Science.gov

Sample records for central washington state

  1. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S.; LaBonte, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity. PMID:24715791

  2. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  3. Diversity and phenology of the generalist predator community in apple orchards of Central Washington State (insecta, araneae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predatory insects and spiders were collected from apple orchards in two geographic regions of Central Washington State to assess seasonal phenology and diversity of the generalist predator community. Arthropods were collected from orchard canopy every 3-7 d over two growing seasons (March-October) ...

  4. Differential uplift and incision of the Yakima River terraces, central Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Adrian M.; Amos, Colin B.; Bierman, Paul; Rood, Dylan H.; Staisch, Lydia; Kelsey, Harvey; Sherrod, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The fault-related Yakima folds deform Miocene basalts and younger deposits of the Columbia Plateau in central Washington State. Geodesy implies ~2 mm/yr of NNE directed shortening across the folds, but until now the distribution and rates of Quaternary deformation among individual structures has been unclear. South of Ellensburg, Washington, the Yakima River cuts a ~600 m deep canyon across several Yakima folds, preserving gravel-mantled strath terraces that record progressive bedrock incision and related rock uplift. Here we integrate cosmogenic isochron burial dating of the strath terrace gravels with lidar analysis and field mapping to quantify rates of Quaternary differential incision and rock uplift across two folds transected by the Yakima River: Manastash and Umtanum Ridge. Isochron burial ages from in situ produced 26Al and 10Be at seven sites across the folds date episodes of strath terrace formation over the past ~2.9 Ma. Average bedrock incision rates across the Manastash (~88 m/Myr) and Umtanum Ridge (~46 m/Myr) anticlines are roughly 4 to 8 times higher than rates in the intervening syncline (~14 m/Myr) and outside the canyon (~10 m/Myr). These contrasting rates demonstrate differential bedrock incision driven by ongoing Quaternary rock uplift across the folds at rates corresponding to ~0.13 and ~0.06 mm/yr shortening across postulated master faults dipping 30 ± 10°S beneath the Manastash and Umtanum Ridge anticlines, respectively. The reported Quaternary shortening across the anticlines accounts for ~10% of the ~2 mm/yr geodetic budget, suggesting that other Yakima structures actively accommodate the remaining contemporary deformation.

  5. Differential uplift and incision of the Yakima River terraces, central Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, Adrian M; Amos, Colin B.; Bierman, Paul R.; Rood, Dylan; Staisch, Lydia; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Sherrod, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The fault-related Yakima folds deform Miocene basalts and younger deposits of the Columbia Plateau in central Washington State. Geodesy implies ~2 mm/yr of NNE directed shortening across the folds, but until now the distribution and rates of Quaternary deformation among individual structures has been unclear. South of Ellensburg, Washington, the Yakima River cuts a ~600 m deep canyon across several Yakima folds, preserving gravel-mantled strath terraces that record progressive bedrock incision and related rock uplift. Here we integrate cosmogenic isochron burial dating of the strath terrace gravels with lidar analysis and field mapping to quantify rates of Quaternary differential incision and rock uplift across two folds transected by the Yakima River: Manastash and Umtanum Ridge. Isochron burial ages from in situ produced 26Al and 10Be at seven sites across the folds date episodes of strath terrace formation over the past ~2.9 Ma. Average bedrock incision rates across the Manastash (~88 m/Myr) and Umtanum Ridge (~46 m/Myr) anticlines are roughly 4 to 8 times higher than rates in the intervening syncline (~14 m/Myr) and outside the canyon (~10 m/Myr). These contrasting rates demonstrate differential bedrock incision driven by ongoing Quaternary rock uplift across the folds at rates corresponding to ~0.13 and ~0.06 mm/yr shortening across postulated master faults dipping 30 ± 10°S beneath the Manastash and Umtanum Ridge anticlines, respectively. The reported Quaternary shortening across the anticlines accounts for ~10% of the ~2 mm/yr geodetic budget, suggesting that other Yakima structures actively accommodate the remaining contemporary deformation.

  6. Blood α-synuclein in agricultural pesticide handlers in central Washington State.

    PubMed

    Searles Nielsen, Susan; Checkoway, Harvey; Zhang, Jing; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Keifer, Matthew C; Paulsen, Michael; Farin, Federico M; Cook, Travis J; Simpson, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that occupational exposure to pesticides might increase Parkinson disease risk. Some pesticides, such as the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos, appear to increase the expression of α-synuclein, a protein critically involved in Parkinson disease. Therefore, we assessed total blood cell α-synuclein in 90 specimens from 63 agricultural pesticide handlers, mainly Hispanic men from central Washington State, who participated in the state's cholinesterase monitoring program in 2007-2010. Additionally, in age-adjusted linear regression models for repeated measures, we assessed whether α-synuclein levels were associated with butyrylcholinesterase-chlorpyrifos adducts or cholinesterase inhibition measured in peripheral blood, or with self-reported pesticide exposure or paraoxonase (PON1) genotype. There was no evidence by any of those indicators that exposure to chlorpyrifos was associated with greater blood α-synuclein. We observed somewhat greater α-synuclein with the PON1-108T (lower paraoxonase enzyme) allele, and with ≥ 10 h of exposure to cholinesterase inhibiting insecticides in the preceding 30 days, but neither of these associations followed a clear dose-response pattern. These results suggest that selected genetic and environmental factors may affect α-synuclein blood levels. However, longitudinal studies with larger numbers of pesticide handlers will be required to confirm and elucidate the possible associations observed in this exploratory cross-sectional study.

  7. Blood α-Synuclein in Agricultural Pesticide Handlers in Central Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Susan Searles; Checkoway, Harvey; Zhang, Jing; Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Keifer, Matthew C.; Paulsen, Michael; Farin, Federico M.; Cook, Travis J.; Simpson, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that occupational exposure to pesticides might increase Parkinson disease risk. Some pesticides, such as the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos, appear to increase the expression of α-synuclein, a protein critically involved in Parkinson disease. Therefore, we assessed total blood cell α-synuclein in 90 specimens from 63 agricultural pesticide handlers, mainly Hispanic men from central Washington State, who participated in the state’s cholinesterase monitoring program in 2007–2010. Additionally, in age-adjusted linear regression models for repeated measures, we assessed whether α-synuclein levels were associated with butyrylcholinesterase-chlorpyrifos adducts or cholinesterase inhibition measured in peripheral blood, or with self-reported pesticide exposure or paraoxonase (PON1) genotype. There was no evidence by any of those indicators that exposure to chlorpyrifos was associated with greater blood α-synuclein. We observed somewhat greater α-synuclein with the PON1 -108T (lower paraoxonase enzyme) allele, and with ≥10 hours of exposure to cholinesterase inhibiting insecticides in the preceding 30 days, but neither of these associations followed a clear dose-response pattern. These results suggest that selected genetic and environmental factors may affect α-synuclein blood levels. However, longitudinal studies with larger numbers of pesticide handlers will be required to confirm and elucidate the possible associations observed in this exploratory cross-sectional study. PMID:25460623

  8. 75 FR 14462 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington... of Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum... Henebry-DeLeon, NAGPRA Program Director, Department of Anthropology, Central Washington...

  9. Holocene mammalian change in the central Columbia Basin of eastern Washington state, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2016-08-01

    Predictions of changes in the Holocene mammalian fauna of the central Columbia Basin in eastern Washington (USA) based on environmental changes are largely met. Taxonomic richness is greatest during periods of cool-moist climate. Rates of input of faunal remains to the paleozoological record may suggest greater mammalian biomass during periods of greater moisture but are difficult to interpret without data on sampling intensity in the form of volume of sediment excavated. Abundances of leporids and grazing ungulates fluctuate in concert with abundance of grass. Several biogeographic records are tantalizing but require additional study and data before being accepted as valid. Records of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) indicate this species was present in the central basin during the Holocene contrary to historic records and recent suggestions modern foxes there are escapees from fur farms. Bison (Bison bison) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) underwent diminution of body size during the Holocene. Modern efforts to conserve the Columbia Basin ecosystem are advised to consider the Holocene record as indicative of what may happen to that ecosystem in the future.

  10. Northwest Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Portions of northwest Washington State (48.0N, 122.5) can be seen in this view as well as portions of British Columbia, Canada. The snow covered Cascade Mountains are on the eastern side of the scene. Vancouver Island is visible in the northeast corner of the photo. The strait of Juan de Fuca separates Vancouver Islannd from the northwest corner of Washington. Seattle is near the center and the snow covered Olympic Mountains are to the east.

  11. Indians of Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Maps, photographs, and illustrations are included in this introductory history of Indians in Washington state. The tribal groups of the area are classified by geographic and cultural region as Coastal, Puget Sound, and Plateau tribes, and the majority of the resource booklet provides information about the history and culture of each group.…

  12. Deformation of quaternary strata and its relationship to crustal folds and faults, south-central Puget Lowland, Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, D.B.; Troost, K.G.; Hagstrum, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Folded Quaternary deposits across the south-central Puget Lowland, an area just south of the Seattle fault that extends across the Seattle uplift and its boundary with the adjacent Tacoma basin, provide increased resolution of the character and rate of crustal deformation. They also constrain alternative, and partly incompatible, views of crustal structure previously suggested by geophysical investigations. Tectonic deformation has been progressive for at least the past few hundred thousand years: older sediments display greater deformation than the youngest exposed deposits in the study area. Strain rates across the Seattle uplift have probably been between 0.25 and 1.0 mm/yr during this period, accounting for ???10% of the total strain shortening of the western Washington crust. The Seattle uplift displays Quaternary deformation across its full north-south extent and has structural discontinuities at both its northern and southern boundaries. Previous workers have already established the faulted nature of its northern boundary; exposed Quaternary strata across its southern boundary display intense folding, the location of which generally corresponds to the projection of a "Tacoma fault" suggested by prior geophysical studies. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  13. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  14. The Effect of the Leader in Me, a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention System (SW-PBIS), Based on Student Achievement and Office Discipline Referrals for Fifth Grade Students in a Rural Elementary School in North Central Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose this study was to examine the implementation of The Leader in Me, a school-wide positive behavior intervention system (SW-PBIS), and analyze its impact on 5th grade students based on student achievement and office discipline referrals in a rural elementary school in North Central Washington state. The school was in the first year of…

  15. Washington State biomass data book

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

  16. Early Learning in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    About 80,000 children enter kindergarten in Washington each year, and many lack basic language and behavioral skills--such as knowing letters and colors, following directions, getting along with others, and exhibiting impulse-control. In 2006, based on the recommendation of the Washington Learns Commission, Governor Christine Gregoire created the…

  17. Current Conditions in Washington State School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plecki, Margaret L.

    Washington State assumes full responsibility for funding a basic education program for K-12 public schools. Full funding of basic education includes special education programs, transitional bilingual programs, remediation-assistance programs, and certain pupil transportation costs. This paper describes conditions in Washington State school finance…

  18. Population structure and diversity of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from dryland cereal fields of central Washington State (USA).

    PubMed

    Parejko, James A; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Mavrodi, Olga V; Weller, David M; Thomashow, Linda S

    2012-07-01

    Certain strains of the rhizosphere bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens contain the phenazine biosynthesis operon (phzABCDEFG) and produce redox-active phenazine antibiotics that suppress a wide variety of soilborne plant pathogens. In 2007 and 2008, we isolated 412 phenazine-producing (Phz(+)) fluorescent Pseudomonas strains from roots of dryland wheat and barley grown in the low-precipitation region (<350 mm annual precipitation) of central Washington State. Based on results of BOX-PCR genomic fingerprinting analysis, these isolates, as well as the model biocontrol Phz(+) strain P. fluorescens 2-79, were assigned to 31 distinct genotypes separated into four clusters. All of the isolates exhibited high 16S rDNA sequence similarity to members of the P. fluorescens species complex including Pseudomonas orientalis, Pseudomonas gessardii, Pseudomonas libanensis, and Pseudomonas synxantha. Further recA-based sequence analyses revealed that the majority of new Phz(+) isolates (386 of 413) form a clade distinctly separated from P. fluorescens 2-79. Analysis of phzF alleles, however, revealed that the majority of those isolates (280 of 386) carried phenazine biosynthesis genes similar to those of P. fluorescens 2-79. phzF-based analyses also revealed that phenazine genes were under purifying selection and showed evidence of intracluster recombination. Phenotypic analyses using Biolog substrate utilization and observations of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid production showed considerable variability amongst members of all four clusters. Biodiversity indices indicated significant differences in diversity and evenness between the sampled sites. In summary, this study revealed a genotypically and phenotypically diverse group of phenazine producers with a population structure not seen before in indigenous rhizosphere-inhabiting Phz(+) Pseudomonas spp. PMID:22383119

  19. Petroleum geology of the state of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Lingley, William S.; Law, Ben E.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the potential petroleum resources of Washington State as recently summarized in the 1995 U.S. Geological Survey National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. Eight conventional petroleum plays, three coal-bed gas plays, and two continuous-type gas plays are defined and characterized. Of these plays, the potential for significant petroleum accumulations appears greatest in the Columbia Plateau region of eastern Washington. Potential accumulations in western Washington are smaller but could have local economic significance. The absence of high-quality petroleum source rocks is probably the most important factor limiting development of large accumulations.

  20. Population Trends for Washington State. 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Office of Financial Management, Olympia.

    This document provides tables and figures of current demographic data for the state, counties, cities, and towns of Washington. The report is divided into two main sections: (1) "State, County, City Populations"; and (2) "Selected Estimates and Information". Section 1 presents such data as: population change and net migration for 1950-1993;…

  1. Human Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense infection in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Billman, Zachary P; Wallis, Carolyn K; Abbott, April N; Olson, John C; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Murphy, Sean C

    2015-04-01

    A patient in Washington State harbored a fish tapeworm most likely acquired from eating raw salmon. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense was identified by cox1 sequence analysis. Although this is the first documented human D. nihonkaiense infection in the United States, the parasite may have been present earlier but misidentified as Diphyllobothrium latum.

  2. Washington State Annual Rural Manpower Report, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Employment Security, Olympia.

    The report contains information on significant developments in the 1971 Washington State Farm Labor and Rural Manpower Program. Part I, the Annual Summary, recommends that state agencies should devote more effort to the Annual Worker Plan and that farm placement personnel should try to advise persons who have job commitments of any delays in the…

  3. Anencephaly: An Ongoing Investigation in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Barron, Sara

    2016-03-01

    : In the spring of 2012, a nurse in Washington State detected a cluster of babies born with anencephaly-a fatal condition in which infants are born without parts of the brain or skull. The resulting investigation initially confirmed a rate of anencephaly between January 2010 and January 2013 of 8.4 per 10,000 live births-more than four times the national average. As of November 2015, cases of anencephaly in Washington State have continued to increase, with the current rate estimated at 9.5 per 10,000 live births. While no distinct cause has yet been determined, neural tube defects-including anencephaly-are known to have multiple causes, including folic acid deficit, genetic variants in the folate pathway, and exposure to a variety of environmental and occupational toxins. This article describes many of these risk factors and explores the findings of Washington's ongoing investigation. PMID:26914056

  4. Washington State Annual Rural Manpower Report, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Employment Security, Olympia.

    The annual report of the Rural Manpower Program, Employment Service Division, contains narrative and statistical data that describe important developments in Washington State during 1973. In terms of man-months of labor, rural counties provided less than 25% of the total seasonal farm employment in 1973, while urban Yakima County alone provided…

  5. Washington State Annual Rural Manpower Report, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Employment Security, Olympia.

    The report contains information on significant developments in the 1972 Washington State Farm Labor and Rural Manpower Program. Part I, the Annual Summary, recommends that farm labor programs be designed to insure an adequate number of efficient workers and that a means be developed to prolong employment periods for the worker, thus reducing…

  6. Alternative Maternity Services in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starzyk, Patricia M.

    The nature of maternity services has changed in the past 20 years, with a movement away from traditional (physician delivery in a hospital) towards other alternative services. This study examined alternative maternity services in Washington State, which ranks eighth in the country in the use of such services. Data were collected from birth and…

  7. 22. View looking north on Central Avenue from Washington Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View looking north on Central Avenue from Washington Street. The Stroud Building (with awnings on the second story) is located on the east (right) side of the street near the center of the block. The original Adams Hotel is seen at the right rear of the photograph Circa 1901-1910. Credit ADLAPR. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 77 FR 11582 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Central Washington University Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated... Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary object to the Indian tribe stated...

  9. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  10. High School Administrative Staffing in Washington State: Principal Perspectives on Resource Needs and Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steach, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored how high school principals prioritize their work and utilize available human resources to adjust to inadequate administrative staffing. Analysis of staffing levels across the state of Washington and specifically inside two eastern Washington districts framed interview questions for central office administration…

  11. Washington State Board of Education Strategic Plan, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Washington State Legislature significantly changed the role of the State Board of Education (SBE). While the Board retains some administrative duties, SBE is now mandated to play a broad leadership role in strategic oversight and policy for K-12 education in the state. This paper presents the strategic plan of Washington State Board…

  12. Compassion in Dying v. State of Washington.

    PubMed

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, sitting en banc, affirmed a district court judgment that ruled unconstitutional a Washington statute banning assisted suicide, as applied to competent, terminally ill adults who wish to obtain prescription medication to hasten their deaths. The statute, which was challenged by a group of patients, physicians, and the nonprofit organization Compassion in Dying, was held to be unconstitutional because it violated the due process clause of the U.S. Constitution. The court took into consideration the interests of the state in protecting life, preventing suicides, preventing undue, arbitrary, or unfair influences on an individual's decision to end his life, and ensuring the integrity of the medical profession. These interests were balanced against an individual's strong liberty interest in determining how and when one's life should end. The court recognized this interest after assessing the growing public support for assisted suicide, changes in the causes of death and medical advances, and Supreme Court cases addressing due process liberty interests. The court then determined that the state's interest, which could be protected by adopting sufficient safeguards, did not outweigh the severe burden placed on the terminally ill, and thus the statute as applied was unconstitutional. PMID:11648417

  13. Educator Supply and Demand in Washington State. 2004 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry; Maloney, Rick; Hathaway, Randy; Bryant, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the findings of the third Educator Supply and Demand Research study in the State of Washington. The intent of these Washington studies is to provide data to inform and shape decisions and activities in the following ways: (1) Provide useful information for educational policymakers, including the legislature, the State Board…

  14. The Washington State Graduate Fellowship Program. Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    This status report presents progress data concerning the Graduate Fellowship Program that was initiated in Washington State in 1987. The Washington State legislature enacted the Graduate Fellowship Trust Fund Program to strengthen partnerships between citizens and public four-year institutions. It does this by providing a matching grant program to…

  15. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Washington State Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, WA. Div. of Instructional Programs and Services.

    The Washington State Resource Guide on Martin Luther King, Jr., supplies a wide variety of materials for use with all grade levels in classroom and assembly presentations in public schools. The goal is for every child enrolled in Washington State schools to learn about Dr. King during the days of January 15 to January 17. Resolutions supporting an…

  16. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jennifer; Gorgol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched a 10-year, multi-million dollar initiative, the Washington State Achievers Program (WSA), to increase opportunities for low-income students to attend postsecondary institutions in Washington State. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation granted funds to the College Success Foundation (CSF),…

  17. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the multi-year, multi-million dollar Washington State Achievers Scholarship program. Concerned about disparities in college participation for low-income students in the state of Washington versus their wealthier peers, the Gates Foundation partnered with the College Success Foundation (CSF),…

  18. A risk management procedure for the Washington state ferries.

    PubMed

    van Dorp, J R; Merrick, J R; Harrald, J R; Mazzuchi, T A; Grabowski, M

    2001-02-01

    The state of Washington operates the largest passenger vessel ferry system in the United States. In part due to the introduction of high-speed ferries, the state of Washington established an independent blue-ribbon panel to assess the adequacy of requirements for passenger and crew safety aboard the Washington state ferries. On July 9, 1998, the Blue Ribbon Panel on Washington State Ferry Safety engaged a consultant team from The George Washington University and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute/Le Moyne College to assess the adequacy of passenger and crew safety in the Washington state ferry (WSF) system, to evaluate the level of risk present in the WSF system, and to develop recommendations for prioritized risk reduction measures, which, once implemented, can improve the level of safety in the WSF system. The probability of ferry collisions in the WSF system was assessed using a dynamic simulation methodology that extends the scope of available data with expert judgment. The potential consequences of collisions were modeled in order to determine the requirements for onboard and external emergency response procedures and equipment. The methodology was used to evaluate potential risk reduction measures and to make detailed risk management recommendations to the blue-ribbon panel and the Washington State Transportation Commission.

  19. Recidivism of Supermax Prisoners in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, David; Johnson, L. Clark; Cain, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    This study of recidivism among Washington supermax prisoners used a retrospective matched control design, matching supermax prisoners one-to-one with nonsupermax prisoners on mental illness status and up to eight recidivism predictors. Supermax prisoners committed new felonies at a higher rate than nonsupermax controls, but the difference was not…

  20. State of Washington Computer Use Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Jack L.; And Others

    This report presents the results of a spring 1982 survey of a random sample of Washington public schools which separated findings according to school level (elementary, middle, junior high, or high school) and district size (either less than or greater than 2,000 enrollment). A brief review of previous studies and a description of the survey…

  1. Freeway and arterial management effort in Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, L.N. )

    1989-11-01

    Traffic congestion and personal mobility preservation are the most challenging issues facing transportation professionals. From Phoenix to San Francisco to Washington, D.C., citizens are identifying transportation as their number one concern, outweighing issues such as pollution, overpopulation, unemployment, and crime. In the state of Washington, particularly in the greater Seattle area, congestion is likewise a major concern. In order to address the mobility problems facing the urban areas of Washington, the state initiated a new transportation research and implementation program in October 1987. The program is called Freeway and Arterial Management Effort (FAME). The focus of the program is discussed by the author.

  2. Alternative Fuels for Washington's School Buses: A Report to the Washington State Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, John Kim; McCoy, Gilbert A.

    This document presents findings of a study that evaluated the use of both propane and compressed natural gas as alternative fuels for Washington State school buses. It discusses air quality improvement actions by state- and federal-level regulators and summarizes vehicle design, development, and commercialization activities by all major engine,…

  3. The December 1872 Washington state earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.; Haugerud, R.A.; Hopper, M.G.; Ludwin, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The largest historical earthquake in eastern Washington occurred on 15 December 1872. We used Modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) assignments for 12 twentieth-century earthquakes to determine attenuation relations for different regions in the Pacific Northwest. MMI attenuation for propagation paths east and west of the Cascade Mountains differs significantly only for epicentral distances greater than about 225 km. We used these attenuation relations and the MMI assignments for the 15 December 1872 earthquake to conclude that its epicentral region was east of the Cascade Mountains near Lake Chelan, Washington, and most probably near the south end of Lake Chelan. The intensity magnitude, M1, is 6.8 and moment magnitude, M, is 6.5-7.0 at the 95% confidence level.

  4. Molecular species identification of cryptic apple and snowberry maggots (Diptera: Tephritidae) in western and central Washington.

    PubMed

    Green, Emily; Almskaar, Kristin; Sim, Sheina B; Arcella, Tracy; Yee, Wee L; Feder, Jeffrey L; Schwarz, Dietmar

    2013-10-01

    In Washington state, identification of the quarantine apple pest Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is complicated by the presence of the cryptic species Rhagoletis zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae). Distinguishing the two flies is important because there is a zero tolerance policy for R. pomonella in apple production for export. Here, we attempt to distinguish the two species by scoring R. pomonella and R. zephyria populations from western and south-central Washington for a set of 11 nuclear markers, including four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for rapid and inexpensive genotyping using Taqman real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction. We show that the four SNPs may be adequate in most cases for distinguishing whether a fly originated from apple or black hawthorn (the two major host plants for R. pomonella representing an economic risk) versus snowberry (the major host for R. zephyria, and not a commercial threat). However, directional introgression of R. zephyria alleles into R. pomonella can complicate the identification of flies of mixed ancestry based only on the four SNPs. Moreover, this problem is more acute in the sensitive apple-growing regions of central Washington where our results imply hybridization is common. Consequently, application of the four SNP quantitative-polymerase chain reaction assay can immediately assist ongoing apple maggot monitoring, while the development of additional genetic markers through next-generation sequencing would be valuable for increasing confidence in species identification and for assessing the threat posed by hybridization as R. pomonella further spreads into the more arid apple-growing regions of central Washington.

  5. State Laws Regarding Education Reform, Assessment, and Accountability in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Terry; Kanikeberg, Ken; Butts, Robert

    This document combines in one place the provisions of Washington State law that provide the legal framework for "education reform." Due to the nature in which Washington State laws are "codified" in statute and to the comprehensiveness of education reform, the laws regarding education reform are scattered throughout the Revised Code of Washington.…

  6. A low emission vehicle procurement approach for Washington state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, G. A.; Lyons, J. K.; Ware, G.

    1992-06-01

    The Clean Air Washington Act of 1991 directs the Department of Ecology to establish a clean-fuel vehicle standard. The Department of General Administration shall purchase vehicles based on this standard beginning in the Fall of 1992. The following summarizes the major issues effecting vehicle emissions and their regulation, and present a methodology for procuring clean-fuel vehicles for the State of Washington. Washington State's air quality problems are much less severe than in other parts of the country such as California, the East Coast and parts of the Mid West. Ozone, which is arguably the dominant air quality problem in the US, is a recent and relatively minor issue in Washington. Carbon monoxide (CO) represents a more immediate problem in Washington, with most of the state's urban areas exceeding national CO air quality standards. Since the mid-1960's, vehicle tailpipe hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions have been reduced by 96 percent relative to precontrol vehicles. Nitrogen oxide emissions have been reduced by 76 percent. Emissions from currently available vehicles are quite low with respect to in-place exhaust emission standards. Cold-start emissions constitute about 75 percent of the total emissions measured with the Federal Test Procedure used to certify motor vehicles. There is no currently available 'inherently clean burning fuel'. In 1991, 3052 vehicles were purchased under Washington State contract. Provided that the same number are acquired in 1993, the state will need to purchase 915 vehicles which meet the definition of a 'clean-fueled vehicle'.

  7. Stereo Pair, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.

    This stereoscopic view combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was

  8. Anaglyph, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.

    This anaglyph combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot)resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space

  9. Goat Moths (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) of the Hanford Site and Hanford National Monument, Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three species of goat moths are recorded at the Hanford Nuclear Site and Hanford National Monument in south central Washington State. They are: Comadia bertholdi (Grote), 1880, Givira cornelia (Neumoegen & Dyar), 1893, and Prionoxystus robiniae (Peck), 1818. The general habitat of the Hanford area...

  10. European Earwig, Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) at the Hanford Reach National Monument, Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European earwig, Forficula auricularia L., was surveyed using pitfall traps at three sites at the Hanford Reach National Monument in south central Washington state. Pitfall traps were collected weekly from April 2002 through April 2003. The earwig was consistently taken during all months of the...

  11. Astronomy 101 in Washington State High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Julie H.; Garner, S.; Stetter, T.; McKeever, J.; Santo Pietro, V.

    2011-01-01

    The University of Washington in the High School (UWHS) program enables high schools to offer the 5 quarter credits Astronomy 101 (Astr 101) course for college credits. The credits are transferable to most colleges and universities. The course provides an alternative to advance placement courses and programs such as Washington's Running Start whereby high school students take courses at community colleges. Astr 101 focuses on stars, galaxies and the universe, as well as background topics such as gravitation, electromagnetic radiation and telescopes. The course satisfies the UW "natural world” and "quantitative/symbolic reasoning” distribution requirements. Students must pay a fee to enroll, but the credits cost less than half what they would cost for the course if taken on one of the UW campuses. The course can be offered as either one semester or full-year at the high school. Teachers who offer Astr 101 must be approved in advance by the UW Astronomy Department, and their syllabi and course materials approved also. Teachers receive orientation, professional development opportunities, classroom visits and support (special web site, answering questions, making arrangements for campus visits, planetarium visits) from astronomy department course coordinator. The UWHS Astr 101 program has produced positive outcomes for the astronomy department, the participating teachers and the students who complete the course. In this poster we will discuss our 5 years of experience with offering Astr 101, including benefits to the students, teachers, high schools, university and department, student outcomes, course assessments and resources for offering the course.

  12. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site.

  13. MIGRATION OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS, STATE OF WASHINGTON.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOSSMAN, CHARLES S.; AND OTHERS

    TWO GENERAL ASPECTS OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY STUDENT MIGRATION AS IT RELATES TO THE STATE OF WASHINGTON ARE DISCUSSED. THE FIRST ASPECT INCLUDES ANALYSIS OF MIGRATION PATTERNS IN ACCORDANCE WITH ENROLLMENT CATEGORIES AND TYPES OF INSTITUTIONS, DIFFERENTIAL VOLUMES AND PATTERNS OF MIGRATION FOR SPECIFIC COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN THE STATE, AND…

  14. Language Policy and Bilingual Education in Arizona and Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric J.; Johnson, David Cassels

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the bilingual/language education policies of Arizona and Washington to show that state-level language policy plays a critical role in shaping the appropriation of federal language policy [No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Title III] and how different state-level language policies impact the district level of policy…

  15. Washington State Asian Pacific American Organizations Resources Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Commission on Asian-American Affairs, Olympia.

    This resource directory was prepared to assist educators, the media, government officials, students, and the general public in locating accurate and up-to-date information about Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) in Washington State. It was also prepared to help APAs find the services that are available to them throughout the state. This guide lists…

  16. POPULATION TRENDS AND EDUCATIONAL CHANGE IN THE STATE OF WASHINGTON.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, VINCENT A.; SCHMID, CALVIN F.

    THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND POPULATION CHANGES IN THE STATE OF WASHINGTON WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE RELATIONSHIPS TO AND INFLUENCES UPON PUBLIC EDUCATIONAL TRENDS, ESPECIALLY WITH RESPECT TO PHYSICAL FACILITIES, CURRICULUMS, STAFF, FINANCES, AND ADMINISTRATION. FOR THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY, THE STATE WAS GROUPED INTO LOGICAL AND…

  17. Teacher Evaluation Instruments: The Processes and Protocols in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Andie Shane

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a descriptive analysis of teacher evaluation documents used in the state of Washington in 2010-2011. The purpose of the research was to understand what documents were used, differences and similarities from district to district, and the extent to which they conformed to state administrative rules and what the literature argues…

  18. 2011 State Teacher Policy Yearbook. Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2011

    2011-01-01

    For five years running, the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) has tracked states' teacher policies, preparing a detailed and thorough compendium of teacher policy in the United States on topics related to teacher preparation, licensure, evaluation, career advancement, tenure, compensation, pensions and dismissal. The "2011 State Teacher…

  19. Washington Community Colleges. Correctional Education. Annual Report 2004-2005. State of Washington. State Board for Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This annual report provides a snapshot of enrollments, student demographics, courses and programs, student achievements, staffing, and funding for community college correctional education programs provided at Washington State Department of Corrections adult facilities. The primary source of information for this document is the State Board for…

  20. North Central Washington Business/Spanish Instruction Modules. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Robert H.

    The major objective of this project was to develop a series of specialized English-to-Spanish study modules for retail stores. The modules are to become part of the instruction in the small business, salesmanship, and advertising classes at Wenatchee Valley College (Washington). A minor objective was to survey the current perceived level of sales…

  1. Progress report of new state geologic maps for Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, N.; Stoffel, K.; Phillips, W.

    1987-08-01

    Geologic maps of Washington were previously published in 1936 and 1961 by predecessors to the Division of Geology and Earth Resources (DGER), Department of Natural Resources. These maps were printed at a scale of 1:500,000 and depicted the entire state on a single map sheet. The new state map will be at a scale of 1:250,000 and will be published as four quadrants with boundaries at 47/sup 0/15'N latitude and 120/sup 0/30'W longitude. Compilation and original mapping for the four quadrants are being conducted at a scale of 1:100,000, using recently released US Geological Survey matric 1:100,000 sheets as base maps. the 1:100,000-scale maps are reduced and simplified to produce final, 1:250,000-scale quadrant maps. The 1:100,000-scale geologic maps will be available to the public as DGER open-file reports. The southwest-quadrant geologic map is the first of the series to be published, and is supported by 32 new K-Ar age determinations and approximately 200 geochemical analyses. Preliminary 1:100,000 compilation maps of the northeast quadrant are complete. The 16 maps include new mapping or interpretations in the following areas: (1) Okanogan and Kettle domes, (2) Cambrian miogeoclinal and Ordovician eugeoclinal metasediments and metavolcanics of the Kootenay Arc, (3) southern segment of the Ross Lake fault zone, (4) Eocene volcanics in the Okanogan Range, (5) Eocene plutonic rocks near Republic, and (6) Quaternary sediments north of Spokane. K-Ar age determinations, geochemical analyses, and conodont biostratigraphy are being used to refine the maps. Publication of the northeast quadrant is planned for late 1988.

  2. Job Opportunities Forecast for Washington State 1976-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Commission for Vocational Education, Olympia.

    The seven-year forecast of vocationally related job openings in the State of Washington from 1976 through 1982 identifies long range, gross demands of vocational education training needs by occupational category. Part 1 provides an introduction and lists major participants. Part 2 describes the system's major features and limitations, and…

  3. Educating Limited-English-Proficient Students in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylsma, Pete

    This study examined data from Washington school districts with approved state programs for limited English proficient (LEP) students during 1999-00. Data came from district annual reports; student information from districts with significant numbers of LEP students; and reviews of research on bilingual and LEP education. Overall, students' academic…

  4. Effective Composition Instruction: Washington State Community College Instructors Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Scott Douglas

    To determine what traits characterize instructors who enjoy the greatest success in teaching composition to community college students, a questionnaire was sent to 17 community colleges throughout Washington State. Chairpersons were asked to give the questionnaire to those instructors they considered most effective in teaching freshman composition…

  5. National Board Certification and Teacher Effectiveness: Evidence from Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, James; Goldhaber, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of teachers certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) in Washington State, which has one of the largest populations of National Board-Certified Teachers (NBCTs) in the nation. Based on value-added models in math and reading, we find that NBPTS-certified teachers are about 0.01-0.05…

  6. Composition at Washington State University: Building a Multimodal Bricolage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericsson, Patricia; Hunter, Leeann Downing; Macklin, Tialitha Michelle; Edwards, Elizabeth Sue

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal pedagogy is increasingly accepted among composition scholars. However, putting such pedagogy into practice presents significant challenges. In this profile of Washington State University's first-year composition program, we suggest a multi-vocal and multi-theoretical approach to addressing the challenges of multimodal pedagogy. Patricia…

  7. Washington State Student Achievement Initiative Policy Study: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Wachen, John; Moore, Colleen; Shulock, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges launched a performance funding policy called the Student Achievement Initiative (SAI) both to improve public accountability by more accurately describing what students achieve from enrolling in community colleges and to provide incentives to colleges through financial rewards…

  8. Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) newly recorded from Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examination of museum specimens, unpublished collection data, and field surveys conducted between 2010 and 2014 resulted in new records for 22 species of sawflies in Washington State. These data highlight the continued range expansion of exotic species across North America, seven of which are likely...

  9. Instructional Computing in the Community Colleges of Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Alan; And Others

    A description of current activities in instructional computing in Washington State community colleges is presented, along with curriculum content guidelines and planning procedures to assist colleges which plan to initiate or upgrade their activities in instructional computing. The document provides an overview of computing activities in the…

  10. Evaluation of the Washington State Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.

    2001-02-23

    Since 1976, the national Weatherization Assistance Program has been working to improve the energy efficiency of dwelling units occupied by low-income residents. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and implemented by state and local agencies, the program is active in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. This report focuses on the recent outcomes of Washington State's weatherization efforts. The performance of the Washington Weatherization Program is of interest because few evaluations have been performed in this part of the country and because Washington contains a high proportion of electrically-heated houses, which have received relatively little examination in the past. This study, which calculates the magnitude of energy savings for both electrically-heated and gas-heated houses and compares program benefits and costs, was initiated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the summer of 1998. In conclusion, we find that the Washington State Weatherization Assistance Program has achieved substantial energy savings in both electrically-heated and gas-heated houses. A comparison of the findings from this study with those from many other evaluations of state weatherization efforts conducted over the past 10 years indicates that Washington is in the top one-third nationwide in terms of program-induced energy savings. In addition, the relationships between energy savings and both pre-weatherization consumption and weatherization expenditures reported in this document are consistent with the findings from earlier studies. These findings suggest that households with high energy consumption make effective targets for state weatherization efforts and that increasing the amount spent per household yields tangible returns in terms of energy savings.

  11. Revisiting the deific-decree doctrine in Washington state.

    PubMed

    Leong, Gregory B

    2008-01-01

    The deific-decree exception to Washington's M'Naughten insanity standard first appeared in case law a quarter century ago in State v. Crenshaw. A few subsequent cases have attempted to refine the contours of the deific decree; however, the deific-decree doctrine has had only limited utility as a basis for the insanity defense. After about a decade of no activity in this area, the Washington courts have recently revisited the deific-decree doctrine in a case involving two defendants.

  12. Innovate Washington Group Looks to Create State Business

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-04-11

    Monthly column for TCH - April 2012. Excerpt here: Change is inevitable. In fact, many say it’s the only constant. One can either wait for the waves to hit and try not to drown, or get ahead of them and maximize the ride. I believe being proactive is the harder, but more powerful option. Over the past couple years numerous people have proactively worked to effect a particular change across the state of Washington: create a thriving ecosystem to accelerate technology-based economic development and achieve sustainable job growth. The result is an organization called Innovate Washington.

  13. Phytoplankton off the Coast of Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Clear weather over the Pacific Northwest yesterday gave the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) a good view of this mountain region of the United States. Also, there are several phytoplankton blooms visible offshore. The white areas hugging the California coastline toward the bottom of the image are low-level stratus clouds. SeaWiFS acquired this true-color scene on October 3, 2001. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. Rise and fall of endrin usage in Washington state fruit orchards: Effects on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the effects of endrin on wildlife was conducted from 1981 to 1983 in fruit orchards in central Washington state. The single post-harvest application of endrin as a rodenticide resulted in both acute and chronic toxicity to a variety of avian species. Most mortality occurred soon after application, but several raptors died during the spring and summer. Most wildlife sampled in the orchard system contained residues of endrin. There was on evidence that endrin depressed reproductive success.

  15. Test wells in central Washington, 1977 to 1979; description and results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lum, W.E.; Cline, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    During the period October 1977-March 1979, four wells were added to a network of wells in central Washington State to provide information on potential sources of ground-water supplies from aquifers in the Columbia River Basalt Group and supplemental ground-water data for water-management purposes where they cannot be obtained by other means. Two were drilled in the Yakima River canyon between Ellensburg and Yakima--one to 602 feet in the Burbank Creek valley and the other to 1,019 feet near the mouth of Umtanum Creek. A third well was drilled to 725 feet in the Badger Pocket area of the Ellensburg-Kittitas valley. A test well near George, Washington, was deepened from 975 to 1,610 feet and three piezometers were installed in this interval. The Burbank Creek, Umtanum Creek, and George test wells are completed in basalts and associated interflow zones of the Yakima Basalt Subgroup of the Columbia River Basalt Group. The Badger Pocket well penetrated more than 725 feet of unconsolidated materials without reaching the basalt. Specific capacities of the Umtanum Creek and George wells after 20 hours of pumping were 190 and 160 to 190 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown, respectively. Specific capacity of the Burbank Creek well after flowing for 24 hours was 32.5 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. The Badger Pocket well was not tested for water yield. (USGS)

  16. 78 FR 44593 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission... and Recreation Commission has completed an inventory of human remains in consultation with the... the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission. If no additional requestors come...

  17. 77 FR 61782 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... by November 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, P.O... be culturally affiliated with the human remains should contact Alicia Woods, Washington State...

  18. Work-related burns in Washington State, 1994 to 1998.

    PubMed

    Baggs, James; Curwick, Christy; Silverstein, Barbara

    2002-07-01

    This article describes an investigation of work-related burns in Washington State during 1994-1998. Workers' compensation data were used to describe the general characteristics of burn injuries, estimate industrial claims rates, and compare nonhospitalized and hospitalized burn cases. The completeness of workers' compensation data as a source for surveillance was evaluated. During 1994-1998, a total of 20,213 burn claims were accepted by the workers' compensation system. Hospitalized burn cases represented only 1.5% of burn claims but incurred 55% of the costs. In addition, workers' compensation data underestimated the frequency and rate of burns. Although workers' compensation claims rates decreased during 1994-1998, work-related burns remain a problem in Washington State. Several industries (e.g., roofing, foundries, and aluminum smelting) were identified as priorities for prevention of burn hospitalizations, which incur the greater cost and time loss.

  19. Wind Powering America State Outreach. Final Technical Report: Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, Tim

    2013-09-30

    The Washington Department of Commerce, via a U.S. Department of Energy grant, supported research into siting and permitting processes for wind projects by Skagit County, Washington. The goal was to help a local government understand key issues, consider how other areas have addressed wind siting, and establish a basis for enacting permitting and zoning ordinances that provided a more predictable permitting path and process for landowners, citizens, government and developers of small and community wind projects. The County?s contractor developed a report that looked at various approaches to wind siting, interviewed stakeholders, and examined technology options. The contractor outlined key issues and recommended the adoption of a siting process. The Skagit County Commission considered the report and directed the Skagit County Planning & Development Services Department to add development of wind guidelines to its work plan for potential changes to development codes.

  20. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Washington has adopted regulations analogous to EPA's Lead and Copper Short-Term...

  1. 76 FR 28073 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University... the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA. The human remains and... made by the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University professional staff in...

  2. 1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1990-12-31

    This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington`s industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state`s total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state`s energy needs.

  3. 78 FR 59955 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum... Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), has completed an... of control of these human remains should submit a written request to the Burke Museum. If...

  4. 75 FR 36672 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum... Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington, Seattle, WA. The human remains were removed... sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the...

  5. The Center for the Study of Migrant and Indian Education; An Overview of the History and Purpose of an Educational Service Center for Teachers of Migrant and Indian Children in the State of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Migrant and Indian Education, Toppenish, WA.

    The document provides an overview of the history and purpose of the educational service center for teachers of migrant and Indian children in the State of Washington. The center, a project of the Department of Education of Central Washington College, is located on an Indian reservation in the Yakima Valley in the central part of the state. The…

  6. Washington State Pediatricians' Attitudes Toward Alternative Childhood Immunization Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Wightman, Aaron; Marcuse, Edgar K.; Taylor, James A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of parents' requests for alternative childhood immunization schedules (ACISs) and pediatricians' comfort with and willingness to use ACISs. METHODS: Washington State primary care pediatricians were asked to complete an Internet-based survey on ACISs. The main outcome measures were the frequency of parents' requests for ACISs, pediatricians' comfort with their use, and pediatricians' willingness to use ACISs for individual vaccines. In addition, respondents were asked to characterize their practices and to provide demographic information. RESULTS: Of the 311 respondents (response rate: 65%), 209 met inclusion criteria and were included in analyses. Overall, 77% of eligible respondents reported that parents sometimes or frequently requested ACISs, and 61% were comfortable using an ACIS if requested by a parent. Pediatricians were least willing to consider using ACISs for diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatricians who practiced in a neighborhood or community clinic were less comfortable using ACISs than were those in a 1- or 2-physician practice (odds ratio: 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Washington State pediatricians are regularly being asked to use ACISs, and most of them are comfortable using them if requested. Pediatricians are least willing to delay H influenzae type b vaccine, diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis vaccine, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, which suggests prioritization of immunizations that protect against potentially devastating bacterial infections of infancy and early childhood. PMID:22123877

  7. 1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington's industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state's total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state's energy needs.

  8. Dealing with Disproportionality in the Juvenile Justice System: The State of Washington's Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilla, Thomas V.

    In 1995, a report on the Washington state juvenile justice system found that minority youth were four times more likely than white youth to be sentenced to confinement. This report reviews aspects of disproportionality in Washington's juvenile justice system, summarizes inquiries by the Washington Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil…

  9. 1994 Washington State directory of Biomass Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    This is the fourth edition of the Washington Directory of Biomass Energy Facilities, the first edition was published in 1987. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of and basic information about known biomass producers and users within the state to help demonstrate the importance of biomass energy in fueling our state`s energy needs. In 1992 (latest statistical year), estimates show that the industrial sector in Washington consumed nearly 128 trillion Btu of electricity, nearly 49.5 trillion Btu of petroleum, over 82.2 trillion Btu of natural gas, and over 4.2 trillion Btu of coal. Facilities listed in this directory generated approximately 114 trillion Btu of biomass energy - 93 trillion were consumed from waste wood and spent chemicals. In the total industrial energy picture, wood residues and chemical cooking liquors placed second only to electricity. This directory is divided into four main sections biogas production, biomass combustion, ethanol production, and solid fuel processing facilities. Each section contains maps and tables summarizing the information for each type of biomass. Provided in the back of the directory for reference are a conversion table, a table of abbreviations, a glossary, and an index. Chapter 1 deals with biogas production from both landfills and sewage treatment plants in the state. Biogas produced from garbage and sewage can be scrubbed and used to generate electricity. At the present time, biogas collected at landfills is being flared on-site, however four landfills are investigating the feasibility of gas recovery for energy. Landfill biogas accounted for approximately 6 percent of the total biomass reported. Sewage treatment biogas accounted for 0.6 percent. Biogas generated from sewage treatment plants is primarily used for space and process heat, only one facility presently scrubs and sells methane. Together, landfill and sewage treatment plant biogas represented over 6.6 percent of the total biomass reported.

  10. Financing Post-Secondary Education in Washington. A Report to the Council on Higher Education State of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hind, Robert R.; And Others

    This document, a review of financing postsecondary education in Washington, emphasizes the need for the users of postsecondary education and the state to carry most of the financial burden and provides a cost-benefit analysis, information on pricing and student aid, current practices in state financing, and data on student loans. Options for…

  11. Controls on ground-water chemistry in the Horse Heaven Hills, south-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinkampf, W.C.; Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Packard, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Miocene basaltic aquifers are the source of domestic and municipal water, and about 20,000 acre-feet of irrigation water annually, in the Horse Heaven Hills in south-central Washington State. Groundwater chemical variations derive from the hydraulic characteristics is of the geohydrologic system, from groundwater basalt reactions, and from irrigation. Some dissolved species concentrations increase with residence time; others decrease. Recharge area groundwaters are calcium magnesium sodium bicarbonate waters with sodium-adsorption ratios (SAR's) less than 1.0. They evolve to sodium potassium bicarbonate waters with SAR 's as high as 17. Glassy and cryptocrystalline phases of the basalt are the main sources of dissolved sodium. They dissolve by silicate hydrolysis in carbon dioxide charged waters that recharge the aquifer system. Dissolved silicon, iron, and aluminum concentrations are controlled by the solubilities of amorphous secondary alteration products, which order to silica phases, oxyhydroxides, and smectite. Carbonate mineral precipitation is induced by increasing pH from the hydrolysis reaction. Sodium and potassium concentrations increase until clinoptilolite saturation is reached and precipitation begins. Deviations from the general variation patterns are due to localized geologic structures which distort the groundwater flow system, and to the irrigation use of Columbia River water. (USGS)

  12. Washington State Community Colleges: Impact on the Economy of the State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sally; And Others

    Using a Virginia study as a model, this study assessed the effect on Washington state's economy of its 27 campus community college system. The study was based on a simple circular cash-flow model for the years 1969-1976 and measured economic impact in three areas: on the level of business volume done in-state, on employment, and on total state…

  13. State Gender Equity Law & Athletic Participation among Community Colleges in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Horton, David, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of partial tuition waivers for athletic participation among community colleges in Washington State and its implications for state and federal gender equity policy and legislation. Using a mixed-methods approach, this article presents findings from Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act data, document analysis, and…

  14. STATE OF WASHINGTON, STATE PLAN FOR TITLE 1, HIGHER EDUCATION ACT OF 1965. REVISED, JULY 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Planning and Community Affairs Agency, Olympia.

    THE STATE OF WASHINGTON PLAN FOR PARTICIPATION IN THE FEDERAL GRANT PROGRAM UNDER TITLE 1 OF THE HIGHER EDUCATION ACT OF 1965 OUTLINES THE ORGANIZATION AND THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS OF THE PLANNING AND COMMUNITY AFFAIRS AGENCY (INTENDED AS THE SOLE TITLE 1 ADMINISTRATIVE BODY IN THE STATE), GUIDELINES FOR SELECTING COMMUNITY PROBLEMS OR…

  15. Central Washington seismicity; Evidence for a reactivated buried continental rift and northwest-trending structural zones

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A. )

    1989-11-01

    Analysis of central Washington seismicity of the past two decades reveals some interesting features. Shallow seismicity and deep seismicity occur as different geographic distributions. Concentration of seismicity along north- to northwest-oriented trends appears to be related to a buried continental rift and possible associated fault zones. Hypothesized extensions of the Chiwaukum graben and Straight Creek fault systems are plausible structural controls on the seismicity.

  16. Petrogenesis of the Fifes Peak volcanics, south-central Cascades Range, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, R.S.; Thompson, J.M.S. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    During the late Oligocene (ca. 27--23 Ma.), a voluminous section of subduction-related basalt to rhyolite flows and interbedded pyroclastics, comprising the Fifes Peak Formation, were extruded in the south-central Cascades Range of Washington State. Microprobe analyses reveal that basalts and basaltic andesites contain megacrysts of aluminous clinopyroxene and spinel (hercynite) that may be xenocrysts derived from an upper mantle source zone or early, high pressure magmatic phases. Mass balance calculations indicate that the compositional variation of the Fifes Peak basalt and andesite was controlled mainly by high-pressure clinopyroxene-dominated fractionation, coupled with lower pressure fractionation of plagioclase + orthopyroxene + magnetite/ilmenite. Trace element data and mass balances also show that the more silicic lavas must contain a significant crustal component (such as a high Ba/Nb pelagic sediment). The dacites and rhyolites were probably formed mainly by crustal melting, rather than contamination of mantle-derived magmas. The Fifes Peak volcanics have a typical arc-type trace-element distribution with distinct depletions in Ta, Nb, and Ti and enrichment in Th and large-ion-lithophile elements. All of the analyzed Fifes Peak flows are light-rare-earth-element enrichment, with a mean La/Yb ratio of 7.6. There is no indication of an OIB mantle source array, nor the low fluid-flux subduction conditions that characterize magmas generated in the southwest Cascades. Apparently the anomalous nature of the subduction zone in that region of the Cascades arc does not extend northward to the south-central Cascades.

  17. Molecular species identification of cryptic apple and snowberry maggots (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Western and Central Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Washington state, identification of the quarantine apple pest Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is complicated by the presence of the cryptic species R. zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae). Distinguishing the two flies is important because there is a zero tolerance policy for R. pomonella in apple p...

  18. Washington's Infant Toddler Early Intervention Program Study: Enrollment of Washington Children with Disabilities and Special Health Care Needs in Washington State Public Programs on December 1, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Dorothy; Keenan, Trisha; Cawthon, Laurie; Felming, Jan; Dickey, Rita; Loerch, Sandy; Shureen, Anne

    This report presents information on infants and toddlers (ages birth to three) with delaying or disabling conditions, who were enrolled in Washington State public services on December 1, 1997, under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Part H. Major findings included: (1) there was a total enrollment of 5,007 infants and toddlers (2.1…

  19. Washington's Infant Toddler Early Intervention Program Study: Enrollment of Washington Children with Disabilities and Special Health Care Needs in Washington State Public Programs on December 1, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Trisha; And Others

    This document presents tables, graphs, and narrative text providing information on the number and characteristics of infants and toddlers, under the age of 3, with disabilities and special health problems who were enrolled in Washington State's infant and toddler early intervention program in 1995. Major findings of the report include the…

  20. 78 FR 50092 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State Parks and Recreation... State Parks and Recreation Commission, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native... request to the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission. If no additional claimants come...

  1. Charter Schools in Washington State: A Financial Drain or Gain? CRPE Working Paper #2004_5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Amy Berk

    2004-01-01

    The pending Referendum 55 (R-55), allowing for the emergence of charter schools in Washington State, raises questions about the overall fiscal impact of these new public schools at the state and local levels. Specifically, what potential benefits or losses might the State of Washington and local school districts expect if Referendum 55 passes?…

  2. Identification of a Kulshan caldera correlative tephra in the Palouse loess of Washington State, northwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Georgina E.; Pearce, Nicholas J. G.; Roberts, Helen M.; Smith, Victoria C.; Westgate, John A.; Gaylord, David R.; Sweeney, Mark R.

    2016-09-01

    The Kulshan caldera formed at ∼1.15 Ma on the present-day site of Mt. Baker, Washington State, northwest USA and erupted a compositionally zoned (dacite-rhyolite) magma and a correlative eruptive, the Lake Tapps tephra. This tephra has previously been described, but only from the Puget Lowland of NW Washington. Here an occurrence of a Kulshan caldera correlative tephra is described from the Quaternary Palouse loess at the Washtucna site (WA-3). Site WA-3 is located in east-central Washington, ∼340 km southeast of the Kulshan caldera and ∼300 km east-southeast of the Lake Tapps occurrence in the Puget Lowland. Major- and trace element chemistry and location of the deposit at Washtucna within reversed polarity sediments indicates that it is not correlative with the Mesa Falls, Rockland, Bishop Ash, Lava Creek B or Huckleberry Ridge tephras. Instead the Washtucna deposit is related to the Lake Tapps tephra by fractional crystallisation, but is chemically distinct, a consequence of its eruption from a compositionally zoned magma chamber. The correlation of the Washtucna occurrence to the Kulshan caldera-forming eruption indicates that it had an eruptive volume exceeding 100 km3, and that its tephra could provide a valuable early-Pleistocene chronostratigraphic marker in the Pacific Northwest.

  3. Arthropod fauna of rolled alder leaves in Washington State, United States of America (Insecta: Arachnida)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alders, Alnus spp., growing on the eastern slopes and foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington State, are often infested with shelter-making (primarily leafrolling) Lepidoptera in the families Tortricidae, Gracillariidae, and Choreutidae. Over a 5 year survey period, 5,172 rolled leaves were ex...

  4. Background concentrations of metals in soils from selected regions in the State of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ames, K.C.; Prych, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Soil samples from 60 sites in the State of Washington were collected and analyzed to determine the magnitude and variability of background concen- trations of metals in soils of the State. Samples were collected in areas that were relatively undisturbed by human activity from the most pre- dominant soils in 12 different regions that are representative of large areas of Washington State. Concentrations of metals were determined by five different laboratory methods. Concentrations of mercury and nickel determined by both the total and total-recoverable methods displayed the greatest variability, followed by chromium and copper determined by the total-recoverable method. Concentrations of other metals, such as aluminum and barium determined by the total method, varied less. Most metals concentrations were found to be more nearly log-normally than normally distributed. Total metals concentrations were not significantly different among the different regions. However, total-recoverable metals concentrations were not as similar among different regions. Cluster analysis revealed that sampling sites in three regions encompassing the Puget Sound could be regrouped to form two new regions and sites in three regions in south-central and southeastern Washington State could also be regrouped into two new regions. Concentrations for 7 of 11 total-recoverable metals correlated with total metals concentrations. Concen- trations of six total metals also correlated positively with organic carbon. Total-recoverable metals concentrations did not correlate with either organic carbon or particle size. Concentrations of metals determined by the leaching methods did not correlate with total or total-recoverable metals concentrations, nor did they correlate with organic carbon or particle size.

  5. Regional Analyses of Precipitation Annual Maxima in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Regional analyses of precipitation data were conducted using an index flood type methodology and probability weighted moments parameter estimates for the generalized extreme value distribution. Annual maximum series data were collected at 115 stations for durations of 2 and 6 hours and at 315 stations for the 24-hour duration. Because the climate in Washington State varies from arid to rain forest, the issues of homogeneity and region definition posed major problems. Those problems were circumvented by considering the state to be a heterogeneous superregion. Climatologically homogenous subregions within the superregion were defined in terms of mean annual precipitation (MAP) rather than geographic location. The subregional values of the coefficients of variation Cv and skew γ were found to vary systematically with MAP across the superregion. This allowed the superregional values of Cv and γ to be expressed as continuous variables instead of conventional fixed values and eliminated the boundary problems normally associated with subregion definition. The values of Cv and γ for the superregion were found to be largest for arid areas and shorter durations. Smaller values of Cv and γ were associated with humid and rain forest environments. All subregional solutions were within, or near, the extreme value type II family.

  6. Occupational burns in Washington State, 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    McCullough, J E; Henderson, A K; Kaufman, J D

    1998-12-01

    Occupational burns cause significant morbidity in the United States each year; however, there are few studies that report industries or workplaces where workers are at an increased risk of burn injuries. Washington State's Department of Labor and Industries (L and I) computerized workers' compensation database was used to describe work-related burns over 5 years. From 1989 to 1993, L and I accepted 27,323 claims for occupational burns, 71.4% of them thermal burns and 26.8% chemical burns. The most common sources of injury were cooking oils (14%) and hot water/steam (13%). Workers involved in food preparation or food handling accounted for the highest proportion of injured workers (30%). Industries involved in the smelting, sintering, or refining of ore had the highest rate for thermal burns, with a rate of 15.0 burn injuries per 100 full-time equivalent workers per year, followed by paper, pulp, or wood fiber manufacturing, with a rate of 5.8, then roof work, with a rate of 4.3. Industries involved in hazardous waste landfill clean-up had the highest rate for chemical burns, with a rate of 4.9, followed by portable cleaning and washing, with a rate of 3.5, and paper, pulp, and wood fiber manufacturing, with a rate of 2.6. Further study is needed to identify work practices that result in burn injuries in order to decrease the incidence of this preventable occupational injury. PMID:9871885

  7. A Cross-National Comparison of School Drug Policies in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyers, Jennifer M.; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; Mathers, Megan; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2005-01-01

    Using mail survey data collected from primary and secondary school administrators in Washington State, United States, and in Victoria, Australia, this study compared aspects of the school drug policy, environment in the 2 states. Documented substance-use policies were prevalent in Washington and Victoria but less prevalent in primary schools,…

  8. 78 FR 2429 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with... associated funerary objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

  9. 77 FR 74871 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with... associated funerary objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

  10. Washington State's Model and Programs: Applied Baccalaureate Degrees at Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England-Siegerdt, Christy; Andreas, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    President Obama is calling for an increase in educational attainment among citizens of the United States (Obama, 2009). Prior to this national call, Washington State recognized the need to increase the educational attainment of its residents to maintain a globally competitive economy. By 2018, 67 percent of jobs in Washington will require a…

  11. P-20 Education Policy: School to College Transition Policy in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitre, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines Washington State's attempt to move toward an integrated, P-20 system of education that enhances student transitions from high school to college. In analyzing Washington as a single case study, a profile of the state is developed on key access related characteristics. Data for this study were gathered utilizing fundamental case…

  12. RESEARCH COORDINATING UNIT FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN WASHINGTON STATE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PILANT, GEORGE P.

    THE WASHINGTON RESEARCH COORDINATING UNIT (RCU), ORGANIZED IN THE WASHINGTON STATE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION ON JUNE 1, 1965, AIMED TO INITIATE, COORDINATE, AND RELATE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH, ACTIVITIES, AND INFORMATION TO MEET THE VOCATIONAL NEEDS OF THE STATE'S YOUTH. MAJOR PROJECTS CARRIED OUT UNDER CONTRACT BETWEEN THE RCU AND…

  13. 75 FR 36671 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... the Federal Register (75 FR 5105-5106, February 1, 2010). In the Federal Register, paragraph number 7... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum... funerary objects in the possession of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke...

  14. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  15. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA

    PubMed Central

    James, David G.; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation. PMID:27367733

  16. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation. PMID:27367733

  17. Geothermal energy development in Washington State. A guide to the federal, state and local regulatory process

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Simpson, S.J.

    1986-03-01

    Washington State's geothermal potential is wide spread. Hot springs and five strato volcanoes existing throughout the Cascade Range, limited hot spring activity on the Olympic Peninsula, and broad reaching, low temperature geothermal resources found in the Columbia Basin comprise the extent of Washington's known geothermal resources. Determination of resource ownership is the first step in proceeding with geothermal exploration and development activities. The federal and state processes are examined from pre-lease activity through leasing and post-lease development concerns. Plans, permits, licenses, and other requirements are addressed for the federal, state, and local level. Lease, permit, and other forms for a number of geothermal exploration and development activities are included. A map of public lands and another displaying the measured geothermal resources throughout the state are provided.

  18. A Study of Low Frequency Earthquakes in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, A. A.; Bostock, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    In the past decade, studies have shown that non-volcanic tremor in southwest Japan can be explained by swarms of low frequency earthquakes (LFEs). More recently LFEs have been identified and documented in southern Vancouver Island. Here we extend study of LFEs to Washington state by exploiting data from the IRIS-PASCAL CAFE experiment. We use network autocorrelation to detect LFEs within 4 different tremor episodes (2007,2008,2010 and 2011). We separate the dataset into 2 components, one involving stations between the Olympic Peninsula and Puget Sound (North Group) and the other involving stations to the south of Puget Sound (South Group). For the South Group, only the 2007 and 2008 tremor episodes are available. From an initial 4915 (North Group) and 3306 (South Group) detections of LFEs using a set of 7 3-components stations, we use iterative network cross-correlation to register further detections and stack to improve signal-to-noise ratio of LFE family templates. On the basis of progress to date, we anticipate the assembly of ~150 and ~50 LFE family templates for the North and South Groups, respectively. We plan to locate these LFE family templates, determine representative focal mechanisms and investigate LFE occurrence relative to regular seismicity for comparison with previous results from southern Vancouver Island and southwest Japan.

  19. Riparian vegetation of the Snake River in Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.C.; Mettler, L.

    1994-06-01

    In January 1992, the US Army Corps of Engineers selected reservoir drawdown and lowered pool elevation as the preferred alternative in the Columbia River Salmon Flow Measured Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). During March 1992, reservoirs upstream from Lower Granite and Little Goose Dams on the Snake River were drawn down below the minimum operating pool (MOP), which is 5 vertical feet below ordinary high water level (0@) level. The reservoir upstream from Lower Granite Dam was drawn down to approximately 37 ft below 0 while that upstream of Little Goose Dam was drawn down to approximately 15 ft (4.5 m) below MOP. Following the drawdown (March 1--31, 1992), the reservoirs of all four dams in the Snake River of Washington State (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor) were maintained at MOP (April 1--July 31,1992). This allowed a defined portion of shoreline to be exposed for an extended period. The objectives of the study were to monitor impacts to the associated upland, riparian/wetland, and aquatic vegetation and newly exposed shorelines of four reservoirs of the Snake River during the flow measures study; and monitor the newly exposed shorelines for invasion of pioneering species during the entire period of the wildlife monitoring study.

  20. Trace element content of leaves of desert shrubs in south-central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.; Garland, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of leaves of desert shrubs showed strong differences in macroelements according to species and location on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) site in south-central Washington. Halophytes were characterized by high levels of K, Cl, Br, Mn, and Na, and glycophytes by high levels of Ca and Mg. However, trace element content was not significantly different. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) leaves from Wyoming and the ALE site were not greatly different in trace element content. Natural leaf fall collections can be used to monitor changing levels of trace element content induced by coal combustion steam-electric plants.

  1. Personality Characteristics of Teachers Serving in Washington State Correctional Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsgaard, John O.; Kelso, Charles E. Jr.; Schumacher, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    Personality inventory scoring of 90 correctional educators working in Washington penal institutions yielded 27 factors describing personality characteristics. It was determined that 15 of these factors are valuable in describing the characteristics of those working in successful programs. (JOW)

  2. Golovinomyces spadaceus causing powdery mildew on Coreopsis hybrid 'Full Moon' (Heliantheae, Asteraceae) in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of powdery mildew were observed on a Coreopsis cultivar in the Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Garden on the Washington State University campus, Pullman, Whitman County, Washington. White to off-white sporulating mycelial areas were ~5mm in diam to confluent and confined to adaxial...

  3. Credit-by-Exam Acceptance Policies: Advanced Study of Washington State's Public Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Rachel; Martin, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Washington Student Achievement Council's 10-Year Roadmap sets a goal for 2023 of having 70 percent of Washington adults (ages 25-44) receive a postsecondary credential. At the same time, dramatic cuts in state funding for higher education, particularly since 2008, have shifted more of the cost of higher education onto students and families, making…

  4. 75 FR 34674 - Washington: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ...-Containing Equipment Universal Waste (70 FR 45508, 8/5/06). The State's revised mercury-containing equipment...? Washington initially received final authorization on January 30, 1986, effective January 31, 1986 (51 FR 3782... Washington's program on September 22, 1987, effective on November 23, 1987 (52 FR 35556); August 17,...

  5. The Real Facts of Life for Children of Color in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. Human Services Policy Center.

    This report presents the conditions of children of color in the state of Washington, with statistics about economic support, health, and safety. Comments from leaders of color and other true stories help explain the situations reflected by the numerical data. It is important to note that most children of color in Washington live in solid families…

  6. Legal Issues and Small High Schools: Strategies to Support Innovation in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner-King, Kelly; Price, Mitch

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, education program officials at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation asked attorneys at the University of Washington's Center on Reinventing Public Education to explore legal issues affecting the establishment and operation of small high schools in Washington State. Although this guide will be of interest to small school advocates…

  7. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Three Potato Pests in Washington State.

    PubMed

    D'Auria, Elizabeth M; Wohleb, Carrie H; Waters, Timothy D; Crowder, David W

    2016-08-01

    Pest phenology models allow producers to anticipate pest outbreaks and deploy integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. Phenology models are particularly useful for cropping systems with multiple economically damaging pests throughout a season. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crops of Washington State, USA, are attacked by many insect pests including the potato tuberworm (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller), the beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus Baker), and the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Each of these pests directly damages potato foliage or tubers; C. tenellus and M. persicae also transmit pathogens that can drastically reduce potato yields. We monitored the seasonal population dynamics of these pests by conducting weekly sampling on a network of commercial farms from 2007 to 2014. Using these data, we developed phenology models to characterize the seasonal population dynamics of each pest based on accumulated degree-days (DD). All three pests exhibited consistent population dynamics across seasons that were mediated by temperature. Of the three pests, C. tenellus was generally the first detected in potato crops, with 90% of adults captured by 936 DD. In contrast, populations of P. operculella and M. persicae built up more slowly over the course of the season, with 90% cumulative catch by 1,590 and 2,634 DD, respectively. Understanding these seasonal patterns could help potato producers plan their IPM strategies while allowing them to move away from calendar-based applications of insecticides. More broadly, our results show how long-term monitoring studies that explore dynamics of multiple pest species can aid in developing IPM strategies in crop systems. PMID:27271946

  8. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Three Potato Pests in Washington State.

    PubMed

    D'Auria, Elizabeth M; Wohleb, Carrie H; Waters, Timothy D; Crowder, David W

    2016-08-01

    Pest phenology models allow producers to anticipate pest outbreaks and deploy integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. Phenology models are particularly useful for cropping systems with multiple economically damaging pests throughout a season. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crops of Washington State, USA, are attacked by many insect pests including the potato tuberworm (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller), the beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus Baker), and the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Each of these pests directly damages potato foliage or tubers; C. tenellus and M. persicae also transmit pathogens that can drastically reduce potato yields. We monitored the seasonal population dynamics of these pests by conducting weekly sampling on a network of commercial farms from 2007 to 2014. Using these data, we developed phenology models to characterize the seasonal population dynamics of each pest based on accumulated degree-days (DD). All three pests exhibited consistent population dynamics across seasons that were mediated by temperature. Of the three pests, C. tenellus was generally the first detected in potato crops, with 90% of adults captured by 936 DD. In contrast, populations of P. operculella and M. persicae built up more slowly over the course of the season, with 90% cumulative catch by 1,590 and 2,634 DD, respectively. Understanding these seasonal patterns could help potato producers plan their IPM strategies while allowing them to move away from calendar-based applications of insecticides. More broadly, our results show how long-term monitoring studies that explore dynamics of multiple pest species can aid in developing IPM strategies in crop systems.

  9. Regional Climate Model Projections for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Salathe, E.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun; Zhang, Yongxin

    2010-05-05

    Global climate models do not have sufficient spatial resolution to represent the atmospheric and land surface processes that determine the unique regional heterogeneity of the climate of the State of Washington. If future large-scale weather patterns interact differently with the local terrain and coastlines than current weather patterns, local changes in temperature and precipitation could be quite different from the coarse-scale changes projected by global models. Regional climate models explicitly simulate the interactions between the large-scale weather patterns simulated by a global model and the local terrain. We have performed two 100-year climate simulations using the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). One simulation is forced by the NCAR Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) and the second is forced by a simulation of the Max Plank Institute, Hamburg, global model (ECHAM5). The mesoscale simulations produce regional changes in snow cover, cloudiness, and circulation patterns associated with interactions between the large-scale climate change and the regional topography and land-water contrasts. These changes substantially alter the temperature and precipitation trends over the region relative to the global model result or statistical downscaling. To illustrate this effect, we analyze the changes from the current climate (1970-1999) to the mid 21st century (2030-2059). Changes in seasonal-mean temperature, precipitation, and snowpack are presented. Several climatological indices of extreme daily weather are also presented: precipitation intensity, fraction of precipitation occurring in extreme daily events, heat wave frequency, growing season length, and frequency of warm nights. Despite somewhat different changes in seasonal precipitation and temperature from the two regional simulations, consistent results for changes in snowpack and extreme precipitation are found in

  10. Site response and attenuation in the Puget Lowland, Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, T.L.; Brocher, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    Simple spectral ratio (SSR) and horizontal-to-vertical (HN) site-response estimates at 47 sites in the Puget Lowland of Washington State document significant attenuation of 1.5- to 20-Hz shear waves within sedimentary basins there. Amplitudes of the horizontal components of shear-wave arrivals from three local earthquakes were used to compute SSRs with respect to the average of two bedrock sites and H/V spectral ratios with respect to the vertical component of the shear-wave arrivals at each site. SSR site-response curves at thick basin sites show peak amplifications of 2 to 6 at frequencies of 3 to 6 Hz, and decreasing spectra amplification with increasing frequency above 6 Hz. SSRs at nonbasin sites show a variety of shapes and larger resonance peaks. We attribute the spectral decay at frequencies above the amplification peak at basin sites to attenuation within the basin strata. Computing the frequency-independent, depth-dependent attenuation factor (Qs,int) from the SSR spectral decay between 2 and 20 Hz gives values of 5 to 40 for shallow sedimentary deposits and about 250 for the deepest sedimentary strata (7 km depth). H/V site responses show less spectral decay than the SSR responses but contain many of the same resonance peaks. We hypothesize that the H/V method yields a flatter response across the frequency spectrum than SSRs because the H/V reference signal (vertical component of the shear-wave arrivals) has undergone a degree of attenuation similar to the horizontal component recordings. Correcting the SSR site responses for attenuation within the basins by removing the spectral decay improves agreement between SSR and H/V estimates.

  11. Rise and fall of endrin usage in Washington state fruit orchards: Effects on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, Charles J.; Grove, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the effects of endrin on wildlife was conducted from 1981 to 1983 in fruit orchards in central Washington State. The single post-harvest application of endrin as a rodenticide resulted in both acute and chronic toxicity to a variety of avian species. Of 194 birds found dead, brains of 125 were analysed; endrin toxicosis accounted for >24% of the total and 37% of those analysed. Most mortality occurred soon after application, but several raptors died during the spring and summer. Most wildlife sampled in the orchard system contained residues of endrin. There was no evidence that endrin depressed reproductive success. Use of endrin abruptly declined during this study and its use is currently limited to emergency situations. Wildlife mortality from endrin also decreased; only six endrin-related mortalities were detected the last year of the study and there have been no reports of die-offs since the study ended.

  12. Perceptions of Environmental and Occupational Health Hazards Among Agricultural Workers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Crowe, Jennifer; Postma, Julie; Ybarra, Vickie; Keifer, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers. Interviews were conducted with 389 agricultural workers in the Yakima Valley in central Washington State in the summers of 2004 and 2005. Undergraduate students from the community conducted interviews in Spanish or English. Environmental and occupational health issues were ranked by frequency of concern, and differences by demographic characteristics were evaluated using multivariate analyses. In both 2004 and 2005, agricultural workers expressed high levels of concern about working in hot weather, agricultural injuries, pesticides, and pediatric asthma. Perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers differed by certain demographic characteristics, particularly age and ethnicity. Consideration should be given to these issues when designing research studies, creating educational materials, and developing interventions related to environmental and occupational hazards among agricultural workers. PMID:19715263

  13. Diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum from pea fields in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizobia-mediated biological nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes contributes to yield potential in these crops and also provides residual fertilizer to subsequent cereals. Our objectives were to collect isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum from several pea fields in Washington, examine genetic diversity...

  14. The State of Washington's Children, Spring 2000. [Eighth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvinney, Sandy, Ed.

    This Kids Count report is the eighth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. Following an introduction, Part 1 of the report focuses on one "success story" and one "challenge ahead" for each of the five domains examined: (1) family and community (including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy, births to…

  15. The Washington State Agricultural Extension Service, 1912-1961.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgriffe, Harry A.

    A study was made of the Washington Agricultural Extension Service from 1912 to 1961 to identify and interpret the changing administrative structure, program content, methods and techniques, relationships with other organizations and agencies, fundamental changes in ways of deciding educational content, influences of the Extension Service on…

  16. 1980 Washington State Program Evaluation Report for Migrant Children's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plato, Kathleen C.; And Others

    Washington's program for migrant education involved 13,543 student participants in regular programs and 3,075 student participants in special programs. The summer program served 1,994 children. Because of new reporting procedures, 52 school districts were able to describe the 6,025 students served in instructional programs, parent activity, staff…

  17. Retirement Planning Handbook: Washington State Faculty Association of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Roberta

    Designed for faculty and exempt administrators at Washington's community colleges, this handbook explains available retirement plans, deductions, and options. First, a glossary of terms and an index to sections of the handbook dealing with the concepts are provided. The bulk of the handbook uses a question/answer format to present information on…

  18. The State of Washington's Children, Summer 2002. [Tenth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Frederick A.; Brandon, Richard; Hill, Sheri L.; Carter, S. Louise; Garrison, Michelle M.; DeWys, Shelley; Mandell, Dorothy J.

    This Kids Count report is the tenth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children and focuses on child poverty and the needs of the working poor. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, births to…

  19. The State of Washington's Children, Fall 2001. [Ninth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. School of Public Health and Community Medicine.

    This Kids Count report is the ninth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, divorces involving children, and births to unmarried mothers; (2) economic…

  20. The State of Washington's Children. [Sixth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Alice, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT sixth annual report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well-being: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 20 key indicators of child well-being are: (1) births to unmarried…

  1. The State of Washington's Children. [Seventh Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvinney, Sandy, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT seventh annual report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based 24 key indicators of well-being: (1) teen birth rate; (2) teen pregnancy rate; (3) births to unmarried mothers; (4) divorces involving children; (5) family foster caseload; (6) average real wages; (7) per…

  2. Poly 3D fault modeling scripts/data for permeability potential of Washington State geothermal prospects

    DOE Data Explorer

    Michael Swyer

    2015-02-05

    Matlab scripts/functions and data used to build Poly3D models and create permeability potential GIS layers for 1) Mount St Helen's, 2) Wind River Valley, and 3) Mount Baker geothermal prospect areas located in Washington state.

  3. Relation between Nitrates in Water Wells and Potential Sources in the Lower Yakima Valley, Washington State

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of a study EPA conducted to investigate the contribution of various sources to the high nitrate levels in groundwater and residential drinking water wells in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State.

  4. 77 FR 48535 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... by September 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, P.O... other Indian tribe that believes it satisfies the criteria in 43 CFR 10.11(c)(1) should contact...

  5. 75 FR 36717 - Washington State University; Notice of Acceptance for Docketing and Opportunity for Hearing on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... University (the licensee, WSU) to operate the Washington State University Modified TRIGA Nuclear Radiation... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Information and Sensitive Unclassified Non-Safeguards Information AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  6. Map and data for Quaternary faults and folds in Washington state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidke, David J.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; McCrory, Patricia A.; Personius, Stephen F.; Nelson, Alan R.; Dart, Richard L.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Haller, Kathleen M.; Machette, Michael N.

    2004-01-01

    The map shows faults and folds in Washington State that exhibit evidence of Quaternary deformation and includes data on timing of most recent movement, sense of movement, slip rate, and continuity of surface expression.

  7. Heat flow in the state of washington and thermal conditions in the Cascade Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, David D.; Steele, John L.; Kelley, Shari; Korosec, Michael A.

    1990-11-01

    Heat flow data for the state of Washington are presented and discussed. The heat flow in the Okanogan Highland averages 75 mW m-2, and the gradient averages 25°C km-1. The heat flow in the Columbia Basin averages 62 mW m-2, and the mean gradient is 41°C km-1. Both of these provinces are interpreted to have a mantle heat flow of about 55-60 mW m-2, the same value as in the Basin and Range province to the south and the intermountain region of Canada to the north. These areas comprise the high heat flow, back arc region of the Cordillera. In the coastal provinces and the western part of the southern Washington Cascade Range the heat flow is below normal and averages 40 mW m-2 with an average gradient of 26°C km-1. This low heat flow is related to the absorption of heat by the subducting slab, part of the Juan de Fuca plate, that is beneath the Pacific Northwest. Thus the low heat flow area represents the outer arc part of the subduction zone. Within the volcanic arc, the Cascade Range, the heat flow pattern is complicated. The heat flow is best characterized in the southern Washington Cascade Range. The heat flow there averages 75 mW m-2 and the gradient averages 45°C km-1. The heat flow peaks at over 80 mW m-2 along the axial region that coincides with the Indian Heaven, Mount Adams, and Goat Rocks centers of Quaternary volcanism. As is the case in northern Oregon and southern British Columbia, the western edge of the region of high heat flow has a half width of 10 km, implying a heat source no deeper than about 10 km. In the northern Washington Cascade Range the data are too sparse to determine the average heat flow. There are two saddles in the heat flow pattern in Washington, along the Columbia River and in central Washington. The origin for the contrasting heat flow may be segmentation of the heat source or some more local effect. The heat flow of the Cascade Range is well characterized in several locations, and the pattern is similar at all localities. The

  8. Beneficial insects attracted to native flowering buckwheats (Eriogonum Michx) in central Washington.

    PubMed

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2014-08-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs aimed at improving conservation biological control in perennial crops such as wine grapes. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to 10 species of flowering native wild buckwheat (Eriogonum spp.) in central Washington were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, the mean number per trap ranged from 48.5 (Eriogonum umbellatum) to 167.7 (Eriogonum elatum). Three Eriogonum spp. (E. elatum, Eriogonum compositum, and Eriogonum niveum) attracted significantly more beneficial insects than the lowest-ranked species. E. niveum attracted greatest numbers of bees and parasitic wasps, and E. elatum was highly attractive to predatory true bugs and beneficial flies. Blooming periods of Eriogonum spp. extended from mid April to the end of September. This study demonstrates the attraction of beneficial insects to native flowering buckwheats and suggests their potential as a component of habitat restoration strategies to improve and sustain conservation biological control in Washington viticulture. PMID:24960157

  9. Beneficial insects attracted to native flowering buckwheats (Eriogonum Michx) in central Washington.

    PubMed

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2014-08-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs aimed at improving conservation biological control in perennial crops such as wine grapes. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to 10 species of flowering native wild buckwheat (Eriogonum spp.) in central Washington were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, the mean number per trap ranged from 48.5 (Eriogonum umbellatum) to 167.7 (Eriogonum elatum). Three Eriogonum spp. (E. elatum, Eriogonum compositum, and Eriogonum niveum) attracted significantly more beneficial insects than the lowest-ranked species. E. niveum attracted greatest numbers of bees and parasitic wasps, and E. elatum was highly attractive to predatory true bugs and beneficial flies. Blooming periods of Eriogonum spp. extended from mid April to the end of September. This study demonstrates the attraction of beneficial insects to native flowering buckwheats and suggests their potential as a component of habitat restoration strategies to improve and sustain conservation biological control in Washington viticulture.

  10. First-Year University of Washington Performance of Transfers from Other Washington State Post-Secondary Institutions. Report 79-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Virginia A.

    Data on the academic performance of Washington State community college (CC) and four-year college transfers entering the University of Washington (UW) autumn quarters, 1973 to 1976, were studied. Students having attended more than one collegiate institution were eliminated, leaving samples of approximately 1,000 transfers for each quarter.…

  11. Numerical simulation of the groundwater-flow system of the Kitsap Peninsula, west-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2016-05-05

    A groundwater-flow model was developed to improve understanding of water resources on the Kitsap Peninsula. The Kitsap Peninsula is in the Puget Sound lowland of west-central Washington, is bounded by Puget Sound on the east and by Hood Canal on the west, and covers an area of about 575 square miles. The peninsula encompasses all of Kitsap County, Mason County north of Hood Canal, and part of Pierce County west of Puget Sound. The peninsula is surrounded by saltwater, and the hydrologic setting is similar to that of an island. The study area is underlain by a thick sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the central part of the study area. Twelve hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit form the basis of the groundwater-flow model.Groundwater flow on the Kitsap Peninsula was simulated using the groundwater-flow model, MODFLOW‑NWT. The finite difference model grid comprises 536 rows, 362 columns, and 14 layers. Each model cell has a horizontal dimension of 500 by 500 feet, and the model contains a total of 1,227,772 active cells. Groundwater flow was simulated for transient conditions. Transient conditions were simulated for January 1985–December 2012 using annual stress periods for 1985–2004 and monthly stress periods for 2005–2012. During model calibration, variables were adjusted within probable ranges to minimize differences between measured and simulated groundwater levels and stream baseflows. As calibrated to transient conditions, the model has a standard deviation for heads and flows of 47.04 feet and 2.46 cubic feet per second, respectively.Simulated inflow to the model area for the 2005–2012 period from precipitation and secondary recharge was 585,323 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) (93 percent of total simulated inflow ignoring changes in storage), and simulated inflow from stream and lake leakage was 43

  12. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington.

  13. Evolution of the phenazine biosynthesis pathway and diversity of phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp. in dryland wheat-producing areas of Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenazines are versatile secondary metabolites of bacterial origin that function as signaling compounds and contribute to the ecological fitness and pathogenicity of the producing strains. A 2007-2008 survey of commercial dryland fields in central Washington State (annual precipitation <15 in) revea...

  14. A cross-national comparison of school drug policies in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Beyers, Jennifer M; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; Mathers, Megan; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2005-04-01

    Using mail survey data collected from primary and secondary school administrators in Washington State, United States, and in Victoria, Australia, this study compared aspects of the school drug policy environment in the 2 states. Documented substance-use policies were prevalent in Washington and Victoria but less prevalent.in primary schools, especially in Victoria. Victorian school policy-setting processes were significantly more likely to involve teachers, parents, and students than processes in Washington schools. Consistent with expectations based on their respective national drug policy frameworks, school drug policies in Washington schools were more oriented toward total abstinence and more frequently enforced with harsh punishment (such as expulsion or calling law enforcement), whereas policies in Victorian schools were more reflective of harm-minimization principles. Within both states, however, schools more regularly used harsh punishment and remediation consequences for alcohol and illicit-drug violations compared to tobacco policy violations, which were treated more leniently.

  15. Historic America: The South Central States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    Many sites in the south central states recall the procession of people who came across the continent with the passing frontier. This paper elaborates on several historic sites in the south central United States. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a series of places to the students and teachers of U.S. history. The paper recommends that…

  16. Survey of macromoths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) of a Palouse prairie remnant site in eastern Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Palouse or Palouse Prairie is a bioregion consisting primarily of native grasses, shrubs, and forbs that originally covered over 16,000 km2 of central Idaho, southeastern Washington, and northeastern Oregon. Less than 1% of this habitat remains with much of it having been converted to agricultu...

  17. The Wallula fault and tectonic framework of south-central Washington, as interpreted from magnetic and gravity anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian; Weaver, Craig; Wells, Ray E.; Rohay, Alan C.

    2013-11-13

    Magnetic and gravity data, collected in south-central Washington near the Yakima Fold and Thrust Belt (YFTB) are used to model upper crustal structure, the extent of the late Columbia River Basalt flow named the Ice Harbor member, the vertical conduits (dikes) that the Ice Harbor erupted from, and whether the dikes are offset or affected by faulting on the Wallula Fault zone.

  18. Pythium species associated with damping-off of pea in certified organic fields in the Columbia Basin of central Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of Pythium species in organic vegetable production areas of the semi-arid Columbia Basin of central Washington was carried out in the fall of 2009 to identify species associated with damping-off during early spring planting. Isolates (n = 305) baited from soil sampled from 37 certified orga...

  19. Blueprint for Change in Washington: State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" provided a comprehensive review of states' policies that impact the teaching profession. As a companion to last year's comprehensive state-by-state analysis, the 2010 edition provides each state with an individualized "Blueprint for Change," building off last year's "Yearbook" goals and recommendations.…

  20. Population and business exposure to twenty scenario earthquakes in the State of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan; Ratliff, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of an initial analysis of population and business exposure to scenario earthquakes in Washington. This analysis was conducted to support the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Northwest Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) and an ongoing collaboration between the State of Washington Emergency Management Division (WEMD) and the USGS on earthquake hazards and vulnerability topics. This report was developed to help WEMD meet internal planning needs. A subsequent report will provide analysis to the community level. The objective of this project was to use scenario ground-motion hazard maps to estimate population and business exposure to twenty Washington earthquakes. In consultation with the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program and the Washington Division of Geology and Natural Resources, the twenty scenario earthquakes were selected by WEMD (fig. 1). Hazard maps were then produced by the USGS and placed in the USGS ShakeMap archive.

  1. Prevalence of Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior in Adolescents from Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Barbara J.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.; Patton, George C.

    2007-01-01

    This article compares prevalence estimates of substance use and delinquent behavior in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia, two states chosen for their different policy environments around problem behavior. Few comparisons of international differences on rates of multiple problem behavior exist, and most are based on methods…

  2. Rates of Student-Reported Antisocial Behavior, School Suspensions, and Arrests in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Toumbourou, John W.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.; Mathers, Megan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Few methodologically rigorous international comparisons of student-reported antisocial behavior have been conducted. This paper examines whether there are differences in the frequency of both antisocial behavior and societal responses to antisocial behavior in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States. These 2 states were…

  3. Working While Studying: Does It Matter? An Examination of the Washington State Work Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Water, Gordon; Augenblick, John

    The impact of working on academic performance and persistence of a sample of full-time undergraduates enrolled in Washington State's public and private institutions during fall 1983 through spring 1985 was studied. Data sources included: student records for the State Work Study, College Work Study, and nonworking financial aid recipients; and…

  4. Washington State Need Grant: Less-Than-Halftime Pilot Project (SHB 1345)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 Washington State Legislature authorized, through Substitute House Bill 1345, a two-year pilot project allowing eligible students, who enroll for four or five credits in a term, to receive the State Need Grant (SNG). Several important policy considerations emerged during the pilot project. Board staff explored these issues with financial…

  5. Workforce Training Results: An Evaluation of Washington State's Workforce Development System, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    The third biennial outcome evaluation of the state of Washington's workforce development system analyzed the results of nine of the state's largest workforce development programs plus employer-provided training for participants who left programs from July 1, 1997 to June 30, 1998. For reporting results, the nine programs were grouped into three…

  6. Psychiatric Boarding in Washington State and the Inadequacy of Mental Health Resources.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Joseph D

    2015-06-01

    Psychiatric boarding is a term derived from emergency medicine that describes the holding of patients deemed in need of hospitalization in emergency departments for extended periods because psychiatric beds are not available. Such boarding has occurred for many years in the shadows of mental health care as both inpatient beds and community services have decreased. This article focuses on a 2014 Washington State Supreme Court decision that examined the interpretation of certain sections of the Washington state civil commitment statute that had been used to justify the extended boarding of detained psychiatric patients in general hospital emergency departments. The impact of this decision on the state of Washington should be significant and could spark a national debate about the negative impacts of psychiatric boarding on patients and on the nation's general hospital emergency services.

  7. Natural enemies of woolly apple aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Gontijo, Lessando M; Cockfield, Stephen D; Beers, Elizabeth H

    2012-12-01

    Woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), has become a pest of increasing importance in Washington apple orchards in the past decade. The increase in aphid outbreaks appears to be associated with changes in pesticide programs and disruption of biological control. We sampled woolly apple aphid colonies in central Washington apple orchards for natural enemies of this pest from 2006 to 2008. The most common predators encountered were Syrphidae (Syrphus opinator Osten Sacken, Eupeodes fumipennis Thomson, and Eupeodes americanus Wiedemann); Chrysopidae (Chrysopa nigricornis Burmeister); and Coccinellidae (Coccinella transversoguttata Brown and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville). The specialist syrphid Heringia calcarata Loew was recorded for the first time occurring in Washington apple orchards. The only parasitoid found in aerial colonies of woolly apple aphid was Aphelinus mali Haldeman; root colonies, however, were not parasitized. Identification of important natural enemies provides a better basis for conservation biological control of this pest.

  8. THE SETTLERS PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTION 1894 - 1945 & THE DUPONT PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTION 1943 - 1945 BRINGING HISTORY TO LIFE IN SOUTH CENTRAL WASHINGTON

    SciTech Connect

    SHULTZ CR PH.D.

    2009-07-13

    Washington is called the 'Evergreen State' and it evokes images like this of lush forests, lakes and mountains. However, such images apply primarily to the half of the state west of the Cascade Mountains, where we are today. Eastern Washington state is quite a different matter and I want to draw your attention to a portion of Eastern Washington that is the focus ofmy presentation to you this morning. This image was taken on a part of the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, a 586-square mile government reservation, the second largest DOE facility in the nation . Here you can see where I am talking about, roughly 220 miles southeast of Seattle and about the same distance northeast of Portland.

  9. A preliminary evaluation of regional ground-water flow in south-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Sala, A. M.; Doty, G.C.; Pearson, F.J.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of regional ground-water flow were investigated in a 4,500-square-mile region of south-central Washington, centered on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Hanford Reservation. The investigation is part of the Commission's feasibility study on storing high-level radioactive waste in chambers mined in basaltic rocks at a. depth of about 3,000 feet or more below the surface. Ground-water flow., on a regional scale, occurs principally in the basalt and-in interbedded sediments of the Columbia River Group, and is controlled by topography, the structure of the basalt, and the large streams--the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers. The ground water beneath the main part of the Hanford Reservation, south and west of the Columbia River, inures southeastward from recharge areas in the uplands, including Cold Creek and Dry Creek valleys, and ultimately discharges to the Columbia River south of the reservation: East and southeast of the Columbia River, ground water flows generally southwestward and discharges to the River. The Yakima River valley contains a distinct flow system in which movement is toward the Yakima River from the topographic divides. A large southward-flowing ground-water system beneath the southern flank of the Horse Heaven Hills discharges to the Columbia River in the westward-trending reach downstream from Wallula Gap.

  10. Diets and habitats of mule deer in south-central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Uresk, D.W.; Uresk, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Forty-four food items were identified in the fecal pellets of the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) on three areas of the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Microscopic analysis of plant fragments indicated that bitterbrush (Purshia tridentala) was the most common species occurring in the diets of deer from the B-C Cribs area. Russian thistle (Salsola kali) and goldenrod (Solidago sp.) were the most abundant plants found in the fecal pellets collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats, respectively. The similarity in diets among the habitats was low, ranging from 10 to 16 percent. Preference indices of forage plants among sites were not similar (7 to 19 percent), indicating that deer are selecting different food plants at each site, even though many plants are common to all three sites. Twelve species were sampled for canopy cover and frequency of occurrence in the B-C Cribs and B Pond areas; 22 species were identified on the Gable Mountain site. The most commonly occurring plant was cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in all three sites. The similarity in frequency and canopy cover of plants was low among sites, indicating that each site is different when these two parameters are considered.

  11. Mapping Agricultural Crops with AVIRIS Spectra in Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Pavri, Betina; Roberts, Dar; Ustin, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Spectroscopy is used in the laboratory to measure the molecular components and concentrations of plant constituents to answer questions about the plant type, status, and health. Imaging spectrometers measure the upwelling spectral radiance above the Earth's surface as images. Ideally, imaging spectrometer data sets should be used to understand plant type, plant status, and health of plants in an agricultural setting. An Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data set was acquired over agricultural fields near Wallula, Washington on July 23rd, 1997. AVIRIS measures upwelling radiance spectra through 224 spectral channels with contiguous 10-nm sampling from 400 to 2500 run in the solar-reflected spectrum. The spectra are measured as images of 11 by up to 800 km with 20-m spatial resolution. The spectral images measured by AVIRIS represent the integrated signal resulting from: the solar irradiance; two way transmittance and scattering of the atmosphere; the absorptions and scattering of surface materials; as well as the spectral, radiometric and spatial response functions of AVIRIS. This paper presents initial research to derive properties of the agricultural fields near Wallula from the calibrated spectral images measured by AVIRIS near the top of the atmosphere.

  12. Early Holocene glaciation on Mount Baker, Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul A.; Easterbrook, Don J.; Clark, Peter U.

    2000-07-01

    The relation between radiocarbon-dated tephras and glacial moraines on the south flank of Mount Baker, Washington, records evidence of an early Holocene glacier advance. Scoria that erupted from a local cinder cone 8420±70 14C yr BP (9450±100 cal yr) occurs immediately in front of, but not on, a complex of moraines overlain by Mazama ash. Radiocarbon ages of 7670±130 14C yr BP (8415±110 cal yr) and 7045±65 14C yr BP (7890±90 cal yr) were obtained from charred wood below the Mazama ash and above till of the moraines, bracketing the age of the glacial advance between ˜7700 and 8400 14C yr BP (˜8400 and 9450 cal yr). Well-preserved Little Ice Age moraines occur proximal to the maximum Holocene positions. Assuming that precipitation regimes were similar, depression of former equilibrium line altitudes suggests that climate during the early Holocene event was at most ˜2°C cooler than present, and ˜0.5°C cooler than the Little Ice Age.

  13. Washington State hospital survey 2000: gloves, handwashing agents, and moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Marino, C; Cohen, M

    2001-12-01

    Hand dermatitis as a result of frequent exposure to water and cleansing agents is a significant problem in the health care industry. In developing prevention efforts to address this problem, it is necessary to make appropriate recommendations for moisturizers that are compatible with latex gloves and/or handwashing agents that contain chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG). Infection control personnel or employee health nurses in all 106 Washington hospitals were interviewed to determine what types of gloves, handwashing agents, and moisturizers are in current use in the hospital setting. The interview also addressed awareness of skin care issues involving the compatibility of moisturizers with latex gloves and handwashing agents that contain CHG. Latex gloves were available in 90% of the hospitals. Handwashing agents containing CHG were available in 33% of the hospitals. Moisturizers were supplied for the nursing personnel in 61% of the hospitals; most of these moisturizers were compatible with latex gloves and agents containing CHG. Seventy-four percent of the infection control personnel were aware of the compatibility issues of petroleum-based moisturizers with latex gloves, and 48% were aware of the need to avoid the use of anionic moisturizers in combination with CHG handwashing agents.

  14. Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins and Other Lipophilic Toxins of Human Health Concern in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, Vera L.; Moore, Leslie; Bill, Brian D.; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Harrington, Neil; Borchert, Jerry; da Silva, Denis A. M.; Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.

    2013-01-01

    The illness of three people in 2011 after their ingestion of mussels collected from Sequim Bay State Park, Washington State, USA, demonstrated the need to monitor diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State for the protection of human health. Following these cases of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, monitoring for DSTs in Washington State became formalized in 2012, guided by routine monitoring of Dinophysis species by the SoundToxins program in Puget Sound and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership on the outer Washington State coast. Here we show that the DSTs at concentrations above the guidance level of 16 μg okadaic acid (OA) + dinophysistoxins (DTXs)/100 g shellfish tissue were widespread in sentinel mussels throughout Puget Sound in summer 2012 and included harvest closures of California mussel, varnish clam, manila clam and Pacific oyster. Concentrations of toxins in Pacific oyster and manila clam were often at least half those measured in blue mussels at the same site. The primary toxin isomer in shellfish and plankton samples was dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) with D. acuminata as the primary Dinophysis species. Other lipophilic toxins in shellfish were pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxin (YTX) with azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2) also measured in phytoplankton samples. Okadaic acid, azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1) and azaspiracid-3 (AZA-3) were all below the levels of detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A shellfish closure at Ruby Beach, Washington, was the first ever noted on the Washington State Pacific coast due to DSTs. The greater than average Fraser River flow during the summers of 2011 and 2012 may have provided an environment conducive to dinoflagellates and played a role in the prevalence of toxigenic Dinophysis in Puget Sound. PMID:23760013

  15. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  16. State Civil Service Law--Civil Service Restrictions on Contracting Out by State Agencies--Washington Federation of State Employees v Spokane Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Timothy P.

    1980-01-01

    A ruling preventing state agencies, such as the community college in question, from contracting outside the institution for services that school civil service employees can and customarily do provide is criticized. (Journal availability: Washington Law Review, 1100 N.E. Campus Parkway, University of Washington, Condon Hall, JB-20, Seattle, WA…

  17. Water quality in the central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Alex K.; Munn, Mark D.; Ryker, Sarah J.; Wagner, Richard J.; Ebbert, James C.; Vanderpool, Ann M.

    1998-01-01

    Water quality in the Central Columbia Plateau of eastern Washington and western Idaho has been adversely affected by agriculture, especially in irrigated areas, according to the results of a five-year investigation by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). Some improvements, however, are noticeable, such as less sediment being washed into streams. These improvements may be the result of increased use of best management practices (BMPs) by area farmers. Areas with intensive fertilizer use and irrigation, such as in the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project (CBIP), showed the greatest impacts on ground-water quality. (The CBIP includes parts of Franklin, Grant, and Adams counties in eastern Washington.) Central Columbia Plateau wells do not have MCLs established. A lack of information makes it difficult to assess the significance of finding pesticides in drinking water. 'As scientists, we don't know enough yet about what happens when these pesticides are

  18. Quality of ground water in southeastern and south-central Washington, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turney, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In 1982 groundwater was sampled at over 100 sites in the southeastern-south central region of Washington and analyzed for pH, specific conductance, and concentrations of fecal-coliform bacteria, major dissolved irons, and dissolved iron, manganese, and nitrate. Twenty percent of the samples were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, cooper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, and zinc. The predominant water type was calcium bicarbonate. Some sodium bicarbonate water was found in samples from the Lower Yakima, Horse Heaven Hills, and Walla Walla-Tucannon subregions. Dissolved solids concentrations were typically less than 500 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Median iron and manganese concentrations were less than 20 micrograms/L except in the Palouse subregion, where the median concentration of iron was 200 micrograms/L and the median concentrations of manganese was 45 micrograms/L. Generally, trace-metal concentrations were also less than 10 micrograms/L except for barium, copper, and zinc. Nitrate concentrations were less than 1.0 mg/L in waters from half the wells sampled. Concentrations greater than 5.0 mg/L were found in areas of the Lower Yakima, Walla Walla-Tucannon and Hanford subregions. No fecal-coliform bacteria were detected. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water regulation limits were generally not exceeded, except for occasional high concentrations of nitrate or dissolved solids. The historical data for the region were evaluated for these same constituents. Quantitative differences were found, but the historical and 1982 data led to similar qualitative conclusions. (USGS)

  19. Paleoseismology of a possible fault scarp in Wenas Valley, central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, Brian L.; Barnett, Elizabeth A.; Knepprath, Nichole; Foit, Franklin F.

    2013-01-01

    In October 2009, two trenches excavated across an 11-kilometer-long scarp at Wenas Valley in central Washington exposed evidence for late Quaternary deformation. Lidar imagery of the Wenas Valley illuminated the west-northwest-trending, 2- to 8-meter-high scarp as it bisected alluvial fans developed at the mouths of canyons along the south side of Umtanum Ridge. The alignment of the scarp and aeromagnetic lineaments suggested that the scarp may be a product of and controlled by the same tectonic structure that produced the magnetic lineaments. Several large landslides mapped in the area demonstrated the potential for large mass-wasting events in the area. In order to test whether the scarp was the result of an earthquake-generated surface rupture or a landslide, trenches were excavated at Hessler Flats and McCabe Place. The profiles of bedrock and soil stratigraphy that underlie the scarp in each trench were photographed, mapped, and described, and a sequence of depositional and deformational events established for each trench. The McCabe Place trench exposed a sequence of volcaniclastic deposits overlain by soils and alluvial deposits separated by three unconformities. Six normal faults and two possible reverse faults deformed the exposed strata. Crosscutting relations indicated that up to five earthquakes occurred on a blind reverse fault, and a microprobe analysis of lapilli suggested that the earliest faulting occurred after 47,000 years before present. The Hessler Flat trench exposure revealed weathered bedrock that abuts loess and colluvium deposits and is overlain by soil, an upper sequence of loess, and colluvium. The latter two units bury a distinctive paloesol.

  20. US Geological Survey begins seismic ground response experiments in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, A.C.; King, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    This article briefly describes the experimental monitoring of minor seismic features caused by distant nuclear explosions, mining blasts and rhythmic human pushing against wooden homes. Some means of response prediction are outlined in Washington State and some effects of seismic amplification by weak clayey sediments are described. The results of several experiments are described. -A.Scarth

  1. 76 FR 58034 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the human remains and associated funerary objects and... a cultural affiliation with the human remains and associated funerary objects should contact the... remains were removed by Dr. F.S. Hall of the Washington State Museum from the Pot Holes site or Hall...

  2. New residential construction compliance: Evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code program

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.; Lee, A.D.; Sandahl, L.J.; Durfee, D.L.; Richman, E.E.

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code Program (WSECP). In 1990, the Washington State Legislature passed a residential energy efficiency code to be effective July 1, 1992. Bonneville supported passage and implementation of the code to ensure that new residences in the State of Washington were as energy efficient as economically feasible. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) is conducting the WSECP for Bonneville to support code implementation. This support takes several forms, including providing training to code enforcement officials, technical support both in the field and through telephone ``hot lines,`` and computerized tools to review house plans for code compliance. WSEO began implementing the WSECP in 1992, prior to the effective date of the new code. This first phase of the WSECP was the subject of an earlier process evaluation conducted by PNL. From that evaluation PNL found that most new homes being built immediately after the code went into effect were ``grand-fathered`` under the old code. The training program for the new code was in place and sessions were being attended by the jurisdictions but it was too early to determine if the training was effective in improving code compliance and easing the transition to the new energy code. That is the subject of this evaluation.

  3. Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges Enrollment and Staffing Report, Fall 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Fall Enrollment and Staffing Report 2013" provides a snapshot of enrollments in community and technical colleges during fall quarter 2013. The report addresses the questions most commonly raised regarding the community and technical colleges in Washington. The primary source of information for this document is the State Board for…

  4. The Washington State System for Coordination of Staff Development. The Staff Development Coordination Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This report outlines the roles and responsibilities, pertaining to the improvement amd coordination of statewide teacher inservice, of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (SPI) in the state of Washington. After a field-based research study was conducted, a system was devised by which the SPI can improve coordination of staff development…

  5. Minority Enrollments in Public and Private Schools: State of Washington, October 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, WA. Div. of Instructional Programs and Services.

    Each fall the schools of Washington State submit to the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction a "School Enrollment Report" (Form P-105) on which is recorded the number of pupils enrolled in each grade and the number of pupils who are members of specified racial/ethnic categories. The racial/ethnic categories and definitions, provided…

  6. Hyaloperonospora camelinae on Camelina sativa (L.) in Washington State: Detection, seed transmission, and chemical control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz) plants with symptoms of downy mildew were obtained from three different locations in Washington State. Based on PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, the causal pathogen was identified as Hyaloperonospora camelinae. The PCR primers consistently ampli...

  7. Detection, seed transmission, and control of Hyaloperonospora camelinae on Camelina sativa (L.) in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz) plants with symptoms of downy mildew were obtained from three different locations in Washington State. Based on PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, the causal pathogen was identified as Hyaloperonospora camelinae. The PCR primers consistently ampli...

  8. 78 FR 13887 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... and Recreation Commission has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the human remains... culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Washington State Parks and Recreation...

  9. Scientific Framework for Stormwater Monitoring by the Washington State Department of Transportation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheibley, R.W.; Kelly, V.J.; Wagner, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation municipal stormwater monitoring program, in operation for about 8 years, never has received an external, objective assessment. In addition, the Washington State Department of Transportation would like to identify the standard operating procedures and quality assurance protocols that must be adopted so that their monitoring program will meet the requirements of the new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System municipal stormwater permit. As a result, in March 2009, the Washington State Department of Transportation asked the U.S. Geological Survey to assess their pre-2009 municipal stormwater monitoring program. This report presents guidelines developed for the Washington State Department of Transportation to meet new permit requirements and regional/national stormwater monitoring standards to ensure that adequate processes and procedures are identified to collect high-quality, scientifically defensible municipal stormwater monitoring data. These include: (1) development of coherent vision and cooperation among all elements of the program; (2) a comprehensive approach for site selection; (3) an effective quality assurance program for field, laboratory, and data management; and (4) an adequate database and data management system.

  10. 76 FR 76299 - Higher Volume Port Area-State of Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 155 RIN 1625-AB75 Higher Volume Port Area--State of Washington AGENCY... with recent legislation that would expand an existing higher volume port area (HVPA) for Puget Sound... areas require certain tankers to plan for faster response times following a spill of the tanker's...

  11. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  12. The Challenge for Higher Education: 1996 State of Washington Master Plan for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    The State of Washington has set an enrollment goal of reaching the 70th percentile participation rate for upper-division and graduate/professional enrollments by 2020 with lower-division growth maintaining the current participation rate. From 1997-2010, the enrollment plan proposes to increase enrollments at the main campuses to physical capacity,…

  13. The Washington State Early Childhood Education Career Development Ladder. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbank, John R.; Wiefek, Nancy

    This policy brief discusses the Early Childhood Education Career Development Ladder being implemented in Washington State. The initiative institutionalizes a career ladder with wage increments based on experience, job responsibility, and relevant education with a unique mix of public and private funding. The brief builds a case for the career…

  14. Are Consumer-Directed Home Care Beneficiaries Satisfied? Evidence from Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Joshua M.; Anderson, Wayne L.; Khatutsky, Galina

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed the effect of consumer-directed versus agency-directed home care on satisfaction with paid personal assistance services among Medicaid beneficiaries in Washington State. Design and Methods: The study analyzed a survey of 513 Medicaid beneficiaries receiving home- and community-based services. As part of a larger study,…

  15. Operations Handbook for Migrant Student Medical Services, State of Washington Migrant Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William; Resendez, Ignacio

    Intended as a guide in the development of a program of health services for migrant children, this operations manual designed by the State of Washington presents definitions, operational procedures, standards by which quality uniform physical examinations and linkage to health care systems can be established, and forms to be used in the program.…

  16. Prenatal Care and Pregnancy Outcomes during the Recession: The Washington State Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Elliott S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    During a period of increasing unemployment and decreased Medicaid eligibility, more women residents of low-income census tracts in Washington State received delayed prenatal care or none at all and delivered proportionately more infants of low birthweight. The incidence of maternal anemia also may have increased. (Author/GC)

  17. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella corni-maris in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples conducted in Washington State from 2003 to 2005, an unknown fruit rot was observed on stored apples collected from commercial fruit packinghouses. This disease was present in 66 of the 179 grower lots sampled, accounting for an average 1 to 3% of the...

  18. Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges Enrollment and Staffing Report, Fall 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The "Fall Enrollment and Staffing Report 2014" provides a snapshot of enrollments in community and technical colleges during fall quarter 2014. The report addresses the questions most commonly raised regarding the community and technical colleges in Washington. The primary source of information for this document is the State Board for…

  19. Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges Academic Year Report, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This "Academic Year Report 2012-13" provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in community and technical colleges in Washington state for the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel and…

  20. Coxiella burnetii infection of a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) found in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Kersh, Gilbert J; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Self, Joshua S; Akmajian, Adrianne M; Stanton, James B; Baszler, Timothy V; Raverty, Stephen A; Massung, Robert F

    2010-09-01

    A pregnant sea lion stranded in the State of Washington was found to have placentitis caused by a unique strain of Coxiella burnetii. This is the first description of coxiellosis in a sea lion and suggests that exposure to sea lions may be a risk factor for contracting Q fever. PMID:20592144

  1. Factor Patterns That Foster or Impede Distance Education in Washington State Community and Technical Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ronald L.

    A study was conducted to determine factors that foster or impede the development of distance education (DE) programs. A review of the literature related to transformation in higher education, technology and learning, and DE was conducted and the history of DE in the Washington State Community and Technical College System was reviewed. In addition,…

  2. Coxiella burnetii Infection of a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) Found in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Kersh, Gilbert J.; Lambourn, Dyanna M.; Self, Joshua S.; Akmajian, Adrianne M.; Stanton, James B.; Baszler, Timothy V.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Massung, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    A pregnant sea lion stranded in the State of Washington was found to have placentitis caused by a unique strain of Coxiella burnetii. This is the first description of coxiellosis in a sea lion and suggests that exposure to sea lions may be a risk factor for contracting Q fever. PMID:20592144

  3. Twelve Year Survey of Media Availability in Public Schools in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebhardt, Richard F.

    A series of four questionnaires were mailed to schools in the state of Washington over a 12 year period to: (1) determine trends in media availability; (2) attempt to establish data for projections of media availability in the near future; and (3) consider geographic regions according to different availability. The surveys included 76 items…

  4. An Alignment Analysis of Washington State's College Readiness Mathematics Standards with Various Local Placement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2006

    2006-01-01

    For the past two years, Achieve, Inc. has worked with the Transition Mathematics Project (TMP), a collaborative project of K-12 schools, community and technical colleges, and baccalaureate institutions within the state of Washington, as it developed mathematics standards that "define the core knowledge and skills expected of students entering…

  5. Accounting Manual for Educational Service Districts in the State of Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunghofer, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This manual provides principles that are an integral part of the accounting requirements for educational service districts (ESDs) in the state of Washington. They are in conformance with generally accepted accounting principles, except where referenced in the ESD principles that follow. This manual provides guidance on the following topics:(1)…

  6. Teacher Pension Choice: Surveying the Landscape in Washington State. Working Paper 81

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Pennucci, Annie; Bignell, Wesley

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive paper we detail the structure of two Washington State teacher retirement plans: a traditional defined benefit plan and a hybrid defined benefit-defined contribution plan. We provide preliminary evidence on how retirement plan structures may relate to the choices that teachers make. Our analysis of the financial incentives…

  7. Now It's Necessary: Virtual Reference Services at Washington State University, Pullman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, Erica Carlson; Crook, Linda

    2013-01-01

    While virtual reference services (VRS) are becoming more and more common in academic libraries, implementing and maintaining well-used and effective VRS can be a challenge in the face of competing demands on time, staffing, and funding. Between 2011 and 2012, librarians at Washington State University, Pullman (WSU) have overhauled and reorganized…

  8. Increasing Access to Higher Education among Low-Income Students: The Washington State Achievers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carrie B.; Brown, Doreen E.; Pavel, D. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how a comprehensive precollege intervention and developmental program among low-income high school students contributed to college enrollment outcomes measured in 2006. Our focus was on the Fifth Cohort of the Washington State Achievers (WSA) Program, which provides financial, academic, and college…

  9. 78 FR 78379 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology... were removed from Grant County, WA. This notice is published as part of the National Park...

  10. Residential Radon Exposure and Lung Cancer: Evidence of an Inverse Association in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuberger, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a descriptive study of lung cancer death rates compared to county levels of radon in Washington State. Age-specific death rates were computed for white female smokers according to radon exposure. A significant lung cancer excess was found in lowest radon counties. No significant difference was found between the proportion of…

  11. LOLA; Library On-Line Acquisitions Sub-System, Washington State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, T.; Ames, L.

    The Acquisitions System is just one segment of an overall system design that was made for the entire Technical Services System of the Washington State University Library. After an overall study of the Technical Services System was conducted, a detailed study was made of work in the Acquisitions Department, and the Telecommunications Control…

  12. The Role of the Extension Youth Program Aide in Washington State. A Graduate Study Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Elaine I-Ling

    This study defines the role of the extension youth program aide in the food and nutrition education program as perceived by himself (herself), other paraprofessionals, and professional staff members of the Washington State Cooperative Extension Service. Data were collected from six groups through the use of a mail questionnaire. The six groups…

  13. The Status of Speech Communcation in High Schools in the State of Washington: A Comparison with Michigan in 1976 and Washington in 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyquist, Jody L.

    Principals from 246 high schools in Washington state responded to a questionnaire survey of the speech communication programs offered in that state's secondary schools. The 85-item questionnaire elicited information on the basic course offerings, advanced courses, extracurricular speech communication activities, and the training and experience of…

  14. A Communitywide Intervention to Improve Outcomes and Reduce Disability among Injured Workers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Wickizer, Thomas M; Franklin, Gary M; Mootz, Robert D; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Plaeger-Brockway, Roy; Drylie, Diana; Turner, Judith A; Smith-Weller, Terri

    2004-01-01

    One pressing challenge facing the U.S. health care system is the development of effective policies and clinical management strategies to address deficiencies in health care quality. In collaboration with researchers at the University of Washington, the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries has created a communitywide delivery system intervention to improve health outcomes and reduce disability among injured workers. This intervention is currently being tested in two sites in western and eastern Washington. So far, it appears to be possible to engage physicians and health care institutions in quality improvement initiatives and to form effective public-private partnerships for this purpose. Furthermore, collaborating with university researchers may help enhance the scientific rigor of the quality improvement initiative and create more opportunities for a successful evaluation. PMID:15330976

  15. A multi-model integrated assessment of the impacts of climate change in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire Elsner, M.; Salathe, E. P.; Hamlet, A. F.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Miles, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    In April 2007, the State of Washington passed legislation mandating a comprehensive statewide assessment of the impacts of climate change over the next 100 years. The Climate Impacts Group (CIG) at the University of Washington Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO) is working with Washington State University, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and state agencies to perform an integrated assessment on the effects of climate change for eight statewide sectors: public health, agriculture, the coastal zone, forest ecosystems, salmon, infrastructure, energy, and water supply and management. An additional Climate Scenarios Working Group serves the eight other sectors by providing projections of future regional climate, downscaled to 1/16th degree spatial resolution over the state of Washington. We utilize projections from A1B and B1 greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, as simulated by the full suite of 20 GCMs, archived in the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. In this approach, we apply 40 ensembles of statistically downscaled future climate to drive hydrologic model simulations. Each sector incorporates the projections of climatic and hydrologic variables in their evaluations of the impacts of climate change. Here we present impacts on hydrologic variables (such as snowpack and streamflow), as well as related implications for several of the sectors listed above, over the State of Washington for three periods: the 2020s, 2040s and 2080s. We also discuss CIG's collaboration with multi-stakeholder adaptation working groups to identify potential barriers to adaptation and strategies to address the projected impacts in each sector.

  16. Washington State Energy Use Profile, 1960 to 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The report is organized into four main sections. The first section is an overview of demographic and economic factors, energy use, energy resources, and prices. The second section provides greater detail on the uses, supplies, and prices of the principal energy resources used in the state. The third section of the report focuses on electricity and describes uses, supplies, and prices for this intermediate energy form. The fourth section disaggregates energy consumption by users and provides additional detail on use in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors.

  17. Character and distribution of borehole breakouts and their relationship to in situ stresses in deep Columbia River Basalts ( Washington State, USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Kim, K.

    1987-01-01

    The character and distribution of borehole breakouts in deeply buried basalts at the Hanford Site in S central Washington State are examined in light of stress indicator data and hydraulic- fracturing stress data by means of acoustic televiewer and acoustic waveform logging systems. A series of boreholes penetrating the Grande Ronde Basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group were logged to examine the extent of breakouts at depths near 1000 m. -from Authors

  18. 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    * Do floods contribute to the transport and fate of contaminants that affect human and ecosystem health? In an effort to help address these and other questions, USGS Professional Paper 1798 consists of independent but complementary chapters dealing with various scientific aspects of the 2011 floods in the Central United States.

  19. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget of the Kitsap Peninsula, west-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Wendy B.; Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater-flow system on the Kitsap Peninsula, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework, groundwater recharge and discharge, groundwater levels and flow directions, seasonal groundwater-level fluctuations, interactions between aquifers and the surface‑water system, and a water budget. The Kitsap Peninsula is in the Puget Sound lowland of west-central Washington, is bounded by Puget Sound on the east and by Hood Canal on the west, and covers an area of about 575 square miles. The peninsula encompasses all of Kitsap County, the part of Mason County north of Hood Canal, and part of Pierce County west of Puget Sound. The peninsula is surrounded by saltwater and the hydrologic setting is similar to that of an island. The study area is underlain by a thick sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the central part of the study area. Geologic units were grouped into 12 hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was developed and used with well information from 2,116 drillers’ logs to construct 6 hydrogeologic sections and unit extent and thickness maps. Unconsolidated aquifers typically consist of moderately to well-sorted alluvial and glacial outwash deposits of sand, gravel, and cobbles, with minor lenses of silt and clay. These units often are discontinuous or isolated bodies and are of highly variable thickness. Unconfined conditions occur in areas where aquifer units are at land surface; however, much of the study area is mantled by glacial till, and confined aquifer conditions are common. Groundwater in the unconsolidated aquifers generally flows radially off the peninsula in the direction of Puget Sound and Hood Canal. These generalized flow patterns likely are complicated by the presence of low

  20. Distribution of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Ground Water in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna

    2008-01-01

    More than 60 percent of the population of Washington State uses ground water for their drinking and cooking needs. Nitrate concentrations in ground water are elevated in parts of the State as a result of various land-use practices, including fertilizer application, dairy operations and ranching, and septic-system use. Shallow wells generally are more vulnerable to nitrate contamination than deeper wells (Williamson and others, 1998; Ebbert and others, 2000). In order to protect public health, the Washington State Department of Health requires that public water systems regularly measure nitrate in their wells. Public water systems serving more than 25 people collect water samples at least annually; systems serving from 2 to 14 people collect water samples at least every 3 years. Private well owners serving one residence may be required to sample when the well is first drilled, but are unregulated after that. As a result, limited information is available to citizens and public health officials about potential exposure to elevated nitrate concentrations for people whose primary drinking-water sources are private wells. The U.S. Geological Survey and Washington State Department of Health collaborated to examine water-quality data from public water systems and develop models that calculate the probability of detecting elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water. Maps were then developed to estimate ground water vulnerability to nitrate in areas where limited data are available.

  1. Trends in teenage smoking during pregnancy. Washington State: 1984 through 1988.

    PubMed

    Davis, R L; Tollestrup, K; Milham, S

    1990-12-01

    Smoking rates in the United States have decreased since 1963, but this trend is less apparent in adolescents, especially girls. Using data on birth certificates from 1984 through 1988, we analyzed smoking trends during pregnancy in teenagers in Washington State. There was a small but significant increase in the overall smoking prevalence during pregnancy between 1984 (32%) and 1988 (37%). Smoking rates varied by mother's age, race and ethnicity, marital status, and prenatal care. Whites had the highest smoking prevalence, and native Americans showed the largest increase in smoking prevalence over time. In the 5 years studied, unmarried pregnant teenagers had a smoking prevalence of 42.8%, compared with a rate of 31.7% in married teenagers. Compared with other studies of smoking rates in nonpregnant teenagers, pregnant teenagers in Washington State had a much higher smoking prevalence than their nonpregnant peers, and the differences between these two groups did not appear to diminish over time. This study suggests that there is little movement toward meeting the 1990 Health Objectives for the Nation regarding smoking in Washington State teenagers who become pregnant.

  2. Parent's Guide to Special Education in Washington State, 1985-86 [and] Guia para Padres: Para Educacion Especial en el Estado de Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This pamphlet guides parents of children with disabilities through the procedures for acquiring special education services in the state of Washington. Following an overview of special education, the pamphlet presents information on notice and consent procedures, confidentiality of records, individualized education programs (IEP), the placement…

  3. 76 FR 14045 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology at... given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University for intended repatriation by...

  4. Promoting accountability: hospital charity care in California, Washington state, and Texas.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Janet P; Stensland, Jeffrey

    2004-05-01

    Debate as to whether private hospitals meet their charitable obligations is heated. This study examines how alternative state approaches for ensuring hospital accountability to the community affects charitable expenditures and potentially affects access to care for the uninsured. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to compare private California hospitals' charity care expenditures with those of hospitals in Texas and Washington state. The key finding from this study is that net of hospital characteristics, market characteristics and community need, Texas hospitals were estimated to provide over 3 times more charity care and Washington hospitals were estimated to provide 66% more charity care than California hospitals. This finding suggests that more prescriptive community benefit or charity care requirements may be necessary to ensure that private hospitals assume a larger role in the care of the uninsured. PMID:15253376

  5. Abundance of Apple Maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, Across Different Areas in Central Washington, with Special Reference to Black-Fruited Hawthorns

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Wee L.; Klaus, Michael W.; Cha, Dong H.; Linn, Charles E.; Goughnour, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple orchards. The fly was first detected on traps in Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties in 1981, 1995, and 1997, respectively. From 1981–2010 in Kittitas and Yakima Counties, only 0 to 4.7% of traps on apple, crabapple, and hawthorn trees were positive for flies, whereas in Klickitat County, located farther from commercial apple orchards, 0 to 41.9% of traps were positive. In 2008, in Yakima County and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 7.8% of black-fruited hawthorn trees were infested, with 0 to 0.00054 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in Kittitas and Yakima Counties and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 25.0% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.00042 to 0.00248 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in a remote forested area of Klickitat County far from commercial apple orchards, 94.7% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.20813 larvae per fruit. Overall results suggest R. pomonella is unlikely to develop high populations rapidly near major commercial apple-growing areas in central Washington, including in black-fruited hawthorns, increasing chances it can be kept out of commercial orchards. PMID:23451979

  6. A Structural and Paleomagnetic Analysis of the Basalts of Summit Creek, central Cascades, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetrow, A. C.; Valentine, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    This study is a detailed analysis of the structural geology and paleomagnetism of the Basalts of Summit Creek. Located southeast of Mount Rainier, this section of layered basaltic flows formed during the Eocene Epoch (55 to 45 Ma). During the Eocene, this region underwent a time of unique volcanism that has shaped the modern landscape of the Pacific Northwest. Over the course of the available field season, five excursions were taken into the field to conduct structural mapping and paleomagnetic core drilling. Although exposure is limited by vegetation, nineteen sites were mapped and ten of those were drilled for cores. Cores were analyzed using alternating field demagnetization and thermal demagnetization. Mapping data was integrated into a preliminary structural map of the section. This study attempts to provide a greater understanding of the emplacement and deformation of the Basalts of the Summit Creek and any possible relationship with the Crescent Basalts located in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state. Once paleomagnetic directions were corrected for core orientation and bedding tilt, none of the flows yielded orientations consistent enough to provide reliable magnetic directions for the section. This scatter is believed to be due, in part, to hydrothermal alteration that has subsequently influenced the Basalts of the Summit Creek. The scattered magnetic orientations are quite similar to those observed in the Crescent Basalts. This is does not demonstrate a definite connection between the two chemically similar Eocene volcanic sequences, but it does provide another similarity on the growing list. The lava flows along the north, middle, and south of the area and, with a few exceptions, have a northeast strike and a northwest dip. Along the middle transect of the section, nearest to Pony Creek and Carleton Ridge, bedding orientation has greater variability and suggests that there may still be unidentified structures that are influencing the area. Reflected

  7. Asthma Management in Educational Settings: Implementing Guideline-Based Care in Washington State Schools.

    PubMed

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Klein, Nicole; Lecce, Sally

    2015-11-01

    Managing asthma in the schools is complex and requires careful planning. This article highlights key steps in implementing guideline-based care for children with asthma in Washington State schools: assessing students, establishing acuity, communicating with parents, and training staff. Advance planning can improve outcomes for students, parents, and school staff in managing this complex and prevalent disease. NASN recently developed asthma management guidelines. Developing state-specific guidelines provides an opportunity to speak specifically to state laws and nurse practice acts while also reinforcing the importance of specialized practice to school nurses, school administrators and teachers, parents, and students. PMID:26515566

  8. Home energy rating system business plan feasibility study in Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Lineham, T.

    1995-03-01

    In the Fall of 1993, the Washington State Energy Office funded the Washington Home Energy Rating System project to investigate the benefits of a Washington state HERS. WSEO established a HERS and EEM Advisory Group. Composed of mortgage lenders/brokers, realtors, builders, utility staff, remodelers, and other state agency representatives, the Advisory Group met for the first time on November 17, 1993. The Advisory Group established several subcommittees to identify issues and options. During its March 1994 meeting, the Advisory Group formed a consensus directing WSEO to develop a HERS business plan for consideration. The Advisory Group also established a business plan subcommittee to help draft the plan. Under the guidance of the business plan subcommittee, WSEO conducted research on how customers value energy efficiency in the housing market. This plan represents WSEO`s effort to comply with the Advisory Group`s request. Why is a HERS Business Plan necessary? Strictly speaking this plan is more of a feasibility plan than a business plan since it is designed to help determine the feasibility of a new business venture: a statewide home energy rating system. To make this determination decision makers or possible investors require strategic information about the proposed enterprise. Ideally, the plan should anticipate the significant questions parties may want to know. Among other things, this document should establish decision points for action.

  9. Child passenger safety: potential impact of the Washington State booster seat law on childcare centers

    PubMed Central

    Chang, B; Ebel, B; Rivara, F

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To examine factors associated with compliance and with perceived readiness for the new Washington State booster seat law, and to identify perceived barriers to compliance among licensed childcare centers. Design/methods: Surveys were mailed to a random sample of 550 licensed childcare centers in Washington State, approximately nine months before the law was to go into effect. Results: Only 18% of centers reported being compliant with the law at the time of the survey. Factors associated with current compliance included awareness and knowledge of the law, and being comfortable asking staff and parents to use booster seats. A lack of center-owned booster seats was associated with a lower likelihood of compliance. Only 43% of centers had already started preparing for the law, and only 48% believed they would definitely be ready in time. Conclusion: This study suggests that Washington State childcare centers need support and assistance to increase their knowledge of booster seats and reduce the financial costs of compliance. PMID:12460963

  10. Psychiatric diagnoses after hospitalization with work-related burn injuries in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K; Adams, Darrin

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to describe workers who were hospitalized with work-related burn injuries and their psychiatric sequelae in Washington State. Psychiatric sequelae of interest were depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other anxiety disorders. Workers' compensation claims meeting a definition for a hospitalized burn patient from Washington State from January 2001 through April 2008 were analyzed. The resulting claims were searched for the presence of certain psychiatric diagnoses or treatment codes, and descriptive analyses performed. In Washington State during the time period, the prevalence of claims with psychiatric diagnoses after hospitalization with burn injury was 19%. Claims with psychiatric diagnoses had higher medical costs and more days of time loss than those without these diagnoses. Workers with electrical burns in the construction industry and in construction and extraction occupations had a higher proportion of psychiatric sequelae. Burns are devastating yet preventable injuries. Workers who were hospitalized with work-related burn injuries, particularly those in certain industries and occupations and those with electrical burns, are at high risk for developing serious psychiatric sequelae with major costs to both the individual and the society.

  11. Genetic characterization of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus of coastal salmonid stocks in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2002-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a pathogen that infects many Pacific salmonid stocks from the watersheds of North America. Previous studies have thoroughly characterized the genetic diversity of IHNV isolates from Alaska and the Hagerman Valley in Idaho. To enhance understanding of the evolution and viral transmission patterns of IHNV within the Pacific Northwest geographic range, we analyzed the G gene of IHNV isolates from the coastal watersheds of Washington State by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and nucleotide sequencing. The RPA analysis of 23 isolates indicated that the Skagit basin IHNV isolates were relatively homogeneous as a result of the dominance of one G gene haplotype (S). Sequence analysis of 303 bases in the middle of the G gene (midG region) of 61 isolates confirmed the high frequency of a Skagit River basin sequence and identified another sequence commonly found in isolates from the Lake Washington basin. Overall, both the RPA and sequence analysis showed that the Washington coastal IHNV isolates are genetically homogeneous and have little genetic diversity. This is similar to the genetic diversity pattern of IHNV from Alaska and contrasts sharply with the high genetic diversity demonstrated for IHNV isolates from fish farms along the Snake River in Idaho. The high degree of sequence and haplotype similarity between the Washington coastal IHNV isolates and those from Alaska and British Columbia suggests that they have a common viral ancestor. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolates we studied and those from different regions throughout the virus's geographic range confirms a conserved pattern of evolution of the virus in salmonid stocks north of the Columbia River, which forms Washington's southern border.

  12. Potential for Natural Gas Storage in Deep Basalt Formations at Canoe Ridge, Washington State: A Hydrogeologic Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2005-09-24

    Between 1999 and 2002, Pacific Gas Transmission Company (PGT) (now TransCanada Pipeline Company) and AVISTA Corporation, together with technical support provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) examined the feasibility of developing a subsurface, natural gas-storage facility in deep, underlying Columbia River basalt in south-central Washington state. As part of this project, the 100 Circles #1 well was drilled and characterized in addition to surface studies. This report provides data and interpretations of the geology and hydrology collected specific to the Canoe Ridge site as part of the U.S. DOE funding to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of this project.

  13. WA State Profile. Washington: Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) and the New High School Proficiency Exam (HSPE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about Washington Assessment of Student Learning and the new High School Proficiency Exam. The purpose of the exam is to: (1) Determine prospective high school graduates' knowledge and skill levels relative to those needed for entry-level employment and postsecondary education; (2) Determine prospective high school…

  14. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    PubMed

    Peecook, Brandon R; Sidor, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  15. Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.; Divens, M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the lakes) or not controlled (42% of the lakes) in most lakes. Intermediate control of submersed macrophytes occurred in 18% of lakes at a median stocking rate of 24 fish per vegetated surface acre. Most of the landowners interviewed (83%) were satisfied with the results of introducing grass carp. For sites where all submersed macrophytes were eradicated, average turbidity was higher (11 nephelometric turbidity units, NTU) than at sites where macrophytes were controlled to intermediate levels (4 NTU) or unaffected by grass carp grazing (5 NTU). Chlorophyll a was not significantly different between levels of macrophyte control; therefore, we concluded that most of this turbidity was abiotic and not algal. Triploid grass carp were a popular control option and effectively grazed most submersed macrophytes in Washington State. However, calculating stocking rates based on landowner estimates of aquatic plant coverage rarely resulted in intermediate levels of aquatic plant control. Additionally, the effects of particular stocking rates varied considerably. We recommend against using grass carp in Washington lakes where eradication of submersed vegetation cannot be tolerated.

  16. The First Dinosaur from Washington State and a Review of Pacific Coast Dinosaurs from North America

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia. PMID:25993090

  17. Applying downscaled climate data to wildlife areas in Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Shafer, S. L.; Bartlein, P. J.; Helbrecht, L.; Pelltier, R.; Thompson, B.

    2013-12-01

    Conservation and natural resource managers require information about potential climate change effects for the species and ecosystems they manage. We evaluated potential future climate and bioclimate changes for wildlife areas in Washington State (USA) using five climate simulations for the 21st century from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) dataset run under the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. These data were downscaled to a 30-arc-second (~1-km) grid encompassing the state of Washington by calculating and interpolating future climate anomalies, and then applying the interpolated data to observed historical climate data. This climate data downscaling technique (also referred to as the 'delta' method) is relatively simple and makes a number of assumptions that affect how the downscaled data can be used and interpreted. We used the downscaled climate data to calculate bioclimatic variables (e.g., growing degree days) that represent important physiological and environmental limits for Washington species and habitats of management concern. Multivariate descriptive plots and maps were used to evaluate the direction, magnitude, and spatial patterns of projected future climate and bioclimatic changes. The results indicate which managed areas experience the largest climate and bioclimatic changes under each of the potential future climate simulations. We discuss these changes while accounting for some of the limitations of our downscaling technique and the uncertainties associated with using these downscaled data for conservation and natural resource management applications.

  18. A 6000 year, quantitative reconstruction of precipitation variability in central Washington from lake sediment oxygen isotopes and predictive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, B. A.; Abbott, M.; Rosenmeier, M. F.; Stansell, N.

    2010-12-01

    in the climate and lake isotope system. Specifically, equifinality produces a condition of many possible climatic solutions, or the lack of a unique hydroclimatic solution, for each observed sediment isotope value. Here, we present specific estimates of precipitation changes in north-central Washington over the last 6,000 years from model simulations of sediment core δ18O values. To address the issue of equifinality, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted in which lake isotopic evolution over discrete 100 year periods was simulated in response to randomly generated changes in mean state and stochastic P, T, and RH. Modeled sediment δ18O values from each 100 year period were averaged to address the effects of transience. The resulting dataset was analyzed by multiple regression to determine a quantitative relationship, within confidence limits, between δ18O values and P rates. The resulting regression equation was applied to the lake sediment δ18O record to produce a continuous, multi-millennial, quantitative estimate of precipitation changes extending beyond regional, tree-ring based Palmer Drought Severity Index reconstructions.

  19. The burden of traumatic brain injury among adolescent and young adult workers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Janessa M.; Sears, Jeanne M.; Vavilala, Monica S.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study describes injury characteristics and costs of work-related traumatic brain injury (WRTBI) among 16–24 year olds in Washington State between 1998 and 2008. Methods WRTBIs were identified in the Washington Trauma Registry (WTR) and linked to workers’ compensation (WC) claims data. Medical and time-loss compensation costs were compared between workers with isolated TBI and TBI with other trauma. Results Of 273 WRTBI cases identified, most (61.5%) were TBI with other trauma. One-third of WRTBI did not link to a WC claim. Medical costs averaged $88,307 (median $16,426) for isolated TBI cases, compared to $73,669 (median $41,167) for TBI with other trauma. Conclusions Results highlight the financial impact of WRTBI among young workers. Multiple data sources provided a more comprehensive picture than a single data source alone. This linked-data approach holds great potential for future traumatic occupational injury research. PMID:23710080

  20. First down and goal to go. [Washington State resource applications for LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, G.

    1981-01-01

    A 10 year game plan for transition to the operational system was developed in the State of Washington. The plan is to: examine the results of past demonstration projects to identify successful operational applications, take advantage of geographic information systems, and work toward reducing/eliminating constraints of the present system which inhibit operational use. Support for the LANDSAT program was demonstrated by sending a user representative to NOAA working in the development of a user oriented system. It is suggested that the state should reassess its position, by taking advantage of the past 8 years' experience, and coordinate efforts to enhance LANDSAT' advantages in a cost effective manner.

  1. 76 FR 28066 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... glass beads was given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University on an unknown date... determined that this lot of stone, bone, and glass beads is very likely to have been removed from an...

  2. Completion rates of clients discharged from drug and alcohol treatment programs in Washington State.

    PubMed Central

    Wickizer, T; Maynard, C; Atherly, A; Frederick, M; Koepsell, T; Krupski, A; Stark, K

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The primary goal of this study was to analyze completion rates of clients in drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs in Washington State and to assess the factors associated with treatment completion. A secondary goal was to examine the utility of a state information system as a source of evaluative data. METHODS. Analyses were conducted of 5827 client records contained in the Washington State Substance Abuse Monitoring System, representing a census of public clients discharged during the last quarter of 1990 from all state-funded alcohol and drug treatment programs in four treatment modalities. Logistic regression was performed to determine the independent predictors of treatment completion. RESULTS. Completion rates were highest for intensive inpatient alcohol treatment (75%) and lowest for intensive outpatient drug programs (18%). Factors associated with treatment completion included screening at a referral assessment center, education, age, ethnicity, and existence of a secondary drug problem. CONCLUSIONS. The fit between clients and treatment programs may be an important factor explaining why some clients complete treatment and others drop out. State client information systems are an important source of data for analyzing treatment completion and other outcomes. PMID:8296943

  3. Environmental radiation monitoring of low-level wastes by the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L.

    1989-11-01

    The Washington State Department of Health, as the state`s regulatory agency for radiation, monitors several forms of low-level radioactive wastes. The monitoring is done to assess the potential impact on the environment and on public health. The emphasis of the monitoring program is placed on the solid and liquid wastes from defense activities on the Hanford Reservation, commercial wastes at the site located on leased land at Hanford and uranium mill tailings in Northeastern Washington. Although not classified as low-level waste, monitoring is also periodically conducted at selected landfills and sewage treatment facilities and other licensees, where radioactive wastes are known or suspected to be present. Environmental pathways associated with waste disposal are monitored independently, and/or in conjunction with the waste site operators to verify their results and evaluate their programs. The Department also participates in many site investigations conducted by site operators and other agencies, and conducts it`s own special investigations when deemed necessary. Past investigations and special projects have included allegations of adverse environmental impact of I-129, uranium in ground water, impacts of wastes on the agricultural industry, radioactivity in seeps into the Columbia River from waste sites, identifying lost waste sites at Hanford, differentiating groundwater contamination from defense versus commercial sources, and radioactivity in municipal landfills and sewers. The state`s environmental radiation monitoring program has identified and verified a number of environmental problems associated with radioactive waste disposal, but has, to date, identified no adverse offsite impacts to public health.

  4. Lessons from Five States: Public Sector Use of Washington Circle Performance Measures

    PubMed Central

    Garnick, Deborah W.; Lee, Margaret T.; Horgan, Constance; Acevedo, Andrea; Botticelli, Michael; Clark, Spencer; Davis, Steven; Gallati, Robert; Haberlin, Karin; Hanchett, Andrew; Lambert–Wacey, Dawn; Leeper, Tracy; Siemianowski, James; Tikoo, Minakshi

    2011-01-01

    Five states (Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, and Oklahoma) have incorporated Washington Circle (WC) substance abuse performance measures in various ways into their quality improvement strategies. In this paper we focus on what other states and local providers might learn from these states’ experiences as they consider using WC performance measures. Using a case study approach, we report that the use of WC measures differs across these five states, although there are important common themes required for adoption and sustainability of performance measures which include: leadership, evaluation of specification and use of measures over time, state-specific adaptation of the WC measure specifications, collaboration with consultants and partners, inclusion of WC measures in the context of other initiatives, reporting to providers and the public, and data and resource requirements. As additional states adopt some of the WC measures, or adopt other performance measurement approaches, these states’ experiences could help them to develop implementations based on their particular needs. PMID:21257282

  5. The Influence of the Wallula Fault and Pasco Basin on the Tectonic Framework of South-Central Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, R. J.; Sherrod, B. L.; Wells, R. E.; Weaver, C. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Yakima fold and thrust belt (YFTB) in eastern Washington manifests broad-scale regional deformation of the Cascadia backarc occurring prior, during, and after emplacement of Miocene flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). CRBG basalts are strongly magnetic, and anticlines and faults of the YFTB are well displayed in high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys. Gravity anomalies, on the other hand, reflect in part the thickness of pre-Miocene sedimentary rocks beneath CRBG. The broad width of the YFTB in central Washington narrows eastward toward Idaho, with anticlines and faults merging into the narrow Wallula fault zone (WFZ). The WFZ is one element of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL), an alignment of topographic and structural elements extending from the Olympic Peninsula in Washington to the Wallowa Mountains in Oregon. The tectonic relevance of the OWL, particularly the degree to which dextral shear has contributed to its evolution, is still a matter of discussion. The Pasco basin, a late Cenozoic sedimentary basin atop CRBG, is associated with a broad gravity low. The thickness of post-CRBG sediments is insufficient to account for the entire gravity anomaly, suggesting the presence of a sediment-filled basin beneath CRBG. YFTB evolution and Quaternary deformation appear to have been influenced by the Pasco basin, as evidenced by potential-field anomalies. Northernmost faults of the YFTB (Frenchman Hills, Saddle Mountains, and Umtanum Ridge) abruptly terminate as they cross the western margin of the basin. Derivative maps (e.g., maximum horizontal gradient and tilt derivative) calculated from high-resolution magnetic anomalies show no evidence of these faults beyond their mapped extent in this area. Southern faults of the YFTB (Rattlesnake Mountain, Horse Heaven Hills, and Columbia Hills) in central Washington are on strike with the Pasco basin but veer abruptly southeastward at its southwestern margin to merge into the WFZ. Northwest

  6. The Role of Black Carbon from Wildfires in Accelerating Snow and Glacier Melt in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspari, S.; Delaney, I.; Pittenger, D.; Skiles, M.

    2014-12-01

    In Washington, snow and glacier melt provide an important source of water resources, however spring snowpack levels are declining and glaciers are retreating. While warming temperatures are a well-recognized factor contributing to snowpack decline and glacier retreat, another cause may be the deposition of black carbon (BC) onto snow and glacier surfaces. Since 2010 we have collected snow and ice core samples to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of BC deposited in Washington snow and glacier ice. BC concentrations in the winter snowpack are relatively low, with BC concentrations increasing in spring and summer due to melt induced enrichment and increased dry deposition. BC induced melt may accelerate the timing of spring snowmelt at lower elevations, however BC induced melt is likely largest at relatively high elevations where the snowpack persists into the summer months when BC concentrations were observed to be highest. Based on our research to date, the highest BC concentrations in Washington snow and ice are linked to forest fires. A shallow ice core retrieved from Mt. Olympus demonstrated that BC deposition was a magnitude higher during the 2011 Big Hump forest fire, resulting in a threefold increase in the rate of change of river discharge due to glacier melt. An ice core from South Cascade Glacier spanning the 20th century also suggests that the highest BC concentrations are associated with forest fires. Furthermore, burned areas can continue to provide a source of BC to the snowpack post-fire. We measured BC concentrations in snow at a study site from 2010-2013 in Washington State. The surrounding forest burned in 2012, after which BC deposited on the snowpack post-fire was at least four-fold higher than pre-fire. This research has implications for projected climate change, as forest fires are projected to increase and the seasonal snowpack is projected to decrease, both of which contribute to higher BC concentrations in the snowpack.

  7. Impact of a Pertussis Epidemic on Infant Vaccination in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Opel, Douglas; DeHart, M. Patricia; Warren, Jodi; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Washington State experienced a pertussis epidemic from October 2011 to December 2012. There was wide variation in incidence by county. The objectives of this study were to determine how the pertussis epidemic affected infant vaccination in Washington State and whether the incidence in counties modified this effect. METHODS: We conducted an ecologic before–after study to compare the proportion of infants up to date (UTD) with a pertussis-containing vaccine at time points before (September 30, 2011), during (September 30, 2012), and after (September 30, 2013) the epidemic. Children aged 3 to 8 months enrolled in the Washington State Immunization Information System with documented county of residence were included. UTD status was determined as ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 doses of a pertussis-containing vaccine at ages 3, 5, and 7 months, respectively. Generalized linear models with extension to the binomial family and clustered robust standard errors were used to examine differences in the proportion of UTD infants between preepidemic and either epidemic or postepidemic points. The potential modifying effect of pertussis incidence by county was examined. RESULTS: We found no significant difference in statewide UTD status with a pertussis-containing vaccine between preepidemic and either epidemic (absolute difference 2.1%; 95% confidence interval, −1.6 to 5.9) or postepidemic (absolute difference 0.2%; 95% confidence interval, −4.0 to 4.5) time points. There was no significant modification by county pertussis incidence. There was wide variation in the absolute difference in UTD status across counties. CONCLUSIONS: A statewide pertussis epidemic does not appear to have significantly changed the proportion of infants who were UTD with a pertussis-containing vaccine. PMID:25136046

  8. Scoping risk assessment: Protection against oil spills in the marine waters of northwest Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, M.; Schwenk, J.; Watros, G.; Boniface, D.

    1997-07-18

    This report is intended to provide the Secretary of Transportation with information relevant to possible actions to increase safety of the waterways of northwest Washington State, including Puget Sound, Strait of Juan de Fuca, passages around and through the San Juan Islands, and the offshore waters of the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary. This scoping risk assessment is an initial characterization of the hazards which can cause oil spills by ships underway and the environmental sensitivity to such spills; deaths, injuries, and property losses are not accounted for in the consequences of accidents.

  9. Prevalence of the parasitic copepod Haemobaphes intermedius on juvenile buffalo sculpins from Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halpenny, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    The parasitic copepod, Haemobaphes intermedius, was detected in 62% of juvenile buffalo sculpins Enophrys bison, a previously unreported host, from the San Juan Islands archipelago in Washington State. Most infestations were characterized by the presence of a single female copepod infestations with multiple H. intermedius occurred either unilaterally or bilaterally in 29% of parasitized individuals. Impaired condition of parasitized hosts was indicated by significantly lower total lengths and weights (34.9 mm; 1.6 g) than in unparasitized cohorts (38.9 mm; 2.1 g). Host specificity was indicated by the failure to detect H. intermedius in 43 sympatric great sculpins Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus from the same location.

  10. Housing Insecurity and the Association With Health Outcomes and Unhealthy Behaviors, Washington State, 2011.

    PubMed

    Stahre, Mandy; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Siegel, Paul; Njai, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Few studies of associations between housing and health have focused on housing insecurity and health risk behaviors and outcomes. We measured the association between housing insecurity and selected health risk behaviors and outcomes, adjusted for socioeconomic measures, among 8,415 respondents to the 2011 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Housing insecure respondents were about twice as likely as those who were not housing insecure to report poor or fair health status or delay doctor visits because of costs. This analysis supports a call to action among public health practitioners who address disparities to focus on social determinants of health risk behaviors and outcomes. PMID:26160295

  11. Housing Insecurity and the Association With Health Outcomes and Unhealthy Behaviors, Washington State, 2011.

    PubMed

    Stahre, Mandy; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Siegel, Paul; Njai, Rashid

    2015-07-09

    Few studies of associations between housing and health have focused on housing insecurity and health risk behaviors and outcomes. We measured the association between housing insecurity and selected health risk behaviors and outcomes, adjusted for socioeconomic measures, among 8,415 respondents to the 2011 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Housing insecure respondents were about twice as likely as those who were not housing insecure to report poor or fair health status or delay doctor visits because of costs. This analysis supports a call to action among public health practitioners who address disparities to focus on social determinants of health risk behaviors and outcomes.

  12. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2015-11-09

    PNNL is a large economic entity with a total of 4,308 employees, $939 million (M) in total funding, and $1.02 billion (B) in total spending during FY 2014. The number of employees that live in Washington State is 4,026 or 93 percent of the Laboratory staff. he Laboratory directly and indirectly supported $1.45 billion in economic output, 6,832 jobs, and $517 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gained more than $1.19 billion in output, over 6,200 jobs, and $444 million in income through closely related economic activities such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community not-for-profit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which strengthen the

  13. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2014-12-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which

  14. ADULT CADDISFLY (TRICHOPTERA) PHENOLOGY AT THE HANFORD REACH NATIONAL MONUMENT, WASHINGTON STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Zack, Richard S.; Ruiter, David E.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Landolt, Peter J.

    2006-01-05

    Adult caddisflies were sampled on the Wahluke Wildlife Area and Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge subunits of the newly created (2000) Hanford Reach National Monument using 15-watt ''black lights'' from April 2002 through April 2003. A diverse fauna consisting of nine families, 21 genera, and 33 species were collected. Protoptila Coloma Ross, Agraylea multipunctata Curtis, Hydroptila xera Ross, Ceraclea alagma (Ross), Nectopsych Iahontanensis Haddock Oecetis cinerascens (Hagen), and Ylodes reuteri (MacLachlan) represent new records for Washington State. Species composition and phenology are presented in tabular form.

  15. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.; Moore, Leslie K.; Harrington, Neil; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Borchert, Jerry; Trainer, Vera L.

    2013-01-01

    The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters. PMID:24084788

  16. Active tectonics of the Seattle fault and central Puget sound, Washington - Implications for earthquake hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.Y.; Dadisman, S.V.; Childs, J. R.; Stanley, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    We use an extensive network of marine high-resolution and conventional industry seismic-reflection data to constrain the location, shallow structure, and displacement rates of the Seattle fault zone and crosscutting high-angle faults in the Puget Lowland of western Washington. Analysis of seismic profiles extending 50 km across the Puget Lowland from Lake Washington to Hood Canal indicates that the west-trending Seattle fault comprises a broad (4-6 km) zone of three or more south-dipping reverse faults. Quaternary sediment has been folded and faulted along all faults in the zone but is clearly most pronounced along fault A, the northernmost fault, which forms the boundary between the Seattle uplift and Seattle basin. Analysis of growth strata deposited across fault A indicate minimum Quaternary slip rates of about 0.6 mm/yr. Slip rates across the entire zone are estimated to be 0.7-1.1 mm/yr. The Seattle fault is cut into two main segments by an active, north-trending, high-angle, strike-slip fault zone with cumulative dextral displacement of about 2.4 km. Faults in this zone truncate and warp reflections in Tertiary and Quaternary strata and locally coincide with bathymetric lineaments. Cumulative slip rates on these faults may exceed 0.2 mm/yr. Assuming no other crosscutting faults, this north-trending fault zone divides the Seattle fault into 30-40-km-long western and eastern segments. Although this geometry could limit the area ruptured in some Seattle fault earthquakes, a large event ca. A.D. 900 appears to have involved both segments. Regional seismic-hazard assessments must (1) incorporate new information on fault length, geometry, and displacement rates on the Seattle fault, and (2) consider the hazard presented by the previously unrecognized, north-trending fault zone.

  17. VLF electromagnetic investigations of the crater and central dome of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Towle, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    A very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic induction survey in the crater of Mount St. Helens has identified several electrically conductive structures that appear to be associated with thermal anomalies and ground water within the crater. The most interesting of these conductive structures lies beneath the central dome. It is probably a partial melt of dacite similar to that comprising the June 1981 lobe of the central dome. ?? 1983.

  18. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  19. Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Blakley, N.; Norton, D.; Stinson, M.; Boyer, R.

    1994-12-31

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) is developing guidelines to assess soil toxicity at hazardous waste sites being investigated under the Washington Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. To evaluate soil toxicity, Ecology selected five bioassay protocols -- Daphnia, Earthworm, Seedling, Fathead Minnow, and Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) -- for use as screening level assessment tools at six State hazardous waste sites. Sites contained a variety of contaminants including metals, creosote, pesticides, and petroleum products (leaking underground storage tanks). Three locations, representing high, medium, and low levels of contamination, were samples at each site. In general, the high contaminant samples resulted in the highest toxic response in all bioassays. The order of site toxicity, as assessed by overall toxic response, is creosote, petroleum products, metals, and pesticides. Results indicate that human health standards, especially for metals, may not adequately protect some of the species tested. The FETAX bioassay had the greatest overall number of toxic responses and lowest variance. The seedling and Daphnia bioassays had lower and similar overall toxic response results, followed by the earthworm and fathead minnow. Variability was markedly highest for the seedling. The Daphnia and fathead minnow variability were similar to the FETAX level, while the earthworm variability was slightly higher.

  20. The 1983 Temperature Gradient and Heat Flow Drilling Project for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Korosec, Michael A.

    1983-11-01

    During the Summer of 1983, the Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources carried out a three-hole drilling program to collect temperature gradient and heat flow information near potential geothermal resource target areas. The project was part of the state-coupled US Department of Energy Geothermal Program. Richardson Well Drilling of Tacoma, Washington was subcontracted through the State to perform the work. The general locations of the project areas are shown in figure 1. The first hole, DNR 83-1, was located within the Green River valley northwest of Mount St. Helens. This site is near the Green River Soda Springs and along the projection of the Mount St. Helens--Elk Lake seismic zone. The other two holes were drilled near Mount Baker. Hole DNR 83-3 was sited about 1/4 km west of the Baker Hot Springs, 10.5 km east of Mount Baker, while hole DNR 83-5 was located along Rocky Creek in the Sulphur Creek Valley. The Rocky Creek hole is about 10 km south-southwest of the peak. Two other holes, DNR 83-2 and DNR 83-4, were located on the north side of the Sulphur Creek Valley. Both holes were abandoned at early stages of drilling because of deep overburden and severe caving problems. The sites were apparently located atop old landslide deposits.

  1. Notes on the Life History of Macaria curvata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Southcentral Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, Dennis L.; Driver, Crystal J.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Zack, Richard S.

    2006-06-09

    Macaria curvata (Grote) (Geometridae;Ennomine) is a common species found in arid habitats of the western United States and Canada. Intensive light trapping found the moth to be one of the most commonly collected throughout the Hanford Site of southcentral Washington State. To provide larvae and adults for concurrent studies, a laboratory colony of M. curvata was established and maintained. Live, wild females were collected and allowed to oviposite on their food plant, rubber rabbitbrush (Ericameria nauseosa var. speciosa (Hutt.) Nesom % Baird). In our southcentral Washington study area, adults generally emerge in late March and complete 4 - 5 generations throughout the season until early October when they overwinter in the pupal stage. Eggs are laid on the leaves and stems of the host plant, hatching in 6 - 10 days. The larvae undergo five instars before pupation takes place in the soil. Adult females produce and average of 131 eggs (SD = 62, N = 45). Adult females have an average wingspan of 23.4 mm (+-1.23 mm, N = 31) while males have a wingspan of 24.3 mm (+-1.3 mm, N = 55).

  2. A statewide outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, S M; Griffin, P M; Tauxe, R V; Shipman, L D; Greene, K D; Wells, J G; Lewis, J H; Blake, P A; Kobayashi, J M

    1990-08-01

    In November 1986, a statewide outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections in Washington State was identified after a physician in an eastern Washington community hospitalized three patients with hemorrhagic colitis which progressed to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Epidemiologic investigation identified 37 cases in this community and linked the illnesses to a local restaurant which had served ground beef that was the suspected initial vehicle of transmission. The plasmid profile and toxin production pattern (Shiga-like toxin II alone) of the outbreak strain provided a unique strain marker. E. coli O157:H7 infections caused by this strain were simultaneously seen in other parts of the state among nursing home residents and in patients with the hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and an increase in sporadic cases of hemorrhagic colitis was noted at a Seattle health maintenance organization. It is suspected that a contaminated product, probably ground beef distributed statewide, was the common source. Tracing of this meat led to farms where rectal swabs from six (1%) of 539 cattle tested yielded E. coli O157:H7, although the plasmids and toxin production patterns of these isolates differed from the human outbreak strain. Introduction of a single strain of E. coli O157:H7 has the potential to cause widespread concurrent outbreaks. Such outbreaks are likely to escape recognition until heightened screening and surveillance for E. coli O157:H7 is established.

  3. Mortality related to spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei) in Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Akmajian, Adrianne M; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Lance, Monique M; Raverty, Stephen; Gaydos, Joseph K

    2012-10-01

    Tissue perforation and penetration by dorsal fin spines of spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei) were responsible for the death of seven harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in Washington State (USA) between 2006 and 2011. In six animals, necropsy revealed spines or spine parts that had perforated the esophagus or stomach and migrated into vital tissues, resulting in hemothorax, pneumothorax, pleuritis, and peritonitis. In a seventh case, a ratfish spine was recovered from the mouth of a harbor seal euthanized due to clinical symptoms of encephalitis. Gross examination revealed an abscess within the left cerebrum, which was attributed to direct extension of inflammatory infiltrate associated with the ratfish spine. Between 2009 and 2011, spotted ratfish spines were also recovered from the head or neck region of three Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and one California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Ratfish-related trauma appears to be a novel mortality factor for harbor seals in Washington State and could be related to increased ratfish abundance and a shifting prey base for harbor seals. PMID:23060509

  4. Food access and cost in American Indian communities in Washington State.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Meghan; Buchwald, Dedra S; Duncan, Glen E

    2011-09-01

    Limited access to foods that make up a nutritious diet at minimal cost may influence eating behaviors and, ultimately, obesity. This study examined the number and type of food stores (convenience, grocery, supermarket) on federal reservations in Washington State, and the availability and cost of foods in the US Department of Agriculture Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit market basket, to describe the food environment of American Indians. Stores were identified by telephone survey of tribal headquarters, a commercial database, and on-site visitation. Foods were assessed using a standardized instrument containing 68 items in seven major food groups during April and May 2009. Store type and availability and cost of foods were recorded on a checklist. Fifty stores were identified on 22 American Indian reservations, including 25 convenience, 16 grocery, and 9 supermarkets. Across all stores, about 38% of checklist items were available, with supermarkets having the most and convenience stores the fewest. Foods from the dairy and sugars/sweets groups were the most prevalent, while fresh fruits/vegetables were the least. Cost of the most commonly available items was lowest in supermarkets. Seventeen reservations did not have a supermarket on their reservation, and the nearest off-reservation supermarket was about 10 miles from the tribe's headquarters, which was used as the standard for distance calculations. These results demonstrate that American Indians living on federal reservations in Washington State may have limited access to foods that make up a nutritious diet at minimal cost.

  5. Regional frequency analysis to asses wind resource spatial and temporal variations in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortuza, M.; Demissie, D.

    2013-12-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy's annual wind technologies market report, the wind power capacity in the country grew from 2.5 gigawatts in early 2000 to 60 gigawatts in 2012, making it one of the largest new sources of electric capacity additions in the U.S. in recent years. With over 2.8 gigawatts of current capacity (eighth largest in the nation), Washington State plays a significant role in this rapidly increasing energy resource. To further expand and/or optimize these capacities, assessment of wind resource and its spatial and temporal variations are important. However, since at-site frequency analysis using meteorological data is not adequate for extending wind frequency to locations with no data, longer return period, and heterogeneous topography and surface, a regional frequency analysis based on L-moment method is adopted in this study to estimate regional wind speed patterns and return periods in Washington State using hourly mean wind speed data from 1979 - 2010. The analysis applies the k-means, hierarchical and self-organizing map clustering techniques to explore potential clusters or regions; statistical tests are then applied to identify homogeneous regions and appropriate probability distribution models. The result from the analysis is expected to provide essential knowledge about the areas with potential capacity of constructing wind power plants, which can also be readily extended to assist decisions on their daily operations.

  6. Cultural Norms in Conflict: Breastfeeding Among Hispanic Immigrants in Rural Washington State.

    PubMed

    Hohl, Sarah; Thompson, Beti; Escareño, Monica; Duggan, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To examine perceptions, experiences, and attitudes towards breastfeeding among Hispanic women living in rural Washington State. Methods Twenty parous Hispanic women of low acculturation, aged 25-48 years and residents in rural Washington State participated in an exploratory, face-to-face interview. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed, and analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach. Results Nine emergent themes were grouped into three overarching categories: (1) Breast is best; (2) Hispanic cultural and familial expectations to breastfeed; and (3) Adapting to life in the United States: cultural norms in conflict. Women said they were motivated to breastfeed because of their knowledge and observations of its health benefits for mother and child. They said breastfeeding is ingrained in their Hispanic cultural heritage, and infant feeding choices of female family members were particularly influential in women's own decision to breastfeed. Women said they experienced embarrassment about breastfeeding in the United States and as a result, often chose to initiate formula feeding as a complement so as to avoid feelings of shame. Additionally, they faced economic pressure to work, key barriers for continued breastfeeding among Hispanics in the United States. Conclusions for Practice Knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child and longstanding cultural practices of breastfeeding are not enough to encourage exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months among this rural Hispanic population. Continued support through family-level interventions as well as work place policies that encourage breastfeeding are needed for rural Hispanics to reach optimal breastfeeding rates. PMID:27021068

  7. Use and selection of brood-rearing habitat by Sage Grouse in south central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sveum, C.M.; Crawford, J.A.; Edge, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) brood-habitat use was examined during 1992 and 1993 at the Yakima Training Center in Yakima and Kittitas counties, Washington. During the 2 yr we followed 38 broods, of which 12 persisted to 1 August (x?? = approximately 1.5 chicks/brood). Food forb cover was greater at all brood locations than at random locations. Hens with broods in big sagebrush/bunchgrass habitat (Artemisia tridentata/Agropyron spicatum) selected for greater food forb cover, total forb cover, and lower shrub heights; broods in altered big sagebrush/bunchgrass habitats selected greater tall grass cover and vertical cover height; broods in grassland showed no preference for any measured vegetation characteristics. During the early rearing period (post-hatching-6 wk) each year, broods selected sagebrush/bunchgrass. Broods in 1993 made greater use of grasslands than in 1992 and selected grassland during the late brood-rearing period (7-12 wk). Broods selected for sagebrush/bunchgrass during midday, but 52% of brood locations in the afternoon were in grassland. Tall grass cover was greater at morning (0500-1000 h) and afternoon (1501-2000 h) brood locations than at midday (1001-1500 h) and random locations. Midday brood locations had greater shrub cover and height than morning and afternoon locations. Selection of habitat components was similar to the results of other studies, but habitat conditions coupled with a possible lack of 'alternate brood-rearing cover types resulted in low survival of chicks.

  8. Central Hyperadrenergic State After Lightning Strike

    PubMed Central

    Parsaik, Ajay K.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H.; Seime, Richard J.; Craft, Jennifer M.; Staab, Jeffrey P.; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Methods Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. Results A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. Interpretation The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation were highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the CNS or a secondary response is open to speculation. PMID:23761114

  9. 77 FR 46117 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...; Port Gamble Indian Community of the Port Gamble Reservation, Washington; Puyallup Tribe of the Puyallup... Idaho); Nooksack Indian Tribe of Washington; Port Gamble Indian Community of the Port Gamble...

  10. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout.

    PubMed

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-06-13

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. PMID:23759556

  11. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. 

  12. Injuries and illnesses from wood framing in residential construction, Washington State, 1993-1999.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Mahboob Ali; Bonauto, David; Silverstein, Barbara; Foley, Michael; Kalat, John

    2003-11-01

    The construction industry is associated with high rates of work-related injury. We used workers compensation data to describe the injuries and illnesses, claim rates, and claim costs associated with wood framing activities in construction. From 1993 to 1999, there were 33,021 accepted state fund workers compensation claims with direct costs of over $197 million. The average annual claim rate was 45 per 100 full-time equivalent. Statistically significant downward trends were noted in claim rates for all injuries and illnesses, compensable time loss claims, eye and fall injuries. However, these trends were not statistically significantly different from those observed in all other construction risk classes combined. The information in this report can be used to guide prevention efforts and to evaluate the effectiveness of Washington state initiatives to reduce injury and illness rates in wood frame construction.

  13. Integrative monitoring of marine and freshwater harmful algae in Washington State for public health protection.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Vera L; Hardy, F Joan

    2015-04-09

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state's freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

  14. Integrative monitoring of marine and freshwater harmful algae in Washington State for public health protection.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Vera L; Hardy, F Joan

    2015-04-01

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state's freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans. PMID:25860160

  15. Integrative Monitoring of Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae in Washington State for Public Health Protection

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, Vera L.; Hardy, F. Joan

    2015-01-01

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state’s freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans. PMID:25860160

  16. Children's Access to Health Insurance and Health Status in Washington State: Influential Factors. Research Brief. Publication #2009-21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Gregory; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Terzian, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Health insurance, and especially coverage for children, has been a subject of recent political debate in Washington State, as well as on the national stage. Policy makers and health care providers can use high-quality state-level data to assess which children lack health insurance and devise possible solutions to address this need. Illustrating…

  17. Washington State Core Competencies Model Curriculum: English as a Second Language, Level 3. Version 1.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Stacey, Ed.; And Others

    The Washington State Core Competencies Project is designed to implement competency-based adult education in the state's 38 adult basic education programs. A model curriculum was developed and field-tested over several years. The resulting curriculum outline of core competencies for English as a Second Language, level 3, is presented here. The…

  18. Washington State Core Competencies Model Curriculum: English as a Second Language, Level 2. Version 1.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Stacey, Ed.; And Others

    The Washington State Core Competencies Project is designed to implement competency-based adult education in the state's 38 adult basic education programs. A model curriculum was developed and field-tested over several years. The resulting curriculum outline of core competencies for English as a Second Language, level 2, is presented here. The…

  19. How I-BEST Works: Findings from a Field Study of Washington State's Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachen, John; Jenkins, Davis; Van Noy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training (I-BEST) is an innovative program and strategy developed by the Washington (WA) State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC) in conjunction with the state's 29 community colleges and five technical colleges. Its goal is to increase the rate at which adult basic education and…

  20. The End of Affirmative Action in Washington State and Its Impact on the Transition from High School to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan K.; Hirschman, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Changes in affirmative action policies in some states create possibilities for "natural experiments" to observe the effect of public policy on racial and ethnic inequality in American society. This study measured the impact of Initiative 200, a ballot measure that eliminated affirmative action in Washington State, on the transition from high…

  1. Determinants of Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibition Among Agricultural Pesticide Handlers in Washington State: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Krenz, Jennifer E.; Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Smith, Theresa R.; Cunningham, Rad N.; Fenske, Richard A.; Simpson, Christopher D.; Keifer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides are used widely in agriculture to manage insect pests of economic importance. Agricultural workers are more likely to suffer exposure because of the widespread use of OP/CBs in agriculture, and pesticide-related illnesses among handlers may be more severe when compared to other farm workers. The goal of this study was to identify occupational and personal characteristics associated with butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition in participants recruited from the Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program from 2006 to 2011. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study among agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State during the OP/CB spray season (March–July) over a 6-year period (2006–2011). Linear mixed effects regression models were used to evaluate BuChE inhibition in relation to self-reported occupational and personal characteristics. Results: Relative to pre-season baseline levels, the mean decrease in BuChE activity during the OP/CB spray season over all years of the study period was 3.77% (P < 0.001). Greater BuChE inhibition was observed among handlers who reported using multiple OP/CBs (β = −2.70, P = 0.045), mixed or loaded OP/CBs (β = −3.97, P = 0.002), did not store personal protective equipment (PPE) in a locker at work (β = −3.4, P = 0.014), or did not wear chemical-resistant boots (β = −16.6, P < 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions: The Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program has provided a valuable opportunity to evaluate potential sources of OP/CB exposure among agricultural pesticide handlers. Several previously reported associations were confirmed in the current analysis, which included a larger number of pesticide handlers enrolled over a longer time period. The use of multiple OP/CBs and mixing/loading activities were significant risk factors, and the use of chemical-resistant boots and lockers for PPE storage were protective factors

  2. Variations in community exposure to lahar hazards from multiple volcanoes in Washington State (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communities are vulnerable to lahar hazards provides critical input for effective design and implementation of volcano hazard preparedness and mitigation strategies. Past vulnerability assessments have focused largely on hazards posed by a single volcano, even though communities and officials in many parts of the world must plan for and contend with hazards associated with multiple volcanoes. To better understand community vulnerability in regions with multiple volcanic threats, we characterize and compare variations in community exposure to lahar hazards associated with five active volcanoes in Washington State, USA—Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens—each having the potential to generate catastrophic lahars that could strike communities tens of kilometers downstream. We use geospatial datasets that represent various population indicators (e.g., land cover, residents, employees, tourists) along with mapped lahar-hazard boundaries at each volcano to determine the distributions of populations within communities that occupy lahar-prone areas. We estimate that Washington lahar-hazard zones collectively contain 191,555 residents, 108,719 employees, 433 public venues that attract visitors, and 354 dependent-care facilities that house individuals that will need assistance to evacuate. We find that population exposure varies considerably across the State both in type (e.g., residential, tourist, employee) and distribution of people (e.g., urban to rural). We develop composite lahar-exposure indices to identify communities most at-risk and communities throughout the State who share common issues of vulnerability to lahar-hazards. We find that although lahars are a regional hazard that will impact communities in different ways there are commonalities in community exposure across multiple volcanoes. Results will aid emergency managers, local officials, and the public in educating at-risk populations and developing

  3. Distribution of asthma by occupation: Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Data, 2006–2009

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zihong Joyce; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Bonauto, David K.; Rauser, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Objective Objective: To estimate the prevalence of asthma in workers by occupation in Washington State. Methods: Data from the 2006–2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the BRFSS Asthma Call-Back Survey (ACBS) in Washington State (WA) were analyzed. Using state-added and coded Industry and Occupation questions, we calculated prevalence ratios (PRs) for 19 occupational groups. Results: Of the 41 935 respondents who were currently employed during 2006–2009, the prevalence of current asthma was 8.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8–8.5%] When compared with the reference group of executive, administration and managerial occupations, three occupational groups had significantly (p < 0.05) higher PRs of current asthma: “Teachers, all levels, and Counselors’ (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1. 6%); ‘Administrative Support, including Clerical” (PR 1. 5, 95% CI 1.2–1.9%); and “Other Health Services” (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2–1.9). Half of the 2511 ACBS respondent workers (55.1%) indicated that they believed exposure at work had caused or worsened their asthma, but only 10.7% had ever spoken with a health care professional about their asthma being work related. Conclusions: Some occupations have a higher prevalence of current asthma than other occupations. The systematic collection of industry and occupation data can help identify worker populations with a high burden of asthma and can be used to target disease prevention efforts as well as to aid clinician recognition and treatment. Workers indicated that work-related asthma exposures are not discussed with their health care provider and this communication gap has implications for asthma management. PMID:24995660

  4. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 7, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The States of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, which total 248,730 square miles, compose Segment 7 of this Atlas. The area is geologically and topographically diverse and contains a wealth of scenic beauty, natural resources, and ground and surface water that generally are suitable for all uses. Most of the area of Segment 7 is drained by the Columbia River, its tributaries, and other streams that discharge to the Pacific Ocean. Exceptions are those streams that flow to closed basins in southeastern Oregon and northern Nevada and to the Great Salt Lake in northern Utah. The Columbia River is one of the largest rivers in the Nation. The downstream reach of the Columbia River forms most of the border between Oregon and Washington. In 1990, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington had populations of 1.0 million, 2.8 million, and 4.9 million, respectively. The more densely populated parts are in lowland areas and stream valleys. Many of the mountains, the deserts, and the upland areas of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington lack major population centers. Large areas of Idaho and Oregon are uninhabited and are mostly public land (fig. 1) where extensive ground-water development is restricted. Surface water is abundant in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, though not always available when and where needed. In some places, surface water provides much of the water used for public-supply, domestic and commercial, agricultural (primarily irrigation and livestock watering), and industrial purposes. In arid parts of Segment 7, however, surface water has long been fully appropriated, chiefly for irrigation. Ground water is used when and where surface-water supplies are lacking. Ground water is commonly available to shallow wells that are completed in unconsolidated-deposit aquifers that consist primarily of sand and gravel but contain variable quantities of clay and silt. Many large-yield public-supply and irrigation wells and thousands of domestic wells are completed in these types of aquifers

  5. Geologic map of the Simcoe Mountains Volcanic Field, main central segment, Yakama Nation, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Lava compositions other than various types of basalt are uncommon here. Andesite is abundant on and around Mount Adams but is very rare east of the Klickitat River. The only important nonbasaltic composition in the map area is rhyolite, which crops out in several patches around the central highland of the volcanic field, mainly in the upper canyons of Satus and Kusshi Creeks and Wilson Charley canyon. Because the rhyolites were some of the earliest lavas erupted here, they are widely concealed by later basalts and therefore crop out only in local windows eroded by canyons that cut through the overlying basalts.

  6. Long-Billed Curlew Breeding Success on Mid-Columbia River National Wildlife Refuges, South-Central Washington and North-Central Oregon, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stocking, Jessica; Elliott-Smith, Elise; Holcomb, Neil; Haig, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus) reproductive success was evaluated on the Mid-Columbia River National Wildlife Refuges of south-central Washington and north-central Oregon during the 2007 and 2008 breeding seasons. Additionally, we assisted the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in collecting information on distribution, abundance, and brood habitat for this shorebird species of conservation concern. A total of 32 breeding pairs were located on the refuges in 2007 and 35 pairs were located in 2008. We monitored 17 nests in 2007 and 23 nests in 2008. Curlew pairs were most abundant on Hanford Reach National Monument in 2007 but more nests were located on Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge in both years, with Columbia National Wildlife Refuge supporting few pairs. Nest success was 23.6 percent in 2007 and 32.9 percent in 2008 after taking into account exposure time and combining data for all the refuges. We were unable to detect any relationship between nest success and habitat type or habitat variables measured. However, our study was the first to document use of agricultural fields on the refuge as curlew nest habitat. We collected 39 and 28 brood locations in 2007 and 2008, respectively, and many observations were likely resightings of the same brood. Broods used a similar variety of habitats as nesting curlew and no clear habitat use pattern was detected.

  7. Initiative 394 passes: Washington state voters now control funding for nuclear construction

    SciTech Connect

    Utroska, D.

    1981-12-01

    A 58% voter approval of initiative 394 will hav less impact on the Washington Public Power Supply System's ability to finance nuclear-power-plant construction because a construction slowdown for two units had already been announced. Financing three other units will be hampered by the need to get voter approval for bond sales. Backers of the initiative saw the need to control spending for nuclear construction to avoid bankrupting the state. An outside cost-effectiveness study and a general election must precede each bond sale, giving the electorate the function of a review board. The utility concedes cost overruns and mismanagement, and is taking corrective steps which include the two-year mothballing of the two units to reduce the overall construction budget by half. (DCK)

  8. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted.

  9. Evaluation of an American Legacy Foundation/Washington State Department Of Health Media Literacy Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E; Hust, Stacey J T; Cohen, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    A pretest-posttest quasi-experiment was used to evaluate a pilot test of a media literacy curriculum implemented during summer 2001 in Washington state. As expected, media literacy training reduced youths' beliefs that most peers use tobacco, increased their understanding of advertising techniques, and increased their levels of efficacy regarding the extent to which they would participate in advocacy and prevention activities. Mixed results were found for skepticism, which appeared to suffer from a ceiling effect, and surprising results were found for desirability, also seemingly an artifact of the measures used. The results indicate that media literacy training combining skill development with a motivational component represents a promising avenue for tobacco use prevention efforts. The study also helps establish some reliable outcome measures for media literacy evaluations, but additional testing should continue to pursue the development of a complete battery of reliable and valid indicators. PMID:15918791

  10. Impact of substance abuse treatment on arrests among opiate users in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kevin M; Deck, Dennis; Krupski, Antoinette

    2007-01-01

    Administrative data from Washington State's Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse drive this three-year prospective study of the impact of substance abuse treatment on arrests among 12,962 opiate users receiving publicly funded substance abuse services. Using survival analysis, the risk of arrest among opiate users who receive substance abuse treatment is compared to those who do not receive treatment. Propensity scores control for client characteristics associated with admission to substance abuse treatment. Overall, a reduction in the risk of arrest was found among subjects in treatment (Hazard Ratio = 0.59-0.78, p < .05) and subjects successfully completing treatment (Hazard Ratio = 0.75, p < .05). Risk of arrest was elevated among those with a negative outcome to treatment (Hazard Ratio = 1.23, p < .05).

  11. Substance abuse treatment and criminal justice involvement for SSI recipients: results from Washington state.

    PubMed

    Luchansky, Bill; Nordlund, Dan; Estee, Sharon; Lund, Peter; Krupski, Antoinette; Stark, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the association between receiving substance abuse treatment and subsequent criminal justice involvement. The sample consisted of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients in the state of Washington that were determined to be in need of treatment. Fifty-two percent of those clients entered substance abuse treatment during the study period, while 48% did not. Arrests, felony convictions and convictions for less serious crimes were tracked for 8343 adults for one year following the end of an index treatment episode. Results showed that entering treatment was associated with reduced risks for each outcome. In addition, further analyses were conducted just on those entering treatment. Among that subset of the study population, the completion of treatment and having an episode of treatment lasting at least 90 days were both associated with reduced criminal justice risks. These results suggest that efforts to provide substance abuse treatment for SSI recipients have the potential to provide substantial public benefits.

  12. Miscellaneous streamflow measurements in the State of Washington, January 1961 to September 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John R.; Riis, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a compilation of previously published miscellaneous streamflow measurements made in Washington State by the U.S. Geological Survey between January 1961 and September 1985. It is a supplement to a volume of similar data for the period 1890 to January 1961. The data include stream name and stream to which it is tributary, latitude and longitude, county code, hydrologic unit code, land-line location, drainage area, and measurement dates and discharges. In general, the data sites are not at gaging stations; however, some data are given for gaging station sites during periods when the stations were not in operation. All data in this report have been entered into a computerized data base that includes the data for the period 1890 to January 1961. The data can be retrieved in a variety of ways, such as by county, by hydrologic unit code, by river basin , or by size of drainage area. (USGS)

  13. Rapid deterioration of sediment surface habitats in Bellingham Bay, Washington State, as indicated by benthic foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Elizabeth A; Martin, Ruth A; Martin, David E; Apple, Jude

    2015-08-15

    Foraminiferal assemblages in sediment grab samples were utilized to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic activities on benthic habitats in Bellingham Bay, Washington State, U.S.A. Seventy-three samples taken in 1987, 1997, 2006 and 2010 yielded 35 species of foraminifera from 28 genera. Assemblage composition and diversity data indicate a marked deterioration between 1987 and 2010, contrary to the published Chemical Index, but analogous to the situation with macrobiota. Correlation of diversity with chemical pollutants and metals did not identify any significant correlations, however, an unrelated but highly relevant study of bottom water dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH in Bellingham Bay suggests eutrophication with accompanying hypoxia and acidification may be part of the cause. Thus, the metrics of contamination alone do not adequately characterize habitat viability, and benthic foraminiferal assemblages provide insight into the health of coastal ecosystems. PMID:26059642

  14. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted. PMID:26292206

  15. Results of the 1999 survey of the reintroduced sea otter population in Washington state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jameson, Ronald J.; Jeffries, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    Fifty-nine sea otters were released off the west coast of the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State during the summers of 1969 and 1970; all had been translocated from Amchitka Island, Alaska. In 1970, 30 otters were released. Surveys to assess the results of this translocation began in 1977. Up to 1989, the population has grown at near the maximum rate of increase (rmax) for sea otter populations of 17-20% yr-1. Since 1989, however, the rate of increase appears to have declined to about 11% yr-1. The results of the survey this year are encouraging and indicate the population has been growing at a finite rate of about 11% since 1989.

  16. Three-Dimensional Groundwater Models of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Chen, Yousu

    2008-09-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed field-scale groundwater flow and transport simulations of the 300 Area to support the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit Phase III Feasibility Study. The 300 Area is located in the southeast portion of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State. Historical operations involving uranium fuel fabrication and research activities at the 300 Area have contaminated engineered liquid-waste disposal facilities, the underlying vadose zone, and the uppermost aquifer with uranium. The main objectives of this research were to develop numerical groundwater flow and transport models to help refine the site conceptual model, and to assist assessment of proposed alternative remediation technologies focused on the 300 Area uranium plume.

  17. Estimating the Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Ground Water in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna M.

    2008-01-01

    Logistic regression was used to relate anthropogenic (manmade) and natural variables to the occurrence of elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water in Washington State. Variables that were analyzed included well depth, ground-water recharge rate, precipitation, population density, fertilizer application amounts, soil characteristics, hydrogeomorphic regions, and land-use types. Two models were developed: one with and one without the hydrogeomorphic regions variable. The variables in both models that best explained the occurrence of elevated nitrate concentrations (defined as concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen greater than 2 milligrams per liter) were the percentage of agricultural land use in a 4-kilometer radius of a well, population density, precipitation, soil drainage class, and well depth. Based on the relations between these variables and measured nitrate concentrations, logistic regression models were developed to estimate the probability of nitrate concentrations in ground water exceeding 2 milligrams per liter. Maps of Washington State were produced that illustrate these estimated probabilities for wells drilled to 145 feet below land surface (median well depth) and the estimated depth to which wells would need to be drilled to have a 90-percent probability of drawing water with a nitrate concentration less than 2 milligrams per liter. Maps showing the estimated probability of elevated nitrate concentrations indicated that the agricultural regions are most at risk followed by urban areas. The estimated depths to which wells would need to be drilled to have a 90-percent probability of obtaining water with nitrate concentrations less than 2 milligrams per liter exceeded 1,000 feet in the agricultural regions; whereas, wells in urban areas generally would need to be drilled to depths in excess of 400 feet.

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of the Pertussis Epidemic in Washington State in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Katherine E.; Williams, Margaret M.; Cassiday, Pamela K.; Milton, Andrea; Pawloski, Lucia; Harrison, Marsenia; Martin, Stacey W.; Meyer, Sarah; Qin, Xuan; DeBolt, Chas; Tasslimi, Azadeh; Syed, Nusrat; Sorrell, Ronald; Tran, Mike; Hiatt, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Although pertussis disease is vaccine preventable, Washington State experienced a substantial rise in pertussis incidence beginning in 2011. By June 2012, the reported cases reached 2,520 (37.5 cases per 100,000 residents), a 1,300% increase compared with the same period in 2011. We assessed the molecular epidemiology of this statewide epidemic using 240 isolates collected from case patients reported from 19 of 39 Washington counties during 2012 to 2013. The typing methods included pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pertactin gene (prn) mutational analysis. Using the scheme PFGE-MLVA-MLST-prn mutations-Prn deficiency, the 240 isolates comprised 65 distinct typing profiles. Thirty-one PFGE types were found, with the most common types, CDC013 (n = 51), CDC237 (n = 44), and CDC002 (n = 42), accounting for 57% of them. Eleven MLVA types were observed, mainly comprising type 27 (n = 183, 76%). Seven MLST types were identified, with the majority of the isolates typing as prn2-ptxP3-ptxA1-fim3-1 (n = 157, 65%). Four different prn mutations accounted for the 76% of isolates exhibiting pertactin deficiency. PFGE provided the highest discriminatory power (D = 0.87) and was found to be a more powerful typing method than MLVA and MLST combined (D = 0.67). This study provides evidence for the continued predominance of MLVA 27 and prn2-ptxP3-ptxA1 alleles, along with the reemergence of the fim3-1 allele. Our results indicate that the Bordetella pertussis population causing this epidemic was diverse, with a few molecular types predominating. The PFGE, MLVA, and MLST profiles were consistent with the predominate types circulating in the United States and other countries. For prn, several mutations were present in multiple molecular types. PMID:25031439

  19. Spatial trends and factors affecting mercury bioaccumulation in freshwater fishes of Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Callie; Mattieu, Callie A; Furl, Chad V; Roberts, Tanya M; Friese, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-four lakes in Washington State, United States, were sampled for largemouth and smallmouth bass as well as water chemistry parameters during 2005 to 2009 to evaluate trends in mercury (Hg) concentrations. We analyzed spatial patterns in bass Hg levels across a gradient of land and climate types, lake chemistry parameters, and physical watershed characteristics to identify factors influencing Hg bioaccumulation. Across the state, bass Hg levels followed rainfall patterns and were statistically greater on the coastal west side of the state and lowest in the drier eastern region. Lake and watershed variables with the strongest correlations to Hg bioaccumulation in bass were annual watershed precipitation (+) and lake alkalinity (-). Principal component analysis (PCA) explaining 50.3 % of the variance in the dataset indicated that wet, forested landscapes were more likely to contain lakes with greater fish Hg levels than alkaline lakes in drier agriculture-dominated or open space areas. The PCA did not show wetland abundance and lake DOC levels as variables influencing bass Hg levels, but these were generally associated with small, shallow lakes containing greater chlorophyll levels. The effect of in-lake productivity may have counteracted the role of wetlands in Hg bioaccumulation among this study's lakes. PMID:23435684

  20. Access and Diversity in the Running Start Program: A Comparison of Washington's Running Start Program to Other State Level Dual Enrollment Programs Hosted on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Since 1990, high school students in Washington have had the choice of earning college credit through the Running Start program. Running start is a dual enrollment and dual credit program that allows eleventh and twelfth grade high school students to take college courses at any of Washington's 34 community and technical colleges, Central Washington…

  1. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at 1- and 2-year follow-up in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students ("N" = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004…

  2. Magnetostratigraphy, paleomagnetic correlation, and deformation of pleistocene deposits in the south central Puget Lowland, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Booth, D.B.; Troost, K.G.; Blakely, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Paleomagnetic results from Pleistocene sedimentary deposits in the central Puget Lowland indicate that the region has experienced widespread deformation within the last 780 kyr. Three oriented samples were collected from unaltered fine-grained sediments mostly at sea level to determine the magnetostratigraphy at 83 sites. Of these, 47 have normal, 18 have reversed, and 18 have transitional (8 localities) polarities. Records of reversed- to normal-polarity transitions of the geomagnetic field were found in thick sections of silt near the eastern end of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, and again at Wingehaven Park near the northern tip of Vashon Island. The transitional horizons, probably related to the Bruhnes-Matuyama reversal, apparently fall between previously dated Pleistocene sediments at the Puyallup Valley type section (all reversed-polarity) to the south and the Whidbey Island type section (all normal-polarity) to the north. The samples, in general, are of sufficient quality to record paleosecular variation (PSV) of the geomagnetic field, and a statistical technique is used to correlate horizons with significant agreement in their paleomagnetic directions. Our data are consistent with the broad structures of the Seattle uplift inferred at depth from seismic reflection, gravity, and aeromagnetic profiles, but the magnitude of vertical adjustments is greatly subdued in the Pleistocene deposits.

  3. Results of the 1988 geothermal gradient test drilling project for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.; Korosec, M.A.

    1989-05-01

    During late summer and early fall of 1988, the Washington Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (DGER) completed drilling eight shallow geothermal gradient test wells in the southern Washington Cascade Range. This report describes the preliminary results of the 1988 drilling and gradient measuring, and summarizes our current perspectives on distribution and magnitude of the geothermal resource potential in the southern Washington Cascades. 18 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Distribution, prevalence, and relative risk of filariasis in dogs from the State of Washington (1997-1999).

    PubMed

    Theis, J H; Stevens, F; Law, M

    2001-01-01

    Using antigen capture and filter tests, 6,078 dogs throughout the state of Washington were examined for filariasis between July 1, 1997 and October 31, 1999. In western Washington, 791 males and 901 females examined were outdoors, not on prophylaxis, and had traveled out of the state; 6/791 (0.8%) males and 7/901 (0.8%) females were infected with Dirofilaria immitis (D. immitis), and one (0.1%) male and one (0.1%) female were infected with Dipetalonema reconditum (D. reconditum). There were also 392 males and 362 females examined that were outdoors, not on prophylaxis, and had not traveled out of western Washington. One (0.1%) female was infected with D. immitis, and two (0.5%) males and one (0.2%) female were infected with D. reconditum. In eastern Washington, 707 males and 826 females examined were outdoors, not on prophylaxis, and had traveled out of the state; 9/707 (1.0%) males and 4/826 (0.5%) females were infected with D. immitis, and no D. reconditum was found. There were also 376 males and 412 females examined that were outdoors, not on prophylaxis, and had not traveled out of the state. Three (0.8%) males and three (0.7%) females had D. immitis. One (0.2%) female had D. reconditum. Distribution of D. immitis-infected, nontravel dogs in eastern Washington was only found between 120 degrees and 119 degrees west longitude in the communities of Richland, Moses Lake, Okanogan, and Omak. Enzootic transmission of D. immitis and D. reconditum is occurring in both eastern and western Washington. PMID:11450834

  5. Determination of Urinary Creatinine in Washington State Residents via Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    West, Caroline E.; Rhodes, Blaine N.

    2014-01-01

    A viable, quick, and reliable method for determining urinary creatinine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and used to evaluate spot urine samples collected for the Washington Environmental Biomonitoring Survey (WEBS): part of the Washington State Department of Health, Public Health Laboratories (PHL). 50 µL of urine was mixed with a 1 : 1 acetonitrile/water solution containing deuterated creatinine as the internal standard and then analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode, the transition ions for creatinine and creatinine-d3 were determined to be 114.0 to 44.1 (quantifier), 114.0 to 86.1 (qualifier), and 117.0 to 47.1 (creatinine-d3). The retention time for creatinine was 0.85 minutes. The linear calibration range was 20–4000 mg/L, with a limit of detection at 1.77 mg/L and a limit of quantitation at 5.91 mg/L. LC/MS/MS and the colorimetric Jaffé reaction were associated significantly (Pearson r = 0.9898 and R2 = 0.9797, ρ ≤ 0.0001). The LC/MS/MS method developed at the PHL to determine creatinine in the spot urine samples had shorter retention times, and was more sensitive, reliable, reproducible, and safer than other LC/MS/MS or commercial methods such as the Jaffé reaction or modified versions thereof. PMID:25614740

  6. CONTENTS OF LONG TERM PERFORMANCE ANALYSES TO SUPPORT THE RETRIEVAL & CLOSURE OF TANKS FOR THE WASHINGTON STATE DEPARTMENT OF ECOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    2004-01-13

    At the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State, there are 177 large underground tanks with associated facilities that are used to store radioactive hazardous waste. Some of these tanks have leaked, with the result that there is tank waste in the Site's groundwater. DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) plans to remediate these storage facilities (WP-13678, ''Integrated Mission Acceleration Plan'') by retrieving waste from the tanks, performing facility stabilization, and implementing soil cleanup. Before such work can be performed, performance analyses of various options must be performed for OW, DOE Headquarters, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Because of the large number of performance analyses for each tank and the large number of tanks, performance analyses for the different agencies will be integrated to the maximum extent possible. This document focuses on the requirements for performance analyses used to satisfy Ecology requirements. There are three types of large underground tanks at Hanford: single-shell tanks (SST), double-shell tanks (DST), and miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUST). The SSTs have a storage capacity ranging from 50,000 to 1,000,000 gallons. Although waste is still present, they do not meet current regulatory requirements for the addition of waste. The DSTs have a storage capacity ranging from 500,000 to 1,160,000 gallons and are expected to meet current regulatory requirements. The SSTs are grouped into twelve tank farms (A, AX, B, BX, BY, C, S, SX, T, TX, TY, and U). For regulatory purposes, the twelve tank farms are grouped into seven waste management areas (WMA) (MAX, BBXIBY, C, S/SX, T, TWTY, and U), although the T and TWTY WMAs are often treated as a unit. The DSTs are grouped only into tank farms (AN, AP, AW, AX, AY, AZ, and SY). MUSTS are smaller tanks (maximum size of 50,000 gallons) that are scattered in various farms. Section 2.0 provides an overview and

  7. Coordination of Instructional Services by Washington State's Educational Service Districts. REL 2015-041

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endsley, Mark; Speth, Timothy; Akey, Terri; Krasnoff, Basha; Barton, Rhonda; Singh, Malkeet; Scott, Caitlin; Fantz, Traci

    2014-01-01

    This REL Northwest study looked at the funding, delivery, and coordination of instructional services offered by Washington state's network of nine Educational Service Districts (ESDs). REL Northwest examined 13 statewide teaching and learning support areas, including the percentages of districts served, the funding for each service, and ESD…

  8. Educating Children with Special Needs in the State of Washington: A Synthesis of Recent Studies. Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Roy M.

    The report synthesizes findings of seven studies on educational processes and outcomes of students with special needs in the State of Washington. Studies include a statewide assessment, statewide teacher survey, analysis of participation in categorical programs, evaluation of individual categorical programs, an investigation of an innovative…

  9. CRT Coordinator's Operational Manual. A Vocational Education Strategy for Washington State's Small/Rural/Isolated High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blue, James L.; Riggs, Walter A.

    Designed to provide information for local school district personnel in the state of Washington, this Community Resource Trainer (CRT) manual is the product of those school district administrators and coordinators who piloted the CRT Program in three small, rurally isolated high schools between the 1972-73 and 1973-74 school years. Illustrating the…

  10. BBCC Transfer Student Follow-Up: Washington State University Students Reflect upon Big Bend Community College Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Scott

    In March 1992, a team of Big Bend Community College (BBCC) faculty members traveled to Washington State University (WSU) to survey and interview former BBCC students enrolled at WSU. The purpose of the investigation was to assess the effectiveness of BBCC in preparing students for transfer to and continued success at the four-year college level,…

  11. 75 FR 33673 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah... regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin. The amendments were proposed by the Cherry Industry Administrative Board (Board),...

  12. 77 FR 33303 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York.... 930 (order), which regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin. These amendments were proposed by the Cherry...

  13. The Way We See It: A Survey of Teacher Evaluation Policies and Practices Operant in the State of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, James J., Comp.; Parsley, James F., Jr., Comp.

    This paper assesses teacher evaluation policies and practices operant in First Class School Districts in the state of Washington. The data, submitted from mailed questionnaires, deal with a district's assessment policy and specifically include concerns relating to evaluative personnel, procedures, and an evaluative instrument or model.…

  14. The Development and Implementation of an Integrated Career Education and Placement Program For the Washington State System of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marble, James E.; And Others

    The community colleges in the state of Washington are committed to a Six Year Plan to provide computing and information systems support to all students. The system is intended to make available a broad range of career placement information to assist decision-making, thereby humanizing education by insuring fewer misguided students, counselors and…

  15. Constructing Relationships between Science and Practice in the Written Science Communication of the Washington State Wine Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Erika Amethyst

    2016-01-01

    Even as deficit model science communication falls out of favor, few studies question how written science communication constructs relationships between science and industry. Here, I investigate how textual microprocesses relate scientific research to industry practice in the Washington State wine industry, helping (or hindering) winemakers and…

  16. The Johnson O'Malley Program in the Public Schools of Washington State: Recent Directions in Indian Curricular Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landon, Craig Louis

    Utilizing data from 31 applications for financial assistance from Johnson-O'Malley (JOM) Indian Education Fund for the 1980-81 school year, the study examined the influence of Indian Parent Advisory Committees (PACs) over school curricula and activities supported by JOM funds in Washington State. Applications were surveyed for information relating…

  17. 36 CFR 223.203 - Indirect substitution exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... approved share of unprocessed Federal timber, in accordance with 36 CFR 223.203, the prohibition contained... in 5 CFR part 1320. These requirements have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget and... exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State. 223.203 Section 223.203...

  18. 36 CFR 223.203 - Indirect substitution exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 CFR 223.203, the prohibition contained in section 490(b) of the Act (16 U.S.C. 620b) applies to me... in 5 CFR part 1320. These requirements have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget and... exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State. 223.203 Section 223.203...

  19. Mid-Management Education for Management in Washington State Community Colleges; A Suggested Guide for Administrators and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagenau, E. L., Ed.

    This publication is designed to provide information about Mid-Management education to administrators and instructors of Post-secondary institutions. It identifies the objectives and operational structure of Washington State Mid-Management programs, and, in an attempt to establish consistency among programs, provides a subject matter guideline for…

  20. Supporting Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in General Education Classrooms: A Washington State Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndsen, Maura; Luckner, John

    2012-01-01

    The majority of students who are deaf or hard of hearing currently receive educational services in general education settings. Trends that have led to this shift in placement as well as potential benefits and barriers are presented. A unique partnership between the Washington State Center for Childhood Deafness and Hearing Loss (formerly the…

  1. Washington State Even Start 1993-1994: Final Evaluation. A Report to the Office of Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglitzin, Lynne; Wandschneider, Mary

    All 18 Washington State Even Start sites participated in the program's evaluation. Site coordinators administered the assessment and evaluation measures to the adults served by the program and to teachers working with children at both entry and exit from the program. An indepth study was conducted of 134 families for whom there were complete sets…

  2. Oral History Index. Washington State Oral/Aural History Program, 1974-1977 [And] Oral History Microfiche Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rune, Ann, Comp.

    This is the index to and transcripts of interviews from the Washington State Oral/Aural History Program. The intention of the program was to pay tribute to the national Bicentennial by celebrating the life and community histories of 'common' men, women, and ethnic minorities. The transcripts are available on 297 microfiche. Immigrants, migrants,…

  3. 76 FR 48177 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Completion (75 FR 14463, March 25, 2010; 76 FR 9051-9052, February 16, 2011). Those individuals have been..., Olympia, WA, and University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park... University of Washington, Department of Anthropology have completed an inventory of human remains and...

  4. New insights into the origin of late Neogene sediments in the Umatilla Basin, north-central Oregon and south-central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, K.A. ); Tolan, T.L. . Dept. of Geology); Reidel, S.P. )

    1993-04-01

    The study of late Miocene-aged terrigenous clastic sediments in the Umatilla Basin of north-central Oregon and adjacent Klickitat Valley of southern Washington reveal important, previously unrecognized stratigraphic and lithologic trends. These sediments, comprising the upper Ellensburg and the Alkali Canyon Formations (14 to 8.5 Ma) previously have been characterized as basaltic gravels deposited in localized alluvial fans and minor air fall tuffs produced by Cascade volcanism. A minor extrabasinal (exotic) component to these sediments has been noted in some previous studies. The authors' data challenges these interpretations. Pebble counts reveal a variety of exotic clast types, including metavolcanics, laminated metasediments, quartzites, and intermediate to silicic volcanics. This assemblage of lithologies is different than those that characterize the ancestral Columbia and Salmon-Clearwater Rivers. Sedimentologic trends suggest fluvial rather than alluvial fan deposition dominated. They interpret that a major fluvial system flowed from SE to NW across the western third of the Umatilla Basin. This river exited the Umatilla Basin via the Rock Creek water gap in the Columbia Hills, flowed across the Klickitat Valley and the Horse Heaven Hills, and then intersected the ancestral Columbia River. The abundance and stratigraphic distribution of exotic clast types suggests that this river drained terranes south and east of the Blue Mountains and persisted for a significant period of time, from approximately 14.5 to 8.5 Ma.

  5. Patterns and mechanisms of orographic precipitation in the Olympic Mountains, Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durran, D. R.; Minder, J. U.; Anders, A. M.; Roe, G. H.

    2005-12-01

    Although the existence of rain shadows and the processes responsible for them are well established, the relationship between precipitation and orography on smaller scales is much less certain, and has received relatively little attention. Yet it is precisely at these spatial scales that precipitation has some of its largest impacts on the landscape. For the Olympics in Washington State, a typical midlatitude mountain range, we use the unique combination of six years of operational output from a high-resolution state-of-the-art mesoscale forecast model, and a dense network of precipitation gauges specifically sited to sample across large precipitation gradients. With only a few exceptions, we find a remarkable and persistent 1.5- to 2-fold enhancement of precipitation on the major ridges compared to the major valleys, despite variability in wind speed and direction, and the temperature and humidity of the incoming air. This is true for big storms, medium storms, rain and snow, as well as in the climatological average. The underlying mechanisms giving rise to this robust pattern are investigated in detail with specific case studies, including both stable and unstable flow regimes. The results are compared with dynamical and microphysical theories of orographic precipitation.

  6. Improving the quality of workers' compensation health care delivery: the Washington State Occupational Health Services Project.

    PubMed

    Wickizer, T M; Franklin, G; Plaeger-Brockway, R; Mootz, R D

    2001-01-01

    This article has summarized research and policy activities undertaken in Washington State over the past several years to identify the key problems that result in poor quality and excessive disability among injured workers, and the types of system and delivery changes that could best address these problems in order to improve the quality of occupational health care provided through the workers' compensation system. Our investigations have consistently pointed to the lack of coordination and integration of occupational health services as having major adverse effects on quality and health outcomes for workers' compensation. The Managed Care Pilot Project, a delivery system intervention, focused on making changes in how care is organized and delivered to injured workers. That project demonstrated robust improvements in disability reduction; however, worker satisfaction suffered. Our current quality improvement initiative, developed through the Occupational Health Services Project, synthesizes what was learned from the MCP and other pilot studies to make delivery system improvements. This initiative seeks to develop provider incentives and clinical management processes that will improve outcomes and reduce the burden of disability on injured workers. Fundamental to this approach are simultaneously preserving workers' right to choose their own physician and maintaining flexibility in the provision of individualized care based on clinical need and progress. The OHS project then will be a "real world" test to determine if aligning provider incentives and giving physicians the tools they need to optimize occupational health delivery can demonstrate sustainable reduction in disability and improvements in patient and employer satisfaction. Critical to the success of this initiative will be our ability to: (1) enhance the occupational health care management skills and expertise of physicians who treat injured workers by establishing community-based Centers of Occupational

  7. Longitudinal Effects of School Drug Policies on Student Marijuana Use in Washington State and Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie M.; Catalano, Richard F.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the longitudinal effect of schools’ drug policies on student marijuana use. Methods. We used data from the International Youth Development Study, which surveyed state-representative samples of students from Victoria, Australia, and Washington State. In wave 1 (2002), students in grades 7 and 9 (n = 3264) and a school administrator from each participating school (n = 188) reported on school drug policies. In wave 2 (2003), students reported on their marijuana use. We assessed associations between student-reported and administrator-reported policy and student self-reported marijuana use 1 year later. Results. Likelihood of student marijuana use was higher in schools in which administrators reported using out-of-school suspension and students reported low policy enforcement. Student marijuana use was less likely where students reported receiving abstinence messages at school and students violating school policy were counseled about the dangers of marijuana use. Conclusions. Schools may reduce student marijuana use by delivering abstinence messages, enforcing nonuse policies, and adopting a remedial approach to policy violations rather than use of suspensions. PMID:25790384

  8. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for Exposure Tracking: Experiences from Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Laflamme, Denise M.; VanDerslice, James A.

    2004-01-01

    One of the goals of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is to link environmental data with chronic disease data as a means of improving our understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Such efforts will rely on the ongoing collection of population exposure information, and there are few systems in place to track population exposures. In many cases, exposures can be estimated by combining environmental contaminant data with data about human behaviors. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) provides a good opportunity to implement tracking of exposure-related behaviors. Washington State has used the BRFSS to collection information on environmentally related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. In this article we present case studies of modules covering drinking water, perceptions of environmental risk, and radon awareness and testing. Data on exposure-related behaviors have been useful for population exposure assessments and program evaluation. Questions about knowledge and attitudes and perceptions of environmental issues were not as useful because they lacked sufficient detail from which to modify existing education efforts. In some cases these data had not been used at all, indicating that the need for the data had not been well established. National development efforts should focus on compiling existing questions and developing questions on topics that are a priority at the state and national levels to be included as core questions and optional modules in future BRFSS surveys. PMID:15471738

  9. Improving the quality of workers' compensation health care delivery: the Washington State Occupational Health Services Project.

    PubMed

    Wickizer, T M; Franklin, G; Plaeger-Brockway, R; Mootz, R D

    2001-01-01

    This article has summarized research and policy activities undertaken in Washington State over the past several years to identify the key problems that result in poor quality and excessive disability among injured workers, and the types of system and delivery changes that could best address these problems in order to improve the quality of occupational health care provided through the workers' compensation system. Our investigations have consistently pointed to the lack of coordination and integration of occupational health services as having major adverse effects on quality and health outcomes for workers' compensation. The Managed Care Pilot Project, a delivery system intervention, focused on making changes in how care is organized and delivered to injured workers. That project demonstrated robust improvements in disability reduction; however, worker satisfaction suffered. Our current quality improvement initiative, developed through the Occupational Health Services Project, synthesizes what was learned from the MCP and other pilot studies to make delivery system improvements. This initiative seeks to develop provider incentives and clinical management processes that will improve outcomes and reduce the burden of disability on injured workers. Fundamental to this approach are simultaneously preserving workers' right to choose their own physician and maintaining flexibility in the provision of individualized care based on clinical need and progress. The OHS project then will be a "real world" test to determine if aligning provider incentives and giving physicians the tools they need to optimize occupational health delivery can demonstrate sustainable reduction in disability and improvements in patient and employer satisfaction. Critical to the success of this initiative will be our ability to: (1) enhance the occupational health care management skills and expertise of physicians who treat injured workers by establishing community-based Centers of Occupational

  10. Preservice Teachers' Adaptations to Tensions Associated with the edTPA during Its Early Implementation in New York and Washington States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuwissen, Kevin W.; Choppin, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The edTPA is a teaching performance assessment (TPA) that the states of New York and Washington implemented as a licensure requirement in 2013. While TPAs are not new modes of assessment, New York and Washington are the first states to use the edTPA specifically as a compulsory, high-stakes policy lever in an effort to strengthen the quality and…

  11. Washington state initiative trims Medicaid budget, ED utilization without denying access.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    In its first year of operation, Washington state's "ER is for Emergencies" initiative has helped to save the state's Medicaid budget $33.6 million. The initiative, which is based on the implementation of seven best practices, has succeeded in part by improving care coordination and by linking EDs across the state so information can be shared electronically. Leaders of the effort concede that while state pressure was essential in pushing providers to address excess use of the ED for nonemergency needs, they stress that the approach worked because all sides were willing to sit down and hammer out a solution. Further, they note that the infrastructure is now in place to address other problems in a similar fashion. An analysis of claims data shows that in the first year of the initiative, ED visits by Medicaid recipients declined by 9.9%, and the rate of visits by frequent ED utilizers declined by 10.7%. The analysis also shows that ED visits resulting in a scheduled drug prescription fell by 24%, and the rate of visits for a low-acuity diagnosis declined by 14.2%. While many EDs had to adjust their staffing and other resources to accommodate reduced volumes, others experienced few changes or even saw an uptick in volume, possibly from implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Leaders of the effort say the biggest challenge involved with implementing the initiative was securing administrative buy-in for investments that would likely result in improved efficiency and care, but also reduced revenue--at least initially.

  12. Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Mid-Adolescent School Performance and Connection: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This article examines the effect of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school suspension, truancy, commitment, and academic failure in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Also of interest was whether associations remain after statistically controlling for other factors known to predict school outcomes.…

  13. Recent Emergence of Escherichia coli with Cephalosporin Resistance Conferred by blaCTX-M on Washington State Dairy Farms

    PubMed Central

    Sischo, William M.; Jones, Lisa P.; Moore, Dale A.; Ahmed, Sara; Short, Diana M.; Besser, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae-associated blaCTX-M genes have become globally widespread within the past 30 years. Among isolates from Washington State cattle, Escherichia coli strains carrying blaCTX-M (CTX-M E. coli strains) were absent from a set of 2008 isolates but present in a set of isolates from 2011. On 30 Washington State dairy farms sampled in 2012, CTX-M E. coli prevalence was significantly higher on eastern than on northwestern Washington farms, on farms with more than 3,000 adult cows, and on farms that recently received new animals. The addition of fresh bedding to calf hutches at least weekly and use of residual fly sprays were associated with lower prevalence of CTX-M E. coli. In Washington State, the occurrence of human pathogens carrying blaCTX-M genes preceded the emergence of blaCTX-M-associated E. coli in cattle, indicating that these resistance determinants and/or their bacterial hosts may have emerged in human populations prior to their dissemination to cattle populations. PMID:25911480

  14. Severe injury among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children in Washington state.

    PubMed Central

    Karr, Catherine J.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Cummings, Peter

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The authors' anecdotal experience at a regional Level I trauma center was that Hispanic children were overrepresented among burn patients, particularly among children with burns due to scalding from hot food. This study describes injury incidence and severity among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white infants, children, and adolescents with serious traumatic injuries in Washington State. METHODS: Data from the Washington State Trauma Registry for 1995-1997 were used to identify injured individuals aged < or = 19 years. Ratios of overall and mechanism-specific injury incidence rates for Hispanic children relative to non-Hispanic white children were calculated using denominator estimates derived from U.S. Census Bureau population data. Hispanic children and non-Hispanic white children were also compared on several measures of severity of injury. RESULTS: In 1995-1997, serious traumatic injuries were reported to the Registry for 231 Hispanic children aged < or = 19 years (rate: 54 per 100,000 person-years) and for 2,123 non-Hispanic white children (56 per 100,000 person-years), yielding an overall rate ratio (RR) of 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8, 1.1). Motor vehicle crashes and falls accounted for one-third to one-half of the injuries for each group. Infants, children, and adolescents identified as Hispanic had higher rates of injuries related to hot objects (i.e., burns) (RR=2.3; 95% CI 1.3, 4.1), guns (RR=2.2; 95% CI 1.5 to 3.3), and being cut or pierced (RR=3.5; 95% CI 2.2 to 5.5). The Hispanic group had a lower injury rate for motor vehicle accidents (RR=0.7; 95% CI 0.5, 0.9). Mortality rates were similar (RR=1.1; 95% CI 0.7, 1.7). The mean length of hospital stay was 5.5 days for the Hispanic group and 8.8 days for the non-Hispanic white group (difference=3.3 days; 95% CI -0.7, 7.4). CONCLUSIONS: The study found little difference between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white infants, children, and adolescents in the burden of traumatic pediatric injury

  15. 3. Copy of Drawing, 'United States Steel Central Furnaces and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Copy of Drawing, 'United States Steel Central Furnaces and Docks, General Plan, 4-26-62, Rev. 12-15-69.' Drawing courtesy of United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. Weeds of the Midwestern United States and Central Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book, Weeds of the Central United States and Canada, includes 356 of the most common and/or troublesome weeds of agricultural and natural areas found within the central region of the United States and Canada. The books includes an introduction, a key to plant families contained in the book, glo...

  17. Population-Focused Practice Competency Needs Among Public Health Nursing Leaders in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Espina, Christine R; Bekemeier, Betty; Storey-Kuyl, Marni

    2016-05-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Population-Focused Practice Competency Needs Among Public Health Nursing Leaders in Washington State," found on pages 212-219, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until April 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Describe supports and barriers to adopting population-focused care in public health nursing

  18. Proposed center for advanced industrial processes. Washington State University, College of Engineering and Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The DOE proposes to authorize Washington State University (WSU) to proceed with the detailed design, construction, and equipping of the proposed Center for Advanced Industrial Processes (CAIP). The proposed project would involve construction of a three story building containing laboratories, classrooms, seminar rooms, and graduate student and administrative office space. Existing buildings would be demolished. The proposed facility would house research in thermal/fluid sciences, bioengineering, manufacturing processes, and materials processing. Under the {open_quotes}no-action{close_quotes} DOE would not authorize WSU to proceed with construction under the grant. WSU would then need to consider alternatives for proceeding without DOE funds. Such alternatives (including delaying or scaling back the project), would result in a postponement or slight reduction in the minor adverse environmental, safety and health Impacts of the project evaluated in this assessment. More importantly, these alternatives would affect the important environmental, safety, health, and programmatic benefits of the projects. The surrounding area is fully urbanized and the campus is intensely developed around the proposed site. The buildings scheduled for demolition do not meet State energy codes, are not air conditioned, and lack handicapped access. Sensitive resources (historical/archeological, protected species/critical habitats, wetlands/floodplains, national forests/parks/trails, prime farmland and special sources of water) would not be affected as they do not occur on or near the proposed site. Cumulative impacts would be small. The proposed action is not related to other actions being considered under other NEPA reviews. There is no conflict between the proposed action and any applicable Federal, State, regional or local land use plans and policies.

  19. Trends of pesticides and nitrate in ground water of the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington, 1993-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, L.

    2008-01-01

    Pesticide and nitrate data for ground water sampled in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington, between 1993 and 2003 by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program were evaluated for trends in concentration. A total of 72 wells were sampled in 1993-1995 and again in 2002-2003 in three well networks that targeted row crop and orchard land use settings as well as the regional basalt aquifer. The Regional Kendall trend test indicated that only deethylatrazine (DEA) concentrations showed a significant trend. Deethylatrazine concentrations were found to increase beneath the row crop land use well network, the regional aquifer well network, and for the dataset as a whole. No other pesticides showed a significant trend (nor did nitrate) in the 72-well dataset. Despite the lack of a trend in nitrate concentrations within the National Water-Quality Assessment dataset, previous work has found a statistically significant decrease in nitrate concentrations from 1998-2002 for wells with nitrate concentrations above 10 mg L-1 within the Columbia Basin ground water management area, which is located within the National Water-Quality Assessment study unit boundary. The increasing trend in DEA concentrations was found to negatively correlate with soil hydrologic group using logistic regression and with soil hydrologic group and drainage class using Spearman's correlation. The decreasing trend in high nitrate concentrations was found to positively correlate with the depth to which the well was cased using logistic regression, to positively correlate with nitrate application rates and sand content of the soil, and to negatively correlate with soil hydrologic group using Spearman's correlation. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  20. Planning for the worst in Washington State: initial response planning for improvised nuclear device explosions.

    PubMed

    Poeton, Richard W; Glines, Wayne M; McBaugh, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Since 11 September 2001, improvised nuclear devices have become recognized as an important radiological threat requiring emergency response planning. Although Protective Action Guidance is well established for fixed nuclear facilities, correspondingly well-developed guidance does not exist for nuclear explosions. The Washington State Department of Health has developed preplanned Protective Action Recommendations for improvised nuclear device explosions. These recommendations recognize the need for advice to the public soon after such an event, before significant data are available. They can be used before significant outside support is available locally, and reference observable effects so people can use them if communications were disabled. The recommendations focus on early actions (24-48 h) and place priority on actions to avoid deterministic health effects due to residual fallout. Specific emphasis is placed on determining recommendations for evacuation, as well as the extent of the area for sheltering. The key recommendations developed for an initial public response are: (1) if there is ready access to robust shelter such as an underground basement or interior spaces in a multi-story structure, immediate sheltering in these areas is the best action, regardless of location; (2) if robust shelter is not available, and if fallout is observed in the area, then evacuation is the best general recommendation for locations within 16 km (10 miles) of the explosion; and (3) beyond 16 km (10 miles), the generally recommended protective action is to shelter in the best-protected location which is readily available. PMID:19066483

  1. Zooplankton assemblages in montane lakes and ponds of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, G.L.; Hoffman, R.; McIntire, C.D.; Lienkaemper, G.; Samora, B.

    2009-01-01

    Water quality and zooplankton samples were collected during the ice-free periods between 1988 and 2005 from 103 oligotrophic montane lakes and ponds located in low forest to alpine vegetation zones in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, USA. Collectively, 45 rotifer and 44 crustacean taxa were identified. Most of the numerically dominant taxa appeared to have wide niche breadths. The average number of taxa per lake decreased with elevation and generally increased as maximum lake depths increased (especially for rotifers). With one exception, fish presence/absence did not explain the taxonomic compositions of crustacean zooplankton assemblages. Many rotifer species were common members of zooplankton assemblages in montane lakes and ponds in western North America, whereas the crustacean taxa were common to some areas of the west, but not others. Constraints of the environmental variables did not appear to provide strong gradients to separate the distributions of most zooplankton species. This suggests that interspecific competitive interactions and stochastic processes regulate the taxonomic structures of the zooplankton assemblages at the landscape level. Crustacean species that had broad niche breadths were associated with different rotifer taxa across the environmental gradients. Studies of zooplankton assemblages need to address both crustacean and rotifer taxa, not one or the other.

  2. Sudden, probably coseismic submergence of Holocene trees and grass in coastal Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, B.F. ); Yamaguchi, D.K. )

    1991-07-01

    Growth-position plant fossils in coastal Washington State imply a suddenness of Holocene submergence that is better explained coseismic lowering of the land than be decade- or century-long rise of the sea. These fossils include western red cedar and Sitka spruce whose death probably resulted from estuarine submergence close to 300 years ago. Rings in eroded, bark-free trunks of the red cedar show that growth remained normal within decades of death. Rings in buried, bark-bearing stumps of the spruce further show normal growth continuing until the year of death. Other growth-position fossils implying sudden submergence include the stems and leaves of salt-marsh grass entombed in tide-flat mud close to 300 years ago and roughly 1,700 and 3,100 years ago. The preservation of these stems and leaves shows that submergence and initial burial outpaced decomposition, which appears to take just a few years in modern salt marshes. In some places the stems and leaves close to 300 year old are surrounded by sand left by an extraordinary, landward-directed surge-probably a tsunami from a great thrust earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone.

  3. Seismic reflection images beneath Puget Sound, western Washington State: The Puget Lowland thrust sheet hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, T.L.; Johnson, S.; Potter, C.; Stephenson, W.; Finn, C.

    1997-01-01

    Seismic reflection data show that the densely populated Puget Lowland of western Washington state is underlain by subhorizontal Paleogene and Neogene sedimentary rocks deformed by west and northwest trending faults and folds. From south to north beneath the Lowland, features seen on the seismic data include: the horizontally-stratified, 3.5 km thick Tacoma sedimentary basin; the Seattle uplift with south dipping (???20??) strata on its south flank and steeply (50?? to 90??) north dipping strata and the west-trending Seattle fault on its north flank; the 7.5 km thick, northward-thinning Seattle sedimentary basin; the antiformal Kingston arch; and the northwest trending, transpressional Southern Whidbey Island fault zone (SWIF). Interpreting the uplifts as fault-bend and fault-propagation folds leads to the hypothesis that the Puget Lowland lies on a north directed thrust sheet. The base of the thrust sheet may lie at 14 to 20 km depth within or at the base of a thick block of basaltic Crescent Formation; its edges may be right-lateral strike-slip faults along the base of the Cascade Range on the east and the Olympic Mountains on the west. Our model suggests that the Seattle fault has a long-term slip rate of about 0.25 mm/year and is large enough to generate a M7.6 to 7.7 earthquake.

  4. Risk Factors for Campylobacteriosis in Two Washington State Counties with High Numbers of Dairy Farms

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Danna L.; Baker, Katherine N. K.; French, Nigel P.; Patnode, Marianne; Hensley, Joni; MacDonald, Kathryn; Besser, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently reported, food-borne, human bacterial disease that can be associated with ruminant reservoirs, although public health messages primarily focus on poultry. In Washington State, the two counties with the highest concentrations of dairy cattle also report the highest incidences of campylobacteriosis. Conditional logistic regression analysis of case-control data from both counties found living or working on a dairy farm (odds ratio [OR], 6.7 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 26.4]) and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 6.4 [95% CI, 3.1 to 13.1]) to have the strongest significant positive associations with campylobacteriosis. When the analysis was restricted to residents of one county, Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 9.3 [95% CI, 3.9 to 22.2]), contact with cattle (OR, 5.0 [95% CI, 1.3 to 19.5]), and pet ownership (OR, 2.6 [95% CI, 1.1 to 6.3]) were found to be independent risk factors for disease. Campylobacter jejuni isolates from human (n = 65), bovine (n = 28), and retail poultry (n = 27) sources from the same counties were compared using multilocus sequence typing. These results indicated that sequence types commonly found in human isolates were also commonly found in bovine isolates. These findings suggest that, in areas with high concentrations of dairy cattle, exposure to dairy cattle may be more important than food-borne exposure to poultry products as a risk for campylobacteriosis. PMID:24025908

  5. Geologic processes of accretion in the Cascadia subduction zone west of Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Flueh, E.R.; Scholl, D. W.; Parsons, T.; Wells, R.E.; Trehu, A.; ten Brink, U.; Weaver, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    The continental margin west of Oregon and Washington undergoes a northward transition in morphology, from a relatively narrow, steep slope west of Oregon to a broad, midslope terrace off Washington. Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected over the accretionary complex show that the morphologic transition is accompanied by significant change in accretionary style: West of Oregon the direction of thrust vergence in the wedge toe flip-flops between landward and seaward, whereas off Washington, thrust faults in the toe verge consistently landward, except near the mouth of the Columbia River where detachment folding of accreted sediment is evident. Furthermore, rocks under the broad midslope terrace west of Washington appear to be intruded by diapirs. The combination of detachment folding, diapirs, and landward-vergent thrust faults all suggest that nearly as far landward as the shelf break, coupling along the interplate decollement is, or has been, low, as suggested by other lines of evidence.

  6. Foreign Language Instruction in Washington (State): A Report on a Survey of Foreign Language Teachers Conducted by a Committee of the Washington Association of Foreign Language Teachers, Fall 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Lester W., Comp.

    The report grows out of increasing concern for improving foreign language and international studies in United States schools. To gain an understanding of the state of foreign language instruction in Washington, a committee was organized to develop and process a survey of foreign language teachers in the state. The survey requests information about…

  7. Washington's Infant Toddler Early Intervention Program Study: Enrollment of Washington Children with Disabilities and Special Health Care Needs in Washington State Public Programs. A Comparison of Enrollment Counts on December 1, 1993, May 1, 1995, December 1, 1995, and May 1, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Trisha; And Others

    This document presents tables, graphs, and narrative text that provide information for planning Washington's early intervention programs for infants and toddlers. Data were analyzed on the number and characteristics of infants and toddlers with disabilities and special health problems who were enrolled in Washington State public services at four…

  8. The prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases in Washington state.

    PubMed

    Couper, Fiona J; Peterson, Brianna L

    2014-10-01

    In December 2012, the possession and private use of limited quantities of marijuana and marijuana products became legal in the state of Washington. At the same time, the state's driving under the influence statutes were amended to include a per se level of 5 ng/mL delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in whole blood for drivers aged 21 years and older. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of marijuana legalization on the prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases. The prevalence of both active THC and its metabolite carboxy-THC detected in such cases pre-legalization was compared with the prevalence post-legalization. In 2009-2012, the average yearly percentage of cases positive for THC and carboxy-THC was 19.1% (range: 18.2-20.2%) and 27.9% (range: 26.3-28.6%), respectively. In 2013, the percentages had significantly increased to 24.9 and 40.0%, respectively (P < 0.05). The median THC concentration over the 5-year period ranged from 5.2 to 6.3 ng/mL, with individual concentrations ranging up to 90 ng/mL. An average of 56% of cases were at or >5 ng/mL over the 5-year period. The prevalence of alcohol and the majority of other drugs in this same population of suspected impaired drivers submitted for testing did not change during this same 5-year period-marijuana was the only drug to show such an increase in frequency. Further, this observed increase remained after the data had been normalized to account for changes in laboratory testing procedures that occurred during this time period. Future studies need be conducted to ascertain whether the observed increase has had any effect on the incidence of crashes, serious injuries and/or traffic fatalities. PMID:25217548

  9. Molecular Characterization, Morphological Characteristics, Virulence, and Geographic Distribution of Rhizoctonia spp. in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Jaaffar, Ahmad Kamil Mohd; Paulitz, Timothy C; Schroeder, Kurtis L; Thomashow, Linda S; Weller, David M

    2016-05-01

    Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch, caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-8 and R. oryzae, are chronic and important yield-limiting diseases of wheat and barley in the Inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States. Major gaps remain in our understanding of the epidemiology of these diseases, in part because multiple Rhizoctonia AGs and species can be isolated from the same cereal roots from the field, contributing to the challenge of identifying the causal agents correctly. In this study, a collection totaling 498 isolates of Rhizoctonia was assembled from surveys conducted from 2000 to 2009, 2010, and 2011 over a wide range of cereal production fields throughout Washington State in the PNW. To determine the identity of the isolates, PCR with AG- or species-specific primers and/or DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers was performed. R. solani AG-2-1, AG-8, AG-10, AG-3, AG-4, and AG-11 comprised 157 (32%), 70 (14%), 21 (4%), 20 (4%), 1 (0.2%), and 1 (0.2%), respectively, of the total isolates. AG-I-like binucleate Rhizoctonia sp. comprised 44 (9%) of the total; and 53 (11%), 80 (16%), and 51 (10%) were identified as R. oryzae genotypes I, II, and III, respectively. Isolates of AG-2-1, the dominant Rhizoctonia, occurred in all six agronomic zones defined by annual precipitation and temperature within the region sampled. Isolates of AG-8 also were cosmopolitan in their distribution but the frequency of isolation varied among years, and they were most abundant in zones of low and moderate precipitation. R. oryzae was cosmopolitan, and collectively the three genotypes comprised 37% of the isolates. Only isolates of R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae genotypes II and III (but not genotype I) caused symptoms typically associated with Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch of wheat. Isolates of AG-2-1 caused only mild root rot and AG-I-like binucleate isolates and members of groups AG-3, AG-4, and AG-11 showed only slight or no discoloration

  10. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate achievements along…

  11. Nitrogen deposition effects on diatom communities in lakes from three National Parks in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheibley, Richard W.; Enache, Mihaela; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Moran, Patrick W.; Foreman, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to document if lakes in National Parks in Washington have exceeded critical levels of nitrogen (N) deposition, as observed in other Western States. We measured atmospheric N deposition, lake water quality, and sediment diatoms at our study lakes. Water chemistry showed that our study lakes were ultra-oligotrophic with ammonia and nitrate concentrations often at or below detection limits with low specific conductance (−1 year−1 and were variable both within and across the parks. Diatom assemblages in a single sediment core from Hoh Lake (Olympic National Park) displayed a shift to increased relative abundances of Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria tenera beginning in the 1969–1975 timeframe, whereas these species were not found at the remaining (nine) sites. These diatom species are known to be indicative of N enrichment and were used to determine an empirical critical load of N deposition, or threshold level, where changes in diatom communities were observed at Hoh Lake. However, N deposition at the remaining nine lakes does not seem to exceed a critical load at this time. At Milk Lake, also in Olympic National Park, there was some evidence that climate change might be altering diatom communities, but more research is needed to confirm this. We used modeled precipitation for Hoh Lake and annual inorganic N concentrations from a nearby National Atmospheric Deposition Program station, to calculate elevation-corrected N deposition for 1980–2009 at Hoh Lake. An exponential fit to this data was hindcasted to the 1969–1975 time period, and we estimate a critical load of 1.0 to 1.2 kg N ha−1 year−1 for wet deposition for this lake.

  12. Weapon carrying, physical fighting and gang membership among youth in Washington state military families.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between parental military service and school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership among youth. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades of public schools (n = 9,987). Parental military service was categorized as none (reference group), without combat zone deployment, or deployed to a combat zone. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between parental military service and three outcomes: school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership. Standard errors were adjusted for the complex survey design. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting gang membership (OR = 1.8) among girls, and higher odds of physical fighting (OR = 1.6), and gang membership (OR = 1.9) among boys. In 10th/12th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting physical fighting (OR = 2.0) and gang membership (OR = 2.2) among girls, and physical fighting (OR = 2.0), carrying a weapon (OR = 2.3) among boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of reporting engagement in school-based physical fighting, school-based weapon carrying, and gang membership, particularly among older youth. Military, school, and public health professionals have a unique, collaborative opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to prevent violence-related behaviors among youth and, ultimately, improve the health and safety of youth in military families. Ideally, such programs would target families and youth before they enter eighth grade.

  13. Mapping Precipitation Patterns from the Stable Isotopic Composition of Surface Waters: Olympic Peninsula, Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, A. M.; Brandon, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Available data indicate that large and persistent precipitation gradients are tied to topography at scales down to a few kilometers, but precipitation patterns in the majority of mountain ranges are poorly constrained at scales less than tens of kilometers. A lack of knowledge of precipitation patterns hampers efforts to understand the processes of orographic precipitation and identify the relationships between geomorphic evolution and climate. A new method for mapping precipitation using the stable isotopic composition of surface waters is tested in the Olympic Mountains of Washington State. Measured δD and δ18O of 97 samples of surface water are linearly related and nearly inseparable from the global meteoric water line. A linear orographic precipitation model extended to include in effects of isotopic fractionation via Rayleigh distillation predicts precipitation patterns and isotopic composition of surface water. Seven parameters relating to the climate and isotopic composition of source water are used. A constrained random search identifies the best-fitting parameter set. Confidence intervals for parameter values are defined and precipitation patterns are determined. Average errors for the best-fitting model are 4.8 permil in δD. The difference between the best fitting model and other models within the 95% confidence interval was less than 20%. An independent high-resolution precipitation climatology documents precipitation gradients similar in shape and magnitude to the model derived from surface water isotopic composition. This technique could be extended to other mountain ranges, providing an economical and fast assessment of precipitation patterns requiring minimal field work.

  14. Brucella pinnipedialis infections in Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) from Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    Lambourn, Dyanna M; Garner, Michael; Ewalt, Darla; Raverty, Stephen; Sidor, Inga; Jeffries, Steven J; Rhyan, Jack; Gaydos, Joseph K

    2013-10-01

    In 1994 a novel Brucella sp., later named B. pinnipedialis, was identified in stranded harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). This Brucella sp. is a potential zoonotic pathogen and is capable of causing disease in domestic animals. Serologic, microbiologic, and pathologic data collected from live captured and stranded harbor seals were used to better describe the epizootiology of B. pinnipedialis in harbor seals from Washington State, USA, in 1994 through 2006. We found no sex predilection in harbor seal exposure or infection with B. pinnipedialis but noted a significant difference in prevalence among age classes, with weaned pups, yearlings, and subadults having highest exposure and infection. The most common postmortem finding in 26 Brucella-positive animals (culture and/or PCR) was verminous pneumonia due to Parafilaroides spp. or Otostrongulus circumlitus. Our data are consistent with exposure to B. pinnipedialis post-weaning, and it is likely that fish or invertebrates and possibly lungworms are involved in the transmission to harbor seals. Brucella pinnipedialis was cultured or detected by PCR from seal salivary gland, lung, urinary bladder, and feces, suggesting that wildlife professionals working with live, infected seals could be exposed to the bacterium via exposure to oral secretions, urine, or feces. Endangered sympatric wildlife species could be exposed to B. pinnipedialis via predation on infected seals or through a common marine fish or invertebrate prey item involved in its transmission. More work is required to elucidate further potential fish or invertebrates that could be involved in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis to harbor seals and better understand the potential risk they could pose to humans or sympatric endangered species who also consume these prey items.

  15. Brucella pinnipedialis infections in Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) from Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    Lambourn, Dyanna M; Garner, Michael; Ewalt, Darla; Raverty, Stephen; Sidor, Inga; Jeffries, Steven J; Rhyan, Jack; Gaydos, Joseph K

    2013-10-01

    In 1994 a novel Brucella sp., later named B. pinnipedialis, was identified in stranded harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). This Brucella sp. is a potential zoonotic pathogen and is capable of causing disease in domestic animals. Serologic, microbiologic, and pathologic data collected from live captured and stranded harbor seals were used to better describe the epizootiology of B. pinnipedialis in harbor seals from Washington State, USA, in 1994 through 2006. We found no sex predilection in harbor seal exposure or infection with B. pinnipedialis but noted a significant difference in prevalence among age classes, with weaned pups, yearlings, and subadults having highest exposure and infection. The most common postmortem finding in 26 Brucella-positive animals (culture and/or PCR) was verminous pneumonia due to Parafilaroides spp. or Otostrongulus circumlitus. Our data are consistent with exposure to B. pinnipedialis post-weaning, and it is likely that fish or invertebrates and possibly lungworms are involved in the transmission to harbor seals. Brucella pinnipedialis was cultured or detected by PCR from seal salivary gland, lung, urinary bladder, and feces, suggesting that wildlife professionals working with live, infected seals could be exposed to the bacterium via exposure to oral secretions, urine, or feces. Endangered sympatric wildlife species could be exposed to B. pinnipedialis via predation on infected seals or through a common marine fish or invertebrate prey item involved in its transmission. More work is required to elucidate further potential fish or invertebrates that could be involved in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis to harbor seals and better understand the potential risk they could pose to humans or sympatric endangered species who also consume these prey items. PMID:24502708

  16. Occupational determinants of serum cholinesterase inhibition among organophosphate-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Keifer, Matthew C; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Fenske, Richard A; Furlong, Clement E; van Belle, Gerald; Checkoway, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify potential risk factors for serum cholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition among agricultural pesticide handlers exposed to organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study among 154 agricultural pesticide handlers who participated in the Washington State cholinesterase monitoring program in 2006 and 2007. BuChE inhibition was analyzed in relation to reported exposures before and after adjustment for potential confounders using linear regression. Odds ratios estimating the risk of ‘BuChE depression’ (>20% from baseline) were also calculated for selected exposures based on unconditional logistic regression analyses. Results An overall decrease in mean BuChE activity was observed among study participants at the time of follow-up testing during the OP/CB spray season relative to pre-season baseline levels (mean decrease of 5.6%, P < 0.001). Score for estimated cumulative exposure to OP/CB insecticides in the past 30 days was a significant predictor of BuChE inhibition (β = −1.74, P < 0.001). Several specific work practices and workplace conditions were associated with greater BuChE inhibition, including mixing/loading pesticides and cleaning spray equipment. Factors that were protective against BuChE inhibition included full-face respirator use, wearing chemical-resistant boots, and storing personal protective equipment in a locker at work. Conclusions Despite existing regulations, agricultural pesticide handlers continue to be exposed to OP/CB insecticides at levels resulting in BuChE inhibition. These findings suggest that modifying certain work practices could potentially reduce BuChE inhibition. Replication from other studies will be valuable. PMID:19819864

  17. Nitrogen Deposition Effects on Diatom Communities in Lakes from Three National Parks in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Sheibley, Richard W; Enache, Mihaela; Swarzenski, Peter W; Moran, Patrick W; Foreman, James R

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to document if lakes in National Parks in Washington have exceeded critical levels of nitrogen (N) deposition, as observed in other Western States. We measured atmospheric N deposition, lake water quality, and sediment diatoms at our study lakes. Water chemistry showed that our study lakes were ultra-oligotrophic with ammonia and nitrate concentrations often at or below detection limits with low specific conductance (<100 μS/cm), and acid neutralizing capacities (<400 μeq/L). Rates of summer bulk inorganic N deposition at all our sites ranged from 0.6 to 2.4 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and were variable both within and across the parks. Diatom assemblages in a single sediment core from Hoh Lake (Olympic National Park) displayed a shift to increased relative abundances of Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria tenera beginning in the 1969-1975 timeframe, whereas these species were not found at the remaining (nine) sites. These diatom species are known to be indicative of N enrichment and were used to determine an empirical critical load of N deposition, or threshold level, where changes in diatom communities were observed at Hoh Lake. However, N deposition at the remaining nine lakes does not seem to exceed a critical load at this time. At Milk Lake, also in Olympic National Park, there was some evidence that climate change might be altering diatom communities, but more research is needed to confirm this. We used modeled precipitation for Hoh Lake and annual inorganic N concentrations from a nearby National Atmospheric Deposition Program station, to calculate elevation-corrected N deposition for 1980-2009 at Hoh Lake. An exponential fit to this data was hindcasted to the 1969-1975 time period, and we estimate a critical load of 1.0 to 1.2 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) for wet deposition for this lake.

  18. Dietary vitamin C and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Washington State, USA.

    PubMed Central

    Leveille, S G; LaCroix, A Z; Koepsell, T D; Beresford, S A; Van Belle, G; Buchner, D M

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between dietary vitamin C and hip bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study using retrospective diet and vitamin supplement data. SETTING: The Seattle area of Washington State. PARTICIPANTS: Screenees for a clinical trial of a drug to prevent osteoporotic fractures; 1892 women aged 55-80 years who had hip bone densitometry and osteoporosis risk factor information. MAIN RESULTS: Mean energy adjusted dietary intake of vitamin C was 113 mg/day; including supplement use, mean intake was 407 mg/day. There were no differences in BMD according to diet-only vitamin C intake or combined dietary and supplemental vitamin C intake. Longer duration of vitamin C supplement use was associated with higher BMD in women who had not used oestrogen replacement therapy (trend p = 0.02) and among women aged 55-64 years (trend p = 0.01). Women aged 55-64 years who used vitamin C supplements for > or = 10 years had a higher BMD than non-users aged 55-64 years (multivariate adjusted mean BMD 0.699 (0.017) g/cm2 versus 0.655 (0.007) g/cm2, p = 0.02). Benefits were not evident in older age groups or in women who had used oestrogen in the past. Frequent intake of foods rich in vitamin C was not associated with BMD. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence that vitamin C from the diet was associated with BMD, although long term use of vitamin C supplements was associated with a higher BMD in the early postmenopausal years and among never users of oestrogen. Images PMID:9425455

  19. Seismic attenuation structure of the Seattle Basin, Washington State from explosive-source refraction data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Q.; Wilcock, W.S.D.; Pratt, T.L.; Snelson, C.M.; Brocher, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    We used waveform data from the 1999 SHIPS (Seismic Hazard Investigation of Puget Sound) seismic refraction experiment to constrain the attenuation structure of the Seattle basin, Washington State. We inverted the spectral amplitudes of compressional- and shear-wave arrivals for source spectra, site responses, and one- and two-dimensional Q-1 models at frequencies between 1 and 40 Hz for P waves and 1 and 10 Hz for S waves. We also obtained Q-1 models from t* values calculated from the spectral slopes of P waves between 10 and 40 Hz. One-dimensional inversions show that Qp at the surface is 22 at 1 Hz, 130 at 5 Hz, and 390 at 20 Hz. The corresponding values at 18 km depth are 100, 440, and 1900. Qs at the surface is 16 and 160 at 1 Hz and 8 Hz, respectively, increasing to 80 and 500 at 18 km depth. The t* inversion yields a Qp model that is consistent with the amplitude inversions at 20 and 30 Hz. The basin geometry is clearly resolved in the t* inversion, but the amplitude inversions only imaged the basin structure after removing anomalously high-amplitude shots near Seattle. When these shots are removed, we infer that Q-1 values may be ???30% higher in the center of the basin than the one-dimensional models predict. We infer that seismic attenuation in the Seattle basin will significantly reduce ground motions at frequencies at and above 1 Hz, partially countering amplification effects within the basin.

  20. Tidally dominated sediment dispersal offshore of a small mountainous river: Elwha River, Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidam, E. F.; Ogston, A. S.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Warrick, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Sediment supplied by small mountainous rivers (SMRs) represents a major fraction of the global ocean sediment budget. Studies from the past two decades have shown that much of this sediment is dispersed by episodic wind and wave energy along storm-dominated coasts. In tidally dominated environments, however, different transport styles and deposits may result from persistent tidal dispersal. This study investigates episodic sediment releases generated by dam removal from a SMR in Washington State, in order to evaluate the mechanics of tidally dominated sediment dispersal in an energetic marine environment. The results indicate that asymmetric tidal currents with peak magnitudes of ∼50 to >80 cm/s produce daily sediment export in the direction of the dominant tidal phase (i.e., the semi-diurnal phase with faster currents and longer duration), resulting in dispersal of fluvially derived fine sediment to distal sinks. These effects are observed throughout all seasons in the presence or absence of wave events. During the first two years of dam removal, more than 8 million tonnes of sediment were discharged to the coast. The net result was little to no change in grain size at 10-60 m water depth across >70% of the seabed offshore of the river mouth. Over the remaining ∼2 to 3 km2 of the subaqueous delta, several cm of mud and sand accumulated in a sheltered coastal embayment adjacent to the river mouth. These results demonstrate that SMR discharge events may form patchy, isolated deposits-or even no deposits-along coastlines with strong tidal currents, in contrast to the mid-shelf mud belts formed on storm-dominated shelves. Over longer timescales, knowledge of the erosional capacity of local and regional tidal currents may be key to interpreting the terrestrial event record preserved in (or possibly excluded from) marine SMR deposits.

  1. Art Bridging Boundaries: Central America and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Shifra M.

    This paper describes the organization, Artists Call, as well as several slides shown during the presentation to illustrate "visual solidarity" between artists of the United States and Central America. In 1983, artists in 27 U.S. cities as well as Paris and Mexico City organized Artists Call against U.S. Intervention in Central America. Numerous…

  2. The Wallula fault and tectonic framework of south-central Washington, as interpreted from magnetic and gravity anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wells, Ray E.; Rohay, Alan C.

    2014-06-01

    The Yakima fold and thrust belt (YFTB) in central Washington has accommodated regional, mostly north-directed, deformation of the Cascadia backarc since prior to emplacement of Miocene flood basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). The YFTB consists of two structural domains. Northern folds of the YFTB strike eastward and terminate at the western margin of a 20-mGal negative gravity anomaly, the Pasco gravity low, straddling the North American continental margin. Southern folds of the YFTB strike southeastward, form part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL), and pass south of the Pasco gravity low as the Wallula fault zone. An upper crustal model based on gravity and magnetic anomalies suggests that the Pasco gravity low is caused in part by an 8-km-deep Tertiary basin, the Pasco sub-basin, abutting the continental margin and concealed beneath CRBG. The Pasco sub-basin is crossed by north-northwest-striking magnetic anomalies caused by dikes of the 8.5 Ma Ice Harbor Member of the CRBG. At their northern end, dikes connect with the eastern terminus of the Saddle Mountains thrust of the YFTB. At their southern end, dikes are disrupted by the Wallula fault zone. The episode of NE-SW extension that promoted Ice Harbor dike injection apparently involved strike-slip displacement on the Saddle Mountains and Wallula faults. The amount of lateral shear on the OWL impacts the level of seismic hazard in the Cascadia region. Ice Harbor dikes, as mapped with aeromagnetic data, are dextrally offset by the Wallula fault zone a total of 6.9 km. Assuming that dike offsets are tectonic in origin, the Wallula fault zone has experienced an average dextral shear of 0.8 mm/y since dike emplacement 8.5 Ma, consistent with right-lateral stream offsets observed at other locations along the OWL. Southeastward, the Wallula fault transfers strain to the north-striking Hite fault, the possible location of the M 5.7 Milton-Freewater earthquake in 1936.

  3. Washington State Recreational Marijuana Legalization: Parent and Adolescent Perceptions, Knowledge, and Discussions in a Sample of Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B.; Ringle, Jay L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Background In November 20012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. Objective We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State’s recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Methods Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11th grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Results Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws. PMID:25671633

  4. Derivation and selection of freshwater sediment quality values in Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Cubbage, J.; Breidenbach, S.; Batts, D.

    1995-12-31

    To derive chemical-based Freshwater Sediment Quality Values (FSQV), bioassay data (Hyalella azteca, Microtox, Chironomus tentans, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Hexagenia limbata) and chemistry data (metals, PAH, pesticide/PCBs, and phenols) were merged from 33 studies and 245 sites in Washington and Oregon into a single database. Apparent Effects Thresholds (AET) and Probable AETs (PAET: 95th percentile of no effects sites) were calculated for Hyalella azteca (n = 228) and Microtox. The efficiency and sensitivity of these values in predicting biological response from chemical concentrations were compared with Ontario`s Severe Effects Level (SEL), Environment Canada`s Probable Effects Level (PEL) and Threshold Effects Level (TEL), EPA`s Equilibrium Partitioning (EQP), and Washington`s marine Sediment management Standards (SMS). For PAH, dry weight normalized values for AETs and PAETs were significantly more sensitive and efficient than organic carbon normalized values. TEL was always the most sensitive and least efficient.

  5. Geodetic strain measurements in Washington.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Lisowski, M.; Prescott, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Two new geodetic measurements of strain accumulation in the state of Washington for the interval 1972-1979 are reported. Near Seattle the average principal strain rates are 0.07 + or - 0.03 mu strain/yr N19oW and -0.13 + or - 0.02 mu strain/yr N71oE, and near Richland (south central Washington) the average principal strain rates are -0.02 + or - 0.01 mu strain/yr N36oW and -0.04 + or - 0.01 mu strain/yr N54oE. Extension is taken as positive, and the uncertainties quoted are standard deviations. A measurement of shear strain accumulation (dilation not determined) in the epoch 1914- 1966 along the north coast of Vancouver Island by the Geodetic Survey of Canada indicates a marginally significant accumulation of right-lateral shear (0.06 + or - 0.03 mu rad/yr) across the plate boundary (N40oW strike). Although there are significant differences in detail, these strain measurements are roughly consistent with a crude dislocation model that represents subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate. The observed accumulation of strain implies that large, shallow, thrust earthquakes should be expected off the coast of Washington and British Columbia. However, this conclusion is not easily reconciled with either observations of elevation change along the Washington coast or the focal mechanism solutions for shallow earthquakes in Washington. -Authors

  6. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-09-29

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity.

  7. Dacthal and chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil fungicide in eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) from the Duwamish-Lake Washington-Puget Sound area of Washington state, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chu, S.; Henny, C.J.; Kaiser, J.L.; Drouillard, K.G.; Haffner, G.D.; Letcher, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Current-use chlorophenoxy herbicides including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dicamba, triclopyr, dicamba, dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA or dacthal), and the metabolite of pyrethroids, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and the fungicide, chlorothalonil, were investigated in the eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) that were collected from 15 sites from five study areas Puget Sound/Seattle area of Washington State, USA. DCPA differs from acidic chlorophenoxy herbicides, and is not readily hydrolyzed to free acid or acid metabolites, and thus we developed a new method. Of the 12 chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil analyzed only DCPA could be quantified at six of these sites (2.0 to 10.3 pg/g fresh weight). However, higher levels (6.9 to 85.5 pg/g fresh weight) of the unexpected DCPA structural isomer, dimethyl tetrachlorophthalate (diMe-TCP) were quantified in eggs from all sites. diMe-TCP concentrations tended to be higher in eggs from the Everett Harbor area. As diMe-TCP is not an industrial product, and not commercially available, the source of diMe-TCP is unclear. Regardless, these findings indicate that DCPA and diMe-TCP can be accumulated in the food chain of fish-eating osprey, and transferred in ovo to eggs, and thus may be of concern to the health of the developing chick and the general reproductive health of this osprey population. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dacthal and chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil fungicide in eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) from the Duwamish-Lake Washington-Puget Sound area of Washington state, USA.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shaogang; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas; Letcher, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Current-use chlorophenoxy herbicides including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dicamba, triclopyr, dicamba, dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA or dacthal), and the metabolite of pyrethroids, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and the fungicide, chlorothalonil, were investigated in the eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) that were collected from 15 sites from five study areas Puget Sound/Seattle area of Washington State, USA. DCPA differs from acidic chlorophenoxy herbicides, and is not readily hydrolyzed to free acid or acid metabolites, and thus we developed a new method. Of the 12 chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorothalonil analyzed only DCPA could be quantified at six of these sites (2.0 to 10.3 pg/g fresh weight). However, higher levels (6.9 to 85.5 pg/g fresh weight) of the unexpected DCPA structural isomer, dimethyl tetrachlorophthalate (diMe-TCP) were quantified in eggs from all sites. diMe-TCP concentrations tended to be higher in eggs from the Everett Harbor area. As diMe-TCP is not an industrial product, and not commercially available, the source of diMe-TCP is unclear. Regardless, these findings indicate that DCPA and diMe-TCP can be accumulated in the food chain of fish-eating osprey, and transferred in ovo to eggs, and thus may be of concern to the health of the developing chick and the general reproductive health of this osprey population. PMID:16707197

  9. Washington State High Priority Infant Tracking Project. Pilot Project Update, October 1982 to April 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Patricia J.; Bell, Michelle A.

    Results are reported of a pilot study to determine the effectiveness of a tracking program to maintain high risk infants in continuing health care, determine health and developmental outcomes, and survey the use of community resources in this population. Subjects were 766 infants from six participating hospitals in two Washington counties, one of…

  10. The Cashmere Program--An Approach to Agriculture Career Education In Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockle, James

    1978-01-01

    Senior agriculture students in the "Careers in Agriculture" program at Cashmere (Washington) High School made arranged visits to community agriculture-related businesses, where they collected information about occupations with interviews, cameras, and tape recorders; they later organized their material into slide-tape presentations for school and…

  11. Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges: Academic Year Report 2013-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The "Academic Year Report 2013-14" provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in Washington's community and technical colleges for the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel, and…

  12. 78 FR 14951 - State of Washington; Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... authority from the Department of Ecology to the Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council to issue UIC permits... telephone number for the Library is (206) 553-1289. (2) Washington Department of Ecology, Water Quality... Environmental Protection Agency, and MOUs between the Department of Ecology and the Department of Health;...

  13. First report of powdery mildew of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) caused by Leveillula taurica in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpea is an important grain legume worldwide, and an important rotational and specialty crop in the US. In October 2007, powdery mildew was found on chickpea plants in a field near Pullman, Washington. Typical powdery mildew symptoms and signs were observed on petioles and adaxial leaf surfaces....

  14. 78 FR 11675 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Tribe of the Makah Indian Reservation; Port Gamble Band of S'Klallam Indians (previously listed as Port Gamble Indian Community of the Port Gamble Reservation, Washington); Quileute Tribe of the Quileute...; Port Gamble Band of S'Klallam Indians (previously listed as Port Gamble Indian Community of the...

  15. "Good Teaching for All Students?": Sheltered Instruction Programming in Washington State Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Crissa; Johnson, David Cassels

    2015-01-01

    Many in the field of language policy have called for studies that connect policy texts at the macro level with their interpretations in districts, schools, and classrooms at the micro level. The purpose of this study is to trace Washington's educational language policy through the layers of interpretation to educational practice to see how…

  16. Will Seniority-Based Layoffs Undermine School Improvement Efforts in Washington State?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robin; DeArmond, Michael; Sepe, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    A new analysis finds that policies known as "last in, first out" may disproportionately affect schools receiving federal School Improvement Grants (SIGs). A centerpiece of U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan's school reform agenda, SIG funds are intended to transform or turn around chronically failing schools. Analyzing Washington State…

  17. Structure of the eastern Seattle fault zone, Washington state: New insights from seismic reflection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liberty, L.M.; Pratt, T.L.

    2008-01-01

    We identify and characterize the active Seattle fault zone (SFZ) east of Lake Washington with newly acquired seismic reflection data. Our results focus on structures observed in the upper 1 km below the cities of Bellevue, Sammamish, Newcastle, and Fall City, Washington. The SFZ appears as a broad zone of faulting and folding at the southern boundary of the Seattle basin and north edge of the Seattle uplift. We interpret the Seattle fault as a thrust fault that accommodates north-south shortening by forming a fault-propagation fold with a forelimb breakthrough. The blind tip of the main fault forms a synclinal growth fold (deformation front) that extends at least 8 km east of Vasa Park (west side of Lake Sammamish) and defines the south edge of the Seattle basin. South of the deformation front is the forelimb break-through fault, which was exposed in a trench at Vasa Park. The Newcastle Hills anticline, a broad anticline forming the north part of the Seattle uplift east of Lake Washington, is interpreted to lie between the main blind strand of the Seattle fault and a backthrust. Our profiles, on the northern limb of this anticline, consistently image north-dipping strata. A structural model for the SFZ east of Lake Washington is consistent with about 8 km of slip on the upper part of the Seattle fault, but the amount of motion is only loosely constrained.

  18. Educational Preparation for the Role of the School Nurse: Perceptions of School Nurses in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify the perceptions of currently practicing school nurses regarding their baccalaureate nursing education and determine if they felt adequately prepared to effectively practice in the role of a school nurse. A descriptive, quantitative on-line survey was conducted of Washington State…

  19. Adolescent Clients of Washington State's Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse Services: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andris, Lydia M.; And Others

    Many adolescent clients of the Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse (DASA) in Washington come also with psychiatric problems, are involved with the legal system, live with someone who abuses drugs or alcohol, have poor social support networks, or live in poverty. This report describes a sample of adolescent clients who received treatment and/or…

  20. Observations on the nesting biology of Andrena (Plastandrena) prunorum Cockerell in Washington State (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nesting and associated behaviors of Andrena (Plastandrena) prunorum Cockerell were studied at two sites in western Washington: a suburban lawn and a vacant lot. A maximum of five nests, usually well separated from one another, was found at a given site and year. Nest and cell structure at both sites...

  1. Plastic in surface waters of the Inside Passage and beaches of the Salish Sea in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Davis, Wallace; Murphy, Anne G

    2015-08-15

    We summarize results of two independent studies on plastic pollution in the marine environment that overlap in time and space. One study evaluated the abundance of anthropogenic debris on 37 sandy beaches bordering the Salish Sea in Washington State while the other characterized plastic debris in surface waters of the Salish Sea and the Inside Passage to Skagway, Alaska. Both studies concluded that foam, primarily expanded polystyrene was the dominant pollutant. Plastic was found in surface waters the full length of the Inside Passage but was concentrated near harbors. At the wrack line, an average square meter of Washington's 1180km of sandy beaches in the Salish Sea had 61 pieces of anthropogenic debris weighing approximately 5g. The total loading for the entire 1m wide band is estimated to be 72,000,000 pieces and 5.8metric tons. Most anthropogenic debris on beaches is generated within the region.

  2. Development and testing of method for assessing and mapping agricultural areas susceptible to atrazine leaching in the state of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Frank D.

    2003-01-01

    In a joint effort by the Washington State Department of Agriculture, the Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Environmental Protection Agency's Pesticide Root Zone Model and a Geographic Information System were used to develop and test a method for screening and mapping the susceptibility of ground water in agricultural areas to pesticide contamination. The objective was to produce a map that would be used by the Washington State Department of Agriculture to allocate resources for monitoring pesticide levels in ground water. The method was tested by producing a map showing susceptibility to leaching of the pesticide atrazine for the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project, which encompasses an area of intensive agriculture in eastern Washington. The reliability of the atrazine map was assessed by using statistical procedures to determine whether the median of the percentage of atrazine simulated to leach below the root zone in wells where atrazine was detected was statistically greater than the median percentage at wells where atrazine was not detected (at or above 0.001 microgram per liter) in 134 wells sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey. A statistical difference in medians was not found when all 134 wells were compared. However, a statistical difference was found in medians for two subsets of the 134 wells that were used in land-use studies (studies examining the quality of ground water beneath specific crops). The statistical results from wells from the land-use studies indicate that the model potentially can be used to map the relative susceptibility of agricultural areas to atrazine leaching. However, the distinction between areas of high and low susceptibility may not yet be sufficient to use the method for allocating resources to monitor water quality. Several options are offered for improving the reliability of future simulations.

  3. Nitrogen Deposition Effects on Diatom Communities in Lakes from Three National Parks in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Sheibley, Richard W; Enache, Mihaela; Swarzenski, Peter W; Moran, Patrick W; Foreman, James R

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to document if lakes in National Parks in Washington have exceeded critical levels of nitrogen (N) deposition, as observed in other Western States. We measured atmospheric N deposition, lake water quality, and sediment diatoms at our study lakes. Water chemistry showed that our study lakes were ultra-oligotrophic with ammonia and nitrate concentrations often at or below detection limits with low specific conductance (<100 μS/cm), and acid neutralizing capacities (<400 μeq/L). Rates of summer bulk inorganic N deposition at all our sites ranged from 0.6 to 2.4 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and were variable both within and across the parks. Diatom assemblages in a single sediment core from Hoh Lake (Olympic National Park) displayed a shift to increased relative abundances of Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria tenera beginning in the 1969-1975 timeframe, whereas these species were not found at the remaining (nine) sites. These diatom species are known to be indicative of N enrichment and were used to determine an empirical critical load of N deposition, or threshold level, where changes in diatom communities were observed at Hoh Lake. However, N deposition at the remaining nine lakes does not seem to exceed a critical load at this time. At Milk Lake, also in Olympic National Park, there was some evidence that climate change might be altering diatom communities, but more research is needed to confirm this. We used modeled precipitation for Hoh Lake and annual inorganic N concentrations from a nearby National Atmospheric Deposition Program station, to calculate elevation-corrected N deposition for 1980-2009 at Hoh Lake. An exponential fit to this data was hindcasted to the 1969-1975 time period, and we estimate a critical load of 1.0 to 1.2 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) for wet deposition for this lake. PMID:24578586

  4. Comparison of the Nutritional Status of Overseas Refugee Children with Low Income Children in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Hahn, Elizabeth E.; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Hoopes, Andrea J.; Matheson, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The extent that the dual burden of undernutrition and overnutrition affects refugee children before resettlement in the US is not well described. Objective To describe the prevalence of wasting, stunting, overweight, and obesity among refugee children ages 0–10 years at their overseas medical screening examination prior to resettlement in Washington State (WA), and to compare the nutritional status of refugee children with that of low-income children in WA. Methods We analyzed anthropometric measurements of 1047 refugee children ages 0–10 years old to assess their nutritional status at the overseas medical screening examination prior to resettlement in WA from July 2012—June 2014. The prevalence estimates of the nutritional status categories were compared by country of origin. In addition, the nutritional status of refugee children age 0–5 years old were compared to that of low-income children in WA from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System. Results A total of 982 children were eligible for the study, with the majority (65%) from Somalia, Iraq and Burma. Overall, nearly one-half of all refugee children had at least one form of malnutrition (44.9%). Refugee children ages 0–10 years were affected by wasting (17.3%), stunting (20.1%), overweight (7.6%) and obesity (5.9%). Among children 0–5 years old, refugee children had a significantly higher prevalence of wasting (14.3% versus 1.9%, p<0.001) and stunting (21.3% versus 5.5%, p<0.001), and a lower prevalence of obesity (6.2% versus 12.9%, p<0.001) than low-income children in WA. Conclusion The dual burden of under- and over-nutrition among incoming refugee children as well as their overall difference in prevalence of nutritional status categories compared to low-income children in WA provides evidence for the importance of tailored interventions to address the nutritional needs of refugee children. PMID:26808275

  5. Implications of Rhagoletis zephyria, 1894 (Diptera: Tephritidae), captures for apple maggot surveys and fly ecology in Washington state, U.S.A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an introduced quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in Washington state, U.S.A. A morphologically similar native fly, Rhagoletis zephyria Snow, 1894, infests snowberries (Symphoricarpos spp.) ...

  6. Frederick and Washington west 30 x 60 minute quadrangles: new projects of national geologic mapping program in central Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, J.; Lyttle, P.T.; Newell, W.L.

    1988-08-01

    The National Geologic Mapping Program has revitalized the US Geological Survey's mapping efforts; the Frederick and Washington West projects are pioneering parts of the program to increase the quantity and the versatility of geologic maps. The map area is on the western margin of the rapidly growing Baltimore-Washington urban corridor where the need for accurate information on geotechnical characteristics of rock units, the rates of geomorphic processes, the risks from geologic hazards, and the geohydrologic characteristics of rocks within the major physiographic provinces are critical issues. Key issues include concerns over ground-water resources and waste disposal, radon gas hazards, and the suitability of areas for extraction of rock and mineral resources.

  7. Anatomy of a Complex Fault Zone: Land Seismic Reflection Imaging of the Tacoma Fault Zone, Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, K.; Liberty, L. M.; Pratt, T. L.

    2005-12-01

    Preliminary interpretations of new land-based seismic reflection images across the Tacoma fault zone in western Washington State document a complex pattern of faulting and folding. The Tacoma fault zone bounds gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies for 50 km across the central Puget Lowland west of the city of Tacoma, and tomography data suggest there is as much as 6 km of post-Eocene uplift of the hanging wall relative to Tacoma basin sediments to the south. We acquired four north-south seismic reflection profiles to define the character and tectonic history of the Tacoma fault zone. The 6-km long Powerline Road profile, located west of Case Inlet, perpendicularly crosses the 4-km-long Catfish Lake scarp discerned from Lidar data and trenching. The profile shows flat-lying strata on the south, but the north part of the profile is dominated by south-dipping Tertiary and older strata that appear to form the limb of an anticline. There appears to be at least one, and likely two faults in the Tertiary and older strata, although it is not clear these faults penetrate the shallowest Pleistocene strata. The 8.5-km long Carney Lake profile is located east of Case Inlet and spans two scarps imaged on Lidar data. This profile shows a similar geometry to the Powerline Road profile, folded and faulted Tertiary and older strata adjacent to flat-lying marine sediments of the Tacoma Basin. The 9-km long Bethel-Burley profile across the east portion of the Tacoma fault near Gig Harbor shows a significantly different reflector geometry than the profiles to the west. The Bethel-Burley profile is dominated by a strong, south-dipping reflection that becomes a prominent arch near the north end of the section. The strength of the reflector suggests that it marks the top of the Eocene basement rocks. South-dipping strata on this profile match those imaged on marine profiles from Carr Inlet. The new seismic reflection data support an interpretation in which the north edge of the Tacoma basin

  8. Paleoseismic targets, seismic hazard, and urban areas in the Central and Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Published geologic information from the central and eastern United States identifies 83 faults, groups of sand blows, named seismic zones, and other geological features as known or suspected products of Quaternary tectonic faulting. About one fifth of the features are known to contain faulted Quaternary materials or seismically induced liquefaction phenomena, but the origin and associated seismic hazard of most of the other features remain uncertain. Most of the features are in or near large urban areas. The largest cluster of features is in the Boston-Washington urban corridor (2005 estimated population: 50 million). The proximity of most features to populous areas identifies paleoseismic targets with potential to impact urban-hazard estimates.

  9. Community Perspectives on Drug/Alcohol Use, Concerns, Needs and Resources In Four Washington State Tribal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Radin, Sandra M.; Kutz, Stephen H.; LaMarr, June; Vendiola, Diane; Vendiola, Michael; Wilbur, Brian; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Donovan, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Community-university teams investigated substance use, abuse, and dependence (SUAD) and related concerns, needs, strengths, and resources in four Washington State Tribal communities. 153 key community members shared their perspectives through 43 semi-structured interviews and 19 semi-structured focus groups. Qualitative data analysis revealed robust themes: prescription medications and alcohol were perceived as most prevalent and concerning; family and peer influences and emotional distress were prominent perceived risk factors; and SUAD intervention resources varied across communities. Findings may guide future research and the development of much needed strength-based, culturally appropriate, and effective SUAD interventions for American Indians, Alaska Natives, and their communities. PMID:25560464

  10. Booker T. Washington Rediscovered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieze, Michael Scott, Ed.; Gasman, Marybeth, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Booker T. Washington, a founding father of African American education in the United States, has long been studied, revered, and reviled by scholars and students. Born into slavery, freed and raised in the Reconstruction South, and active in educational reform through the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Washington sought to use…

  11. Summary of geothermal exploration activity in the state of Washington from 1978 to 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Korosec, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    During the course of conducting the statewide reconnaissance study of Washington's potential geothermal resources, several specific areas and broader regions have been identified as targets which warrant a more concentrated effort. Over the past three years, the program has continued to identify new sites, but has concentrated on better defining the resource potential of the best areas. The locations of these geothermal areas are shown, and the level of progress for each area is shown, expressed as a percentage of completion for the various exploration tasks. Descriptions of the geothermal target areas are presented.

  12. Tectonics of the Georgia Basin, northwest Washington State, USA, and southwest British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polivka, Peter Michael

    GPS strain and recent neotectonic studies in northwest Washington and southwest British Columbia indicate long term north-south shortening of the Cascadia forearc extends north of recognized active faults. This study reviews seismic reflection profiles from the SHIPS 1998 and 2002 experiments in conjunction with industry data to identify active geologic structures capable of accommodating this unaccounted strain. Here a new active northeast striking thrust system in southern Strait of Georgia is identified, the fault ruptured during the 1997 earthquake near Gabriola Island and Vancouver B.C. is imaged, and the first subsurface images of the Sandy Point Fault are presented.

  13. Sulfur extended asphalt pavement evaluation in the State of Washington: SR 270 highway pavement performance report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, J. P.; Terrel, R. L.; Cook, J. C.

    1982-11-01

    The placement and performance of sulfur extended asphalt (SEA) paving mixtures at a highway test site (SR 270) near Pullman, Washington is summarized. The mixture and structural designs and construction details are included. This is followed by a discussion of the data collection and analysis accomplished over a three year evaluation period (1979-1982). A major experimental feature of the study was the use of 0.100 (conventional asphalt concrete), 30/70 and 40/60 SEA binder ratios (sulfur/asphalt ratios are expressed as weight percents in the experimental paving mixtures.

  14. U. S. Geological Survey begins seismic ground response experiments in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, A.C.; King, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The men were Denver-based U.S Geological Survey (USGS) geophysicists working on the Urban Hazards Field Investigations project. On the previous day they had recorded two events on their seismographs-a distant nuclear explosion in Nevada and a blast at amine near Centralia, Washington. On another day, they used seismic refraction equipment to locate the depth of bedrock and seismic velocity to it at several locations in West Seattle and in the Seward Park-Brighton district of southeast Seattle. 

  15. Evidence for great holocene earthquakes along the outer coast of washington state.

    PubMed

    Atwater, B F

    1987-05-22

    Intertidal mud has buried extensive, well-vegetated lowlands in westernmost Washington at least six times in the past 7000 years. Each burial was probably occasioned by rapid tectonic subsidence in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 meters. Anomalous sheets of sand atop at least three of the buried lowlands suggest that tsunamis resulted from the same events that caused the subsidence. These events may have been great earthquakes from the subduction zone between the Juan de Fuca and North America plates. PMID:17812748

  16. Limited percentages of adults in Washington State meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended intakes of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ta, Myduc L; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Bensley, Lillian

    2012-05-01

    Nutritious diets that include sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables promote health and reduce risk for chronic diseases. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend four to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables daily for energy intake levels of 1,000 to 3,200 kcal, including seven to 13 servings for 1,600 to 3,000 kcal/day as recommended for adults aged ≥25 years. The 2006-2007 Washington Adult Health Survey, a cross-sectional study designed to measure risk factors for cardiovascular disease among a representative sample of Washington State residents aged ≥25 years, included a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ included approximately 120 food items and summary questions for fruits and vegetables that were used to compute energy intake and two measures of fruit and vegetable intake. Measure 1 was computed as the sum of intake of individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items; Measure 2 combined the summary questions with selected individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items. Depending on the measure used, approximately 14% to 22% of 519 participants with complete information met the guidelines for fruits, 11% to 15% for vegetables, and 5% to 6% for both fruits and vegetables. Participants aged ≥65 years and women were more likely to meet recommendations, compared with younger participants and men. Despite decades of public health attention, the vast majority of Washington State residents do not consume the recommended amount of fruits or vegetables daily. These findings underscore the need for developing and evaluating new approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption.

  17. ReDirection: Options for Policy and Practice in Adult Literacy in Washington State. Goals and Outcomes. A Series of Discussion Papers for the Adult Education Advisory Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Susan; Sampson, Lynne

    This discussion paper endeavors to inform decision makers about the goals and outcomes for adult basic education in Washington State. It first examines the current goals operating in adult literacy programs in the state, concluding that, although there may appear to be agreement about the very general purposes of literacy education in the state,…

  18. Interdecadal variations of annual precipitation in the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hu, Q.; Woodruff, C.M.; Mudrick, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    Century-long annual precipitation time series at 168 stations in the central United States are analyzed with special attention given to interdecadal variations. The results show statistically significant precipitation variations of interdecadal timescales in the region. In particular, one variation has a quasi 20-yr period, and another one possesses a quasi 12-yr period.

  19. Geospeedometry and the metamorphic history of the Late Cretaceous Chiwaukum Schist, west central Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.A. . Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences); Lasaga, A.C.; Ague, J.J.; Brandon, M.T. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The Chiwaukum Schist on the NE side of the Late Cretaceous Mount Stuart batholith (MSB) shows evidence of a low-P contact metamorphism, followed by a higher-P amphibolite-facies regional metamorphism (Evans and Berti, 1986). Samples were collected from this contact zone in order to quantify the time-temperature history of the schist using the geospeedometry method of Lasaga (1983). Pseudomorphic textures and garnet-aluminosilicate-plagioclase (GASP) geobarometry within some samples show an increase in pressure during crystal growth, consistent with the interpretation of Evans and Berti (1986), that regional metamorphism followed intrusion of the MSB. Geospeedometry exploits the kinetics of diffusion associated with the thermo-barometric exchange reactions in order to determine the retrograde cooling history of a metamorphic rock. This technique was applied using Fe-Mg diffusion between garnet and biotite as defined by that geothermometer. Modeling results indicate that the region was exhumed and cooled from about 22 km and 610 C to about 8 km and 525 C, in a period of about 2.5 Myr. The average exhumation rate is 5.6 km/Myr. These results are consistent with existing isotopic ages, which indicate that the northeast MSB was intruded at about 95 Ma (K/Ar hornblende and U/Pb zircon) and that the Chiwaukum Schist cooled through temperatures of about 350 C at 86 to 83 Ma (K/Ar muscovite). Rapid unroofing appears to follow shortly after the climax of crustal thickening within the Cascade metamorphic core and may be related to erosional and/or tectonic denudation within a mountainous collisional orogen.

  20. Washington, DC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Citizens of the United States vote today (November 7, 2000) to determine who will be the next president and vice president of the country, as well as who will fill a number of congressional and senate seats that are up for election. This image of the U.S. capital city-Washington, D.C.-was acquired on June 1 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), a Japanese sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The scene encompasses an area 14 km wide by 13.7 km tall, and was made using a combination of ASTER's visible and near-infrared channels. In this image, vegetation appears red, buildings and paved areas appear light blue, and the waters of the Anacostia and Potomac Rivers are dark grey. ASTER's 15-meter spatial resolution allows us to see individual buildings, including the White House, the Jefferson Memorial, and the Washington Monument with its shadow. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  1. Agreement. Central State University and the American Association of University Professors, Central State University Chapter. 1985-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central State Univ., Edmond, OK.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Central State University and the university's chapter (295 members) of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP), covering the period 1985-1988, is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: academic freedom, nondiscrimination, affirmative action plans, maintenance of practices,…

  2. Changing concepts of geologic structure and the problem of siting nuclear reactors: examples from Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Tabor, R.W.

    1986-09-01

    The conflict between regulation and healthy evolution of geological science has contributed to the difficulties of siting nuclear reactors. On the Columbia Plateau in Washington, but for conservative design of the Hanford reactor facility, the recognition of the little-understood Olympic-Wallowa lineament as a major, possibly still active structural alignment might have jeopardized the acceptability of the site for nuclear reactors. On the Olympic Peninsula, evolving concepts of compressive structures and their possible recent activity and the current recognition of a subducting Juan de Fuca plate and its potential for generating great earthquakes - both concepts little-considered during initial site selection - may delay final acceptance of the Satsop site. Conflicts of this sort are inevitable but can be accommodated if they are anticipated in the reactor-licensing process. More important, society should be increasing its store of geologic knowledge now, during the current recess in nuclear reactor siting.

  3. Persistence of DDT and metabolites in wildlife from Washington State orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Stafford, C.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Residues of the DDT group, particularly p,p'-DDT (DDT) were detected in high or unusual amounts in some wildlife samples collected in fruit orchards near Wenatchee, Washington from 1979 to 1983. Samples of birds contained p,p'-DDE (DDE) and DDT in ratios (DDE:DDT) as low as 2.6:1 in eggs and 1.9:1 in brains. An unexpectedly high number (about 50%) of some samples, such as fat of adult waterfowl, contained unusually low DDE:DDT ratios (1000 kg/ha over this period. Considerable wildlife mortality from DDT was documented during the period of intensive use, but only one DDT-related mortality was recorded during this study. The possible origin of the residues is discussed. Occurrence of DDT and its metabolites in resident wildlife and its food indicates continuing contamination that probably originates largely from past legal applications in the orchard system.

  4. Compilation of 29 sonic and density logs from 23 oil test wells in western Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Ruebel, April L.

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional velocity models for Puget Sound provide a means for better understanding the lateral variations in strong ground motions recorded during local earthquakes in Puget Lowland. We have compiled 29 sonic and density logs from 23 oil test wells to help us determine the geometry and physical properties of the Cenozoic basins in western Washington. The maximum depths sampled by the test wells are between 0.47 and 4.04 km. These well logs sample Quaternary to Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. This report presents the locations, elevations, depths, stratigraphic and other information about the test wells, and provides plots showing the density and sonic velocities as a function of depth for each well log. We also present two-way travel times calculated from the sonic velocities.

  5. Using the chronic care model to address tobacco in health care delivery organizations: a pilot experience in Washington state.

    PubMed

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Schauer, Gillian; Zbikowski, Susan; Thompson, Juliet

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a Washington State-based Systems Change Pilot Project in which the chronic care model and the model for improvement were used as tools to promote tobacco cessation-related changes within a health care system. Three diverse sites participated in the pilot. Site teams tailored plan-do-study-act tests to site circumstances, addressing current resources and barriers to implementing change. Teams tested system changes that incorporated tobacco use documentation into the routine health services provided. Findings from this pilot suggest that (a) even simple changes with minimal disruption of services can make a difference in improving documentation of tobacco use status; (b) changes to routine practices of health organizations may not be sustainable if ongoing quality assurance mechanisms are not developed; and (c) systems implemented for other disease states within the same organization or patient population are not instinctively applied to tobacco, because of a multitude of factors.

  6. Elevation dependence of winter wheat production in eastern Washington state with climate change: A methodological study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Brown, Robert A.; Ghan, Steven J.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Leung, Lai R.

    2002-07-01

    Crop growth models, used in climate change impact assessments to project production on a local scale, can obtain the daily weather information to drive them from models of the Earth's climate. General Circulation Models (GCMs) provide weather information for the entire globe but often cannot depict details of regional climates especially where complex topography plays an important role in weather patterns. The U.S. Pacific Northwest is an important wheat growing region where climate patterns are difficult to resolve with a coarse scale GCM. Here, we use the PNNL Regional Climate Model (RCM) which uses a sub-grid parameterization to resolve the complex topography and simulate meteorology to drive the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator crop model. We simulated winter wheat production in eastern Washington for current climate conditions and a 2xCO2 'greenhouse' scenario of climate change. Dryland wheat yields for the baseline climate averaged 4.52 Mg ha-1 across the study region. Yields were zero at high elevations where temperatures were too low to allow the crops to mature. The highest yields (7.32 Mg ha-1) occurred at intermediate elevations with sufficient precipitation and mild temperatures. Mean yield of dryland winter wheat increased to 5.45 Mg ha-1 for the 2xCO2 climate, which was markedly warmer and wetter. Simulated yields of irrigated wheat were generally higher than dryland yields and followed the same pattern but were, of course, less sensitive to increases in precipitation. Increases in dryland and irrigated wheat yields were due, principally, to decreases in the frequency of temperature and water stress. This study shows that the elevation of a farm is a more important determinant of yield than farm location in eastern Washington and that climate changes would affect wheat yields at all farms in the study.

  7. Lead exposure in radiator repair workers: a survey of Washington State radiator repair shops and review of occupational lead exposure registry data.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Stephen G

    2003-07-01

    Radiator repair workers in Washington State have the greatest number of very elevated (> or =60 microg/dL) blood lead levels of any other worker population. The goals of this study were to determine the number of radiator repair workers potentially exposed to lead; estimate the extent of blood lead data underreporting to the Occupational Lead Exposure Registry; describe current safety and health practices in radiator repair shops; and determine appropriate intervention strategies to reduce exposure and increase employer and worker awareness. Lead exposure in Washington State's radiator repair workers was assessed by reviewing Registry data and conducting a statewide survey of radiator repair businesses. This study revealed that a total of 226 workers in Washington State (including owner-operators and all employees) conduct repair activities that could potentially result in excessive exposures to lead. Approximately 26% of radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels (> or =25 microg/dL) were determined to report to Washington State's Registry. This study also revealed a lack of awareness of lead's health effects, appropriate industrial hygiene controls, and the requirements of the Lead Standard. Survey respondents requested information on a variety of workplace health and safety issues and waste management; 80% requested a confidential, free-of-charge consultation. Combining data derived from an occupational health surveillance system and a statewide mail survey proved effective at characterizing lead exposures and directing public health intervention in Washington State.

  8. Booker T. Washington and the Political Economy of Black Education in the United States, 1880-1915.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marable, Manning

    1986-01-01

    The author provides a scholarly analysis of Black education in the U.S. between 1880 and 1915. The article examines Booker T. Washington's establishment of the Tuskegee Institute, Washington's philosophy of racial accommodation, contradictions in the Tuskegee approach, and the weakness of Washington's economic strategy. (CT)

  9. Timeliness and Data Element Completeness of Immunization Data in Washington State in 2010: a Comparison of Data Exchange Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Rebecca A; Revere, Debra; Altamore, Rita; Abernethy, Neil F.; Lober, William B

    2012-01-01

    Health information systems receive data through various methods. These data exchange methods have the potential to influence data quality. We assessed a de-identified 2010 dataset including 757,476 demographic records and 2,634,101 vaccination records from Washington State’s Immunization Information System (IIS) to describe timeliness and completeness of IIS data across several data exchange methods: manual entry, HL7, and flat file upload. Overall, manually-entered data and HL7 records were more timely than records imported as flat files. Completeness, though very high overall, was slightly higher for records arriving via flat file. Washington State IIS users, including clinicians and public health, rely on its data to inform patient care and determine population coverage of immunizations. Our results suggest that although data element completeness in systems like Washington’s IIS will likely not be immediately or significantly impacted by provider’s migration to HL7 connections with IISs, timeliness could be substantially improved when using HL7 connections. PMID:23304304

  10. What Does Washington State Get for Its Investment in Bonuses for Board Certified Teachers? Schools in Crisis: Making Ends Meet. Rapid Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Washington State is set to spend nearly $100 million in the next two years on pay bonuses for teachers who receive national board certification. This investment is supposed to improve the state's teaching force and encourage the most capable teachers to work in high-poverty schools. Does it accomplish those goals? Governor Christine Gregoire's…

  11. First Impact Analysis of the Washington State Self-Employment and Enterprise Development (SEED) Demonstration. Unemployment Insurance Occasional Paper 94-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benus, Jacob M.; And Others

    The Washington State Self-Employment and Enterprise Demonstration (SEED) was the first federally sponsored self-employment demonstration program for unemployed workers in the United States. Its primary purpose was to determine the viability of self-employment as a reemployment option for recipients of Unemployment Insurance (UI) benefits who do…

  12. The State of Digital Preservation: An International Perspective. Conference Proceedings (1st, Washington, D.C., April 24-25, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    In this collection of papers presented at "The State of Digital Preservation: An International Perspective" conference (Washington, DC, April 24-25, 2002), leading experts from the United States, the Netherlands, and Australia describe current practices and challenges in digital preservation. Contents include: "Introduction: The Changing…

  13. Earthquakes of the Central United States, 1795-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, Russell L.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes construction of a list of Central U.S. earthquakes to be shown on a large-format map that is targeted for a non-technical audience. The map shows the locations and sizes of historical earthquakes of magnitude 3.0 or larger over the most seismically active part of the central U.S., including the New Madrid seismic zone. The map shows more than one-half million square kilometers and parts or all of ten States. No existing earthquake catalog had provided current, uniform coverage down to magnitude 3.0, so one had to be made. Consultation with State geological surveys insured compatibility with earthquake lists maintained by them, thereby allowing the surveys and the map to present consistent information to the public.

  14. Earthquakes in the Central United States, 1699-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dart, Richard L.; Volpi, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    This publication is an update of an earlier report, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Geologic Investigation I-2812 by Wheeler and others (2003), titled ?Earthquakes in the Central United States-1699-2002.? Like the original poster, the center of the updated poster is a map showing the pattern of earthquake locations in the most seismically active part of the central United States. Arrayed around the map are short explanatory texts and graphics, which describe the distribution of historical earthquakes and the effects of the most notable of them. The updated poster contains additional, post 2002, earthquake data. These are 38 earthquakes covering the time interval from January 2003 to June 2010, including the Mount Carmel, Illinois, earthquake of 2008. The USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) was the source of these additional data. Like the I-2812 poster, this poster was prepared for a nontechnical audience and designed to inform the general public as to the widespread occurrence of felt and damaging earthquakes in the Central United States. Accordingly, the poster should not be used to assess earthquake hazard in small areas or at individual locations.

  15. Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection in a northern sea otter from Washington state, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Rosypal, A.C.; Dubey, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection was observed in a Northern sea otter from Washington, USA. The animal was found stranded, convulsed, and died shortly thereafter. Encephalitis caused by both S. neurona and T. gondii was demonstrated in histological sections of brain. Immunohistochemical examination of sections with S. neurona specific antisera demonstrated developmental stages that divided by endopolygeny and produced numerous merozoites. PCR of brain tissue from the sea otter using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 resulted in amplification of a 1100 bp product. This PCR product was cut in to 884 and 216 bp products by Dra I but was not cut by Hinf I indicating that it was S. neurona [J. Parasitol. 85 (1999) 221]. No PCR product was detected in the brain of a sea otter which had no lesions of encephalitis. Examination of brain sections using T. gondii specific antisera demonstrated tachyzoites and tissue cysts of T. gondii. The lesions induced by T. gondii suggested that the sea otter was suffering from reactivated toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was isolated in mice inoculated with brain tissue. A cat that was fed infected mouse brain tissue excreted T. gondii oocysts which were infective for mice. This is apparently the first report of dual S. neurona and T. gondii in a marine mammal.

  16. Multiple sources for late-Holocene tsunamis at Discovery Bay, Washington State, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, H.F.L.; Hutchinson, I.; Nelson, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Nine muddy sand beds interrupt a 2500-yr-old sequence of peat deposits beneath a tidal marsh at the head of Discovery Bay on the south shore of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. An inferred tsunami origin for the sand beds is assessed by means of six criteria. Although all the sand beds contain marine diatoms and almost all the beds display internal stratification, the areal extent of the oldest beds is too limited to confirm their origin as tsunami deposits. The ages of four beds overlap with known late-Holocene tsunamis generated by plate-boundary earthquakes at the Cascadia subduction zone. Diatom assemblages in peat deposits bracketing these four beds do not indicate concurrent change in elevation at Discovery Bay. Diatoms in the peat bracketing a tsunami bed deposited about 1000 cal. yr BP indicate a few decimeters of submergence, suggesting deformation on a nearby upper-plate fault. Other beds may mark tsunamis caused by more distant upper-plate earthquakes or local submarine landslides triggered by earthquake shaking. Tsunamis from both subduction zone and upper-plate sources pose a significant hazard to shoreline areas in this region.

  17. 76 FR 58031 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... (NIC) describing 4 individuals and 42 associated funerary objects removed from the Cedar Cave site was published in the Federal Register [72 FR 52391-52392, September 13, 2007]. The Burke Museum and Central... Items In 1953-1954, human remains were removed from the Cedar Cave Site (45-KT-20), in Kittitas...

  18. Digital representation of the Washington state geologic map: a contribution to the Interior Columbia River Basin Ecosystem Management Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Gary L.; Johnson, Bruce R.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the digital representation of the Washington state geologic map (Hunting and others, 1961). This report contains an explantion of why the data were prepared, a description of the digital data, and information on obtaining the digital files. This report is one in a series of digital maps, data files, and reports generated by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide geologic process and mineral resource information to the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). The various digital maps and data files are being used in a geographic information system (GIS)-based ecosystem assessment including an analysis of diverse questions relating to past, present, and future conditions within the general area of the Columbia River Basin east of the Cascade Mountains.

  19. Charity care in nonprofit urban hospitals: analysis of the role of size and ownership type in Washington State for 2011.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Joseph S; Ogle, Natalie M; McPherson, Sterling; Murphy, Sean; Smith, Gary J; Davidson, Gregg Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Nonprofit hospitals are expected to serve their communities as charitable organizations in exchange for the tax exemption benefits they receive. With the passage into law of the Affordable Care Act, additional guidelines were generated in 2010 to ensure nonprofit hospitals are compliant. Nonetheless, the debate continues on whether nonprofit hospitals provide adequate charity care to their patient population. In this study, charity care provided by 29 Washington State nonprofit urban hospitals was examined for 2011 using financial data from the Washington State Department of Health. Charity care levels were compared to both income tax savings and gross revenues to generate two financial ratios that were analyzed according to hospital bed size and nonprofit ownership type. For the first ratio, 97% of the hospitals (28 of 29) were providing charity care in greater amounts than the tax savings they accrued. The average ratio value using total charity care and total income tax savings of all the hospitals in the study was 6.10, and the median value was 3.46. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test results by bed size and nonprofit ownership type indicate that ownership type has a significant effect on charity care to gross revenue ratios (p = .020). Our analysis indicates that church-owned hospitals had higher ratios of charity care to gross revenues than did the other two ownership types--government and voluntary--in this sample. Policy implications are offered and further studies are recommended to analyze appropriate levels of charity care in nonprofit hospitals given new requirements for maintaining a hospital's tax-exempt status. PMID:25647964

  20. Charity care in nonprofit urban hospitals: analysis of the role of size and ownership type in Washington State for 2011.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Joseph S; Ogle, Natalie M; McPherson, Sterling; Murphy, Sean; Smith, Gary J; Davidson, Gregg Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Nonprofit hospitals are expected to serve their communities as charitable organizations in exchange for the tax exemption benefits they receive. With the passage into law of the Affordable Care Act, additional guidelines were generated in 2010 to ensure nonprofit hospitals are compliant. Nonetheless, the debate continues on whether nonprofit hospitals provide adequate charity care to their patient population. In this study, charity care provided by 29 Washington State nonprofit urban hospitals was examined for 2011 using financial data from the Washington State Department of Health. Charity care levels were compared to both income tax savings and gross revenues to generate two financial ratios that were analyzed according to hospital bed size and nonprofit ownership type. For the first ratio, 97% of the hospitals (28 of 29) were providing charity care in greater amounts than the tax savings they accrued. The average ratio value using total charity care and total income tax savings of all the hospitals in the study was 6.10, and the median value was 3.46. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test results by bed size and nonprofit ownership type indicate that ownership type has a significant effect on charity care to gross revenue ratios (p = .020). Our analysis indicates that church-owned hospitals had higher ratios of charity care to gross revenues than did the other two ownership types--government and voluntary--in this sample. Policy implications are offered and further studies are recommended to analyze appropriate levels of charity care in nonprofit hospitals given new requirements for maintaining a hospital's tax-exempt status.

  1. Active faulting on the Wallula fault within the Olympic-Wallowa Lineament (OWL), eastern Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Lasher, J. P.; Barnett, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Several studies over the last 40 years focused on a segment of the Wallula fault exposed in a quarry at Finley, Washington. The Wallula fault is important because it is part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL), a ~500-km-long topographic and structural lineament extending from Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Walla Walla, Washington that accommodates Basin and Range extension. The origin and nature of the OWL is of interest because it contains potentially active faults that are within 50 km of high-level nuclear waste facilities at the Hanford Site. Mapping in the 1970's and 1980's suggested the Wallula fault did not offset Holocene and late Pleistocene deposits and is therefore inactive. New exposures of the Finley quarry wall studied here suggest otherwise. We map three main packages of rocks and sediments in a ~10 m high quarry exposure. The oldest rocks are very fine grained basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (~13.5 Ma). The next youngest deposits include a thin layer of vesicular basalt, white volcaniclastic deposits, colluvium containing clasts of vesicular basalt, and indurated paleosols. A distinct angular unconformity separates these vesicular basalt-bearing units from overlying late Pleistocene flood deposits, two colluvium layers containing angular clasts of basalt, and Holocene tephra-bearing loess. A tephra within the loess likely correlates to nearby outcrops of Mazama ash. We recognize three styles of faults: 1) a near vertical master reverse or oblique fault juxtaposing very fine grained basalt against late Tertiary-Holocene deposits, and marked by a thick (~40 cm) vertical seam of carbonate cemented breccia; 2) subvertical faults that flatten upwards and displace late Tertiary(?) to Quaternary(?) soils, colluvium, and volcaniclastic deposits; and 3) flexural slip faults along bedding planes in folded deposits in the footwall. We infer at least two Holocene earthquakes from the quarry exposure. The first Holocene earthquake deformed

  2. Paleoecological and biogeographical implications of late Pleistocene noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) in eastern Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2011-01-01

    A mandible identified as noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) recovered from sediments dating to 11,800 cal yr BP and a humerus identified as M. a. cf. nobilis recovered from sediments dating from 13,100 to 12,500 cal yr BP at the Marmes Rockshelter archaeological site in southeastern Washington represent the first record of this taxon in the state. Mammalian taxa associated with the Marmes Rockshelter noble marten represent a diversity of open mesic habitats corroborating earlier analyses of other records of the noble marten in the western United States and exemplify how paleozoologists determine the ecology and environmental predilections of extinct taxa. The recovery site represents the topographically lowest record of this species in western North America and the farthest north record in the United States. Future research should examine known late-Quaternary Martes spp. remains from British Columbia and Alberta to fill in the 2200-km geographic gap in the known distribution of this taxon between a record in the northern Yukon and those in the western United States, and to refine our knowledge of noble marten paleoecology.

  3. Combined Active and Passive Seismic Methods To Characterize Strongmotion Sites in Washington and Oregon, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pileggi, D.; Cakir, R.; Lunedei, E.; Albarello, D.; Walsh, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of the shear-wave velocity profile at strongmotion station sites is important for calibrating accelerograms in terms of local site effects. Surface-wave seismic prospecting methods (both in active and passive configurations) provide an effective tool for an inexpensive and deep penetrating seismic characterization of subsoil. We used a combination of active (Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves, MASW) and passive (Extended Spectral AutoCorrelation, ESAC) array techniques along with the single-station ambient vibration measurements (Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratios - HVSR) to characterize strong-motion sites in Washington and Oregon. The MASW analysis was used to better constrain the shallowest part of the Vs profile, while effective dispersion curve provided by ESAC and HVSR data allow us to extend the survey downwards (up to hundred meters of depth). The combined use of these data in the frame of global-search inversion algorithms (Genetic Algorithms) allows us to manage the extreme non-linearity of the inverse problem and mitigate problems associated with the non-uniqueness of the solution. A strict synergy between geologic surveys, boreholes (when the latter was available) and seismic surveys allows a further reduction of relevant uncertainties. Preliminary results show that; i) this combined methodology is a practical, inexpensive, and fast way to characterize multiple strong motion sites; ii) local geology and/or borehole information was combined to better constrain the inversion and to reduce the uncertainty in velocity profiles; and, iii) this combined methodology gives additional information of shear-wave velocities at greater depths.

  4. Regional Hydraulic Geometry Curves of the Northern Cascade Mountains, Chelan and King Counties, Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperi, J. T.; McClung, J. M.; Hanson, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    The USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service has developed regional hydraulic geometry curves relating drainage area to bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area for the east and west sides of the northern Cascade Mountains in Chelan and King Counties, Washington. NRCS surveyed 10 channel reaches with drainage areas from 1 to 1000 square miles within the Wenatchee River drainage of Chelan County and 10 channel reaches with drainage areas of 1 to 100 square miles within the Cedar and Green River drainages of King County. Selection criteria for stream reaches required a minimum of 20 years of USGS stream gage discharge records, unregulated flows and safe access. Survey data were collected with a Sokkia Total Station during low flow conditions from August 2004 to September 2005. NRCS measured a channel cross-section at each of the USGS stream gage sites and two or three additional cross-sections up and downstream. The authors also collected samples of bed material for gradation analysis and estimation of Manning's roughness coefficient, n. Bankfull elevations were estimated based on visual identification of field indicators and USGS flood discharges for the 50% exceedance probability event. Field data were evaluated with the Ohio DNR Reference Reach spreadsheet to determine bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area. We applied a simple linear regression to the data following USGS statistical methods to evaluate the closeness of fit between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions. The resulting R2 values of 0.83 to 0.93 for the eastern Cascade data of Chelan County and 0.71 to 0.88 for the western Cascade data of King County indicate a close association between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions for these two sets of data.

  5. Loss Estimation Modeling Of Scenario Lahars From Mount Rainier, Washington State, Using HAZUS-MH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, T. J.; Cakir, R.

    2011-12-01

    We have adapted lahar hazard zones developed by Hoblitt and others (1998) and converted to digital data by Schilling and others (2008) into the appropriate format for HAZUS-MH, which is FEMA's loss estimation model. We assume that structures engulfed by cohesive lahars will suffer complete loss, and structures affected by post-lahar flooding will be appropriately modeled by the HAZUS-MH flood model. Another approach investigated is to estimate the momentum of lahars, calculate a lateral force, and apply the earthquake model, substituting the lahar lateral force for PGA. Our initial model used the HAZUS default data, which include estimates of building type and value from census data. This model estimated a loss of about 12 billion for a repeat lahar similar to the Electron Mudflow down the Puyallup River. Because HAZUS data are based on census tracts, this estimated damage includes everything in the census tract, even buildings outside of the lahar hazard zone. To correct this, we acquired assessors data from all of the affected counties and converted them into HAZUS format. We then clipped it to the boundaries of the lahar hazard zone to more precisely delineate those properties actually at risk in each scenario. This refined our initial loss estimate to about 6 billion with exclusion of building content values. We are also investigating rebuilding the lahar hazard zones applying Lahar-Z to a more accurate topographic grid derived from recent Lidar data acquired from the Puget Sound Lidar Consortium and Mount Rainier National Park. Final results of these models for the major drainages of Mount Rainier will be posted to the Washington Interactive Geologic Map (http://www.dnr.wa.gov/ResearchScience/Topics/GeosciencesData/Pages/geology_portal.aspx).

  6. Seismic amplification within the Seattle Basin, Washington State: Insights from SHIPS seismic tomography experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snelson, C.M.; Brocher, T.M.; Miller, K.C.; Pratt, T.L.; Trehu, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that the Seattle sedimentary basin, underlying Seattle and other urban centers in the Puget Lowland, Washington, amplifies long-period (1-5 sec) weak ground motions by factors of 10 or more. We computed east-trending P- and S-wave velocity models across the Seattle basin from Seismic Hazard Investigations of Puget Sound (SHIPS) experiments to better characterize the seismic hazard the basin poses. The 3D tomographic models, which resolve features to a depth of 10 km, for the first time define the P- and S-wave velocity structure of the eastern end of the basin. The basin, which contains sedimentary rocks of Eocene to Holocene, is broadly symmetric in east-west section and reaches a maximum thickness of 6 km along our profile beneath north Seattle. A comparison of our velocity model with coincident amplification curves for weak ground motions produced by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake suggests that the distribution of Quaternary deposits and reduced velocity gradients in the upper part of the basement east of Seattle have significance in forecasting variations in seismic-wave amplification across the basin. Specifically, eastward increases in the amplification of 0.2- to 5-Hz energy correlate with locally thicker unconsolidated deposits and a change from Crescent Formation basement to pre-Tertiary Cascadia basement. These models define the extent of the Seattle basin, the Seattle fault, and the geometry of the basement contact, giving insight into the tectonic evolution of the Seattle basin and its influence on ground shaking.

  7. A Brief History of the Resting State: the Washington University Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a history of the concepts and developments that have led us to focus on the resting state as an object of study. We then discuss resting state research performed in our laboratory since 2005 with an emphasis on papers of particular interest. PMID:22266172

  8. Education First: Building America's Future. The Fifth Annual State of American Education Speech, Seattle, Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Richard W.

    Public education in the United States faces many challenges. Ways in which districts are meeting these challenges are discussed in this State of American Education speech given by U.S. Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley. After providing an overview of American education, with mention of reading scores, drug use, the Hispanic dropout rate,…

  9. Core 24 Implementation Task Force Final Report to the Washington State Board of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The State Board of Education (SBE) created the Core 24 Implementation Task Force (ITF) to examine the implementation issues associated with the Core 24 high school graduation requirements framework, passed by the State Board of Education (SBE) in July 2008. The SBE chartered the ITF to advise the SBE on strategies needed to implement the…

  10. Plant hydraulics as a central hub integrating plant and ecosystem function: meeting report for 'Emerging Frontiers in Plant Hydraulics' (Washington, DC, May 2015).

    PubMed

    Sack, Lawren; Ball, Marilyn C; Brodersen, Craig; Davis, Stephen D; Des Marais, David L; Donovan, Lisa A; Givnish, Thomas J; Hacke, Uwe G; Huxman, Travis; Jansen, Steven; Jacobsen, Anna L; Johnson, Daniel M; Koch, George W; Maurel, Christophe; McCulloh, Katherine A; McDowell, Nate G; McElrone, Andrew; Meinzer, Frederick C; Melcher, Peter J; North, Gretchen; Pellegrini, Matteo; Pockman, William T; Pratt, R Brandon; Sala, Anna; Santiago, Louis S; Savage, Jessica A; Scoffoni, Christine; Sevanto, Sanna; Sperry, John; Tyerman, Stephen D; Way, Danielle; Holbrook, N Michele

    2016-09-01

    Water plays a central role in plant biology and the efficiency of water transport throughout the plant affects both photosynthetic rate and growth, an influence that scales up deterministically to the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, hydraulic traits mediate the ways in which plants interact with their abiotic and biotic environment. At landscape to global scale, plant hydraulic traits are important in describing the function of ecological communities and ecosystems. Plant hydraulics is increasingly recognized as a central hub within a network by which plant biology is connected to palaeobiology, agronomy, climatology, forestry, community and ecosystem ecology and earth-system science. Such grand challenges as anticipating and mitigating the impacts of climate change, and improving the security and sustainability of our food supply rely on our fundamental knowledge of how water behaves in the cells, tissues, organs, bodies and diverse communities of plants. A workshop, 'Emerging Frontiers in Plant Hydraulics' supported by the National Science Foundation, was held in Washington DC, 2015 to promote open discussion of new ideas, controversies regarding measurements and analyses, and especially, the potential for expansion of up-scaled and down-scaled inter-disciplinary research, and the strengthening of connections between plant hydraulic research, allied fields and global modelling efforts.

  11. Plant hydraulics as a central hub integrating plant and ecosystem function: meeting report for 'Emerging Frontiers in Plant Hydraulics' (Washington, DC, May 2015).

    PubMed

    Sack, Lawren; Ball, Marilyn C; Brodersen, Craig; Davis, Stephen D; Des Marais, David L; Donovan, Lisa A; Givnish, Thomas J; Hacke, Uwe G; Huxman, Travis; Jansen, Steven; Jacobsen, Anna L; Johnson, Daniel M; Koch, George W; Maurel, Christophe; McCulloh, Katherine A; McDowell, Nate G; McElrone, Andrew; Meinzer, Frederick C; Melcher, Peter J; North, Gretchen; Pellegrini, Matteo; Pockman, William T; Pratt, R Brandon; Sala, Anna; Santiago, Louis S; Savage, Jessica A; Scoffoni, Christine; Sevanto, Sanna; Sperry, John; Tyerman, Stephen D; Way, Danielle; Holbrook, N Michele

    2016-09-01

    Water plays a central role in plant biology and the efficiency of water transport throughout the plant affects both photosynthetic rate and growth, an influence that scales up deterministically to the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, hydraulic traits mediate the ways in which plants interact with their abiotic and biotic environment. At landscape to global scale, plant hydraulic traits are important in describing the function of ecological communities and ecosystems. Plant hydraulics is increasingly recognized as a central hub within a network by which plant biology is connected to palaeobiology, agronomy, climatology, forestry, community and ecosystem ecology and earth-system science. Such grand challenges as anticipating and mitigating the impacts of climate change, and improving the security and sustainability of our food supply rely on our fundamental knowledge of how water behaves in the cells, tissues, organs, bodies and diverse communities of plants. A workshop, 'Emerging Frontiers in Plant Hydraulics' supported by the National Science Foundation, was held in Washington DC, 2015 to promote open discussion of new ideas, controversies regarding measurements and analyses, and especially, the potential for expansion of up-scaled and down-scaled inter-disciplinary research, and the strengthening of connections between plant hydraulic research, allied fields and global modelling efforts. PMID:27037757

  12. Agricultural pesticide applications and observed concentrations in surface waters from four drainage basins in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, R.J.; Ebbert, J.C.; Roberts, L.M.; Ryker, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the use and occurrence of agricultural pesticides were investigated in four drainage basins--two dominated by irrigated agriculture and two by dryland agriculture--in the Central Columbia Plateau of eastern Washington. For this study, 85 pesticides or pesticide metabolites were selected for analysis from a list of nearly 400 compounds commonly used in the United States. Pesticide-use data included estimates of the total quantity of herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides applied to croplands in each of the four drainage basins and reported times of application for selected pesticides. Pesticide-occurrence data included concentrations of pesticides in samples collected at one surface-water site at or near the outflow of each of the four drainage basins, where surface waters were sampled one to five times a month from March 1993 through May 1994. Of the 85 pesticides or pesticide metabolites targeted for analysis, a total of 45 different compounds were detected in samples from the four sites, ranging in concentration from at or near the limit of detection (as low as 0.001 microgram per liter) to a maximum of 8.1 micrograms per liter. None of the concentrations of pesticides exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water standards, but concentrations of five pesticides exceeded the USEPA freshwater-chronic criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Forty-one different pesticides or pesticide metabolites were detected in surface waters sampled at the two sites representing irrigated agriculture drainage basins. The herbicides atrazine, DCPA, and EPTC were detected most frequently at the two sampling sites. Not all pesticides that were applied were detected, however. For example, disulfoton, phorate, and methyl parathion accounted for 15 percent of the insecticides applied in the two irrigated drainage basins, yet none of these pesticides were detected in

  13. 75 FR 12718 - United States Navy Restricted Area, Puget Sound, Naval Station Everett, Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Danger Zones, Marine safety, Navigation (water), Restricted areas, Waterways. For the reasons stated in the preamble, the Corps proposes to amend 33 CFR Part 334 as follows: PART 334--DANGER ZONE...

  14. Analysis of High Precision GPS Time Series and Strain Rates for the Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis of Washington State Prospects Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Michael Swyer

    2015-02-22

    Global Positioning System (GPS) time series from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Earthscope’s Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Central Washington University’s Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA). GPS station velocities were used to infer strain rates using the ‘splines in tension’ method. Strain rates were derived separately for subduction zone locking at depth and block rotation near the surface within crustal block boundaries.

  15. Washington School Finance Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    The proportion of state funding for public schools in Washington is among the highest in the nation: about 75 percent of school-district General Fund revenue comes from the state. Almost 60 percent of all state General Fund expenditures are for education (about 46 percent for grades K-12 and 12 percent for higher education). The state…

  16. Washington Community Colleges Factbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Terre; Story, Sherie

    Detailed information on the 27 state-supported community colleges in Washington is presented in six sections. The first section, containing general information, describes the state system organization, lists the individual colleges, and reviews the roles of state agencies and presents a history of the system. A section on student information…

  17. Teaching to the Rainbow: Washington State University Plays a Leading Role in Grooming New Teachers To Work with Kids of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Brian; Ernst-Slavit, Gisela; Pavel, Michael; Laguardia, Armando

    2002-01-01

    Faculty members at Washington State University's College of Education discuss their work in cultural diversity, focusing on school and classroom strategies to assist limited-English-speaking students, the importance of one's culture in developing language skills, American Indian students' learning styles and behaviors and the need for teacher…

  18. Net Impact and Benefit-Cost Estimates of the Workforce Development System in Washington State. Upjohn Institute Technical Report No. TR06-020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Kevin; Huang, Wei-Jang

    2006-01-01

    This study estimates the net impacts and private and social benefits and costs of 11 workforce development programs administered in Washington State. Six of the programs serve job-ready adults: Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Title I-B Adult programs, WIA Title I-B Dislocated Worker programs, Community and Technical College Job Preparatory…

  19. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for stocking in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health and welfare of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytsha reared in a pilot circular tank-based partial water reuse system in Washington State were evaluated in comparison to fish from the same spawn reared in a flow-through raceway, in order to assess the suitability of using water reus...

  20. The Willapa Bay Oyster Reserves in Washington State: Fishery collapse, creating a sustainable replacement, and the potential for habitat conservation and restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oysters have been an important resource in Washington state since the mid 1800’s and are intimately associated with recent history of the Willapa Bay estuary just as they have defined social culture around much larger US east coast systems. The Willapa Bay oyster reserves were set aside to preserve...

  1. Assessing the Relationship between Teacher Performance on Washington State's ProTeach Portfolio and Student Test Performance. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2014-­2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, James; Goldhaber, Dan

    2014-01-01

    As part of Washington State's efforts to ensure and improve the quality of the teacher workforce, the Professional Educator Standards Board (PESB), with assistance from Educational Testing Services (ETS), has recently introduced a new, evidence-based assessment of teachers called the ProTeach Portfolio. The development of ProTeach was mandated by…

  2. State of Washington Three Year Program Plan Public Law 94-142: Providing Programs and Services to Children with Handicapping Conditions, 1987-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Presented is Washington's program plan for operating and administering Public Law 94-142, The Education of All Handicapped Children Act, and the Preschool Incentive Grant Proposal for fiscal years 1987-1989. The plan contains submission statements and certificates, written comments received from the public regarding the state plan, and a right to…

  3. Assessment of the Joint Food Science Curriculum of Washington State University and the University of Idaho by Graduates and Their Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Stephanie; McCurdy, Alan; Roy, Sharon; Smith, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two recent graduates from the joint food science program of Washington State Univ. (WSU) and The Univ. of Idaho (UI) and 12 of their employers participated in a survey study to assess food science program outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the joint curriculum in its ability to prepare undergraduate students for critical…

  4. Contributions of Dr. George Washington Carver to global food security: historical reflections of Dr. Carver’s fungal plant disease survey in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dr. George Washington Carver was a world renowned scientist whose research in the agricultural sciences in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s was critical for improving the living standards of American farmers especially in the southern United States. Although best known for developing the many uses o...

  5. Valley fever: finding new places for an old disease: Coccidioides immitis found in Washington State soil associated with recent human infection.

    PubMed

    Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Marsden-Haug, Nicola; Hurst, Steven; Hill, Heather; Gade, Lalitha; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Ralston, Cindy; Roe, Chandler; Barker, Bridget M; Goldoft, Marcia; Keim, Paul; Wohrle, Ron; Thompson, George R; Engelthaler, David M; Brandt, Mary E; Chiller, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We used real-time polymerase chain reaction and culture to demonstrate persistent colonization of soils by Coccidioides immitis, an agent of valley fever, in Washington State linked to recent human infections and located outside the endemic range. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed genetic identity between isolates from soil and one of the case-patients. PMID:25165087

  6. Hydrogeologic framework and groundwater/surface-water interactions of the upper Yakima River Basin, Kittitas County, central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Ely, D. Matthew; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Kahle, Sue C.; Welch, Wendy B.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogeology, hydrology, and geochemistry of groundwater and surface water in the upper (western) 860 square miles of the Yakima River Basin in Kittitas County, Washington, were studied to evaluate the groundwater-flow system, occurrence and availability of groundwater, and the extent of groundwater/surface-water interactions. The study area ranged in altitude from 7,960 feet in its headwaters in the Cascade Range to 1,730 feet at the confluence of the Yakima River with Swauk Creek. A west-to-east precipitation gradient exists in the basin with the western, high-altitude headwaters of the basin receiving more than 100 inches of precipitation per year and the eastern, low-altitude part of the basin receiving about 20 inches of precipitation per year. From the early 20th century onward, reservoirs in the upper part of the basin (for example, Keechelus, Kachess, and Cle Elum Lakes) have been managed to store snowmelt for irrigation in the greater Yakima River Basin. Canals transport water from these reservoirs for irrigation in the study area; additional water use is met through groundwater withdrawals from wells and surface-water withdrawals from streams and rivers. Estimated groundwater use for domestic, commercial, and irrigation purposes is reported for the study area. A complex assemblage of sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous bedrock underlies the study area. In a structural basin in the southeastern part of the study area, the bedrock is overlain by unconsolidated sediments of glacial and alluvial origin. Rocks and sediments were grouped into six hydrogeologic units based on their lithologic and hydraulic characteristics. A map of their extent was developed from previous geologic mapping and lithostratigraphic information from drillers’ logs. Water flows through interstitial space in unconsolidated sediments, but largely flows through fractures and other sources of secondary porosity in bedrock. Generalized groundwater-flow directions within the

  7. Peeking below Columbia River flood basalts with high-resolution aeromagnetic data: implications for central Washington earthquake hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, R. J.; Sherrod, B. L.; Wells, R. E.; Weaver, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    The largest crustal earthquake in Washington's recorded history (M 6.8) occurred in 1872 in the vicinity of Lake Chelan. Numerous smaller earthquakes (>1000 earthquakes since 1971 with 1.0 ≤ MW ≤ 4.3) continue to occur 20 km south of Lake Chelan near the town of Entiat, yet little is known about active structures responsible for this ongoing deformation. A 2011 aeromagnetic survey may provide insights. The survey was flown with a fixed-wing aircraft along flight lines spaced 400 m apart and at an altitude 250 m above terrain or as low as safely possible. The survey illuminates two distinct magnetic patterns. Northwest of Entiat, broad, subdued magnetic anomalies are caused by weakly magnetic, pre-Tertiary basement rocks striking generally NW. Magnetic lineaments are associated, for example, with the NW-striking Entiat fault, the structural margin of the Chiwaukum graben, which is well represented by gravity anomalies. Southeast of Entiat, high-amplitude, short-wavelength magnetic anomalies are caused by strongly magnetic rocks of the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) exposed throughout this region. Northwest-striking basement anomalies, so clear NW of Entiat, are not obvious SE of Entiat, yet there is no reason to believe basement structures do not extend beneath CRBG. We used matched filtering methods to illuminate the crustal framework of the Entiat earthquakes beneath CRBG. We selected two sub regions, one over pre-Tertiary basement NW of Entiat (sub region 1), the other over CRBG SE of Entiat (sub region 2). We modeled each sub region by fitting layer parameters to power spectra determined from magnetic anomalies (Phillips, 2007). A strongly magnetic layer was determined 470 m below the aircraft in sub region 2, which we interpret as the average top of CRBG. This interpretation is supported by the absence of a similar magnetic layer in sub region 1, where CRBG is in fact absent. Using this determination, we designed a matched filter to subdue

  8. The south-central United States magnetic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starich, P. J.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    A positive magnetic anomaly, which dominates the MAGSAT scalar field over the south-central United States, results from the superposition of magnetic effects from several geologic sources and tectonic structures in the crust. The highly magnetic basement rocks of this region show good correlation with increased crustal thickness, above average crustal velocity and predominantly negative free-air gravity anomalies, all of which are useful constraints for modeling the magnetic sources. The positive anomaly is composed of two primary elements. The western-most segment is related to middle Proterozoic granite intrusions, rhyolite flows and interspersed metamorphic basement rocks in the Texas panhandle and eastern New Mexico. The anomaly and the magnetic crust are bounded to the west by the north-south striking Rio Grande Rift. The anomaly extends eastward over the Grenville age basement rocks of central Texas, and is terminated to the south and east by the buried extension of the Ouachita System. The northern segment of the anomaly extends eastward across Oklahoma and Arkansas to the Mississippi Embayment. It corresponds to a general positive magnetic region associated with the Wichita Mountains igneous complex in south-central Oklahoma and 1.2 to 1.5 Ga. felsic terrane to the north.

  9. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  10. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  11. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  12. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  13. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  14. Canadian-American Studies in Washington State Institutions of Postsecondary Education. A Report in Response to SR 1976-233.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlman, Neil D.

    Washington's Senate Resolution 1976-233 directed the Council for Postsecondary Education to survey courses offered in institutions of higher education in Washington, covering such areas as Canadian problems, government, history, natural resources, and so on, and compile an inventory of courses covering such Canadian subject matter. The response to…

  15. The south-central United States magnetic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starich, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    The South-Central United States Magnetic Anomaly is the most prominent positive feature in the MAGSAT scalar magnetic field over North America. The anomaly correlates with increased crustal thickness, above average crustal velocity, negative free-air gravity anomalies and an extensive zone of Middle Proterozoic anorogenic felsic basement rocks. Spherical dipole source inversion of the MAGSAT scalar data and subsequent calculation of reduced-to-pole and derivative maps provide additional constraints for a crustal magnetic model which corresponds geographically to the extensive Middle Proterozoic felsic rocks trending northeasterly across the United States. These felsic rocks contain insufficient magnetization or volume to produce the anomaly, but are rather indicative of a crustal zone which was disturbed during a Middle Proterozoic thermal event which enriched magnetic material deep in the crust.

  16. The south-central United States magnetic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W. (Principal Investigator); Starich, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The South-Central United States Magnetic Anomaly is the most prominent positive feature in the MAGSAT scalar magnetic field over North America. The anomaly correlates with increased crustal thickness, above average crustal velocity, negative free air gravity anomalies and an extensive zone of Middle Proterozoic anorogenic felsic basement rocks. Spherical dipole source inversion of the MAGSAT scalar data and subsequent calculation of reduced to pole and derivative maps provide constraints for a crustal magnetic model which corresponds geographically to the extensive Middle Proterozoic felsic rocks trending northeasterly across the United States. These felsic rocks contain insufficient magnetization or volume to produce the anomaly, but are rather indicative of a crustal zone which was disturbed during a Middle Proterozoic thermal event which enriched magnetic material deep in the crust.

  17. easyCBM[R] Mathematics Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Washington State Test. Technical Report #1010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    easyCBM[R] is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention (RTI) framework. Part of the purpose of easyCBM[R] is to help educators identify students who may be at risk for failure. Often, students deemed at-risk are those who would be predicted to not pass the state test. Previous…

  18. Diagnostic Efficiency of easyCBM[R] Math: Washington State. Technical Report #1008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    easyCBM[R] is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention framework. Educators using easyCBM[R] are often interested in using the results to predict students' state test performance. In the following technical document, we report diagnostic efficiency statistics using a sample…

  19. 78 FR 44594 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... the parking lot inside Birch Bay State Park boundaries, fragments of bone were inadvertently discovered. At the time, these fragments were believed to be faunal. The fragments were subsequently... 2001, the fragments were reviewed by an anthropologist and were determined to be human remains and...

  20. 78 FR 4804 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma-Pierce County Nonattainment Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... concentrations (62 FR 38652). EPA established the standards based on significant evidence and numerous health... and health studies (71 FR 61144). Following promulgation of a new or revised NAAQS, EPA is required by... 2.5 standard (74 FR 58688; published on November 13, 2009). Under the CAA, states are required...

  1. 78 FR 79652 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Washington: State Implementation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... and 61 FR 25580. Lastly, Ecology requested EPA approval of the state annual sulfur dioxide air quality... approved into the SIP on January 15, 1993 (58 FR 4578). Ecology asked the EPA to remove Chapter 173-470... per million (ppm) and 9 ppm, not to be exceeded more than once per year. See 50 FR 37501. In...

  2. GED Test Changes and Attainment: Overview of 2014 GED Test Changes and Attainment in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kara; Gaeta, Cristina; Sager, Lou

    2016-01-01

    In January 2014, the GED Testing Service significantly redesigned the GED test to incorporate the Common Core State Standards and the College and Career Readiness Standards for Adult Education. The purpose of this study was to examine the significant changes made to the test in 2014, examine the impact of the changes on Washingtonians, and make…

  3. Serrano II: Equal Access to School Resources and Fiscal Neutrality--A View from Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Michael E.

    This paper discusses an approach to solving the school financing problem that treats separately the twin concerns of taxational and educational equity. Part 1 reviews the decision of the California supreme court in Serrano 1 as it relates to these concerns and the manner in which the state district court on remand attempted to utilize the concept…

  4. 78 FR 42905 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Approval of Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... construction of new highways, must ``conform'' to (i.e., be consistent with) the State Implementation Plan (SIP..., ] some information is not publicly available, e.g., CBI or other information whose disclosure is...\\) based on a 3-year average of the 98th percentile of 24-hour concentration (71 FR 61144, October 17,...

  5. Washington Rises: Public Financial Support for Intellectual Disability in the United States, 1955-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, David

    2007-01-01

    Public financial support for intellectual disability in the United States grew from 2.3 billion in 1955 to 82.6 billion in 2004, and the federal government emerged during this period as the principal provider of such support. Notwithstanding this unprecedented growth in financial support, many inequities persist today in the distribution of…

  6. Finding Common Ground in Pension Reform: Lessons from the Washington State Pension System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    As states and localities across the nation consider the tradeoffs between defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) pension systems, it is important to gain insight into what implications pension reforms might have on workforce composition and teachers' retirement savings behavior. Moreover, it is also important to consider that…

  7. Hydrogeologic framework and groundwater/surface-water interactions of the upper Yakima River Basin, Kittitas County, central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Ely, D. Matthew; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Kahle, Sue C.; Welch, Wendy B.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogeology, hydrology, and geochemistry of groundwater and surface water in the upper (western) 860 square miles of the Yakima River Basin in Kittitas County, Washington, were studied to evaluate the groundwater-flow system, occurrence and availability of groundwater, and the extent of groundwater/surface-water interactions. The study area ranged in altitude from 7,960 feet in its headwaters in the Cascade Range to 1,730 feet at the confluence of the Yakima River with Swauk Creek. A west-to-east precipitation gradient exists in the basin with the western, high-altitude headwaters of the basin receiving more than 100 inches of precipitation per year and the eastern, low-altitude part of the basin receiving about 20 inches of precipitation per year. From the early 20th century onward, reservoirs in the upper part of the basin (for example, Keechelus, Kachess, and Cle Elum Lakes) have been managed to store snowmelt for irrigation in the greater Yakima River Basin. Canals transport water from these reservoirs for irrigation in the study area; additional water use is met through groundwater withdrawals from wells and surface-water withdrawals from streams and rivers. Estimated groundwater use for domestic, commercial, and irrigation purposes is reported for the study area. A complex assemblage of sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous bedrock underlies the study area. In a structural basin in the southeastern part of the study area, the bedrock is overlain by unconsolidated sediments of glacial and alluvial origin. Rocks and sediments were grouped into six hydrogeologic units based on their lithologic and hydraulic characteristics. A map of their extent was developed from previous geologic mapping and lithostratigraphic information from drillers’ logs. Water flows through interstitial space in unconsolidated sediments, but largely flows through fractures and other sources of secondary porosity in bedrock. Generalized groundwater-flow directions within the

  8. Performance Incentives to Improve Community College Completion: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulock, Nancy; Jenkins, Davis

    2011-01-01

    Amid growing signs of America's weakening position in the global economy, federal and state policymakers and major foundations have set ambitious goals for increasing postsecondary attainment in the United States. Given changing U.S. demographics, it has become clear that these national goals are attainable only with vastly improved outcomes among…

  9. Nuclear DNA identification of migrating bull trout captured at the Puget Sound Energy diversion dam on the White River, Washington State.

    PubMed

    Baker, J D; Moran, P; Ladley, R

    2003-02-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) is a char listed as threatened under the United States Endangered Species Act throughout its range in the coterminous United States. Substantial morphological similarities between bull trout and Dolly Varden (S. malma) make field identification difficult. This has resulted in an incomplete understanding of their distribution and abundance in Washington State where these two species occur sympatrically. We used three diagnostic nuclear loci to determine the species of char collected at a trap on the White River in southern Puget Sound (Washington State, USA). Each of the 104 samples revealed the expected bull trout genotype at all three loci. This work presents three principle results: (i) the presence of a migratory bull trout population in southern Puget Sound; (ii) no evidence of migratory Dolly Varden over 3 years; and (iii) no evidence of hybridization was detected. These results also demonstrate how molecular markers can provide information essential to the conservation and management of these species.

  10. Central Mechanisms Mediating Thrombospondin-4-induced Pain States.

    PubMed

    Park, John; Yu, Yanhui Peter; Zhou, Chun-Yi; Li, Kang-Wu; Wang, Dongqing; Chang, Eric; Kim, Doo-Sik; Vo, Benjamin; Zhang, Xia; Gong, Nian; Sharp, Kelli; Steward, Oswald; Vitko, Iuliia; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Eroglu, Cagla; Barres, Ben; Zaucke, Frank; Feng, Guoping; Luo, Z David

    2016-06-17

    Peripheral nerve injury induces increased expression of thrombospondin-4 (TSP4) in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia that contributes to neuropathic pain states through unknown mechanisms. Here, we test the hypothesis that TSP4 activates its receptor, the voltage-gated calcium channel Cavα2δ1 subunit (Cavα2δ1), on sensory afferent terminals in dorsal spinal cord to promote excitatory synaptogenesis and central sensitization that contribute to neuropathic pain states. We show that there is a direct molecular interaction between TSP4 and Cavα2δ1 in the spinal cord in vivo and that TSP4/Cavα2δ1-dependent processes lead to increased behavioral sensitivities to stimuli. In dorsal spinal cord, TSP4/Cavα2δ1-dependent processes lead to increased frequency of miniature and amplitude of evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents in second-order neurons as well as increased VGlut2- and PSD95-positive puncta, indicative of increased excitatory synapses. Blockade of TSP4/Cavα2δ1-dependent processes with Cavα2δ1 ligand gabapentin or genetic Cavα2δ1 knockdown blocks TSP4 induced nociception and its pathological correlates. Conversely, TSP4 antibodies or genetic ablation blocks nociception and changes in synaptic transmission in mice overexpressing Cavα2δ1 Importantly, TSP4/Cavα2δ1-dependent processes also lead to similar behavioral and pathological changes in a neuropathic pain model of peripheral nerve injury. Thus, a TSP4/Cavα2δ1-dependent pathway activated by TSP4 or peripheral nerve injury promotes exaggerated presynaptic excitatory input and evoked sensory neuron hyperexcitability and excitatory synaptogenesis, which together lead to central sensitization and pain state development.

  11. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Three years of comparable mean scale score data were not available from the state. In 2004, 77% of non-Title I 4th graders and 60% of Title I 4th graders scored at the proficient level on the state reading test. In 2009, 75% of non-Title I 4th graders and 61% of Title I 4th…

  12. The relationship between land use and organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Munn, M.D.; Gruber, S.J.

    1997-09-01

    The authors analyzed streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and Idaho for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls ({Sigma}PCB). The objective was to assess the effects of land use on the occurrence and distribution of these compounds; land uses in the study area included forest, dryland and irrigated farming, and urban. The authors detected 16 organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish tissue; fish usually had more compounds and a greater frequency of detection. The most frequently detected compound was {Sigma}DDT (sum of six isomers), which was found in 52% of bed sediment samples and 94% of whole fish composite samples. The other commonly detected compounds were dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA), dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and {Sigma}chlordane. Forest was the only land use with no detections of organochlorine compounds in either fish or bed sediment. Hexachlorobenzene was the only organochlorine pesticide detected at concentrations that differed significantly among land uses: concentrations were higher in the dryland farming areas than in the irrigated farming or urban areas. In agricultural areas irrigated by surface water, {Sigma}DDT concentrations in both streambed sediment and fish tissue were related to the percentage of land irrigated by water delivered via furrows (gravity irrigation), although {Sigma}DDT was not detectable in bed sediments until gravity irrigation exceeded 30%. Because of the relation between gravity irrigation and soil erosion, the study supports the importance of controlling soil erosion in order to reduce the overall loading of organochlorine compounds to surface waters.

  13. A Case Review of the First Analytically Confirmed 25I-NBOMe-Related Death in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Lyndsey M; Peterson, Brianna L; Couper, Fiona J

    2015-10-01

    This case was submitted to the Washington State Patrol Toxicology Laboratory in September 2014. A 15-year-old male went to a party where he ingested 25I-NBOMe and mushrooms. A short time later, he started to vomit and began seizing until he eventually passed out. Resuscitation efforts were made, but were unsuccessful. He was transported to a local hospital, where he died three days later of multi-system organ failure following cardiopulmonary arrest. The hospital admission samples were negative for ethanol and basic drugs and their metabolites. The hospital serum confirmed positive for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and carboxy-THC at 4.1 and 83 ng/mL, respectively. On the basis of the case history, the hospital blood and urine were sent to NMS Labs for NBOMe and psilocin confirmation. The blood was positive for 25I-NBOMe, and the urine was positive for 25C-, 25H- and 25I-NBOMe, as well as, psilocin. Antemortem and postmortem blood were also sent to AIT Laboratories for NBOMe confirmation. The antemortem blood confirmed positive for 25I-NBOMe with a concentration of 0.76 ng/mL. The manner of death was ruled an accident as a result of combined 25I-NBOMe and psilocin intoxication.

  14. Latino residential segregation and self-rated health among Latinos: Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Plascak, Jesse J; Molina, Yamile; Wu-Georges, Samantha; Idris, Ayah; Thompson, Beti

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between Latino residential segregation and self-rated health (SRH) is unclear, but might be partially affected by social capital. We investigated the association between Latino residential segregation and SRH while also examining the roles of various social capital measures. Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2012-2014) and U.S. Census data were linked by zip code and zip code tabulation area. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate odds of good or better SRH by Latino residential segregation, measured by the Gini coefficient, and controlling for sociodemographic, acculturation and social capital measures of neighborhood ties, collective socialization of children, and social control. The Latino residential segregation - SRH relationship was convex, or 'U'-shaped, such that increases in segregation among Latinos residing in lower segregation areas was associated with lower SRH while increases in segregation among Latinos residing in higher segregation areas was associated with higher SRH. The social capital measures were independently associated with SRH but had little effect on the relationship between Latino residential segregation and SRH. A convex relationship between Latino residential segregation and SRH could explain mixed findings of previous studies. Although important for SRH, social capital measures of neighborhood ties, collective socialization of children, and social control might not account for the relationship between Latino residential segregation and SRH. PMID:27173739

  15. Occupational skin diseases in Washington State, 1989 through 1993: using workers' compensation data to identify cutaneous hazards.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, J D; Cohen, M A; Sama, S R; Shields, J W; Kalat, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize occupational dermatoses and cutaneous hazards. METHODS: Workers' compensation claims filed for skin disease in the Washington State Fund were analyzed for 1989 through 1993; incidence rates for industries and employers were calculated, and cutaneous hazards associated with the highest rates were identified. RESULTS: A total of 7445 claims were filed for skin disorders, principally contact dermatitis; 675 (9.1%) involved more than 3 missed work-days. The rate of accepted skin disorder claims was 1.0 per 1000 full-time employee-years. The highest incidence rates (4.6 to 30.7 accepted claims per 1000 full-time employee-years) were in certain manufacturing industries (plastics related, concrete products, aircraft parts, sporting goods, and boat building), wholesale farm product raw materials, automotive glass replacement, and beauty shops. Seven of the 10 employers with the highest incidence rates (19.6 to 85.5 accepted claims per 1000 full-time employee-years) used fiber-reinforced plastics (composites) and exposed workers to epoxy and other resin systems associated with contact dermatitis. CONCLUSIONS: Workers' compensation data identify known and emerging workplace cutaneous hazards and show promise for targeting prevention efforts. PMID:9663152

  16. Extrinsic controls on inter-basaltic plant ecosystems in the Columbia River Flood Basalt Province, Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinghaus, Alena; Jolley, David W.; Hartley, Adrian J.

    2015-04-01

    The impact Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism may have had on paleoclimate, fauna and flora is still controversy. Inter-lava field plant ecosystems have the potential to record in detail the effects LIPs had on the environment in the immediate vicinity of volcanic activity. The Miocene Columbia River Flood Basalt Province (CRBP), Washington State, USA, provides excellent exposure of an entire LIP stratigraphy and offers a detailed record of inter-basaltic plant ecosystems throughout LIP evolution. The CRBP lava field comprise numerous basaltic lava flows that are intercalated with fluvial and lacustrine sediments which formed during phases of volcanic quiescence. The LIP volcanic evolution is characterised by an initial phase of high eruption volumes and eruptions rates, which is followed by waning volcanism associated with longer interbed intervals. Inter-lava field plant ecosystems are expected to correlate with phases of volcanic evolution: short interbed intervals should be dominated by early seral succession, while longer intervals should record more mature seral successions. The palynological record of the sedimentary interbeds however indicates a decline in successional status within the long interbed intervals of CRBP stratigraphy. An integrated analysis of sedimentary facies and geochemistry suggests intense volcanic ash fall derived from the adjacent Yellowstone hot spot as a major trigger for repetitive successional re-setting. This implies that inter-lava field ecosystem maturity was controlled by extrinsic forcing, and argues against environmental changes solely driven by LIPs of similar scale and magnitude to that of the CRBP.

  17. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon for stocking in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Good, Christopher; Vinci, Brian; Summerfelt, Steven; Snekvik, Kevin; Adams, Ian; Dilly, Samuel

    2011-06-01

    To assess the suitability of water reuse technology for raising Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. for stocking purposes, fish health and welfare were compared between two groups of juvenile Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha from the same spawn: one group was reared in a pilot partial water reuse system (circular tanks), and the other group was reared in a flow-through raceway. This observational study was carried out over a 21-week period in Washington State. Reuse and raceway fish were sampled repeatedly for pathogen screening and histopathology; fin erosion and whole-blood characteristics were also evaluated. By the study's end, no listed pathogens were isolated from either cohort, and survival was 99.3% and 99.0% in the reuse and raceway groups, respectively. Condition factor was 1.28 in raceway fish and 1.14 in reuse fish; this difference may have been attributable to occasional differences in feeding rates between the cohorts. Fin indices (i.e., length of the longest dorsal or caudal fin ray, standardized by fork length) were lower in reuse fish than in raceway fish, but fin erosion was not grossly apparent in either cohort. The most consistent histological lesion was gill epithelial hypertrophy in reuse fish; however, blood analyses did not suggest any corresponding physiological imbalances. Overall, results suggest that water reuse technology can be employed in rearing juvenile anadromous salmonids for stocking purposes.

  18. New records of nematomorph parasites (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and camel crickets (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae) in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Looney, Chris; Hanelt, Ben; Zack, Richard S

    2012-06-01

    From 1998 to 2003, beetles and crickets infected with hairworms were collected from 4 localities within the Hanford Nuclear Site and the Hanford Reach National Monument, located in a shrub-steppe region of Washington State along the Columbia River. Infected hosts comprised 6 species of carabid beetles within 5 genera and 2 camel crickets within 1 genus; all are newly documented insect-nematomorph associations. A large proportion of the infected hosts (48%) were collected from a single site during a single collecting period. Of the 38 infected hosts, 32 contained a single worm, 4 hosts contained 2 worms, and 2 hosts contained 3 worms. Five of the hosts with multiple infections contained at least 1 male and 1 female worm. Camel crickets were infected with Neochordodes occidentalis while carabids were infected with an undescribed species of Gordionus . As the majority of hairworms are collected in the post-parasitic adult phase, host data and hairworm-arthropod associations remain poorly documented and our work adds new data to this area of nematomorph biology.

  19. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon for stocking in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Good, Christopher; Vinci, Brian; Summerfelt, Steven; Snekvik, Kevin; Adams, Ian; Dilly, Samuel

    2011-06-01

    To assess the suitability of water reuse technology for raising Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. for stocking purposes, fish health and welfare were compared between two groups of juvenile Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha from the same spawn: one group was reared in a pilot partial water reuse system (circular tanks), and the other group was reared in a flow-through raceway. This observational study was carried out over a 21-week period in Washington State. Reuse and raceway fish were sampled repeatedly for pathogen screening and histopathology; fin erosion and whole-blood characteristics were also evaluated. By the study's end, no listed pathogens were isolated from either cohort, and survival was 99.3% and 99.0% in the reuse and raceway groups, respectively. Condition factor was 1.28 in raceway fish and 1.14 in reuse fish; this difference may have been attributable to occasional differences in feeding rates between the cohorts. Fin indices (i.e., length of the longest dorsal or caudal fin ray, standardized by fork length) were lower in reuse fish than in raceway fish, but fin erosion was not grossly apparent in either cohort. The most consistent histological lesion was gill epithelial hypertrophy in reuse fish; however, blood analyses did not suggest any corresponding physiological imbalances. Overall, results suggest that water reuse technology can be employed in rearing juvenile anadromous salmonids for stocking purposes. PMID:21834328

  20. Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.

    SciTech Connect

    Washington State Energy Code Program

    1992-05-01

    This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

  1. Going from microbial ecology to genome data and back: studies on a haloalkaliphilic bacterium isolated from Soap Lake, Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Mormile, Melanie R.

    2014-01-01

    Soap Lake is a meromictic, alkaline (∼pH 9.8) and saline (∼14–140 g liter-1) lake located in the semiarid area of eastern Washington State. Of note is the length of time it has been meromictic (at least 2000 years) and the extremely high sulfide level (∼140 mM) in its monimolimnion. As expected, the microbial ecology of this lake is greatly influenced by these conditions. A bacterium, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, was isolated from the mixolimnion region of this lake. Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans is a haloalkaliphilic bacterium capable of forming hydrogen from 5- and 6-carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose. Due to its ability to produce hydrogen under saline and alkaline conditions, in amounts that rival genetically modified organisms, its genome was sequenced. This sequence data provides an opportunity to explore the unique metabolic capabilities of this organism, including the mechanisms for tolerating the extreme conditions of both high salinity and alkalinity of its environment. PMID:25477871

  2. Widespread detection of human- and ruminant-origin Bacteroidales markers in subtidal waters of the Salish Sea in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Oyafuso, Zack S; Baxter, Anne E; Hall, Jason E; Naman, Sean M; Greene, Correigh M; Rhodes, Linda D

    2015-09-01

    Rising populations around coastal systems are increasing the threats to marine water quality. To assess anthropogenic fecal influence, subtidal waters were examined monthly for human- and ruminant-sourced Bacteroidales markers at 80 sites across six oceanographic basins of the Salish Sea (Washington State) from April through October, 2011. In the basins containing cities with individual populations>190,000, >50% of sites were positive for the human marker, while in the basins with high densities of dairy and cattle operations, ∼30% of sites were positive for the ruminant marker. Marker prevalence was elevated in spring (April and May) and fall (October) and reduced during summer (June through September), corresponding with seasonal precipitation. By logistic regression, the odds of human marker detection increased with percentage of adjacent catchment impervious surface, dissolved nitrate concentration, and abundance of low nucleic acid bacteria, but decreased with salinity and chlorophyll fluorescence. The odds of ruminant marker detection increased with dissolved ammonium concentration, mean flow rate for the nearest river, and adjacent shoreline length. These relationships are consistent with terrestrial to marine water flow as a transport mechanism. Thus, Bacteroidales markers traditionally used for identifying nearby sources can be used for assessing anthropogenic fecal inputs to regional marine ecosystems. PMID:26322768

  3. Factors influencing the duration of work-related disability: a population-based study of Washington State workers' compensation.

    PubMed Central

    Cheadle, A; Franklin, G; Wolfhagen, C; Savarino, J; Liu, P Y; Salley, C; Weaver, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to examine factors predictive of duration of work-related disability. METHODS. Multivariate survival analysis techniques were used to conduct a population-based, retrospective cohort study on a random sample of 28,473 workers' compensation claims from Washington State filed for injuries occurring in 1987 to 1989. The principal outcome measure was length of time for which compensation for lost wages was paid, used as a surrogate for duration of temporary total disability. RESULTS. The findings suggest that, even after adjusting for severity of injury, older age, female gender, and a diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome or back/neck sprain significantly predict longer duration of disability. Other predictors that were stable and significant, but involved lower magnitudes of effect included divorced marital status, firm size of fewer than 50 employees, higher country unemployment rates, and construction and agricultural work. CONCLUSIONS. Greater disability prevention efforts targeting these higher risk subgroups could have significant economic and public health effects. The greatest impact may be on claimants who remain disabled at 6 months after an injury that did not require hospitalization. PMID:8296938

  4. Catalog of significant historical earthquakes in the Central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.; Hopper, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    We use Modified Mercalli intensity assignments to estimate source locations and moment magnitude M for eighteen 19th-century and twenty early- 20th-century earthquakes in the central United States (CUS) for which estimates of M are otherwise not available. We use these estimates, and locations and M estimated elsewhere, to compile a catelog of significant historical earthquakes in the CUS. The 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes apparently dominated CUS seismicity in the first two decades of the 19th century. M5-6 earthquakes occurred in the New Madrid Seismic Zone in 1843 and 1878, but none have occurred since 1878. There has been persistent seismic activity in the Illinois Basin in southern Illinois and Indiana, with M > 5.0 earthquakes in 1895, 1909, 1917, 1968, and 1987. Four other M > 5.0 CUS historical earthquakes have occurred: in Kansas in 1867, in Nebraska in 1877, in Oklahoma in 1882, and in Kentucky in 1980.

  5. Central equation of state in spherical characteristic evolutions

    SciTech Connect

    Barreto, W.; Castillo, L.; Barrios, E.

    2009-10-15

    We study the evolution of a perfect-fluid sphere coupled to a scalar radiation field. By ensuring a Ricci invariant regularity as a conformally flat spacetime at the central world line we find that the fluid coupled to the scalar field satisfies the equation of state {rho}{sub c}+3p{sub c}=const at the center of the sphere, where the energy {rho}{sub c} density and the pressure p{sub c} do not necessarily contain the scalar field contribution. The fluid can be interpreted as anisotropic and radiant because of the scalar field, but it becomes perfect and nonradiative at the center of the sphere. These results are currently being considered to build up a numerical relativistic hydrodynamic solver.

  6. Sulfur extended asphalt pavement evaluation in the State of Washington: Executive summary of SR270 highway pavement performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, J. P.

    1982-11-01

    This executive summary overviews the placement and performance of sulfur extended asphalt (SEA) paving mixtures at a highway test site (SR 270) near Pullman, Washington. This summary is the sixth and last report of this study.

  7. State of Washington. State Board for Community and Technical Colleges. Running Start: 2005-06 Annual Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Running Start program; data about student participation rates and academic performance; updates on savings to families, taxpayers and the state; and new information about national trends in dual-credit programs. Running Start is a program that allows 11th and 12th grade students to take college courses at…

  8. Pathways from School Suspension to Adolescent Nonviolent Antisocial Behavior in Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.; McMorris, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    School suspension is associated with school dropout, crime, delinquency, and alcohol and other drug use for the suspended student. Important research questions are how academic and related factors are relevant to the school suspension process and the generality of the process in different sites. State-representative samples of Grade 7 students (N…

  9. Agreement between Central State University and the American Association of University Professors Central State University Chapter. September 1, 1988-August 31, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Univ. Professors, Washington, DC.

    This document presents the agreement between Central State University and the Central State University Chapter of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) for the period September 1, 1988-August 31, 1991. The contract details the following 48 articles: agreement; agreement construction; recognition of the bargaining unit; AAUP…

  10. Fault Scarp Detection Beneath Dense Vegetation Cover: Airborne Lidar Mapping of the Seattle Fault Zone, Bainbridge Island, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David J.; Berghoff, Gregory S.

    2000-01-01

    The emergence of a commercial airborne laser mapping industry is paying major dividends in an assessment of earthquake hazards in the Puget Lowland of Washington State. Geophysical observations and historical seismicity indicate the presence of active upper-crustal faults in the Puget Lowland, placing the major population centers of Seattle and Tacoma at significant risk. However, until recently the surface trace of these faults had never been identified, neither on the ground nor from remote sensing, due to cover by the dense vegetation of the Pacific Northwest temperate rainforests and extremely thick Pleistocene glacial deposits. A pilot lidar mapping project of Bainbridge Island in the Puget Sound, contracted by the Kitsap Public Utility District (KPUD) and conducted by Airborne Laser Mapping in late 1996, spectacularly revealed geomorphic features associated with fault strands within the Seattle fault zone. The features include a previously unrecognized fault scarp, an uplifted marine wave-cut platform, and tilted sedimentary strata. The United States Geologic Survey (USGS) is now conducting trenching studies across the fault scarp to establish ages, displacements, and recurrence intervals of recent earthquakes on this active fault. The success of this pilot study has inspired the formation of a consortium of federal and local organizations to extend this work to a 2350 square kilometer (580,000 acre) region of the Puget Lowland, covering nearly the entire extent (approx. 85 km) of the Seattle fault. The consortium includes NASA, the USGS, and four local groups consisting of KPUD, Kitsap County, the City of Seattle, and the Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). The consortium has selected Terrapoint, a commercial lidar mapping vendor, to acquire the data.

  11. Provenance of Palouse Loess and Relation to Late Pleistocene Glacial Outburst Flooding, Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, M. R.; Busacca, A. J.; Gaylord, D. R.; Zender, C. S.

    2002-12-01

    The eolian system of the Pacific Northwest is a product of long-term deflation of expansive sedimentary units by prevailing winds throughout the Quaternary. The Palouse loess is a deposit of wind-blown silt that covers approximately 10,000 sqare km up to 75 m thick. Late Quaternary units of the loess become finer texturally and thinner to the northeast, suggesting that they were derived from sedimentary basins south and west. The source of the loess has been inferred and hypothesized but never directly determined. A geochemical study of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene L1 unit of the Palouse loess and its possible sources was conducted to determine its provenance. There are two sedimentary units that lie upwind of the loess that may have contributed sediment via eolian deflation: 1) sand- and silt-rich slackwater sediment derived from late-Pleistocene outburst flooding of glacial Lake Missoula, and 2) sand- and silt-rich sediment from the Miocene-Pliocene Ringold Formation. Both are very similar in mineral composition, being derived from plutonic, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks of the western United States and southern British Columbia. Major and trace element data determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) of silt to very fine sand from loess and potential source sediments was used to pinpoint the exact source of the loess. A one-to-one relationship of major and trace elements exists between eolian and flood sediments, whereas Ringold Formation sediments have elevated Ti, P, Mg, and Ca oxides and lower K oxide values as well as scattered trace element values relative to Palouse loess. These trends may be due to the presence of basalt lithic grains in flood sediment that have been broken down and distributed throughout the loess. The Ringold Formation lacks appreciable amounts of basalt. The geochemical data from this study demonstrates that flood sediment is the dominant source of eolian material for the Palouse loess. The spatial distribution of the possible source

  12. Collaborative effort in Washington state slashes non-essential use of the ED by Medicaid patients, delivering millions in projected savings.

    PubMed

    2013-04-01

    Early data suggest a coordinated, state-wide effort has reduced non-essential use of the ED by 10% among Medicaid recipients in Washington state, and is projected to save the state an estimated $31 million in the first year of the approach. The effort includes the adoption of seven best practices by hospitals across the state.These include the creation of an Emergency Department Information Exchange, so that EDs can immediately access a patient's utilization history, strict narcotic prescribing guidelines, and regular feedback reports to hospitals regarding ED utilization patterns. The effort was prompted by threats by the state legislature to limit Medicaid payments for ED visits deemed not medically necessary in the emergency setting. The legislature backed down when emergency physicians in the state countered with their own proposal to reduce nonessential use of the ED. They worked with other health care groups in the state to develop the plan. Data on the first six months of the effort are included in a report to the state legislature by the Washington State Health Care Authority. Among the findings are a 23% reduction in ED visits among Medicaid recipients with five or more visits, a 250% increase in providers who have registered with the state's Prescription Monitoring Program, aimed at identifying patients with narcotic-seeking behavior, and a doubling in the number of shared care plans, intended to improve care coordination. Emergency providers say big challenges remain, including a need for more resources for patients with mental health and dental care needs.

  13. Fungicide resistance profiling in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington and their impact on control of gray mold

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Sensitivities to boscalid, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, and pyraclostrobin, representing five different fungicide classes, were...

  14. The relationship between land use and organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, M.D.; Gruber, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We analyzeds streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and Idaho for or ganochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB). Our objective was to assess the effects of land use on the occurrence and distribution of these compounds; land uses in the study area included forest, dryland and irrigated farming, and urban. We detected 16 organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish tissue; fish usually had more compounds and a greater frequency of detection. The most frequently detected compound was ΣDDT (sum of six isomers), which was found in 52% of bed sediment samples and 94% of whole fish composite samples. The other commonly detected compounds were dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA), dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and Σchlordane (sum of cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor oxychlordane, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide). Forest was the only land use with no detections of organochlorine compounds in either fish or bed sediment. Hexachlorobenzene was the only organochlorine pesticide detected at concentrations that differed significantly among land uses: concentrations were higher in the dryland farming areas than in the irrigated farming or urban areas. In agricultural areas irrigated by surface water, ΣDDT concentrations in both streambed sediment and fish tissue were related to the percentage of land irrigated by water delivered via furrows (gravity irrigation), although ΣDDT was not detectable in bed sediments until gravity irrigation exceeded 30%. Because of the relation between gravity irrigation and soil erosion, our study supports the importance of controlling soil erosion in order to reduce the overall loading of organochlorine compounds to surface waters.

  15. Biologic Monitoring to Characterize Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure among Children and Workers: An Analysis of Recent Studies in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Richard A.; Lu, Chensheng; Curl, Cynthia L.; Shirai, Jeffry H.; Kissel, John C.

    2005-01-01

    We examined findings from five organophosphorus pesticide biomonitoring studies conducted in Washington State between 1994 and 1999. We compared urinary dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) concentrations for all study groups and composite dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP) concentrations for selected groups. Children of pesticide applicators had substantially higher metabolite levels than did Seattle children and farmworker children (median DMTP, 25 μg/L; p < 0.0001). Metabolite levels of children living in agricultural communities were elevated during periods of crop spraying. Median DMTP concentrations for Seattle children and farmworker children did not differ significantly (6.1 and 5.8 μg/L DMTP, respectively; p = 0.73); however, the DMAP concentrations were higher for Seattle children than for farmworker children (117 and 87 nmol/L DMAP, respectively; p = 0.007). DMTP concentrations of U.S. children 6–11 years of age (1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey population) were higher than those of Seattle children and farmworker children at the 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles. DMTP concentrations for workers actively engaged in apple thinning were 50 times higher than DMTP concentrations for farmworkers sampled outside of peak exposure periods. We conclude that workers who have direct contact with pesticides should continue to be the focus of public health interventions and that elevated child exposures in agricultural communities may occur during active crop-spraying periods and from living with a pesticide applicator. Timing of sample collection is critical for the proper interpretation of pesticide biomarkers excreted relatively soon after exposure. We surmise that differences in dietary exposure can explain the similar exposures observed among farmworker children, children living in the Seattle metropolitan area, and children sampled nationally. PMID:16263526

  16. Fish kill dynamics in Hood Canal (Washington State, USA) as revealed by real-time data and integrated modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, J.; Devol, A.; Kawase, M.; Alford, M.; Warner, M.; Mickett, J.; Ruef, W.; Bassin, C.

    2008-12-01

    Hood Canal (Washington State, USA) is a classic fjord estuary with a shallow sill and sluggish circulation. Recent increases in summer bottom water hypoxia have led to a comprehensive scientific study to support management initiated corrective actions. Through this program, 4 autonomous moored profiling systems (ORCA buoys) and moored ADCPs have been deployed in Hood Canal, maintained as part of NANOOS. Each buoy system collects high frequency (bi-hourly) profiles of chemical, physical, and biological variables using meteorological sensors and an underwater instrument package. A major fish kill occurred in southern Hood Canal on September 19, 2006, near a marine preserve. Moored profiler data suggest this fish kill was caused by the combination of the gradual summer depletion of deep- water oxygen, followed by the annual intrusion of dense Pacific Ocean water, which displaced the oxygen poor water to just under the pycnocline. Finally an upwelling-favorable wind event moved the surface water layer northwards resulting in outcrops of low oxygen water at the surface. Within 12 hours the surface oxygen concentration decreased to ~0.6 mg/L. The event lasted ~24 hours and ended abruptly. ROMS model output simulated the outcropping dynamics of the subsurface (low oxygen) waters to the surface during southerly winds. In addition to these dynamics, current meter data reveal a seasonal subsurface jet of low oxygen water advecting toward the fish kill area from the lower, shallower, and more populated region of Hood Canal. These data provide insights into the mechanisms of the fish kills and also provide fisheries managers with real-time data to help mitigate such events.

  17. Impacts of Landuse Management and Climate Change on Landslides Susceptibility over the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, M. G.; Adam, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The commercial forests on the western side of the Olympic Mountains in Washington State are a region of steep slopes and high annual rainfall (2500-6000 mm/year) and are therefore highly susceptible to landslides. Potential climatic change (more intense and frequent winter storms) may exacerbate landslide susceptibility unless forest management practices are changed. As this area is a critical habitat for numerous organisms, including salmon, this may result in potentially severe consequences to riparian habitat due to increased sediment loads. Therefore, there is a need to investigate potential forest management plans to promote the economic viability of timber extraction while protecting the natural habitat, particularly in riparian areas. The objective of this study is to predict the long term effects of forest management decisions under projected climate change on slope stability. We applied the physically-based Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) with its sediment module to simulate mass wasting and sediment delivery under different vegetation and climate scenarios. Sub-basins were selected and classified according to elevation, slope, land cover and soil type. Various land management practices (such as clear-cutting in riparian areas, logging under short rotations, varying amount of timbers left intact in riparian areas) were applied to each of the selected sub-basins. DHSVM was used to simulate landslide volume, frequency, and sediment loads for each of the land cover applications under various future climate scenarios. We comment on the suitability of various harvesting techniques for different parts of the forest to minimize landslide-induced sediment loading to streams in an altered climate. This approach can be developed as a decision making tool that can be used by forest managers to make long-term planning decisions.

  18. Participation in Older Adult Physical Activity Programs and Risk for Falls Requiring Medical Care, Washington State, 2005–2011

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dori E.; Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is known to prevent falls; however, use of widely available exercise programs for older adults, including EnhanceFitness and Silver Sneakers, has not been examined in relation to effects on falls among program participants. We aimed to determine whether participation in EnhanceFitness or Silver Sneakers is associated with a reduced risk of falls resulting in medical care. Methods A retrospective cohort study examined a demographically representative sample from a Washington State integrated health system. Health plan members aged 65 or older, including 2,095 EnhanceFitness users, 13,576 Silver Sneakers users, and 55,127 nonusers from 2005 through 2011, were classified as consistent users (used a program ≥2 times in all years they were enrolled in the health plan during the study period); intermittent users (used a program ≥2 times in 1 or more years enrolled but not all years), or nonusers of EnhanceFitness or Silver Sneakers. The main outcome was measured as time-to-first-fall requiring inpatient or out-of-hospital medical treatment based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, Sixth Edition and E-codes. Results In fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, consistent (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63–0.88) and intermittent (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.8–0.94) EnhanceFitness participation were both associated with a reduced risk of falls resulting in medical care. Intermittent Silver Sneakers participation showed a reduced risk (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90–0.97). Conclusion Participation in widely available community-based exercise programs geared toward older adults (but not specific to fall prevention) reduced the risk of medical falls. Structured programs that include balance and strength exercise, as EnhanceFitness does, may be effective in reducing fall risk. PMID:26068411

  19. Feeder pipes - Expression of the uppermost plumbing system in Oligocene methane-seep deposits, Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, Jennifer; Smrzka, Daniel; Gier, Susanne; Goedert, James; Peckmann, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Plumbing systems of methane seeps are complex pathways along which hydrocarbon-rich fluids migrate upward through the marine sedimentary column. Seeps commonly maintain fluid flow over long periods of time, providing a steady supply of methane to shallow sediments and the water column. At greater sediment depths, fluid transport is facilitated by faults and conduits, which enable migration of fluids sourced from deep hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the shallow subsurface, plumbing systems may become successively filled by authigenic carbonates, whose precipitation is partly triggered by sulfate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). To expand our knowledge on the uppermost plumbing network of ancient seeps, this work investigates fluid conduits that were mineralized by a distinct succession of authigenic mineral phases. These mineralized conduits, which occur below an Oligocene seep deposit from the Lincoln Creek Formation in Washington State, are referred to as feeder pipes here. The concentrically-zoned feeder pipes are 2 to 3 cm in diameter. The mineral phase that formed first is matrix micrite, making up the outer part of pipes. Toward the center, pipes are filled by clear, banded and botryoidal aragonite cement, which is intercalated with yellow aragonite cement. The innermost portions of the pipes are filled by either pipe-filling micrite, microspar, or brownish calcite. The observed paragenetic sequences archive successions of various biogeochemical processes. Clear and yellow aragonite cements are distinctly depleted in 13C, revealing that their formation was favored by AOM. In contrast, later phases including brownish calcite and microspar are enriched in 13C, pointing to precipitation from fluids affected by methanogenesis. Their size and morphology indicate that the pipes were initially produced by seep-dwelling, burrowing organisms. The burrows subsequently acted as preferred fluid pathways. Possible producers of the burrows include various bivalves

  20. Using the global positioning system in support of environmental characterization at the Hanford Site in Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, L.B.; Tzemos, S.; Dietz, L.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s 1,450 km{sup 2} Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State accumulated hazardous wastes for more than 50 years. To support the Site`s mission of environmental restoration and cleanup, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is being used to verify waste site locations and provide location information for field samples. Collected GPS data are stored for use in the Hanford Geographic Information System (HGIS). The NAVSTAR GPS is a space-based electronic navigation and positioning system designed and operated by the US Department of Defense (DOD). The system consists of three major components: (1) the space segment, comprising 24 earth-orbiting satellites; (2) the control segment, made up of 5 control and monitoring stations placed around the globe; and (3) the user segment, which includes users worldwide. When declared fully operational by the DOD, the NAVSTAR GPS will allow users to identify their geographical position anywhere on earth at any time. There are no user fees for the service and anyone with a GPS receiver may use the system worldwide. The one major hindrance to the system is the DOD policy concerning a security option called Selective Availability (SA). Selective Availability affects the usability of the system by intentional manipulation of the GPS signals to degrade the accuracy of the user`s positions. The period and magnitude of degradation is solely a DOD privilege. The DOD policy on SA is to vary the error in position calculated from the Standard Positioning Service code to approximately 100 m root-mean squared (RMS). With SA on and other possible errors included, users may know their location to within a few hundred meters. While this accuracy is good for many applications, it is too inaccurate for others.