of fasting plasma glucose (HR 2.02; 95% CI 1.05–3.89). The retinopathy effect was robust to individual adjustment for age and glucose, the most potent determinants of progression in EDIP. Conclusion Retinopathy was associated with increased risk of progression of fasting plasma glucose among adults with screen-detected, early diabetes. Early detection of retinopathy may help individualize more aggressive therapy to prevent progressive metabolic worsening in early diabetes. PMID:28003103

  11. Zone 1 retinopathy of prematurity in a transitional economy: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    Carden, Susan M; Lan, Luu Ngoc; Huynh, Tess

    2006-06-01

    To describe three low risk infants in whom severe retinopathy of prematurity developed. A prospective, observational case series. setting: National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam. study population: Premature infants in the neonatal ward. observation procedure: Eye examinations. Severe retinopathy of prematurity occurred in three infants. All had zone 1 disease and other unusually severe findings, such as neovascularization of the disk. These infants would not be at risk for the development of such severe retinopathy of prematurity in countries with a developed economy. Unusual characteristics of retinopathy of prematurity may be occurring in countries with transitional economies. Screening programs should be implemented and should take into consideration the possibility that retinopathy of prematurity may occur in infants who fall outside the screening guidelines that are used in the developed world.

  12. Network-based integration of GWAS and gene expression identifies a HOX-centric network associated with serous ovarian cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Siddhartha P.; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Li, Qiyuan; Lawrenson, Kate; Aben, Katja K.H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie T.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Berchuck, Andrew; Bisogna, Maria; Bjørge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Yian Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas F.; Edwards, Robert P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus K.; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Paul, James; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Iain A.; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Phelan, Catherine M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E.; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Sellers, Thomas A.; Monteiro, Alvaro N. A.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have so far reported 12 loci associated with serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. We hypothesized that some of these loci function through nearby transcription factor (TF) genes and that putative target genes of these TFs as identified by co-expression may also be enriched for additional EOC risk associations. Methods We selected TF genes within 1 Mb of the top signal at the 12 genome-wide significant risk loci. Mutual information, a form of correlation, was used to build networks of genes strongly co-expressed with each selected TF gene in the unified microarray data set of 489 serous EOC tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genes represented in this data set were subsequently ranked using a gene-level test based on results for germline SNPs from a serous EOC GWAS meta-analysis (2,196 cases/4,396 controls). Results Gene set enrichment analysis identified six networks centered on TF genes (HOXB2, HOXB5, HOXB6, HOXB7 at 17q21.32 and HOXD1, HOXD3 at 2q31) that were significantly enriched for genes from the risk-associated end of the ranked list (P<0.05 and FDR<0.05). These results were replicated (P<0.05) using an independent association study (7,035 cases/21,693 controls). Genes underlying enrichment in the six networks were pooled into a combined network. Conclusion We identified a HOX-centric network associated with serous EOC risk containing several genes with known or emerging roles in serous EOC development. Impact Network analysis integrating large, context-specific data sets has the potential to offer mechanistic insights into cancer susceptibility and prioritize genes for experimental characterization. PMID:26209509

  13. Light and portable novel device for diabetic retinopathy screening.

    PubMed

    Ting, Daniel S W; Tay-Kearney, Mei Ling; Kanagasingam, Yogesan

    2012-01-01

    To validate the use of an economical portable multipurpose ophthalmic imaging device, EyeScan (Ophthalmic Imaging System, Sacramento, CA, USA), for diabetic retinopathy screening. Evaluation of a diagnostic device. One hundred thirty-six (272 eyes) were recruited from diabetic retinopathy screening clinic of Royal Perth Hospital, Western Australia, Australia. All patients underwent three-field (optic disc, macular and temporal view) mydriatic retinal digital still photography captured by EyeScan and FF450 plus (Carl Zeiss Meditec, North America) and were subsequently examined by a senior consultant ophthalmologist using the slit-lamp biomicroscopy (reference standard). All retinal images were interpreted by a consultant ophthalmologist and a medical officer. The sensitivity, specificity and kappa statistics of EyeScan and FF450 plus with reference to the slit-lamp examination findings by a senior consultant ophthalmologist. For detection of any grade of diabetic retinopathy, EyeScan had a sensitivity and specificity of 93 and 98%, respectively (ophthalmologist), and 92 and 95%, respectively (medical officer). In contrast, FF450 plus images had a sensitivity and specificity of 95 and 99%, respectively (ophthalmologist), and 92 and 96%, respectively (medical officer). The overall kappa statistics for diabetic retinopathy grading for EyeScan and FF450 plus were 0.93 and 0.95 for ophthalmologist and 0.88 and 0.90 for medical officer, respectively. Given that the EyeScan requires minimal training to use and has excellent diagnostic accuracy in screening for diabetic retinopathy, it could be potentially utilized by the primary eye care providers to widely screen for diabetic retinopathy in the community. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  14. Adding retinal photography to screening for diabetic retinopathy: a prospective study in primary care.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, J P; Hopper, A; Madhaven, C; Charny, M; Purewell, T S; Harney, B; Griffiths, J

    1996-03-16

    To evaluate whether adding retinal photography improved community screening for diabetic retinopathy. Mobile screening unit at rural and urban general practices in south west England. 1010 diabetic patients from primary care. Prospective study; patients were examined by ophthalmoscopy by general practitioners or opticians without fundal photographs and again with photographs, and assessments were compared to those of an ophthalmologist. Whether fundal photography improved the sensitivity of detection of retinopathy and referrable diabetic retinopathy, and whether this sensitivity could be improved by including a review of the films by the specialist. Diabetic retinopathy was detected by the ophthalmologist in 205 patients (20.5%) and referrable retinopathy in 49 (4.9%). The sensitivity of the general practitioners and opticians for referrable retinopathy with ophthalmoscopy was 65%, and improved to 84% with retinal photographs. General practitioners' sensitivity in detecting background retinopathy improved with photographs from 22% to 65%; opticians' sensitivity in detecting background retinopathy improved from 43% to 71%. The sensitivity of detecting referrable retinopathy by general practitioners improved from 56% to 80% with photographs; for opticians it improved from 75% to 88%. Combining modalities of screening by providing photography with specialist review of all films in addition to direct ophthalmoscopy through dilated pupils improves assessment and referral for diabetic retinopathy by general practitioners and opticians. With further training and experience, primary care screeners should be able to achieve a sensitivity that will achieve an effective, acceptable, and economical community based screening programme for this condition.

  15. Does bariatric surgery prevent progression of diabetic retinopathy?

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Laybourne, J P; Sandinha, M T; de Alwis, N M W; Avery, P; Steel, D H

    2017-08-01

    PurposeTo assess the changes in diabetic retinopathy (DR) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients post bariatric surgery and report on the risk factors that may be associated with it.Patients and methodsRetrospective observational study of T2DM patients who underwent bariatric surgery in a UK specialist bariatric unit between 2009 and 2015. Preoperative and postoperative weight, HbA1c, and annual DR screening results were collected from medical records. Patients with preoperative retinal screening and at least one postoperative retinal screening were eligible for analysis. Multivariate analysis was used to explore significant clinical predictors on postoperative worsening in DR.ResultsA total of 102 patients were eligible for analysis and were followed up for 4 years. Preoperatively, 68% of patients had no DR compared to 30% with background retinopathy, 1% pre-proliferative retinopathy, and 1% proliferative retinopathy. In the first postoperative visit, 19% of patients developed new DR compared to 70% stable and 11% improved. These proportions remained similar for each postoperative visit over time. Young age, male gender, high preoperative HbA1c, and presence of preoperative retinopathy were the significant predictors of worsening postoperatively.ConclusionBariatric surgery does not prevent progression of DR. Young male patients with pre-existing DR and poor preoperative glycaemic control are most at risk of progression. All diabetic patients should attend regular DR screening post bariatric surgery to allow early detection of potentially sight-threatening changes, particularly among those with identifiable risk factors. Future prospective studies with prolonged follow-up are required to clarify the duration of risk.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging retinal oximetry: a quantitative physiological biomarker for early diabetic retinopathy?

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Zhu, X R; Xu, Q G; Metcalfe, H; Wang, Z C; Yang, J K

    2012-04-01

    To assess the efficacy of using magnetic resonance imaging measurements of retinal oxygenation response to detect early diabetic retinopathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted during 100% oxygen inhalation in patients with Type 2 diabetes with either no diabetic retinopathy (n = 12) or mild to moderate background diabetic retinopathy (n = 12), as well as in healthy control subjects (n = 12). Meanwhile, changes in retinal oxygenation response were measured. In the healthy control group, levels of retinal oxygenation response increased slowly during 100% oxygen inhalation. In contrast, they increased more quickly and attained homeostasis much earlier in the groups with background diabetic retinopathy (at the 20-min time point) and with no diabetic retinopathy (at the 25-min time point) than in the healthy control group (at the 42-min time point). Furthermore, levels of retinal oxygenation response in the group with background diabetic retinopathy increased more than that of the group with no diabetic retinopathy, which in turn increased more than that of the healthy control group. There are statistically significant differences between the group with background diabetic retinopathy and the healthy control group at 6-, 8-, 10-, 15-, 20- and 25-min time points (P < 0.05). According to the normal range of the healthy control group by setting fundus photography results as 'gold standard' in our research, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and receiver operating characteristic area for reporting the early indications of utility of diabetic retinopathy were 83.33%, 58.33%, 50%, 87.5% and 0.774, respectively. The results indicate that magnetic resonance imaging is a potential screening method and probably a quantitative physiological biomarker to find early diabetic retinopathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  17. Detection of color vision defects in chloroquine retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Vu, B L; Easterbrook, M; Hovis, J K

    1999-09-01

    The effect of chloroquine toxicity on color vision is unclear. The authors identified the color defects seen in chloroquine retinopathy and determined the sensitivity and specificity of clinical color vision tests for detecting the presence of previously diagnosed chloroquine retinopathy. Case-control study. Chloroquine retinopathy was defined using previously published criteria. Data from 30 patients with retinopathy and 25 patients using chloroquine but with no evidence of retinal toxicity were collected. All patients were tested with the following six clinical color vision tests: Ishihara, Farnsworth D-15, and Adams Desaturated-15 (Dsat-15), City University 2nd Edition (CU), Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates Part 2 (SPP-2), and American Optical Hardy Rand Rittler (AO HRR). The number of failures was determined for each test. The types of color vision defects were classified as blue-yellow (BY), red-green (RG), or mixed RG and BY (mixed). Of the 30 patients with retinopathy, 28 (93.3%) of 30 patients failed at least 1 color vision test, demonstrating predominantly mixed defects. Five (25%) of 25 of the control subjects failed at least 1 test, and these defects were predominantly BY. The sensitivity and specificity of the tests are as follows: SPP-2 (93.3%, 88%), AO HRR (76.7%, 88%), Ishihara (43.3%, 96%), Dsat-15 (33.3%, 84%), D-15 (16.7%, 96%), and CU (20%, 92%). Color vision can be affected by chloroquine and should be tested routinely with a color vision test designed to detect both mild BY and protan RG defects to maximize sensitivity for toxicity. The SPP-2 and AO HRR are two tests that meet these criteria. The Ishihara has a low sensitivity, as do the D-15 tests and CU. All of the tests have similar specificity for chloroquine toxicity. If color vision defects are detected in patients at risk of developing chloroquine retinopathy, additional testing is indicated to rule out toxicity.

  18. A binary histologic grading system for ovarian serous carcinoma is an independent prognostic factor: a population-based study of 4317 women diagnosed in Denmark 1978-2006.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Vang, Russell; Junge, Jette; Kjaerbye-Thygesen, Anette; Kurman, Robert J; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the prognostic significance of histologic grade on survival of ovarian serous cancer in Denmark during nearly 30 years. Using the nationwide Danish Pathology Data Bank, we evaluated 4317 women with ovarian serous carcinoma in 1978-2006. All pathology reports were scrutinized and tumors classified as either low-grade serous carcinomas (LGSC) or high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC). Tumors in which the original pathology reports were described as well-differentiated were classified as LGSC, and those that were described as moderately or poorly differentiated were classified as HGSC. We obtained histologic slides from the pathology departments for women with a diagnosis of well-differentiated serous carcinoma during 1997-2006, which were then reviewed by expert gynecologic pathologists. Data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis with follow-up through June 2009. Women with HGSC had a significantly increased risk of dying (HR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.6-2.3) compared with women with LGSC while adjusting for age and stage. Expert review of 171 women originally classified as well-differentiated in 1997-2006 were interpreted as LGSC in 30% of cases, whereas 12% were interpreted as HGSC and 50% as serous borderline ovarian tumors (SBT). Compared with women with confirmed LGSC, women with SBT at review had a significantly lower risk of dying (HR=0.5; 95% CI: 0.22-0.99), and women with HGSC at review had a non-significantly increased risk of dying (HR=1.6; 95% CI: 0.7-3.4). A binary grading system is a significant predictor of survival for ovarian serous carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Angiopoietin-2 levels are associated with retinopathy and predict mortality in Malawian children with cerebral malaria: a retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Andrea L.; Glover, Simon J.; Hawkes, Michael; Erdman, Laura K.; Seydel, Karl B.; Taylor, Terrie E.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Kain, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the angiopoietin-Tie-2 system, retinopathy and mortality in children with cerebral malaria (CM). Design Case-control study of retinopathy positive versus retinopathy negative children with clinically defined CM. Setting Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Subjects 155 children presenting with severe malaria and meeting a strict definition of clinical cerebral malaria (Blantyre Coma Score ≤2, Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia, no other identifiable cause for coma) were included in the study. Measurements Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded at admission and fundoscopic exams were performed. Admission levels of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2 and a soluble version of their cognate receptor (sTie-2) were measured by ELISA. Main results We show that angiopoietin-1 levels are decreased and angiopoietin-2 and sTie-2 levels are increased in children with CM who had retinopathy compared to those who did not. Angiopoietin-2 and sTie-2 were independent predictors of retinopathy (adjusted Odds ratio (95% CI): angiopoietin-2, 4.3 (1.3-14.6), p=0.019; sTie-2, 9.7 (2.1-45.8), p=0.004). Angiopoietin-2 and sTie-2 were positively correlated with the number of hemorrhages, the severity of retinal whitening and the extent of capillary whitening observed on fundoscopic exam (p<0.05 following adjustment for multiple comparisons). Angiopoietin-2 and sTie-2 levels were elevated in children with CM who subsequently died and Angiopoetin-2 was an independent predictor of death (adjusted Odds ratio: 3.9 (1.2-12.7), p=0.024). When combined with clinical parameters, Angiopoetin-2 improved prediction of mortality using logistic regression models and classification trees. Conclusions These results provide insights into mechanisms of endothelial activation in CM and indicate that the angiopoietin-Tie-2 axis is associated with retinopathy and mortality in pediatric CM. PMID:22343839

  20. Angiopoietin-2 levels are associated with retinopathy and predict mortality in Malawian children with cerebral malaria: a retrospective case-control study*.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Andrea L; Glover, Simon J; Hawkes, Michael; Erdman, Laura K; Seydel, Karl B; Taylor, Terrie E; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Kain, Kevin C

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the relationship among the angiopoietin-Tie-2 system, retinopathy, and mortality in children with cerebral malaria. A case-control study of retinopathy-positive vs. retinopathy-negative children with clinically defined cerebral malaria. Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. One hundred fifty-five children presenting with severe malaria and meeting a strict definition of clinical cerebral malaria (Blantyre Coma Score ≤ 2, Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia, no other identifiable cause for coma) were included in the study. None. Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded at admission and funduscopic examinations were performed. Admission levels of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and a soluble version of their cognate receptor were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We show that angiopoietin-1 levels are decreased and angiopoietin-2 and soluble Tie-2 levels are increased in children with cerebral malaria who had retinopathy compared with those who did not. Angiopoietin-2 and soluble Tie-2 were independent predictors of retinopathy (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI], angiopoietin-2, 4.3 [1.3-14.6], p = .019; soluble Tie-2, 9.7 [2.1-45.8], p = .004). Angiopoietin-2 and soluble Tie-2 were positively correlated with the number of hemorrhages, the severity or retinal whitening, and the extent of capillary whitening observed on funduscopic examination (p < .05 after adjustment for multiple comparisons). Angiopoietin-2 and soluble Tie-2 levels were elevated in children with cerebral malaria who subsequently died and angiopoetin-2 was an independent predictor of death (adjusted odds ratio: 3.9 [1.2-12.7], p = .024). When combined with clinical parameters, angiopoetin-2 improved prediction of mortality using logistic regression models and classification trees. These results provide insights into mechanisms of endothelial activation in cerebral malaria and indicate that the angiopoietin-Tie-2 axis is associated with retinopathy and

  1. Primary Papillary Serous Carcinoma of the Fallopian Tube Presenting as a Vaginal Mass: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kadour-Peero, Einav; Sagi-Dain, Lena; Cohen, Gil; Korobochka, Roman; Agbarya, Abed; Bejar, Jacob; Sagi, Shlomi

    2018-05-07

    BACKGROUND There is now evidence to support that some cases of high-grade serous papillary carcinoma arise from the fallopian tubes rather than the ovaries. Common symptoms at presentation include abdominal pain and swelling, vomiting, altered bowel habit and urinary symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case of serous papillary carcinoma presenting as a vaginal mass lesion. CASE REPORT A 41-year-old woman was referred to the Bnai-Zion Medical Center with the main complaint of irregular vaginal bleeding, vaginal mucous discharge, and suspected pelvic mass. Physical examination showed a soft, painless mass, measuring about 10 cm in diameter located mainly in the recto-vaginal septum, but not involving the uterus. Ultrasound examination showed no abnormal ovarian or uterine findings. Transvaginal biopsies of the mass showed a poorly differentiated serous papillary carcinoma of ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal origin. The physical examination and imaging findings strongly indicated an inoperable tumor, and the patient was treated with neoadjuvant (pre-surgical) chemotherapy. Pre-operative computed tomography (CT) imaging showed the partial involvement of the colon, and so surgical treatment included total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, partial vaginectomy, anterior rectal resection, and lymph node dissection. Histopathology of the surgical specimens showed a poorly differentiated serous carcinoma originating from the fimbria of the right fallopian tube. CONCLUSIONS To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe primary fallopian tube papillary serous carcinoma presenting as a vaginal mass. Therefore, physicians should be aware of this possible diagnosis.

  2. Influence of dietary-fibre intake on diabetes and diabetic retinopathy: Sankara Nethralaya-Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study (report 26).

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Suganeswari; Raman, Rajiv; Kulothungan, Vaitheeswaran; Sharma, Tarun

    2012-04-01

    The present study aims to report the influence of dietary-fibre intake on diabetes and diabetic microangiopathies among subjects >40 years in Urban India. Population-based cross-sectional study.   A total of 1383 patients were included in the study, 1261 diabetics and 122 controls. All subjects underwent comprehensive eye examination including assessment of diabetic retinopathy using fundus photography. Dietary-fibre intake was assessed using a validated questionnaire. All questions were validated based on factor analysis (overall communalities value >0.5). The cut-off for low-fibre diet was calculated by the average of study scores (≤ 32 for low-fibre diet). Prevalence of diabetes in subjects with low-fibre diet versus healthy diet and risk of microangiopathies.   Subjects with low-fibre diet intake, had 1.51 times more risk of microalbuminuria than those with a healthy-fibre diet. Similarly, the odds of having diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio 1.41 [95% CI 1.02-1.94] and odds ratio 2.24 [95% CI 1.01-5.02], respectively) in low-fibre diet subjects were more. Low-fibre diet was consumed predominantly by lower socioeconomic status group (11.9 vs. 6.5, P=0.002). Subjects with type II diabetes had a lower dietary-fibre intake. The presence of diabetic retinopathy, sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy and microalbuminuria were also associated with lower dietary-fibre intake. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. Hemorrhagic Retinopathy after Spondylosis Surgery and Seizure.

    PubMed

    Kord Valeshabad, Ali; Francis, Andrew W; Setlur, Vikram; Chang, Peter; Mieler, William F; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2015-08-01

    To report bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy in an adult female subject after lumbar spinal surgery and seizure. A 38-year-old woman presented with bilateral blurry vision and spots in the visual field. The patient had lumbar spondylosis surgery that was complicated by a dural tear with persistent cerebrospinal fluid leak. Visual symptoms started immediately after witnessed seizure-like activity. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/25 in the right and left eye, respectively. Dilated fundus examination demonstrated bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy with subhyaloid, intraretinal, and subretinal involvement. At 4-month follow-up, visual acuity improved to 20/60 and 20/20 in the right and left eye, respectively. Dilated fundus examination and fundus photography showed resolution of retinal hemorrhages in both eyes. The first case of bilateral hemorrhagic retinopathy after lumbar spondylosis surgery and witnessed seizure in an adult was reported. Ophthalmic examination may be warranted after episodes of seizure in adults.

  4. Machine Learning Approaches for Detecting Diabetic Retinopathy from Clinical and Public Health Records.

    PubMed

    Ogunyemi, Omolola; Kermah, Dulcie

    2015-01-01

    Annual eye examinations are recommended for diabetic patients in order to detect diabetic retinopathy and other eye conditions that arise from diabetes. Medically underserved urban communities in the US have annual screening rates that are much lower than the national average and could benefit from informatics approaches to identify unscreened patients most at risk of developing retinopathy. Using clinical data from urban safety net clinics as well as public health data from the CDC's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined different machine learning approaches for predicting retinopathy from clinical or public health data. All datasets utilized exhibited a class imbalance. Classifiers learned on the clinical data were modestly predictive of retinopathy with the best model having an AUC of 0.72, sensitivity of 69.2% and specificity of 55.9%. Classifiers learned on public health data were not predictive of retinopathy. Successful approaches to detecting latent retinopathy using machine learning could help safety net and other clinics identify unscreened patients who are most at risk of developing retinopathy and the use of ensemble classifiers on clinical data shows promise for this purpose.

  5. Screening for diabetic retinopathy using digital colour photography and oral fluorescein angiography.

    PubMed

    Newsom, R; Moate, B; Casswell, T

    2000-08-01

    To evaluate digital colour photography and oral fluorescein angiography (OFA) for diabetic retinopathy screening. Thirty-seven patients were selected from either a diabetic retinopathy screening or a medical retina clinic. Three 45 degrees colour digital images and a single macula 45 degrees OFA image were taken from each eye. Standard seven-field stereo photography with ETDRS grading was used as a gold standard for data comparison. The images were assessed by two graders and the results of each method compared using the McNemar test. Five eyes had no diabetic retinopathy, 50 had background diabetic retinopathy, 3 had pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 11 had proliferative disease and 3 had quiescent posttreatment disease. Clinically significant macular oedema was present in 25 eyes and absent in 48. For grading diabetic retinopathy digital colour photography produced a sensitivity of 0.87 (specificity 0.83); OFA produced a sensitivity of 0.87 (specificity 0.80) (p = 0.1). For the detection of diabetic maculopathy, the sensitivity of digital colour photography was 0.48 (specificity of 0.95) and for OFA was 0.87 (specificity 0.87) (p < 0.01). This pilot study has shown that both digital colour photography and OFA compare well with conventional methods for diabetic retinopathy screening. The results encourage the further evaluation of OFA in the screening for diabetic maculopathy.

  6. Development of a screening tool for staging of diabetic retinopathy in fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Bency, Mayur Joseph; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Bansal, Reema; Gupta, Amod

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a condition of the eye of diabetic patients where the retina is damaged because of long-term diabetes. The condition deteriorates towards irreversible blindness in extreme cases of diabetic retinopathy. Hence, early detection of diabetic retinopathy is important to prevent blindness. Regular screening of fundus images of diabetic patients could be helpful in preventing blindness caused by diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we propose techniques for staging of diabetic retinopathy in fundus images using several shape and texture features computed from detected microaneurysms, exudates, and hemorrhages. The classification accuracy is reported in terms of the area (Az) under the receiver operating characteristic curve using 200 fundus images from the MESSIDOR database. The value of Az for classifying normal images versus mild, moderate, and severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is 0:9106. The value of Az for classification of mild NPDR versus moderate and severe NPDR is 0:8372. The Az value for classification of moderate NPDR and severe NPDR is 0:9750.

  7. The role of haemorrhage and exudate detection in automated grading of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Alan D; Goatman, Keith A; Philip, Sam; Williams, Graeme J; Prescott, Gordon J; Scotland, Graham S; McNamee, Paul; Leese, Graham P; Wykes, William N; Sharp, Peter F; Olson, John A

    2010-06-01

    Automated grading has the potential to improve the efficiency of diabetic retinopathy screening services. While disease/no disease grading can be performed using only microaneurysm detection and image-quality assessment, automated recognition of other types of lesions may be advantageous. This study investigated whether inclusion of automated recognition of exudates and haemorrhages improves the detection of observable/referable diabetic retinopathy. Images from 1253 patients with observable/referable retinopathy and 6333 patients with non-referable retinopathy were obtained from three grading centres. All images were reference-graded, and automated disease/no disease assessments were made based on microaneurysm detection and combined microaneurysm, exudate and haemorrhage detection. Introduction of algorithms for exudates and haemorrhages resulted in a statistically significant increase in the sensitivity for detection of observable/referable retinopathy from 94.9% (95% CI 93.5 to 96.0) to 96.6% (95.4 to 97.4) without affecting manual grading workload. Automated detection of exudates and haemorrhages improved the detection of observable/referable retinopathy.

  8. Retinopathy of prematurity: a new epidemic?

    PubMed

    Gibson, D L; Sheps, S B; Schechter, M T; Wiggins, S; McCormick, A Q

    1989-04-01

    This study provides the first empiric evidence for the existence of a new epidemic of retinopathy of prematurity-induced blindness. Data from a population-based register of handicapping conditions in the Canadian province of British Columbia, and a birth weight-specific census of live-born infants in British Columbia, were used to determine annual, population-level incidences of retinopathy of prematurity-induced blindness during 1952 to 1983. Changes in incidence since the end of the original epidemic (1954) were determined by subdividing the 29-year period (1955 to 1983) into two intervals (1955 to 1964 and 1965 to 1983). Standardized incidence ratio analyses revealed a marginally significant increase in the overall incidence of retinopathy of prematurity-induced blindness in the later as compared with the earlier period. Infants weighing 750 to 999 g at birth had a significantly increased standardized incidence ratio of 3.07 (95% confidence interval 1.26, 11.06). No increases in risk were observed in heavier or lighter weight infants. Because ascertainment and diagnostic changes do not explain the weight-specific increases in incidence, these results provide the first population-level evidence for a new epidemic.

  9. A retinopathy on Guam with high prevalence in Lytico-Bodig.

    PubMed

    Cox, T A; McDarby, J V; Lavine, L; Steele, J C; Calne, D B

    1989-12-01

    A pigmentary retinopathy resembling that sometimes seen in posterior ophthalmomyiasis interna was found in 26 (53.1%) of 49 Chamorro patients from Guam who have Lytico-Bodig (also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-Parkinsonism-dementia complex of Guam). In nine cases, the retinopathy was bilateral. Similar changes were found in 6 (16.2%) of 37 clinically normal individuals from southern villages on Guam that have a high incidence of Lytico-Bodig, and in 1 (3.1%) of 32 individuals from Saipan, an island north of Guam that has a low incidence of the disease. These results indicate the possibility of an association-between Lytico-Bodig and a retinopathy on Guam that may be parasitic in origin. Occurrence of a similar association in other debilitating diseases on Guam and frequency of occurrence of retinopathy in Guamanians with Lytico-Bodig after leaving Guam have yet to be determined.

  10. HYPERAUTOFLUORESCENT RING IN AUTOIMMUNE RETINOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    LIMA, LUIZ H.; GREENBERG, JONATHAN P.; GREENSTEIN, VIVIENNE C.; SMITH, R. THEODORE; SALLUM, JULIANA M. F.; THIRKILL, CHARLES; YANNUZZI, LAWRENCE A.; TSANG, STEPHEN H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the presence of a hyperautofluorescent ring and corresponding spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features seen in patients with autoimmune retinopathy. Methods All eyes were evaluated by funduscopic examination, full-fleld electroretinography, fundus autofluorescence, and SD-OCT. Further confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained with immunoblot and immunohistochemistry testing of the patient’s serum. Humphrey visual fields and microperimetry were also performed. Results Funduscopic examination showed atrophic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) associated with retinal artery narrowing but without pigment deposits. The scotopic and photopic full-field electroretinograms were nondetectable in three patients and showed a cone–rod pattern of dysfunction in one patient. Fundus autofluorescence revealed a hyperautofluorescent ring in the parafoveal region, and the corresponding SD-OCT demonstrated loss of the photoreceptor inner segment–outer segment junction with thinning of the outer nuclear layer from the region of the hyperautofluorescent ring toward the retinal periphery. The retinal layers were generally intact within the hyperautofluorescent ring, although the inner segment–outer segment junction was disrupted, and the outer nuclear layer and photoreceptor outer segment layer were thinned. Conclusion This case series revealed the structure of the hyperautofluorescent ring in autoimmune retinopathy using SD-OCT. Fundus autofluorescence and SD-OCT may aid in the diagnosis of autoimmune retinopathy and may serve as a tool to monitor its progression. PMID:22218149

  11. OCT angiography and visible-light OCT in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Nesper, Peter L; Soetikno, Brian T; Zhang, Hao F; Fawzi, Amani A

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques have increased our understanding of diabetic retinopathy, an important microvascular complication of diabetes. OCT angiography is a non-invasive method that visualizes the retinal vasculature by detecting motion contrast from flowing blood. Visible-light OCT shows promise as a novel technique for quantifying retinal hypoxia by measuring the retinal oxygen delivery and metabolic rates. In this article, we discuss recent insights provided by these techniques into the vascular pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy. The next milestones for these modalities are large multicenter studies to establish consensus on the most reliable and consistent outcome parameters to study diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microperimetry and fundus autofluorescence in diabetic macular edema: subthreshold micropulse diode laser versus modified early treatment diabetic retinopathy study laser photocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Vujosevic, Stela; Bottega, Elisa; Casciano, Margherita; Pilotto, Elisabetta; Convento, Enrica; Midena, Edoardo

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare microperimetry and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) after subthreshold micropulse diode laser versus modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study photocoagulation for clinically significant diabetic macular edema. A prospective randomized clinical trial including 62 eyes (50 patients) with untreated, center-involving, clinically significant diabetic macular edema was performed. All patients underwent best-corrected visual acuity determination (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution), slit-lamp biomicroscopy, FAF, optical coherence tomography, microperimetry (macular sensitivity), and fluorescein angiography before and after treatment. Best-corrected visual acuity, optical coherence tomography, microperimetry, and FAF were repeated at 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up examinations. Fluorescein angiography was performed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Before treatment, demographic and macular parameters were not different between the two treatment groups. At 12 months, best-corrected visual acuity remained stable in both groups (P = 0.41 and P = 0.82), mean central retinal thickness decreased in both groups (P = 0.0002 and P < 0.0001), and mean central 4 degrees and 12 degrees retinal sensitivity increased in the micropulse diode laser group (P = 0.02 and P = 0.0075) and decreased in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study group (P = 0.2 and P = 0.0026). There was no significant difference in either best-corrected visual acuity or central retinal thickness between the 2 treatment groups (P = 0.48 and P = 0.29), whereas there was a significant difference in 4 degrees and 12 degrees retinal sensitivity (P = 0.04 and P < 0.0001). Fundus autofluorescence never changed in the micropulse diode laser group even after retreatment. In the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study group, FAF increased up to 9 months and decreased in 6 eyes (20%) at 12 months. Micropulse diode laser seems to be as

  13. Agreement between photographic screening and hospital biomicroscopy grading of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Healy, Rachel; Sallam, Ahmed; Jones, Vanessa; Donachie, Paul H J; Scanlon, Peter H; Stratton, Irene M; Johnston, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    To examine the level of agreement and reasons for disagreement between grading of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy using mydriatic digital photographs in a diabetic retinopathy screening service (DRSS) and hospital eye service (HES). English NHS Diabetic Eye Screening Programme grades for diabetic retinopathy prospectively recorded on a hospital electronic medical record were compared to the grades from the DRSS event that prompted referral. In cases of disagreement, images were reviewed. Data for 1,501 patients (3,002 eyes) referred between 2008 and 2011 were analyzed. The HES retinopathy grades were R0 (no retinopathy) in 341 eyes, R1 (background retinopathy) in 1,712 eyes, R2 (pre-proliferative retinopathy) in 821 eyes, and R3 (proliferative retinopathy) in 128 eyes. The DRSS grades were in agreement in 2,309 eyes (76.9%), recorded a lower grade in 227 eyes, and recorded a higher grade in 466 eyes. Agreement was substantial (κ = 0.65). The commonest cause for disagreement was overgrading of R1 as R2 by hospital clinicians. The HES maculopathy grades were M0 (no maculopathy) in 2,267 eyes and M1 (maculopathy) in 735 eyes. The DRSS were in agreement in 2,111 eyes (70.2%), recorded a lower grade in 106 eyes, and recorded a higher grade in 785 eyes. Agreement was fair (κ = 0.39). The commonest cause for disagreement was hospital clinicians missing fine exudates. This study establishes a benchmark standard for agreement between HES and DRSS grading. Review of DRSS and grading reports images for newly referred patients is likely to improve levels of agreement, particularly for diabetic retinopathy, and should be strongly encouraged.

  14. Is a More Comprehensive Surgery Necessary in Patients With Uterine Serous Carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Touhami, Omar; Trinh, Xuan-Bich; Gregoire, Jean; Sebastianelli, Alexandra; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Grondin, Katherine; Plante, Marie

    2015-09-01

    Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is an aggressive histologic subtype of endometrial cancer that shares similarities to serous ovarian cancer, with a propensity for spread to the upper abdomen, a high recurrence rate, and a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the traditional surgical staging procedure for endometrial cancer was adequate for USC or whether a more extensive surgery, similar to the staging procedure for ovarian cancer, needs to be performed. Specifically, the roles of omentectomy and sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping were evaluated. We retrospectively identified cases of presumed clinical stage I USC at our institution from April 2005 to March 2014. Medical records were reviewed for the following information: age at diagnosis, preoperative imaging, operative findings, surgical procedure, and final histology with definitive International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage. A total of 39 patients with presumed clinical stage I USC were identified. According to the final pathology report, the surgical stage was as follows: 17 stage IA (44%), 8 stage IB (20%), 3 stage II (8%), 2 stage IIIA (5%), 6 stage IIIC1 (15%), 1 IIIC2 (3%), and 2 stage IVB (5%). Therefore, 14 patients (36%) were surgically upstaged, but none of the patients had their clinical disease upstaged by virtue of finding microscopic metastatic disease in an otherwise normal-looking omentum. Sentinel lymph node mapping was performed in 19 patients (42%). Sensitivity and negative predictive value of SLN mapping were 100% when at least 1 SLN was identified. The detection of microscopic disease in radiologically and clinically normal-appearing omentum seems to be rare in USC. Sentinel lymph node mapping seems to be valuable in the serous subtype of endometrial cancer. A less extensive surgery may be possible in patients with USC as it seems to provide the same information as a more extensive surgery.

  15. Digital tool for detecting diabetic retinopathy in retinography image using gabor transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Y.; Nuñez, R.; Suarez, J.; Torres, C.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a chronic disease and is the leading cause of blindness in the population. The fundamental problem is that diabetic retinopathy is usually asymptomatic in its early stage and, in advanced stages, it becomes incurable, hence the importance of early detection. To detect diabetic retinopathy, the ophthalmologist examines the fundus by ophthalmoscopy, after sends the patient to get a Retinography. Sometimes, these retinography are not of good quality. This paper show the implementation of a digital tool that facilitates to ophthalmologist provide better patient diagnosis suffering from diabetic retinopathy, informing them that type of retinopathy has and to what degree of severity is find . This tool develops an algorithm in Matlab based on Gabor transform and in the application of digital filters to provide better and higher quality of retinography. The performance of algorithm has been compared with conventional methods obtaining resulting filtered images with better contrast and higher.

  16. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity and treatment outcome in a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Iu, L Pl; Lai, C Hy; Fan, M Cy; Wong, I Yh; Lai, J Sm

    2017-02-01

    Studies on the prevalence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity in the local population are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, screening, and treatment outcome of retinopathy of prematurity in a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. This cross-sectional study with internal comparison was conducted at Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. The study evaluated 89 premature infants who were born at the hospital and were screened for retinopathy of prematurity, in accordance with the 2008 British Guidelines, between January 2013 and December 2013. The prevalences of retinopathy of prematurity and severe retinopathy requiring treatment were studied. The mean (± standard deviation) gestational age at birth was 30 +2 weeks ± 16.5 days (range, 24 +1 to 35 +5 weeks). The mean birth weight was 1285 g ± 328 g (range, 580 g to 2030 g). A total of 15 (16.9%) infants developed retinopathy of prematurity and three (3.4%) required treatment. In a subgroup analysis of extremely-low-birth-weight infants of <1000 g, 70.6% developed retinopathy of prematurity and 17.6% required treatment. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested low birth weight and patent ductus arteriosus were significantly associated with development of retinopathy of prematurity (P<0.001 and P=0.035, respectively). Among the three infants who received treatment for severe retinopathy of prematurity, all regressed successfully after one laser treatment. Retinopathy of prematurity is a significant problem among premature infants in Hong Kong, especially those with extremely low birth weight. Our screening service for retinopathy of prematurity was satisfactory and treatment results were good. Strict adherence to international screening guidelines and vigilance in infants at risk are key to successful management of retinopathy of prematurity.

  17. Retinopathy of prematurity: An update on screening and management

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Ann L

    2016-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a proliferative disorder of the developing retinal blood vessels in preterm infants. The present practice point reviews new information regarding screening and management for retinopathy of prematurity, including the role of risk factors in screening, optimal scheduling for screening examinations, pain management, digital retinal photography and antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy. PMID:27095887

  18. Megamitochondria in the serous acinar cells of the submandibular gland of the neotropical fruit bat, Artibeus obscurus.

    PubMed

    Tandler, B; Nagato, T; Phillips, C J

    1997-05-01

    As part of a continuing investigation of the comparative ultrastructure of chiropteran salivary glands, we examined the submandibular glands of eight species of neotropical fruit bats in the genus Artibeus. We previously described secretory granules of unusual substructure in the seromucous demilunar cells of this organ in some species in this genus. In the present study, we turned our attention to the serous acinar cells in the same glands. Specimens of eight species of Artibeus were collected in neotropical localities. Salivary glands were extirpated in the field and thin slices were fixed by immersion in triple aldehyde-DMSO or in modified half-strength Karnovsky's fixative. Tissues were further processed for electron microscopy by conventional means. In contrast to seromucous cells, which exhibit species-specific diversification in bats of this genus, the secretory apparatus and secretory granules in the serous acinar cells are highly conserved across all seven species. The single exception involves the mitochondria in one species. In this instance, some of the serous cell mitochondria in Artibeus obscurus are modified into megamitochondria. Such organelles usually have short, peripheral cristae; a laminar inclusion is present in the matrix compartment of every outsized organelle. Inclusions of this nature never are present in normal-size mitochondria in the serous cells. None of the megamitochondria were observed in the process of degeneration. The giant mitochondria in A. obscurus have a matrical structure that is radically different from that of the only other megamitochondria reported to occur in bat salivary glands. The factors that lead to variation in megamitochondrial substructure in different species, as well as the functional capacities of such giant organelles, are unknown.

  19. Mixed endometrial carcinomas with a "low-grade serous"-like component: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Iñigo; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Corominas, Marina; Gonzalez, Alan; Prat, Jaime

    2018-01-01

    Recently, we reported 2 mixed endometrioid endometrial carcinomas with a "low-grade serous"-like component, which does not fit into any of the 4 molecular groups described by The Cancer Genome Atlas. To understand the nature of these tumors, we have done an immunohistochemical and molecular genetic study of these 2 cases and added a third case. Immunoreactivity for p53, ER, Ki67, WT1, MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6 was assessed. Targeted next-generation sequencing for somatic mutations, including genes commonly implicated in carcinogenesis including TP53, KRAS, and PIK3CA, and Sanger sequencing for PTEN and POLE were also performed. All patients were nulliparous and had morbid obesity. Their tumors showed a micropapillary component that resembled that of ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma and merged with villoglandular endometrioid carcinoma. The invasive tumor glands exhibited a microcystic, elongated, or fragmented pattern and contained psammoma bodies. Two tumors showed aberrant p53 expression, and all 3 were positive for ER. All showed KRAS mutations, and TP53 mutations were found in 2 cases. One patient developed peritoneal carcinomatosis, one patient is alive with disease, and another died of a brain tumor. The third patient, whose tumor was confined to the uterus (stage IA), is alive without evidence of disease, but she has been followed for only 6 months. Mixed endometrial carcinomas with a "low-grade" serous-like component exhibit a morphologic spectrum of endometrioid and serous differentiation with microcystic, elongated, or fragmented features; ER expression; KRAS and TP53 mutations; and aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Epinephrine stimulation of anion secretion in the Calu-3 serous cell model

    PubMed Central

    Banga, Amiraj; Flaig, Stephanie; Lewis, Shanta; Winfree, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Calu-3 is a well-differentiated human bronchial cell line with the characteristics of the serous cells of airway submucosal glands. The submucosal glands play a major role in mucociliary clearance because they secrete electrolytes that facilitate airway hydration. Given the significance of both long- and short-term β-adrenergic receptor agonists in the treatment of respiratory diseases, it is important to determine the role of these receptors and their ligands in normal physiological function. The present studies were designed to characterize the effect of epinephrine, the naturally occurring β-adrenergic receptor agonist, on electrolyte transport of the airway serous cells. Interestingly, epinephrine stimulated two anion secretory channels, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and a Ca2+-activated Cl− channel, with the characteristics of transmembrane protein 16A, thereby potentially altering mucociliary clearance via multiple channels. Consistent with the dual channel activation, epinephrine treatment resulted in increases in both intracellular cAMP and Ca2+. Furthermore, the present results extend previous reports indicating that the two anion channels are functionally linked. PMID:24705724

  1. Postnatal Weight Gain Modifies Severity and Functional Outcome of Oxygen-Induced Proliferative Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Andreas; Chen, Jing; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Seaward, Molly R.; Krah, Nathan M.; Dennison, Roberta J.; Favazza, Tara; Bucher, Felicitas; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Ong, Huy; Hellström, Ann; Chemtob, Sylvain; Akula, James D.; Smith, Lois E.H.

    2010-01-01

    In clinical studies, postnatal weight gain is strongly associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, animal studies are needed to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of how postnatal weight gain affects the severity of ROP. In the present study, we identify nutritional supply as one potent parameter that affects the extent of retinopathy in mice with identical birth weights and the same genetic background. Wild-type pups with poor postnatal nutrition and poor weight gain (PWG) exhibit a remarkably prolonged phase of retinopathy compared to medium weight gain or extensive weight gain pups. A high (r2 = 0.83) parabolic association between postnatal weight gain and oxygen-induced retinopathy severity is observed, as is a significantly prolonged phase of proliferative retinopathy in PWG pups (20 days) compared with extensive weight gain pups (6 days). The extended retinopathy is concomitant with prolonged overexpression of retinal vascular endothelial growth factor in PWG pups. Importantly, PWG pups show low serum levels of nonfasting glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 as well as high levels of ghrelin in the early postoxygen-induced retinopathy phase, a combination indicative of poor metabolic supply. These differences translate into visual deficits in adult PWG mice, as demonstrated by impaired bipolar and proximal neuronal function. Together, these results provide evidence for a pathophysiological correlation between poor postnatal nutritional supply, slow weight gain, prolonged retinal vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression, protracted retinopathy, and reduced final visual outcome. PMID:21056995

  2. Postnatal weight gain modifies severity and functional outcome of oxygen-induced proliferative retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Andreas; Chen, Jing; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Seaward, Molly R; Krah, Nathan M; Dennison, Roberta J; Favazza, Tara; Bucher, Felicitas; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Ong, Huy; Hellström, Ann; Chemtob, Sylvain; Akula, James D; Smith, Lois E H

    2010-12-01

    In clinical studies, postnatal weight gain is strongly associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, animal studies are needed to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of how postnatal weight gain affects the severity of ROP. In the present study, we identify nutritional supply as one potent parameter that affects the extent of retinopathy in mice with identical birth weights and the same genetic background. Wild-type pups with poor postnatal nutrition and poor weight gain (PWG) exhibit a remarkably prolonged phase of retinopathy compared to medium weight gain or extensive weight gain pups. A high (r(2) = 0.83) parabolic association between postnatal weight gain and oxygen-induced retinopathy severity is observed, as is a significantly prolonged phase of proliferative retinopathy in PWG pups (20 days) compared with extensive weight gain pups (6 days). The extended retinopathy is concomitant with prolonged overexpression of retinal vascular endothelial growth factor in PWG pups. Importantly, PWG pups show low serum levels of nonfasting glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 as well as high levels of ghrelin in the early postoxygen-induced retinopathy phase, a combination indicative of poor metabolic supply. These differences translate into visual deficits in adult PWG mice, as demonstrated by impaired bipolar and proximal neuronal function. Together, these results provide evidence for a pathophysiological correlation between poor postnatal nutritional supply, slow weight gain, prolonged retinal vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression, protracted retinopathy, and reduced final visual outcome.

  3. Retinopathy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination in an immuno-incompetent girl.

    PubMed

    Schuil, J; van de Putte, E M; Zwaan, C M; Koole, F D; Meire, F M

    1998-01-01

    We describe a 4-year-old girl with subnormal visual acuity due to a bilateral retinopathy. The child had a history of encephalitis following MMR vaccination. Temporary retinopathy associated with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination has been described. Recently an idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia in the child was diagnosed. This cellular immunodeficiency supports our hypothesis of measles retinopathy after vaccination of an immuno-deficient child.

  4. Screening of diabetics for retinopathy by ophthalmic opticians.

    PubMed Central

    Burns-Cox, C J; Hart, J C

    1985-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of blindness in England and Wales in those aged between 30 and 64. Photocoagulation can frequently prevent blindness provided the retinopathy is detected at an appropriate stage but unfortunately the benefits are small if the changes are advanced. Early detection of diabetic retinopathy by regular examination is needed. We have shown that ophthalmic opticians have the skill to detect retinal changes at a treatable stage. Out of 844 eye checks, 80 were reported by ophthalmic opticians to justify referral to an ophthalmologist and 20 of these required photocoagulation treatment. Of a sample of 197 patients rechecked by an ophthalmologist reported by ophthalmic opticians not to justify referral, only one needed treatment. With local agreement this system of detecting retinopathy could be easily applied anywhere in the United Kingdom. No extra personnel or facilities are needed. PMID:3921106

  5. Screening of diabetics for retinopathy by ophthalmic opticians.

    PubMed

    Burns-Cox, C J; Hart, J C

    1985-04-06

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of blindness in England and Wales in those aged between 30 and 64. Photocoagulation can frequently prevent blindness provided the retinopathy is detected at an appropriate stage but unfortunately the benefits are small if the changes are advanced. Early detection of diabetic retinopathy by regular examination is needed. We have shown that ophthalmic opticians have the skill to detect retinal changes at a treatable stage. Out of 844 eye checks, 80 were reported by ophthalmic opticians to justify referral to an ophthalmologist and 20 of these required photocoagulation treatment. Of a sample of 197 patients rechecked by an ophthalmologist reported by ophthalmic opticians not to justify referral, only one needed treatment. With local agreement this system of detecting retinopathy could be easily applied anywhere in the United Kingdom. No extra personnel or facilities are needed.

  6. Genetic susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity: the evidence from clinical and experimental animal studies.

    PubMed

    Holmström, Gerd; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Coster, Douglas J; Williams, Keryn A

    2007-12-01

    Despite advances in management and treatment, retinopathy of prematurity remains a major cause of childhood blindness. Evidence for a genetic basis for susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity is examined, including the influences of sex, ethnicity, and ocular pigmentation. The role of polymorphisms is explored in the genes for vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1, and of mutations in the Norrie disease gene. Insights into the genetic basis of retinopathy of prematurity provided by the animal model of oxygen induced retinopathy are examined. Evidence for a genetic component for susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity is strong, although the molecular identity of the gene or genes involved remains uncertain.

  7. A new imaging technique for retinal vessel oximetry: principles and first clinical results in patients with retinal arterial occlusion and diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, M.; Riemer, T.; Vilser, W.; Gehlert, S.; Schweitzer, D.

    2009-02-01

    The oxygen saturation of blood inside retinal vessels is an essential measure for the estimation of oxygen supply to the tissue as well as its oxygen consumption. In the current approach, the blood oxygenation is measured by a dual-wavelength technique. Using a fundus camera, equipped with a special dual wavelength transmission filter and a color CCD camera, two monochromatic fundus images at 548 nm and 610 nm were recorded simultaneously. The optical densities of retinal vessels for both wavelengths and their ratio, which is known to be proportional to the oxygen saturation, were calculated. From a health control population, mean arterial and venous oxygen saturations were measured of 98+/-10.1% and 65+/-11.7% with reproducibility of 2.52% and 3.25% respectively. In 10 patients with arterial occlusion, a reduction of the arterial oxygen saturation to 78 +/-17% (mean +/- standard deviation, branch arterial occlusion) and 91+/-11% (central arterial occlusion) respectively was found in the occluded vessel. After 5 days on pentoxifilin therapy, the arterial saturation increased to an average of 93+/-12% or 103 +/-6% respectively. In 70 eyes of 42 patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy, an increase of the venous oxygen saturation with the severity of the retinopathy was found (mild nonproliferative retinopathy: 68.4+/-8.2%, moderate non-proliferative retinopathy: 70.5+/-6.8%, severe non-proliferative retinopathy: 72.4+/-7.6%, proliferative retinopathy 75.7+/-8.3%) due to vessel shunting and diabetic changes of the permeability of vessel walls. These first clinical results demonstrate the ability of an accurate measurement of retinal vessel oxygenation with a very simple setup just requiring a special filter in the illumination path of a fundus camera and dedicated software.

  8. Visual functions and disability in diabetic retinopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Kaiti, Raju

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to find correlations between visual functions and visual disabilities in patients with diabetic retinopathy. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 38 visually impaired diabetic retinopathy subjects at the Low Vision Clinic of B.P. Koirala Lions Centre for Ophthalmic Studies, Kathmandu. The subjects underwent assessment of distance and near visual acuity, objective and subjective refraction, contrast sensitivity, color vision, and central and peripheral visual fields. The visual disabilities of each subject in their daily lives were evaluated using a standard questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis between visual functions and visual disabilities index was assessed. The majority of subjects (42.1%) were of the age group 60-70 years. Best corrected visual acuity was found to be 0.73±0.2 in the better eye and 0.93±0.27 in the worse eye, which was significantly different at p=0.002. Visual disability scores were significantly higher for legibility of letters (1.2±0.3) and sentences (1.4±0.4), and least for clothing (0.7±0.3). Visual disability index for legibility of letters and sentences was significantly correlated with near visual acuity and peripheral visual field. Contrast sensitivity was also significantly correlated with the visual disability index, and total scores. Impairment of near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and peripheral visual field correlated significantly with different types of visual disability. Hence, these clinical tests should be an integral part of the visual assessment of diabetic eyes. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of statin use and hypertriglyceridemia with diabetic macular edema in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yoo-Ri; Park, Sung Wook; Choi, Shin-Young; Kim, Seung Woo; Moon, Ka Young; Kim, Jeong Hun; Lee, Kihwang

    2017-01-07

    To investigate the effects of dyslipidemia and statin therapy on progression of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema in patients with type 2 diabetes. The medical records of 110 patients with type 2 diabetes (70 statin users and 40 non-users) were retrospectively reviewed. The two outcome measures were progression of diabetic retinopathy by two or more steps on the early treatment diabetic retinopathy study scale and diabetic macular edema based on optical coherence tomography. Serum lipid profiles were analyzed from 6 months prior to diagnosis of diabetic macular edema. Diabetic retinopathy progressed in 23% of statin users and 18% of non-users (p = 0.506), but diabetic macular edema was present in 23% of statin users and 48% of non-users (p = 0.008). Statins reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with and without diabetic macular edema (p = 0.043 and p = 0.031, respectively). Among statin users, patients with diabetic macular edema had higher levels of triglycerides (p = 0.004) and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.033) than those without diabetic macular edema. Logistic regression analysis showed that statin use significantly lowered the risk of diabetic macular edema [odds ratio (OR): 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.91, p = 0.032]. Hypertriglyceridemia at 6 months prior to development of macular edema was significantly associated with central retinal thickness (OR: 1.52; 95% CI 1.14-2.02, p = 0.005). Lipid lowering therapy with statins protected against the development of diabetic macular edema and progression of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Hypertriglyceridemia could be used as a surrogate marker for diabetic macular edema.

  10. [Buffering capacity of the vitreous body in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity].

    PubMed

    Amkhanitskaia, L I; Sidorenko, E I; Nikolaeva, G V; Kuznetsova, Iu D

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of vitreous body changes in the pathogenesis of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity. The study included 60 children with stage 4-5 retinopathy of prematurity demonstrating either classical or aggressive posterior form of progression. In all cases vitreous samples for laboratory testing were taken during surgery. The study showed that aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity is associated with more significant metabolic changes in comparison with classical form of the disease. The degree of biochemical imbalance of the vitreous appeared directly related to the stage of the disease, which was determined by the type and extent of retinal detachment. Volcano-shaped retinal detachment with intensive exudation within the posterior eye segment is considered the most severe variant of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity is characterized by substantial disturbance of metabolism of the vitreous body, which contributes to exudation and proliferation, thus aggravating the course of the disease and worsening the prognosis.

  11. The relationship of the subtypes of preterm birth with retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Anne M; Wagner, Brandie D; Hodges, Jennifer K; Thevarajah, Tamara S; McCourt, Emily A; Cerda, Ashlee M; Mandava, Naresh; Gibbs, Ronald S; Palestine, Alan G

    2017-09-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is an adverse outcome of preterm birth and is a leading cause of childhood blindness. The relationship between the subtypes of preterm birth with retinopathy of prematurity is understudied. To investigate whether there is a difference in the incidence of type 1 or type 2 retinopathy of prematurity in infants with preterm birth resulting from spontaneous preterm labor, a medical indication of preterm birth, or preterm premature rupture of the membranes. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 827 infants screened for retinopathy of prematurity who were delivered at a single tertiary care center in Colorado. All infants fulfilled the American Academy of Pediatrics 2013 screening criteria for retinopathy of prematurity defined as "infants with a birth weight of ≤1500 g or gestational age of 30 weeks or less (as defined by the attending neonatologist) and selected infants with a birth weight between 1500 and 2000 g or gestational age of >30 weeks with an unstable clinical course, including those requiring cardiorespiratory support and who are believed by their attending pediatrician or neonatologist to be at high risk for retinopathy of prematurity." Two independent reviewers masked to retinopathy of prematurity outcomes determined whether preterm birth resulted from spontaneous preterm labor, medical indication of preterm birth, or preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Discrepancies were resolved by a third reviewer. Data were analyzed with univariate and multivariable logistic regression. In our cohort, the frequency of preterm birth resulting from spontaneous preterm labor, medical indication of preterm birth, or preterm premature rupture of the membranes was 34%, 40%, and 26%, respectively. The mean gestational age (weeks, days) ± SD (range) in the cohort and across the preterm birth subtypes was as follows: entire cohort, 28 weeks, 6 days ± 2 weeks, 3 days (23 weeks, 3 days - 36 weeks, 4 days); spontaneous preterm labor

  12. Teleretinal screening for diabetic retinopathy in six Los Angeles urban safety-net clinics: initial findings.

    PubMed

    Ogunyemi, Omolola; Terrien, Elizabeth; Eccles, Alicia; Patty, Lauren; George, Sheba; Fish, Allison; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Ilapakurthi, Ramarao; Aimiuwu, Otaren; Baker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness in US adults. This paper presents initial results of a teleretinal screening project for diabetic retinopathy involving six Los Angeles safety net clinics. A total of 1,943 patients have been screened for diabetic retinopathy by three ophthalmologist readers, with 416 receiving a recommendation for referral to specialty care. Of the cases recommended for referral, 24 had proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 62 had severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), 60 had moderate NPDR, 19 had mild NPDR, 138 had a non-diabetic condition, such as glaucoma, 63 had clinically significant macular edema without retinopathy and 50 had non-gradable images. Between 3% and 12.2% of retinal images taken at the clinics were assessed by readers as inadequate for any interpretation. The study shows the feasibility and challenges of teleretinal screening for diabetic retinopathy in urban areas facing specialist shortages and an overburdened, under-resourced safety net care-delivery system.

  13. Teleretinal Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy in Six Los Angeles Urban Safety-Net Clinics: Initial Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ogunyemi, Omolola; Terrien, Elizabeth; Eccles, Alicia; Patty, Lauren; George, Sheba; Fish, Allison; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Ilapakurthi, Ramarao; Aimiuwu, Otaren; Baker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness in US adults. This paper presents initial results of a teleretinal screening project for diabetic retinopathy involving six Los Angeles safety net clinics. A total of 1,943 patients have been screened for diabetic retinopathy by three ophthalmologist readers, with 416 receiving a recommendation for referral to specialty care. Of the cases recommended for referral, 24 had proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 62 had severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), 60 had moderate NPDR, 19 had mild NPDR, 138 had a non-diabetic condition, such as glaucoma, 63 had clinically significant macular edema without retinopathy and 50 had non-gradable images. Between 3% and 12.2% of retinal images taken at the clinics were assessed by readers as inadequate for any interpretation. The study shows the feasibility and challenges of teleretinal screening for diabetic retinopathy in urban areas facing specialist shortages and an overburdened, under-resourced safety net care-delivery system. PMID:22195163

  14. Genetic susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity: the evidence from clinical and experimental animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Holmström, Gerd; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Coster, Douglas J; Williams, Keryn A

    2007-01-01

    Despite advances in management and treatment, retinopathy of prematurity remains a major cause of childhood blindness. Evidence for a genetic basis for susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity is examined, including the influences of sex, ethnicity, and ocular pigmentation. The role of polymorphisms is explored in the genes for vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin‐like growth factor‐1, and of mutations in the Norrie disease gene. Insights into the genetic basis of retinopathy of prematurity provided by the animal model of oxygen induced retinopathy are examined. Evidence for a genetic component for susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity is strong, although the molecular identity of the gene or genes involved remains uncertain. PMID:18024814

  15. A Case of Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Originating from the Serous Surface of the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Makihara, Natsuko; Fujita, Ichiro; Soudaf, Hiroo; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Sashikata, Terumasa; Mukohara, Toru; Maeda, Tetsuo

    2015-09-07

    Malignant transformation of endometriosis has been extensively described in the literature. However, extragonadal endometrioid adenocarcinoma, either de novo or arising from malignant transformation of endometriosis, is rare. The present case report describes a patient with endometrioid adenocarcinoma on the serous surface of the small intestine. A 25-year-old female with no history of endometriosis was referred to our hospital with an intrapelvic tumor. An internal examination, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a round mass approximately 80 mm in diameter; however, identification of the affected organ was difficult. Because we could not rule out malignancy based on the non-specific radiologic findings, laparotomy was performed. A mass with ileal adhesions was detected intraoperatively. In addition, the uterus and bilateral adnexa appeared normal. The tumor was resected with part of the ileum. Histopathology confirmed a diagnosis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma originating from the serous surface of the small intestine.

  16. New Ways to Detect Pediatric Sickle Cell Retinopathy: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Daniel A; Green, Nancy S; Bhatia, Monica; Chen, Royce W S

    2017-11-01

    Sickle retinopathy reflects disease-related vascular injury of the eye, which can potentially result in visual loss from vitreous hemorrhage or retinal detachment. Here we review sickle retinopathy among children with sickle cell disease, describe the epidemiology, pediatric risk factors, pathophysiology, ocular findings, and treatment. Newer, more sensitive ophthalmological imaging modalities are available for retinal imaging, including ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography. Optical coherence tomography angiography provides a noninvasive view of retinal vascular layers that could previously not be imaged and can be quantified for comparative or prospective analyses. Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography provides a more comprehensive view of the peripheral retina than traditional imaging techniques. Screening for retinopathy by standard fundoscopic imaging modalities detects a prevalence of approximately 10%. In contrast, these more sensitive methods allow for more sensitive examination that includes the retina perimeter where sickle retinopathy is often first detectable. Use of these new imaging modalities may detect a higher prevalence of early sickle pathology among children than has previously been reported. Earlier detection may help in better understanding the pathogenesis of sickle retinopathy and guide future screening and treatment paradigms.

  17. Adequacy of published screening criteria for retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Taranath, Deepa A; Oh, Dickson D-S; Keane, Miriam C; Fabel, Helen; Marshall, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Criteria for screening preterm infants for retinopathy of prematurity vary around the world. We aimed to analyse the efficacy of alternative screening criteria. We collected retrospective data at a tertiary level neonatal nursery. Our participants were 1007 babies, born between 1997 and 2011, at <32 weeks gestational age or <1500 g birth weight (as recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council in 1996), who had completed follow-up to full retinal vascularization, with defined presence or absence of retinopathy of prematurity. We determined whether disease would be detected using an alternative Australian screening model (gestational age <30 weeks or birth weight <1250 g) or screening criteria utilized in developed countries with similar standards of neonatal care. Detection of retinopathy of prematurity is our main outcome. Using several of the alternative criteria, two neonates with clinically significant retinopathy of prematurity, one of whom required laser treatment to preserve sight, would not have been screened, and their disease may have gone undetected. Use of <30 weeks gestational age or <1500 g birth weight as the criteria would still have screened these infants but would have reduced the number of infants screened by 24.9%. Some commonly utilized international screening criteria for retinopathy of prematurity may risk clinically significant cases being missed and others may screen babies unnecessarily. Alternative criteria should be considered and '<30 weeks gestational age and/or <1500 g birth weight' appears a viable option. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. The Role of Teleophthalmology in the Management of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Salongcay, Recivall P; Silva, Paolo S

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of diabetes as a global epidemic is accompanied by the rise in diabetes‑related retinal complications. Diabetic retinopathy, if left undetected and untreated, can lead to severe visual impairment and affect an individual's productivity and quality of life. Globally, diabetic retinopathy remains one of the leading causes of visual loss in the working‑age population. Teleophthalmology for diabetic retinopathy is an innovative means of retinal evaluation that allows identification of eyes at risk for visual loss, thereby preserving vision and decreasing the overall burden to the health care system. Numerous studies worldwide have found teleophthalmology to be a reliable and cost‑efficient alternative to traditional clinical examinations. It has reduced barriers to access to specialized eye care in both rural and urban communities. In teleophthalmology applications for diabetic retinopathy, it is critical that standardized protocols in image acquisition and evaluation are used to ensure low image ungradable rates and maintain the quality of images taken. Innovative imaging technology such as ultrawide field imaging has the potential to provide significant benefit with integration into teleophthalmology programs. Teleophthalmology programs for diabetic retinopathy rely on a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach with partnerships across specialties and health care professionals to attain wider acceptability and allow evidence‑based eye care to reach a much broader population. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  19. Adenosine receptors and caffeine in retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Zhang, Shuya; Zhou, Rong; Lin, Zhenlang; Cai, Xiaohong; Lin, Jing; Huo, Yuqing; Liu, Xiaoling

    2017-06-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a major cause of childhood blindness in the world and is caused by oxygen-induced damage to the developing retinal vasculature, resulting in hyperoxia-induced vaso-obliteration and subsequent delayed retinal vascularization and hypoxia-induced pathological neovascularization driven by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway in retina. Current anti-VEGF therapy has shown some effective in a clinical trial, but is associated with the unintended effects on delayed eye growth and retinal vasculature development of preterm infants. Notably, cellular responses to hypoxia are characterized by robust increases in extracellular adenosine production and the markedly induced adenosine receptors, which provide a novel target for preferential control of pathological angiogenesis without affecting normal vascular development. Here, we review the experimental evidence in support of adenosine receptor-based therapeutic strategy for ROP, including the aberrant adenosine signaling in oxygen-induced retinopathy and the role of three adenosine receptor subtypes (A 1 R, A 2A R, A 2B R) in development and treatment of ROP using oxygen-induced retinopathy models. The clinical and initial animal evidence that implicate the therapeutic effect of caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) in treatment of ROP are highlighted. Lastly, we discussed the translational potential as well therapeutic advantage of adenosine receptor- and caffeine-based therapy for ROR and possibly other proliferative retinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adenosine receptors and caffeine in retinopathy of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Zhang, Shuya; Zhou, Rong; Lin, Zhenlang; Cai, Xiaohong; Lin, Jing; Huo, Yuqing; Liu, Xiaoling

    2017-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a major cause of childhood blindness in the world and is caused by oxygen-induced damage to the developing retinal vasculature, resulting in hyperoxia-induced vaso-obliteration and subsequent delayed retinal vascularization and hypoxia-induced pathological neovascularization driven by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway in retina. Current anti-VEGF therapy has shown some effective in a clinical trial, but is associated with the unintended effects on delayed eye growth and retinal vasculature development of preterm infants. Notably, cellular responses to hypoxia are characterized by robust increases in extracellular adenosine production and the markedly induced adenosine receptors, which provide a novel target for preferential control of pathological angiogenesis without affecting normal vascular development. Here, we review the experimental evidence in support of adenosine receptor-based therapeutic strategy for ROP, including the aberrant adenosine signaling in oxygen-induced retinopathy and the role of three adenosine receptor subtypes (A1R, A2AR, A2BR) in development and treatment of ROP using oxygen-induced retinopathy models. The clinical and initial animal evidence that implicate the therapeutic effect of caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) in treatment of ROP are highlighted. Lastly, we discussed the translational potential as well therapeutic advantage of adenosine receptor- and caffeine-based therapy for ROR and possibly other proliferative retinopathy. PMID:28088487

  1. The influence of background diabetic retinopathy in the second eye on rates of progression of diabetic retinopathy between 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Peter H; Stratton, Irene M; Histed, Mark; Chave, Steve J; Aldington, Stephen J

    2013-08-01

    The Gloucestershire Diabetic Eye Screening Programme offers annual digital photographic screening for diabetic retinopathy to a countywide population of people with diabetes. This study was designed to investigate progression of diabetic retinopathy in this programme of the English NHS Diabetic Eye Screening Programme. Mydriatic digital retinal photographs of people with diabetes screened on at least 2 occasions between 2005 and 2010 were graded and included in this study if the classification at first screening was no DR (R0), background DR in one (R1a) or both eyes (R1b). Times to detection of referable diabetic retinopathy (RDR) comprising maculopathy (M1), preproliferative (R2) or proliferative retinopathy (R3) were analysed using survival models. Data were available on 19 044 patients, 56% men, age at screening 66 (57-74) years (median, 25th, 75th centile). A total of 8.3% of those with R1a and 28.2% of those with R1b progressed to any RDR, hazard ratios 2.9 [2.5-3.3] and 11.3 [10.0-12.8]. Similarly 7.1% and 0.11% of those with R1a progressed to M1 and R3, hazard ratios 2.7 [2.3-3.2] and 1.6 [0.5-5.0], compared to 21.8% and 1.07% of those with R1b, hazard ratio 9.1 [7.8-10.4] and 15.0 [7.1-31.5]. The risk of progression is significantly higher for those with background DR in both eyes than those with background retinopathy in only one or in neither eye. © 2013 The Authors Acta Ophthalmologica © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Cancer-associated retinopathy with unusual retinal whitening.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joan J; Vrabec, Tamara R; Baldassano, Vincent F

    2015-01-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics and results of ocular and systemic testing in an atypical case of cancer-associated retinopathy. This study is a retrospective case report of a female patient. Rapidly progressive visual loss, vitritis, white, ring- and coin-shaped retinal lesions, and panretinal optical coherence tomography thinning preceded the diagnosis of poorly differentiated cervical carcinoma with neuroendocrine features consistent with small-cell carcinoma. Cancer-associated retinopathy can present with ring- and coin-shaped retinal lesions, vitritis, and panretinal thinning. The presence of intraocular inflammation and retinal and choroidal vasculopathy may herald more rapid visual demise.

  3. Evaluation of VEGF gene polymorphisms and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Garcia-Gutierrez, Maria C; Garcia-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Canton, Virgilio; Velez-Montoya, Raul; Soberon-Ventura, Vidal R; Gonzalez, Victoria; Lechuga, Rodrigo; Garcia-Solis, Pablo; Garcia-Gutierrez, David G; Garcia-Solis, Marco Vinicio; Saenz de Viteri, Manuel; Solis-S, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    To assess if the included vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms rs3025035, rs3025021 and rs2010963 are associated to proliferative retinopathy in a Mexican population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A case-control study was conducted in adult individuals with T2DM associated to proliferative retinopathy or non-proliferative retinopathy from Oct. 2014 to Jun. 2015 from the Retina Department of the Asociation to Prevent Blindness in Mexico. The selected patients were adults with a diagnosis of T2DM ≥5y. All subjects had a comprehensive ocular examination and the classification of the retinopathy severity was made considering the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) standardization protocols. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole fresh blood. All samples were genotyped by qPCR for selected VEGF polymorphisms. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was calculated by comparing Chi-square values between the expected and the observed values for genotype counts. In total 142 individuals were enrolled, 71 individuals with T2DM and associated proliferative retinopathy and 71 individuals with non-proliferative retinopathy. One-sided Fisher's exact test was performed for rs3025021 [OR (95% CI)=0.44(0.08-2.2); P =0.25] and rs2010963 [OR (95% CI)=0.63(0.25-1.6); P =0.23]. The minor allelic frequencies obtained were 26% for rs3025021, 10% for rs3025035 and 61% for rs2010963. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium between the three SNP was assessed, and was as follows: rs3025021 vs rs3025035: D'=1.0, r 2 =0.1043, P ≤0.0001; rs3025021 vs rs2010963: D'=0.442, r 2 =0.0446, P =0.149; rs3025035 vs rs2010963: D'=0.505, r 2 =0.0214, P =0.142. This is the first analysis involving VEGF polymorphisms and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican population. A major finding of the present study is that none of the polymorphisms studied was significantly associated with proliferative retinopathy. Based on these results, we can infer that different populations

  4. Evaluation of VEGF gene polymorphisms and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in Mexican population

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Garcia-Gutierrez, Maria C; Garcia-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Canton, Virgilio; Velez-Montoya, Raul; Soberon-Ventura, Vidal R; Gonzalez, Victoria; Lechuga, Rodrigo; Garcia-Solis, Pablo; Garcia-Gutierrez, David G; Garcia-Solis, Marco Vinicio; Saenz de Viteri, Manuel; Solis-S, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess if the included vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms rs3025035, rs3025021 and rs2010963 are associated to proliferative retinopathy in a Mexican population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS A case-control study was conducted in adult individuals with T2DM associated to proliferative retinopathy or non-proliferative retinopathy from Oct. 2014 to Jun. 2015 from the Retina Department of the Asociation to Prevent Blindness in Mexico. The selected patients were adults with a diagnosis of T2DM ≥5y. All subjects had a comprehensive ocular examination and the classification of the retinopathy severity was made considering the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) standardization protocols. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole fresh blood. All samples were genotyped by qPCR for selected VEGF polymorphisms. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was calculated by comparing Chi-square values between the expected and the observed values for genotype counts. RESULTS In total 142 individuals were enrolled, 71 individuals with T2DM and associated proliferative retinopathy and 71 individuals with non-proliferative retinopathy. One-sided Fisher's exact test was performed for rs3025021 [OR (95% CI)=0.44(0.08-2.2); P=0.25] and rs2010963 [OR (95% CI)=0.63(0.25-1.6); P=0.23]. The minor allelic frequencies obtained were 26% for rs3025021, 10% for rs3025035 and 61% for rs2010963. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium between the three SNP was assessed, and was as follows: rs3025021 vs rs3025035: D'=1.0, r2=0.1043, P≤0.0001; rs3025021 vs rs2010963: D'=0.442, r2=0.0446, P=0.149; rs3025035 vs rs2010963: D'=0.505, r2=0.0214, P=0.142. CONCLUSION This is the first analysis involving VEGF polymorphisms and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican population. A major finding of the present study is that none of the polymorphisms studied was significantly associated with proliferative retinopathy. Based on these results, we can infer that

  5. Ultra-wide-field imaging in diabetic retinopathy; an overview.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Falavarjani, Khalil; Wang, Kang; Khadamy, Joobin; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2016-06-01

    To present an overview on ultra-wide-field imaging in diabetic retinopathy. A comprehensive search of the pubmed database was performed using the search terms of "ultra-wide-field imaging", "ultra-wide-field fluorescein angiography" and "diabetic retinopathy". The relevant original articles were reviewed. New advances in ultra-wide-field imaging allow for precise measurements of the peripheral retinal lesions. A consistent finding amongst these articles was that ultra-wide-field imaging improved detection of peripheral lesion. There was discordance among the studies, however, on the correlation between peripheral diabetic lesions and diabetic macular edema. Visualization of the peripheral retina using ultra-wide-field imaging improves diagnosis and classification of diabetic retinopathy. Additional studies are needed to better define the association of peripheral diabetic lesions with diabetic macular edema.

  6. Association between diabetic retinopathy and subclinical atherosclerosis in China: Results from a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Teng, Xiangyu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ruifeng; Liu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the association of diabetic retinopathy with subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged and elderly Chinese with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional community-based study was performed among 1607 patients aged 40 years or older in Shanghai. Non-mydriatic digital fundus photography examination was used in diabetic retinopathy detection. Presence of elevated carotid intima-media thickness or carotid plaque was defined as subclinical atherosclerosis. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 15.1% in total patients. Patients with diabetic retinopathy were more likely to have elevated carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque and subclinical atherosclerosis than those without diabetic retinopathy (37.9% vs 30.7%, 57.6% vs 49.6% and 64.6% vs 57.1%, respectively). The presence of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with increased odds of subclinical atherosclerosis (odds ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-3.60) after full adjustments. The presence of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetics in China. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The Ovary Is an Alternative Site of Origin for High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Donna M.; Ma, Lang; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2015-01-01

    Although named “ovarian cancer,” it has been unclear whether the cancer actually arises from the ovary, especially for high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), also known as high-grade serous ovarian cancer, the most common and deadliest ovarian cancer. In addition, the tumor suppressor p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in HGSC. However, whether mutated p53 can cause HGSC remains unknown. In this study, we bred a p53 mutation, p53R172H, into conditional Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model duplicating human HGSC, to generate triple-mutant (TKO) mice. Like DKO mice, these TKO mice develop metastatic HGSCs originating from the fallopian tube. Unlike DKO mice, however, even after fallopian tubes are removed in TKO mice, ovaries alone can develop metastatic HGSCs, indicating that a p53 mutation can drive HGSC arising from the ovary. To confirm this, we generated p53R172H-Pten double-mutant mice, one of the genetic control lines for TKO mice. As anticipated, these double-mutant mice also develop metastatic HGSCs from the ovary, verifying the HGSC-forming ability of ovaries with a p53 mutation. Our study therefore shows that ovaries harboring a p53 mutation, as well as fallopian tubes, can be a distinct tissue source of high-grade serous ovarian cancer in mice. PMID:25815421

  8. The ovary is an alternative site of origin for high-grade serous ovarian cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Coffey, Donna M; Ma, Lang; Matzuk, Martin M

    2015-06-01

    Although named "ovarian cancer," it has been unclear whether the cancer actually arises from the ovary, especially for high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), also known as high-grade serous ovarian cancer, the most common and deadliest ovarian cancer. In addition, the tumor suppressor p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in HGSC. However, whether mutated p53 can cause HGSC remains unknown. In this study, we bred a p53 mutation, p53(R172H), into conditional Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model duplicating human HGSC, to generate triple-mutant (TKO) mice. Like DKO mice, these TKO mice develop metastatic HGSCs originating from the fallopian tube. Unlike DKO mice, however, even after fallopian tubes are removed in TKO mice, ovaries alone can develop metastatic HGSCs, indicating that a p53 mutation can drive HGSC arising from the ovary. To confirm this, we generated p53(R172H)-Pten double-mutant mice, one of the genetic control lines for TKO mice. As anticipated, these double-mutant mice also develop metastatic HGSCs from the ovary, verifying the HGSC-forming ability of ovaries with a p53 mutation. Our study therefore shows that ovaries harboring a p53 mutation, as well as fallopian tubes, can be a distinct tissue source of high-grade serous ovarian cancer in mice.

  9. Optimal management for surgically Stage 1 serous cancer of the uterus.

    PubMed

    Elit, L; Kwon, J; Bentley, J; Trim, K; Ackerman, I; Carey, M

    2004-01-01

    To describe the outcomes of patients who have undergone well-conducted surgery and found to have Stage 1 serous uterine cancer. This retrospective cohort study includes women who have been treated for Stage 1 serous cancer of the uterus from 1985 to 2001. Cases were included from the regional cancer centers in Hamilton, London, Sunnybrook Toronto and Cancer Care Manitoba. Forty-three women met the inclusion criteria: Complete surgical staging (n = 27), surgery followed by pelvic radiation therapy (n = 4), surgery followed by whole abdominal radiation therapy (n = 6), surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 6). Patient age or depth of invasion did not influence survival. Progression free interval was 22 months (SD = 14.29). Recurrence rate was highest for adjuvant chemotherapy (66%). Survival was assessed by treatment modality and a statistically significant poorer survival was seen in the adjuvant chemotherapy group (OR 17.5; 95% CI 1.3-227.6). No comment can be made on a superior treatment regimen given the small numbers in each treatment strata. This study supports the findings of others in the literature. In a group of patients where surgical staging shows limited disease (i.e., surgically Stage 1 disease), then surgery alone appears to be adequate treatment.

  10. Computer-Assisted Digital Image Analysis of Plus Disease in Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Pavlina S; VanderVeen, Deborah K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the current state and role of computer-assisted analysis in diagnosis of plus disease in retinopathy of prematurity. Diagnosis and documentation of retinopathy of prematurity are increasingly being supplemented by digital imaging. The incorporation of computer-aided techniques has the potential to add valuable information and standardization regarding the presence of plus disease, an important criterion in deciding the necessity of treatment of vision-threatening retinopathy of prematurity. A review of literature found that several techniques have been published examining the process and role of computer aided analysis of plus disease in retinopathy of prematurity. These techniques use semiautomated image analysis techniques to evaluate retinal vascular dilation and tortuosity, using calculated parameters to evaluate presence or absence of plus disease. These values are then compared with expert consensus. The study concludes that computer-aided image analysis has the potential to use quantitative and objective criteria to act as a supplemental tool in evaluating for plus disease in the setting of retinopathy of prematurity.

  11. Small Foci of Serous Component as a Predictor of Recurrence and Prognosis for Stage IA Endometrial Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Morikazu; Takano, Masashi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Soyama, Hiroaki; Aoyama, Tadashi; Ishibashi, Hiroki; Kato, Kento; Iwahashi, Hideki; Matuura, Hiroko; Yoshikawa, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Ayako; Hirata, Junko; Furuya, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    Most of the endometrial carcinomas are detected in early stages and have a better prognosis; however, predictive factors for recurrence have not been determined. Patients with grade 1 endometrioid carcinoma (EG1) according to the 2014 WHO criteria at FIGO 2009 stage IA that were identified through scanning medical charts were included, and we assessed whether the presence of uterine serous carcinoma (SC) component which comprised less than 5% of the total volume using the ovarian two-tiered grading system could be a recurrent risk factor in these patients. Among 126 cases which met inclusion criteria, 12 cases had SC. SC tumors were divided into 2 groups: SC resembling high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) and SC resembling low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC). Five (3.9%) cases had HGSC and 7 (5.6%) cases had LGSC. Recurrence was observed in 3 of all cases (2.3%): 2 cases with HGSC, and 1 case with LGSC. Regarding several clinicopathological factors, only the presence of SC was associated with recurrence. The sensitivity and specificity to predict recurrence using this system were 100 and 93%, respectively. The identification of SC using the ovarian two-tiered grading system could be an accurate predictor of recurrence in stage IA EG1. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Alan D.; Philip, Sam; Goatman, Keith A.; Williams, Graeme J.; Olson, John A.; Sharp, Peter F.

    2007-12-01

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy.

  13. Fruit intake and incident diabetic retinopathy with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shiro; Yoshimura, Yukio; Kawasaki, Ryo; Kamada, Chiemi; Tanaka, Sachiko; Horikawa, Chika; Ohashi, Yasuo; Araki, Atsushi; Ito, Hideki; Akanuma, Yasuo; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Sone, Hirohito

    2013-03-01

    Antioxidants and dietary fiber are postulated to have preventive effects on diabetic retinopathy, but evidence is lacking. We investigated this association in a cohort with type 2 diabetes 40-70 years of age with hemoglobin (Hb)A1C ≥6.5%, originally part of the Japan Diabetes Complications Study. After excluding people who did not respond to a dietary survey and patients with diabetic retinopathy or a major ocular disease at baseline, we analyzed 978 patients. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire based on food groups and 24-hour dietary records. Primary outcome was incident diabetic retinopathy determined using international severity scales. Mean fruit intake in quartiles ranged from 23 to 253 g/day, with increasing trends across quartiles of fruit intake for vitamin C, vitamin E, carotene, retinol equivalent, dietary fiber, potassium, and sodium. Mean energy intake ranged from 1644 to 1863 kcal/day, and fat intake was approximately 25%. HbA1C, body mass index, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure were well controlled. During the 8-year follow-up, the numbers of incident cases of diabetic retinopathy from the first through the fourth quartiles of fruit intake were 83, 74, 69, and 59. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of fruit intake compared with the first quartile were 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.46-0.92), 0.59 (0.41-0.85), and 0.48 (0.32-0.71) (test for trend, P < 0.01). There was no substantial effect modification by age, sex, HbA1C, diabetes duration, overweight, smoking, and hypertension. Risk for diabetic retinopathy declined with increased intake of fruits and vegetables, vitamin C, and carotene. Increased fruit intake in ranges commonly consumed was associated with reduced incident diabetic retinopathy among patients adhering to a low-fat energy-restricted diet.

  14. Role of VEGF Inhibition in the Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Eldweik, Luai; Mantagos, Iason S

    2016-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a potentially blinding disease characterized by retinal neovascularization, which eventually can lead to tractional retinal detachment. Improvements have been made regarding the management of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) since it was described in the Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity study. A more appropriate time for therapeutic intervention was defined by the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity (ETROP) trial. Advances in screening strategies with the use of digital imaging systems are now available. All of this and the use of laser photocoagulation and vitreoretinal surgery have contributed to significant increases in favorable outcomes and decreases in child blindness secondary to ROP. Recently the use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors has been introduced to the armamentarium for the treatment of ROP. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate the role of VEGF inhibition in the treatment of ROP.

  15. Automatic non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy screening system based on color fundus image.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhitao; Zhang, Xinpeng; Geng, Lei; Zhang, Fang; Wu, Jun; Tong, Jun; Ogunbona, Philip O; Shan, Chunyan

    2017-10-26

    Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the early stage of diabetic retinopathy. Automatic detection of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is significant for clinical diagnosis, early screening and course progression of patients. This paper introduces the design and implementation of an automatic system for screening non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy based on color fundus images. Firstly, the fundus structures, including blood vessels, optic disc and macula, are extracted and located, respectively. In particular, a new optic disc localization method using parabolic fitting is proposed based on the physiological structure characteristics of optic disc and blood vessels. Then, early lesions, such as microaneurysms, hemorrhages and hard exudates, are detected based on their respective characteristics. An equivalent optical model simulating human eyes is designed based on the anatomical structure of retina. Main structures and early lesions are reconstructed in the 3D space for better visualization. Finally, the severity of each image is evaluated based on the international criteria of diabetic retinopathy. The system has been tested on public databases and images from hospitals. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system achieves high accuracy for main structures and early lesions detection. The results of severity classification for non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy are also accurate and suitable. Our system can assist ophthalmologists for clinical diagnosis, automatic screening and course progression of patients.

  16. Awareness of diabetic retinopathy among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Bakkar, May M; Haddad, Mera F; Gammoh, Yazan S

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the level of awareness of diabetic retinopathy among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus is considered an important factor for early diagnosis and management of diabetic retinopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate awareness of diabetic retinopathy among a sample of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Jordan. The study period was from August to December 2015. The sample was selected randomly from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the general population in three main cities of Jordan (Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa). A questionnaire was distributed to 237 participants with diabetes to assess their awareness and knowledge of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy. The questionnaire included questions to assess awareness about diabetic retinopathy, sources of knowledge about the disease, and patients' knowledge and compliance with available treatments and routine eye examinations. Patients were also questioned about the barriers that may interfere with early eye examination. A total of 237 participants (107 [45.1%] females and 130 [54.9%] males) with type 2 diabetes were interviewed. Mean age±SD for the study population was 54.51±10.28 years. Of the study population, 88.2% were aware that diabetes can affect the eyes and 81% reported that diabetic retinopathy can lead to blindness. Higher level of patients' awareness of diabetic retinopathy was related to higher level of formal education ( p <0.05). The main source of information about diabetic retinopathy as reported by 47.3% patients was general practitioners. Patients' compliance with diabetes management was relatively high; however, their compliance with routine retinal assessment was poor, with only a total of 29.5% of participants having had an eye examination in the previous year. Awareness of the nature and consequences of diabetic retinopathy among patients with diabetes in Jordan is relatively high. However, patients' motivation to undergo retinal assessment was poor in the sample

  17. Detachment of retinal pigment epithelium in retinopathy due to malaria.

    PubMed

    Rocha Cabrera, P; Rodríguez Talavera, I; Losada Castillo, M J; Alemán Valls, R; Lorenzo Morales, J

    2018-05-25

    A 45-year-old man was diagnosed with malaria with neurological involvement. Two months later he referred metamorphopsia in the left eye. Malarial retinopathy was observed in the fundus examination. The Optic Coherence Tomography (OCT) of the macula showed parafoveal pigment epithelium detachment (DEP). Specific anti-malarial treatment was initiated, with the disappearance of the retinopathy being observed. Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the retinopathy in neurological malaria. A funduscopic examination and macular OCT should be performed in these patients, as it is associated with a higher mortality when there is a retinal involvement. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Imaging Retinal Vascular Changes in the Mouse Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, João M.; Davies, Michael H.; Choi, Dongseok; Lauer, Andreas K.; Appukuttan, Binoy; Bailey, Steven T.; Rahman, Hassan T.; Payne, John F.; Stempel, Andrew J.; Mohs, Kathleen; Powers, Michael R.; Yeh, Steven; Smith, Justine R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Oxygen-induced retinopathy in the mouse is the standard experimental model of retinopathy of prematurity. Assessment of the pathology involves in vitro analysis of retinal vaso-obliteration and retinal neovascularization. The authors studied the clinical features of oxygen-induced retinopathy in vivo using topical endoscopy fundus imaging (TEFI), in comparison to standard investigations, and evaluated a system for grading these features. Methods Postnatal day (P)7 mice were exposed to 75% oxygen for five days to induce retinopathy or maintained in room air as controls. Retinal vascular competence was graded against standard photographs by three masked graders. Retinal photographs were obtained at predetermined ages using TEFI. Postmortem, retinal vaso-obliteration was measured in whole mounts with labeled vasculature, and retinal neovascularization was quantified in hematoxylin- and eosin-stained ocular cross sections. Results Fundus photography by TEFI was possible from P15, when retinal vascular incompetence, including dilatation and tortuosity, was significant in mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy in comparison to controls. Vascular incompetence peaked in severity at P17 and persisted through P25. Comparison with in vitro analyses indicated that vascular changes were most severe after retinal avascularity had begun to decrease in area, and coincident with the maximum of retinal neovascularization. A weighted Fleiss-Cohen kappa indicated good intra- and interobserver agreement for a 5-point grading system. Conclusions Topical endoscopy fundus imaging demonstrates retinal vascular incompetence in mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy. The technique complements standard postmortem analysis for following the course of the model. Translational Relevance Topical endoscopy fundus imaging has application in the evaluation of novel biologic drugs for retinopathy of prematurity. PMID:24049705

  19. APOBEC3B upregulation and genomic mutation patterns in serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Brandon; Hart, Steven N.; Burns, Michael B.; Carpenter, Michael A.; Temiz, Nuri A.; Rathore, Anurag; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Nikas, Jason B.; Law, Emily K.; Brown, William L.; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yuji; Maurer, Matthew J.; Oberg, Ann L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Shridhar, Viji; Bell, Debra A.; April, Craig; Bentley, David; Bibikova, Marina; Cheetham, R. Keira; Fan, Jian-Bing; Grocock, Russell; Humphray, Sean; Kingsbury, Zoya; Peden, John; Chien, Jeremy; Swisher, Elizabeth M.; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Goode, Ellen L.; Sicotte, Hugues; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Harris, Reuben S.

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous disease. The driving forces behind this variability are unknown. Here we report wide variation in expression of the DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B, with elevated expression in a majority of ovarian cancer cell lines (3 standard deviations above the mean of normal ovarian surface epithelial cells) and high grade primary ovarian cancers. APOBEC3B is active in the nucleus of several ovarian cancer cell lines and elicits a biochemical preference for deamination of cytosines in 5′TC dinucleotides. Importantly, examination of whole-genome sequence from 16 ovarian cancers reveals that APOBEC3B expression correlates with total mutation load as well as elevated levels of transversion mutations. In particular, high APOBEC3B expression correlates with C-to-A and C-to-G transversion mutations within 5′TC dinucleotide motifs in early-stage high grade serous ovarian cancer genomes, suggesting that APOBEC3B-catalyzed genomic uracil lesions are further processed by downstream DNA ‘repair’ enzymes including error-prone translesion polymerases. These data identify a potential role for APOBEC3B in serous ovarian cancer genomic instability. PMID:24154874

  20. Noninvasive Retinal Markers in Diabetic Retinopathy: Advancing from Bench towards Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Torp, Thomas Lee; Lundberg, Kristian; Soelberg, Kerstin; Vergmann, Anna Stage; Poulsen, Christina Døfler; Frydkjaer-Olsen, Ulrik; Broe, Rebecca; Rasmussen, Malin Lundberg; Wied, Jimmi; Lind, Majbrit; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Peto, Tunde

    2017-01-01

    The retinal vascular system is the only part of the human body available for direct, in vivo inspection. Noninvasive retinal markers are important to identity patients in risk of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Studies have correlated structural features like retinal vascular caliber and fractals with micro- and macrovascular dysfunction in diabetes. Likewise, the retinal metabolism can be evaluated by retinal oximetry, and higher retinal venular oxygen saturation has been demonstrated in patients with diabetic retinopathy. So far, most studies have been cross-sectional, but these can only disclose associations and are not able to separate cause from effect or to establish the predictive value of retinal vascular dysfunction with respect to long-term complications. Likewise, retinal markers have not been investigated as markers of treatment outcome in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. The Department of Ophthalmology at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, has a strong tradition of studying the retinal microvasculature in diabetic retinopathy. In the present paper, we demonstrate the importance of the retinal vasculature not only as predictors of long-term microvasculopathy but also as markers of treatment outcome in sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in well-established population-based cohorts of patients with diabetes. PMID:28491870

  1. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in tamoxifen retinopathy--a case report.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sandhya Narayanan; Anantharaman, Giridhar; Gopalakrishnan, Mahesh; Vyas, Jyothiprakash

    2013-01-01

    To report spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in a case of typical tamoxifen retinopathy. In this observational case report, a patient with tamoxifen retinopathy was imaged with spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus auto fluorescence. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed numerous hyperreflective spots within the retina, mainly in the inner retinal layers in both the eyes. The external limiting membrane, the Inner Segment-Outer Segment junction, and the photoreceptors were not discernable at the fovea in the right eye. In the left eye, there was foveal atrophy with total loss of photoreceptors. The autofluorescent images showed macular hypofluorescence with foveal hyperfluorescence. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated abnormalities in the outer retinal layers in tamoxifen retinopathy. There were also characteristic alterations in the autofluorescence pattern at the macula in tamoxifen retinopathy.

  2. Coexistence of BRAF V600E and TERT Promoter Mutations in Low-grade Serous Carcinoma of Ovary Recurring as Carcinosarcoma in a Lymph Node: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Tavallaee, Mahkam; Steiner, David F; Zehnder, James L; Folkins, Ann K; Karam, Amer K

    2018-04-03

    Low-grade serous carcinomas only rarely coexist with or progress to high-grade tumors. We present a case of low-grade serous carcinoma with transformation to carcinosarcoma on recurrence in the lymph node. Identical BRAF V600E and telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations were identified in both the original and recurrent tumor. Given that telomerase reverse transcriptase promotor mutations are thought to play a role in progression of other tumor types, the function of telomerase reverse transcriptase mutations in BRAF mutated low-grade serous carcinoma deserves investigation.

  3. Developmental outcomes in Malawian children with retinopathy-positive cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Michael J; Gladstone, Melissa J; Vokhiwa, Maclean; Birbeck, Gretchen L; Magen, Jed G; Page, Connie; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Kauye, Felix; Taylor, Terrie E

    2011-03-01

    To assess children with retinopathy-positive cerebral malaria (CM) for neurocognitive sequelae. Participants were selected from an ongoing exposure-control study. Eighty-three Malawian children averaging 4.4 years of age and diagnosed with retinopathy-positive CM were compared to 95 controls. Each child was classified as delayed or not using age-based norms for the Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool (MDAT) for developmental delay on the total scale and for the domains of gross motor, fine motor, language and social skills. Groups were also compared on the Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) (1.5-5 years). Children with retinopathy-positive CM were delayed, relative to the comparison group, on MDAT total development (P = 0.028; odds ratio or OR = 2.13), with the greatest effects on language development (P = 0.003; OR = 4.93). The two groups did not differ significantly on the Achenbach CBCL internalizing and externalizing symptoms total scores. Stepwise regression demonstrated that coma duration, seizures while in hospital, platelet count and lactate level on admission were predictive of assessment outcomes for the children with retinopathy-positive CM. Children who suffer retinopathy-positive CM at preschool age are at greater risk of developmental delay, particularly with respect to language development. This confirms previous retrospective study findings with school-age children evaluated years after acute illness. The MDAT and the Achenbach CBCL proved sensitive to clinical indicators of severity of malarial illness. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. The O-Linked Glycome and Blood Group Antigens ABO on Mucin-Type Glycoproteins in Mucinous and Serous Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vitiazeva, Varvara; Kattla, Jayesh J.; Flowers, Sarah A.; Lindén, Sara K.; Premaratne, Pushpa; Weijdegård, Birgitta; Sundfeldt, Karin; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins where the glycosylation has been shown to play an important role in cancer. Normal epithelial ovarian cells do not express secreted mucins, but their abnormal expression has previously been described in epithelial ovarian cancer and may relate to tumor formation and progression. The cyst fluids were shown to be a rich source for acidic glycoproteins. The study of these proteins can potentially lead to the identification of more effective biomarkers for ovarian cancer. Methods In this study, we analyzed the expression of the MUC5AC and the O-glycosylation of acidic glycoproteins secreted into ovarian cyst fluids. The samples were obtained from patients with serous and mucinous ovarian tumors of different stages (benign, borderline, malignant) and grades. The O-linked oligosaccharides were released and analyzed by negative-ion graphitized carbon Liquid Chromatography (LC) coupled to Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The LC-ESI-MSn of the oligosaccharides from ovarian cyst fluids displayed differences in expression of fucose containing structures such as blood group ABO antigens and Lewis-type epitopes. Results The obtained data showed that serous and mucinous benign adenomas, mucinous low malignant potential carcinomas (LMPs, borderline) and mucinous low-grade carcinomas have a high level of blood groups and Lewis type epitopes. In contrast, this type of fucosylated structures were low abundant in the high-grade mucinous carcinomas or in serous carcinomas. In addition, the ovarian tumors that showed a high level of expression of blood group antigens also revealed a strong reactivity towards the MUC5AC antibody. To visualize the differences between serous and mucinous ovarian tumors based on the O-glycosylation, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using mass spectrometry average compositions (MSAC). Conclusion Mucinous benign and LMPs along with mucinous low-grade carcinomas

  5. Visual functions and disability in diabetic retinopathy patients

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Kaiti, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was undertaken to find correlations between visual functions and visual disabilities in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out among 38 visually impaired diabetic retinopathy subjects at the Low Vision Clinic of B.P. Koirala Lions Centre for Ophthalmic Studies, Kathmandu. The subjects underwent assessment of distance and near visual acuity, objective and subjective refraction, contrast sensitivity, color vision, and central and peripheral visual fields. The visual disabilities of each subject in their daily lives were evaluated using a standard questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis between visual functions and visual disabilities index was assessed. Result The majority of subjects (42.1%) were of the age group 60–70 years. Best corrected visual acuity was found to be 0.73 ± 0.2 in the better eye and 0.93 ± 0.27 in the worse eye, which was significantly different at p = 0.002. Visual disability scores were significantly higher for legibility of letters (1.2 ± 0.3) and sentences (1.4 ± 0.4), and least for clothing (0.7 ± 0.3). Visual disability index for legibility of letters and sentences was significantly correlated with near visual acuity and peripheral visual field. Contrast sensitivity was also significantly correlated with the visual disability index, and total scores. Conclusion Impairment of near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and peripheral visual field correlated significantly with different types of visual disability. Hence, these clinical tests should be an integral part of the visual assessment of diabetic eyes. PMID:24646899

  6. Early visual cortical structural changes in diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fábio S; Pereira, João M S; Reis, Aldina; Sanches, Mafalda; Duarte, João V; Gomes, Leonor; Moreno, Carolina; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    It is known that diabetic patients have changes in cortical morphometry as compared to controls, but it remains to be clarified whether the visual cortex is a disease target, even when diabetes complications such as retinopathy are absent. Therefore, we compared type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy with control subjects using magnetic resonance imaging to assess visual cortical changes when retinal damage is not yet present. We performed T1-weighted imaging in 24 type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy and 27 age- and gender-matched controls to compare gray matter changes in the occipital cortex between groups using voxel based morphometry. Patients without diabetic retinopathy showed reduced gray matter volume in the occipital lobe when compared with controls. Reduced gray matter volume in the occipital cortex was found in diabetic patients without retinal damage. We conclude that cortical early visual processing regions may be affected in diabetic patients even before retinal damage occurs.

  7. Open-angle glaucoma in patients with diabetic retinopathy at the Puerto Rico Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Cruz-lñigo, Yousef; Izquierdo, Natalio J; García, Omar; Pérez, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    The association of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with diabetes mellitus remains controversial. We report on the frequency of open-angle glaucoma in patients having diabetic retinopathy in a population of the Puerto Rico Medical Center. A cross-sectional study of 1,442 patients was done. Only the chart of patients 40 years-of-age and older, with a diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy and/or open-angle glaucoma were included. Descriptive analysis was done. Unadjusted and gender-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to estimate risk of developing open-angle glaucoma in patients with diabetic retinopathy for each subsequent decade. 1,040 patients were diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy from July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2009. Also, 402 patients were diagnosed with open-angle glaucoma from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2009. Of the 1,040 patients with diabetic retinopathy, 64 patients (6.15%) also had OAG. According to our gender-adjusted logistic regression analysis the estimated risk of developing open-angle glaucoma for patients 40 years-of-age with diabetic retinopathy increased for each subsequent decade until the seventh decade, odds ratio = 5.07 (95% confidence interval: 1.62-15.86). Thereafter, it decreased, odds ratio = 2.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.36-11.82). Our findings suggest that Puerto Rico patients between 40 to 79 years of age with diabetic retinopathy have an increased risk of developing open-angle glaucoma with each subsequent decade. Screening for open-angle glaucoma in patients with diabetic retinopathy is of utmost importance in the aging Puerto Rico population to prevent blindness.

  8. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screening-detected diabetes mellitus: results from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS).

    PubMed

    Ponto, Katharina A; Koenig, Jochem; Peto, Tunde; Lamparter, Julia; Raum, Philipp; Wild, Philipp S; Lackner, Karl J; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus may experience an asymptomatic period of hyperglycaemia, and complications may already be present at the time of diagnosis. We aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients with newly diagnosed (screening-detected) type 2 diabetes. The Gutenberg Health Study is a population-based study with 15,010 participants aged between 35 and 74 years. We determined the weighted prevalence of diabetic retinopathy by assessing fundus photographs. Screening-detected type 2 diabetes was defined as an HbA1c concentration of 6.5% (47.5 mmol/mol) or more, no medical diagnosis of diabetes and no intake of insulin or oral glucose-lowering agents. Of 14,948 participants, 1377 (9.2%) had diabetes mellitus. Of these, 347 (25.2%) had newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes detected by the screening. Overall, the weighted prevalence of screening-detected type 2 diabetes was 2.1%. Fundus photos were evaluable for 285 (82.1%) participants with newly diagnosed diabetes. The weighted prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screening-detected type 2 diabetes was 13.0%; 12% of participants had a mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 0.6% had a moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy was proliferative in 0.3%. No cases of severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy or diabetic maculopathy were found. Thirty (14.9%) of 202 and six (7.2%) of 83 individuals with and without concomitant arterial hypertension, respectively, had diabetic retinopathy (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.06, 7.14). Visual acuity did not differ between individuals with and without diabetic retinopathy . In this large European study, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screening-detected type 2 diabetes was 13%. Only a very small proportion of participants with detected diabetic retinopathy needed treatment.

  9. [Diabetic retinopathy complications--12-year retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Ignat, Florica; Davidescu, Livia

    2002-01-01

    It is analyzed, on a retrospective study on 12 years, the incidence of diabetus melitus cases, hospitalized in the Ophthalmologic Clinic from Craiova with special mention to the frequency of the diabetic retinopathy, of it's complications and in an accordance to other general diseases, especially cardiovascular's, which contributes to the aggravation of the diabetic ocular in juries evolution. The study underlines the high incidence of the new founded cases with diabetus melitus in complicated diabetes retinopathy stage; the high frequency of ocular complications is explained, according to our statistic facts and through an insufficient treatment, sometimes incorrect and many other cases total neglected by the patients.

  10. Effects of medical therapies on retinopathy progression in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chew, Emily Y; Ambrosius, Walter T; Davis, Matthew D; Danis, Ronald P; Gangaputra, Sapna; Greven, Craig M; Hubbard, Larry; Esser, Barbara A; Lovato, James F; Perdue, Letitia H; Goff, David C; Cushman, William C; Ginsberg, Henry N; Elam, Marshall B; Genuth, Saul; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Schubart, Ulrich; Fine, Lawrence J

    2010-07-15

    We investigated whether intensive glycemic control, combination therapy for dyslipidemia, and intensive blood-pressure control would limit the progression of diabetic retinopathy in persons with type 2 diabetes. Previous data suggest that these systemic factors may be important in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy. In a randomized trial, we enrolled 10,251 participants with type 2 diabetes who were at high risk for cardiovascular disease to receive either intensive or standard treatment for glycemia (target glycated hemoglobin level, <6.0% or 7.0 to 7.9%, respectively) and also for dyslipidemia (160 mg daily of fenofibrate plus simvastatin or placebo plus simvastatin) or for systolic blood-pressure control (target, <120 or <140 mm Hg). A subgroup of 2856 participants was evaluated for the effects of these interventions at 4 years on the progression of diabetic retinopathy by 3 or more steps on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Severity Scale (as assessed from seven-field stereoscopic fundus photographs, with 17 possible steps and a higher number of steps indicating greater severity) or the development of diabetic retinopathy necessitating laser photocoagulation or vitrectomy. At 4 years, the rates of progression of diabetic retinopathy were 7.3% with intensive glycemia treatment, versus 10.4% with standard therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51 to 0.87; P=0.003); 6.5% with fenofibrate for intensive dyslipidemia therapy, versus 10.2% with placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.87; P=0.006); and 10.4% with intensive blood-pressure therapy, versus 8.8% with standard therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.79; P=0.29). Intensive glycemic control and intensive combination treatment of dyslipidemia, but not intensive blood-pressure control, reduced the rate of progression of diabetic retinopathy. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; Clinical

  11. Maternal Iron Deficiency Anemia as a Risk Factor for the Development of Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Dai, Alper I; Demiryürek, Seniz; Aksoy, Sefika Nur; Perk, Peren; Saygili, Oguzhan; Güngör, Kivanc

    2015-08-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a proliferative vascular disease affecting premature newborns and occurs during vessel development and maturation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maternal iron deficiency anemia as possible risk factors associated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity among premature or very low birth weight infants. In this study, mothers of 254 infants with retinopathy of prematurity were analyzed retrospectively, and their laboratory results of medical records during pregnancy were reviewed for possible iron deficiency anemia. In a cohort of 254 mothers of premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity, 187 (73.6%) had iron deficiency, while the remaining 67 (26.4%) mothers had no deficiency. Babies born to mothers with iron deficiency anemia with markedly decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, serum iron, and ferritin levels were more likely to develop retinopathy of prematurity. Our results are the first to suggest that maternal iron deficiency is a risk factor for the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Our data suggest that maternal iron supplementation therapy during pregnancy might lower the risk of retinopathy of prematurity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Frequency and Clinical Characteristics of Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy in Korean Patients with Rheumatologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and clinical characteristics of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy in Korean patients with rheumatologic diseases. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 310 patients taking HCQ. Ophthalmic examinations included spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), automated visual field test, and fundus autofluorescence. The severity of retinopathy was categorized as early, moderate, or severe, and the location was categorized as parafoveal, pericentral, or mixed pattern. Among 310 patients, 9 patients (2.9%) were diagnosed as HCQ retinopathy. Among the patients with HCQ use ≥ 5 years (n = 174), the frequency was 5.2%. Only 1 (11.1%) of the 9 patients was symptomatic. The mean daily dose per kilogram of real body weight of the 9 patients was 5.6 mg, and only 3 had used 6.5 mg or more. Four of the 9 patients had severe HCQ retinopathy. Six of the 9 patients showed pericentral or mixed pattern of retinal damage. Consequently, the frequency of HCQ retinopathy in Korean patients was not low, especially when administered at a high cumulative dose and for a long duration. Screening of HCQ retinopathy by the recommended guidelines that include SD-OCT seems useful and should be done to detect retinal damage earlier in patients with chronic exposure to HCQ. PMID:28145658

  13. Frequency and Clinical Characteristics of Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy in Korean Patients with Rheumatologic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Eo, Doo Ri; Lee, Min Gyu; Ham, Don Il; Kang, Se Woong; Lee, Jaejoon; Cha, Hoon Suk; Koh, Eunmi; Kim, Sang Jin

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and clinical characteristics of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy in Korean patients with rheumatologic diseases. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 310 patients taking HCQ. Ophthalmic examinations included spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), automated visual field test, and fundus autofluorescence. The severity of retinopathy was categorized as early, moderate, or severe, and the location was categorized as parafoveal, pericentral, or mixed pattern. Among 310 patients, 9 patients (2.9%) were diagnosed as HCQ retinopathy. Among the patients with HCQ use ≥ 5 years (n = 174), the frequency was 5.2%. Only 1 (11.1%) of the 9 patients was symptomatic. The mean daily dose per kilogram of real body weight of the 9 patients was 5.6 mg, and only 3 had used 6.5 mg or more. Four of the 9 patients had severe HCQ retinopathy. Six of the 9 patients showed pericentral or mixed pattern of retinal damage. Consequently, the frequency of HCQ retinopathy in Korean patients was not low, especially when administered at a high cumulative dose and for a long duration. Screening of HCQ retinopathy by the recommended guidelines that include SD-OCT seems useful and should be done to detect retinal damage earlier in patients with chronic exposure to HCQ.

  14. Serous goblet cells: the protein secreting cells in the oral cavity of a catfish, Rita rita (Hamilton, 1822) (Bagridae, Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Yashpal, Madhu; Mittal, Ajay Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Serous goblet cells in the oral epithelium of Rita rita are characterized by the presence of distinct eosinophilic granules occupying large parts of the cytoplasm. In R. rita, a range of histochemical results reveal that these cells are involved in proteinaceous secretions, and thus likely contribute to various functions analogous to those of mammalian saliva. The secretions of these cells have also been associated with specific functions and are discussed in relation to their physiological importance with special reference to their roles in lubrication, alteration in viscosity, various functions of mucus such as handling, maneuvering and driving of food items toward the esophagus, maintaining taste sensitivity and protection of the oral epithelium. In addition, the serous goblet cells may also be considered as the primary defensive cell of the oral epithelium of R. rita. The results significantly add to very limited set of literature on the serous goblet cells and provide noteworthy information on the mucous secretions in the oral cavity of fish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Vitrectomy and gas-fluid exchange for the treatment of serous macular detachment due to optic disc pit: long-term evaluation].

    PubMed

    Moreira Neto, Carlos Augusto; Moreira Junior, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate 5 patients with serous macular detachment due to optic disc pit that were submitted to pars plana vitrectomy and were followed for at least 7 years. Patients were submitted to pars plana vitrectomy, posterior hyaloid removal, autologous serum injection and gas-fluid exchange, without laser photocoagulation, and were evaluated pre and post-operatively with visual acuity and Amsler grid testing, retinography, and recently, with autofluorescence imaging and high resolution OCT. All 5 eyes improved visual acuity significantly following the surgical procedure maintaining good vision throughout the follow-up period. Mean pre-operative visual acuity was 20/400 and final visual acuity was 20/27 with a mean follow-up time of 13.6 years. No recurrences of serous detachments were observed. OCT examinations demonstrated an attached retina up to the margin of the pit. Serous macular detachments due to optic disc pits were adequately treated with pars plana vitrectomy and gas fluid exchange, without the need for laser photocoagulation, maintaining excellent visual results for a long period of time.

  16. Uterine Serous Carcinomas Frequently Metastasize to the Fallopian Tube and Can Mimic Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kommoss, Friedrich; Faruqi, Asma; Gilks, C Blake; Lamshang Leen, Sarah; Singh, Naveena; Wilkinson, Nafisa; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the frequency, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics of tubal involvement in uterine serous carcinoma (USC) and aimed to clarify the relationship between "serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC)" and USC in these cases. Cases of USC with complete tubal examination were prospectively collected and reviewed for the presence of tubal involvement. Immunohistochemical analysis for p53 and WT1 was performed on the endometrial and tubal tumor in cases with tubal involvement. Of 161 USC cases (pure USC or a component of a mixed carcinoma or a carcinosarcoma), 32 (20%) showed tubal involvement (unilateral: n=19; bilateral: n=13). The uterine tumors in cases with tubal involvement showed a trend toward increased likelihood of deep myometrial and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) compared with those without tubal involvement. The tubal fimbriae were involved in 15/32 cases. Tubal involvement was mucosal in 30/32 cases, mural in 14/32, serosal in 5/32, invasive in 22/32, and there was LVI in the tube in 13/32. STIC-like features were seen in 17/32 cases (7 as the only pattern of involvement, 9 with associated invasive carcinoma, and 5 with LVI). Immunostaining showed complete concordance of p53 and WT1 between the endometrial and tubal tumors in 26/32 cases, the majority being WT1 negative or only focally positive (19/26), and all exhibiting mutation-type p53 staining. On the basis of the histologic and immunohistochemical features, the tubal tumor was considered to represent metastatic USC in 26/32 cases, most likely metastatic USC in 2/32 cases, an independent tubal primary tumor in 3/32 cases, and to be of uncertain origin in the 1 remaining case. STIC-like lesions were considered to represent metastatic USC in 12/17 cases, most likely metastatic USC in 2/17 cases, an independent tubal primary in 2/17 cases, and of uncertain origin in the 1 remaining case. Tubal involvement, including STIC-like lesions, is seen in one fifth of USC when

  17. MAINTENANCE OF GOOD VISUAL ACUITY IN BEST DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC BILATERAL SEROUS MACULAR DETACHMENT.

    PubMed

    Gattoussi, Sarra; Boon, Camiel J F; Freund, K Bailey

    2017-08-10

    We describe the long-term follow-up of a patient with multifocal Best disease with chronic bilateral serous macular detachment and unusual peripheral findings associated with a novel mutation in the BEST1 gene. Case report. A 59-year-old white woman was referred for an evaluation of her macular findings in 1992. There was a family history of Best disease in the patient's mother and a male sibling. Her medical history was unremarkable. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in her right eye and 20/25 in her left eye. The anterior segment examination was normal in both eyes. Funduscopic examination showed multifocal hyperautofluorescent vitelliform deposits with areas of subretinal fibrosis in both eyes. An electrooculogram showed Arden ratios of 1.32 in the right eye and 1.97 in the left eye. Ultra-widefield color and fundus autofluorescence imaging showed degenerative retinal changes in areas throughout the entire fundus in both eyes. Optical coherence tomography, including annual eye-tracked scans from 2005 to 2016, showed persistent bilateral serous macular detachments. Despite chronic foveal detachment, visual acuity was 20/25 in her right eye and 20/40 in her left eye, 24 years after initial presentation. Genetic testing showed a novel c.238T>A (p.Phe80Ile) missense mutation in the BEST1 gene. Some patients with Best disease associated with chronic serous macular detachment can maintain good visual acuity over an extended follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Best disease associated with this mutation in the BEST1 gene.

  18. Influence of retinopathy on the achromatic and chromatic vision of patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Luminance contrast sensitivity and colour vision are considered to have great predictive value in the evaluation of type 2 diabetic retinopathy. However, these two visual characteristics have seldom been investigated in the same group of patients. In the present study we measured contrast sensitivity and colour vision in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes and correlated the results with estimates of common metabolic markers for the disease. A subgroup of the patients had no clinical signs of retinopathy. Methods The vision of 27 patients (n = 50 eyes) with type 2 diabetes, with retinopathy (n = 20 eyes), or without retinopathy (n = 30 eyes) were evaluated using two psychophysical tests, the Farnsworth–Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100), and measurements of the luminance contrast sensitivity at 11 spatial frequencies. The results were compared with measurements obtained from an age-matched control group (n = 32), and were correlated with the level of glycated haemoglobin, glycaemic level, and time of disease onset. Signs of retinopathy were identified during the ophthalmological examinations. Results Contrast sensitivity and colour vision impairments were present at different levels in diabetes patients. Eyes with retinopathy showed more severe vision loss than eyes without retinopathy. The FM 100 test was more sensitive for separation of patients from controls. Colour vision loss had no colour axes preference. The contrast sensitivity test appeared to have some advantage in differentiating patients with retinopathy from patients without retinopathy. Conclusions Both methods can be useful to follow the visual function of diabetic patients and should be used together to discriminate patients from controls, as well as to identify early signs of retinal damage. PMID:25174264

  19. The role of diabetic retinopathy in blindness and poor sight in Split-Dalmatia County 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Galetović, Davor; Olujić, Ivana; Znaor, Ljubo; Bućan, Kajo; Karlica, Dobrila; Lesin, Mladen; Susac, Tihomir

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the fifth leading cause of blindness in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the number of blind persons in the Split-Dalmatia County in the 2000-2010 period and how many of them are blind due to diabetic retinopathy. Records of 160 members of the Association of the Blind in the Split-Dalmatia County, enrolled from 2000 to 2010, were retrospectively analyzed. The leading causes of blindness were diabetic retinopathy (25.6%), glaucoma (13.1%), retinal dystrophy (16.2%), and age related macular degeneration (11.8%). The annual incidence of blindness was 8.4/100,000 inhabitants. The largest number of the blind were found in the 70-80 (21.2%) to > 80 (24.3%) age group. Diabetic retinopathy was the cause of blindness in 24 (15%) men and 17 (10.6%) women. The annual incidence of diabetic retinopathy was 2.16 per 100,000. No case of blindness due to diabetic retinopathy was diagnosed in patients younger than 30 years of age, while the highest prevalence was found in the 70-80 age group (34%). Proliferative diabetic retinopathy was the cause of blindness in 92.7% and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy in 7.3% of cases. Study results show that diabetic retinopathy remains the leading cause of blindness. Early identification of high-risk patients is the key factor in prevention and timely detection of ophthalmoscopic changes, thus enabling effective and duly treatment.

  20. Spatial distribution of early red lesions is a risk factor for development of vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ometto, Giovanni; Assheton, Phil; Calivá, Francesco; Chudzik, Piotr; Al-Diri, Bashir; Hunter, Andrew; Bek, Toke

    2017-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is characterised by morphological lesions related to disturbances in retinal blood flow. It has previously been shown that the early development of retinal lesions temporal to the fovea may predict the development of treatment-requiring diabetic maculopathy. The aim of this study was to map accurately the area where lesions could predict progression to vision-threatening retinopathy. The predictive value of the location of the earliest red lesions representing haemorrhages and/or microaneurysms was studied by comparing their occurrence in a group of individuals later developing vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy with that in a group matched with respect to diabetes type, age, sex and age of onset of diabetes mellitus who did not develop vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy during a similar observation period. The probability of progression to vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy was higher in a circular area temporal to the fovea, and the occurrence of the first lesions in this area was predictive of the development of vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy. The calculated peak value showed that the risk of progression was 39.5% higher than the average. There was no significant difference in the early distribution of lesions in participants later developing diabetic maculopathy or proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The location of early red lesions in diabetic retinopathy is predictive of whether or not individuals will later develop vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy. This evidence should be incorporated into risk models used to recommend control intervals in screening programmes for diabetic retinopathy.

  1. Down-regulation of HECTD3 by HER2 inhibition makes serous ovarian cancer cells sensitive to platinum treatment.

    PubMed

    Shu, Tong; Li, Yi; Wu, Xiaowei; Li, Bin; Liu, Zhihua

    2017-12-28

    Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy is a major cause of treatment failure in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and predicts a poor prognosis. Previously, we found that HECTD3 confers cancer cell resistance to apoptosis. However, the significance of HECTD3 expression in ovarian cancer and its regulatory mechanisms were unknown. Here, we found that HECTD3 depletion promotes carboplatin-induced apoptosis in both an ovarian cancer cell model and a xenograft mouse model. Moreover, high HECTD3 expression is significantly associated with poor platinum response and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. We further demonstrated that HER2 can up-regulate HECTD3 expression through activating STAT3. Furthermore, HER2 inhibitors, such as lapatinib, down-regulate HECTD3 expression and thus promote the chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to carboplatin. Lapatinib combined with carboplatin also significantly inhibits serous ovarian carcinoma growth compared with each drug alone in a xenograft mouse model. HECTD3 may be considered a promising molecular predictor of platinum chemosensitivity and prognosis for serous ovarian cancer. Through decreasing HECTD3, lapatinib possesses significantly increased anti-tumor activity when combined with carboplatin compared with each agent alone, which provides an optional therapeutic regimen for serous ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Metastatic serous carcinoma presenting as inflammatory carcinoma over the breast-Report of two cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Panse, Gauri; Bossuyt, Veerle; Ko, Christine J

    2018-03-01

    Non-mammary metastases involving breast are rare and most commonly involve the breast parenchyma. Infrequently, metastasis from an extramammary primary site presents as inflammatory carcinoma over the breast. Diagnosis of such lesions can be challenging, especially in patients with coexisting primary breast carcinoma. Few such cases have been described in literature; however, none of the previously reported cases had a prior history of primary breast carcinoma. We present 2 patients with history of breast carcinoma and serous carcinoma of ovarian/peritoneal origin that presented with inflammatory carcinoma over the breast. Biopsies from breast tissue showed atypical cells in the dermis forming cords and papillary structures. Histopathologic differential diagnosis included infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast origin and metastatic serous carcinoma. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumor cells were positive for markers of ovarian origin such as PAX-8 and CA-125 and negative for breast markers such as GATA-3, thus supporting the diagnosis. In summary, we describe the unusual presentation of metastatic serous carcinoma as inflammatory carcinoma over breast and discuss the diagnostic challenges in patients with coexisting primary breast and ovarian malignancies. We also review the morphologic features of tumors of breast and ovarian origin and the immunohistochemical stains to differentiate these 2 entities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Rethinking ovarian cancer II: reducing mortality from high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bowtell, David D.; Böhm, Steffen; Ahmed, Ahmed A.; Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Bast, Robert C.; Beral, Valerie; Berek, Jonathan S.; Birrer, Michael J.; Blagden, Sarah; Bookman, Michael A.; Brenton, James; Chiappinelli, Katherine B.; Martins, Filipe Correia; Coukos, George; Drapkin, Ronny; Edmondson, Richard; Fotopoulou, Christina; Gabra, Hani; Galon, Jérôme; Gourley, Charlie; Heong, Valerie; Huntsman, David G.; Iwanicki, Marcin; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kaye, Allyson; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A.; Lu, Karen H.; McNeish, Iain A.; Menon, Usha; Narod, Steve A.; Nelson, Brad H.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Pharoah, Paul; Powell, Daniel J.; Ramos, Pilar; Romero, Iris L.; Scott, Clare L.; Sood, Anil K.; Stronach, Euan A.; Balkwill, Frances R.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) accounts for 70-80% of ovarian cancer deaths, and overall survival has not changed significantly for several decades. In this Opinion article, we outline a set of research priorities that we believe will reduce incidence and improve outcomes for women with this disease. This ‘roadmap’ for HGSOC was determined after extensive discussions at an Ovarian Cancer Action meeting in January 2015. PMID:26493647

  4. Prevention of Ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinoma by Elucidating its Early Changes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    We will determine the early molecular changes in STIC and their biological significance in developing high-grade serous carcinoma. marker selection...and sample preparation will begin in the next coming months. Project 2 We will evaluate whether the presence of a STIC is associated with different...clinical manifestations and/or outcome compare to those patients in whom a STIC was not identified. Molecular profiling will be initiated after quality

  5. Neuroprotection as a Therapeutic Target for Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Cristina; Dal Monte, Massimo; Simó, Rafael; Casini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a multifactorial progressive disease of the retina and a leading cause of vision loss. DR has long been regarded as a vascular disorder, although neuronal death and visual impairment appear before vascular lesions, suggesting an important role played by neurodegeneration in DR and the appropriateness of neuroprotective strategies. Upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the main target of current therapies, is likely to be one of the first responses to retinal hyperglycemic stress and VEGF may represent an important survival factor in early phases of DR. Of central importance for clinical trials is the detection of retinal neurodegeneration in the clinical setting, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography seems the most indicated technique. Many substances have been tested in animal studies for their neuroprotective properties and for possible use in humans. Perhaps, the most intriguing perspective is the use of endogenous neuroprotective substances or nutraceuticals. Together, the data point to the central role of neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of DR and indicate neuroprotection as an effective strategy for treating this disease. However, clinical trials to determine not only the effectiveness and safety but also the compliance of a noninvasive route of drug administration are needed.

  6. Neuroprotection as a Therapeutic Target for Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Cristina; Simó, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a multifactorial progressive disease of the retina and a leading cause of vision loss. DR has long been regarded as a vascular disorder, although neuronal death and visual impairment appear before vascular lesions, suggesting an important role played by neurodegeneration in DR and the appropriateness of neuroprotective strategies. Upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the main target of current therapies, is likely to be one of the first responses to retinal hyperglycemic stress and VEGF may represent an important survival factor in early phases of DR. Of central importance for clinical trials is the detection of retinal neurodegeneration in the clinical setting, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography seems the most indicated technique. Many substances have been tested in animal studies for their neuroprotective properties and for possible use in humans. Perhaps, the most intriguing perspective is the use of endogenous neuroprotective substances or nutraceuticals. Together, the data point to the central role of neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of DR and indicate neuroprotection as an effective strategy for treating this disease. However, clinical trials to determine not only the effectiveness and safety but also the compliance of a noninvasive route of drug administration are needed. PMID:27123463

  7. Advances in understanding and management of retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth

    The understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity have changed in the 70 years since the original description of retrolental fibroplasia associated with high oxygenation. It is now recognized that retinopathy of prematurity differs in appearance worldwide and as ever smaller and younger premature infants survive. New methods are being evaluated to image the retina, diagnose severe retinopathy of prematurity, and determine windows of time for treatment to save eyes and improve visual and neural outcomes. New treatments to promote physiologic retinal vascular development, vascular repair, and inhibit vasoproliferation by regulating proteins involved in vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, or erythropoietin signaling. Reducing excessive oxidative/nitrosative stress and understanding progenitor cells and neurovascular and glial vascular interactions are being studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relation between fasting glucose and retinopathy for diagnosis of diabetes: three population-based cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tien Y; Liew, Gerald; Tapp, Robyn J; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    The WHO and American Diabetes Association criteria for diagnosing diabetes mellitus assume the presence of a glycaemic threshold with high sensitivity for identifying retinopathy. However, this assumption is based on data from three previous studies that had important limitations in detecting retinopathy. We aimed to provide updated data for the relation between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and retinopathy, and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of current FPG thresholds in identifying both prevalent and incident retinopathy. We examined the data from three cross-sectional adult populations: those in the Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES, Australia, n=3162), the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab, Australia, n=2182), and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA, USA, n=6079). Retinopathy was diagnosed from multiple retinal photographs of each eye, and graded according to the modified Airlie House Classification system. Plasma glucose concentrations were measured from fasting venous blood samples. The overall prevalence of retinopathy was 11.5% in BMES (95% CI 10.4-12.6%), 9.6% in AusDiab (8.4-10.9), and 15.8% in MESA (14.9-16.7). However, we found inconsistent evidence of a uniform glycaemic threshold for prevalent and incident retinopathy, with analyses suggesting a continuous relation. The widely used diabetes FPG cutoff of 7.0 mmol/L or higher had sensitivity less than 40% (range 14.8-39.1) for detecting retinopathy, with specificity between 80.8% and 95.8%. The area under receiver operating characteristic curves for FPG and retinopathy was low and ranged from 0.56 to 0.61. We saw no evidence of a clear and consistent glycaemic threshold for the presence or incidence of retinopathy across different populations. The current FPG cutoff of 7.0 mmol/L used to diagnose diabetes did not accurately identify people with and without retinopathy. These findings suggest that the criteria for diagnosing diabetes could need reassessment.

  9. Visual impairment and blindness in type 2 diabetics: Ife-Ijesa diabetic retinopathy study.

    PubMed

    Onakpoya, O H; Kolawole, B A; Adeoye, A O; Adegbehingbe, B O; Laoye, O

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes and blindness are important health issues globally; we determined the prevalence of blindness, diabetic retinopathy, and other eye diseases in Nigerian-type 2 diabetics. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on consenting type 2 diabetic patients who had scheduled comprehensive eye examination including dilated funduscopy with +78DS. Visual status was graded using the WHO criteria. Approval from Institutional Ethics Committee was obtained. Primary outcome measures were the prevalence and causes of blindness as well as prevalence of diabetic retinopathy. Secondary outcome measures were the presence of other eye diseases. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Two hundred and sixty-six eyes of 133 type 2 diabetic patients aged 22-89 years were studied; 69 (51.9 %) were males while 64 (48.1 %) were females. Five (3.8 %) patients were blind while 27 (20.3 %) were visually impaired. Cataract was the leading cause of blindness (60 %) and visual impairment was found in 59.3 %. Diabetic retinopathy was present in 37 (27.8 %) diabetic patients of which 5 (3.8 %) were proliferative. Diabetic macular edema was present in 31 (23.3 %) patients. Severe visual impairment and blindness were commoner in those with diabetic retinopathy. Refractive error 67 (25.2 %), cataract 63 (23.7 %), and chronic glaucoma 44 (16.5 %) were the most prevalent non-diabetic retinopathy eye diseases. High prevalence of blindness, diabetic retinopathy, and other diseases are seen in type 2 diabetics. Health education, early diagnosis as well as treatment of diabetic retinopathy and other diseases will largely alleviate these ocular morbidities.

  10. Lack of knowledge of glycosylated hemoglobin in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiqi; Tikellis, Gabriella; Wong, Nathan; Wong, Tien Yin; Wang, Jie Jin

    2008-07-01

    We surveyed 220 patients with diabetic retinopathy attending a tertiary eye hospital in Australia, and found that knowledge of HbA(1c), and the proportion achieving target level of <7%, remained low in patients with diabetic retinopathy. These data re-emphasize the gap between clinical guidelines and actual management of patients with diabetes.

  11. Presence of chronic diabetic foot ulcers is associated with more frequent and more advanced retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Sellman, A; Katzman, P; Andreasson, S; Löndahl, M

    2018-05-23

    To clarify the frequency and severity of diabetic retinopathy in a group of people with Type 2 diabetes and chronic diabetic foot ulcers, and to compare visual acuity, levels of retinopathy and clinical significant macular oedema with a matched control group of people with Type 2 diabetes without a history of chronic diabetic foot ulcers. Visual acuity and fundus imaging were evaluated in 90 white people with at least 3 months' duration of full-thickness diabetic foot ulcers below the ankle and the results compared with those in 180 white people with Type 2 diabetes without a history of chronic diabetic foot ulcers (control group). Controls were matched for age, sex and duration of diabetes. Despite similar age and diabetes duration, severe non-proliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy was present in 41% of the people in the diabetic foot ulcer group as compared to 15% in the control group (P<0.001). Only 6% in the diabetic foot ulcer group was without any diabetic retinopathy as compared to 34% among controls. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy was more common in the diabetic foot ulcer group (31% vs 8%; P<0.001), but time-to-proliferative diabetic retinopathy did not differ between groups. Clinically significant macular oedema was more frequently present, and the diabetic foot ulcer group exhibited significantly worse results in best and worst eye visual acuity testing. In this northern European setting almost all people with Type 2 diabetes and chronic diabetic foot ulcers had diabetic retinopathy. Almost one-third had proliferative diabetic retinopathy as compared to <10% in our matched control group. More advanced diabetic retinopathy was linked to worse visual acuity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and outcomes of laser treatment of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Gunn, David J; Cartwright, David W; Gole, Glen A

    2014-07-01

    To describe outcomes in a cohort of extremely premature infants treated for aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity by diode laser panretinal photocoagulation. Retrospective study. Fifteen eyes in eight infants. A review was carried out on infants between 23 and 25.6 weeks gestational age admitted to The Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital neonatal intensive care unit between 1992 and 2009. Success of treatment, visual and refractive outcomes. Five hundred fifty-four infants were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit, 373 survived till screening, and 304 had retinopathy of prematurity. Sixty-six infants required treatment, and eight of these had aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (2.5% of all infants with retinopathy of prematurity). Mean gestational age was 24.2 weeks, mean birthweight was 634 g, and treatment occurred at mean 34.1 weeks post-menstrual age. The mean total number of burns per eye was 2967. Five of 15 treated eyes required retreatment. Two patients subsequently died of unrelated causes. Regression occurred in 9 of 11 remaining eyes; one eye progressed to stage 4b and another to stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity. Vitrectomy was performed in two eyes. Five eyes had 6/12 vision, one had 3/60, and three had no perception of light. Of the remaining two eyes, one had good fixation and the other had poor fixation. Despite good structural outcomes, visual outcomes for conventional laser treatment of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity are poor. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. Visual acuity at 10 years in Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity (CRYO-ROP) study eyes: effect of retinal residua of retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Velma; Quinn, Graham E; Summers, C Gail; Hardy, Robert J; Tung, Betty

    2006-02-01

    To describe recognition (letter) acuity at age 10 years in eyes with and without retinal residua of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Presence and severity of ROP residua were documented by a study ophthalmologist. Masked testers measured monocular recognition visual acuity (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study) when the children were 10 years old. Two hundred forty-seven of 255 surviving Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity (CRYO-ROP) randomized trial patients participated. A reference group of 102 of 104 Philadelphia-based CRYO-ROP study participants who did not develop ROP was also tested. More severe retinal residua were associated with worse visual acuity, regardless of whether retinal ablation was performed to treat the severe acute-phase ROP. However, within each ROP residua category, there was a wide range of visual acuity results. This is the first report of the relation between visual acuity (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study charts) and structural abnormalities related to ROP in a large group of eyes that developed threshold ROP in the perinatal period. Visual deficits are greater in eyes with more severe retinal residua than in eyes with mild or no residua. However, severity of ROP residua does not predict the visual acuity of an individual eye because within a single residua category, acuity may range from near normal to blind.

  14. Proteomic analysis of plasma proteins in diabetic retinopathy patients by two dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-Tof-MS.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Vidhya; Purushothaman, Parthiban; Bhaskar, Anusha

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a highly specific vascular complication of diabetes mellitus and progresses from mild non-proliferative abnormalities characterized by increased vascular permeability to moderate and severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy characterized by the growth of blood vessels on the retina. The aim of the study was to identify the differentially expressed proteins in diabetic retinopathy using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Blood sample was drawn from subjects with diabetes mellitus (without retinopathy) who served as controls and patients with diabetic retinopathy in tubes containing EDTA as anticoagulant. Albumin and immunoglobulin IgG collectively removed to enrich proteins of lower abundance. 2de was carried out to see if there are any differentially expressed proteins. Approximately 48 and 61 spots were identified in control and diabetic retinopathy respectively, of which three protein spots RBP1 (retinol-binding protein 1), NUD10 (Diphosphoinositol polyphosphohydrolase 3 alpha), NGB (neuroglobin) were down regulated and HBG2 (hemoglobin) and BY55 (CD 160 antigen) were upregulated in diabetic retinopathy. These five protein spots were excised and were subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion, and their identities were determined by ultraflex MALDI-TOF-MS. We report a comprehensive patient-based plasma proteomic approach to the identification of potential biomarkers for diabetic retinopathy screening and detection. We identified 5 different proteins that were differentially expressed in the plasma of control diabetic patients (without retinopathy). Among these five proteins the expression of neuroglobin (NGB) protein varied significantly and may be a potential biomarker in diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Features of retinopathy of prematurity in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Ahmad Zeeshan; Tahir, Muhammad Younis; Ayub, Muhammad Hammad; Mirza, Khurram Azam

    2015-02-01

    To study the demographic and clinical features of Retinopathy of Prematurity in urban Punjab. The cross-sectional study was performed at Hameed Latif Hospital, Lahore, from April 2010 to October 2013 and comprised neonates born with birth weight less than 2000 g, gestational age less than 37 weeks, or those who were considered high risk for Retinopathy of Prematurity. Variables recorded included history, birth weight, gestational age, oxygen supplementation, development of Retinopathy of Prematurity, and laser treatment. Data was analysed using SPSS 17. There were 285 neonates in the study with a mean birth weight of 1280.34 ± 350.43 g and mean gestational age being 29.38 ± 3.14 weeks. Overall, 167 (58.6%) received supplemental oxygen, 86(30.2%) were anaemic and 44 (15.4%) received blood transfusion. Besides, 47 (16.5%) premature babies were product of multiple gestation, 34 (11.9%) were having respiratory distress, 25 (8.8%) had sepsis and received intravenous antibiotics, 70(24.6%) developed Retinopathy of Prematurity, and 22 (7.7%) developed threshold disease and received laser treatment at mean gestational age of 32.11 ± 2.53 weeks. Screening is key to preventing childhood blindness caused by Retinopathy of Prematurity. Prematurity, low birth weight and supplemental oxygen therapy are significant risk factors for the condition.

  16. Plasma E-selectin levels can play a role in the development of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Kasza, Márta; Meleg, J; Vardai, J; Nagy, B; Szalai, E; Damjanovich, J; Csutak, A; Ujhelyi, B; Nagy, V

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness. There are several risk factors, such as the duration of diabetes or glycemic control of the patient; however, several biochemical factors also alter the process. Our aim was to investigate the role of soluble E-selectin in the formation of diabetic retinopathy. Fifty-seven patients (37 female and 20 male, aged 61.71 ± 12.31 years) and 14 healthy control subjects (ten female and four male, aged 63.06 ± 10.46 years) were enrolled in the study. We measured the soluble E-selectin level in the plasma of patients by ELISA. All patients underwent careful ophthalmological examination, including ophthalmoscopy and color fundus photography, while diabetic retinopathy grading was performed in line with the 2012 classification of the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO). The soluble E-selectin level was significantly higher in patients with diabetes compared to controls (32.95 ng/ml vs. 26.55 ng/ml, p = 0.03). Dividing patients into groups by the presence of retinopathy, the E-selectin level was also significantly higher in the retinopathy group (p < 0.05). When we examined diabetic patients by the severity of retinopathy (groups A, B, and C, by the guidelines of the AAO), however, we did not find any significant difference in soluble E-selectin levels, although it tended to be higher in group B. An elevated E-selectin level can play a role in the development of diabetic retinopathy, but it does not seem to alter disease severity. However, glycemic control and the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors may also alter the level of E-selectin that might play a role in the prevention of diabetic retinopathy.

  17. Ultrawide-field Fluorescein Angiography for Evaluation of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Mingui; Lee, Mee Yon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the advantages of ultrawide-field fluorescein angiography (FA) over the standard fundus examination in the evaluation of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods Ultrawide-field FAs were obtained in 118 eyes of 59 diabetic patients; 11 eyes with no DR, 71 eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 36 eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), diagnosed by the standard method. The presence of peripheral abnormal lesions beyond the standard seven fields was examined. Results Ultrawide-field FA images demonstrated peripheral microaneurysms in six (54.5%) of 11 eyes with no DR and all eyes with moderate to severe NPDR and PDR. Peripheral retinal neovascularizations were detected in three (4.2%) of 71 eyes with NPDR and in 13 (36.1%) of 36 eyes with PDR. Peripheral vascular nonperfusion and vascular leakage were found in two-thirds of eyes with severe NPDR and PDR. Conclusions Ultrawide-field FA demonstrates peripheral lesions beyond standard fields, which can allow early detection and a close evaluation of DR. PMID:23204797

  18. Purtscher's retinopathy that occurred 6 months before acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashish G; Kazim, Nadia A; Eliott, Dean; Houghton, Odette; Abrams, Gary W

    2006-01-01

    To report Purtscher's retinopathy in a patient with chronic pancreatitis 6 months before the development of fulminant acute pancreatitis. Observational case report. Review of clinical chart, photographs, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. A 45-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse with a 3-day history of decreased vision in both eyes was examined. Diffuse retinal whitening and intraretinal hemorrhages that were consistent with Purtscher's retinopathy were present in both eyes. Serum amylase and lipase levels were normal. Six months later, he experienced intractable abdominal pain. Serum amylase and lipase levels were elevated markedly. Abdominal computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography confirmed acute pancreatitis, with evidence of coexisting chronic pancreatitis. His funduscopic examination after the development of acute pancreatitis was improved, with almost complete resolution of retinal whitening and hemorrhages. Visual acuity remained poor because of retinal ischemia. Purtscher's retinopathy can be associated with chronic pancreatitis and can precede the development of fulminant acute pancreatitis.

  19. The Diabetic Retinopathy Barometer Study: Global perspectives on access to and experiences of diabetic retinopathy screening and treatment.

    PubMed

    Cavan, D; Makaroff, L; da Rocha Fernandes, J; Sylvanowicz, M; Ackland, P; Conlon, J; Chaney, D; Malhi, A; Barratt, J

    2017-07-01

    To assess the level of awareness, prevention and treatment of Diabetic Eye Disease (DED) comprising Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and Diabetic Macula Edema (DME) retinopathy among adults with diabetes and health professionals. The Diabetic Retinopathy Barometer Study consisted of a qualitative study, which consisted of semi-structured interviews, and a quantitative study using online surveys for adults with diabetes and for health professionals. A total of 4340 adults with diabetes and 2329 health professionals participated in the surveys. Diabetic eye disease (DED) without macular edema (DME) was reported by 19.5% of adults with diabetes and a further 7.6% reported that they had DME. Although 94% of adults with diabetes saw a health care professional for their diabetes, only 79% had ever had an eye examination for DED, and 23% had not had an eye examination in the last year. Moreover, 65% of the ophthalmologists surveyed reported that most patients presented when visual problems had already occurred. Overall, 62% of people with DED had received treatment. Of these, 74% had laser therapy, 29% surgery and 24% anti-VEGF therapy. Strategic investment is required to enhance patient education and professional training on the importance of regular eye examinations; and in providing accessible DR screening programmes and proactive treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a Deep Learning Algorithm for Automatic Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Raju, Manoj; Pagidimarri, Venkatesh; Barreto, Ryan; Kadam, Amrit; Kasivajjala, Vamsichandra; Aswath, Arun

    2017-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the deep learning application in classifying the stage of diabetic retinopathy and detecting the laterality of the eye using funduscopic images. Diabetic retinopathy is a chronic, progressive, sight-threatening disease of the retinal blood vessels. Ophthalmologists diagnose diabetic retinopathy through early funduscopic screening. Normally, there is a time delay in reporting and intervention, apart from the financial cost and risk of blindness associated with it. Using a convolutional neural network based approach for automatic diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy, we trained the prediction network on the publicly available Kaggle dataset. Approximately 35,000 images were used to train the network, which observed a sensitivity of 80.28% and a specificity of 92.29% on the validation dataset of ~53,000 images. Using 8,810 images, the network was trained for detecting the laterality of the eye and observed an accuracy of 93.28% on the validation set of 8,816 images.

  1. Driver mutations in TP53 are ubiquitous in high grade serous carcinoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ahmed Ashour; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Temple, Jillian; Lynch, Andy G; Riad, Mohamed; Sharma, Raghwa; Stewart, Colin; Fereday, Sian; Caldas, Carlos; Defazio, Anna; Bowtell, David; Brenton, James D

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have tested the association between TP53 mutations in ovarian cancer and prognosis but these have been consistently confounded by limitations in study design, methodology, and/or heterogeneity in the sample cohort. High-grade serous (HGS) carcinoma is the most clinically important histological subtype of ovarian cancer. As these tumours may arise from the ovary, Fallopian tube or peritoneum, they are collectively referred to as high-grade pelvic serous carcinoma (HGPSC). To identify the true prevalence of TP53 mutations in HGPSC, we sequenced exons 2-11 and intron-exon boundaries in tumour DNA from 145 patients. HGPSC cases were defined as having histological grade 2 or 3 and FIGO stage III or IV. Surprisingly, pathogenic TP53 mutations were identified in 96.7% (n = 119/123) of HGPSC cases. Molecular and pathological review of mutation-negative cases showed evidence of p53 dysfunction associated with copy number gain of MDM2 or MDM4, or indicated the exclusion of samples as being low-grade serous tumours or carcinoma of uncertain primary site. Overall, p53 dysfunction rate approached 100% of confirmed HGPSCs. No association between TP53 mutation and progression-free or overall survival was found. From this first comprehensive mapping of TP53 mutation rate in a homogeneous group of HGPSC patients, we conclude that mutant TP53 is a driver mutation in the pathogenesis of HGPSC cancers. Because TP53 mutation is almost invariably present in HGPSC, it is not of substantial prognostic or predictive significance. Copyright (c) 2010 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Wide-Field Megahertz OCT Imaging of Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Reznicek, Lukas; Kolb, Jan P; Klein, Thomas; Mohler, Kathrin J; Wieser, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert; Kernt, Marcus; Märtz, Josef; Neubauer, Aljoscha S

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of wide-field Megahertz (MHz) OCT imaging in patients with diabetic retinopathy. A consecutive series of 15 eyes of 15 patients with diagnosed diabetic retinopathy were included. All patients underwent Megahertz OCT imaging, a close clinical examination, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and funduscopic evaluation. To acquire densely sampled, wide-field volumetric datasets, an ophthalmic 1050 nm OCT prototype system based on a Fourier-domain mode-locked (FDML) laser source with 1.68 MHz A-scan rate was employed. RESULTS. We were able to obtain OCT volume scans from all included 15 patients. Acquisition time was 1.8 seconds. Obtained volume datasets consisted of 2088 × 1044 A-scans of 60° of view. Thus, reconstructed en face images had a resolution of 34.8 pixels per degree in x-axis and 17.4 pixels per degree. Due to the densely sampled OCT volume dataset, postprocessed customized cross-sectional B-frames through pathologic changes such as an individual microaneurysm or a retinal neovascularization could be imaged. Wide-field Megahertz OCT is feasible to successfully image patients with diabetic retinopathy at high scanning rates and a wide angle of view, providing information in all three axes. The Megahertz OCT is a useful tool to screen diabetic patients for diabetic retinopathy.

  3. MALARIAL RETINOPATHY: A NEWLY ESTABLISHED DIAGNOSTIC SIGN IN SEVERE MALARIA

    PubMed Central

    BEARE, NICHOLAS A. V.; TAYLOR, TERRIE E.; HARDING, SIMON P.; LEWALLEN, SUSAN; MOLYNEUX, MALCOLM E.

    2008-01-01

    Severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in Africa, leading to a failure to treat other life-threatening illnesses. In malaria-endemic areas, parasitemia does not ensure a diagnosis of severe malaria because parasitemia can be incidental to other concurrent disease. The detection of malarial retinopathy is a candidate diagnostic test for cerebral malaria. Malarial retinopathy consists of a set of retinal abnormalities that is unique to severe malaria and common in children with cerebral malaria. Its presence and severity are related to risk of death and length of coma in survivors. A large, prospective autopsy study of children dying with cerebral malaria in Malawi found that malarial retinopathy was better than any other clinical or laboratory feature in distinguishing malarial from non-malarial coma. However, visualization has to date relied on specialist examination techniques. Further studies are planned to evaluate the usefulness of funduscopy by general clinicians in a variety of settings across Africa. Studies of the retina and retinal blood vessels provide an unparalleled opportunity to visualize an infected microvasculature and its effect on neural tissue in vivo. This report reviews current knowledge of malarial retinopathy, including its use as a diagnostic test in the comatose child, and its value as a tool for research into the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria. PMID:17123967

  4. Diabetic retinopathy and blockade of the renin-angiotensin system: new data from the DIRECT study programme.

    PubMed

    Wright, A D; Dodson, P M

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis and medical management of diabetic retinopathy is reviewed. The importance of good control of blood glucose and blood pressure remain key elements in the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy, and a number of specific metabolic pathways have been identified that may be useful additional targets for therapeutic intervention. Trial data, however, aimed specifically to answer the questions of optimum medical management are limited, so the DIRECT study of renin-angiotensin blockade using oral candesartan 32 mg daily is a welcome addition to our knowledge. This arose from the promising improvement of retinopathy outcomes in the EUCLID study of lisinopril in type I diabetes. In DIRECT, 5 years of candesartan treatment in type I diabetes reduced the incidence of retinopathy by two or more steps (EDTRS) in severity by 18% (P=0.0508) and, in a post hoc analysis, reduced the incidence of retinopathy by three-step progression by 35% (P=0.034). In type I diabetes patients there was no effect on progression of established retinopathy. In contrast, in type II diabetes, 5 years of candesartan treatment resulted in 34% regression of retinopathy (P=0.009). Importantly, an overall significant change towards less-severe retinopathy was noted in both type I and II diabetes (Pretinopathy, to prevent the problem in type I diabetes and to treat the early stages in type II diabetes.

  5. Sex differences in risk factors for retinopathy in non-diabetic men and women: the Tromsø Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde; Lindekleiv, Haakon; Schirmer, Henrik; Solbu, Marit D; Toft, Ingrid; Sjølie, Anne Katrin; Njølstad, Inger

    2014-06-01

      To determine the prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in a nondiabetic population.   The study population included 5869 participants without diabetes aged 38-87 years from the Tromsø Eye Study, a substudy of the population-based Tromsø Study in Norway. Retinal images from both eyes were graded for retinopathy. We collected data on risk factors from self-report questionnaires, clinical examinations, laboratory measurements and case note reviews. The cross-sectional relationship between potential risk factors and retinopathy was assessed using logistic regression analysis.   The overall prevalence of retinopathy was 14.8%. Men had a higher prevalence of retinopathy compared with women (15.9% versus 14.0%, p=0.04). In men, retinopathy was associated with hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.04) and HbA1c (OR per %, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01-1.96). In women, retinopathy was associated with age (OR per 10 years, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14-1.52), log-transformed urinary albumin excretion (OR per log unit, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.14-1.87) and hypertension (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.08-1.71). In women, retinopathy was associated with very low levels of urinary albumin excretion (urinary albumin/creatinine ratio >0.43 mg/mmol).   This study confirms results from previous studies on the strong association between blood pressure and retinopathy. A novel finding is the sex differences in risk factors for retinopathy, suggesting a sex difference in the pathogenesis leading to retinopathy. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. GATA3: a promising marker for metastatic breast carcinoma in serous effusion specimens.

    PubMed

    Shield, Paul W; Papadimos, David J; Walsh, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    The usefulness of GATA3 (GATA-binding protein 3 to DNA sequence [A/T]GATA[A/G]) as a marker for metastatic breast carcinoma in serous effusion specimens was investigated. Cell block sections from 74 serous effusion specimens (32 ascitic, 2 pericardial, and 40 pleural fluids) were stained with an anti-GATA3 murine monoclonal antibody. The specimens included 62 confirmed metastatic carcinomas from the breast (30 specimens), female genital tract (13 specimens), gastrointestinal tract (7 specimens), lung adenocarcinoma (9 specimens), pancreas (1 specimen), kidney (1 specimen), and bladder (1 specimen). The breast carcinoma cases included 15 ductal carcinomas and 8 lobular carcinomas; the histology subtype was not available for 7 specimens. Twelve cases containing florid reactive mesothelial cells were also stained. The breast carcinoma cases were also stained for mammaglobin and gross cystic disease fluid protein of 15 kilodaltons (GCDFP-15) to compare their sensitivity with GATA3. Positive nuclear staining for GATA3 was found to be present in 90% of metastatic breast carcinoma specimens (27 of 30 specimens). All nonbreast metastatic carcinomas tested were negative with the exception of the single case of metastatic urothelial carcinoma. No staining was observed in any of the benign reactive cases or in benign mesothelial cells present in the malignant cell block preparations. Two cases demonstrated weak positivity of benign lymphoid cells. Staining results were unambiguous because all positive cases demonstrated intense nuclear staining in > 50% of tumor cells. Mammaglobin (57% staining; 17 of 30 cases) and GCDFP-15 (33% staining; 10 of 30 cases) were found to be less sensitive markers of breast carcinoma. If used in a panel, mammaglobin and GCFP-15 staining would have identified only 1 additional case compared with those stained with GATA3. GATA3 may be a useful addition to immunostaining panels for serous effusion specimens when metastatic breast carcinoma is a

  7. BRCA1, TP53, and CHEK2 germline mutations in uterine serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Kathryn P; Walsh, Tom; Lee, Ming; Pennil, Christopher; Novetsky, Akiva P; Agnew, Kathy J; Thornton, Anne; Garcia, Rochelle; Mutch, David; King, Mary-Claire; Goodfellow, Paul; Swisher, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-15

    Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is not recognized as part of any defined hereditary cancer syndrome, and its association with hereditary breast and ovarian carcinoma and Lynch syndrome are uncertain. Using targeted capture and massively parallel genomic sequencing, 151 subjects with USC were assessed for germline mutations in 30 tumor suppressor genes, including BRCA1 (breast cancer 1, early onset), BRCA2, the DNA mismatch repair genes (MLH1 [mutL homolog 1], MSH2 [mutS homolog 2], MSH6, PMS2 [postmeiotic segregation increased 2]), TP53 (tumor protein p53), and 10 other genes in the Fanconi anemia-BRCA pathway. Ten cases with < 10% serous histology were also assessed. Seven subjects (4.6%) carried germline loss-of-function mutations: 3 subjects (2.0%) with mutations in BRCA1, 2 subjects (1.3%) with mutations in TP53, and 2 subjects (1.3%) with mutations in CHEK2 (checkpoint kinase 2). One subject with < 10% serous histology had an MSH6 mutation. Subjects with MSH6 and TP53 mutations had neither personal nor family histories suggestive of Lynch or Li-Fraumeni syndromes. Of the 22 women with USC and a personal history of breast carcinoma, the frequency of BRCA1 mutations was 9%, compared to 0.9% in 119 women with no such history. Approximately 5% of women with USC have germline mutations in 3 different tumor suppressor genes: BRCA1, CHEK2, and TP53. Mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes that cause Lynch syndrome are rare in USC. The germline BRCA1 mutation rate in USC subjects of 2% is higher than expected in a nonfounder population, suggesting that USC is associated with hereditary breast and ovarian carcinoma in a small proportion of cases. Women with USC and breast cancer should be offered genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  8. Automatic screening and classification of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy using fuzzy image processing.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Sarni Suhaila; Palade, Vasile; Shuttleworth, James; Jayne, Chrisina

    2016-12-01

    Digital retinal imaging is a challenging screening method for which effective, robust and cost-effective approaches are still to be developed. Regular screening for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy diseases is necessary in order to identify the group at risk of visual impairment. This paper presents a novel automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in eye fundus images by employing fuzzy image processing techniques. The paper first introduces the existing systems for diabetic retinopathy screening, with an emphasis on the maculopathy detection methods. The proposed medical decision support system consists of four parts, namely: image acquisition, image preprocessing including four retinal structures localisation, feature extraction and the classification of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy. A combination of fuzzy image processing techniques, the Circular Hough Transform and several feature extraction methods are implemented in the proposed system. The paper also presents a novel technique for the macula region localisation in order to detect the maculopathy. In addition to the proposed detection system, the paper highlights a novel online dataset and it presents the dataset collection, the expert diagnosis process and the advantages of our online database compared to other public eye fundus image databases for diabetic retinopathy purposes.

  9. Classification of diabetic retinopathy using fractal dimension analysis of eye fundus image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safitri, Diah Wahyu; Juniati, Dwi

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder when pancreas produce inadequate insulin or a condition when body resist insulin action, so the blood glucose level is high. One of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus is diabetic retinopathy which can lead to a vision problem. Diabetic retinopathy can be recognized by an abnormality in eye fundus. Those abnormalities are characterized by microaneurysms, hemorrhage, hard exudate, cotton wool spots, and venous's changes. The diabetic retinopathy is classified depends on the conditions of abnormality in eye fundus, that is grade 1 if there is a microaneurysm only in the eye fundus; grade 2, if there are a microaneurysm and a hemorrhage in eye fundus; and grade 3: if there are microaneurysm, hemorrhage, and neovascularization in the eye fundus. This study proposed a method and a process of eye fundus image to classify of diabetic retinopathy using fractal analysis and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The first phase was image segmentation process using green channel, CLAHE, morphological opening, matched filter, masking, and morphological opening binary image. After segmentation process, its fractal dimension was calculated using box-counting method and the values of fractal dimension were analyzed to make a classification of diabetic retinopathy. Tests carried out by used k-fold cross validation method with k=5. In each test used 10 different grade K of KNN. The accuracy of the result of this method is 89,17% with K=3 or K=4, it was the best results than others K value. Based on this results, it can be concluded that the classification of diabetic retinopathy using fractal analysis and KNN had a good performance.

  10. Pain-Relieving Interventions for Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Disher, Timothy; Cameron, Chris; Mitra, Souvik; Cathcart, Kelcey; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha

    2018-06-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity eye examinations conducted in the neonatal intensive care. To combine randomized trials of pain-relieving interventions for retinopathy of prematurity examinations using network meta-analysis. Systematic review and network meta-analysis of Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. All databases were searched from inception to February 2017. Abstract and title screen and full-text screening were conducted independently by 2 reviewers. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and pooled with random effect models if the number of trials within a comparison was sufficient. The primary outcome was pain during the examination period; secondary outcomes were pain after the examination, physiologic response, and adverse events. Twenty-nine studies ( N = 1487) were included. Topical anesthetic (TA) combined with sweet taste and an adjunct intervention (eg, nonnutritive sucking) had the highest probability of being the optimal treatment (mean difference [95% credible interval] versus TA alone = -3.67 [-5.86 to -1.47]; surface under the cumulative ranking curve = 0.86). Secondary outcomes were sparsely reported (2-4 studies, N = 90-248) but supported sweet-tasting solutions with or without adjunct interventions as optimal. Limitations included moderate heterogeneity in pain assessment reactivity phase and severe heterogeneity in the regulation phase. Multisensory interventions including sweet taste is likely the optimal treatment for reducing pain resulting from eye examinations in preterm infants. No interventions were effective in absolute terms. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. The incorporation of family physicians in the assessment of diabetic retinopathy by non-mydriatic fundus camera.

    PubMed

    Romero, Pedro; Sagarra, Ramon; Ferrer, Jeroni; Fernández-Ballart, Juan; Baget, Marc

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the inclusion of family physicians in screening for diabetic retinopathy. We evaluated by non-mydriatic fundus camera 2779 diabetic patients. The family physicians made an initial evaluation of the fundus and pathological images were sent to a reference ophthalmologist. An audit was taken of all the patients at the end of the study. We analysed the concordance in: diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, and lesions in the macular area. Diabetic retinopathy was observed in 226 patients (8.1%) and diabetic macular edema in 40 patients (1.4%). Other retinal pathologies were diagnosed in 291 (11.0%). The sensitivity of the study was 95.2% for diabetic retinopathy, 96.0% for macular lesions and 92.9% for diabetic macular edema. The specificity was above 98% in the three studied variables. Cohen's Kappa coefficient was 0.82 for diabetic retinopathy, 0.81 for diabetic macular edema and 0.96 for macular lesions. The inclusion of family physicians in the screening system seems to be effective in the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bilateral Ocular Decompression Retinopathy after Ahmed Valve Implantation for Uveitic Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Flores-Preciado, Javier; Ancona-Lezama, David Arturo; Valdés-Lara, Carlos Andrés; Díez-Cattini, Gian Franco; Coloma-González, Itziar

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 29-year-old man who underwent Ahmed valve implantation in both eyes as treatment for uveitic glaucoma, subsequently presenting with bilateral ocular decompression retinopathy in the postoperative period. Ocular decompression retinopathy is a rare complication of filtering surgery in patients with glaucoma; however, the course is benign in most cases, with spontaneous resolution of bleedings and improvement of visual acuity.

  13. Screening in Primary Care for Diabetic Retinopathy, Maculopathy and Visual Loss in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Webb, Elizabeth M; Rheeder, Paul; Roux, Polla

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, maculopathy and visual loss in primary care patients and to identify associated risk factors. We conducted a cluster randomised trial at primary care clinics in the Tshwane district in South Africa. Grades of retinopathy and maculopathy (with fundus camera) and visual acuity (Snellen chart) were assessed and, using mobile screening and teleophthalmology, clinical and biochemical testing was conducted to obtain information about glycaemic control and microvascular complications. The prevalence rates for any retinopathy, preproliferative retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy were 24.9, 19.5 and 5.5%, respectively. The prevalence rates of diabetic maculopathy, observable maculopathy and referable maculopathy were 20.8, 11.8 and 9.0%, respectively. The presence of retinopathy was associated with high body mass index, systolic blood pressure, being on insulin treatment, high HbA1c and the presence of neuropathy. High systolic blood pressure, being on insulin treatment, high HbA1c level and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level as well as the presence of albuminuria were significant in predicting any diabetic maculopathy. Laser photocoagulation was given to 8.3% of patients from the mobile unit and 12% of patients were referred to the nearest hospital with an outpatient eye clinic for follow-up treatment of various other eye conditions. Using the WHO categories, the study found that 78.1% of diabetes patients had normal vision, 19.3% were visually impaired and 2.2% were severely impaired or blind. High prevalence rates for diabetic retinopathy, maculopathy and visual loss were found and associations were identified. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Circulating matrix modulators (MMP-9 and TIMP-1) and their association with severity of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Jayashree, Kuppuswami; Yasir, Md; Senthilkumar, Gandhipuram Periyasamy; Ramesh Babu, K; Mehalingam, Vadivelan; Mohanraj, Palani Selvam

    2018-05-05

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss in the working age population. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), are molecules involved in extracellular tissue matrix remodelling. They are implicated in the loss of retinal tissue integrity, a major cause of DR, that leads to retinal tissue degradation and apoptosis. This study is therefore, conducted to compare the serum levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in T2DM patients without and with retinopathy, and to evaluate their association with the severity of DR. Our study comprised of 2 groups of 41 each. Group A (cases) included T2DM patients with retinopathy and Group B (controls) included T2DM patients without retinopathy. Routine parameters, mainly, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile were measured using autoanalyzer. Serum MMP-9, TIMP-1, and insulin levels were assessed using ELISA method. Statistically significant increase in the levels of MMP-9, insulin, fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were observed in the serum of T2DM patients with retinopathy, as compared with those without retinopathy. These results help to conclude that rise in MMP-9, and associated serum markers promote disease progress in DR. These findings suggest that the elevations of our study markers in the serum of the type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy, as compared to those without retinopathy, play important roles in aggravating tissue matrix degradation, supporting DR disease progression. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The neurovascular relation in oxygen-induced retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Akula, James D; Mocko, Julie A; Benador, Ilan Y; Hansen, Ronald M; Favazza, Tara L; Vyhovsky, Tanya C; Fulton, Anne B

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal studies in rat models of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) have demonstrated that abnormalities of retinal vasculature and function change hand-in-hand. In the developing retina, vascular and neural structures are under cooperative molecular control. In this study of rats with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) models of ROP, mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), semaphorin (Sema), and their neuropilin receptor (NRP) were examined during the course of retinopathy to evaluate their roles in the observed neurovascular congruency. Oxygen exposures designed to induce retinopathy were delivered to Sprague-Dawley rat pups (n=36) from postnatal day (P) 0 to P14 or from P7 to P14. Room-air-reared controls (n=18) were also studied. Sensitivities of the rod photoreceptors (S(rod)) and the postreceptor cells (Sm) were derived from electroretinographic (ERG) records. Arteriolar tortuosity, T(A), was derived from digital fundus images using Retinal Image multi-Scale Analysis (RISA) image analysis software. mRNA expression of VEGF(164), semaphorin IIIA (Sema3A), and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) was evaluated by RT-PCR of retinal extracts. Tests were performed at P15-P16, P18-P19, and P25-P26. Relations among ERG, RISA, and PCR parameters were evaluated using linear regression on log transformed data. Sm was low and T(A) was high at young ages, then both resolved by P25-P26. VEGF(164) and Sema3A mRNA expression were also elevated early and decreased with age. Low Sm was significantly associated with high VEGF(164) and Sema3A expression. Low S(rod) was also significantly associated with high VEGF(164). S(rod) and Sm were both correlated with T(A). NRP-1 expression was little affected by OIR. The postreceptor retina appears to mediate the vascular abnormalities that characterize OIR. Because of the relationships revealed by these data, early treatment that targets the neural retina may mitigate the effects of ROP.

  16. The neurovascular relation in oxygen-induced retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Akula, James D.; Mocko, Julie A.; Benador, Ilan Y.; Hansen, Ronald M.; Favazza, Tara L.; Vyhovsky, Tanya C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Longitudinal studies in rat models of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) have demonstrated that abnormalities of retinal vasculature and function change hand-in-hand. In the developing retina, vascular and neural structures are under cooperative molecular control. In this study of rats with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) models of ROP, mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), semaphorin (Sema), and their neuropilin receptor (NRP) were examined during the course of retinopathy to evaluate their roles in the observed neurovascular congruency. Methods Oxygen exposures designed to induce retinopathy were delivered to Sprague-Dawley rat pups (n=36) from postnatal day (P) 0 to P14 or from P7 to P14. Room-air-reared controls (n=18) were also studied. Sensitivities of the rod photoreceptors (Srod) and the postreceptor cells (Sm) were derived from electroretinographic (ERG) records. Arteriolar tortuosity, TA, was derived from digital fundus images using Retinal Image multi-Scale Analysis (RISA) image analysis software. mRNA expression of VEGF164, semaphorin IIIA (Sema3A), and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) was evaluated by RT–PCR of retinal extracts. Tests were performed at P15–P16, P18–P19, and P25–P26. Relations among ERG, RISA, and PCR parameters were evaluated using linear regression on log transformed data. Results Sm was low and TA was high at young ages, then both resolved by P25–P26. VEGF164 and Sema3A mRNA expression were also elevated early and decreased with age. Low Sm was significantly associated with high VEGF164 and Sema3A expression. Low Srod was also significantly associated with high VEGF164. Srod and Sm were both correlated with TA. NRP-1 expression was little affected by OIR. Conclusions The postreceptor retina appears to mediate the vascular abnormalities that characterize OIR. Because of the relationships revealed by these data, early treatment that targets the neural retina may mitigate the effects of ROP. PMID:19112532

  17. Nonmydriatic fundus photography for teleophthalmology diabetic retinopathy screening in rural and urban clinics.

    PubMed

    Chin, Eric K; Ventura, Bruna V; See, Kai-Yin; Seibles, Joann; Park, Susanna S

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the relative diagnostic value of nonmydriatic fundus photography (nFP) among patients screened for diabetic retinopathy in remote rural medical clinics and an urban academic medical center for nonadherence to recommended annual dilated eye examination. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed among diabetic patients seen in primary outpatient clinics between 2006 and 2011 who were screened for diabetic retinopathy with nFP for history of nonadherence to recommended annual dilated eye examination. A single nonstereoscopic, 45°, 10-megapixel digital image of the disc and macula of both eyes was obtained locally and transmitted electronically to a retinal specialist for remote review. The results from remote rural Native American Indian reservations were compared with those from an urban academic family practice clinic. The proportion of subjects diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy and the quality of fundus images were compared. Among 872 patients (1,744 eyes) screened from rural sites and 517 subjects (1,034 eyes) screened from an urban site, images were of good quality for evaluation in 82.4% and 85.7% of subjects, respectively. Diabetic retinopathy was noted in 12.6% of rural subjects and 29.6% of urban subjects (p<0.001). nFP can be a useful tool in both rural and urban settings to screen for diabetic retinopathy in patients who are nonadherent to the recommended dilated annual eye exam. In our study population, a surprisingly higher percentage of diabetic subjects screened from the urban clinic had retinopathy compared with subjects screened in rural clinics.

  18. Myopia is Inversely Associated With the Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the South Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Chao, Daniel L; Lin, Shuai-Chun; Chen, Rebecca; Lin, Shan C

    2016-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of irreversible vision loss. Recent studies have suggested that myopia may be negatively correlated with the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy. We sought to further investigate the association between refractive error and the likelihood of having diabetic retinopathy in a cross-sectional, population-based study of the South Korean population. Cross-sectional study. Data were included from right eyes of 13 424 participants who were 40 years and older with gradable fundus photographs of the Fourth and the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetic retinopathy was graded using standard fundus photographs. Autorefraction data were collected to calculate spherical equivalent of refraction in diopters (D) and further classified into 4 groups: hyperopia (≥1.0 D), emmetropia (-0.99 D to 0.99 D), mild myopia (-1.0 D to -2.99 D), and moderate to high myopia (≤-3.0 D). Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. A multivariate model was used to evaluate the association between the diagnosis of any diabetic retinopathy and the refractive status. Mild myopia and moderate to high myopia groups were negatively associated with development of any diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio [OR] 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18-0.97 and OR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-0.88, respectively). In addition, for every 1 D increase in spherical equivalent, there was a 30% increase of having diabetic retinopathy (OR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.08-1.58). Our results from a population-based study suggest that myopic status is associated with lower odds of having diabetic retinopathy in the South Korean population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. TAMOXIFEN RETINOPATHY DURING TREATMENT OF AN INOPERABLE DESMOID TUMOR.

    PubMed

    Furst, Meredith; Somogyi, Marie B; Wong, Robert W; Araujo, Dejka; Harper, Clio A

    2017-12-08

    To evaluate the clinical significance and rarity of tamoxifen retinopathy after a long-term tamoxifen treatment for an inoperable desmoid tumor. Case report. Tamoxifen retinopathy is a condition rarely observed in clinical practice. Although tamoxifen is typically a treatment for breast cancer patients, we present a 68-year-old woman taking tamoxifen for an inoperable desmoid tumor, an equally rare condition. She presented with bilaterally deteriorating vision over the course of a year. Fundoscopic examination revealed parafoveal deposits bilaterally. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography exhibited hyperreflective deposits in all layers of the retina. She had a cumulative treatment dose of 292 g of tamoxifen, and the medication was subsequently stopped. Her vision remained stable 3 months after the cessation of tamoxifen. The development of tamoxifen retinopathy in the treatment of a desmoid tumor makes this case a rare entity, and this is the first reported case of these two concomitant conditions to our knowledge. With the use of long-term tamoxifen as a primary treatment, we recommend screening at regular intervals by an ophthalmologist as an integral part of treatment.

  20. Wide-Field Megahertz OCT Imaging of Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Reznicek, Lukas; Kolb, Jan P.; Klein, Thomas; Mohler, Kathrin J.; Huber, Robert; Kernt, Marcus; Märtz, Josef; Neubauer, Aljoscha S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility of wide-field Megahertz (MHz) OCT imaging in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Methods. A consecutive series of 15 eyes of 15 patients with diagnosed diabetic retinopathy were included. All patients underwent Megahertz OCT imaging, a close clinical examination, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and funduscopic evaluation. To acquire densely sampled, wide-field volumetric datasets, an ophthalmic 1050 nm OCT prototype system based on a Fourier-domain mode-locked (FDML) laser source with 1.68 MHz A-scan rate was employed. Results. We were able to obtain OCT volume scans from all included 15 patients. Acquisition time was 1.8 seconds. Obtained volume datasets consisted of 2088 × 1044 A-scans of 60° of view. Thus, reconstructed en face images had a resolution of 34.8 pixels per degree in x-axis and 17.4 pixels per degree. Due to the densely sampled OCT volume dataset, postprocessed customized cross-sectional B-frames through pathologic changes such as an individual microaneurysm or a retinal neovascularization could be imaged. Conclusions. Wide-field Megahertz OCT is feasible to successfully image patients with diabetic retinopathy at high scanning rates and a wide angle of view, providing information in all three axes. The Megahertz OCT is a useful tool to screen diabetic patients for diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26273665

  1. HtrA3 Is Downregulated in Cancer Cell Lines and Significantly Reduced in Primary Serous and Granulosa Cell Ovarian Tumors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harmeet; Li, Ying; Fuller, Peter J; Harrison, Craig; Rao, Jyothsna; Stephens, Andrew N; Nie, Guiying

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The high temperature requirement factor A3 (HtrA3) is a serine protease homologous to bacterial HtrA. Four human HtrAs have been identified. HtrA1 and HtrA3 share a high degree of domain organization and are downregulated in a number of cancers, suggesting a widespread loss of these proteases in cancer. This study examined how extensively the HtrA (HtrA1-3) proteins are downregulated in commonly used cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumors.Methods. RT-PCR was applied to various cancer cell lines (n=17) derived from the ovary, endometrium, testes, breast, prostate, and colon, and different subtypes of primary ovarian tumors [granulosa cell tumors (n=19), mucinous cystadenocarcinomas (n=6), serous cystadenocarcinomas (n=8)] and normal ovary (n = 9). HtrA3 protein was localized by immunohistochemistry.Results. HtrA3 was extensively downregulated in the cancer cell lines examined including the granulosa cell tumor-derived cell lines. In primary ovarian tumors, the HtrA3 was significantly lower in serous cystadenocarcinoma and granulosa cell tumors. In contrast, HtrA1 and HtrA2 were expressed in all samples with no significant differences between the control and tumors. In normal postmenopausal ovary, HtrA3 protein was localized to lutenizing stromal cells and corpus albicans. In serous cystadenocarcinoma, HtrA3 protein was absent in the papillae but detected in the mesenchymal cyst wall.Conclusion. HtrA3 is more extensively downregulated than HtrA1-2 in cancer cell lines. HtrA3, but not HtrA1 or HtrA2, was decreased in primary ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma and granulosa cell tumors. This study provides evidence that HtrA3 may be the most relevant HtrA associated with ovarian malignancy.

  2. In Vivo Imaging of Retinal Hypoxia in a Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Imam; Evans, Stephanie M; Craft, Jason R; Capozzi, Megan E; McCollum, Gary W; Yang, Rong; Marnett, Lawrence J; Uddin, Md Jashim; Jayagopal, Ashwath; Penn, John S

    2016-08-05

    Ischemia-induced hypoxia elicits retinal neovascularization and is a major component of several blinding retinopathies such as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Currently, noninvasive imaging techniques capable of detecting and monitoring retinal hypoxia in living systems do not exist. Such techniques would greatly clarify the role of hypoxia in experimental and human retinal neovascular pathogenesis. In this study, we developed and characterized HYPOX-4, a fluorescence-imaging probe capable of detecting retinal-hypoxia in living animals. HYPOX-4 dependent in vivo and ex vivo imaging of hypoxia was tested in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Predicted patterns of retinal hypoxia were imaged by HYPOX-4 dependent fluorescence activity in this animal model. In retinal cells and mouse retinal tissue, pimonidazole-adduct immunostaining confirmed the hypoxia selectivity of HYPOX-4. HYPOX-4 had no effect on retinal cell proliferation as indicated by BrdU assay and exhibited no acute toxicity in retinal tissue as indicated by TUNEL assay and electroretinography (ERG) analysis. Therefore, HYPOX-4 could potentially serve as the basis for in vivo fluorescence-based hypoxia-imaging techniques, providing a tool for investigators to understand the pathogenesis of ischemic retinopathies and for physicians to address unmet clinical needs.

  3. The role of O-GlcNAc signaling in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Semba, Richard D; Huang, Hu; Lutty, Gerard A; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Hart, Gerald W

    2014-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Despite laser and surgical treatments, antiangiogenic and other therapies, and strict metabolic control, many patients progress to visual impairment and blindness. New insights are needed into the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy in order to develop new methods to improve the detection and treatment of disease and the prevention of blindness. Hyperglycemia and diabetes result in increased flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, which, in turn, results in increased PTM of Ser/Thr residues of proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). O-GlcNAcylation is involved in regulation of many nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in a manner similar to protein phosphorylation. Altered O-GlcNAc signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. The goal of this review is to summarize the biology of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and O-GlcNAc signaling, to present the current evidence for the role of O-GlcNAc signaling in diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, and to discuss future directions for research on O-GlcNAc in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. In Vivo Imaging of Retinal Hypoxia in a Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Imam; Evans, Stephanie M.; Craft, Jason R.; Capozzi, Megan E.; McCollum, Gary W.; Yang, Rong; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Uddin, Md. Jashim; Jayagopal, Ashwath; Penn, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia-induced hypoxia elicits retinal neovascularization and is a major component of several blinding retinopathies such as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Currently, noninvasive imaging techniques capable of detecting and monitoring retinal hypoxia in living systems do not exist. Such techniques would greatly clarify the role of hypoxia in experimental and human retinal neovascular pathogenesis. In this study, we developed and characterized HYPOX-4, a fluorescence-imaging probe capable of detecting retinal-hypoxia in living animals. HYPOX-4 dependent in vivo and ex vivo imaging of hypoxia was tested in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Predicted patterns of retinal hypoxia were imaged by HYPOX-4 dependent fluorescence activity in this animal model. In retinal cells and mouse retinal tissue, pimonidazole-adduct immunostaining confirmed the hypoxia selectivity of HYPOX-4. HYPOX-4 had no effect on retinal cell proliferation as indicated by BrdU assay and exhibited no acute toxicity in retinal tissue as indicated by TUNEL assay and electroretinography (ERG) analysis. Therefore, HYPOX-4 could potentially serve as the basis for in vivo fluorescence-based hypoxia-imaging techniques, providing a tool for investigators to understand the pathogenesis of ischemic retinopathies and for physicians to address unmet clinical needs. PMID:27491345

  5. New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches for Preventing the Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Gun; Roh, Young-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a severe sight-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Retinal laser photocoagulation, antivascular endothelial growth factors, steroid therapy, and pars plana vitrectomy are now used extensively to treat advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy. Currently, diagnostic devices like ultrawide field fundus fluorescein angiography and the improvement of optical coherence tomography have provided quicker and more precise diagnosis of early diabetic retinopathy. Thus, treatment protocols have been modified accordingly. Various types of lasers, including the subthreshold micropulse laser and RPE-targeting laser, and selective targeted photocoagulation may be future alternatives to conventional retinal photocoagulation, with fewer complications. The new developed intravitreal medications and implants have provided more therapeutic options, with promising results. PMID:26881240

  6. Reclassification of serous ovarian carcinoma by a 2-tier system: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.

    PubMed

    Bodurka, Diane C; Deavers, Michael T; Tian, Chunqiao; Sun, Charlotte C; Malpica, Anais; Coleman, Robert L; Lu, Karen H; Sood, Anil K; Birrer, Michael J; Ozols, Robert; Baergen, Rebecca; Emerson, Robert E; Steinhoff, Margaret; Behmaram, Behnaz; Rasty, Golnar; Gershenson, David M

    2012-06-15

    A study was undertaken to use the 2-tier system to reclassify the grade of serous ovarian tumors previously classified using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 3-tier system and determine the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients treated on Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Protocol 158. The authors retrospectively reviewed demographic, pathologic, and survival data of 290 patients with stage III serous ovarian carcinoma treated with surgery and chemotherapy on GOG Protocol 158, a cooperative multicenter group trial. A blinded pathology review was performed by a panel of 6 gynecologic pathologists to verify histology and regrade tumors using the 2-tier system. The association of tumor grade with PFS and OS was assessed. Of 241 cases, both systems demonstrated substantial agreement when combining FIGO grades 2 and 3 (overall agreement, 95%; kappa statistic, 0.68). By using the 2-tier system, patients with low-grade versus high-grade tumors had significantly longer PFS (45.0 vs 19.8 months, respectively; P = .01). By using FIGO criteria, median PFS for patients with grade 1, 2, and 3 tumors was 37.5, 19.8, and 20.1 months, respectively (P = .07). There was no difference in clinical outcome in patients with grade 2 or 3 tumors in multivariate analysis. Woman with high-grade versus low-grade tumors demonstrated significantly higher risk of death (hazard ratio, 2.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.04; P = .02). Women with high-grade versus low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary are 2 distinct patient populations. Adoption of the 2-tier grading system provides a simple yet precise framework for predicting clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  7. Colour vision in AIDS patients without HIV retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Sommerhalder, J; Baglivo, E; Barbey, C; Hirschel, B; Roth, A; Pelizzone, M

    1998-11-01

    Patients suffering from AIDS develop ocular complications, the most frequent being HIV retinopathy. It is however not clear, if functional visual impairments can be observed as early indicators of ocular complications, before clinical diagnosis of HIV retinopathy is made at fundus examination. To address this issue, we measured colour vision in a group of 49 AIDS subjects with normal clinical fundi using the 'two equation method'. This method, combining red-green Rayleigh and the blue-green Moreland metameric matches, enables more complete and quantitative assessments of colour vision than those based on pigmentary tests. Data were collected on our computer controlled colorimeter and compared to those of normal subjects. While most AIDS subjects without HIV retinopathy demonstrated normal colour vision, a significant portion of them had wider matches than normal subjects (11% for the Rayleigh equation and 16% for the Moreland equation). Furthermore, matching ranges of the Moreland equation were significantly correlated with CD4 lymphocyte counts. Patients with low CD4 values tended to produce larger matching ranges than the patients with high CD4 values. A within subject study on 17 patients confirmed this trend and showed that the patients who increased/decreased their CD4 blood counts generally improved/impaired their colour discrimination in the Moreland match. No such correlation was found between the matching ranges of the Rayleigh equation and the CD4 counts. These results show that colour discrimination is slightly reduced in some AIDS subjects, although there are no detectable ocular complications. They also suggest two different types of colour vision impairments in AIDS patients without retinopathy: one reversible process affecting colour discrimination in the blue-green range; and another irreversible process affecting colour discrimination in the red-green range.

  8. HCO3(-) secretion by murine nasal submucosal gland serous acinar cells during Ca2+-stimulated fluid secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert J; Harlow, Janice M; Limberis, Maria P; Wilson, James M; Foskett, J Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Airway submucosal glands contribute to airway surface liquid (ASL) composition and volume, both important for lung mucociliary clearance. Serous acini generate most of the fluid secreted by glands, but the molecular mechanisms remain poorly characterized. We previously described cholinergic-regulated fluid secretion driven by Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion in primary murine serous acinar cells revealed by simultaneous differential interference contrast (DIC) and fluorescence microscopy. Here, we evaluated whether Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion was accompanied by secretion of HCO(3)(-), possibly a critical ASL component, by simultaneous measurements of intracellular pH (pH(i)) and cell volume. Resting pH(i) was 7.17 +/- 0.01 in physiological medium (5% CO(2)-25 mM HCO(3)(-)). During carbachol (CCh) stimulation, pH(i) fell transiently by 0.08 +/- 0.01 U concomitantly with a fall in Cl(-) content revealed by cell shrinkage, reflecting Cl(-) secretion. A subsequent alkalinization elevated pH(i) to above resting levels until agonist removal, whereupon it returned to prestimulation values. In nominally CO(2)-HCO(3)(-)-free media, the CCh-induced acidification was reduced, whereas the alkalinization remained intact. Elimination of driving forces for conductive HCO(3)(-) efflux by ion substitution or exposure to the Cl(-) channel inhibitor niflumic acid (100 microM) strongly inhibited agonist-induced acidification by >80% and >70%, respectively. The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) inhibitor dimethylamiloride (DMA) increased the magnitude (greater than twofold) and duration of the CCh-induced acidification. Gene expression profiling suggested that serous cells express NHE isoforms 1-4 and 6-9, but pharmacological sensitivities demonstrated that alkalinization observed during both CCh stimulation and pH(i) recovery from agonist-induced acidification was primarily due to NHE1, localized to the basolateral membrane. These results suggest that serous acinar cells secrete HCO(3

  9. Automated classifiers for early detection and diagnosis of retinopathy in diabetic eyes.

    PubMed

    Somfai, Gábor Márk; Tátrai, Erika; Laurik, Lenke; Varga, Boglárka; Ölvedy, Veronika; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Jianhua; Smiddy, William E; Somogyi, Anikó; DeBuc, Delia Cabrera

    2014-04-12

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been used to classify eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and glaucoma. DR is the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults in the developed world. The implementation of DR diagnostic routines could be feasibly improved by the integration of structural and optical property test measurements of the retinal structure that provide important and complementary information for reaching a diagnosis. In this study, we evaluate the capability of several structural and optical features (thickness, total reflectance and fractal dimension) of various intraretinal layers extracted from optical coherence tomography images to train a Bayesian ANN to discriminate between healthy and diabetic eyes with and with no mild retinopathy. When exploring the probability as to whether the subject's eye was healthy (diagnostic condition, Test 1), we found that the structural and optical property features of the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and the complex formed by the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers (GCL + IPL) provided the highest probability (positive predictive value (PPV) of 91% and 89%, respectively) for the proportion of patients with positive test results (healthy condition) who were correctly diagnosed (Test 1). The true negative, TP and PPV values remained stable despite the different sizes of training data sets (Test 2). The sensitivity, specificity and PPV were greater or close to 0.70 for the retinal nerve fiber layer's features, photoreceptor outer segments and retinal pigment epithelium when 23 diabetic eyes with mild retinopathy were mixed with 38 diabetic eyes with no retinopathy (Test 3). A Bayesian ANN trained on structural and optical features from optical coherence tomography data can successfully discriminate between healthy and diabetic eyes with and with no retinopathy. The fractal dimension of the OPL and the GCL + IPL complex predicted by the Bayesian radial basis function network provides better

  10. Parity, infertility, oral contraceptives, and hormone replacement therapy and the risk of ovarian serous borderline tumors: A nationwide case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Emma L Kaderly; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Dehlendorff, Christian; Baandrup, Louise; Junge, Jette; Vang, Russell; Kurman, Robert J; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have examined the risk of an ovarian serous borderline tumor (SBT) associated with parity, infertility, oral contraceptives (OCs), or hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which was the study aim. This nationwide case-control study included all women with an SBT diagnosis in Denmark, 1978-2002. SBTs were confirmed by centralized expert pathology review. For each case, 15 age-matched female controls were randomly selected using risk-set sampling. Cases and controls with previous cancer (except for non-melanoma skin cancer) and controls with bilateral oophorectomy or salpingo-oophorectomy were excluded. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We found a strongly decreased risk of SBTs among parous women which decreased with increasing number of children (p<0.01). Older age at first birth also decreased the SBT risk (p=0.03). An increased SBT risk was associated with infertility (OR=3.31; 95% CI: 2.44-4.49), which was present both among parous and nulliparous women. HRT use increased the SBT risk (OR=1.32; 95% CI: 1.02-1.72), whereas OC use decreased the risk (OR=0.40; 95% CI: 0.26-0.62). Our nationwide study with expert histopathologic review of all SBTs showed that parity, infertility, use of HRT, and use of OCs, respectively, were strongly associated with the risk of SBTs. This is the first study to report a strong and significantly decreased SBT risk associated with OC use and a significantly increased risk with infertility, and HRT use. This supports that SBTs and serous ovarian cancer share similar risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bilateral Ocular Decompression Retinopathy after Ahmed Valve Implantation for Uveitic Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Preciado, Javier; Ancona-Lezama, David Arturo; Valdés-Lara, Carlos Andrés; Díez-Cattini, Gian Franco; Coloma-González, Itziar

    2016-01-01

    Case Report We report the case of a 29-year-old man who underwent Ahmed valve implantation in both eyes as treatment for uveitic glaucoma, subsequently presenting with bilateral ocular decompression retinopathy in the postoperative period. Discussion Ocular decompression retinopathy is a rare complication of filtering surgery in patients with glaucoma; however, the course is benign in most cases, with spontaneous resolution of bleedings and improvement of visual acuity. PMID:27920718

  12. Three-dimensional vascular imaging of proliferative diabetic retinopathy by Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Miura, Masahiro; Hong, Young-Joo; Yasuno, Yoshiaki; Muramatsu, Daisuke; Iwasaki, Takuya; Goto, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the 3-dimensional architecture of neovascularization in proliferative diabetic retinopathy using Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT). Prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial. Seventeen eyes of 14 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy were prospectively studied. Prototype Doppler OCT was used to evaluate the 3-dimensional vascular architecture at vitreoretinal adhesions. Proliferative membranes were detected in all eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy by standard OCT images. Doppler OCT images detected blood flow by neovascularization of the disc in 12 eyes and neovascularization elsewhere in 11 eyes. Doppler OCT images showed the 3-dimensional extent of new vessels at various stages of neovascularization, and the extent of new vessels could be clearly confirmed at vitreoretinal adhesions. Doppler OCT is useful for the detection and evaluation of the 3-dimensional vascular structure of neovascularization, and can assist in the noninvasive assessment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased serum level of homocysteine correlates with retinal nerve fiber layer thinning in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Srivastav, Khushboo; Mahdi, Abbas A.; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Meyer, Carsten H.; Akduman, Levent; Khanna, Vinay K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the correlation between serum levels of vitamin B12, folic acid, and homocysteine and the severity of diabetic retinopathy and the correlation with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods In a tertiary care center–based prospective cross-sectional study, 60 consecutive cases and 20 healthy controls in the age group of 40–65 years were included. The eyes of the cases were divided into three groups according to Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) classification: diabetes mellitus without retinopathy (n = 20), non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema (n = 20), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema (n = 20). The serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured using a standard protocol. The serum homocysteine assay was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Average RNFL thickness was measured using SD-OCT. Statistical analysis was used to assess the correlations between the study variables. Results Increased severity of diabetic retinopathy was found to correlate with an increase in the serum levels of homocysteine (F = 53.79; p<0.001). The mean serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were found to be within the normal reference range. A positive correlation was found between retinal nerve fiber layer thinning and serum levels of homocysteine (p<0.001). Conclusions This study, for the first time, demonstrated a correlation between increased homocysteine with a decrease in RNFL thickness and increased severity of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:27994434

  14. Contemporary retinal imaging techniques in diabetic retinopathy: a review.

    PubMed

    Cole, Emily Dawn; Novais, Eduardo Amorim; Louzada, Ricardo Noguera; Waheed, Nadia K

    2016-05-01

    Over the last decade, there has been an expansion of imaging modalities available to clinicians to diagnose and monitor the treatment and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Recently, advances in image technologies related to OCT and OCT angiography have enabled improved visualization and understanding of this disease. In this review, we will describe the use of imaging techniques such as colour fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, infrared reflectance imaging, OCT, OCT-Angiography and techniques in adaptive optics and hyperspectral imaging in the diagnosis and management of diabetic retinopathy. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  15. The impact of acute lymphocytic leukemia on diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Melberg, N S; Grand, M G; Rup, D

    1995-02-01

    A 16 year-old girl with a 9-year history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus developed acute lymphocytic leukemia. The patient's vision deteriorated from normal to legal blindness within 6 months as her ophthalmologic examination progressed from minimal background diabetic retinopathy to severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The accelerated course of diabetic eye disease is attributable to the moderate anemia resulting from the leukemia and its treatment. Although anemia is usually well tolerated by young patients, it is not well tolerated by the diabetic retina. Diabetic patients require close ophthalmologic follow-up and aggressive management to maintain normal hemoglobin levels.

  16. Comparisons of serum miRNA expression profiles in patients with diabetic retinopathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianping; Wang, Jufang; Liu, Yanfen; Wang, Changyi; Duan, Donghui; Lu, Nanjia; Wang, Kaiyue; Zhang, Lu; Gu, Kaibo; Chen, Sihan; Zhang, Tao; You, Dingyun; Han, Liyuan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression levels of serum miRNAs in diabetic retinopathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum miRNA expression profiles from diabetic retinopathy cases (type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic retinopathy) and type 2 diabetes mellitus controls (type 2 diabetes mellitus patients without diabetic retinopathy) were examined by miRNA-specific microarray analysis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to validate the significantly differentially expressed serum miRNAs from the microarray analysis of 45 diabetic retinopathy cases and 45 age-, sex-, body mass index- and duration-of-diabetes-matched type 2 diabetes mellitus controls. The relative changes in serum miRNA expression levels were analyzed using the 2-ΔΔCt method. A total of 5 diabetic retinopathy cases and 5 type 2 diabetes mellitus controls were included in the miRNA-specific microarray analysis. The serum levels of miR-3939 and miR-1910-3p differed significantly between the two groups in the screening stage; however, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction did not reveal significant differences in miRNA expression for 45 diabetic retinopathy cases and their matched type 2 diabetes mellitus controls. Our findings indicate that miR-3939 and miR-1910-3p may not play important roles in the development of diabetic retinopathy; however, studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm our findings.

  17. Wilms tumor gene product: sensitive and contextually specific marker of serous carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Harry; Quenneville, Louise; Yaziji, Hadi; Gown, Allen M

    2004-06-01

    Carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin can arise from, and often present at, extraovarian sites. There are few available markers for the positive identification of carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin, which might aid in distinguishing them from metastatic carcinomas, such as of breast, colon, or lung origin. Recently, the Wilms tumor gene product (WT-1) has been shown to be expressed in ovarian surface and mesothelial epithelium. We tested the hypothesis that WT-1 would be a sensitive and specific marker of ovarian surface epithelium carcinomas. An archived series of 116 ovarian carcinomas (57 serous [43 ovarian, 14 extraovarian], 31 mucinous, 15 clear cell, 13 endometrioid), 118 breast carcinomas, 46 colonic carcinomas, and 45 nonsmall cell lung cancers were selected. A polyclonal antibody to the WT-1 gene product was applied to deparaffinized, formalin-fixed tissue sections after epitope retrieval. Fifty-two of 57 (93%) serous carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin were WT-1-positive, in a nuclear pattern, with virtually all the tumor cell population positive in the majority of cases. None of the mucinous, clear cell, or endometrioid ovarian cancers were positive, and only 8 of 118 breast, 0 of 46 colonic, and 0 of 45 lung nonsmall cell carcinomas were WT-1-positive. These findings demonstrate that WT-1 is a highly sensitive and specific marker of serous carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin (both ovarian and extraovarian). These results also contradict recent reports demonstrating WT-1 expression in both breast and lung carcinomas.

  18. BRAZILIAN BOOTY RETINOPATHY: PURTSCHER-LIKE RETINOPATHY WITH PARACENTRAL ACUTE MIDDLE MACULOPATHY ASSOCIATED WITH PMMA INJECTION INTO BUTTOCKS.

    PubMed

    Khatibi, Azadeh

    2018-01-01

    To report a case of Purtscher-like retinopathy with paracentral acute middle maculopathy preceded by febrile illness after filler injection into the buttock muscles bilaterally for cosmesis to achieve a "Brazilian booty." Retrospective case report. A 35-year-old female presented with febrile illness and then decreased vision after repeat polymethyl methacrylate injections into her buttock muscles in Mexico. Examination was significant for retinal whitening, especially in the perifoveal areas, and intraretinal hemorrhages. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography imaging were consistent with small-vessel ischemic disease in the retina and choroid. Once systemic infection was ruled out, patient was treated with high-dose intravenous and then oral steroids. Vision recovery was good, with retinal atrophy on optical coherence tomography in the previous areas of retinal whitening. A Purtscher-like retinopathy with paracentral acute middle maculopathy and loss of vision may occur after filler injection below the neck, not just the face. This is the first report of vision loss caused by filler injected outside the face.

  19. β2-Adrenergic Receptor Knockout Mice Exhibit A Diabetic Retinopathy Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Youde; Zhang, Qiuhua; Liu, Li; Tang, Jie; Kern, Timothy S.; Steinle, Jena J.

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence from our lab and others for a functional link between β-adrenergic receptor and insulin receptor signaling pathways in retina. Furthermore, we hypothesize that this link may contribute to lesions similar to diabetic retinopathy in that the loss of adrenergic input observed in diabetic retinopathy may disrupt normal anti-apoptotic insulin signaling, leading to retinal cell death. Our studies included assessment of neural retina function (ERG), vascular degeneration, and Müller glial cells (which express only β1 and β2-adrenergic receptor subtypes). In the current study, we produced β2-adrenergic receptor knockout mice to examine this deletion on retinal neurons and vasculature, and to identify specific pathways through which β2-adrenergic receptor modulates insulin signaling. As predicted from our hypothesis, β2-adrenergic receptor knockout mice display certain features similar to diabetic retinopathy. In addition, loss of β2-adrenergic input resulted in an increase in TNFα, a key inhibitor of insulin receptor signaling. Increased TNFα may be associated with insulin-dependent production of the anti-apoptotic factor, Akt. Since the effects occurred in vivo under normal glucose conditions, we postulate that aspects of the diabetic retinopathy phenotype might be triggered by loss of β2-adrenergic receptor signaling. PMID:23894672