Science.gov

Sample records for central washington state

  1. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S.; LaBonte, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity. PMID:24715791

  2. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State.

    PubMed

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S; Labonte, James R

    2014-01-01

    Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  3. Distribution of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections Determined From Washington State's Annual Reporting Validation Program, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Lempp, Jason M; Cummings, M Jeanne; Birnbaum, David W

    2017-04-01

    Healthcare-associated infection reporting validation is essential because this information is increasingly used in public healthcare quality assurances and care reimbursement. Washington State's validation of central line-associated bloodstream infection reporting applies credible quality sciences methods to ensure that hospital reporting accuracy is maintained. This paper details findings and costs from our experience. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:489-492.

  4. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  5. Diversity and phenology of the generalist predator community in apple orchards of Central Washington State (insecta, araneae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predatory insects and spiders were collected from apple orchards in two geographic regions of Central Washington State to assess seasonal phenology and diversity of the generalist predator community. Arthropods were collected from orchard canopy every 3-7 d over two growing seasons (March-October) ...

  6. Differential uplift and incision of the Yakima River terraces, central Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, Adrian M; Amos, Colin B.; Bierman, Paul R.; Rood, Dylan; Staisch, Lydia; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Sherrod, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The fault-related Yakima folds deform Miocene basalts and younger deposits of the Columbia Plateau in central Washington State. Geodesy implies ~2 mm/yr of NNE directed shortening across the folds, but until now the distribution and rates of Quaternary deformation among individual structures has been unclear. South of Ellensburg, Washington, the Yakima River cuts a ~600 m deep canyon across several Yakima folds, preserving gravel-mantled strath terraces that record progressive bedrock incision and related rock uplift. Here we integrate cosmogenic isochron burial dating of the strath terrace gravels with lidar analysis and field mapping to quantify rates of Quaternary differential incision and rock uplift across two folds transected by the Yakima River: Manastash and Umtanum Ridge. Isochron burial ages from in situ produced 26Al and 10Be at seven sites across the folds date episodes of strath terrace formation over the past ~2.9 Ma. Average bedrock incision rates across the Manastash (~88 m/Myr) and Umtanum Ridge (~46 m/Myr) anticlines are roughly 4 to 8 times higher than rates in the intervening syncline (~14 m/Myr) and outside the canyon (~10 m/Myr). These contrasting rates demonstrate differential bedrock incision driven by ongoing Quaternary rock uplift across the folds at rates corresponding to ~0.13 and ~0.06 mm/yr shortening across postulated master faults dipping 30 ± 10°S beneath the Manastash and Umtanum Ridge anticlines, respectively. The reported Quaternary shortening across the anticlines accounts for ~10% of the ~2 mm/yr geodetic budget, suggesting that other Yakima structures actively accommodate the remaining contemporary deformation.

  7. Differential uplift and incision of the Yakima River terraces, central Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Adrian M.; Amos, Colin B.; Bierman, Paul; Rood, Dylan H.; Staisch, Lydia; Kelsey, Harvey; Sherrod, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The fault-related Yakima folds deform Miocene basalts and younger deposits of the Columbia Plateau in central Washington State. Geodesy implies ~2 mm/yr of NNE directed shortening across the folds, but until now the distribution and rates of Quaternary deformation among individual structures has been unclear. South of Ellensburg, Washington, the Yakima River cuts a ~600 m deep canyon across several Yakima folds, preserving gravel-mantled strath terraces that record progressive bedrock incision and related rock uplift. Here we integrate cosmogenic isochron burial dating of the strath terrace gravels with lidar analysis and field mapping to quantify rates of Quaternary differential incision and rock uplift across two folds transected by the Yakima River: Manastash and Umtanum Ridge. Isochron burial ages from in situ produced 26Al and 10Be at seven sites across the folds date episodes of strath terrace formation over the past ~2.9 Ma. Average bedrock incision rates across the Manastash (~88 m/Myr) and Umtanum Ridge (~46 m/Myr) anticlines are roughly 4 to 8 times higher than rates in the intervening syncline (~14 m/Myr) and outside the canyon (~10 m/Myr). These contrasting rates demonstrate differential bedrock incision driven by ongoing Quaternary rock uplift across the folds at rates corresponding to ~0.13 and ~0.06 mm/yr shortening across postulated master faults dipping 30 ± 10°S beneath the Manastash and Umtanum Ridge anticlines, respectively. The reported Quaternary shortening across the anticlines accounts for ~10% of the ~2 mm/yr geodetic budget, suggesting that other Yakima structures actively accommodate the remaining contemporary deformation.

  8. Blood α-Synuclein in Agricultural Pesticide Handlers in Central Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Susan Searles; Checkoway, Harvey; Zhang, Jing; Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Keifer, Matthew C.; Paulsen, Michael; Farin, Federico M.; Cook, Travis J.; Simpson, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that occupational exposure to pesticides might increase Parkinson disease risk. Some pesticides, such as the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos, appear to increase the expression of α-synuclein, a protein critically involved in Parkinson disease. Therefore, we assessed total blood cell α-synuclein in 90 specimens from 63 agricultural pesticide handlers, mainly Hispanic men from central Washington State, who participated in the state’s cholinesterase monitoring program in 2007–2010. Additionally, in age-adjusted linear regression models for repeated measures, we assessed whether α-synuclein levels were associated with butyrylcholinesterase-chlorpyrifos adducts or cholinesterase inhibition measured in peripheral blood, or with self-reported pesticide exposure or paraoxonase (PON1) genotype. There was no evidence by any of those indicators that exposure to chlorpyrifos was associated with greater blood α-synuclein. We observed somewhat greater α-synuclein with the PON1 -108T (lower paraoxonase enzyme) allele, and with ≥10 hours of exposure to cholinesterase inhibiting insecticides in the preceding 30 days, but neither of these associations followed a clear dose-response pattern. These results suggest that selected genetic and environmental factors may affect α-synuclein blood levels. However, longitudinal studies with larger numbers of pesticide handlers will be required to confirm and elucidate the possible associations observed in this exploratory cross-sectional study. PMID:25460623

  9. Children's exposure to chlorpyrifos and parathion in an agricultural community in central Washington State.

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Richard A; Lu, Chensheng; Barr, Dana; Needham, Larry

    2002-01-01

    We measured two diethyl organophosphorus (OP) pesticides--chlorpyrifos and parathion--in residences, and their metabolic by-products, in the urine of children 6 years old or younger in a central Washington State agricultural community. Exposures to two dimethyl OP pesticides (azinphos-methyl and phosmet) in this same population have been reported previously. We categorized children by parental occupation and by household proximity to pesticide-treated farmland. Median chlorpyrifos house dust concentrations were highest for the 49 applicator homes (0.4 microg/g), followed by the 12 farm-worker homes (0.3 microg/g) and the 14 nonagricultural reference homes (0.1 microg/g), and were statistically different (p < 0.001); we observed a similar pattern for parathion in house dust. Chlorpyrifos was measurable in the house dust of all homes, whereas we found parathion in only 41% of the homes. Twenty-four percent of the urine samples from study children had measurable 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) concentrations [limits of quantitation (LOQ) = 8 microg/L], and 7% had measurable 4-nitrophenol concentrations (LOQ = 9 microg/L). Child urinary metabolite concentrations did not differ across parental occupational classifications. Homes in close proximity (200 ft/60 m) to pesticide-treated farmland had higher chlorpyrifos (p = 0.01) and parathion (p = 0.014) house dust concentrations than did homes farther away, but this effect was not reflected in the urinary metabolite data. Use of OP pesticides in the garden was associated with an increase in TCPy concentrations in children's urine. Parathion concentrations in house dust decreased 10-fold from 1992 to 1995, consistent with the discontinued use of this product in the region in the early 1990s. PMID:12003762

  10. Children's exposure to chlorpyrifos and parathion in an agricultural community in central Washington State.

    PubMed

    Fenske, Richard A; Lu, Chensheng; Barr, Dana; Needham, Larry

    2002-05-01

    We measured two diethyl organophosphorus (OP) pesticides--chlorpyrifos and parathion--in residences, and their metabolic by-products, in the urine of children 6 years old or younger in a central Washington State agricultural community. Exposures to two dimethyl OP pesticides (azinphos-methyl and phosmet) in this same population have been reported previously. We categorized children by parental occupation and by household proximity to pesticide-treated farmland. Median chlorpyrifos house dust concentrations were highest for the 49 applicator homes (0.4 microg/g), followed by the 12 farm-worker homes (0.3 microg/g) and the 14 nonagricultural reference homes (0.1 microg/g), and were statistically different (p < 0.001); we observed a similar pattern for parathion in house dust. Chlorpyrifos was measurable in the house dust of all homes, whereas we found parathion in only 41% of the homes. Twenty-four percent of the urine samples from study children had measurable 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) concentrations [limits of quantitation (LOQ) = 8 microg/L], and 7% had measurable 4-nitrophenol concentrations (LOQ = 9 microg/L). Child urinary metabolite concentrations did not differ across parental occupational classifications. Homes in close proximity (200 ft/60 m) to pesticide-treated farmland had higher chlorpyrifos (p = 0.01) and parathion (p = 0.014) house dust concentrations than did homes farther away, but this effect was not reflected in the urinary metabolite data. Use of OP pesticides in the garden was associated with an increase in TCPy concentrations in children's urine. Parathion concentrations in house dust decreased 10-fold from 1992 to 1995, consistent with the discontinued use of this product in the region in the early 1990s.

  11. 75 FR 14462 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington... of Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA, and the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum... Henebry-DeLeon, NAGPRA Program Director, Department of Anthropology, Central Washington University...

  12. Late Holocene Drought Record From Castor Lake, North-Central Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D. B.; Abbott, M. B.; Polissar, P. J.; Finney, B.

    2006-12-01

    The effects of recent and historic drought in the North American west provide motivation for understanding the natural variability and underlying causes of these events. We present a 6,000-year lake sediment record of water balance from Washington State in an effort to address these questions. A series of overlapping sediment cores were collected and chronological control was established through a combination of radiocarbon, tephrochronology, and cesium isotope activity. Modern basin morphometry and lake water oxygen and hydrogen isotope data indicate closed-basin hydrology and the strong influence of evaporative enrichment on lake water composition, and therefore sensitivity of the system to changes in regional water balance and drought. Samples of endogenic aragonite precipitates were isolated from sediment cores at an average sampling interval of 3.7mm, corresponding to a temporal resolution of approximately 7 years. Grayscale data were generated from digital images of the cores collected under controlled light conditions and are shown to track changes in oxygen isotope values, with darker layers corresponding to periods of increased isotopic composition. In addition to supporting the notion that oxygen isotope data are primarily recording changes in water balance as opposed to changes in water source or temperature, the increased resolution of the grayscale record improves the resolution of the climate signal to the sub-millimeter scale of the laminations. There is a significant correlation between the most recent portion of the Castor Lake grayscale record and a 1,500-yr Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) reconstruction from central Washington (1). The strong association between changes in the Castor Lake record and changes in the PDSI reconstruction provides convincing method validation and strengthens the interpretation of both as drought signals. Spectral analyses of the grayscale record using singular spectrum analysis (SSA), maximum entropy method (MEM

  13. Holocene mammalian change in the central Columbia Basin of eastern Washington state, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2016-08-01

    Predictions of changes in the Holocene mammalian fauna of the central Columbia Basin in eastern Washington (USA) based on environmental changes are largely met. Taxonomic richness is greatest during periods of cool-moist climate. Rates of input of faunal remains to the paleozoological record may suggest greater mammalian biomass during periods of greater moisture but are difficult to interpret without data on sampling intensity in the form of volume of sediment excavated. Abundances of leporids and grazing ungulates fluctuate in concert with abundance of grass. Several biogeographic records are tantalizing but require additional study and data before being accepted as valid. Records of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) indicate this species was present in the central basin during the Holocene contrary to historic records and recent suggestions modern foxes there are escapees from fur farms. Bison (Bison bison) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) underwent diminution of body size during the Holocene. Modern efforts to conserve the Columbia Basin ecosystem are advised to consider the Holocene record as indicative of what may happen to that ecosystem in the future.

  14. Indians of Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Maps, photographs, and illustrations are included in this introductory history of Indians in Washington state. The tribal groups of the area are classified by geographic and cultural region as Coastal, Puget Sound, and Plateau tribes, and the majority of the resource booklet provides information about the history and culture of each group.…

  15. Northwest Washington State

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-458 (22 June 1973) --- Portions of northwest Washington State (48.0N, 122.5) can be seen in this view as well as portions of British Columbia, Canada. The snow covered Cascade Mountains are on the eastern side of the scene. Vancouver Island is visible in the northeast corner of the photo. The strait of Juan de Fuca separates Vancouver Island from the northwest corner of Washington. Seattle is near the center and the snow covered Olympic Mountains are to the east. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Biological monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide exposure among children of agricultural workers in central Washington State.

    PubMed Central

    Loewenherz, C; Fenske, R A; Simcox, N J; Bellamy, G; Kalman, D

    1997-01-01

    Children up to 6 years of age who lived with pesticide applicators were monitored for increased risk of pesticide exposure: 48 pesticide applicator and 14 reference families were recruited from an agricultural region of Washington State in June 1995. A total of 160 spot urine samples were collected from 88 children, including repeated measures 3-7 days apart. Samples were assayed by gas chromatography flame photometric detector for dimethylphosphate metabolites. Dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) was the dominant metabolite. DMTP levels were significantly higher in applicator children than in reference children (p = 0.015), with median concentrations of 0.021 and 0.005 microg/ml, respectively; maximum concentrations were 0.44 and 0.10 microg/ml, respectively. Percentages of detectable samples were 47% for applicator children and 27% for reference children. A marginally significant trend of increasing concentration was observed with decreasing age among applicator children (p = 0.060), and younger children within these families had significantly higher concentrations when compared to their older siblings (p = 0.040). Applicator children living less than 200 feet from an orchard were associated with higher frequency of detectable DMTP levels than nonproximal applicator children (p =0.036). These results indicate that applicator children experienced higher organophosphorus pesticide exposures than did reference children in the same community and that proximity to spraying is an important contributor to such exposures. Trends related to age suggest that child activity is an important variable for exposure. It is unlikely that any of the observed exposures posed a hazard of acute intoxication. This study points to the need for a more detailed understanding of pesticide exposure pathways for children of agricultural workers. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9405329

  17. 78 FR 59956 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, and Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

  18. 78 FR 59963 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, and Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

  19. Washington State System of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheidt, Omar H.

    The highly centralized Washington State System of Community Colleges, as created by the Community College Act of 1967, is administered by a governor-appointed state board with one member from each of the seven congressional districts. Reporting to the state board on all revenues and expenditures made are 22 local boards of trustees. A commission…

  20. County portraits of Washington State.

    Treesearch

    Wendy J. McGinnis; Richard H. Phillips; Terry L. Raettig; Kent P. Connaughton

    1997-01-01

    This publication provides a general picture of the population, economy, and natural resources of the counties in Washington State. The intent of this report is to provide insight to changes in a county over the last 10 to 20 years, to compare county trends to statewide trends (and state trends to national trends), and to provide information on all the counties in a...

  1. Washington State 1995 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Office of Financial Management, Olympia.

    This document is intended to present, in tables and graphs, a diversity of information on Washington State, its people, economy, and government. The information was obtained from state and federal agencies and from private businesses. The data are organized into 11 major chapters which cover the following topics (sample subtopics in parentheses):…

  2. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  3. The timber resources of central Washington.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the latest inventory of the timber resources of central Washington indicate there are 50.9 billion board feet of sawtimber on 4,370,000 acres of commercial forest land. Land owned or administered by public agencies accounts for 73 percent of the area and 84 percent of the sawtimber volume; farmer and miscellaneous private ownerships account for 17...

  4. Miocene to present deformation rates in the Yakima Fold Province and implications for earthquake hazards in central Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staisch, Lydia; Sherrod, Brian; Kelsey, Harvey; Blakely, Richard; Möller, Andreas; Styron, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The Yakima fold province (YFP), located in the Cascadia backarc of central Washington, is a region of active distributed deformation that accommodates NNE-SSW shortening. Geodetic data show modern strain accumulation of 2 mm/yr across this large-scale fold province. Deformation rates on individual structures, however, are difficult to assess from GPS data given low strain rates and the relatively short time period of geodetic observation. Geomorphic and geologic records, on the other hand, span sufficient time to investigate deformation rates on the folds. Resolving fault geometries and slip rates of the YFP is imperative to seismic hazard assessment for nearby infrastructure, including a large nuclear waste facility and hydroelectric dams along the Columbia and Yakima Rivers. We present new results on the timing and magnitude of deformation across several Yakima folds, including the Manastash Ridge, Umtanum Ridge, and Saddle Mountains anticlines. We constructed several line-balanced cross sections across the folds to calculated the magnitude of total shortening since Miocene time. To further constrain our structural models, we include forward-modeling of magnetic and gravity anomaly data. We estimate total shortening between 1.0 and 2.4 km across individual folds, decreasing eastward, consistent with geodetically and geologically measured clockwise rotation. Importantly, we find that thrust faults reactivate and invert normal faults in the basement, and do not appear to sole into a common décollement at shallow to mid-crustal depth. We constrain spatial and temporal variability in deformation rates along the Saddle Mountains, Manastash Ridge and Umtanum Ridge anticlines using geomorphic and stratigraphic markers of topographic evolution. From stratigraphy and geochronology of growth strata along the Saddle Mountains we find that the rate of deformation has increased up to six-fold since late Miocene time. To constrain deformation rates along other Yakima folds

  5. Shirleya grahamae gen. et sp. nov. (Lythraceae), Lagerstroemia-like fruits from the middle Miocene Yakima Canyon flora, central Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    Pigg, Kathleen B; Devore, Melanie L

    2005-02-01

    Shirleya grahamae Pigg & DeVore gen. et sp. nov. (Lythraceae) is established for silicified fruits from the middle Miocene Yakima Canyon of central Washington State, USA. The capsules are 10 mm long × 11.5-12.5 mm wide, enclosed in a persistent floral tube and contain 5-7 locules. They are loculicidally dehiscent, fracturing into fragments and leaving the central axis free. Placentation is axile. Five to seven mature seeds are tightly packed per locule, often with several smaller seeds. Seeds are winged, anatropous, and narrowly attached subapically to the central axis, curving basally and radially within the fruit. They are up to ∼4.6 mm long × 1.9 mm wide, with a small, triangular embryo cavity and a prominent distal wing. The inflated wing is filled with a bilobed parenchymatous pad of tissue with a central cavity. Shirleya grahamae is assigned to the Lythraceae, and is most similar to Lagerstroemia, based on the synapomorphies of distally winged seeds and revolute cotyledons. Shirleya differs from Lagerstroemia in seed arrangement, and pericarp and wing anatomy. This study provides the first anatomical information about a Miocene Lagerstroemia-like fruit and documents further diversity of the Lythraceae in the Neogene of northwestern North America.

  6. Washington State solar loan assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnear, N.; James, J.

    1984-07-01

    Qualifying citizens of Washington State can receive passive solar investment subsidies funded by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) if their design is certified by a licensed engineer or architect. The pilot program operates through 25 credit unions. It is intended to promote energy conservation and to stimulate construction and small-business employment. Requirements for the space heating system are an area for solar collection, an absorber, storage mass, a method of heat distribution, and a device to regulate heat. The design can be either for new construction or as a retrofit.

  7. Bacterial meningitis in Washington state.

    PubMed

    Ostroy, P R

    1979-10-01

    During 1977 the state of Washington maintained a surveillance system for reporting cases of bacterial meningitis. Hemophilus influenzae meningitis was the most common etiologic agent causing bacterial meningitis. A high incidence rate for H. influenzae meningitis was found among American Indians less than five years ago. A focus of ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae meningitis was found in Pierce County among military dependents or persons who had family members or relatives working or attending school with Fort Lewis Army Base personnel. Although relationships between the individual cases were not detected, the surveillance system continues to seek some association.

  8. Bacterial Meningitis in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Ostroy, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    During 1977 the state of Washington maintained a surveillance system for reporting cases of bacterial meningitis. Hemophilus influenzae meningitis was the most common etiologic agent causing bacterial meningitis. A high incidence rate for H. influenzae meningitis was found among American Indians less than five years ago. A focus of ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae meningitis was found in Pierce County among military dependents or persons who had family members or relatives working or attending school with Fort Lewis Army Base personnel. Although relationships between the individual cases were not detected, the surveillance system continues to seek some association. PMID:506227

  9. Changes in water quality and climate after forest harvest in central Washington state. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, W.B.; Anderson, T.D.; Helvey, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical output of nitrate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and organic nitrogen were determined on a grams-per-hectare-per-day basis for five treatment watersheds and a control watershed. Water samples were collected from April to October during 3 pretreatment and 3 post-treatment years (1978 to 1983). Except for increased calcium and sodium in several streams, regression equations comparing treatment with control showed significant difference for pretreatment and posttreatment output. Output generally declined in the post-treatment years. Cyclic changes in output from these and other streams in the eastern Cascade Range in Washington appeared to occur regardless of treatment and were probably related to precipitation. Mean maximum air temperature increased during the posttreatment period in all the small watersheds, but stream temperatures were relatively unaffected.

  10. The Effect of the Leader in Me, a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention System (SW-PBIS), Based on Student Achievement and Office Discipline Referrals for Fifth Grade Students in a Rural Elementary School in North Central Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose this study was to examine the implementation of The Leader in Me, a school-wide positive behavior intervention system (SW-PBIS), and analyze its impact on 5th grade students based on student achievement and office discipline referrals in a rural elementary school in North Central Washington state. The school was in the first year of…

  11. Washington State biomass data book

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

  12. Licensed Child Care in Washington State: 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marna Geyer; Hu, James S.; Mayfield, Jim

    This study was the fifth survey of the Washington State licensed child care market, completed in 1996 by the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS). Data were obtained through telephone interviews of approximately 2,700 child care providers. The major findings indicate that between 1994 and 1996, the monthly rate at…

  13. Early Childhood Injury Deaths in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starzyk, Patricia M.

    This paper discusses data on the deaths of children aged 1-4 years in Washington State. A two-fold approach was used in the analysis. First, Washington State death certificate data for 1979-85 were used to characterize the deaths and identify hazardous situations. Second, death certificates were linked to birth certificates of children born in…

  14. Achieving Small School Success in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Of Washington State's 296 school districts, two-thirds have 2,000 or fewer students. These small school districts provide unique learning opportunities for Washington's children, but also present special challenges to achieving the higher standards called for in the state education reform bill and recent federal legislation. This report provides…

  15. Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Olympia.

    The 1992 Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors (WSSAHB) was created to collect information regarding a variety of adolescent health behaviors among students in the state of Washington. It expands on two previous administrations of a student tobacco, alcohol, and other drug survey and includes questions about medical care, safety,…

  16. Early Learning in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    About 80,000 children enter kindergarten in Washington each year, and many lack basic language and behavioral skills--such as knowing letters and colors, following directions, getting along with others, and exhibiting impulse-control. In 2006, based on the recommendation of the Washington Learns Commission, Governor Christine Gregoire created the…

  17. View of southeastern Washington State

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-30

    SL3-22-0214 (July-September 1973) --- A vertical view of southeastern Washington State as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. The Snake River flows into the Columbia River in the most southerly corner of the picture. The Wallula Lake is below the junction of the two rivers. The Yakima Valley is at the southwestern edge of the photograph. The Columbia Basin is in the center of the picture. The Cascade Range extends across the northwest corner of the photograph. This picture was taken with type SO-356 regular color film. The S190-A experiment is part of the Earth Resources Experiments Package. Federal agencies participating with NASA on the EREP project are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of Engineers. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior?s Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Work-related asthma in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Naomi J; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Bonauto, David K; Rauser, Edmund

    2011-10-01

    Asthma is a common and costly public health problem. Occupational exposures contribute to the burden of asthma. Identifying workplace exposures and industries and occupations at risk can lead to more effective prevention measures. Data from Washington State's work-related asthma (WRA) surveillance program from October 2001 to December 2008 were analyzed. Workers' compensation records, physician reports, and telephone interviews were used to describe the occurrence of WRA during this time, in order to identify contributing exposure sources and industries and occupations that are associated with WRA in Washington. There were 1343 identified WRA cases in Washington State during this time. Of these, 1285 were workers' compensation claims, with a total medical cost for State Fund claims of approximately $3 million dollars. The top three sources identified were miscellaneous chemicals and materials, mineral and inorganic dusts, and plant material. Plant material claims proved to be widespread throughout various industries, were largely classified as new-onset asthma cases, and had higher median medical cost and higher median time loss days than cases associated with other exposure sources. Washington State has an abundance of plant-material-related WRA cases among US states conducting WRA surveillance. Washington State's industry mix might explain the higher prevalence of cases, particularly its logging and wood processing industries and as a world leader in hops production. In Washington, further WRA prevention efforts should emphasize workplaces working with plant materials.

  19. Petroleum geology of the state of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Lingley, William S.; Law, Ben E.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the potential petroleum resources of Washington State as recently summarized in the 1995 U.S. Geological Survey National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. Eight conventional petroleum plays, three coal-bed gas plays, and two continuous-type gas plays are defined and characterized. Of these plays, the potential for significant petroleum accumulations appears greatest in the Columbia Plateau region of eastern Washington. Potential accumulations in western Washington are smaller but could have local economic significance. The absence of high-quality petroleum source rocks is probably the most important factor limiting development of large accumulations.

  20. Washington: The State and Its Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Harold L.

    A profile of Washington is presented, which examines trends in the state's economy, environment, population, and educational system. A contradiction exists between the state's beautiful scenery and well-educated population and its high crime and suicide rates. The state is characterized by a highly educated work force, a less diversified economy,…

  1. 1988 Population Trends for Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Office of Financial Management, Olympia.

    This statistical profile provides current demographic data for Washington State and its counties, incorporated cities and towns. Seventeen tables show population by age and sex; population for counties, incorporated cities and towns, and the state; components of population change; a rank order of total persons in incorporated cities and towns;…

  2. Human Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Infection in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Billman, Zachary P.; Wallis, Carolyn K.; Abbott, April N.; Olson, John C.; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Murphy, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    A patient in Washington State harbored a fish tapeworm most likely acquired from eating raw salmon. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense was identified by cox1 sequence analysis. Although this is the first documented human D. nihonkaiense infection in the United States, the parasite may have been present earlier but misidentified as Diphyllobothrium latum. PMID:25609724

  3. Human Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense infection in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Billman, Zachary P; Wallis, Carolyn K; Abbott, April N; Olson, John C; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Murphy, Sean C

    2015-04-01

    A patient in Washington State harbored a fish tapeworm most likely acquired from eating raw salmon. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense was identified by cox1 sequence analysis. Although this is the first documented human D. nihonkaiense infection in the United States, the parasite may have been present earlier but misidentified as Diphyllobothrium latum.

  4. Anencephaly: An Ongoing Investigation in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Barron, Sara

    2016-03-01

    : In the spring of 2012, a nurse in Washington State detected a cluster of babies born with anencephaly-a fatal condition in which infants are born without parts of the brain or skull. The resulting investigation initially confirmed a rate of anencephaly between January 2010 and January 2013 of 8.4 per 10,000 live births-more than four times the national average. As of November 2015, cases of anencephaly in Washington State have continued to increase, with the current rate estimated at 9.5 per 10,000 live births. While no distinct cause has yet been determined, neural tube defects-including anencephaly-are known to have multiple causes, including folic acid deficit, genetic variants in the folate pathway, and exposure to a variety of environmental and occupational toxins. This article describes many of these risk factors and explores the findings of Washington's ongoing investigation.

  5. An Exploratory Study of Central Office Best Practices in Washington's Top 5% Performing School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansingh, Pamela Jean

    2012-01-01

    How prepared are central office administrators to lead school districts in the face of changing standards and changing student populations? The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the responses of central office administrators in the top 5% performing school districts in Washington State with the goal of identifying common attitudes…

  6. Licensed Child Care in Washington State: 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marna Geyer; Schrager, Laura

    This study is one of an ongoing series of biennial surveys of all child care centers and some licensed family home providers by Washington State's Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS). A total of 1,137 child care centers and 1,527 family home providers were interviewed in spring 1998. Major findings include: (1) Over the period 1990 to…

  7. Alternative Maternity Services in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starzyk, Patricia M.

    The nature of maternity services has changed in the past 20 years, with a movement away from traditional (physician delivery in a hospital) towards other alternative services. This study examined alternative maternity services in Washington State, which ranks eighth in the country in the use of such services. Data were collected from birth and…

  8. 1987 Population Trends for Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Office of Financial Management, Olympia.

    This statistical profile provides current demographic data for Washington State and is also broken down by counties, incorporated cities, and towns. Fifteen tables show population figures; components of population change; housing units by structure type; annexations, incorporations and municipal boundary changes; growth of households; estimates of…

  9. Indians of Washington State. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milhafer, Judith; And Others

    This unit supplements social studies curriculum in Washington state schools and is offered to help teachers design courses on Indians of the Pacific Northwest. The unit is designed to build understanding and appreciation for historical and contemporary Indian culture, and to examine how people meet their needs using natural resources and…

  10. State of Washington Strategic Information Technology Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Information Services, Olympia. Policy and Regulation Div.

    The Strategic Information Technology Plan of Washington is introduced and explained. The plan is mandated by state law to create a new framework for communication and collaboration to bring together agency technology planning with the achievement of statewide information technology goals and strategies. It provides a point of reference for the…

  11. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, south central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-04-16

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The purpose of this document is twofold: (1) summarize the NPH that are important to the design and evaluation of structures, systems, and components at the Hanford Site; (2) develop the appropriate natural phenomena loads for use in the implementation of DOE Order 5480.28. The supporting standards, DOE-STD-1020-94, Natural Phenomena Hazards Design and Evaluation Criteria for Department of Energy Facilities (DOE 1994a); DOE-STD-1022-94, Natural Phenomena Hazards Site Characteristics Criteria (DOE 1994b); and DOE-STD-1023-95, Natural Phenomena Hazards Assessment Criteria (DOE 1995) are the basis for developing the NPH loads.

  12. 22. View looking north on Central Avenue from Washington Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View looking north on Central Avenue from Washington Street. The Stroud Building (with awnings on the second story) is located on the east (right) side of the street near the center of the block. The original Adams Hotel is seen at the right rear of the photograph Circa 1901-1910. Credit ADLAPR. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 75 FR 434 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY... cultural items in the possession of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke...

  14. 77 FR 15802 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Central Washington University Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains in consultation... Department of Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribe stated below may occur if...

  15. 77 FR 11582 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Anthropology, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Central Washington University Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated... Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary object to the Indian tribe stated below...

  16. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  17. Babesia divergens–like Infection, Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Herwaldt, Barbara L.; de Bruyn, Guy; Pieniazek, Norman J.; Homer, Mary; Lofy, Kathryn H.; Slemenda, Susan B.; Fritsche, Thomas R.; Persing, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Most reported U.S. zoonotic cases of babesiosis have occurred in the Northeast and been caused by Babesia microti. In Washington State, three cases of babesiosis have been reported previously, which were caused by WA1 (for “Washington 1”)-type parasites. We investigated a case of babesiosis in Washington in an 82–year-old man whose spleen had been removed and whose parasitemia level was 41.4%. The complete 18S ribosomal RNA gene of the parasite was amplified from specimens of his whole blood by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis showed the parasite is most closely related, but not identical, to B. divergens (similarity score, 99.5%), a bovine parasite in Europe. By indirect fluorescent-antibody testing, his serum reacted to B. divergens but not to B. microti or WA1 antigens. This case demonstrates that babesiosis can be caused by novel parasites detectable by manual examination of blood smears but not by serologic or molecular testing for B. microti or WA1-type parasites. PMID:15200851

  18. Washington State University Algae Biofuels Research

    SciTech Connect

    chen, Shulin; McCormick, Margaret; Sutterlin, Rusty

    2012-12-29

    The goal of this project was to advance algal technologies for the production of biofuels and biochemicals by establishing the Washington State Algae Alliance, a collaboration partnership among two private companies (Targeted Growth, Inc. (TGI), Inventure Chemicals (Inventure) Inc (now Inventure Renewables Inc) and Washington State University (WSU). This project included three major components. The first one was strain development at TGI by genetically engineering cyanobacteria to yield high levels of lipid and other specialty chemicals. The second component was developing an algal culture system at WSU to produce algal biomass as biofuel feedstock year-round in the northern states of the United States. This system included two cultivation modes, the first one was a phototrophic process and the second a heterotrophic process. The phototrophic process would be used for algae production in open ponds during warm seasons; the heterotrophic process would be used in cold seasons so that year-round production of algal lipid would be possible. In warm seasons the heterotrophic process would also produce algal seeds to be used in the phototrophic culture process. Selected strains of green algae and cyanobacteria developed by TGI were tested in the system. The third component was downstream algal biomass processing by Inventure that included efficiently harvesting the usable fuel fractions from the algae mass and effectively isolating and separating the usable components into specific fractions, and converting isolated fractions into green chemicals.

  19. 40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Central Washington Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.189 South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  20. 40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Washington Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.189 South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  1. 40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Central Washington Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.189 South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  2. 40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Central Washington Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.189 South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  3. 40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Washington Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.189 South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  4. Washington State Board of Education Strategic Plan, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Washington State Legislature significantly changed the role of the State Board of Education (SBE). While the Board retains some administrative duties, SBE is now mandated to play a broad leadership role in strategic oversight and policy for K-12 education in the state. This paper presents the strategic plan of Washington State Board…

  5. Compassion in Dying v. State of Washington.

    PubMed

    1994-05-03

    The U.S. District Court, Western District of Washington, ruled unconstitutional a state statute banning physician-aided suicide on the grounds that the law violated equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment. The court determined that it was unjust to prohibit mentally competent, terminally ill adults from seeking physician-aided suicide while allowing the terminally ill on life support to withdraw from treatment. Inasmuch as mentally competent, terminally ill individuals have a constitutionally protected liberty interest to be free from undue government intrusion, the court found they had a right to make decisions to hasten their death to avoid prolonged suffering. Under circumstances of fatal illness, the freedom to act knowingly and voluntarily was not seen as an impediment to legitimate, compelling state interests to prevent suicides or protect people from the undue influence of others.

  6. 78 FR 59955 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke...

  7. 78 FR 21401 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY... Washington University, 400 East University Way, Ellensburg, WA 98926- 7544, telephone (509) 963-2167... of Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA. The human remains were removed from Yakima County...

  8. Compassion in Dying v. State of Washington.

    PubMed

    1995-03-09

    The U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit, reversed a district court decision that had declared unconstitutional a Washington state statute making it a felony knowingly to cause or aid another person to attempt suicide. The lower court had invalidated the statute on the basis that it violated the plaintiffs' Fourteenth Amendment liberty and equal protection rights and had likened the right to commit suicide to the right to an abortion. The district court also found that no constitutional distinction could be made between the competent terminally ill who could elect to end their lives by having life support discontinued and the terminally ill seeking physician assistance to commit suicide. The Court of Appeals held that the statute did not deprive persons seeking physician-assisted suicide of constitutionally protected liberty interest and that facial invalidation of the statute was unwarranted.

  9. The stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of Washington state

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Froeschner (1988) records 23 species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) as occurring in Washington state. Based onmaterial primarily housed in the M.T. James Entomological Collection at Washington State University, the number of species is increased to 47. Species recorded by Froes...

  10. LIDAR Data on Plankton in a fjord in Washington State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. LIDAR Data on Plankton in a fjord in Washington State Dr...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LIDAR Data on Plankton in a fjord in Washington State 5a

  11. Educator Supply and Demand in Washington State. 2004 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry; Maloney, Rick; Hathaway, Randy; Bryant, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the findings of the third Educator Supply and Demand Research study in the State of Washington. The intent of these Washington studies is to provide data to inform and shape decisions and activities in the following ways: (1) Provide useful information for educational policymakers, including the legislature, the State Board…

  12. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jennifer; Gorgol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched a 10-year, multi-million dollar initiative, the Washington State Achievers Program (WSA), to increase opportunities for low-income students to attend postsecondary institutions in Washington State. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation granted funds to the College Success Foundation…

  13. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the multi-year, multi-million dollar Washington State Achievers Scholarship program. Concerned about disparities in college participation for low-income students in the state of Washington versus their wealthier peers, the Gates Foundation partnered with the College Success Foundation…

  14. Mentors, Sponsors, and Networks: Women Superintendents in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacTavish, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The number of women superintendents of public school systems in Washington State exceeds that of the national average. Of the 285 school districts in Washington State, that have superintendents, 68, or 24%, are run by women superintendents, while the national average is 21.7%. Women lead one third of the districts in the Puget Sound and women run…

  15. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Washington State Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, WA. Div. of Instructional Programs and Services.

    The Washington State Resource Guide on Martin Luther King, Jr., supplies a wide variety of materials for use with all grade levels in classroom and assembly presentations in public schools. The goal is for every child enrolled in Washington State schools to learn about Dr. King during the days of January 15 to January 17. Resolutions supporting an…

  16. Mentors, Sponsors, and Networks: Women Superintendents in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacTavish, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The number of women superintendents of public school systems in Washington State exceeds that of the national average. Of the 285 school districts in Washington State, that have superintendents, 68, or 24%, are run by women superintendents, while the national average is 21.7%. Women lead one third of the districts in the Puget Sound and women run…

  17. Compassion in Dying v. State of Washington.

    PubMed

    1996-03-06

    The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, sitting en banc, affirmed a district court judgment that ruled unconstitutional a Washington statute banning assisted suicide, as applied to competent, terminally ill adults who wish to obtain prescription medication to hasten their deaths. The statute, which was challenged by a group of patients, physicians, and the nonprofit organization Compassion in Dying, was held to be unconstitutional because it violated the due process clause of the U.S. Constitution. The court took into consideration the interests of the state in protecting life, preventing suicides, preventing undue, arbitrary, or unfair influences on an individual's decision to end his life, and ensuring the integrity of the medical profession. These interests were balanced against an individual's strong liberty interest in determining how and when one's life should end. The court recognized this interest after assessing the growing public support for assisted suicide, changes in the causes of death and medical advances, and Supreme Court cases addressing due process liberty interests. The court then determined that the state's interest, which could be protected by adopting sufficient safeguards, did not outweigh the severe burden placed on the terminally ill, and thus the statute as applied was unconstitutional.

  18. The Community is the Classroom in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulst, Thomas R.; Wark, Robert G.

    1975-01-01

    A description of the functioning, problems, and coordinator roles for Washington State's Community Involvement Program--a systematic effort to place students off-campus in practical learning situations that will augment their formal classroom training--now operating in Washington's 27 community colleges. (DC)

  19. State of Washington 1978 College Bound Seniors: Characteristics and Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noeth, Richard J.

    Information describing the characteristics and plans of 1978 college-bound seniors in the state of Washington is presented. This information is routinely collected through administration of the Washington Pre-College Testing Program (WPC) test battery and is presented in tabular form with highlights cited in the text. Focus is on high school…

  20. A risk management procedure for the Washington state ferries.

    PubMed

    van Dorp, J R; Merrick, J R; Harrald, J R; Mazzuchi, T A; Grabowski, M

    2001-02-01

    The state of Washington operates the largest passenger vessel ferry system in the United States. In part due to the introduction of high-speed ferries, the state of Washington established an independent blue-ribbon panel to assess the adequacy of requirements for passenger and crew safety aboard the Washington state ferries. On July 9, 1998, the Blue Ribbon Panel on Washington State Ferry Safety engaged a consultant team from The George Washington University and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute/Le Moyne College to assess the adequacy of passenger and crew safety in the Washington state ferry (WSF) system, to evaluate the level of risk present in the WSF system, and to develop recommendations for prioritized risk reduction measures, which, once implemented, can improve the level of safety in the WSF system. The probability of ferry collisions in the WSF system was assessed using a dynamic simulation methodology that extends the scope of available data with expert judgment. The potential consequences of collisions were modeled in order to determine the requirements for onboard and external emergency response procedures and equipment. The methodology was used to evaluate potential risk reduction measures and to make detailed risk management recommendations to the blue-ribbon panel and the Washington State Transportation Commission.

  1. Heat flow and geothermal studies in the state of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, D.D.; Steele, J.L.; Kelley, S.A.

    1985-08-01

    Existing geothermal gradient and heat flow data for the state of Washington are summarized. In addition, information on mean-annual ground surface temperatures is included. The data consist of accurate, detailed temperature-depth measurements in selected available holes throughout the state of Washington made between 1979 and 1982. Measurements of thermal conductivity on selected rock samples from these drill holes and ancillary information required to assess the significance of the data and calculate heat flow values were obtained as well. Information is presented on the mean-annual ground-surface temperatures throughout the state of Washington. 32 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Freeway and arterial management effort in Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, L.N. )

    1989-11-01

    Traffic congestion and personal mobility preservation are the most challenging issues facing transportation professionals. From Phoenix to San Francisco to Washington, D.C., citizens are identifying transportation as their number one concern, outweighing issues such as pollution, overpopulation, unemployment, and crime. In the state of Washington, particularly in the greater Seattle area, congestion is likewise a major concern. In order to address the mobility problems facing the urban areas of Washington, the state initiated a new transportation research and implementation program in October 1987. The program is called Freeway and Arterial Management Effort (FAME). The focus of the program is discussed by the author.

  3. Alternative Fuels for Washington's School Buses: A Report to the Washington State Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, John Kim; McCoy, Gilbert A.

    This document presents findings of a study that evaluated the use of both propane and compressed natural gas as alternative fuels for Washington State school buses. It discusses air quality improvement actions by state- and federal-level regulators and summarizes vehicle design, development, and commercialization activities by all major engine,…

  4. Report on Indian Education; State of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Sally E.; Brooks, Joseph T.

    Most treaties negotiated with Indian tribes between 1778 and 1868 contain a clause insuring that the federal government will provide Indians with full educational opportunity in exchange for their ceded lands. This promise has not been fulfilled. Indian students are dropping out of Washington schools at rates estimated between 38-60 percent;…

  5. 1984 Population Trends for Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Office of Financial Management, Olympia.

    As of April 1, 1984, Washington's population was estimated at 4,328,100, an increase of 43,000 over last year's population. This report provides data pertaining to the: official April 1, 1984 population and housing estimates for cities, towns, and counties and components of population change. The following special reports are also presented:…

  6. State of Washington Computer Use Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Jack L.; And Others

    This report presents the results of a spring 1982 survey of a random sample of Washington public schools which separated findings according to school level (elementary, middle, junior high, or high school) and district size (either less than or greater than 2,000 enrollment). A brief review of previous studies and a description of the survey…

  7. The Successful Transfer Structure in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jane; Andreas, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    How did Washington create a clear organizational structure that assigns responsibility for each aspect of transfer policy to the group that is best suited to manage it (Kisker, Wagoner, and Cohen, 2011)? In this chapter, the authors will introduce the agencies, organizations, and entities that have played a key role in gathering information,…

  8. A low emission vehicle procurement approach for Washington state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, G. A.; Lyons, J. K.; Ware, G.

    1992-06-01

    The Clean Air Washington Act of 1991 directs the Department of Ecology to establish a clean-fuel vehicle standard. The Department of General Administration shall purchase vehicles based on this standard beginning in the Fall of 1992. The following summarizes the major issues effecting vehicle emissions and their regulation, and present a methodology for procuring clean-fuel vehicles for the State of Washington. Washington State's air quality problems are much less severe than in other parts of the country such as California, the East Coast and parts of the Mid West. Ozone, which is arguably the dominant air quality problem in the US, is a recent and relatively minor issue in Washington. Carbon monoxide (CO) represents a more immediate problem in Washington, with most of the state's urban areas exceeding national CO air quality standards. Since the mid-1960's, vehicle tailpipe hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions have been reduced by 96 percent relative to precontrol vehicles. Nitrogen oxide emissions have been reduced by 76 percent. Emissions from currently available vehicles are quite low with respect to in-place exhaust emission standards. Cold-start emissions constitute about 75 percent of the total emissions measured with the Federal Test Procedure used to certify motor vehicles. There is no currently available 'inherently clean burning fuel'. In 1991, 3052 vehicles were purchased under Washington State contract. Provided that the same number are acquired in 1993, the state will need to purchase 915 vehicles which meet the definition of a 'clean-fueled vehicle'.

  9. Goat Moths (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) of the Hanford Site and Hanford National Monument, Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three species of goat moths are recorded at the Hanford Nuclear Site and Hanford National Monument in south central Washington State. They are: Comadia bertholdi (Grote), 1880, Givira cornelia (Neumoegen & Dyar), 1893, and Prionoxystus robiniae (Peck), 1818. The general habitat of the Hanford area...

  10. Molecular species identification of cryptic apple and snowberry maggots (Diptera: Tephritidae) in western and central Washington.

    PubMed

    Green, Emily; Almskaar, Kristin; Sim, Sheina B; Arcella, Tracy; Yee, Wee L; Feder, Jeffrey L; Schwarz, Dietmar

    2013-10-01

    In Washington state, identification of the quarantine apple pest Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is complicated by the presence of the cryptic species Rhagoletis zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae). Distinguishing the two flies is important because there is a zero tolerance policy for R. pomonella in apple production for export. Here, we attempt to distinguish the two species by scoring R. pomonella and R. zephyria populations from western and south-central Washington for a set of 11 nuclear markers, including four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for rapid and inexpensive genotyping using Taqman real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction. We show that the four SNPs may be adequate in most cases for distinguishing whether a fly originated from apple or black hawthorn (the two major host plants for R. pomonella representing an economic risk) versus snowberry (the major host for R. zephyria, and not a commercial threat). However, directional introgression of R. zephyria alleles into R. pomonella can complicate the identification of flies of mixed ancestry based only on the four SNPs. Moreover, this problem is more acute in the sensitive apple-growing regions of central Washington where our results imply hybridization is common. Consequently, application of the four SNP quantitative-polymerase chain reaction assay can immediately assist ongoing apple maggot monitoring, while the development of additional genetic markers through next-generation sequencing would be valuable for increasing confidence in species identification and for assessing the threat posed by hybridization as R. pomonella further spreads into the more arid apple-growing regions of central Washington.

  11. Quantifying the Role of Groundwater for Drought Mitigation in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, A.; Barik, M. G.

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 drought in Washington State had a severe impact on the more than 300 crops grown in the state, including an initial estimated loss of $86.52 million on the iconic Washington apple industry alone [Washington State Department of Agriculture, Interim Report: 2015 Drought and Agriculture, 2015]. The full agricultural impact of the 2015 Washington drought has yet to be assessed. Groundwater plays an important role in drought mitigation in Washington's agricultural industry, just as it does in California's Central Valley. However, a key difference is Washington's requirement for permit applications to use emergency drought wells; a process that occurs only after an official drought declaration. The 2001, 2005, and 2015 droughts saw significant differences in the number of emergency drought permit applications that were reported back to the state, though the severity of drought in each year did not differ to the same extreme. Understanding the drivers to using groundwater during drought will help to better manage future groundwater use in the face of more frequent and severe droughts. The goal of this study is to identify the drivers and impacts to using groundwater for drought mitigation in Washington State, by both characterizing the differences in the 2001, 2005, and 2015 droughts and estimating groundwater use in the Columbia River Basin in Washington. Preliminary results show a mismatch between groundwater use estimated from permit applications compared to modeled groundwater demand for irrigation from the coupled hydrologic and cropping systems model, VIC-CropSyst. We explore drivers of this discrepancy and its relation to drought with observation wells, reported emergency well permits, models, and remote sensing. Ultimately, this work lays the foundation to assess the economic value of groundwater to mitigate crop losses in agricultural regions, especially into the future with changing regulatory structures and climate change.

  12. Stereo Pair, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.

    This stereoscopic view combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was

  13. Stereo Pair, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.

    This stereoscopic view combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was

  14. Anaglyph, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.

    This anaglyph combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot)resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space

  15. Washington's Future. 1989-1990 Annual Report of Washington State's Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Community Development, Olympia.

    As part of an effort to correct major social problems, the Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program (ECEAP) was created in the State of Washington. The ECEAP offers comprehensive, quality preschool programs for children of families who have an income at or below the federal poverty level. An introductory section of the report provides…

  16. The Washington State Nurse Anesthetist Workforce: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Louise; Brown, Marie-Annette; Andrilla, Holly; Hart, L Gary

    2007-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe the Washington State Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA) workforce and analyze selected dimensions of their clinical practice. We developed the 31-item CRNA Practice Questionnaire. After receiving institutional review board approval, the questionnaire was mailed in 2003 to CRNAs licensed in Washington with an address in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics for all variables and was performed by University of Washington Center for Health Workforce Studies staff. Results indicate that the typical Washington State CRNA is 50.7 years old, white, and equally likely to be a man or woman. More than half of the Washington State CRNAs are master's educated and have an average of 19 years of CRNA experience. Most work at least 40 hours a week, take call, and earn more than 100,000 dollars per year. Almost all have hospital privileges, but only 30% believe they are equal colleagues with physicians. A chi2 analysis comparing urban and rural respondents yielded few differences except that rural CRNAs reported seeking significantly less consultation and were more likely to take call. Workforce data may assist CRNAs when negotiating with employers and institutions and in resolving interprofessional conflicts and can have implications for scope of practice, policy, and legislative issues.

  17. Astronomy 101 in Washington State High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Julie H.; Garner, S.; Stetter, T.; McKeever, J.; Santo Pietro, V.

    2011-01-01

    The University of Washington in the High School (UWHS) program enables high schools to offer the 5 quarter credits Astronomy 101 (Astr 101) course for college credits. The credits are transferable to most colleges and universities. The course provides an alternative to advance placement courses and programs such as Washington's Running Start whereby high school students take courses at community colleges. Astr 101 focuses on stars, galaxies and the universe, as well as background topics such as gravitation, electromagnetic radiation and telescopes. The course satisfies the UW "natural world” and "quantitative/symbolic reasoning” distribution requirements. Students must pay a fee to enroll, but the credits cost less than half what they would cost for the course if taken on one of the UW campuses. The course can be offered as either one semester or full-year at the high school. Teachers who offer Astr 101 must be approved in advance by the UW Astronomy Department, and their syllabi and course materials approved also. Teachers receive orientation, professional development opportunities, classroom visits and support (special web site, answering questions, making arrangements for campus visits, planetarium visits) from astronomy department course coordinator. The UWHS Astr 101 program has produced positive outcomes for the astronomy department, the participating teachers and the students who complete the course. In this poster we will discuss our 5 years of experience with offering Astr 101, including benefits to the students, teachers, high schools, university and department, student outcomes, course assessments and resources for offering the course.

  18. Migration and melanoma incidence rates among Washington state counties.

    PubMed

    Chan, Victor; Thompson, Ian; Whitney, David; Switzer, Michael; Anderson, Amy D; Smits, Shelly

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to look for a possible explanation for the variation in the incidence rate of melanoma among counties in Washington state. We used data from the Washington State Cancer Registry (WSCR), the Cancer Center at PeaceHealth St. Joseph Hospital in Whatcom County, and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry to get information on melanoma incidence. Demographic and migration records were obtained from the US Census Bureau, the Washington State Department of Licensing (DOL), and the US Internal Revenue Service (IRS). A number of different analytic techniques were used to address our research question, including a multiple regression analysis, time trend comparisons, and an analysis of birthplace data of melanoma patients in Whatcom county. We found a significant association between migration rate from the Southwest (SW) USA and melanoma incidence (P<0.001). Plots of time trend show that melanoma rates track with migration from the SW. In Whatcom county, almost half of all residents were born outside of Washington state, but they accounted for about 70% of all melanoma cases. Our analyses suggest that migration from the SW is an important factor in explaining the variation in melanoma rate among counties in Washington.

  19. Teacher Evaluation Instruments: The Processes and Protocols in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Andie Shane

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a descriptive analysis of teacher evaluation documents used in the state of Washington in 2010-2011. The purpose of the research was to understand what documents were used, differences and similarities from district to district, and the extent to which they conformed to state administrative rules and what the literature argues…

  20. Washington State Asian Pacific American Organizations Resources Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Commission on Asian-American Affairs, Olympia.

    This resource directory was prepared to assist educators, the media, government officials, students, and the general public in locating accurate and up-to-date information about Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) in Washington State. It was also prepared to help APAs find the services that are available to them throughout the state. This guide lists…

  1. MIGRATION OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS, STATE OF WASHINGTON.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOSSMAN, CHARLES S.; AND OTHERS

    TWO GENERAL ASPECTS OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY STUDENT MIGRATION AS IT RELATES TO THE STATE OF WASHINGTON ARE DISCUSSED. THE FIRST ASPECT INCLUDES ANALYSIS OF MIGRATION PATTERNS IN ACCORDANCE WITH ENROLLMENT CATEGORIES AND TYPES OF INSTITUTIONS, DIFFERENTIAL VOLUMES AND PATTERNS OF MIGRATION FOR SPECIFIC COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN THE STATE, AND…

  2. Program for Migrant Children's Education: 1987 Washington State Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasp, Alfred, Jr.; Plato, Kathleen C.

    This report describes the instructional and support services delivered directly to migrant children and youth in Washington State. It also describes the statewide services provided through special projects and programs. The report details the use of federal grant awards to the state for fiscal 1987. There are five sections to the report. Section…

  3. Language Policy and Bilingual Education in Arizona and Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric J.; Johnson, David Cassels

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the bilingual/language education policies of Arizona and Washington to show that state-level language policy plays a critical role in shaping the appropriation of federal language policy [No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Title III] and how different state-level language policies impact the district level of policy…

  4. Language Policy and Bilingual Education in Arizona and Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric J.; Johnson, David Cassels

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the bilingual/language education policies of Arizona and Washington to show that state-level language policy plays a critical role in shaping the appropriation of federal language policy [No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Title III] and how different state-level language policies impact the district level of policy…

  5. Current School Funding Policy Issues in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Neil D.

    This paper describes current school-funding policy issues in Washington State. The first part examines how Initiative 601, an initiative aimed at curbing state taxes and spending, will create fiscal instability for school districts. Difficulties include an expected growth in school enrollment exceeding population growth, an expected growth of…

  6. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site.

  7. Movement patterns of coyotes in south central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Ten coyotes (Canis latrans) fitted with radio transmitters on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Reservation in south central Washington were located daily over periods of 1-15 months. Because 82.9 of all locations were concentrated in only 6.9% of the total home range area, each home range was subdivided into an ''impact area'' and 1 or more ''core areas.'' An ''impact area'' was defined as an area through which a coyote traveled and within which it might have interacted with other animals. ''Core areas'' were relatively small regions of concentrated use. No relationships were found between daily movements and relative and absolute changes in mean daily temperature and mean daily barometric pressure, or moon phases. The measured movement parameters of daily movement, core area size, and home range size, respectively, changed by seasons: fall, 3.1 km, 5.3 km/sup 2/, 98.6 km/sup 2/; winter, 4.7 km, 13.2 km/sup 2/, 143 km/sup 2/; spring, 2.6 km, 8.3 km/sup 2/, 58.2 km/sup 2/; summer, 3.3 km/sup 2/, 54.5 km/sup 2/; overall, 3.4 km, 7.9 km/sup 2/, 92.4 km/sup 2/. Home ranges measured were larger than averages reported in the literature. The coyotes studied were subject to levels of disturbance lower than those reported for other populations.

  8. Washington Community Colleges. Correctional Education. Annual Report 2004-2005. State of Washington. State Board for Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This annual report provides a snapshot of enrollments, student demographics, courses and programs, student achievements, staffing, and funding for community college correctional education programs provided at Washington State Department of Corrections adult facilities. The primary source of information for this document is the State Board for…

  9. 75 FR 436 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National... human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington, Seattle, WA. The human remains and associated...

  10. 78 FR 64006 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), has completed an...

  11. 78 FR 59955 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), has completed an...

  12. Writing Programs in Washington State. Oral and Written Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    After providing a synthesis of research on the teaching of writing, this booklet offers summaries of writing programs in Washington State. Included are descriptions of (1) the Kettle Falls Secondary Language Arts Project, (2) the Kettle Falls rating scale for student writing, (3) Project WRITE, (4) the Puget Sound Writing Program, (5) the Edmonds…

  13. Organic codling moth management in Washington state and the world

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple and pear growers in Washington State are important producers of organic fruit in the international marketplace. Continued production of quality organic fruit requires effective pest management practices. Successful organic growers have been those that have adopted tactics which can minimize pe...

  14. Washington State's Laws Regulating Home-Based Instruction. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Terry; Kelly, Thomas J.; Riggers, Marcia L.; Dyer, Melinda

    This publication was put together by the Washington State Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction in response to questions about laws concerning home-based instruction passed in 1985. Part 1 contains responses to questions relating to Chapter 28A.225 RCW and Chapter 28A.200 RCW; topics covered include regulations governing compulsory school…

  15. Washington State Juvenile Justice Code: An Experiment in Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    In the Washington State juvenile justice system, serious or repeat offenders receive the full panoply of due process rights and procedures, with the exception of jury trials; minor offenders are diverted to community boards that require community service or victim restitution; and status offenders are removed from the courts' jurisdiction and…

  16. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Washington's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  17. Composition at Washington State University: Building a Multimodal Bricolage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericsson, Patricia; Hunter, Leeann Downing; Macklin, Tialitha Michelle; Edwards, Elizabeth Sue

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal pedagogy is increasingly accepted among composition scholars. However, putting such pedagogy into practice presents significant challenges. In this profile of Washington State University's first-year composition program, we suggest a multi-vocal and multi-theoretical approach to addressing the challenges of multimodal pedagogy. Patricia…

  18. Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) newly recorded from Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Examination of museum specimens, unpublished collection data, and field surveys conducted between 2010 and 2014 resulted in new records for 22 species of sawflies in Washington State. These data highlight the continued range expansion of exotic species across North America, seven of which are likely...

  19. Forest ecosystems, disturbance, and climate change in Washington State, USA

    Treesearch

    Jeremy S. Littell; Elaine E. Oneil; Donald McKenzie; Jeffrey A. Hicke; James A. Lutz; Robert A. Norheim; Marketa M. Elsner

    2010-01-01

    Climatic change is likely to affect Pacific Northwest (PNW) forests in several important ways. In this paper, we address the role of climate in four forest ecosystem processes and project the effects of future climatic change on these processes across Washington State. First, we relate Douglas-fir growth to climatic limitation and suggest that where Douglas-fir is...

  20. National Board Certification and Teacher Effectiveness: Evidence from Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, James; Goldhaber, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of teachers certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) in Washington State, which has one of the largest populations of National Board-Certified Teachers (NBCTs) in the nation. Based on value-added models in math and reading, we find that NBPTS-certified teachers are about 0.01-0.05…

  1. Washington State's Corrections Clearinghouse: A Comprehensive Approach to Offender Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    Since 1976, the Correctional Clearinghouse (CCH), which is a unit of the Washington State Employment Security Department, has been committed to preparing offenders for the workplace and finding employment. The CCH's principal service delivery strategies are as follows: (1) providing direct services (teaching job readiness courses in prisons and…

  2. Washington State Student Achievement Initiative Policy Study: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Wachen, John; Moore, Colleen; Shulock, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges launched a performance funding policy called the Student Achievement Initiative (SAI) both to improve public accountability by more accurately describing what students achieve from enrolling in community colleges and to provide incentives to colleges through financial rewards…

  3. Innovate Washington Group Looks to Create State Business

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-04-11

    Monthly column for TCH - April 2012. Excerpt here: Change is inevitable. In fact, many say it’s the only constant. One can either wait for the waves to hit and try not to drown, or get ahead of them and maximize the ride. I believe being proactive is the harder, but more powerful option. Over the past couple years numerous people have proactively worked to effect a particular change across the state of Washington: create a thriving ecosystem to accelerate technology-based economic development and achieve sustainable job growth. The result is an organization called Innovate Washington.

  4. Revisiting the deific-decree doctrine in Washington state.

    PubMed

    Leong, Gregory B

    2008-01-01

    The deific-decree exception to Washington's M'Naughten insanity standard first appeared in case law a quarter century ago in State v. Crenshaw. A few subsequent cases have attempted to refine the contours of the deific decree; however, the deific-decree doctrine has had only limited utility as a basis for the insanity defense. After about a decade of no activity in this area, the Washington courts have recently revisited the deific-decree doctrine in a case involving two defendants.

  5. 2011 State Teacher Policy Yearbook. Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2011

    2011-01-01

    For five years running, the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) has tracked states' teacher policies, preparing a detailed and thorough compendium of teacher policy in the United States on topics related to teacher preparation, licensure, evaluation, career advancement, tenure, compensation, pensions and dismissal. The "2011 State…

  6. 77 FR 76173 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Washington; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...EPA is proposing to partially approve and partially disapprove a Washington Regional Haze Implementation Plan (SIP) submitted by the State of Washington on December 22, 2010, that addresses regional haze for the first implementation period. This plan was submitted to meet the requirements of Clean Air Act (CAA) sections 169A and 169B that require states to prevent any future and remedy any......

  7. Community Exposure and Sensitivity to Earthquake Hazards in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratliff, J.; Wood, N. J.; Weaver, C. S.

    2011-12-01

    Communities in Washington State are potentially threatened by earthquakes from many sources, including the Cascadia Subduction zone and myriad inland faults (Seattle fault, Tacoma fault, etc.). The USGS Western Geographic Science Center, in collaboration with the State of Washington Military Department Emergency Management Division, has been working to identify Washington community vulnerability to twenty-one earthquake scenarios to provide assistance for mitigation, preparedness, and outreach. We calculate community earthquake exposure and sensitivity by overlaying demographic and economic data with peak ground acceleration values of each scenario in a geographic information system. We summarize community and county earthquake vulnerability to assist emergency managers by the number of earthquake scenarios affecting each area, as well as the number of residents, occupied households, businesses (individual and sector), and employees in each predicted Modified Mercalli Intensity value (ranging from V to IX). Percentages based on community, county, and scenario totals also provide emergency managers insight to community sensitivity to the earthquake scenarios. Results indicate significant spatial and temporal residential variations as well as spatial economic variations in exposure and sensitivity to earthquake hazards in the State of Washington, especially for communities west of the Cascade Range.

  8. North Central Washington Business/Spanish Instruction Modules. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Robert H.

    The major objective of this project was to develop a series of specialized English-to-Spanish study modules for retail stores. The modules are to become part of the instruction in the small business, salesmanship, and advertising classes at Wenatchee Valley College (Washington). A minor objective was to survey the current perceived level of sales…

  9. 77 FR 72742 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: State of Washington; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... (TransAlta). The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) submitted its Regional Haze State... at 40 CFR 50.308. On December 29, 2011 Ecology submitted an update to the SIP submittal containing a...? Ecology submitted its Regional Haze SIP on December 22, 2010 to meet the requirements of 40 CFR 50.308. On...

  10. Rise and fall of endrin usage in Washington state fruit orchards: Effects on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the effects of endrin on wildlife was conducted from 1981 to 1983 in fruit orchards in central Washington state. The single post-harvest application of endrin as a rodenticide resulted in both acute and chronic toxicity to a variety of avian species. Most mortality occurred soon after application, but several raptors died during the spring and summer. Most wildlife sampled in the orchard system contained residues of endrin. There was on evidence that endrin depressed reproductive success.

  11. Phytoplankton off the Coast of Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Clear weather over the Pacific Northwest yesterday gave the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) a good view of this mountain region of the United States. Also, there are several phytoplankton blooms visible offshore. The white areas hugging the California coastline toward the bottom of the image are low-level stratus clouds. SeaWiFS acquired this true-color scene on October 3, 2001. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. Pathway to pharmacist medical provider status in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Hazlet, Thomas K; Karwaki, Tanya E; Downing, Donald F

    To describe Washington State's successful legal and legislative efforts to gain pharmacist medical provider status and major medical compensation and to compare those efforts with similar efforts in other states to identify key lessons learned. Washington State Engrossed Substitute Senate Bill 5557 was enacted in 2015, securing pharmacists as medical providers and requiring compensation under major medical insurance for pharmacists providing health services (Revised Code of Washington 48.43.715). Other states have passed, or attempted to pass, pharmacist provider status bills, but none have achieved both pharmacist medical provider status and mandatory major medical compensation. Pharmacist medical provider status ideally should include recognition as a medical provider and compensation through major medical health insurance as a clinical decision maker rather than an "incident-to" provider. Both elements should be sought as part of a complete legislative package to ensure sustainable patient access to needed health care services. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 28073 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University... the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA. The human remains and... made by the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University professional staff in consultation...

  14. 76 FR 28076 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University... were in possession of the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA. The human... the human remains was made by the Museum of Anthropology at the Washington State University...

  15. High School CPR/AED Training in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Salvatierra, Gail G; Palazzo, Steven J; Emery, Allison

    2017-05-01

    Describe the rates of CPR/AED training in high schools in the state of Washington after passage of legislation mandating CPR/AED training. A web-based survey was sent to administrators at 660 public and private high schools in the state of Washington. The survey was completed by 148 schools (22%); 64% reported providing CPR training and 54% provided AED training. Reported barriers to implementation included instructor availability, cost, and a lack of equipment. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample characteristics and implementation rates. Mandates without resources and support do not ensure implementation of CPR/AED training in high schools. Full public health benefits of a CPR mandate will not be realized until barriers to implementation are identified and eliminated through use of available, accessible public health resources. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Work-related amputations in Washington state, 1997-2005.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K; Adams, Darrin

    2010-07-01

    Work-related amputations are infrequent but devastating injuries. Attempts to more accurately estimate the burden of amputations and industries at risk have led the Washington State occupational surveillance program to explore new methods for case identification in Washington State workers' compensation data. Two methods were utilized for case identification of work-related amputations. The first method used the ANSI Z16 nature code for amputation. An alternative method utilized medical, hospital, and claim administration coding of medical bills and bill payment systems. After identifying suspected amputation claims, a sample of the medical records associated with different case identification methods were reviewed to verify that an amputation likely occurred. From 1997 to 2005, 2,528 amputations were identified using the ANSI Z16 code for amputation (Nature = 100) and an additional 3,912 amputations were identified using the alternative method. There was an increasing trend of amputation injuries over the time period using the ANSI amputation definition; however, the trend in amputation injuries captured by the alternative method was decreasing. This may indicate a bias in estimating a trend due to misclassification of amputation injuries. The sectors with the highest amputation claims rates were Manufacturing; Construction; Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting; Accommodation and Food Services; and Wholesale and Retail Trade. Current methods to identify work-related amputations in the workers' compensation data system underestimate the burden of amputations in Washington State. By utilizing alternative case identification methods, we estimate that there were about 150% more amputations in Washington State over the time period. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Family Practitioners' Immunization Consent Practice Washington State, 1986

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Victoria L.; Coombs, John B.; Marcuse, Edgar K.

    1988-01-01

    Of 400 Washington State family practitioners surveyed in 1986, 46% of those who give routine immunizations reported that they require written parental consent before administering vaccine. In all, 57% of respondents said they discuss diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, measles-mumps-rubella, and oral polio vaccine with their patients. Nearly half provide written information on these immunizations, except for inactivated polio vaccine, for which fewer than 20% of the physicians surveyed provide verbal or written information. PMID:3388860

  18. Test wells in central Washington, 1977 to 1979; description and results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lum, W.E.; Cline, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    During the period October 1977-March 1979, four wells were added to a network of wells in central Washington State to provide information on potential sources of ground-water supplies from aquifers in the Columbia River Basalt Group and supplemental ground-water data for water-management purposes where they cannot be obtained by other means. Two were drilled in the Yakima River canyon between Ellensburg and Yakima--one to 602 feet in the Burbank Creek valley and the other to 1,019 feet near the mouth of Umtanum Creek. A third well was drilled to 725 feet in the Badger Pocket area of the Ellensburg-Kittitas valley. A test well near George, Washington, was deepened from 975 to 1,610 feet and three piezometers were installed in this interval. The Burbank Creek, Umtanum Creek, and George test wells are completed in basalts and associated interflow zones of the Yakima Basalt Subgroup of the Columbia River Basalt Group. The Badger Pocket well penetrated more than 725 feet of unconsolidated materials without reaching the basalt. Specific capacities of the Umtanum Creek and George wells after 20 hours of pumping were 190 and 160 to 190 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown, respectively. Specific capacity of the Burbank Creek well after flowing for 24 hours was 32.5 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. The Badger Pocket well was not tested for water yield. (USGS)

  19. Volatile substance misuse deaths in Washington State, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Ossiander, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Volatile substance misuse (VSM - also known as huffing or sniffing) causes some deaths, but because there are no specific cause-of-death codes for VSM, these deaths are rarely tabulated. Count and describe VSM deaths occurring in Washington State during 2003-2012. We used the textual cause-of-death information on death certificates to count VSM-associated deaths that occurred in Washington State during 2003-2012. We extracted records that contained words suggesting either a method of inhalation or a substance commonly used for VSM, and reviewed those records to identify deaths on which the inhalation of a volatile substance was mentioned. We conducted a descriptive analysis of those deaths. Fifty-six deaths involving VSM occurred in Washington State during 2003-2012. VSM deaths occurred primarily among adults age 20 and over (91%), males (88%), and whites (93%). Twelve different chemicals were associated with deaths, but 1 of them, difluoroethane, was named on 30 death certificates (54%), and its involvement increased during the study period. Gas duster products were named as the source of difluoroethane for 12 deaths; no source was named for the other 18 difluoroethane deaths. Most VSM deaths occurred among white male adults, and gas duster products containing difluoroethane were the primary source of inhalants. Approaches to deter VSM, such as the addition of bitterants to gas dusters, should be explored.

  20. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Washington State domestic goat herds.

    PubMed

    Sondgeroth, Kerry S; Davis, Margaret A; Schlee, Sara L; Allen, Andy J; Evermann, James F; McElwain, Terry F; Baszler, Tim V

    2013-11-01

    A caprine herd seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection was determined by passive surveillance of domestic goat herds in Washington State. Serum samples (n=1794) from 105 herds in 31 counties were analyzed for C. burnetii antibodies using a commercially available Q fever antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. The sera were submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for routine serologic screening over an approximate 1-year period from November, 2010, through November, 2011. To avoid bias introduced by testing samples from ill animals, only accessions for routine screening of nonclinical animals were included in the study. A standard cluster sampling approach to investigate seroprevalence at the herd level was used to determine optimal study sample size. The results identified C. burnetii antibodies in 8.0% of samples tested (144/1794), 8.6% of goat herds tested (9/105), and 25.8% of counties tested (8/31). Within-herd seroprevalence in positive counties ranged from 2.9% to 75.8%. Counties with seropositive goats were represented in the western, eastern, southeastern, and Columbia basin agricultural districts of the state. To our knowledge this is the first county-specific, statewide study of C. burnetii seroprevalence in Washington State goat herds. The findings provide baseline information for future epidemiologic, herd management and public health investigations of Q fever.

  1. Wind Powering America State Outreach. Final Technical Report: Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, Tim

    2013-09-30

    The Washington Department of Commerce, via a U.S. Department of Energy grant, supported research into siting and permitting processes for wind projects by Skagit County, Washington. The goal was to help a local government understand key issues, consider how other areas have addressed wind siting, and establish a basis for enacting permitting and zoning ordinances that provided a more predictable permitting path and process for landowners, citizens, government and developers of small and community wind projects. The County?s contractor developed a report that looked at various approaches to wind siting, interviewed stakeholders, and examined technology options. The contractor outlined key issues and recommended the adoption of a siting process. The Skagit County Commission considered the report and directed the Skagit County Planning & Development Services Department to add development of wind guidelines to its work plan for potential changes to development codes.

  2. 1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1990-12-31

    This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington`s industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state`s total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state`s energy needs.

  3. 76 FR 58034 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum) has completed an inventory of human remains...

  4. 76 FR 58039 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), has completed an inventory of human remains...

  5. Blair v. Washington State University: Making State ERA'a a Potent Remedy for Sex Discrimination in Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Doralice McEuen; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The case of Blair vs. Washington State University revives the state equal rights amendment as a feasible and powerful cause of action against sex-based discrimination, in college athletics and beyond. Washington's amendment mandated equality in funding, facilities, treatment, and opportunities for Washington State University's women's…

  6. 78 FR 50099 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... were excavated by John D. Combes of Washington State University under a contract with the Washington..., 1986; Luttrell, 2011; Ruby and Brown, 1970 & 1981; Walker, 1998). Additionally, during consultation...

  7. Washington State's federal adequacy determination strategy for compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency's state implementation rule

    SciTech Connect

    Alb, J.W. )

    1994-03-01

    On October 9, 1991, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published in the Federal Register a rule relating to municipal solid waste landfill units, 40 CFR 258, also known as the State and Tribal Implementation Rule, or STIR. This set into motion federal mandates established under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), as amended, which requires state adoption and implementation of a solid waste permit program or other system of prior approval, with approval of the state program by the EPA required by October 9, 1993. Washington State's solid waste permit program is, in comparison with other states' programs, unique, since the state of Washington does not issue permits. This task is and has remained the responsibility of local jurisdiction health departments since Washington State promulgated its first solid waste laws in 1969. The challenge of the state is to develop a strategy for adequacy determination'' that meets federal criteria yet addresses the historical traditions of Washington State. This paper outlines the strategy and process followed and issues examined by the state of Washington's Department of Ecology as it has prepared its application for determination of adequacy with the EPA to meet the federal requirements established under RCRA Subtitle D.

  8. Prevention Research Center Collaborations With State Departments of Health: Washington State.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Peggy A; Vu, Thuy T; Santiago, Patricia Migliore; Joyner, Pama; Mason, Caitlin; Harris, Jeffrey R

    2017-03-01

    State health departments and Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) have complementary mandates and expertise important to improving population health. State health departments manage and administer numerous programs with broad population reach. PRCs bridge dissemination and implementation research and public health practice to improve health programming and outcomes. This paper describes the 15-year partnership between the Washington State Department of Health and the PRC at the University of Washington. Through this partnership, the Washington State Department of Health increases their research and evaluation capacity by working with the University of Washington PRC, and the University of Washington PRC receives opportunities to apply evidence in a variety of practice settings, expand the reach of their research-tested programs to new populations, and form new partnerships. The partnership focused initially on improving colorectal cancer screening rates through increased dissemination and implementation of evidence-based interventions. The partnership scope has grown to include small cancer screening projects in worksites and healthcare systems, Washington's Colorectal Cancer Control Program, breast and cervical cancer screening, hypertension control, and worksite health promotion. The partnership yields three main types of outcomes that strengthen practice and science: (1) findings from each major assessment or evaluation activity, published in the peer-reviewed literature when possible; (2) use of the findings to improve public health practice and impact; and (3) training opportunities for employees of local and state health departments and public health students. PRCs, health departments, and the populations they serve have much to gain from this type of partnership.

  9. Periodic variation in physical and chemical properties of two central Washington soils.

    Treesearch

    Tom D. Anderson; Arthur R. Tiedemann

    1970-01-01

    Soils derived from two widely distributed parent materials in central Washington were examined periodically during 1968-69 for physical and chemical properties. Basalt soils showed significant periodic variation in cation exchange capacity, pH, and Na and K contents. In sandstone soils, cation exchange capacity and Ca, Na, and K contents varied significantly among...

  10. Estimating biomass of shrubs and forbs in central Washington Douglas-fir stands.

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Olson; Robert E. Martin

    1981-01-01

    Understory plants in closed 70-year-old even-aged Douglas-fir stands in north central Washington were destructively sampled to determine the relationship of ground cover and height to dry weight. Weight of plant material can be estimated from the product of plant height and percentage of ground cover on 50- x 100-centimeter (cm) quadrats. Correlation coefficients for...

  11. Forest fire weather in eastern Oregon and central Washington in 1960.

    Treesearch

    Owen P. Cramer; Howard E. Graham

    1961-01-01

    In 1960, the first analysis of fire season weather was made for forests east of the Cascade Range. Highlights were: The 1960 season was among the most severe since 1939 in eastern Oregon, was more severe than normal in central Washington, and will long be remembered for the rainless lightning storm that hit northeast Oregon with devastating effect the evening of July...

  12. Legal Cases Related to Faculty Tenure in Washington State Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Robert H.

    An overview is provided of the issues, procedures, and prevailing judicial rationale for faculty tenure decisions in the state of Washington. All legal cases decided in Washington and cases from other jurisdictions that have had an impact on Washington law are summarized in this digest. Each case summary consists of an introduction of issues…

  13. 76 FR 76299 - Higher Volume Port Area-State of Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 155 RIN 1625-AB75 Higher Volume Port Area--State of Washington AGENCY... and within a 50-mile arc measured from Cape Flattery, Washington, to the HVPA. Higher volume port... Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday...

  14. Habitat fragmentation and the persistence of lynx populations in Washington state

    Treesearch

    Gary M Koehler; Benjamin T. Maletzke; Jeff A. Von Kienast; Keith B. Aubry; Robert B. Wielgus; Robert H. Naney

    2008-01-01

    Lynx (Lynx canadensis) occur in the northern counties of Washington state, USA; however, current distribution and status of lynx in Washington are poorly understood. During winters 2002-2004 we snow-tracked lynx for 155 km within a 211-km2 area in northern Washington, to develop a model of lynx-habitat relationships that we...

  15. School Finance in Washington State 1997-98: Emerging Equity Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plecki, Margaret L.

    Forty-six percent of Washington's state operating budget is devoted to K-12 education. This paper provides an overview of key features of Washington's school finance system. It examines sources and levels of revenues and expenditures for K-12 public education and outlines major principles of Washington's revenue distribution system. An examination…

  16. Automated external defibrillators in Washington State high schools.

    PubMed

    Rothmier, Justin D; Drezner, Jonathan A; Harmon, Kimberly G

    2007-05-01

    The placement of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in schools and public sporting venues is a growing national trend. To determine the prevalence and use of AEDs in Washington State high schools and to examine the existing emergency preparedness for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Cross-sectional survey. High schools in Washington State. The principal at each high school in the Washington Interscholastic Activities Association (n = 407) was invited to complete a web-based questionnaire using the National Registry for AED Use in Sports (http://www.AEDSPORTS.com). The primary outcome measures studied included AED prevalence and location, funding for AEDs, AED training of school personnel, coordination of AED placement with local emergency response agencies, and prior AED use. 118 schools completed the survey (29% response rate). 64 (54%) of the schools have at least one AED on school grounds (mean 1.6, range 1-4). The likelihood of AED placement increased with larger school size (p = 0.044). 60% of AEDs were funded by donations, 27% by the school district and 11% by the school or athletic department itself. Coaches (78%) were the most likely to receive AED training, followed by administrators (72%), school nurses (70%) and teachers (48%). Only 25% of schools coordinated the implementation of AEDs with an outside medical agency and only 6% of schools coordinated with the local emergency medical system. One school reported having used an AED previously to treat SCA in a basketball official who survived after a single shock. The estimated probability of AED use to treat SCA was 1 in 154 schools per year. Over half of Washington State high schools have an AED on school grounds. AED use occurred in <1% of schools annually and was effective in the treatment of SCA. Funding of AED programmes was mostly through private donations, with little coordination with local emergency response teams. Significant improvement is needed in structuring emergency response plans and

  17. Changes in opioid prescribing for chronic pain in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Gary M; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Turner, Judith A; Sullivan, Mark D; Wickizer, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    To conduct a survey of primary care physicians and advanced registered nurse practitioners (ARNPs) in Washington State (WA) focused on changes in practice patterns and use of support tools in the prescription of opioids for the treatment of chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). A convenience sample of primary care providers in WA was obtained from diverse geographic regions and health care organizations. The web-based anonymous survey was conducted in March-August 2011. Among 856 provider respondents, 623 reported treating patients with CNCP and served as the analysis sample. Most providers (72%) reported concern about opioid overdose, addiction, dependence, or diversion. Only 25% indicated concern about regulatory scrutiny. Only a small proportion of providers overall (3.3%) reported that they had stopped prescribing opioids for CNCP, but twice as many ARNPs (5.8%) as physicians (MDs and osteopaths) (2.1%) reported this. A greater proportion of physicians (70.9%) than ARNPs (40.1%) reported familiarity with the Washington State opioid dosing guidelines. Physicians in a large health plan with substantial infrastructure support reported less concern about opioids compared with providers in other settings. Of providers in Spokane (the largest city in Eastern Washington), 45% reported very low capacity to access pain specialty consultation. The vast majority of providers reported a need to access more efficient, innovative means of support and education related to treating patients with CNCP, such as telemedicine consultation. Overall, prescribing providers in WA reported ongoing concerns regarding opioid use for CNCP, but those affiliated with a health care organization with opioid prescribing guidelines and access to pain consultation were less likely to report being concerned about opioid-related problems or to have discontinued prescribing opioids.

  18. Relating Forage-Fish use With Spatial and Temporal Variability of Particle-Size Distributions of Mixed Grain-Size Beaches in the Elwha and Dungeness Drift Cells , Central Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington State.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, D. S.; Shaffer, A.; Warrick, J.; Nabors, T.; Ritchie, T.; Penttila, D.; Barry, D.

    2008-12-01

    The removal of two dams on the Elwha River of Washington State is expected to release 1.38 x107 m3 of gravel, sand and silt into the Elwha River and nearshore marine environment of the Strait of Juan de Fuca (Randle et al., 1996). Waves and tides are expected to distribute these sediments widely upon beaches within the Elwha littoral cell with implications for many biotic organisms including forage fish such as surf smelt (Hypomesus pretiosus) and sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus)(Shaffer et al., 2008). Forage fish spawning surveys (Moulton and Penttila, 2000), consisting of beach foreshore surface photographs and bulk sediment samples allow correlation between sediment particle-size distributions and forage-fish egg frequencies. Seasonal and spatial variability of mean grain-sizes of mixed sand-gravel beaches is characterized with traditional sieve (Church et al. 1987) and photographic methods (Adams, 1979). Sample sites are categorized by geomorphic setting (e.g. embayments, bluffs, and spits) and sampling frequency reflects expected annual seasonal variation in sediment transport processes . Mean sediment grain-sizes measured from photographs are correlated with mean grain-sizes from sieved bulk sediment samples. Comparison of mean grain-sizes from surface and 10-centimeter depth photographs where the surface lag has been removed, suggest an improved relationship between bulk sieve sample data and data obtained from photographic analysis. This finding demonstrates that photographic analysis of grain-sizes on mixed grain-size beaches from surface samples only, may skew mean grain-size due to the presence of a surface lag layer. Observed particle-size distributions are strongly polymodal. Geomorphic setting of beaches is an important factor in the observed range of mean grain-sizes based on proximity to sediment sources such as feeder bluffs. These results will be used to compare forage fish habitat form and function response to future sediment inputs from dam

  19. State Teacher Policy Yearbook: Progress on Teacher Quality, 2007. Washington State Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" examines what is arguably the single most powerful authority over the teaching profession: state government. This Washington edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the first of what will be an annual look at the status of state…

  20. Legacy lead arsenate soil contamination at childcare centers in the Yakima Valley, Central Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Durkee, Jenna; Bartrem, Casey; Möller, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    From the early 1900s to the 1950s, Yakima Valley orchards were commonly treated with lead arsenate (LA) insecticides. Lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) soil contamination has been identified on former orchard lands throughout Central Washington and pose a threat to human health and the environment. The levels of Pb and As in soil and interior dust at participating childcare centers in the Upper Yakima Valley (Yakima County), Washington were sampled to explore exposure potential for young children. Childcare center soils were collected from two soil depths, homogenized, and analyzed in bulk by a field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). Interior dust wipes samples were collected from at least two locations in each facility. All soil samples >250 mg/kg Pb and/or >20 As mg/kg were sieved to 250 μm, tested by XRF a second time, and analyzed via acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Bulk and sieved XRF results, as well as ICP-MS to XRF results were strongly correlated. Maximum Pb and As XRF results indicated that 4 (21%) and 8 (42%) of the 19 childcare centers surveyed exceeded the regulatory standard for Pb and As, respectively. Historic land use was significantly associated with elevated Pb and As levels. Interior dust loadings were below United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. Childcare centers are areas of intensive use for children and when coupled with potential residential exposure in their homes, the total daily exposure is a potential hazard to children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A survey of veterinary antimicrobial prescribing practices, Washington State 2015.

    PubMed

    Fowler, H; Davis, M A; Perkins, A; Trufan, S; Joy, C; Buswell, M; McElwain, T F; Moore, D; Worhle, R; Rabinowitz, P M

    2016-12-24

    Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global health issue. It is also a recognised problem in veterinary medicine. Between September and December 2015 the authors administered a cross-sectional survey to licensed veterinarians in Washington State to assess factors affecting antimicrobial prescribing practices among veterinarians in Washington State. Two hundred and three veterinarians completed the survey. The majority of respondents (166, 82 per cent) were engaged in small animal or exotic animal practice. 24 per cent of respondents reported not ordering culture and sensitivity (C/S) testing in practice. Of the 76 per cent of veterinarians who reported ordering C/S tests, 36 per cent reported ordering such testing 'often' or 'always' when treating presumptive bacterial infections. Most respondents (65 per cent) mentioned cost as the most common barrier to ordering a C/S test. Only 16 (10 per cent) respondents reported having access to or utilising a clinic-specific antibiogram. This survey demonstrated that while antimicrobials are commonly used in veterinary practice, and veterinarians are concerned about antimicrobial resistance, cost is a barrier to obtaining C/S tests to guide antimicrobial therapy. Summaries of antimicrobial resistance patterns are rarely available to the practising veterinarian. Efforts to promote antimicrobial stewardship in a 'One Health' manner should address barriers to the judicious use of antimicrobials in the veterinary practice setting. British Veterinary Association.

  2. A Study of Water Wave Wakes of Washington State Ferries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perfect, Bradley; Riley, James; Thomson, Jim; Fay, Endicott

    2015-11-01

    Washington State Ferries (WSF) operates a ferry route that travels through a 600m-wide channel called Rich Passage. Concerns of shoreline erosion in Rich Passage have prompted this study of the generation and propagation of surface wave wakes caused by WSF vessels. The problem was addressed in three ways: analytically, using an extension of the Kelvin wake model by Darmon et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 738, 2014); computationally, employing a RANS Navier-Stokes model in the CFD code OpenFOAM which uses the Volume of Fluid method to treat the free surface; and with field data taken in Sept-Nov, 2014, using a suite of surface wave measuring buoys. This study represents one of the first times that model predictions of ferry boat-generated wakes can be tested against measurements in open waters. The results of the models and the field data are evaluated using direct comparison of predicted and measured surface wave height as well as other metrics. Furthermore, the model predictions and field measurements suggest differences in wake amplitudes for different class vessels. Finally, the relative strengths and weaknesses of each prediction method as well as of the field measurements will be discussed. Washington State Department of Transportation.

  3. Washington State pediatricians' attitudes toward alternative childhood immunization schedules.

    PubMed

    Wightman, Aaron; Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Taylor, James A

    2011-12-01

    To determine the frequency of parents' requests for alternative childhood immunization schedules (ACISs) and pediatricians' comfort with and willingness to use ACISs. Washington State primary care pediatricians were asked to complete an Internet-based survey on ACISs. The main outcome measures were the frequency of parents' requests for ACISs, pediatricians' comfort with their use, and pediatricians' willingness to use ACISs for individual vaccines. In addition, respondents were asked to characterize their practices and to provide demographic information. Of the 311 respondents (response rate: 65%), 209 met inclusion criteria and were included in analyses. Overall, 77% of eligible respondents reported that parents sometimes or frequently requested ACISs, and 61% were comfortable using an ACIS if requested by a parent. Pediatricians were least willing to consider using ACISs for diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatricians who practiced in a neighborhood or community clinic were less comfortable using ACISs than were those in a 1- or 2-physician practice (odds ratio: 0.10). Washington State pediatricians are regularly being asked to use ACISs, and most of them are comfortable using them if requested. Pediatricians are least willing to delay H influenzae type b vaccine, diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis vaccine, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, which suggests prioritization of immunizations that protect against potentially devastating bacterial infections of infancy and early childhood.

  4. Washington State Pediatricians' Attitudes Toward Alternative Childhood Immunization Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Wightman, Aaron; Marcuse, Edgar K.; Taylor, James A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of parents' requests for alternative childhood immunization schedules (ACISs) and pediatricians' comfort with and willingness to use ACISs. METHODS: Washington State primary care pediatricians were asked to complete an Internet-based survey on ACISs. The main outcome measures were the frequency of parents' requests for ACISs, pediatricians' comfort with their use, and pediatricians' willingness to use ACISs for individual vaccines. In addition, respondents were asked to characterize their practices and to provide demographic information. RESULTS: Of the 311 respondents (response rate: 65%), 209 met inclusion criteria and were included in analyses. Overall, 77% of eligible respondents reported that parents sometimes or frequently requested ACISs, and 61% were comfortable using an ACIS if requested by a parent. Pediatricians were least willing to consider using ACISs for diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatricians who practiced in a neighborhood or community clinic were less comfortable using ACISs than were those in a 1- or 2-physician practice (odds ratio: 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Washington State pediatricians are regularly being asked to use ACISs, and most of them are comfortable using them if requested. Pediatricians are least willing to delay H influenzae type b vaccine, diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis vaccine, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, which suggests prioritization of immunizations that protect against potentially devastating bacterial infections of infancy and early childhood. PMID:22123877

  5. 1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington's industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state's total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state's energy needs.

  6. Seattle to Spokane: Mapping Perceptions of English in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Betsy E.

    2015-01-01

    This research explores perceptions of linguistic variation in English in Washington state (WA). Respondents marked on a map of WA the places where they believe people’s English sounds “different” and provided a label for that type of English. The analysis of the results used digital tools to create composite maps consisting of (1) respondents’ spatial perceptions of English in WA, (2) spatial perceptions of English in WA according to different demographic groups, and (3) affective values associated with regions identified by respondents. The results suggest that Washingtonians perceive that urban areas and eastern WA are places where English is different. The results also demonstrate that when respondents are surveyed about variation within their own state rather than variation across the country, local types of organizational categories, such as an urban/rural dichotomy or belief in a regional standard, can emerge. PMID:25892828

  7. County portraits of Washington state. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, W.J.; Phillips, R.H.; Raettig, T.L.; Connaughton, K.P.

    1997-04-01

    The publication provides a general picture of the population, economy, and natural resources of the counties in Washington State. The intent of this report is to provide insight to changes in a county over the last 10 to 20 years, to compare county trends to statewide trends (and state trends to national trends), and to provide information on all the counties in a similar format. The report provides a context and a place to start in examining social and economic trends and conditions, and the importance of natural resources locally. In addition, technical notes for each data series follow the last county profile so that it is clear what is included, how estimates were made, and when cation is advised in using the data. Data sources are provided for readers interested in obtaining raw data or updated data.

  8. 1994 Washington State directory of Biomass Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    This is the fourth edition of the Washington Directory of Biomass Energy Facilities, the first edition was published in 1987. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of and basic information about known biomass producers and users within the state to help demonstrate the importance of biomass energy in fueling our state`s energy needs. In 1992 (latest statistical year), estimates show that the industrial sector in Washington consumed nearly 128 trillion Btu of electricity, nearly 49.5 trillion Btu of petroleum, over 82.2 trillion Btu of natural gas, and over 4.2 trillion Btu of coal. Facilities listed in this directory generated approximately 114 trillion Btu of biomass energy - 93 trillion were consumed from waste wood and spent chemicals. In the total industrial energy picture, wood residues and chemical cooking liquors placed second only to electricity. This directory is divided into four main sections biogas production, biomass combustion, ethanol production, and solid fuel processing facilities. Each section contains maps and tables summarizing the information for each type of biomass. Provided in the back of the directory for reference are a conversion table, a table of abbreviations, a glossary, and an index. Chapter 1 deals with biogas production from both landfills and sewage treatment plants in the state. Biogas produced from garbage and sewage can be scrubbed and used to generate electricity. At the present time, biogas collected at landfills is being flared on-site, however four landfills are investigating the feasibility of gas recovery for energy. Landfill biogas accounted for approximately 6 percent of the total biomass reported. Sewage treatment biogas accounted for 0.6 percent. Biogas generated from sewage treatment plants is primarily used for space and process heat, only one facility presently scrubs and sells methane. Together, landfill and sewage treatment plant biogas represented over 6.6 percent of the total biomass reported.

  9. Occupational heat illness in Washington State, 1995-2005.

    PubMed

    Bonauto, David; Anderson, Robert; Rauser, Edmund; Burke, Brian

    2007-12-01

    Little information exists describing the incidence of heat-related illness (HRI) among non-military working populations. An analysis of HRI cases utilizing workers' compensation data has not been previously reported. We used both ICD-9 and ANSI Z16.2 codes with subsequent medical record review to identify accepted Washington State Fund workers' compensation claims for HRI over the 11-year time period from 1995-2005. There were 480 Washington workers' compensation claims for HRI during the 11-year study period. NAICS industries with the highest workers' compensation HRI average annual claims incidence rate were Fire Protection 80.8/100,000 FTE, Roofing Construction 59.0/100,000 FTE, and Highway, Bridge and Street Construction 44.8/100,000 FTE. HRI claims were associated with high outdoor ambient temperatures. Medical risk factors for HRI were present in some cases. HRI cases occur in employed populations. HRI rates vary by industry and are comparable to those previously published for the mining industry.

  10. Opportunities for addressing laminated root rot caused by Phellinus sulphuracens in Washington's forests: A Report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources

    Treesearch

    R. James Cook; Robert L. Edmonds; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Willis Littke; Geral McDonald; Daniel Omdahl; Karen Ripley; Charles G. Shaw; Rona Sturrock; Paul Zambino

    2013-01-01

    This report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences (WSAS) is in response to a request from the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to "identify approaches and opportunities ripe for research on understanding and managing root diseases of Douglas-fir." Similar to the process used by the National Research Council, the WSAS upon...

  11. Washington State Community Colleges: Impact on the Economy of the State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sally; And Others

    Using a Virginia study as a model, this study assessed the effect on Washington state's economy of its 27 campus community college system. The study was based on a simple circular cash-flow model for the years 1969-1976 and measured economic impact in three areas: on the level of business volume done in-state, on employment, and on total state…

  12. 77 FR 30467 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Washington; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) submitted its Regional Haze State Implementation Plan (SIP) on December 22, 2010 to meet the requirements of 40 CFR 50.308. On December 29, 2011 Ecology... (NO X ) emissions from TransAlta. Ecology submitted its Regional Haze SIP on December 22, 2010, to...

  13. Washington State Community Colleges: Impact on the Economy of the State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sally; And Others

    Using a Virginia study as a model, this study assessed the effect on Washington state's economy of its 27 campus community college system. The study was based on a simple circular cash-flow model for the years 1969-1976 and measured economic impact in three areas: on the level of business volume done in-state, on employment, and on total state…

  14. Turning State Data and Research into Information: An Example from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, David; Seppanen, Loretta; Stephens, Deborah; Stewart, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, a new performance funding system for community and technical colleges. Its purposes are to improve public accountability by more accurately describing what students achieve from enrolling in state colleges each year and provide incentives through financial rewards to…

  15. State Gender Equity Law & Athletic Participation among Community Colleges in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Horton, David, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of partial tuition waivers for athletic participation among community colleges in Washington State and its implications for state and federal gender equity policy and legislation. Using a mixed-methods approach, this article presents findings from Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act data, document analysis, and…

  16. STATE OF WASHINGTON, STATE PLAN FOR TITLE 1, HIGHER EDUCATION ACT OF 1965. REVISED, JULY 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Planning and Community Affairs Agency, Olympia.

    THE STATE OF WASHINGTON PLAN FOR PARTICIPATION IN THE FEDERAL GRANT PROGRAM UNDER TITLE 1 OF THE HIGHER EDUCATION ACT OF 1965 OUTLINES THE ORGANIZATION AND THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS OF THE PLANNING AND COMMUNITY AFFAIRS AGENCY (INTENDED AS THE SOLE TITLE 1 ADMINISTRATIVE BODY IN THE STATE), GUIDELINES FOR SELECTING COMMUNITY PROBLEMS OR…

  17. State Gender Equity Law & Athletic Participation among Community Colleges in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Horton, David, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of partial tuition waivers for athletic participation among community colleges in Washington State and its implications for state and federal gender equity policy and legislation. Using a mixed-methods approach, this article presents findings from Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act data, document analysis, and…

  18. Charter Schools in Washington State: A Financial Drain or Gain? CRPE Working Paper #2004_5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Amy Berk

    2004-01-01

    The pending Referendum 55 (R-55), allowing for the emergence of charter schools in Washington State, raises questions about the overall fiscal impact of these new public schools at the state and local levels. Specifically, what potential benefits or losses might the State of Washington and local school districts expect if Referendum 55 passes?…

  19. Washington's Infant Toddler Early Intervention Program Study: Enrollment of Washington Children with Disabilities and Special Health Care Needs in Washington State Public Programs on December 1, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Trisha; And Others

    This document presents tables, graphs, and narrative text providing information on the number and characteristics of infants and toddlers, under the age of 3, with disabilities and special health problems who were enrolled in Washington State's infant and toddler early intervention program in 1995. Major findings of the report include the…

  20. Washington's Infant Toddler Early Intervention Program Study: Enrollment of Washington Children with Disabilities and Special Health Care Needs in Washington State Public Programs on December 1, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Dorothy; Keenan, Trisha; Cawthon, Laurie; Felming, Jan; Dickey, Rita; Loerch, Sandy; Shureen, Anne

    This report presents information on infants and toddlers (ages birth to three) with delaying or disabling conditions, who were enrolled in Washington State public services on December 1, 1997, under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Part H. Major findings included: (1) there was a total enrollment of 5,007 infants and toddlers (2.1…

  1. Safety of union home care aides in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Lipscomb, Hester; Phillips, Leslie E

    2017-09-01

    A rate-based understanding of home care aides' adverse occupational outcomes related to their work location and care tasks is lacking. Within a 30-month, dynamic cohort of 43 394 home care aides in Washington State, injury rates were calculated by aides' demographic and work characteristics. Injury narratives and focus groups provided contextual detail. Injury rates were higher for home care aides categorized as female, white, 50 to <65 years old, less experienced, with a primary language of English, and working through an agency (versus individual providers). In addition to direct occupational hazards, variability in workload, income, and supervisory/social support is of concern. Policies should address the roles and training of home care aides, consumers, and managers/supervisors. Home care aides' improved access to often-existing resources to identify, manage, and eliminate occupational hazards is called for to prevent injuries and address concerns related to the vulnerability of this needed workforce. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Controls on ground-water chemistry in the Horse Heaven Hills, south-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinkampf, W.C.; Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Packard, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Miocene basaltic aquifers are the source of domestic and municipal water, and about 20,000 acre-feet of irrigation water annually, in the Horse Heaven Hills in south-central Washington State. Groundwater chemical variations derive from the hydraulic characteristics is of the geohydrologic system, from groundwater basalt reactions, and from irrigation. Some dissolved species concentrations increase with residence time; others decrease. Recharge area groundwaters are calcium magnesium sodium bicarbonate waters with sodium-adsorption ratios (SAR's) less than 1.0. They evolve to sodium potassium bicarbonate waters with SAR 's as high as 17. Glassy and cryptocrystalline phases of the basalt are the main sources of dissolved sodium. They dissolve by silicate hydrolysis in carbon dioxide charged waters that recharge the aquifer system. Dissolved silicon, iron, and aluminum concentrations are controlled by the solubilities of amorphous secondary alteration products, which order to silica phases, oxyhydroxides, and smectite. Carbonate mineral precipitation is induced by increasing pH from the hydrolysis reaction. Sodium and potassium concentrations increase until clinoptilolite saturation is reached and precipitation begins. Deviations from the general variation patterns are due to localized geologic structures which distort the groundwater flow system, and to the irrigation use of Columbia River water. (USGS)

  3. Molecular species identification of cryptic apple and snowberry maggots (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Western and Central Washington

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Washington state, identification of the quarantine apple pest Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is complicated by the presence of the cryptic species R. zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae). Distinguishing the two flies is important because there is a zero tolerance policy for R. pomonella in apple p...

  4. Identification of a Kulshan caldera correlative tephra in the Palouse loess of Washington State, northwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Georgina E.; Pearce, Nicholas J. G.; Roberts, Helen M.; Smith, Victoria C.; Westgate, John A.; Gaylord, David R.; Sweeney, Mark R.

    2016-09-01

    The Kulshan caldera formed at ∼1.15 Ma on the present-day site of Mt. Baker, Washington State, northwest USA and erupted a compositionally zoned (dacite-rhyolite) magma and a correlative eruptive, the Lake Tapps tephra. This tephra has previously been described, but only from the Puget Lowland of NW Washington. Here an occurrence of a Kulshan caldera correlative tephra is described from the Quaternary Palouse loess at the Washtucna site (WA-3). Site WA-3 is located in east-central Washington, ∼340 km southeast of the Kulshan caldera and ∼300 km east-southeast of the Lake Tapps occurrence in the Puget Lowland. Major- and trace element chemistry and location of the deposit at Washtucna within reversed polarity sediments indicates that it is not correlative with the Mesa Falls, Rockland, Bishop Ash, Lava Creek B or Huckleberry Ridge tephras. Instead the Washtucna deposit is related to the Lake Tapps tephra by fractional crystallisation, but is chemically distinct, a consequence of its eruption from a compositionally zoned magma chamber. The correlation of the Washtucna occurrence to the Kulshan caldera-forming eruption indicates that it had an eruptive volume exceeding 100 km3, and that its tephra could provide a valuable early-Pleistocene chronostratigraphic marker in the Pacific Northwest.

  5. Petrogenesis of the Fifes Peak volcanics, south-central Cascades Range, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, R.S.; Thompson, J.M.S. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    During the late Oligocene (ca. 27--23 Ma.), a voluminous section of subduction-related basalt to rhyolite flows and interbedded pyroclastics, comprising the Fifes Peak Formation, were extruded in the south-central Cascades Range of Washington State. Microprobe analyses reveal that basalts and basaltic andesites contain megacrysts of aluminous clinopyroxene and spinel (hercynite) that may be xenocrysts derived from an upper mantle source zone or early, high pressure magmatic phases. Mass balance calculations indicate that the compositional variation of the Fifes Peak basalt and andesite was controlled mainly by high-pressure clinopyroxene-dominated fractionation, coupled with lower pressure fractionation of plagioclase + orthopyroxene + magnetite/ilmenite. Trace element data and mass balances also show that the more silicic lavas must contain a significant crustal component (such as a high Ba/Nb pelagic sediment). The dacites and rhyolites were probably formed mainly by crustal melting, rather than contamination of mantle-derived magmas. The Fifes Peak volcanics have a typical arc-type trace-element distribution with distinct depletions in Ta, Nb, and Ti and enrichment in Th and large-ion-lithophile elements. All of the analyzed Fifes Peak flows are light-rare-earth-element enrichment, with a mean La/Yb ratio of 7.6. There is no indication of an OIB mantle source array, nor the low fluid-flux subduction conditions that characterize magmas generated in the southwest Cascades. Apparently the anomalous nature of the subduction zone in that region of the Cascades arc does not extend northward to the south-central Cascades.

  6. 78 FR 2432 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with... associated funerary objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

  7. 78 FR 2429 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with... associated funerary objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

  8. 77 FR 23507 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology... culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

  9. 76 FR 73664 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology... University, Museum of Anthropology (WSU) has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary... Collins, Director, Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA 99164-4910, telephone...

  10. 75 FR 41883 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University Pullman, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University... and control of the Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA. The human remains... in this notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by Museum of Anthropology...

  11. 77 FR 74871 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State... Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with... associated funerary objects may contact the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

  12. P-20 Education Policy: School to College Transition Policy in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitre, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines Washington State's attempt to move toward an integrated, P-20 system of education that enhances student transitions from high school to college. In analyzing Washington as a single case study, a profile of the state is developed on key access related characteristics. Data for this study were gathered utilizing fundamental case…

  13. Washington State's Model and Programs: Applied Baccalaureate Degrees at Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England-Siegerdt, Christy; Andreas, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    President Obama is calling for an increase in educational attainment among citizens of the United States (Obama, 2009). Prior to this national call, Washington State recognized the need to increase the educational attainment of its residents to maintain a globally competitive economy. By 2018, 67 percent of jobs in Washington will require a…

  14. The Equal Rights Amendment in Washington State: An Analysis and Interpretation of Voting Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gecas, Viktor; And Others

    A study was undertaken in Washington state to investigate voting behavior on the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), which was approved by Washington state voters in 1972. Specifically, research objectives were to determine who was for or against the ERA, to assess the nature of objections to the ERA, and to consider implications of the ERA for family…

  15. Washington State's Model and Programs: Applied Baccalaureate Degrees at Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England-Siegerdt, Christy; Andreas, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    President Obama is calling for an increase in educational attainment among citizens of the United States (Obama, 2009). Prior to this national call, Washington State recognized the need to increase the educational attainment of its residents to maintain a globally competitive economy. By 2018, 67 percent of jobs in Washington will require a…

  16. Vocational Equity Projects in Washington State. A Summary Report (1978-1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knold, John, Comp.

    This report contains summary descriptions of twenty-nine projects which have been implemented during 1978-80 in the state of Washington. By their design, they address the need for vocational equity. The projects received funding from one of several sources including the Washington State Commission for Vocational Education's Research Coordinating…

  17. Washington Readies for High School Exit Exam: State Already Enacted Various Alternatives to Passing Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author reports that sophomores who take the Washington Assessment of Student Learning this week will be the first who must pass the state exam to graduate. The long-awaited testing has caused anxiety across the state, as hopes that Washington will enter a new era of educational accountability are balanced by fears of turmoil…

  18. Washington Readies for High School Exit Exam: State Already Enacted Various Alternatives to Passing Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author reports that sophomores who take the Washington Assessment of Student Learning this week will be the first who must pass the state exam to graduate. The long-awaited testing has caused anxiety across the state, as hopes that Washington will enter a new era of educational accountability are balanced by fears of turmoil…

  19. Background concentrations of metals in soils from selected regions in the State of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ames, K.C.; Prych, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Soil samples from 60 sites in the State of Washington were collected and analyzed to determine the magnitude and variability of background concen- trations of metals in soils of the State. Samples were collected in areas that were relatively undisturbed by human activity from the most pre- dominant soils in 12 different regions that are representative of large areas of Washington State. Concentrations of metals were determined by five different laboratory methods. Concentrations of mercury and nickel determined by both the total and total-recoverable methods displayed the greatest variability, followed by chromium and copper determined by the total-recoverable method. Concentrations of other metals, such as aluminum and barium determined by the total method, varied less. Most metals concentrations were found to be more nearly log-normally than normally distributed. Total metals concentrations were not significantly different among the different regions. However, total-recoverable metals concentrations were not as similar among different regions. Cluster analysis revealed that sampling sites in three regions encompassing the Puget Sound could be regrouped to form two new regions and sites in three regions in south-central and southeastern Washington State could also be regrouped into two new regions. Concentrations for 7 of 11 total-recoverable metals correlated with total metals concentrations. Concen- trations of six total metals also correlated positively with organic carbon. Total-recoverable metals concentrations did not correlate with either organic carbon or particle size. Concentrations of metals determined by the leaching methods did not correlate with total or total-recoverable metals concentrations, nor did they correlate with organic carbon or particle size.

  20. Arthropod fauna of rolled alder leaves in Washington State, United States of America (Insecta: Arachnida)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alders, Alnus spp., growing on the eastern slopes and foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington State, are often infested with shelter-making (primarily leafrolling) Lepidoptera in the families Tortricidae, Gracillariidae, and Choreutidae. Over a 5 year survey period, 5,172 rolled leaves were ex...

  1. Modified mercalli intensities for nine earthquakes in central and western Washington between 1989 and 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Dewey, James W.; Cassidy, John F.

    2017-08-15

    We determine Modified Mercalli (Seismic) Intensities (MMI) for nine onshore earthquakes of magnitude 4.5 and larger that occurred in central and western Washington between 1989 and 1999, on the basis of effects reported in postal questionnaires, the press, and professional collaborators. The earthquakes studied include four earthquakes of M5 and larger: the M5.0 Deming earthquake of April 13, 1990, the M5.0 Point Robinson earthquake of January 29, 1995, the M5.4 Duvall earthquake of May 3, 1996, and the M5.8 Satsop earthquake of July 3, 1999. The MMI are assigned using data and procedures that evolved at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its Department of Commerce predecessors and that were used to assign MMI to felt earthquakes occurring in the United States between 1931 and 1986. We refer to the MMI assigned in this report as traditional MMI, because they are based on responses to postal questionnaires and on newspaper reports, and to distinguish them from MMI calculated from data contributed by the public by way of the internet. Maximum traditional MMI documented for the M5 and larger earthquakes are VII for the 1990 Deming earthquake, V for the 1995 Point Robinson earthquake, VI for the 1996 Duvall earthquake, and VII for the 1999 Satsop earthquake; the five other earthquakes were variously assigned maximum intensities of IV, V, or VI. Starting in 1995, the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) published MMI maps for four of the studied earthquakes, based on macroseismic observations submitted by the public by way of the internet. With the availability now of the traditional USGS MMI interpreted for all the sites from which USGS postal questionnaires were returned, the four Washington earthquakes join a rather small group of earthquakes for which both traditional USGS MMI and some type of internet-based MMI have been assigned. The values and distributions of the traditional MMI are broadly similar to the internet-based PNSN intensities; we discuss some

  2. Occupational burns in Washington State, 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    McCullough, J E; Henderson, A K; Kaufman, J D

    1998-12-01

    Occupational burns cause significant morbidity in the United States each year; however, there are few studies that report industries or workplaces where workers are at an increased risk of burn injuries. Washington State's Department of Labor and Industries (L and I) computerized workers' compensation database was used to describe work-related burns over 5 years. From 1989 to 1993, L and I accepted 27,323 claims for occupational burns, 71.4% of them thermal burns and 26.8% chemical burns. The most common sources of injury were cooking oils (14%) and hot water/steam (13%). Workers involved in food preparation or food handling accounted for the highest proportion of injured workers (30%). Industries involved in the smelting, sintering, or refining of ore had the highest rate for thermal burns, with a rate of 15.0 burn injuries per 100 full-time equivalent workers per year, followed by paper, pulp, or wood fiber manufacturing, with a rate of 5.8, then roof work, with a rate of 4.3. Industries involved in hazardous waste landfill clean-up had the highest rate for chemical burns, with a rate of 4.9, followed by portable cleaning and washing, with a rate of 3.5, and paper, pulp, and wood fiber manufacturing, with a rate of 2.6. Further study is needed to identify work practices that result in burn injuries in order to decrease the incidence of this preventable occupational injury.

  3. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA

    PubMed Central

    James, David G.; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation. PMID:27367733

  4. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  5. Geothermal energy development in Washington State. A guide to the federal, state and local regulatory process

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Simpson, S.J.

    1986-03-01

    Washington State's geothermal potential is wide spread. Hot springs and five strato volcanoes existing throughout the Cascade Range, limited hot spring activity on the Olympic Peninsula, and broad reaching, low temperature geothermal resources found in the Columbia Basin comprise the extent of Washington's known geothermal resources. Determination of resource ownership is the first step in proceeding with geothermal exploration and development activities. The federal and state processes are examined from pre-lease activity through leasing and post-lease development concerns. Plans, permits, licenses, and other requirements are addressed for the federal, state, and local level. Lease, permit, and other forms for a number of geothermal exploration and development activities are included. A map of public lands and another displaying the measured geothermal resources throughout the state are provided.

  6. Occupational carbon monoxide poisoning in Washington State, 2000-2005.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Bonauto, David K; Whittaker, Stephen G; Adams, Darrin

    2010-10-01

    Washington State workers' compensation data can be used to guide prevention efforts focused on occupational carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Between 2000 and 2005, a total of 345 individual claims comprising 221 different exposure incidents were identified for the 6-year time period. The construction industry had 43 (20%) CO incidents, followed by wholesale trade with 32 (15%), and agriculture with 27 (12%) incidents. Fuel-powered forklifts caused 29% of all incidents, while autos/trucks/buses were responsible for 26%. The number of forklift incidents in fruit packing and cold storage companies declined significantly from 1994 through 2007 (Spearman's rho = 0.6659, p < 0.01). While this study used multiple medical records from workers' compensation claims to identify CO poisoning, a surveillance system that lacks extensive medical records may rely principally on carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) tests. This study demonstrated that 71% of the identified workers' compensation claims had associated COHb tests. The recurrence and timing of CO poisoning as well as control of the CO-generating source were determined. Approximately 8% of all work sites had recurring CO poisoning incidents. Two percent experienced a recurrent incident within 16 days of the initial incident, and 6% experienced a recurrent incident between 16 days and 3 years after the initial incident. Sixty-seven percent of claimants exposed to CO were not in direct control of the CO-generating source; this has implications for CO prevention and underscores the need for all employees to be trained on CO hazards.

  7. Riparian vegetation of the Snake River in Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.C.; Mettler, L.

    1994-06-01

    In January 1992, the US Army Corps of Engineers selected reservoir drawdown and lowered pool elevation as the preferred alternative in the Columbia River Salmon Flow Measured Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). During March 1992, reservoirs upstream from Lower Granite and Little Goose Dams on the Snake River were drawn down below the minimum operating pool (MOP), which is 5 vertical feet below ordinary high water level (0@) level. The reservoir upstream from Lower Granite Dam was drawn down to approximately 37 ft below 0 while that upstream of Little Goose Dam was drawn down to approximately 15 ft (4.5 m) below MOP. Following the drawdown (March 1--31, 1992), the reservoirs of all four dams in the Snake River of Washington State (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor) were maintained at MOP (April 1--July 31,1992). This allowed a defined portion of shoreline to be exposed for an extended period. The objectives of the study were to monitor impacts to the associated upland, riparian/wetland, and aquatic vegetation and newly exposed shorelines of four reservoirs of the Snake River during the flow measures study; and monitor the newly exposed shorelines for invasion of pioneering species during the entire period of the wildlife monitoring study.

  8. A Study of Low Frequency Earthquakes in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, A. A.; Bostock, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    In the past decade, studies have shown that non-volcanic tremor in southwest Japan can be explained by swarms of low frequency earthquakes (LFEs). More recently LFEs have been identified and documented in southern Vancouver Island. Here we extend study of LFEs to Washington state by exploiting data from the IRIS-PASCAL CAFE experiment. We use network autocorrelation to detect LFEs within 4 different tremor episodes (2007,2008,2010 and 2011). We separate the dataset into 2 components, one involving stations between the Olympic Peninsula and Puget Sound (North Group) and the other involving stations to the south of Puget Sound (South Group). For the South Group, only the 2007 and 2008 tremor episodes are available. From an initial 4915 (North Group) and 3306 (South Group) detections of LFEs using a set of 7 3-components stations, we use iterative network cross-correlation to register further detections and stack to improve signal-to-noise ratio of LFE family templates. On the basis of progress to date, we anticipate the assembly of ~150 and ~50 LFE family templates for the North and South Groups, respectively. We plan to locate these LFE family templates, determine representative focal mechanisms and investigate LFE occurrence relative to regular seismicity for comparison with previous results from southern Vancouver Island and southwest Japan.

  9. Seasonal phenology of woolly apple aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Central Washington.

    PubMed

    Beers, Elizabeth H; Cockfield, Stephen D; Gontijo, Lessando M

    2010-04-01

    The seasonal abundance of woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann) was studied from 2005 to 2008 in commercial orchards in central Washington State. There was a single period of crawler migration on the tree trunks each year lasting from 7 to 16 wk. The peak period of crawler activity ranged from early June to late July, although peaks in June were more common. In one orchard, peak densities occurred 7 wk later in 2006 than in 2005. In all orchards where large numbers of crawlers were caught (up to 1,420 per band per week), more crawlers were caught in the lower band (migrating up from root colonies) than in the upper bands (migrating down from the aerial colonies). However, the peak period of crawler migration was similar for root and aerial colonies. In contrast, peaks in population densities of aerial colonies were sometimes bimodal, usually spanning the period from late May through mid-October; however, colonies were detected in mid-April in one orchard. There was no consistent relationship between the crawler density and aerial colony density within an orchard; this raises challenging questions regarding annual reinfestation of the aerial portions of the tree. Nymphs and adults formed 66 and 15%, respectively, of all stages found throughout the season. Alates were only found in September and October in orchards with fall populations, comprising up to 43% of individuals in aerial colonies. Overwintering survival was higher on the root colonies than in the aerial colonies in both years this was studied. Fruit infestation by aphids was relatively rare, and occurred only when aerial colonies were numerous.

  10. Personality Characteristics of Teachers Serving in Washington State Correctional Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsgaard, John O.; Kelso, Charles E. Jr.; Schumacher, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    Personality inventory scoring of 90 correctional educators working in Washington penal institutions yielded 27 factors describing personality characteristics. It was determined that 15 of these factors are valuable in describing the characteristics of those working in successful programs. (JOW)

  11. Personality Characteristics of Teachers Serving in Washington State Correctional Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsgaard, John O.; Kelso, Charles E. Jr.; Schumacher, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    Personality inventory scoring of 90 correctional educators working in Washington penal institutions yielded 27 factors describing personality characteristics. It was determined that 15 of these factors are valuable in describing the characteristics of those working in successful programs. (JOW)

  12. 78 FR 44593 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, PO Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504-2650, telephone (360) 902- 0939, email Alicia.Woods@parks.wa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... should submit a written request with information in support of the request to Alicia Woods, Washington...

  13. Credit-by-Exam Acceptance Policies: Advanced Study of Washington State's Public Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Rachel; Martin, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Washington Student Achievement Council's 10-Year Roadmap sets a goal for 2023 of having 70 percent of Washington adults (ages 25-44) receive a postsecondary credential. At the same time, dramatic cuts in state funding for higher education, particularly since 2008, have shifted more of the cost of higher education onto students and families, making…

  14. Golovinomyces spadaceus causing powdery mildew on Coreopsis hybrid 'Full Moon' (Heliantheae, Asteraceae) in Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Symptoms of powdery mildew were observed on a Coreopsis cultivar in the Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Garden on the Washington State University campus, Pullman, Whitman County, Washington. White to off-white sporulating mycelial areas were ~5mm in diam to confluent and confined to adaxial...

  15. The Real Facts of Life for Children of Color in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. Human Services Policy Center.

    This report presents the conditions of children of color in the state of Washington, with statistics about economic support, health, and safety. Comments from leaders of color and other true stories help explain the situations reflected by the numerical data. It is important to note that most children of color in Washington live in solid families…

  16. Making Standards Meaningful: High School Reform Efforts in Washington State. Making Standards Work, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Sara

    Using data from the 10th grade Washington Assessment of Student Learning, researchers selected 26 high schools across the state of Washington that had made greater gains in school improvement than other schools serving similar populations of students. Interviews were held with the principals of these schools and with 13 comparison schools that had…

  17. Compliance with Washington State's requirement for residential carbon monoxide alarms.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B; Holm, James R

    2017-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the US. In response, a majority of states have passed legislation in recent years requiring the installation of residential CO alarms. There is, however, no published information evaluating compliance with such laws. Employees of a Seattle medical center were surveyed in 2008 regarding home use of CO and smoke alarms. Washington State enacted legislation requiring residential CO alarms by all residences by January 1, 2013. The survey was repeated in mid-2016 to evaluate compliance. In 2016, a total of 354 employees completed the survey and their responses were compared to an equal number of 2008 survey respondents matched by home ownership and ZIP code. Residential CO alarm use rose from 37% to 78% (p < 0.0001). Among homeowners, 78% had alarms while 80% of renters had them. Homeowners with the highest compliance (96%) had purchased their homes since January 1, 2013 while those with the lowest compliance (73%) had purchased them earlier. A majority (79%) of renters without alarms reported the reason was that their landlord did not provide one, a violation of the law. Only one-half to two-thirds of all equipped homes had the required number of either CO or smoke alarms. Use of residential CO alarms increased significantly in this study population three years after law required them. Areas for further improvement include education of landlords, tenants, and longtime homeowners about the law, as well as public education regarding the number of CO and smoke alarms needed.

  18. 36 CFR 223.203 - Indirect substitution exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State. 223.203 Section 223.203 Parks... Forest System timber from within Washington State. (a) Exception limits. A limited amount of unprocessed National Forest System timber originating from within Washington State could have been acquired by a person...

  19. 36 CFR 223.203 - Indirect substitution exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State. 223.203 Section 223.203 Parks... Forest System timber from within Washington State. (a) Exception limits. A limited amount of unprocessed National Forest System timber originating from within Washington State could have been acquired by a person...

  20. 36 CFR 223.203 - Indirect substitution exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State. 223.203 Section 223.203 Parks... Forest System timber from within Washington State. (a) Exception limits. A limited amount of unprocessed National Forest System timber originating from within Washington State could have been acquired by a person...

  1. 36 CFR 223.203 - Indirect substitution exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State. 223.203 Section 223.203 Parks... Indirect substitution exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State. (a... Washington State could have been acquired by a person otherwise covered by the prohibition against indirect...

  2. 36 CFR 223.203 - Indirect substitution exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State. 223.203 Section 223.203 Parks... Forest System timber from within Washington State. (a) Exception limits. A limited amount of unprocessed National Forest System timber originating from within Washington State could have been acquired by a person...

  3. Trace element content of leaves of desert shrubs in south-central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.; Garland, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of leaves of desert shrubs showed strong differences in macroelements according to species and location on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) site in south-central Washington. Halophytes were characterized by high levels of K, Cl, Br, Mn, and Na, and glycophytes by high levels of Ca and Mg. However, trace element content was not significantly different. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) leaves from Wyoming and the ALE site were not greatly different in trace element content. Natural leaf fall collections can be used to monitor changing levels of trace element content induced by coal combustion steam-electric plants.

  4. Site response and attenuation in the Puget Lowland, Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, T.L.; Brocher, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    Simple spectral ratio (SSR) and horizontal-to-vertical (HN) site-response estimates at 47 sites in the Puget Lowland of Washington State document significant attenuation of 1.5- to 20-Hz shear waves within sedimentary basins there. Amplitudes of the horizontal components of shear-wave arrivals from three local earthquakes were used to compute SSRs with respect to the average of two bedrock sites and H/V spectral ratios with respect to the vertical component of the shear-wave arrivals at each site. SSR site-response curves at thick basin sites show peak amplifications of 2 to 6 at frequencies of 3 to 6 Hz, and decreasing spectra amplification with increasing frequency above 6 Hz. SSRs at nonbasin sites show a variety of shapes and larger resonance peaks. We attribute the spectral decay at frequencies above the amplification peak at basin sites to attenuation within the basin strata. Computing the frequency-independent, depth-dependent attenuation factor (Qs,int) from the SSR spectral decay between 2 and 20 Hz gives values of 5 to 40 for shallow sedimentary deposits and about 250 for the deepest sedimentary strata (7 km depth). H/V site responses show less spectral decay than the SSR responses but contain many of the same resonance peaks. We hypothesize that the H/V method yields a flatter response across the frequency spectrum than SSRs because the H/V reference signal (vertical component of the shear-wave arrivals) has undergone a degree of attenuation similar to the horizontal component recordings. Correcting the SSR site responses for attenuation within the basins by removing the spectral decay improves agreement between SSR and H/V estimates.

  5. Regional Climate Model Projections for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Salathe, E.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun; Zhang, Yongxin

    2010-05-05

    Global climate models do not have sufficient spatial resolution to represent the atmospheric and land surface processes that determine the unique regional heterogeneity of the climate of the State of Washington. If future large-scale weather patterns interact differently with the local terrain and coastlines than current weather patterns, local changes in temperature and precipitation could be quite different from the coarse-scale changes projected by global models. Regional climate models explicitly simulate the interactions between the large-scale weather patterns simulated by a global model and the local terrain. We have performed two 100-year climate simulations using the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). One simulation is forced by the NCAR Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) and the second is forced by a simulation of the Max Plank Institute, Hamburg, global model (ECHAM5). The mesoscale simulations produce regional changes in snow cover, cloudiness, and circulation patterns associated with interactions between the large-scale climate change and the regional topography and land-water contrasts. These changes substantially alter the temperature and precipitation trends over the region relative to the global model result or statistical downscaling. To illustrate this effect, we analyze the changes from the current climate (1970-1999) to the mid 21st century (2030-2059). Changes in seasonal-mean temperature, precipitation, and snowpack are presented. Several climatological indices of extreme daily weather are also presented: precipitation intensity, fraction of precipitation occurring in extreme daily events, heat wave frequency, growing season length, and frequency of warm nights. Despite somewhat different changes in seasonal precipitation and temperature from the two regional simulations, consistent results for changes in snowpack and extreme precipitation are found in

  6. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Three Potato Pests in Washington State.

    PubMed

    D'Auria, Elizabeth M; Wohleb, Carrie H; Waters, Timothy D; Crowder, David W

    2016-08-01

    Pest phenology models allow producers to anticipate pest outbreaks and deploy integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. Phenology models are particularly useful for cropping systems with multiple economically damaging pests throughout a season. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crops of Washington State, USA, are attacked by many insect pests including the potato tuberworm (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller), the beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus Baker), and the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Each of these pests directly damages potato foliage or tubers; C. tenellus and M. persicae also transmit pathogens that can drastically reduce potato yields. We monitored the seasonal population dynamics of these pests by conducting weekly sampling on a network of commercial farms from 2007 to 2014. Using these data, we developed phenology models to characterize the seasonal population dynamics of each pest based on accumulated degree-days (DD). All three pests exhibited consistent population dynamics across seasons that were mediated by temperature. Of the three pests, C. tenellus was generally the first detected in potato crops, with 90% of adults captured by 936 DD. In contrast, populations of P. operculella and M. persicae built up more slowly over the course of the season, with 90% cumulative catch by 1,590 and 2,634 DD, respectively. Understanding these seasonal patterns could help potato producers plan their IPM strategies while allowing them to move away from calendar-based applications of insecticides. More broadly, our results show how long-term monitoring studies that explore dynamics of multiple pest species can aid in developing IPM strategies in crop systems. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Booster Seat Effectiveness Among Older Children: Evidence From Washington State.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D Mark; Carlson, Lindsay L; Rees, Daniel I

    2017-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that children as old as 12 years use a booster seat when riding in motor vehicles, yet little is known about booster seat effectiveness when used by older children. This study estimated the association between booster use and injuries among children aged 8-12 years who were involved in motor vehicle crashes. Researchers analyzed data on all motor vehicle crashes involving children aged 8-12 years reported to the Washington State Department of Transportation from 2002 to 2015. Data were collected in 2015 and analyzed in 2016. Children who were in a booster seat were compared with children restrained by a seat belt alone. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. In unadjusted models, booster use was associated with a 29% reduction in the odds of experiencing any injury versus riding in a seat belt alone (OR=0.709, 95% CI=0.675, 0.745). In models adjusted for potential confounders, booster use was associated with a 19% reduction in the odds of any injury relative to riding in a seat belt alone (OR=0.814, 95% CI=0.749, 0.884). The risk of experiencing an incapacitating/fatal injury was not associated with booster use. Children aged 8-12 years involved in a motor vehicle crash are less likely to be injured if in a booster than if restrained by a seat belt alone. Because only 10% of U.S. children aged 8-12 years use booster seats, policies encouraging their use could lead to fewer injuries. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adolescent Well-Being in Washington State Military Families

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Sarah C.; Edwards, Todd C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between parental military service and adolescent well-being. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in public school grades 8, 10, and 12 (n = 10 606). We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to test associations between parental military service and adolescent well-being (quality of life, depressed mood, thoughts of suicide). Results. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting thoughts of suicide among adolescent girls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19, 2.32) and higher odds of low quality of life (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.43, 3.10) and thoughts of suicide (OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.67) among adolescent boys. In 10th and 12th grades, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting low quality of life (OR = 2.74; 95% CI = 1.79, 4.20), depressed mood (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.20), and thoughts of suicide (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.38) among adolescent boys. Conclusions. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of impaired well-being among adolescents, especially adolescent boys. Military, school-based, and public health professionals have a unique opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to improve the well-being of adolescents in military families. PMID:21778477

  9. Perceptions of environmental and occupational health hazards among agricultural workers in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Crowe, Jennifer; Postma, Julie; Ybarra, Vickie; Keifer, Matthew C

    2009-09-01

    This study describes agricultural workers' perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues. Interviews were conducted with 389 agricultural workers in the Yakima Valley of central Washington State in the summers of 2004 and 2005. Undergraduate students from the community conducted interviews in Spanish or English. Environmental and occupational health issues were ranked by frequency of concern, and differences by demographics were evaluated using multivariate analyses. In both 2004 and 2005, agricultural workers expressed high levels of concern about working in hot weather, agricultural injuries, pesticides, and pediatric asthma. Agricultural workers' perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues differed by specific demographics, particularly age and ethnicity. Consideration should be given to these issues when designing research studies, creating educational materials, and developing interventions related to environmental and occupational hazards among agricultural workers.

  10. Rise and fall of endrin usage in Washington state fruit orchards: Effects on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, Charles J.; Grove, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the effects of endrin on wildlife was conducted from 1981 to 1983 in fruit orchards in central Washington State. The single post-harvest application of endrin as a rodenticide resulted in both acute and chronic toxicity to a variety of avian species. Of 194 birds found dead, brains of 125 were analysed; endrin toxicosis accounted for >24% of the total and 37% of those analysed. Most mortality occurred soon after application, but several raptors died during the spring and summer. Most wildlife sampled in the orchard system contained residues of endrin. There was no evidence that endrin depressed reproductive success. Use of endrin abruptly declined during this study and its use is currently limited to emergency situations. Wildlife mortality from endrin also decreased; only six endrin-related mortalities were detected the last year of the study and there have been no reports of die-offs since the study ended.

  11. Perceptions of Environmental and Occupational Health Hazards Among Agricultural Workers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Crowe, Jennifer; Postma, Julie; Ybarra, Vickie; Keifer, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers. Interviews were conducted with 389 agricultural workers in the Yakima Valley in central Washington State in the summers of 2004 and 2005. Undergraduate students from the community conducted interviews in Spanish or English. Environmental and occupational health issues were ranked by frequency of concern, and differences by demographic characteristics were evaluated using multivariate analyses. In both 2004 and 2005, agricultural workers expressed high levels of concern about working in hot weather, agricultural injuries, pesticides, and pediatric asthma. Perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers differed by certain demographic characteristics, particularly age and ethnicity. Consideration should be given to these issues when designing research studies, creating educational materials, and developing interventions related to environmental and occupational hazards among agricultural workers. PMID:19715263

  12. Poly 3D fault modeling scripts/data for permeability potential of Washington State geothermal prospects

    DOE Data Explorer

    Michael Swyer

    2015-02-05

    Matlab scripts/functions and data used to build Poly3D models and create permeability potential GIS layers for 1) Mount St Helen's, 2) Wind River Valley, and 3) Mount Baker geothermal prospect areas located in Washington state.

  13. Relation between Nitrates in Water Wells and Potential Sources in the Lower Yakima Valley, Washington State

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of a study EPA conducted to investigate the contribution of various sources to the high nitrate levels in groundwater and residential drinking water wells in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State.

  14. Detection of a pathogen shift among the pectolytic bacterial pathogens of potato in Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial tuber soft rot, aerial stem rot and blackleg are significant diseases of potatoes in Washington State. These diseases are caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Pectobacterium atrosepticum, and Dickeya chrysanthemi, all characterized by the ability to produce pectolytic ...

  15. Relation between Nitrates in Water Wells and Potential Sources in the Lower Yakima Valley, Washington State

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of a study EPA conducted to investigate the contribution of various sources to the high nitrate levels in groundwater and residential drinking water wells in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State.

  16. Extent and Distribution of Old Forest Conditions on DNR-Managed State Trust Lands in Eastern Washington

    Treesearch

    Jerry F. Franklin; Miles Hemstrom; Robert Van Pelt; Joe Buchanan; Sabra Hull; Rex Crawford; Steve Curry; Walt Obermeyer

    2007-01-01

    An inventory was conducted of old forests on state trust lands in Eastern Washington managed by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR), in response to legislative direction (ESSB 6384, Section 189,2006). This inventory was conducted with guidance from an independent science panel, chaired by Jerry Franklin of the University of Washington. As...

  17. The State of Washington's Children, Summer 2002. [Tenth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Frederick A.; Brandon, Richard; Hill, Sheri L.; Carter, S. Louise; Garrison, Michelle M.; DeWys, Shelley; Mandell, Dorothy J.

    This Kids Count report is the tenth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children and focuses on child poverty and the needs of the working poor. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, births to…

  18. The State of Washington's Children, Spring 2000. [Eighth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvinney, Sandy, Ed.

    This Kids Count report is the eighth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. Following an introduction, Part 1 of the report focuses on one "success story" and one "challenge ahead" for each of the five domains examined: (1) family and community (including teen birth rate, teen…

  19. Diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum from pea fields in Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizobia-mediated biological nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes contributes to yield potential in these crops and also provides residual fertilizer to subsequent cereals. Our objectives were to collect isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum from several pea fields in Washington, examine genetic diversity...

  20. The State of Washington's Children, Summer 2002. [Tenth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Frederick A.; Brandon, Richard; Hill, Sheri L.; Carter, S. Louise; Garrison, Michelle M.; DeWys, Shelley; Mandell, Dorothy J.

    This Kids Count report is the tenth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children and focuses on child poverty and the needs of the working poor. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, births to…

  1. The State of Washington's Children, Fall 2001. [Ninth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. School of Public Health and Community Medicine.

    This Kids Count report is the ninth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, divorces involving children, and births to unmarried mothers; (2) economic…

  2. The State of Washington's Children. [Seventh Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvinney, Sandy, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT seventh annual report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based 24 key indicators of well-being: (1) teen birth rate; (2) teen pregnancy rate; (3) births to unmarried mothers; (4) divorces involving children; (5) family foster caseload; (6) average real wages; (7) per…

  3. The State of Washington's Children. [Fourth Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well-being: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 26 key indicators of child well-being are: (1) family composition; (2) teen birth…

  4. The State of Washington's Children. [Third Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. Inst. for Public Policy and Management.

    This third annual Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well-being: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 19 key indicators of child well-being are: (1) single parent families;…

  5. The State of Washington's Children, Spring 2000. [Eighth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvinney, Sandy, Ed.

    This Kids Count report is the eighth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. Following an introduction, Part 1 of the report focuses on one "success story" and one "challenge ahead" for each of the five domains examined: (1) family and community (including teen birth rate, teen…

  6. The State of Washington's Children. [Fourth Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well-being: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 26 key indicators of child well-being are: (1) family composition; (2) teen birth…

  7. The State of Washington's Children. [Sixth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Alice, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT sixth annual report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well-being: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 20 key indicators of child well-being are: (1) births to unmarried…

  8. 1980 Washington State Program Evaluation Report for Migrant Children's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plato, Kathleen C.; And Others

    Washington's program for migrant education involved 13,543 student participants in regular programs and 3,075 student participants in special programs. The summer program served 1,994 children. Because of new reporting procedures, 52 school districts were able to describe the 6,025 students served in instructional programs, parent activity, staff…

  9. The State of Washington's Children. [Fifth Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well-being: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 17 key indicators of child well-being are: (1) births to unmarried mothers; (2)…

  10. ACT Profile Report: State. Graduating Class 2016. Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2016

    2016-01-01

    This report provides information about the performance of Washington's 2016 graduating seniors who took the ACT as sophomores, juniors, or seniors; and self-reported at the time of testing that they were scheduled to graduate in 2016. Beginning with the Graduating Class of 2013, all students whose scores are college reportable, both standard and…

  11. The State of Washington's Children. [Seventh Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvinney, Sandy, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT seventh annual report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based 24 key indicators of well-being: (1) teen birth rate; (2) teen pregnancy rate; (3) births to unmarried mothers; (4) divorces involving children; (5) family foster caseload; (6) average real wages; (7) per…

  12. The State of Washington's Children, Fall 2001. [Ninth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. School of Public Health and Community Medicine.

    This Kids Count report is the ninth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, divorces involving children, and births to unmarried mothers; (2) economic…

  13. First-Year University of Washington Performance of Transfers from Other Washington State Post-Secondary Institutions. Report 79-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Virginia A.

    Data on the academic performance of Washington State community college (CC) and four-year college transfers entering the University of Washington (UW) autumn quarters, 1973 to 1976, were studied. Students having attended more than one collegiate institution were eliminated, leaving samples of approximately 1,000 transfers for each quarter.…

  14. EXPANDING EVIDENCE-BASED TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT FOR COVERAGE IN WASHINGTON STATE.

    PubMed

    Landaas, Erik J; Franklin, Gary; Thompson, Jeff; Lessler, Dan; Morse, Josiah; Mootz, Robert; Hammond, Steven G; Sullivan, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new evidence-based method for screening and evaluating emerging medical technologies. Washington State agencies, under legislative direction, have granted authority to its agency Medical Directors and policy leaders to make coverage decisions on medical technologies using a "dossier" process. The dossier process is employed when technology advocates or manufacturers request Washington State healthcare purchasers to pay for new and emerging technologies. This offers the advocate an opportunity to submit scientific evidence and information classically associated with a more formal health technology assessment. The submitted information is independently reviewed and summarized for Washington State's public healthcare purchasers allowing a more standardized coverage decision for all public purchasers in Washington State. This process has allowed Washington State to make twelve evidence-based coverage decisions at a fraction of the cost of classic technology assessment. To date, of twelve reviews over 6 years, one health technology was approved for coverage, ten were not covered and one did not require a coverage decision. This evidence-based dossier process has yielded high-value coverage decisions of new and emerging medical technologies for public healthcare purchasers in Washington State.

  15. Washington state foster care: dental utilization and expenditures.

    PubMed

    Melbye, Molly L R; Chi, Donald L; Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E; Grembowski, David

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors associated with dental utilization and expenditures for children enrolled in Washington State (WA) foster care (FC). This cross-sectional study used 2008 Medicaid enrollment and claims files for children ages <18 years enrolled in the WA FC program for ≥11 months (N = 10,177). Regression models were used to examine associations between utilization and expenditures and sex, race, age group, Supplemental Security Income (SSI) (i.e., disability), substance abuse, behavior problems, placement setting (Foster Home Care, Kinship Care, Group Care, Other), and urbanicity. Only 43 percent of the children utilized any dental care; the adjusted mean expenditure was $198.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) $181.35, $215.36]. Fewer utilized diagnostic (41 percent), preventive (39 percent), restorative (11 percent), or complex (5 percent) services. Associated with utilization (P ≤ 0.01) were: female [ARR = 1.05, 95% CI(1.01, 1.10)]; 0-2 years [ARR = 0.18, 95% CI(0.15, 0.21)], [3-5 years ARR = 0.78, 95% CI(0.74, 0.83)]; Native American [ARR = 0.85, 95% CI(0.80, 0.91)]; SSI [ARR = 1.10, 95% CI(1.04, 1.17)]; Kinship Care [ARR = 0.94, 95% CI(0.90, 0.98)]; Group Care [ARR = 1.25 95% CI(1.15, 1.37)]; and urban/rural urbanicity with population <20 K [ARR = 1.20 95% CI(1.12, 1.30)]. Associated with expenditures (P < 0.05) were: ages 0-2 years [-$153.66, 95% CI(-$168.33, -$139.00)], 3-5 years [-$98.71, 95% CI(-$116.78, -$80.65)], 6-11 years [-$16.83 95% CI(-$33.52, -$0.14)]; African American [-$32.05 95% CI(-$47.99, -$16.12)]; Kinship Care [$28.57 95% CI($14.00, $43.15)]. Most children enrolled in WA FC for ≥11 months during 2008 did not receive dental care. Research is needed to determine the level of unmet need among children in FC and interventions to improve access to oral health of the children. Enforcement of existing federal legislation is needed. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  16. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington.

  17. Central State University: Phase III Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This document is the final report on Central State University's implementation of Section 371 of Ohio Amended Substitute House Bill 153. Implementation of Phase I action items required that deliverables and timelines be shifted to give Central State the best opportunity for early success. In Phase II, Central State responded aggressively to a…

  18. Beneficial insects attracted to native flowering buckwheats (Eriogonum Michx) in central Washington.

    PubMed

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2014-08-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs aimed at improving conservation biological control in perennial crops such as wine grapes. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to 10 species of flowering native wild buckwheat (Eriogonum spp.) in central Washington were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, the mean number per trap ranged from 48.5 (Eriogonum umbellatum) to 167.7 (Eriogonum elatum). Three Eriogonum spp. (E. elatum, Eriogonum compositum, and Eriogonum niveum) attracted significantly more beneficial insects than the lowest-ranked species. E. niveum attracted greatest numbers of bees and parasitic wasps, and E. elatum was highly attractive to predatory true bugs and beneficial flies. Blooming periods of Eriogonum spp. extended from mid April to the end of September. This study demonstrates the attraction of beneficial insects to native flowering buckwheats and suggests their potential as a component of habitat restoration strategies to improve and sustain conservation biological control in Washington viticulture.

  19. Evolution of the phenazine biosynthesis pathway and diversity of phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp. in dryland wheat-producing areas of Washington state

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenazines are versatile secondary metabolites of bacterial origin that function as signaling compounds and contribute to the ecological fitness and pathogenicity of the producing strains. A 2007-2008 survey of commercial dryland fields in central Washington State (annual precipitation <15 in) revea...

  20. Report: State of Washington Water Pollution Control State Revolving Fund Financial Statements with Independent Auditor's Report, June 30, 2003

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2004-1-00067, May 26, 2004. The financial statements referred to in the first paragraph present fairly the financial position of the Washington Department of Ecology Water Pollution Control State Revolving Fund as of June 30, 2003.

  1. The Path to Advanced Practice Licensure for Clinical Nurse Specialists in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Schoonover, Heather

    The aim of this study was to provide a review of the history and process to obtaining advanced practice licensure for clinical nurse specialists in Washington State. Before 2016, Washington State licensed certified nurse practitioners, certified nurse midwives, and certified nurse anesthetists under the designation of an advanced registered nurse practitioner; however, the state did not recognize clinical nurse specialists as advanced practice nurses. The work to drive the rule change began in 2007. The Washington Affiliate of the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists used the Power Elite Theory to guide advocacy activities, building coalitions and support for the desired rule changes. On January 8, 2016, the Washington State Nursing Care Quality Assurance Commission voted to amend the state's advanced practice rules, including clinical nurse specialists in the designation of an advanced practice nurse. Since the rule revision, clinical nurse specialists in Washington State have been granted advanced registered nurse practitioner licenses. Driving changes in state regulatory rules requires diligent advocacy, partnership, and a deep understanding of the state's rule-making processes. To be successful in changing rules, clinical nurse specialists must build strong partnerships with key influencers and understand the steps in practice required to make the desired changes.

  2. The Public Benefit of Energy Efficiency to the State of Washington

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Washington State Office of Trade and Economic Development NCLC National Consumer Law Center NERC North American Electric Reliability Council NOX Nitrogen...Analysis of low-income benefits in determining cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency programs. Washington, D.C. National Consumer Law Center. Jorgenson...A.H. 1990. How Does Public Infrastructure Affect Regional Economic Performance? New England Economic Review 0(0): 11-32. National Consumer Law Center

  3. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director shall regularly consult with the State of Washington, the governing bodies of tribes with reservations adjacent to...

  4. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director shall regularly consult with the State of Washington, the governing bodies of tribes with reservations adjacent to...

  5. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director shall regularly consult with the State of Washington, the governing bodies of tribes with reservations adjacent to...

  6. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director shall regularly consult with the State of Washington, the governing bodies of tribes with reservations adjacent to...

  7. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director shall regularly consult with the State of Washington, the governing bodies of tribes with reservations adjacent to...

  8. Numerical simulation of the groundwater-flow system of the Kitsap Peninsula, west-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2016-05-05

    A groundwater-flow model was developed to improve understanding of water resources on the Kitsap Peninsula. The Kitsap Peninsula is in the Puget Sound lowland of west-central Washington, is bounded by Puget Sound on the east and by Hood Canal on the west, and covers an area of about 575 square miles. The peninsula encompasses all of Kitsap County, Mason County north of Hood Canal, and part of Pierce County west of Puget Sound. The peninsula is surrounded by saltwater, and the hydrologic setting is similar to that of an island. The study area is underlain by a thick sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the central part of the study area. Twelve hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit form the basis of the groundwater-flow model.Groundwater flow on the Kitsap Peninsula was simulated using the groundwater-flow model, MODFLOW‑NWT. The finite difference model grid comprises 536 rows, 362 columns, and 14 layers. Each model cell has a horizontal dimension of 500 by 500 feet, and the model contains a total of 1,227,772 active cells. Groundwater flow was simulated for transient conditions. Transient conditions were simulated for January 1985–December 2012 using annual stress periods for 1985–2004 and monthly stress periods for 2005–2012. During model calibration, variables were adjusted within probable ranges to minimize differences between measured and simulated groundwater levels and stream baseflows. As calibrated to transient conditions, the model has a standard deviation for heads and flows of 47.04 feet and 2.46 cubic feet per second, respectively.Simulated inflow to the model area for the 2005–2012 period from precipitation and secondary recharge was 585,323 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) (93 percent of total simulated inflow ignoring changes in storage), and simulated inflow from stream and lake leakage was 43

  9. Community-level policy responses to state marijuana legalization in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Dilley, Julia A; Hitchcock, Laura; McGroder, Nancy; Greto, Lindsey A; Richardson, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Washington State (WA) legalized a recreational marijuana market - including growing, processing and retail sales - through voter initiative 502 in November 2012. Legalized recreational marijuana retail sales began in July 2014. In response to state legalization of recreational marijuana, some cities and counties within the state have passed local ordinances that either further regulated marijuana markets, or banned them completely. The purpose of this study is to describe local-level marijuana regulations on recreational retail sales within the context of a state that had legalized a recreational marijuana market. Marijuana-related ordinances were collected from all 142 cities in the state with more than 3000 residents and from all 39 counties. Policies that were in place as of June 30, 2016 - two years after the state's recreational market opening - to regulate recreational marijuana retail sales within communities were systematically coded. A total of 125 cities and 30 counties had passed local ordinances to address recreational marijuana retail sales. Multiple communities implemented retail market bans, including some temporary bans (moratoria) while studying whether to pursue other policy options. As of June 30, 2016, 30% of the state population lived in places that had temporarily or permanently banned retail sales. Communities most frequently enacted zoning policies explicitly regulating where marijuana businesses could be established. Other policies included in ordinances placed limits on business hours and distance requirements (buffers) between marijuana businesses and youth-related land use types or other sensitive areas. State legalization does not necessarily result in uniform community environments that regulate recreational marijuana markets. Local ordinances vary among communities within Washington following statewide legalization. Further study is needed to describe how such local policies affect variation in public health and social outcomes

  10. Survey of macromoths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) of a Palouse prairie remnant site in eastern Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Palouse or Palouse Prairie is a bioregion consisting primarily of native grasses, shrubs, and forbs that originally covered over 16,000 km2 of central Idaho, southeastern Washington, and northeastern Oregon. Less than 1% of this habitat remains with much of it having been converted to agricultu...

  11. Population and business exposure to twenty scenario earthquakes in the State of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan; Ratliff, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of an initial analysis of population and business exposure to scenario earthquakes in Washington. This analysis was conducted to support the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Northwest Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) and an ongoing collaboration between the State of Washington Emergency Management Division (WEMD) and the USGS on earthquake hazards and vulnerability topics. This report was developed to help WEMD meet internal planning needs. A subsequent report will provide analysis to the community level. The objective of this project was to use scenario ground-motion hazard maps to estimate population and business exposure to twenty Washington earthquakes. In consultation with the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program and the Washington Division of Geology and Natural Resources, the twenty scenario earthquakes were selected by WEMD (fig. 1). Hazard maps were then produced by the USGS and placed in the USGS ShakeMap archive.

  12. Occurrence of domoic acid in Washington state razor clams (Siliqua patula) during 1991-1993.

    PubMed

    Wekell, J C; Gauglitz, E J; Barnett, H J; Hatfield, C L; Simons, D; Ayres, D

    1994-01-01

    The presence of domoic acid in aquatic species was reported for the first time in the United States in the late summer of 1991 in Monterey Bay, California. By October of 1991, domoic acid was found in razor clams (Siliqua patula) and in the viscera of Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) along the coasts of Washington and Oregon. In response to this outbreak, the National Marine Fisheries Service, in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Fisheries began analysis of Washington State razor clams for the period from November 1991 to June 1993. This survey indicated that domoic acid levels in the edible portion of the razor clams peaked in December of 1991 (average of all Washington state coastal sites: 106 ppm) and followed a slow decline to the present day low levels (< 5 ppm). Sixteen months after the maximum level, domoic acid has not completely disappeared from the razor clams from the Washington State beaches. Unlike mussels (Mytilus edulis), where the toxin is found only in the viscera, domoic acid distributes itself throughout the various body parts of the razor clam. The highest concentration occurs in the foot or "digger" and the lowest in the siphon or "neck." The concentration of domoic acid in the razor clam foot reached a high of 230 ppm.

  13. Abundances of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, across different areas in central Washington, with special reference to black-fruited hawthorns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), has infested native black-fruited hawthorn (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington since at least 2003, but little is known about the fly’s ecology in hawthorns there. The main objective here was to determine adult and larval abu...

  14. The Wallula fault and tectonic framework of south-central Washington, as interpreted from magnetic and gravity anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian; Weaver, Craig; Wells, Ray E.; Rohay, Alan C.

    2013-11-13

    Magnetic and gravity data, collected in south-central Washington near the Yakima Fold and Thrust Belt (YFTB) are used to model upper crustal structure, the extent of the late Columbia River Basalt flow named the Ice Harbor member, the vertical conduits (dikes) that the Ice Harbor erupted from, and whether the dikes are offset or affected by faulting on the Wallula Fault zone.

  15. Pythium species associated with damping-off of pea in certified organic fields in the Columbia Basin of central Washington

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A survey of Pythium species in organic vegetable production areas of the semi-arid Columbia Basin of central Washington was carried out in the fall of 2009 to identify species associated with damping-off during early spring planting. Isolates (n = 305) baited from soil sampled from 37 certified orga...

  16. Evaluation of the Washington State National Pharmaceutical Stockpile dispensing exercise: Part I--Patient volunteer findings.

    PubMed

    Beaton, Randal D; Oberle, Mark W; Wicklund, Julie; Stevermer, Andrew; Boase, Janice; Owens, David

    2003-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Pharmaceutical Stockpile (NPS) program is designed to ensure the availability of life-saving antibiotics, other medical supplies, and equipment and their prompt delivery to the site of a disaster, including a possible bioterrorist incident, anywhere in the United States. On January 24, 2002, the Washington State Department of Health conducted an exercise, simulating a mass exposure to Bacillis anthracis, to test the NPS dispensing portion of the Washington State plan. This drill included the recruitment, education, and postexposure prophylaxis of over 230 volunteer patients. This article describes and discusses findings from an exit survey completed by these patient volunteers.

  17. Central State University: Phase II Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Ohio Amended Substitute House Bill 153, the Chancellor submitted to the state Legislature and the Governor a plan, developed in consultation with Central State University, that assures the Central State Supplement will be used to promote the goals of increasing enrollment, improving course completion, and increasing the number…

  18. Student Financing of Higher Education in Washington State, 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dent, Richard A.

    Student costs and financing of college were studied in Washington State using the College Scholarship Service's Student Expense and Resource Survey (SEARS). The study population consisted of: (1) full-time undergraduate students and full-time graduate students in master's or traditional doctoral level programs at state institutions; (2) full-time…

  19. 78 FR 45997 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Transportation Project in Washington State

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...)(1). The actions relate to the State Route 167 Puyallup to SR 509, Puyallup River Bridge Replacement... is the Record of Decision (ROD), which selects a new bridge and roadway alignment for southbound... Route 167 Puyallup to SR 509, Puyallup River Bridge Replacement Project in the State of Washington. The...

  20. Workforce Training Results: An Evaluation of Washington State's Workforce Development System, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    The third biennial outcome evaluation of the state of Washington's workforce development system analyzed the results of nine of the state's largest workforce development programs plus employer-provided training for participants who left programs from July 1, 1997 to June 30, 1998. For reporting results, the nine programs were grouped into three…

  1. An Analysis of Washington State Policy for School Administrator Evaluation by Certified Subordinates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Curtis; Heflin, John

    Washington State has implemented a policy requiring school administrators to give their subordinates the opportunity to appraise their performance. Based on survey research and mailed interviews, this study collected data on activities at the state level that served to implement this policy. Other research questions sought information on the…

  2. Development and Deployment of a "Fast Response" Survey System in Washington State: Methodological Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfers, Ana; Plecki, Marge; Knapp, Michael; Boatright, Beth; Loeb, Hilary

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the technical aspects of the establishment of a "Fast Response Survey System" for the state of Washington. The system, supported by the Stuart Foundation and the newly created Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession (CSTP), is being designed to offer timely and useful information to the state's policy community…

  3. High School Equivalency Program--Washington State University. 1981-82 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babayan, Anita, Comp.

    Two kinds of evaluation measures assessed the effectiveness of the 1981-82 Washington State University High School Equivalency Program (WSU-HEP). Discrepancy evaluation measures outlined in the WSU program proposal were employed by the staff in documenting the degree to which the program met its stated goals which were clustered around four…

  4. Washington State Need Grant: Less-Than-Halftime Pilot Project (SHB 1345)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 Washington State Legislature authorized, through Substitute House Bill 1345, a two-year pilot project allowing eligible students, who enroll for four or five credits in a term, to receive the State Need Grant (SNG). Several important policy considerations emerged during the pilot project. Board staff explored these issues with financial…

  5. Working While Studying: Does It Matter? An Examination of the Washington State Work Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Water, Gordon; Augenblick, John

    The impact of working on academic performance and persistence of a sample of full-time undergraduates enrolled in Washington State's public and private institutions during fall 1983 through spring 1985 was studied. Data sources included: student records for the State Work Study, College Work Study, and nonworking financial aid recipients; and…

  6. 78 FR 44594 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA. The human remains were removed from Birch Bay... the parking lot inside Birch Bay State Park boundaries, fragments of bone were inadvertently... Lummi people occupied and utilized the area of Birch Bay. Additionally, ethnographic (Jeffcot, 1945...

  7. Incidence, transmission and molecular characterization of Potato virus S from selected potato cultivars in Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Washington State Potato Seed Lot Trials annually evaluates seed lots from several states for the incidence of various potato viruses and other growth compromising factors. During the 2005 and 2006 seasons, many plants within seed lots of cv. Defender displayed necrotic lesions, leaf malformati...

  8. Lessons on Leadership: A Study of Distributed Leadership in Washington State. Research Report #10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington School Research Center, 2007

    2007-01-01

    As traditionally structured, American schools, in general, have found it more difficult to educate some students than others. In Washington State, as in most other states, the single best predictor of student achievement at the school level is the percentage of students on free or reduced (f/r) lunch status (Abbott & Joireman, 2001). This fact…

  9. Physical Education for Individuals with Disabilities in Washington State's Rural School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palma, Gloria M.

    This study investigated the nature and extent of physical education programs for individuals with disabilities in Washington State's small rural public school districts. Questionnaires were sent to 185 superintendents of small rural school districts in the state. Of the 128 responses, 70.3% enrolled individuals with disabilities. Fifty-eight…

  10. Prevalence of Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior in Adolescents from Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Barbara J.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.; Patton, George C.

    2007-01-01

    This article compares prevalence estimates of substance use and delinquent behavior in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia, two states chosen for their different policy environments around problem behavior. Few comparisons of international differences on rates of multiple problem behavior exist, and most are based on methods…

  11. Psychiatric Boarding in Washington State and the Inadequacy of Mental Health Resources.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Joseph D

    2015-06-01

    Psychiatric boarding is a term derived from emergency medicine that describes the holding of patients deemed in need of hospitalization in emergency departments for extended periods because psychiatric beds are not available. Such boarding has occurred for many years in the shadows of mental health care as both inpatient beds and community services have decreased. This article focuses on a 2014 Washington State Supreme Court decision that examined the interpretation of certain sections of the Washington state civil commitment statute that had been used to justify the extended boarding of detained psychiatric patients in general hospital emergency departments. The impact of this decision on the state of Washington should be significant and could spark a national debate about the negative impacts of psychiatric boarding on patients and on the nation's general hospital emergency services. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  12. Promoting Breastfeeding-Friendly Hospital Practices: A Washington State Learning Collaborative Case Study.

    PubMed

    Freney, Emily; Johnson, Donna; Knox, Isabella

    2016-05-01

    Hospital breastfeeding support practices can affect breastfeeding outcomes. Learning collaboratives are an increasingly common strategy to improve practices in health care and have been applied to breastfeeding in many cases. The aims of this study of the Evidence-Based Hospital Breastfeeding Support Learning Collaborative (EBBS LC) were to describe the perceptions of participants regarding the process and effectiveness of the EBBS LC, describe perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, and identify additional actions and resources needed in future learning collaboratives. Qualitative, semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 13 key staff who represented 16 of the 18 participating hospitals. The learning collaborative was perceived positively by participants, meeting the expectations of 9 and exceeding the expectations of 4 persons interviewed. The most beneficial aspect of the program was its collaborative nature, and the most difficult aspect was the time required to participate as well as technological difficulties. The key barriers were staff time, staff changes, cost, and the difficulty of changing the existing practices of hospitals and communities. The key facilitating factors were supportive management, participation in multiple breastfeeding quality improvement projects, collecting data on breastfeeding outcomes, tangible resources regarding the Ten Steps, and positive community response. Participants in the EBBS LC stated that they would like to see the Washington State Department of Health create a resource-rich, centralized source of information for participants. This learning collaborative approach was valued by participants. Future efforts can be guided by these evaluation findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Blueprint for Change in Washington: State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" provided a comprehensive review of states' policies that impact the teaching profession. As a companion to last year's comprehensive state-by-state analysis, the 2010 edition provides each state with an individualized "Blueprint for Change," building off last year's "Yearbook"…

  14. Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins and Other Lipophilic Toxins of Human Health Concern in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, Vera L.; Moore, Leslie; Bill, Brian D.; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Harrington, Neil; Borchert, Jerry; da Silva, Denis A. M.; Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.

    2013-01-01

    The illness of three people in 2011 after their ingestion of mussels collected from Sequim Bay State Park, Washington State, USA, demonstrated the need to monitor diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State for the protection of human health. Following these cases of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, monitoring for DSTs in Washington State became formalized in 2012, guided by routine monitoring of Dinophysis species by the SoundToxins program in Puget Sound and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership on the outer Washington State coast. Here we show that the DSTs at concentrations above the guidance level of 16 μg okadaic acid (OA) + dinophysistoxins (DTXs)/100 g shellfish tissue were widespread in sentinel mussels throughout Puget Sound in summer 2012 and included harvest closures of California mussel, varnish clam, manila clam and Pacific oyster. Concentrations of toxins in Pacific oyster and manila clam were often at least half those measured in blue mussels at the same site. The primary toxin isomer in shellfish and plankton samples was dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) with D. acuminata as the primary Dinophysis species. Other lipophilic toxins in shellfish were pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxin (YTX) with azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2) also measured in phytoplankton samples. Okadaic acid, azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1) and azaspiracid-3 (AZA-3) were all below the levels of detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A shellfish closure at Ruby Beach, Washington, was the first ever noted on the Washington State Pacific coast due to DSTs. The greater than average Fraser River flow during the summers of 2011 and 2012 may have provided an environment conducive to dinoflagellates and played a role in the prevalence of toxigenic Dinophysis in Puget Sound. PMID:23760013

  15. Diarrhetic shellfish toxins and other lipophilic toxins of human health concern in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Vera L; Moore, Leslie; Bill, Brian D; Adams, Nicolaus G; Harrington, Neil; Borchert, Jerry; da Silva, Denis A M; Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L

    2013-05-28

    The illness of three people in 2011 after their ingestion of mussels collected from Sequim Bay State Park, Washington State, USA, demonstrated the need to monitor diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State for the protection of human health. Following these cases of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, monitoring for DSTs in Washington State became formalized in 2012, guided by routine monitoring of Dinophysis species by the SoundToxins program in Puget Sound and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership on the outer Washington State coast. Here we show that the DSTs at concentrations above the guidance level of 16 μg okadaic acid (OA) + dinophysistoxins (DTXs)/100 g shellfish tissue were widespread in sentinel mussels throughout Puget Sound in summer 2012 and included harvest closures of California mussel, varnish clam, manila clam and Pacific oyster. Concentrations of toxins in Pacific oyster and manila clam were often at least half those measured in blue mussels at the same site. The primary toxin isomer in shellfish and plankton samples was dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) with D. acuminata as the primary Dinophysis species. Other lipophilic toxins in shellfish were pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxin (YTX) with azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2) also measured in phytoplankton samples. Okadaic acid, azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1) and azaspiracid-3 (AZA-3) were all below the levels of detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A shellfish closure at Ruby Beach, Washington, was the first ever noted on the Washington State Pacific coast due to DSTs. The greater than average Fraser River flow during the summers of 2011 and 2012 may have provided an environment conducive to dinoflagellates and played a role in the prevalence of toxigenic Dinophysis in Puget Sound.

  16. Rates of student-reported antisocial behavior, school suspensions, and arrests in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; McMorris, Barbara J; Toumbourou, John W; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Catalano, Richard F; Mathers, Megan

    2007-08-01

    Few methodologically rigorous international comparisons of student-reported antisocial behavior have been conducted. This paper examines whether there are differences in the frequency of both antisocial behavior and societal responses to antisocial behavior in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States. These 2 states were chosen due to their similarities on sociodemographic characteristics and their differences in policy frameworks around problem behavior including antisocial behavior and substance use. State representative samples of students (N = 5769) in school grades 5, 7, and 9 in Victoria and Washington State completed a modified version of the Communities That Care self-report survey of behavior and societal responses to behavior. Chi-square analyses compared frequencies of antisocial behavior, school suspensions, and police arrests in the 2 states. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for each outcome measure to examine the effect of state, controlling for sample design, clustering of students within schools, age, socioeconomic status, and urbanicity. Few state differences in student-reported antisocial behavior were found, although frequencies varied across behavior type and grade level. Differences in societal responses were observed across grade levels with grade 5 Washington students reporting higher rates of school suspension. Older Washington students reported more arrests. Rates of student antisocial behavior appear similar in these 2 states in Australia and the United States. However, youth in the United States relative to Australia may experience greater societal consequences for problem behavior. Further research is required to examine the impact of these consequences on subsequent behavior.

  17. Survey of Medicaid child dental services in Washington state: preparation for a marketing program.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, P; Riedy, C

    1998-06-01

    The authors surveyed Washington state dentists to gain an understanding of their participation in the Medicaid dental program, their willingness to learn more about the program and the degree of importance they attached to preventive care for preschool-aged children. They found that concerns about fees and administrative aspects predominated and concerns about client behaviors were expressed less often. Many dentists indicated a willingness to learn more about the program. These findings will be used to develop a plan to market the Medicaid program to Washington state dentists.

  18. A Qualitative Study of Teacher and Principal Perceptions of Washington State Teacher Evaluation Instruments: Danielson, Marzano, and CEL 5D+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Matthew Paul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the level of support teachers and principals have toward the new mandated teacher evaluation instruments in the state of Washington. In 2010, the Washington state legislature passed SB 6696 which essentially overhauled the system of how principals evaluate teachers in the state. The bill did away with the…

  19. THE SETTLERS PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTION 1894 - 1945 & THE DUPONT PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTION 1943 - 1945 BRINGING HISTORY TO LIFE IN SOUTH CENTRAL WASHINGTON

    SciTech Connect

    SHULTZ CR PH.D.

    2009-07-13

    Washington is called the 'Evergreen State' and it evokes images like this of lush forests, lakes and mountains. However, such images apply primarily to the half of the state west of the Cascade Mountains, where we are today. Eastern Washington state is quite a different matter and I want to draw your attention to a portion of Eastern Washington that is the focus ofmy presentation to you this morning. This image was taken on a part of the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, a 586-square mile government reservation, the second largest DOE facility in the nation . Here you can see where I am talking about, roughly 220 miles southeast of Seattle and about the same distance northeast of Portland.

  20. Factors which influence the rate of receiving a routine second newborn screening test in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D L; Sanderson, M; Bentvelzen, J; Fineman, R M

    1995-12-04

    This study was conducted to determine whether newborns from different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in Washington State are equally likely to have a routine second newborn screening (NBS) test and if there are identifiable factors associated with not having a second test. For many years, the standard of care for NBS in Washington has been that newborns should receive a routine second screening test at age 7-10 days. However, data collected by State Department of Health (DOH) staff for the past several years indicated that only about 80% of newborns receive a routine second NBS test. The data presented here suggest that identifiable factors (i.e., barriers) exist in accessing a routine second NBS test in Washington. Increased educational efforts targeting certain high-risk infants, their parent/caretakers, and primary care providers are apparently needed to ensure equal access to a routine second test.

  1. Medication Assistant-Certification Program in Washington State: Barriers to implementation.

    PubMed

    Dupler, Alice E; Crogan, Neva L; Beqiri, Mirjeta

    2015-01-01

    Medication assistants (MAs) are a legal alternative that enables licensed nurses to safely delegate medication administration to stable residents in non-acute settings. The purpose of this study was to query the beliefs and understanding of skilled nursing facility staff regarding the Washington State Medication Assistant Endorsement Program (MAEP). A 15-item survey was developed and administered to a convenience sample of 218 nursing staff from five eastern Washington nursing homes. Most believed that MAs would not change the cost of care, nor would they enhance or reduce the quality of care provided to residents in skilled nursing facilities. The relatively few Licensed Practical Nurses surveyed (n = 19) were the least in favor of MAs, possibly fearing job loss with the addition of MAs to the staffing mix at their facilities. These factors in combination may reflect why MAEP has not yet been embraced by providers in Washington State. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mapping Agricultural Crops with AVIRIS Spectra in Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Pavri, Betina; Roberts, Dar; Ustin, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Spectroscopy is used in the laboratory to measure the molecular components and concentrations of plant constituents to answer questions about the plant type, status, and health. Imaging spectrometers measure the upwelling spectral radiance above the Earth's surface as images. Ideally, imaging spectrometer data sets should be used to understand plant type, plant status, and health of plants in an agricultural setting. An Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data set was acquired over agricultural fields near Wallula, Washington on July 23rd, 1997. AVIRIS measures upwelling radiance spectra through 224 spectral channels with contiguous 10-nm sampling from 400 to 2500 run in the solar-reflected spectrum. The spectra are measured as images of 11 by up to 800 km with 20-m spatial resolution. The spectral images measured by AVIRIS represent the integrated signal resulting from: the solar irradiance; two way transmittance and scattering of the atmosphere; the absorptions and scattering of surface materials; as well as the spectral, radiometric and spatial response functions of AVIRIS. This paper presents initial research to derive properties of the agricultural fields near Wallula from the calibrated spectral images measured by AVIRIS near the top of the atmosphere.

  3. Washington State hospital survey 2000: gloves, handwashing agents, and moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Marino, C; Cohen, M

    2001-12-01

    Hand dermatitis as a result of frequent exposure to water and cleansing agents is a significant problem in the health care industry. In developing prevention efforts to address this problem, it is necessary to make appropriate recommendations for moisturizers that are compatible with latex gloves and/or handwashing agents that contain chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG). Infection control personnel or employee health nurses in all 106 Washington hospitals were interviewed to determine what types of gloves, handwashing agents, and moisturizers are in current use in the hospital setting. The interview also addressed awareness of skin care issues involving the compatibility of moisturizers with latex gloves and handwashing agents that contain CHG. Latex gloves were available in 90% of the hospitals. Handwashing agents containing CHG were available in 33% of the hospitals. Moisturizers were supplied for the nursing personnel in 61% of the hospitals; most of these moisturizers were compatible with latex gloves and agents containing CHG. Seventy-four percent of the infection control personnel were aware of the compatibility issues of petroleum-based moisturizers with latex gloves, and 48% were aware of the need to avoid the use of anionic moisturizers in combination with CHG handwashing agents.

  4. 77 FR 46117 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...); Nooksack Indian Tribe of Washington; Port Gamble Indian Community of the Port Gamble Reservation... Tribe of Washington; Port Gamble Indian Community of the Port Gamble Reservation, Washington; Puyallup...

  5. A preliminary evaluation of regional ground-water flow in south-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Sala, A. M.; Doty, G.C.; Pearson, F.J.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of regional ground-water flow were investigated in a 4,500-square-mile region of south-central Washington, centered on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Hanford Reservation. The investigation is part of the Commission's feasibility study on storing high-level radioactive waste in chambers mined in basaltic rocks at a. depth of about 3,000 feet or more below the surface. Ground-water flow., on a regional scale, occurs principally in the basalt and-in interbedded sediments of the Columbia River Group, and is controlled by topography, the structure of the basalt, and the large streams--the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers. The ground water beneath the main part of the Hanford Reservation, south and west of the Columbia River, inures southeastward from recharge areas in the uplands, including Cold Creek and Dry Creek valleys, and ultimately discharges to the Columbia River south of the reservation: East and southeast of the Columbia River, ground water flows generally southwestward and discharges to the River. The Yakima River valley contains a distinct flow system in which movement is toward the Yakima River from the topographic divides. A large southward-flowing ground-water system beneath the southern flank of the Horse Heaven Hills discharges to the Columbia River in the westward-trending reach downstream from Wallula Gap.

  6. Geologic Map of the Wenatchee 1:100,000 Quadrangle, Central Washington: A Digital Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.W.; Waitt, R.B.; Frizzell, V.A.; Swanson, D.A.; Byerly, G.R.; Bentley, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    This digital map database has been prepared by R.W. Tabor from the published Geologic map of the Wenatchee 1:100,000 Quadrangle, Central Washington. Together with the accompanying text files as PDF, it provides information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The authors mapped most of the bedrock geology at 1:100,000 scale, but compiled Quaternary units at 1:24,000 scale. The Quaternary contacts and structural data have been much simplified for the 1:100,000-scale map and database. The spatial resolution (scale) of the database is 1:100,000 or smaller. This database depicts the distribution of geologic materials and structures at a regional (1:100,000) scale. The report is intended to provide geologic information for the regional study of materials properties, earthquake shaking, landslide potential, mineral hazards, seismic velocity, and earthquake faults. In addition, the report contains information and interpretations about the regional geologic history and framework. However, the regional scale of this report does not provide sufficient detail for site development purposes.

  7. Effectiveness of the Incentive Loan Program for Mathematics and Science Teachers--Washington State 1983-1986. Part III: Report to Washington State Legislature Incentive Loan Program for Mathematics and Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Annie K.; And Others

    The effectiveness of a loan program in providing an incentive for students to prepare for mathematics and/or science teaching in Washington State is described in this report. It is the third of a three part report to the Washington State Legislature regarding the Teacher Incentive Loan Program for Mathematics and Science. Recipients of forgiveness…

  8. Historic America: The South Central States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    Many sites in the south central states recall the procession of people who came across the continent with the passing frontier. This paper elaborates on several historic sites in the south central United States. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a series of places to the students and teachers of U.S. history. The paper recommends that…

  9. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  10. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) decreased in grade 4 reading. In grade 4 math, the percentage scoring proficient on the state test decreased…

  11. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  12. 78 FR 32131 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma-Pierce County Nonattainment Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... approving State Implementation Plan (SIP) revisions submitted by the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) dated November 28, 2012. The EPA's final rulemaking approves two revisions to the SIP. First, the... Ecology on behalf of the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency (PSCAA), contained in Appendix B, ``SIP...

  13. 75 FR 24542 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP) revisions submitted by the State of Washington, Department of Ecology (Ecology). These... maintenance plan. On January 17, 2007, EPA received a request from Ecology to approve under section 110 of the... about the SIP revisions Ecology has submitted for approval. The TSD is available for review as part of...

  14. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella corni-maris in Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples conducted in Washington State from 2003 to 2005, an unknown fruit rot was observed on stored apples collected from commercial fruit packinghouses. This disease was present in 66 of the 179 grower lots sampled, accounting for an average 1 to 3% of the...

  15. Migrant Programs in the Northwestern States -- Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.

    Part of the "Comprehensive National Survey of Migrant Programs" series, this directory lists services and resources available to migrant and seasonal farmworkers during their stay in the Northwestern states of Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming. Prepared for use by agencies working with…

  16. Scientific Framework for Stormwater Monitoring by the Washington State Department of Transportation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheibley, R.W.; Kelly, V.J.; Wagner, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation municipal stormwater monitoring program, in operation for about 8 years, never has received an external, objective assessment. In addition, the Washington State Department of Transportation would like to identify the standard operating procedures and quality assurance protocols that must be adopted so that their monitoring program will meet the requirements of the new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System municipal stormwater permit. As a result, in March 2009, the Washington State Department of Transportation asked the U.S. Geological Survey to assess their pre-2009 municipal stormwater monitoring program. This report presents guidelines developed for the Washington State Department of Transportation to meet new permit requirements and regional/national stormwater monitoring standards to ensure that adequate processes and procedures are identified to collect high-quality, scientifically defensible municipal stormwater monitoring data. These include: (1) development of coherent vision and cooperation among all elements of the program; (2) a comprehensive approach for site selection; (3) an effective quality assurance program for field, laboratory, and data management; and (4) an adequate database and data management system.

  17. Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges Academic Year Report, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This "Academic Year Report 2012-13" provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in community and technical colleges in Washington state for the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel and…

  18. Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges Enrollment and Staffing Report, Fall 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Fall Enrollment and Staffing Report 2013" provides a snapshot of enrollments in community and technical colleges during fall quarter 2013. The report addresses the questions most commonly raised regarding the community and technical colleges in Washington. The primary source of information for this document is the State Board for…

  19. Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges Enrollment and Staffing Report, Fall 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The "Fall Enrollment and Staffing Report 2014" provides a snapshot of enrollments in community and technical colleges during fall quarter 2014. The report addresses the questions most commonly raised regarding the community and technical colleges in Washington. The primary source of information for this document is the State Board for…

  20. Accounting Manual for Educational Service Districts in the State of Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunghofer, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This manual provides principles that are an integral part of the accounting requirements for educational service districts (ESDs) in the state of Washington. They are in conformance with generally accepted accounting principles, except where referenced in the ESD principles that follow. This manual provides guidance on the following topics:(1)…

  1. The Police, Traffic Tickets, and You. A Guide for New English Learners in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Janet; Marutani, Mio

    The 58-page reproducible text is an introductory guide to the role of police and the procedures surrounding traffic tickets in the state of Washington. It is designed for high-beginning to intermediate adult learners of English as a second language. In 17 brief, simply illustrated units, students are introduced to the police officer's job, types…

  2. Teacher Pension Choice: Surveying the Landscape in Washington State. Working Paper 81

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Pennucci, Annie; Bignell, Wesley

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive paper we detail the structure of two Washington State teacher retirement plans: a traditional defined benefit plan and a hybrid defined benefit-defined contribution plan. We provide preliminary evidence on how retirement plan structures may relate to the choices that teachers make. Our analysis of the financial incentives…

  3. Are Consumer-Directed Home Care Beneficiaries Satisfied? Evidence from Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Joshua M.; Anderson, Wayne L.; Khatutsky, Galina

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed the effect of consumer-directed versus agency-directed home care on satisfaction with paid personal assistance services among Medicaid beneficiaries in Washington State. Design and Methods: The study analyzed a survey of 513 Medicaid beneficiaries receiving home- and community-based services. As part of a larger study,…

  4. 78 FR 78379 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the human remains and present-day Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations. Lineal descendants or representatives of any Indian tribe or......

  5. Washington State University and Gonzaga Students Awarded EPA Grants for Innovative Sustainability Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - February 18, 2016) Student teams at Washington State University, in Pullman and Gonzaga University, in Spokane will receive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's latest People, Prosperity and Planet grant awards of up to $15,000 to develop

  6. Washington State Johnson-O'Malley Indian Education, 1970-71. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Harry, Ed.; Farris, Dale, Ed.

    The Superintendent of Public Instruction presents this 1970-71 annual report of Johnson-O'Malley (JOM) Indian education in the State of Washington. A historical background is presented which includes a section of the JOM Act; the criteria for receiving JOM grants; the formats of the program application and evaluation data form for the 1970-71…

  7. Migrant Programs in the Northwestern States -- Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.

    Part of the "Comprehensive National Survey of Migrant Programs" series, this directory lists services and resources available to migrant and seasonal farmworkers during their stay in the Northwestern states of Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming. Prepared for use by agencies working with…

  8. Migration of Blacks and Resulting Discriminatory Practices in Washington State between 1940 and 1950.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Quintard

    1978-01-01

    The migration of Blacks into the state of Washington brought about an increase in Black political influence, the strengthening of Black rights organizations and social service groups, and the passage of civil rights legislation. It also resulted in increased racial tension in many cities and overcrowding in Black residential areas. (Author/MC)

  9. New residential construction compliance: Evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code program

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.; Lee, A.D.; Sandahl, L.J.; Durfee, D.L.; Richman, E.E.

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code Program (WSECP). In 1990, the Washington State Legislature passed a residential energy efficiency code to be effective July 1, 1992. Bonneville supported passage and implementation of the code to ensure that new residences in the State of Washington were as energy efficient as economically feasible. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) is conducting the WSECP for Bonneville to support code implementation. This support takes several forms, including providing training to code enforcement officials, technical support both in the field and through telephone ``hot lines,`` and computerized tools to review house plans for code compliance. WSEO began implementing the WSECP in 1992, prior to the effective date of the new code. This first phase of the WSECP was the subject of an earlier process evaluation conducted by PNL. From that evaluation PNL found that most new homes being built immediately after the code went into effect were ``grand-fathered`` under the old code. The training program for the new code was in place and sessions were being attended by the jurisdictions but it was too early to determine if the training was effective in improving code compliance and easing the transition to the new energy code. That is the subject of this evaluation.

  10. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  11. Residential Radon Exposure and Lung Cancer: Evidence of an Inverse Association in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuberger, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a descriptive study of lung cancer death rates compared to county levels of radon in Washington State. Age-specific death rates were computed for white female smokers according to radon exposure. A significant lung cancer excess was found in lowest radon counties. No significant difference was found between the proportion of…

  12. Now It's Necessary: Virtual Reference Services at Washington State University, Pullman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, Erica Carlson; Crook, Linda

    2013-01-01

    While virtual reference services (VRS) are becoming more and more common in academic libraries, implementing and maintaining well-used and effective VRS can be a challenge in the face of competing demands on time, staffing, and funding. Between 2011 and 2012, librarians at Washington State University, Pullman (WSU) have overhauled and reorganized…

  13. Are Consumer-Directed Home Care Beneficiaries Satisfied? Evidence from Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Joshua M.; Anderson, Wayne L.; Khatutsky, Galina

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed the effect of consumer-directed versus agency-directed home care on satisfaction with paid personal assistance services among Medicaid beneficiaries in Washington State. Design and Methods: The study analyzed a survey of 513 Medicaid beneficiaries receiving home- and community-based services. As part of a larger study,…

  14. Washington State ECIA Chapter 2 District Programs End-of-Year Report, 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasp, Alfred, Jr.; And Others

    The State of Washington school districts spent 89 percent, $6,814,516.00, of the $7,682,569.00 awarded to them for planned 1985-86 Chapter 2 program expenditures. The two largest budget categories in terms of dollars spent were for instructional materials, 26 percent, and capital outlay, 27 percent. Most of the capital outlay expenditures were…

  15. Coxiella burnetii infection of a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) found in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Kersh, Gilbert J; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Self, Joshua S; Akmajian, Adrianne M; Stanton, James B; Baszler, Timothy V; Raverty, Stephen A; Massung, Robert F

    2010-09-01

    A pregnant sea lion stranded in the State of Washington was found to have placentitis caused by a unique strain of Coxiella burnetii. This is the first description of coxiellosis in a sea lion and suggests that exposure to sea lions may be a risk factor for contracting Q fever.

  16. LOLA; Library On-Line Acquisitions Sub-System, Washington State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, T.; Ames, L.

    The Acquisitions System is just one segment of an overall system design that was made for the entire Technical Services System of the Washington State University Library. After an overall study of the Technical Services System was conducted, a detailed study was made of work in the Acquisitions Department, and the Telecommunications Control…

  17. Progress in the First Five Years: An Evaluation of Achieving the Dream Colleges in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Wachen, John; Kerrigan, Monica Reid; Mayer, Alexander K.

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, six community and technical colleges in Washington State joined the innovative national reform initiative called Achieving the Dream (ATD). This report describes the progress each college made in implementing ATD's "culture of evidence" principles for institutional improvement, examines strategies implemented by the colleges to…

  18. Residential Radon Exposure and Lung Cancer: Evidence of an Inverse Association in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuberger, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a descriptive study of lung cancer death rates compared to county levels of radon in Washington State. Age-specific death rates were computed for white female smokers according to radon exposure. A significant lung cancer excess was found in lowest radon counties. No significant difference was found between the proportion of…

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Novel Picorna-Like Viruses from Washington State Spiders

    PubMed Central

    Shean, Ryan C.; Makhsous, Negar; Crawford, Rodney L.; Jerome, Keith R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report draft genome sequences of six novel Picornavirales members from six different spider species found in Washington state. These six viral sequences distinctly clustered together phylogenetically with less than 35% amino acid identity to the closest reference viral genome. PMID:28254976

  20. Faculty Manual. A Handbook of Policies and Regulations. Washington State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Univ., Pullman.

    The policies and procedures to be observed in the management of the affairs of Washington State University are presented. Major sections of the 1976 manual include: history and objectives; freedom and responsibility; administration and organization; faculty personnel policies; and business procedures. Faculty personnel policies deal with…

  1. Coordination of Instructional Services by Washington State's Educational Service Districts. REL 2015-041

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endsley, Mark; Speth, Timothy; Akey, Terri; Krasnoff, Basha; Barton, Rhonda; Singh, Malkeet; Scott, Caitlin; Fantz, Traci

    2014-01-01

    This REL Northwest study looked at the funding, delivery, and coordination of instructional services offered by Washington state's network of nine Educational Service Districts (ESDs). REL Northwest examined 13 statewide teaching and learning support areas, including the percentages of districts served, the funding for each service, and ESD…

  2. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  3. 1979 Report to the Governor: Extracted from the State of Washington 1979 Annual Report (Education Agencies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrey, John N.

    A brief summary is presented of the administrative, instructional, and financial characteristics of Washington State's community colleges for fiscal year 1979. The report first discusses the major accomplishments achieved during this period, including the implementation of a course-by-newspaper and the completion of college-by-college agreements…

  4. Increasing Access to Higher Education among Low-Income Students: The Washington State Achievers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carrie B.; Brown, Doreen E.; Pavel, D. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how a comprehensive precollege intervention and developmental program among low-income high school students contributed to college enrollment outcomes measured in 2006. Our focus was on the Fifth Cohort of the Washington State Achievers (WSA) Program, which provides financial, academic, and college…

  5. Agroecological factors correlated to Rhizoctonia spp. in dryland wheat production zones of Washington state, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The necrotrophic soilborne fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG8 and R. oryzae are principal causal agents of Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat in dryland cropping systems of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). A three-year survey of 33 parcels at eleven growers’ sites and 22 plots at twelve Washington State...

  6. Prenatal Care and Pregnancy Outcomes during the Recession: The Washington State Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Elliott S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    During a period of increasing unemployment and decreased Medicaid eligibility, more women residents of low-income census tracts in Washington State received delayed prenatal care or none at all and delivered proportionately more infants of low birthweight. The incidence of maternal anemia also may have increased. (Author/GC)

  7. Paying for the Assistive Technology You Need: A Consumer Guide to Funding Sources in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennell, Frances E.; Brown, Sharan E.

    This manual provides Washington state consumers and their advocates with information and guidance to enable them to pursue appropriate avenues for funding assistive technology (AT). Chapter 1 discusses the legislative history of AT, the definition of AT, and basic funding strategies. Chapter 2 reviews health-related sources of AT funding including…

  8. Now It's Necessary: Virtual Reference Services at Washington State University, Pullman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, Erica Carlson; Crook, Linda

    2013-01-01

    While virtual reference services (VRS) are becoming more and more common in academic libraries, implementing and maintaining well-used and effective VRS can be a challenge in the face of competing demands on time, staffing, and funding. Between 2011 and 2012, librarians at Washington State University, Pullman (WSU) have overhauled and reorganized…

  9. The Future of Information Services in K-12 Schools in Washington State: A Future Search Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the process of future search conferences and describes one held to consider the future of school library media centers and information services in the state of Washington. Highlights include participation by students, librarians, teachers, administrators, and others; strategic and participatory planning; and change processes. (LRW)

  10. A Future Search Conference: The Future of Information Services in K-12 Schools in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Describes a future search conference that addressed the future of school library resource centers and their role in enhancing student learning in Washington State. Highlights include whole systems analysis; and participative planning that included teachers, administrators, librarians, parents, students, business representatives, and consultants.…

  11. Coxiella burnetii Infection of a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) Found in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Kersh, Gilbert J.; Lambourn, Dyanna M.; Self, Joshua S.; Akmajian, Adrianne M.; Stanton, James B.; Baszler, Timothy V.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Massung, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    A pregnant sea lion stranded in the State of Washington was found to have placentitis caused by a unique strain of Coxiella burnetii. This is the first description of coxiellosis in a sea lion and suggests that exposure to sea lions may be a risk factor for contracting Q fever. PMID:20592144

  12. First Report of Rust of Sidalcea malviflora (Dwarf Checkerbloom) Caused by Puccinia sherardiana in Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Puccinia sherardiana is first reported on Sidalcea malviflora in Washington State. The rust occurs on many other taxa in the Malvaceae in numerous geographic locales, and seeds of S. malviflora are widely available for gardeners, but reports of the rust on S. malviflora are rare. ...

  13. Hyaloperonospora camelinae on Camelina sativa (L.) in Washington State: Detection, seed transmission, and chemical control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz) plants with symptoms of downy mildew were obtained from three different locations in Washington State. Based on PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, the causal pathogen was identified as Hyaloperonospora camelinae. The PCR primers consistently ampli...

  14. Detection, seed transmission, and control of Hyaloperonospora camelinae on Camelina sativa (L.) in Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz) plants with symptoms of downy mildew were obtained from three different locations in Washington State. Based on PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, the causal pathogen was identified as Hyaloperonospora camelinae. The PCR primers consistently ampli...

  15. Washington State Community College Program and Enrollment Plan, 1985-90. Management Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community Coll. Education, Olympia.

    This planning report provides information about the types and magnitude of educational services to be provided by Washington State's community colleges from 1985 to 1900. The purpose of the plan, the planning process, and the report's format are presented and the mission of the community colleges in providing transfer/vocational education, basic…

  16. LOLA; Library On-Line Acquisitions Sub-System, Washington State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, T.; Ames, L.

    The Acquisitions System is just one segment of an overall system design that was made for the entire Technical Services System of the Washington State University Library. After an overall study of the Technical Services System was conducted, a detailed study was made of work in the Acquisitions Department, and the Telecommunications Control…

  17. Prenatal Care and Pregnancy Outcomes during the Recession: The Washington State Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Elliott S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    During a period of increasing unemployment and decreased Medicaid eligibility, more women residents of low-income census tracts in Washington State received delayed prenatal care or none at all and delivered proportionately more infants of low birthweight. The incidence of maternal anemia also may have increased. (Author/GC)

  18. US Geological Survey begins seismic ground response experiments in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, A.C.; King, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    This article briefly describes the experimental monitoring of minor seismic features caused by distant nuclear explosions, mining blasts and rhythmic human pushing against wooden homes. Some means of response prediction are outlined in Washington State and some effects of seismic amplification by weak clayey sediments are described. The results of several experiments are described. -A.Scarth

  19. First report of black rot on apple fruit caused by Diplodia seriata in Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In July 2014, decayed ‘Fuji’ apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) were observed and sampled from commercial orchards in Mattawa (Grant County) in Washington State. Fruit rot symptoms appeared to originate mainly from infections at either the calyx-end (floral parts) of the fruit or wounds on the f...

  20. Models to predict suitable habitat for juvenile bull trout in Washington state

    Treesearch

    Jason B. Dunham; G. L. Chandler

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted in 2000 to develop models of suitable habitat for juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Washington State. The research is associated with a cooperative agreement (Agreement #134100H001) between U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research...

  1. An Alignment Analysis of Washington State's College Readiness Mathematics Standards with Various Local Placement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2006

    2006-01-01

    For the past two years, Achieve, Inc. has worked with the Transition Mathematics Project (TMP), a collaborative project of K-12 schools, community and technical colleges, and baccalaureate institutions within the state of Washington, as it developed mathematics standards that "define the core knowledge and skills expected of students entering…

  2. Conversion of board foot scaled logs to cubic meters in Washington State, 1970–1998

    Treesearch

    Henry Spelter

    2002-01-01

    The conversion factor generally used to convert logs measured in board feet to cubic meters has traditionally been set at 4.53. Because of diminishing old growth, large diameter trees, the average conversion factor has risen, as illustrated in this analysis of Washington state sawmill data over the period 1970–1998. Conversion factors for coastal and interior...

  3. The Statewide Master Plan, State of Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board. Issue Area: Quality. Question No. 4, Performance Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    Options for evaluating the performance of Washington state colleges based on student outcomes are discussed. Considered in "Question Number 4" on the agenda of the Washington State Higher Educaton Coordinating Board: how should the performance of higher education institutions be evaluated and by whom? Of concern is what student outcomes…

  4. Educator and Student Diversity in Washington State: Gaps and Historical Trends. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2015-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Theobald, Roddy; Tien, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    It has been well documented--including in recent reports from Washington State (Professional Educator Standards Board, 2014) and several large districts across the country (Albert Shanker Institute, 2015)--that the public teaching workforce is far less racially and ethnically diverse than the student body in U.S. public schools. Washington State,…

  5. Evaluation of PCB sources and releases for identifying priorities to reduce PCBs in Washington State (USA).

    PubMed

    Davies, Holly; Delistraty, Damon

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and produce multiple adverse effects in humans and wildlife. As a result, the purpose of our study was to characterize PCB sources in anthropogenic materials and releases to the environment in Washington State (USA) in order to formulate recommendations to reduce PCB exposures. Methods included review of relevant publications (e.g., open literature, industry studies and reports, federal and state government databases), scaling of PCB sources from national or county estimates to state estimates, and communication with industry associations and private and public utilities. Recognizing high associated uncertainty due to incomplete data, we strived to provide central tendency estimates for PCB sources. In terms of mass (high to low), PCB sources include lamp ballasts, caulk, small capacitors, large capacitors, and transformers. For perspective, these sources (200,000-500,000 kg) overwhelm PCBs estimated to reside in the Puget Sound ecosystem (1500 kg). Annual releases of PCBs to the environment (high to low) are attributed to lamp ballasts (400-1500 kg), inadvertent generation by industrial processes (900 kg), caulk (160 kg), small capacitors (3-150 kg), large capacitors (10-80 kg), pigments and dyes (0.02-31 kg), and transformers (<2 kg). Recommendations to characterize the extent of PCB distribution and decrease exposures include assessment of PCBs in buildings (e.g., schools) and replacement of these materials, development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to contain PCBs, reduction of inadvertent generation of PCBs in consumer products, expansion of environmental monitoring and public education, and research to identify specific PCB congener profiles in human tissues.

  6. Denman Island disease in Washington State, USA: distribution and prevalence in Pacific and Olympia oysters.

    PubMed

    Elston, Ralph; Friedman, Carolyn; Gustafson, Lori; Meyer, Gary; Rogers, Russell

    2015-05-21

    We sampled over 2400 wild, feral, and cultured Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas and Olympia oysters Ostrea lurida in Washington State, USA, from 2002 to 2006 to estimate the prevalence of infection with Mikrocytos mackini, the causative agent of Denman Island disease. Both histology and qualitative PCR methods were used. Estimates of true prevalence of M. mackini infection in C. gigas, after accounting for imperfect test sensitivity, ranged from mean values of 0 to 10.0% by histology and 0 to 8.4% based on pooled PCR samples. M. mackini was not detected in any of the O. lurida samples. Results suggest a lower prevalence of the pathogen and severity of this oyster disease in Washington than that indicated in previous reports from British Columbia, Canada, potentially attributable to higher seawater temperatures in the Washington sample locations.

  7. A multi-model integrated assessment of the impacts of climate change in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire Elsner, M.; Salathe, E. P.; Hamlet, A. F.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Miles, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    In April 2007, the State of Washington passed legislation mandating a comprehensive statewide assessment of the impacts of climate change over the next 100 years. The Climate Impacts Group (CIG) at the University of Washington Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO) is working with Washington State University, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and state agencies to perform an integrated assessment on the effects of climate change for eight statewide sectors: public health, agriculture, the coastal zone, forest ecosystems, salmon, infrastructure, energy, and water supply and management. An additional Climate Scenarios Working Group serves the eight other sectors by providing projections of future regional climate, downscaled to 1/16th degree spatial resolution over the state of Washington. We utilize projections from A1B and B1 greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, as simulated by the full suite of 20 GCMs, archived in the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. In this approach, we apply 40 ensembles of statistically downscaled future climate to drive hydrologic model simulations. Each sector incorporates the projections of climatic and hydrologic variables in their evaluations of the impacts of climate change. Here we present impacts on hydrologic variables (such as snowpack and streamflow), as well as related implications for several of the sectors listed above, over the State of Washington for three periods: the 2020s, 2040s and 2080s. We also discuss CIG's collaboration with multi-stakeholder adaptation working groups to identify potential barriers to adaptation and strategies to address the projected impacts in each sector.

  8. Medicinal Cannabis: A Survey Among Health Care Providers in Washington State

    PubMed

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Garrett, Sharon B; Carter, Gregory T

    2017-02-01

    Washington State allows marijuana use for medical (since 1998) and recreational (since 2012) purposes. The benefits of medicinal cannabis (MC) can be maximized if clinicians educate patients about dosing, routes of administration, side effects, and plant composition. However, little is known about clinicians' knowledge and practices in Washington State. An anonymous online survey assessed providers' MC knowledge, beliefs, clinical practices, and training needs. The survey was disseminated through health care providers' professional organizations in Washington State. Descriptive analysis compared providers who had and had not authorized MC for patients. Survey results informed the approach and content of an online training on best clinical practices of MC. Four hundred ninety-four health care providers responded to the survey. Approximately two-third were women, aged 30 to 60 years, and working in family or internal medicine. More than half of the respondents were legally allowed to write MC authorizations per Washington State law, and 27% of those had issued written MC authorizations. Overall, respondents reported low knowledge and comfort level related to recommending MC. Respondents rated MC knowledge as important and supported inclusion of MC training in medical/health provider curriculum. Most Washington State providers have not received education on scientific basis of MC or training on best clinical practices of MC. Clinicians who had issued MC authorizations were more likely to have received MC training than those who had not issued MC authorization. The potential of MCs to benefit some patients is hindered by the lack of comfort of clinicians to recommend it. Training opportunities are badly needed to address these issues.

  9. Serological survey for antibodies to Leptospira in dogs and raccoons in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Davis, M A; Evermann, J F; Petersen, C R; VancerSchalie, J; Besser, T E; Huckabee, J; Daniels, J B; Hancock, D D; Leslie, M; Baer, R

    2008-10-01

    A high number of reported canine leptospirosis cases occurred in Washington State from 2004 to 2006. This prompted a serosurvey of healthy dogs from around the state to determine the distribution of exposure risk and to provide insight into serovar epidemiology in the region. In addition, a convenience sample of sera from injured raccoons was also tested, and clinical serological data from the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory were examined. The proportion of dogs with an antibody titre (>or=1:100) to any serovar was 27/158 (17.1%, 95% CI 11.6-23.9), and that proportion among raccoons was 22/115 (19.1%, 95% CI 12.4-27.5) suggesting that the potential for exposure in Washington state is not uncommon. The most frequently detected serovars in healthy dogs were Autumnalis, Icterohemorrhagiae and Canicola, in clinical canine samples Autumnalis, Bratislava and Pomona were more frequent and in sick or injured raccoons Autumnalis, and Pomona were most frequently detected. Clinical canine serology demonstrated a late summer-fall seasonality that was consistent with other reports. An outbreak of canine leptospirosis occurred during 2004-2006 and was located primarily in western Washington counties, as were three reported human cases in 2005. Canine leptospirosis surveillance is an important tool for detecting human risk of exposure and may provide insights into which serovars are currently of clinical importance.

  10. Heat-Related Illness in Washington State Agriculture and Forestry Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Spector, June T.; Krenz, Jennifer; Rauser, Edmund; Bonauto, David K.

    2017-01-01

    Background We sought to describe heat-related illness (HRI) in agriculture and forestry workers in Washington State. Methods Demographic and clinical Washington State Fund workers’ compensation agriculture and forestry HRI claims data (1995–2009) and Washington Agriculture Heat Rule citations (2009–2012) were accessed and described. Maximum daily temperature (Tmax) and Heat Index (HImax) were estimated by claim date and location using AgWeatherNet’s weather station network. Results There were 84 Washington State Fund agriculture and forestry HRI claims and 60 Heat Rule citations during the study period. HRI claims and citations were most common in crop production and support subsectors. The mean Tmax (HImax) was 95°F (99°F) for outdoor HRI claims. Potential HRI risk factors and HRI-related injuries were documented for some claims. Conclusions Agriculture and forestry HRI cases are characterized by potential work-related, environmental, and personal risk factors. Further work is needed to elucidate the relationship between heat exposure and occupational injuries. PMID:24953344

  11. Heat-related illness in Washington State agriculture and forestry sectors.

    PubMed

    Spector, June T; Krenz, Jennifer; Rauser, Edmund; Bonauto, David K

    2014-08-01

    We sought to describe heat-related illness (HRI) in agriculture and forestry workers in Washington State. Demographic and clinical Washington State Fund workers' compensation agriculture and forestry HRI claims data (1995-2009) and Washington Agriculture Heat Rule citations (2009-2012) were accessed and described. Maximum daily temperature (Tmax) and Heat Index (HImax) were estimated by claim date and location using AgWeatherNet's weather station network. There were 84 Washington State Fund agriculture and forestry HRI claims and 60 Heat Rule citations during the study period. HRI claims and citations were most common in crop production and support subsectors. The mean Tmax (HImax) was 95°F (99°F) for outdoor HRI claims. Potential HRI risk factors and HRI-related injuries were documented for some claims. Agriculture and forestry HRI cases are characterized by potential work-related, environmental, and personal risk factors. Further work is needed to elucidate the relationship between heat exposure and occupational injuries. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Use of Death Records to Augment Notifiable Conditions Reporting in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Oltean, Hanna N; DeBolt, Charla A; Goldoft, Marcia J; Lofy, Kathryn H

    2016-01-01

    Health care providers are required to report newly diagnosed notifiable conditions including the case's vital status according to state regulations, but it is uncertain how many cases remain unreported. Death certificates could potentially serve as a data source for detecting unreported deaths due to notifiable conditions. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of electronic death records to augment notifiable conditions reporting in Washington State. Cross-sectional study. All residents of Washington State. Decedents from 2010-2012. Total number of fatal cases of acute infectious notifiable conditions in Washington residents estimated by capture-recapture analysis, proportion of estimated fatal cases reported to Washington's notifiable conditions database (Public Health Issue Management System [PHIMS]), and the proportion of estimated fatal cases identified solely from the death records. Information was obtained by searching multiple cause-of death fields on 2010-2012 death records for keywords for acute infectious notifiable conditions. Capture-recapture analysis estimated 317 fatal cases of these conditions could be expected over the 3 years studied (95% CI: 276,358). Public Health Issue Management System alone identified 38% of total estimated cases; using PHIMS and death record data increased identification to 71%. Electronic filing of death records was very timely, with a median of 4 days to visibility. Death record data were highly complete. Use of death records will augment the notifiable condition reporting system and potentially improve mortality estimates and disease control.

  13. Water quality in the central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Alex K.; Munn, Mark D.; Ryker, Sarah J.; Wagner, Richard J.; Ebbert, James C.; Vanderpool, Ann M.

    1998-01-01

    Water quality in the Central Columbia Plateau of eastern Washington and western Idaho has been adversely affected by agriculture, especially in irrigated areas, according to the results of a five-year investigation by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). Some improvements, however, are noticeable, such as less sediment being washed into streams. These improvements may be the result of increased use of best management practices (BMPs) by area farmers. Areas with intensive fertilizer use and irrigation, such as in the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project (CBIP), showed the greatest impacts on ground-water quality. (The CBIP includes parts of Franklin, Grant, and Adams counties in eastern Washington.) Central Columbia Plateau wells do not have MCLs established. A lack of information makes it difficult to assess the significance of finding pesticides in drinking water. 'As scientists, we don't know enough yet about what happens when these pesticides are

  14. Influence of Injury Characteristics and Payer Status on Burn Treatment Location in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Matthew B.; Mack, Christopher D.; Kramer, C. Bradley; Heimbach, David M.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2011-01-01

    The provision of optimal burn care is a resource-intensive endeavor. The American Burn Association has developed criteria to help guide the decision to refer a patient to a burn center for definitive injury care. The purpose of this study was to compare the patient and injury characteristics of patients admitted to the single verified burn center in Washington State with those treated at other facilities in the state. We performed a retrospective review of all patients admitted to a hospital with a burn injury in Washington State from 1987 to 2005 using the state’s discharge database (Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System). Patient and injury factors of patients admitted to the state’s single verified burn center or at other hospitals were compared. Multivariate poisson regression was used to calculate the relative risk of injury and patient factors that were significantly associated with admission to the verified burn center. From 1987 to 2005, a total of 16,531 patients were admitted to a Washington State hospital after burn injury. Of these patients, 8624 (52.2%) were treated definitively at the University of Washington Burn Center. Patients treated at this verified center had larger overall burn size (7.4% vs 4.5% TBSA, P < .001), higher percent full-thickness burn (4.3% vs 1.2%, P < .001), and higher rates of inhalation injury (2.3% vs 1.5%, P = .005). Uninsured status (relative risk = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.4–1.5) was also significantly associated with treatment at the verified burn center. Injury severity and payer status were both found to be independent predictors of treatment at the single verified burn center in Washington. PMID:18388579

  15. Paleoseismology of a possible fault scarp in Wenas Valley, central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, Brian L.; Barnett, Elizabeth A.; Knepprath, Nichole; Foit, Franklin F.

    2013-01-01

    In October 2009, two trenches excavated across an 11-kilometer-long scarp at Wenas Valley in central Washington exposed evidence for late Quaternary deformation. Lidar imagery of the Wenas Valley illuminated the west-northwest-trending, 2- to 8-meter-high scarp as it bisected alluvial fans developed at the mouths of canyons along the south side of Umtanum Ridge. The alignment of the scarp and aeromagnetic lineaments suggested that the scarp may be a product of and controlled by the same tectonic structure that produced the magnetic lineaments. Several large landslides mapped in the area demonstrated the potential for large mass-wasting events in the area. In order to test whether the scarp was the result of an earthquake-generated surface rupture or a landslide, trenches were excavated at Hessler Flats and McCabe Place. The profiles of bedrock and soil stratigraphy that underlie the scarp in each trench were photographed, mapped, and described, and a sequence of depositional and deformational events established for each trench. The McCabe Place trench exposed a sequence of volcaniclastic deposits overlain by soils and alluvial deposits separated by three unconformities. Six normal faults and two possible reverse faults deformed the exposed strata. Crosscutting relations indicated that up to five earthquakes occurred on a blind reverse fault, and a microprobe analysis of lapilli suggested that the earliest faulting occurred after 47,000 years before present. The Hessler Flat trench exposure revealed weathered bedrock that abuts loess and colluvium deposits and is overlain by soil, an upper sequence of loess, and colluvium. The latter two units bury a distinctive paloesol.

  16. Quality of ground water in southeastern and south-central Washington, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turney, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In 1982 groundwater was sampled at over 100 sites in the southeastern-south central region of Washington and analyzed for pH, specific conductance, and concentrations of fecal-coliform bacteria, major dissolved irons, and dissolved iron, manganese, and nitrate. Twenty percent of the samples were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, cooper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, and zinc. The predominant water type was calcium bicarbonate. Some sodium bicarbonate water was found in samples from the Lower Yakima, Horse Heaven Hills, and Walla Walla-Tucannon subregions. Dissolved solids concentrations were typically less than 500 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Median iron and manganese concentrations were less than 20 micrograms/L except in the Palouse subregion, where the median concentration of iron was 200 micrograms/L and the median concentrations of manganese was 45 micrograms/L. Generally, trace-metal concentrations were also less than 10 micrograms/L except for barium, copper, and zinc. Nitrate concentrations were less than 1.0 mg/L in waters from half the wells sampled. Concentrations greater than 5.0 mg/L were found in areas of the Lower Yakima, Walla Walla-Tucannon and Hanford subregions. No fecal-coliform bacteria were detected. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water regulation limits were generally not exceeded, except for occasional high concentrations of nitrate or dissolved solids. The historical data for the region were evaluated for these same constituents. Quantitative differences were found, but the historical and 1982 data led to similar qualitative conclusions. (USGS)

  17. Hazardous Waste State Authorization Tracking System (StATS) Report for Washington as of June 30, 2017

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    State Authorization Tracking System (StATS) data for Washington listing checklist code, Federal Register Reference, promulgation date, rule description, state adopted/effective date, date of Federal Register Notice, and effective date.

  18. Hazardous Waste State Authorization Tracking System (StATS) Report for Washington as of September 30, 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    State Authorization Tracking System (StATS) data for Washington listing checklist code, Federal Register Reference, promulgation date, rule description, state adopted/effective date, date of Federal Register Notice, and effective date.

  19. Concussion evaluation methods among Washington State high school football coaches and athletic trainers.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Ashley; Kaufman, Marla S; Molton, Ivan; Coppel, David B; Benson, John; Herring, Stanley A

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate awareness of concussion assessment methods and to determine whether there are differences among Washington State high school football coaches and athletic trainers in urban versus rural school districts. A Catalyst WebQ survey link was randomly sent by e-mail to varsity head football coaches, athletic trainers, and athletic directors in Washington State school districts. Survey participants were high school varsity head football coaches and athletic trainers from a total of 106 Washington State high schools. A 12-item questionnaire on Catalyst WebQ was distributed via e-mail. The survey inquired about use of the methods of concussion assessment, both on the field and for follow-up; participants' concussion education training; and familiarity with Washington State's Zackery Lystedt Law. The survey examined differences in concussion management practices between rural and urban school districts and also between coaches and athletic trainers in Washington State, specifically regarding the use of the Standardized Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) and neurocognitive testing (NCT). Twenty-seven of 48 respondents (56%) used the SCAT2 for on-the-field assessment; urban respondents were significantly more likely to use SCAT2 (P < .05). The difference between coaches and athletic trainers with respect to SCAT2 use was not significant (P = .08). NCT was used by 18 of 58 respondents (31%). This was more commonly used by those in urban districts (P < .01) and by athletic trainers (P < .01). Eleven of these 18 individuals (61%) reported that a neuropsychologist interpreted the results; the rest used other providers not specifically trained in neuropsychology. There was no statistically significant correlation between years of experience and use of the SCAT2, but those with more than 10 years of experience were less likely to use NCT (P < .01). All respondents reported being familiar with Washington State's Zackery Lystedt Law, but only 44.1% reported that the law

  20. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 233 - Application for Compensation United States Agency for International Development Washington, DC 20523

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application for Compensation United States Agency for International Development Washington, DC 20523 A Appendix A to Part 233 Foreign Relations... Washington, DC 20523 Ref: Guarantee dated as of ___, 20__: Gentlemen: You are hereby advised that payment...

  1. 76 FR 28066 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology at... glass beads was given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University on an unknown...

  2. 76 FR 14045 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Museum of Anthropology at Washington.... 3005, of the intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Museum of Anthropology at... given to the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University for intended repatriation by Whitney...

  3. Science Paves the Way for Bipartisan Policymaking: Washington State Legislators Find Common Ground on Early Childhood Issues. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Marcy

    2006-01-01

    In 2006, the input of scientists, economists, and private industry representatives inspired nearly unparalleled bipartisan support in Washington state for the formation of a Department of Early Learning. This new cabinet-level department consolidates three separate agencies, provides universal preschool for all children in Washington, and…

  4. A Ten-Year Study of Test Scores for College-Bound Students in the State of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noeth, Richard J.

    Test results (1968-1977) on the English and mathematics achievement subtests of the Washington Precollege Test (WPC), administered annually to the vast majority of college bound students in the state of Washington, were examined for evidence of test score decline. The following information from 300,000 students was analyzed by both sex and total…

  5. Parent's Guide to Special Education in Washington State, 1985-86 [and] Guia para Padres: Para Educacion Especial en el Estado de Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This pamphlet guides parents of children with disabilities through the procedures for acquiring special education services in the state of Washington. Following an overview of special education, the pamphlet presents information on notice and consent procedures, confidentiality of records, individualized education programs (IEP), the placement…

  6. Parent's Guide to Special Education in Washington State, 1985-86 [and] Guia para Padres: Para Educacion Especial en el Estado de Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This pamphlet guides parents of children with disabilities through the procedures for acquiring special education services in the state of Washington. Following an overview of special education, the pamphlet presents information on notice and consent procedures, confidentiality of records, individualized education programs (IEP), the placement…

  7. Family planning service provision in rural areas: a survey in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Dobie, S A; Gober, L; Rosenblatt, R A

    1998-01-01

    Women in rural areas are highly dependent on public clinics for family planning services, yet little information has been collected on rural family planning providers, especially on their funding and operation. All 31 family planning clinic sites in rural Washington State were surveyed about their sponsorship, staffing, service provision and population coverage. Clinic sites were located in 25 of the 53 discrete rural health service areas of Washington State. While the three wealthiest areas had clinics, eight of the poorest areas had no clinics. Eight clinics were Planned Parenthood affiliates, eight were private freestanding clinics and 15 were local health department sites. Clinic sites were small (with the equivalent of 2.4 full-time staff members, on average) and offered a mean of 18 of 43 potential reproductive and women's health care services; general primary care services were rarely provided. Only one clinic offered abortions. Family planning clinics in rural Washington State offer an important but limited number of services. Many rural areas have no local family planning clinic. Given these clinics' reliance on federal and state funding, decreased public support might seriously impair family planning provision in rural areas.

  8. Distribution of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Ground Water in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna

    2008-01-01

    More than 60 percent of the population of Washington State uses ground water for their drinking and cooking needs. Nitrate concentrations in ground water are elevated in parts of the State as a result of various land-use practices, including fertilizer application, dairy operations and ranching, and septic-system use. Shallow wells generally are more vulnerable to nitrate contamination than deeper wells (Williamson and others, 1998; Ebbert and others, 2000). In order to protect public health, the Washington State Department of Health requires that public water systems regularly measure nitrate in their wells. Public water systems serving more than 25 people collect water samples at least annually; systems serving from 2 to 14 people collect water samples at least every 3 years. Private well owners serving one residence may be required to sample when the well is first drilled, but are unregulated after that. As a result, limited information is available to citizens and public health officials about potential exposure to elevated nitrate concentrations for people whose primary drinking-water sources are private wells. The U.S. Geological Survey and Washington State Department of Health collaborated to examine water-quality data from public water systems and develop models that calculate the probability of detecting elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water. Maps were then developed to estimate ground water vulnerability to nitrate in areas where limited data are available.

  9. Translating the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study into public policy: progress and possibility in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Kagi, Ruth; Regala, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    On June 15, 2011, Washington became the first state in the United States to enact legislation aimed at preventing adverse childhood experiences (ACE), reducing their prevalence, and mitigating their effects. House Bill 1965 (HB 1965) was established on the understanding among legislators and Washington communities of the need for policies aimed at preventing child abuse, promoting healthy development of children, and building community capacity to improve public health. Empirical examples of integrating ACE-related research with public policy and programmatic design are chronicled. The legislators who developed HB 1965 lay out questions that, if answered, would further improve policymakers' ability to craft public policy and programs that prevent ACE, reduce their effects, and promote a healthier, safer future.

  10. Radiochemistry Education at Washington State University: Sustaining Academic Radiochemistry for the Nation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Sue B.; Nash, Ken; Benny, Paul; Clark, Aurora; Wall, Nathalie; Wall, Don; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2009-08-01

    Since 2002, Washington State University has been building radiochemistry as a component of its overall chemistry program. Using an aggressive hiring strategy and leveraged funds from the state of Washington and federal agencies, six radiochemistry faculty members have been added to give a total of seven radiochemists out of a department of twenty-five faculty members. These faculty members contribute to a diverse curriculum in radiochemistry, and the Chemistry Department now enjoys a significant increase in the number of trainees, the quantity of research expenditures, and the volume and quality of peer-reviewed scientific literature generated by the radiochemistry faculty and the trainees. These three factors are essential for sustaining the radiochemistry education and research program at any academic institution.

  11. Burden of Work-Related Knee Disorders in Washington State, 1999 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Spector, June T.; Adams, Darrin; Silverstein, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the burden of knee work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Methods Knee WMSDs were identified using Washington State Fund workers’ compensation data from 1999 to 2007 and analyzed by cost, industry, occupation, and claims incidence rates. Results Knee WMSDs accounted for 7% of WMSD claims and 10% of WMSD costs. The rate of decline in claims incidence rates for knee WMSDs was similar to the rate of decline for all other WMSDs. Industries at highest risk for knee WMSDs included construction and building contractors. Occupations of concern included carpenters and truck drivers in men and nursing aides and housekeepers in women. Conclusions Between 1999 and 2007, Washington State Fund knee WMSDs were widespread and associated with a large cost. Identification of specific occupational knee WMSD risk factors in high-risk industries is needed to guide prevention efforts. PMID:21508866

  12. History of Recent Surface-Rupturing Earthquakes on the Burbank fault, Yakima Folds, Central Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S. E. K.; Sherrod, B. L.; Kelsey, H. M.; Reedy, T.; Lasher, J. P.; Paces, J. B.; Mahan, S.

    2016-12-01

    Clockwise rotation and crustal shortening in the upper plate of the Cascadia subduction zone occurs >500 km from the plate boundary. In the Yakima folds region of central Washington, GPS data indicate active shortening is oriented NNE, slightly oblique to thrust faults and folds. We use 2-meter lidar to identify and map scarps along the NW-SE-striking Burbank fault, a back-thrust related to the Quaternary-active, 120 km-long Umtanum Ridge-Gable Mountain fault-cored fold. We excavated two paleoseismic trenches across a west-facing scarp that splays off the primary fault trace and cuts across Miocene lithologic contacts. The southern trench was excavated across a 4-m-high scarp, exposing a 5-m-wide fault zone with scarp-derived colluvium in steep fault contact with Miocene basalt. At least three surface-rupturing earthquakes are inferred from colluvial-wedge stratigraphy, fault terminations, and soil formation. Each colluvial wedge is 0.2-0.3 m-thick, suggesting 0.5 m of throw per event, if colluvial deposition filled half of the scarp height. Colluvial wedge thickness and oblique-slip kinematic data (most slickenlines plunge <25°) indicate that slip per event may exceed 1 m. Ages from 10 radiocarbon and 6 luminescence samples will constrain prehistoric earthquake timing. The northern trench was excavated across a 10-m-high portion of the same scarp, exposing a 10 m-wide fault zone with scarp-derived colluvium in steep fault contact with Miocene sandstone and basalt. Distinct carbonate horizons occur at depths of 0.6 m, 0.9 m, and 1.8 m. U-series ages from these horizons, along with luminescence and radiocarbon ages, will constrain the timing of punctuated co-seismic subsidence and colluvial wedge aggradation. Additional paleoseismic studies on this structure are required to estimate rupture length and magnitude of paleoearthquakes. Results will aid hazard analyses for sites that might be shaken by earthquakes on the Umtanum Ridge-Gable Mountain structure.

  13. Variation in Tracheal Reintubations Among Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery Across Washington State Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Nita; Dale, Christopher R.; Benkeser, David C.; Joffe, Aaron M.; Yanez, N. David; Treggiari, Miriam M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients requiring endotracheal reintubation have higher mortality, increased hospital length of stay and costs. To our knowledge, little is known about the variation in reintubation across hospitals among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Objectives The objectives of this study were to: (1) Examine the variation in reintubations across Washington State hospitals that perform cardiac surgery, and (2) Explore hospital and patient characteristics associated with variation in reintubation. Design Retrospective cohort study Setting All non-federal hospitals performing cardiac surgery in Washington State Participants 15,103 patients undergoing CABG or valvular surgery between January 1, 2008 and September 30, 2011 Measurements and Main Results Patient and hospital characteristics were compared between hospitals that had a reintubation frequency ≥ 5% or < 5%. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the odds of reintubation across the hospitals. We tested for heterogeneity of odds of reintubation across hospitals by performing a likelihood ratio test on the hospital factor. After adjusting for patient-level characteristics and procedure type, significant heterogeneity in reintubations across hospitals was present (p=0.005). Our exploratory analyses suggested that hospitals with lower reintubations were more likely to have greater acute care days and teaching ICUs. Conclusions After accounting for patient and procedure characteristics, significant heterogeneity in the relative odds of requiring reintubation was present across 16 non-federal hospitals performing cardiac surgery in Washington State. Our findings suggest that greater hospital volume and ICU teaching status are associated with less reintubations. PMID:25802193

  14. Variation in tracheal reintubations among patients undergoing cardiac surgery across Washington state hospitals.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Nita; Dale, Christopher R; Benkeser, David C; Joffe, Aaron M; Yanez, Norbert David; Treggiari, Miriam M

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the variation in reintubations across Washington state hospitals that perform cardiac surgery, and explore hospital and patient characteristics associated with variation in reintubation. Retrospective cohort study. All nonfederal hospitals performing cardiac surgery in Washington state. A total of 15,103 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting or valvular surgery between January 1, 2008 and September 30, 2011. None. Patient and hospital characteristics were compared between hospitals that had a reintubation frequency ≥5% or<5%. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare the odds of reintubation across the hospitals. The authors tested for heterogeneity of odds of reintubation across hospitals by performing a likelihood ratio test on the hospital factor. After adjusting for patient-level characteristics and procedure type, significant heterogeneity in reintubations across hospitals was present (p = 0.005). This exploratory analyses suggested that hospitals with lower reintubations were more likely to have more acute care days and teaching intensive care units (ICU). After accounting for patient and procedure characteristics, significant heterogeneity in the relative odds of requiring reintubation was present across 16 nonfederal hospitals performing cardiac surgery in Washington state. The findings suggested that greater hospital volume and ICU teaching status were associated with fewer reintubations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Home energy rating system business plan feasibility study in Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Lineham, T.

    1995-03-01

    In the Fall of 1993, the Washington State Energy Office funded the Washington Home Energy Rating System project to investigate the benefits of a Washington state HERS. WSEO established a HERS and EEM Advisory Group. Composed of mortgage lenders/brokers, realtors, builders, utility staff, remodelers, and other state agency representatives, the Advisory Group met for the first time on November 17, 1993. The Advisory Group established several subcommittees to identify issues and options. During its March 1994 meeting, the Advisory Group formed a consensus directing WSEO to develop a HERS business plan for consideration. The Advisory Group also established a business plan subcommittee to help draft the plan. Under the guidance of the business plan subcommittee, WSEO conducted research on how customers value energy efficiency in the housing market. This plan represents WSEO`s effort to comply with the Advisory Group`s request. Why is a HERS Business Plan necessary? Strictly speaking this plan is more of a feasibility plan than a business plan since it is designed to help determine the feasibility of a new business venture: a statewide home energy rating system. To make this determination decision makers or possible investors require strategic information about the proposed enterprise. Ideally, the plan should anticipate the significant questions parties may want to know. Among other things, this document should establish decision points for action.

  16. Genetic characterization of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus of coastal salmonid stocks in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2002-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a pathogen that infects many Pacific salmonid stocks from the watersheds of North America. Previous studies have thoroughly characterized the genetic diversity of IHNV isolates from Alaska and the Hagerman Valley in Idaho. To enhance understanding of the evolution and viral transmission patterns of IHNV within the Pacific Northwest geographic range, we analyzed the G gene of IHNV isolates from the coastal watersheds of Washington State by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and nucleotide sequencing. The RPA analysis of 23 isolates indicated that the Skagit basin IHNV isolates were relatively homogeneous as a result of the dominance of one G gene haplotype (S). Sequence analysis of 303 bases in the middle of the G gene (midG region) of 61 isolates confirmed the high frequency of a Skagit River basin sequence and identified another sequence commonly found in isolates from the Lake Washington basin. Overall, both the RPA and sequence analysis showed that the Washington coastal IHNV isolates are genetically homogeneous and have little genetic diversity. This is similar to the genetic diversity pattern of IHNV from Alaska and contrasts sharply with the high genetic diversity demonstrated for IHNV isolates from fish farms along the Snake River in Idaho. The high degree of sequence and haplotype similarity between the Washington coastal IHNV isolates and those from Alaska and British Columbia suggests that they have a common viral ancestor. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolates we studied and those from different regions throughout the virus's geographic range confirms a conserved pattern of evolution of the virus in salmonid stocks north of the Columbia River, which forms Washington's southern border.

  17. Active faulting on the Wallula fault zone within the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, Washington State, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, Brian; Blakely, Richard J.; Lasher, John P.; Lamb, Andrew P.; Mahan, Shannon; Foit, Franklin F.; Barnett, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The Wallula fault zone is an integral feature of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, an ∼500-km-long topographic lineament oblique to the Cascadia plate boundary, extending from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, to Walla Walla, Washington. The structure and past earthquake activity of the Wallula fault zone are important because of nearby infrastructure, and also because the fault zone defines part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament in south-central Washington and suggests that the Olympic-Wallowa lineament may have a structural origin. We used aeromagnetic and ground magnetic data to locate the trace of the Wallula fault zone in the subsurface and map a quarry exposure of the Wallula fault zone near Finley, Washington, to investigate past earthquakes along the fault. We mapped three main packages of rocks and unconsolidated sediments in an ∼10-m-high quarry exposure. Our mapping suggests at least three late Pleistocene earthquakes with surface rupture, and an episode of liquefaction in the Holocene along the Wallula fault zone. Faint striae on the master fault surface are subhorizontal and suggest reverse dextral oblique motion for these earthquakes, consistent with dextral offset on the Wallula fault zone inferred from offset aeromagnetic anomalies associated with ca. 8.5 Ma basalt dikes. Magnetic surveys show that the Wallula fault actually lies 350 m to the southwest of the trace shown on published maps, passes directly through deformed late Pleistocene or younger deposits exposed at Finley quarry, and extends uninterrupted over 120 km.

  18. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget of the Kitsap Peninsula, west-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Wendy B.; Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater-flow system on the Kitsap Peninsula, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework, groundwater recharge and discharge, groundwater levels and flow directions, seasonal groundwater-level fluctuations, interactions between aquifers and the surface‑water system, and a water budget. The Kitsap Peninsula is in the Puget Sound lowland of west-central Washington, is bounded by Puget Sound on the east and by Hood Canal on the west, and covers an area of about 575 square miles. The peninsula encompasses all of Kitsap County, the part of Mason County north of Hood Canal, and part of Pierce County west of Puget Sound. The peninsula is surrounded by saltwater and the hydrologic setting is similar to that of an island. The study area is underlain by a thick sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the central part of the study area. Geologic units were grouped into 12 hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was developed and used with well information from 2,116 drillers’ logs to construct 6 hydrogeologic sections and unit extent and thickness maps. Unconsolidated aquifers typically consist of moderately to well-sorted alluvial and glacial outwash deposits of sand, gravel, and cobbles, with minor lenses of silt and clay. These units often are discontinuous or isolated bodies and are of highly variable thickness. Unconfined conditions occur in areas where aquifer units are at land surface; however, much of the study area is mantled by glacial till, and confined aquifer conditions are common. Groundwater in the unconsolidated aquifers generally flows radially off the peninsula in the direction of Puget Sound and Hood Canal. These generalized flow patterns likely are complicated by the presence of low

  19. Dramatic increase in preexposure prophylaxis use among MSM in Washington state.

    PubMed

    Hood, Julia E; Buskin, Susan E; Dombrowski, Julia C; Kern, David A; Barash, Elizabeth A; Katzi, David A; Golden, Matthew R

    2016-01-28

    HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is efficacious, but uptake has been slow. In Washington State, most insurance plans, including Medicaid, pay for PrEP, and the state supports a PrEP drug assistance program. We assessed trends in PrEP awareness and use among MSM in Washington. Serial cross-sectional survey conducted annually at the Seattle Pride Parade between 2009 and 2015. In a convenience sample of MSM who reside in Washington State and deny ever testing HIV positive (n = 2168), we evaluated the association between calendar year and self-report of PrEP uptake and awareness using descriptive statistics and multivariable relative risk and logistic regression. Regression models included HIV risk and demographic covariates. In 2015, 23% [95% confidence interval (CI): 16%, 31%] of high-risk MSM reported currently taking PrEP. The percentage of high-risk MSM who reported ever taking PrEP increased from 5% in 2012 to 31% in 2015. PrEP use among lower-risk MSM was low and stable, between 1 and 3% in 2012-2015. In multivariable analyses, PrEP use was associated with later calendar years (2015 vs. 2012: adjusted relative risk = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.16, 4.52) and elevated HIV risk (adjusted relative risk = 2.92, 95% CI: 2.00, 4.25). The percentage of high and lower-risk MSM who had heard of PrEP increased from 13 to 86% and from 29 to 58%, respectively. PrEP awareness is high and the use has rapidly increased over the last year among MSM in Seattle, Washington, USA. These findings demonstrate that high levels of PrEP use can be achieved among MSM at high-risk for HIV infection.

  20. Does Alpine Glacial Erosion Limit the Altitude of the Cascade Range in Washington State? Insights from GIS and Thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, S. G.; Montgomery, D. R.

    2006-12-01

    Glacial erosion in the Cascade Range of central Washington State controls its height and morphology. Analysis of climatic data and digital topography using GIS shows that glacial erosion associated with long- term spatial gradients in the glacial equilibrium line altitude (ELA) created a west-dipping, planar zone of 373 cirques across the central part of the range. Peaks and ridges form a similarly west-dipping planar zone parallel to but ca. 600 m above the zone of cirques. The mean plus 1 sigma relief of the 373 individual cirque basins (570 m) is similar to the general 600-m envelope above which peaks rarely rise, suggesting that glacial erosion and the steepening of eroded topography on the individual cirque basin scale may limit peak heights. The zone of peaks is parallel to the ELA despite a ten-fold E-W variation in long-term average exhumation rates interpreted from apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry, contrary to what one might expect if the large- scale morphology of the range was simply the result of tectonic uplift and fluvial erosion. In addition, the < 15 My closure age of some apatite (U-Th)/He samples from the west flank of the Cascades allows us to reject an early hypothesis that the planar trend in peak altitudes is an erosional remnant of an uplifted, 15 My-old erosion surface. Rather, the relationships between cirque altitudes, peak altitudes, and exhumation rates in the central Washington Cascade Range summit altitudes are explained by increased rates of glacial, paraglacial, and hillslope erosion at and above the Quaternary average ELA.

  1. Potential for Natural Gas Storage in Deep Basalt Formations at Canoe Ridge, Washington State: A Hydrogeologic Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2005-09-24

    Between 1999 and 2002, Pacific Gas Transmission Company (PGT) (now TransCanada Pipeline Company) and AVISTA Corporation, together with technical support provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) examined the feasibility of developing a subsurface, natural gas-storage facility in deep, underlying Columbia River basalt in south-central Washington state. As part of this project, the 100 Circles #1 well was drilled and characterized in addition to surface studies. This report provides data and interpretations of the geology and hydrology collected specific to the Canoe Ridge site as part of the U.S. DOE funding to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of this project.

  2. Abundance of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, across different areas in central Washington, with special reference to black-fruited hawthorns.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Klaus, Michael W; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Goughnour, Robert B; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple orchards. The fly was first detected on traps in Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties in 1981, 1995, and 1997, respectively. From 1981-2010 in Kittitas and Yakima Counties, only 0 to 4.7% of traps on apple, crabapple, and hawthorn trees were positive for flies, whereas in Klickitat County, located farther from commercial apple orchards, 0 to 41.9% of traps were positive. In 2008, in Yakima County and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 7.8% of black-fruited hawthorn trees were infested, with 0 to 0.00054 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in Kittitas and Yakima Counties and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 25.0% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.00042 to 0.00248 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in a remote forested area of Klickitat County far from commercial apple orchards, 94.7% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.20813 larvae per fruit. Overall results suggest R. pomonella is unlikely to develop high populations rapidly near major commercial apple-growing areas in central Washington, including in black-fruited hawthorns, increasing chances it can be kept out of commercial orchards.

  3. Abundance of Apple Maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, Across Different Areas in Central Washington, with Special Reference to Black-Fruited Hawthorns

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Wee L.; Klaus, Michael W.; Cha, Dong H.; Linn, Charles E.; Goughnour, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple orchards. The fly was first detected on traps in Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties in 1981, 1995, and 1997, respectively. From 1981–2010 in Kittitas and Yakima Counties, only 0 to 4.7% of traps on apple, crabapple, and hawthorn trees were positive for flies, whereas in Klickitat County, located farther from commercial apple orchards, 0 to 41.9% of traps were positive. In 2008, in Yakima County and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 7.8% of black-fruited hawthorn trees were infested, with 0 to 0.00054 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in Kittitas and Yakima Counties and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 25.0% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.00042 to 0.00248 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in a remote forested area of Klickitat County far from commercial apple orchards, 94.7% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.20813 larvae per fruit. Overall results suggest R. pomonella is unlikely to develop high populations rapidly near major commercial apple-growing areas in central Washington, including in black-fruited hawthorns, increasing chances it can be kept out of commercial orchards. PMID:23451979

  4. Security, Violent Events, and Anticipated Surge Capabilities of Emergency Departments in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Weyand, Jonathan S.; Junck, Emily; Kang, Christopher S.; Heiner, Jason D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Over the past 15 years, violent threats and acts against hospital patients, staff, and providers have increased and escalated. The leading area for violence is the emergency department (ED) given its 24/7 operations, role in patient care, admissions gateway, and center for influxes during acute surge events. This investigation had three objectives: to assess the current security of Washington State EDs; to estimate the prevalence of and response to threats and violence in Washington State EDs; and to appraise the Washington State ED security capability to respond to acute influxes of patients, bystanders, and media during acute surge events. Methods A voluntary, blinded, 28-question Web-based survey developed by emergency physicians was electronically delivered to all 87 Washington State ED directors in January 2013. We evaluated responses by descriptive statistical analyses. Results Analyses occurred after 90% (78/87) of ED directors responded. Annual censuses of the EDs ranged from < 20,000 to 100,000 patients and represented the entire spectrum of practice environments, including critical access hospitals and a regional quaternary referral medical center. Thirty-four of 75 (45%) reported the current level of security was inadequate, based on the general consensus of their ED staff. Nearly two-thirds (63%) of EDs had 24-hour security personnel coverage, while 28% reported no assigned security personnel. Security personnel training was provided by 45% of hospitals or healthcare systems. Sixty-nine of 78 (88%) respondents witnessed or heard about violent threats or acts occurring in their ED. Of these, 93% were directed towards nursing staff, 90% towards physicians, 74% towards security personnel, and 51% towards administrative personnel. Nearly half (48%) noted incidents directed towards another patient, and 50% towards a patient’s family or friend. These events were variably reported to the hospital administration. After an acute surge event, 35

  5. Security, Violent Events, and Anticipated Surge Capabilities of Emergency Departments in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Weyand, Jonathan S; Junck, Emily; Kang, Christopher S; Heiner, Jason D

    2017-04-01

    Over the past 15 years, violent threats and acts against hospital patients, staff, and providers have increased and escalated. The leading area for violence is the emergency department (ED) given its 24/7 operations, role in patient care, admissions gateway, and center for influxes during acute surge events. This investigation had three objectives: to assess the current security of Washington State EDs; to estimate the prevalence of and response to threats and violence in Washington State EDs; and to appraise the Washington State ED security capability to respond to acute influxes of patients, bystanders, and media during acute surge events. A voluntary, blinded, 28-question Web-based survey developed by emergency physicians was electronically delivered to all 87 Washington State ED directors in January 2013. We evaluated responses by descriptive statistical analyses. Analyses occurred after 90% (78/87) of ED directors responded. Annual censuses of the EDs ranged from < 20,000 to 100,000 patients and represented the entire spectrum of practice environments, including critical access hospitals and a regional quaternary referral medical center. Thirty-four of 75 (45%) reported the current level of security was inadequate, based on the general consensus of their ED staff. Nearly two-thirds (63%) of EDs had 24-hour security personnel coverage, while 28% reported no assigned security personnel. Security personnel training was provided by 45% of hospitals or healthcare systems. Sixty-nine of 78 (88%) respondents witnessed or heard about violent threats or acts occurring in their ED. Of these, 93% were directed towards nursing staff, 90% towards physicians, 74% towards security personnel, and 51% towards administrative personnel. Nearly half (48%) noted incidents directed towards another patient, and 50% towards a patient's family or friend. These events were variably reported to the hospital administration. After an acute surge event, 35% believed the initial additional

  6. The First Dinosaur from Washington State and a Review of Pacific Coast Dinosaurs from North America

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia. PMID:25993090

  7. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    PubMed

    Peecook, Brandon R; Sidor, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  8. Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.; Divens, M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the lakes) or not controlled (42% of the lakes) in most lakes. Intermediate control of submersed macrophytes occurred in 18% of lakes at a median stocking rate of 24 fish per vegetated surface acre. Most of the landowners interviewed (83%) were satisfied with the results of introducing grass carp. For sites where all submersed macrophytes were eradicated, average turbidity was higher (11 nephelometric turbidity units, NTU) than at sites where macrophytes were controlled to intermediate levels (4 NTU) or unaffected by grass carp grazing (5 NTU). Chlorophyll a was not significantly different between levels of macrophyte control; therefore, we concluded that most of this turbidity was abiotic and not algal. Triploid grass carp were a popular control option and effectively grazed most submersed macrophytes in Washington State. However, calculating stocking rates based on landowner estimates of aquatic plant coverage rarely resulted in intermediate levels of aquatic plant control. Additionally, the effects of particular stocking rates varied considerably. We recommend against using grass carp in Washington lakes where eradication of submersed vegetation cannot be tolerated.

  9. Applying downscaled climate data to wildlife areas in Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Shafer, S. L.; Bartlein, P. J.; Helbrecht, L.; Pelltier, R.; Thompson, B.

    2013-12-01

    Conservation and natural resource managers require information about potential climate change effects for the species and ecosystems they manage. We evaluated potential future climate and bioclimate changes for wildlife areas in Washington State (USA) using five climate simulations for the 21st century from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) dataset run under the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. These data were downscaled to a 30-arc-second (~1-km) grid encompassing the state of Washington by calculating and interpolating future climate anomalies, and then applying the interpolated data to observed historical climate data. This climate data downscaling technique (also referred to as the 'delta' method) is relatively simple and makes a number of assumptions that affect how the downscaled data can be used and interpreted. We used the downscaled climate data to calculate bioclimatic variables (e.g., growing degree days) that represent important physiological and environmental limits for Washington species and habitats of management concern. Multivariate descriptive plots and maps were used to evaluate the direction, magnitude, and spatial patterns of projected future climate and bioclimatic changes. The results indicate which managed areas experience the largest climate and bioclimatic changes under each of the potential future climate simulations. We discuss these changes while accounting for some of the limitations of our downscaling technique and the uncertainties associated with using these downscaled data for conservation and natural resource management applications.

  10. A Structural and Paleomagnetic Analysis of the Basalts of Summit Creek, central Cascades, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetrow, A. C.; Valentine, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    This study is a detailed analysis of the structural geology and paleomagnetism of the Basalts of Summit Creek. Located southeast of Mount Rainier, this section of layered basaltic flows formed during the Eocene Epoch (55 to 45 Ma). During the Eocene, this region underwent a time of unique volcanism that has shaped the modern landscape of the Pacific Northwest. Over the course of the available field season, five excursions were taken into the field to conduct structural mapping and paleomagnetic core drilling. Although exposure is limited by vegetation, nineteen sites were mapped and ten of those were drilled for cores. Cores were analyzed using alternating field demagnetization and thermal demagnetization. Mapping data was integrated into a preliminary structural map of the section. This study attempts to provide a greater understanding of the emplacement and deformation of the Basalts of the Summit Creek and any possible relationship with the Crescent Basalts located in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state. Once paleomagnetic directions were corrected for core orientation and bedding tilt, none of the flows yielded orientations consistent enough to provide reliable magnetic directions for the section. This scatter is believed to be due, in part, to hydrothermal alteration that has subsequently influenced the Basalts of the Summit Creek. The scattered magnetic orientations are quite similar to those observed in the Crescent Basalts. This is does not demonstrate a definite connection between the two chemically similar Eocene volcanic sequences, but it does provide another similarity on the growing list. The lava flows along the north, middle, and south of the area and, with a few exceptions, have a northeast strike and a northwest dip. Along the middle transect of the section, nearest to Pony Creek and Carleton Ridge, bedding orientation has greater variability and suggests that there may still be unidentified structures that are influencing the area. Reflected

  11. Washington State Licensed Child Care Facility Directors' Perspectives on Childhood Immunization.

    PubMed

    Opel, Douglas J; Banerjee, Ashmita; King, Peggy; Paul, Cathe; Glassy, Danette; Yasuda, Kyle

    2013-03-01

    The study objective was to determine Washington State childcare facility directors' compliance with state immunization education and monitoring requirements and the role of directors' immunization attitudes and beliefs on compliance. We mailed a self-administered survey to 2000 randomly selected childcare facility directors in Washington State. The primary outcome measures were reported compliance with state requirements to educate parents about the importance of immunizations and monitor the immunization status of enrolled children. Our response rate was 28%. The majority of respondents worked at facilities with a licensed capacity of <25 children, had ≥11 years of experience, and were parents themselves. Overall, 68% agreed that they educated enrolled parents about the importance of immunizations and 90% agreed that they monitored the immunization status of enrolled children. However, 60% were concerned that children might have a serious side effect from an immunization, 51% were concerned that any one of the childhood immunizations might not be safe, and 11% were distrustful of the immunization information they received. These beliefs were associated with a statistically significant decreased likelihood of educating parents about immunization (adjusted odds ratios [aORs]: 0.57, 0.46, 0.19, respectively) and monitoring immunization status of children (aORs: 0.32, 0.32, 0.19, respectively). Most Washington State child care facility directors who responded to our survey are compliant with state requirements for immunization education and monitoring. A substantial number of directors are concerned about vaccine safety, however, and these concerns may decrease the likelihood of these requirements being followed. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. First down and goal to go. [Washington State resource applications for LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, G.

    1981-01-01

    A 10 year game plan for transition to the operational system was developed in the State of Washington. The plan is to: examine the results of past demonstration projects to identify successful operational applications, take advantage of geographic information systems, and work toward reducing/eliminating constraints of the present system which inhibit operational use. Support for the LANDSAT program was demonstrated by sending a user representative to NOAA working in the development of a user oriented system. It is suggested that the state should reassess its position, by taking advantage of the past 8 years' experience, and coordinate efforts to enhance LANDSAT' advantages in a cost effective manner.

  13. Support for marijuana legalization in the US state of Washington has continued to increase through 2016.

    PubMed

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C

    2017-06-01

    Support for the legalization of recreational marijuana continues to increase across the United States and globally. In 2016, recreational marijuana was legalized in the most populous US state of California, as well as three other states. The primary aim of this study was to examine trends in support for recreational marijuana legalization in Washington, a state which has had legal recreational marijuana for almost four years, using data collected over the four years post-legalization. A secondary aim was to examine trends in support for the cultivation of marijuana for personal use. Data come from geographically representative general population samples of adult (aged 18 and over) Washington residents collected over five timepoints (every six months) between January 2014 and April 2016 (N=4101). Random Digit Dial was used for recruitment. Statistical analyses involved bivariate comparisons of proportions across timepoints and subgroups (defined by age, gender, and marijuana user status), and multivariable logistic regression controlling for timepoint (time) to formally test for trend while controlling for demographic and substance use covariates. All analyses adjusted for probability of selection. Support for legalization in Washington has significantly increased: support was 64.0% (95% CI: 61.2%-67.8%) at timepoint 1 and 77.9% (95% CI: 73.2%-81.9%) at timepoint 5. With each six months' passing, support increased 19% on average. We found no statistically significant change in support for home-growing. Support for marijuana legalization has continued to significantly increase in a state that has experienced the policy change for almost four years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Canada lynx habitat and topographic use patterns in north central Washington: A reanalysis [Chapter 10

    Treesearch

    Kevin S. McKelvey; Yvette K. Ortega; Gary M. Koehler; Keith B. Aubry; J. David. Brittell

    2000-01-01

    We examined habitat selection by 22 lynx on the Okanogan National Forest in Washington, analyzing radio-telemetry data collected during two previous studies, 1981 through 1988. At a coarse scale, lynx showed little use of areas below 1,400 m or above 2,150 m. Within the zone between 1,400 and 2,150 m, lynx used areas with slopes <10% and moderate stream...

  15. A survey of tractors and rollover protective structures in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Spielholz, P; Sjostrom, T; Clark, R E; Adams, D A

    2006-11-01

    A survey of farms in Washington State was conducted to determine tractor characteristics and the presence of rollover protective structures (ROPS) in a state with more inclusive rules on tractor retrofitting than federal regulations. A total of 544 valid surveys were completed from a proportional random sample across different types of farms. Responders indicated that 58% of tractors overall were equipped with ROPS, and 42% of the tractors without ROPS were exempt from the state rules. Seatbelts on tractors equipped with ROPS were reportedly used "sometimes" or more 30% of the time, and 17% of these tractors had no seatbelt installed. Tractors used for row crop farming were significantly more likely to be equipped with ROPS than those used for tree, vine, or hops farming. Older tractors were used for fewer hours, were less likely to be ROPS-equipped, and were less likely to be operated while wearing a seatbelt. The results were consistent with a positive effect of the Washington State ROPS requirements, demonstrated by the increased percentage of ROPS-equipped pre-1976 tractors, as compared to other states, and by the difference between ROPS-equipped tractors in exempt and non-exempt types of farming. The results point to the need for prevention activities to increase seatbelt use on ROPS-equipped tractors, and for further development of practical protection for tractors operating under overhead obstacles.

  16. Environmental radiation monitoring of low-level wastes by the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L.

    1989-11-01

    The Washington State Department of Health, as the state`s regulatory agency for radiation, monitors several forms of low-level radioactive wastes. The monitoring is done to assess the potential impact on the environment and on public health. The emphasis of the monitoring program is placed on the solid and liquid wastes from defense activities on the Hanford Reservation, commercial wastes at the site located on leased land at Hanford and uranium mill tailings in Northeastern Washington. Although not classified as low-level waste, monitoring is also periodically conducted at selected landfills and sewage treatment facilities and other licensees, where radioactive wastes are known or suspected to be present. Environmental pathways associated with waste disposal are monitored independently, and/or in conjunction with the waste site operators to verify their results and evaluate their programs. The Department also participates in many site investigations conducted by site operators and other agencies, and conducts it`s own special investigations when deemed necessary. Past investigations and special projects have included allegations of adverse environmental impact of I-129, uranium in ground water, impacts of wastes on the agricultural industry, radioactivity in seeps into the Columbia River from waste sites, identifying lost waste sites at Hanford, differentiating groundwater contamination from defense versus commercial sources, and radioactivity in municipal landfills and sewers. The state`s environmental radiation monitoring program has identified and verified a number of environmental problems associated with radioactive waste disposal, but has, to date, identified no adverse offsite impacts to public health.

  17. Prescribed burning in the North Central States.

    Treesearch

    Linda R. Donoghue; Von J. Johnson

    1975-01-01

    Describes 5 years of prescribed burning in the North Central States from 1968 through 1972. Provides information concerning participating agencies, burned-acreage, purpose-of-burn, fuels, and weather. Also examines other aspects such as ignition and burning techniques, hours-to-complete, time of fire start, and cost-per-acre.

  18. Central State University: Phase I Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In December of 2011, a team of eight consultants authored a report to the Ohio Board of Regents and Central State University titled "Accentuating Strengths/Accelerating Progress (AS/AP)." AS/AP provided a road map for the administration, faculty, and staff of CSU to achieve the excellence it has sought under the leadership of President…

  19. Woody encroachment in the Central United States

    Treesearch

    Greg C. Liknes; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Kevin. Nimerfro

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of the central United States is dominated by cropland and rangeland mixed with remnants of short- and tall-grass prairies that were once prevalent. Since the last ice age, these areas had sparse tree cover due to cyclical severe droughts, intentional fires used by indigenous people as a land management tool, and natural fires caused by lightning. More...

  20. 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    * Do floods contribute to the transport and fate of contaminants that affect human and ecosystem health? In an effort to help address these and other questions, USGS Professional Paper 1798 consists of independent but complementary chapters dealing with various scientific aspects of the 2011 floods in the Central United States.

  1. A Comprehensive Approach to Address the Prescription Opioid Epidemic in Washington State: Milestones and Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Sabel, Jennifer; Jones, Christopher M.; Mai, Jaymie; Baumgartner, Chris; Banta-Green, Caleb J.; Neven, Darin; Tauben, David J.

    2015-01-01

    An epidemic of morbidity and mortality has swept across the United States related to the use of prescription opioids for chronic noncancer pain. More than 100 000 people have died from unintentional overdose, making this one of the worst manmade epidemics in history. Much of health care delivery in the United States is regulated at the state level; therefore, both the cause and much of the cure for the opioid epidemic will come from state action. We detail the strong collaborations across executive health care agencies, and between those public agencies and practicing leaders in the pain field that have led to a substantial reversal of the epidemic in Washington State. PMID:25602880

  2. The Use of Economic Evaluation to Inform Newborn Screening Policy Decisions: The Washington State Experience.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Scott D; Thompson, John D; Ding, Yao; Glass, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Newborn screening not only saves lives but can also yield net societal economic benefit, in addition to benefits such as improved quality of life to affected individuals and families. Calculations of net economic benefit from newborn screening include the monetary equivalent of avoided deaths and reductions in costs of care for complications associated with late-diagnosed individuals minus the additional costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment associated with prompt diagnosis. Since 2001 the Washington State Department of Health has successfully implemented an approach to conducting evidence-based economic evaluations of disorders proposed for addition to the state-mandated newborn screening panel. Economic evaluations can inform policy decisions on the expansion of newborn screening panels. This article documents the use of cost-benefit models in Washington State as part of the rule-making process that resulted in the implementation of screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency and 4 other metabolic disorders in 2004, cystic fibrosis (CF) in 2006, 15 other metabolic disorders in 2008, and severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) in 2014. We reviewed Washington State Department of Health internal reports and spreadsheet models of expected net societal benefit of adding disorders to the state newborn screening panel. We summarize the assumptions and findings for 2 models (MCAD and CF) and discuss them in relation to findings in the peer-reviewed literature. The MCAD model projected a benefit-cost ratio of 3.4 to 1 based on assumptions of a 20.0 percentage point reduction in infant mortality and a 13.9 percentage point reduction in serious developmental disability. The CF model projected a benefit-cost ratio of 4.0-5.4 to 1 for a discount rate of 3%-4% and a plausible range of 1-2 percentage point reductions in deaths up to age 10 years. The Washington State cost-benefit models of newborn screening were broadly consistent with peer

  3. Marijuana policy opinions in Washington state since legalization: Would voters vote the same way?

    PubMed

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C

    2016-12-01

    In 2012, voters in Washington state approved Initiative 502 (I-502) which legalized recreational marijuana use at the state level. This study examines the relationship between demographics, marijuana and alcohol use, and voting outcomes, as well as how these variables relate to (i) whether voters would still vote the same way (a reflection of satisfaction with the new policy) and (ii) the likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal retail stores. The sample consists of 2,007 adult Washington state residents recruited through Random Digit Dial between January and October 2014. Bivariate tests and multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Less than five percent of those who voted for marijuana legalization would change their votes, whereas 14% of those who voted against legalization would change their votes. In multivariable models controlling for demographics, substance use, and marijuana-related opinions, those who voted for legalization had half the odds of changing their votes than those who voted against it. Among past-year non-marijuana users, almost 10% were somewhat/very likely to use marijuana if they could buy it from a legal store. Past marijuana use, the belief that adults should be allowed to grow marijuana for personal use, and the belief that marijuana is not very risky for health were all related to increased likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal stores. Since November 2012, support for marijuana legalization in Washington state has increased; accounting for the proportion of voters who would change their votes suggests that I-502 would pass today with even more votes in favor.

  4. Seismic Site Characterizations and Earthquake Loss Estimation Analyses for K-12 Schools in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Hayashi, K.; Norman, D. K.; Lau, T.; Scott, S.

    2016-12-01

    Washington State has the second-highest earthquake risk in the U.S. after only California, and major earthquakes in western Washington in 1946, 1949, 1965, and 2001 killed 15 people and caused billions of dollars' worth of property damage. Washington State has not been exempt from earthquake damage to school buildings. The mission of The Washington Department of Natural Resources-Division of Geology and Earth Resources is to "reduce or eliminate risks to life and property from natural hazards." We conducted active and passive seismic surveys, and estimated shear-wave velocity (Vs) profiles, then determined NEHRP soil classifications using calculated Vs30m values at public schools in Thurston, Grays Harbor, Walla Walla, Chelan and Okanogan counties, Washington. We used active and passive seismic surveys: 1D and 2D MASW and MAM, P- and S-wave refraction, horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (H/V), and 2-Station SPAC (2ST-SPAC) surveys to measure Vs and Vp at shallow (0-70m) and Vs at greater (10 to 500 or 10 -3000 meters) depths at the sites, respectively. We then ran Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys along each seismic line to check possible horizontal subsurface variations between the survey line and the actual location of the school buildings. These survey results were then used for calculations of Vs30m to determine the NEHRP site classifications at school sites. These site classes were also used for determining soil amplification effects on the ground motions affecting structural damage estimations of the school buildings. These seismic site characterization results associated with structural engineering evaluations were then used as inputs in FEMA Hazus-Advanced Engineering Building Module (AEBM) analysis to provide estimated casualties, nonstructural, and structural losses. The final AEBM loss estimation along with the more detailed structural evaluations will help school districts assess the earthquake performance of school buildings in order to

  5. The Use of Economic Evaluation to Inform Newborn Screening Policy Decisions: The Washington State Experience

    PubMed Central

    THOMPSON, JOHN D.; DING, YAO; GLASS, MICHAEL

    2016-01-01

    Policy Points: Newborn screening not only saves lives but can also yield net societal economic benefit, in addition to benefits such as improved quality of life to affected individuals and families.Calculations of net economic benefit from newborn screening include the monetary equivalent of avoided deaths and reductions in costs of care for complications associated with late‐diagnosed individuals minus the additional costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment associated with prompt diagnosis.Since 2001 the Washington State Department of Health has successfully implemented an approach to conducting evidence‐based economic evaluations of disorders proposed for addition to the state‐mandated newborn screening panel. Context Economic evaluations can inform policy decisions on the expansion of newborn screening panels. This article documents the use of cost‐benefit models in Washington State as part of the rule‐making process that resulted in the implementation of screening for medium‐chain acyl‐CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency and 4 other metabolic disorders in 2004, cystic fibrosis (CF) in 2006, 15 other metabolic disorders in 2008, and severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) in 2014. Methods We reviewed Washington State Department of Health internal reports and spreadsheet models of expected net societal benefit of adding disorders to the state newborn screening panel. We summarize the assumptions and findings for 2 models (MCAD and CF) and discuss them in relation to findings in the peer‐reviewed literature. Findings The MCAD model projected a benefit‐cost ratio of 3.4 to 1 based on assumptions of a 20.0 percentage point reduction in infant mortality and a 13.9 percentage point reduction in serious developmental disability. The CF model projected a benefit‐cost ratio of 4.0‐5.4 to 1 for a discount rate of 3%‐4% and a plausible range of 1‐2 percentage point reductions in deaths up to age 10 years. Conclusions The Washington State

  6. Prioritizing prevention opportunities in the Washington State construction industry, 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    Schoonover, Todd; Bonauto, David; Silverstein, Barbara; Adams, Darrin; Clark, Randy

    2010-06-01

    This study compares construction industry groups in Washington State by injury severity and cost, and ranks industry groups according to potential for prevention. All Washington State workers' compensation compensable claims with date of injury between 2003 and 2007 were classified into North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry groups. Claims were then aggregated by injury type and industry groups were ranked according to a prevention index (PI). The PI is the average of the rank orders of the claim count and the claim incidence rate. A lower PI indicates a higher need for prevention activities. The severity rate was calculated as the number of days of time loss per 10,000 full-time equivalents (FTEs). For all injury types, construction industry groups occupy 7 of the top 15 PI ranks in Washington State. The severity rate among construction industry groups was twice that for non-construction groups for all injury types. Foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors (NAICS 2381) ranked highest in prevention potential and severity among construction industry groups for most common injury types including falls from elevation, fall on same level, struck by/against, and musculo-skeletal disorders of the neck, back, and upper extremity (WMSDs). Median claim costs by injury type were generally higher among construction industry groups. The construction industry in Washington State has a high severity rate and potential for prevention. The methods used for characterizing these industry groups can be adapted for comparison within and between other industries and states. These data can be used by industry groups and employers to identify higher cost and higher severity injury types. Knowledge about the relative frequencies and costs associated with different injury types will help employers and construction industry associations make better informed decisions about where prevention efforts are most needed and may have the greatest impact

  7. Characteristics of patients with chronic pain accessing treatment with medical cannabis in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Sullivan, Mark D; ZumBrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to better understand the characteristics of chronic pain patients seeking treatment with medicinal cannabis (MC). Retrospective chart reviews of 139 patients (87 males, median age 47 years; 52 females, median age 48 years); all were legally qualified for MC use in Washington State. Regional pain clinic staffed by university faculty. age 18 years and older; having legally accessed MC treatment, with valid documentation in their medical records. All data were de-identified. Records were scored for multiple indicators, including time since initial MC authorization, qualifying condition(s), McGill Pain score, functional status, use of other analgesic modalities, including opioids, and patterns of use over time. Of 139 patients, 15 (11 percent) had prior authorizations for MC before seeking care in this clinic. The sample contained 236.4 patient-years of authorized MC use. Time of authorized use ranged from 11 days to 8.31 years (median of 1.12 years). Most patients were male (63 percent) yet female patients averaged 0.18 years longer authorized use. There were no other gender-specific trends or factors. Most patients (n = 123, 88 percent) had more than one pain syndrome present. Myofascial pain syndrome was the most common diagnosis (n = 114, 82 percent), followed by neuropathic pain (n = 89, 64 percent), discogenic back pain (n = 72, 51.7 percent), and osteoarthritis (n = 37, 26.6 percent). Other diagnoses included diabetic neuropathy, central pain syndrome, phantom pain, spinal cord injury, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, HIV neuropathy, visceral pain, and malignant pain. In 51 (37 percent) patients, there were documented instances of major hurdles related to accessing MC, including prior physicians unwilling to authorize use, legal problems related to MC use, and difficulties in finding an affordable and consistent supply of MC. Data indicate that males and females access MC at approximately the same rate, with similar median

  8. Impact of a pertussis epidemic on infant vaccination in Washington state.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Elizabeth R; Opel, Douglas; DeHart, M Patricia; Warren, Jodi; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Washington State experienced a pertussis epidemic from October 2011 to December 2012. There was wide variation in incidence by county. The objectives of this study were to determine how the pertussis epidemic affected infant vaccination in Washington State and whether the incidence in counties modified this effect. We conducted an ecologic before-after study to compare the proportion of infants up to date (UTD) with a pertussis-containing vaccine at time points before (September 30, 2011), during (September 30, 2012), and after (September 30, 2013) the epidemic. Children aged 3 to 8 months enrolled in the Washington State Immunization Information System with documented county of residence were included. UTD status was determined as ≥ 1, ≥ 2, or ≥ 3 doses of a pertussis-containing vaccine at ages 3, 5, and 7 months, respectively. Generalized linear models with extension to the binomial family and clustered robust standard errors were used to examine differences in the proportion of UTD infants between preepidemic and either epidemic or postepidemic points. The potential modifying effect of pertussis incidence by county was examined. We found no significant difference in statewide UTD status with a pertussis-containing vaccine between preepidemic and either epidemic (absolute difference 2.1%; 95% confidence interval, -1.6 to 5.9) or postepidemic (absolute difference 0.2%; 95% confidence interval, -4.0 to 4.5) time points. There was no significant modification by county pertussis incidence. There was wide variation in the absolute difference in UTD status across counties. A statewide pertussis epidemic does not appear to have significantly changed the proportion of infants who were UTD with a pertussis-containing vaccine. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Impact of a Pertussis Epidemic on Infant Vaccination in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Opel, Douglas; DeHart, M. Patricia; Warren, Jodi; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Washington State experienced a pertussis epidemic from October 2011 to December 2012. There was wide variation in incidence by county. The objectives of this study were to determine how the pertussis epidemic affected infant vaccination in Washington State and whether the incidence in counties modified this effect. METHODS: We conducted an ecologic before–after study to compare the proportion of infants up to date (UTD) with a pertussis-containing vaccine at time points before (September 30, 2011), during (September 30, 2012), and after (September 30, 2013) the epidemic. Children aged 3 to 8 months enrolled in the Washington State Immunization Information System with documented county of residence were included. UTD status was determined as ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 doses of a pertussis-containing vaccine at ages 3, 5, and 7 months, respectively. Generalized linear models with extension to the binomial family and clustered robust standard errors were used to examine differences in the proportion of UTD infants between preepidemic and either epidemic or postepidemic points. The potential modifying effect of pertussis incidence by county was examined. RESULTS: We found no significant difference in statewide UTD status with a pertussis-containing vaccine between preepidemic and either epidemic (absolute difference 2.1%; 95% confidence interval, −1.6 to 5.9) or postepidemic (absolute difference 0.2%; 95% confidence interval, −4.0 to 4.5) time points. There was no significant modification by county pertussis incidence. There was wide variation in the absolute difference in UTD status across counties. CONCLUSIONS: A statewide pertussis epidemic does not appear to have significantly changed the proportion of infants who were UTD with a pertussis-containing vaccine. PMID:25136046

  10. Depth to water, 1991, in the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho; Spokane River valley, Washington; Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area, Idaho; and selected intermontane valleys, east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles E.; Bassick, M.D.; Rogers, T.L.; Garcia, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    This map report illustrates digitally generated depth-to-water zones for the Rathdrum Prairie in Idaho; part of the Spokane River Valley in eastern Washington; and the intermontane valleys of the upper Big Wood, Big Lost, Pahsimeroi, Little Lost, and Lemhi Rivers and Birch Creek in Idaho. Depth to water is 400 to 500 feet below land surface in the northern part of Rathdrum Prairie, 100 to 200 feet below land surface at the Idaho-Washington State line, and 0 to 250 feet below land surface in the Spokane area. Depth to water in the intermontane valleys in east-central Idaho is least (usually less than 50 feet) near streams and increases toward valley margins where mountain-front alluvial fans have formed. Depths to water shown in the Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area in Idaho are limited to point data at individual wells because most of the water levels measured were not representative of levels in the uppermost aquifer but of levels in deeper aquifers.

  11. The Influence of the Wallula Fault and Pasco Basin on the Tectonic Framework of South-Central Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, R. J.; Sherrod, B. L.; Wells, R. E.; Weaver, C. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Yakima fold and thrust belt (YFTB) in eastern Washington manifests broad-scale regional deformation of the Cascadia backarc occurring prior, during, and after emplacement of Miocene flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). CRBG basalts are strongly magnetic, and anticlines and faults of the YFTB are well displayed in high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys. Gravity anomalies, on the other hand, reflect in part the thickness of pre-Miocene sedimentary rocks beneath CRBG. The broad width of the YFTB in central Washington narrows eastward toward Idaho, with anticlines and faults merging into the narrow Wallula fault zone (WFZ). The WFZ is one element of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL), an alignment of topographic and structural elements extending from the Olympic Peninsula in Washington to the Wallowa Mountains in Oregon. The tectonic relevance of the OWL, particularly the degree to which dextral shear has contributed to its evolution, is still a matter of discussion. The Pasco basin, a late Cenozoic sedimentary basin atop CRBG, is associated with a broad gravity low. The thickness of post-CRBG sediments is insufficient to account for the entire gravity anomaly, suggesting the presence of a sediment-filled basin beneath CRBG. YFTB evolution and Quaternary deformation appear to have been influenced by the Pasco basin, as evidenced by potential-field anomalies. Northernmost faults of the YFTB (Frenchman Hills, Saddle Mountains, and Umtanum Ridge) abruptly terminate as they cross the western margin of the basin. Derivative maps (e.g., maximum horizontal gradient and tilt derivative) calculated from high-resolution magnetic anomalies show no evidence of these faults beyond their mapped extent in this area. Southern faults of the YFTB (Rattlesnake Mountain, Horse Heaven Hills, and Columbia Hills) in central Washington are on strike with the Pasco basin but veer abruptly southeastward at its southwestern margin to merge into the WFZ. Northwest

  12. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2014-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which

  13. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2015-11-09

    PNNL is a large economic entity with a total of 4,308 employees, $939 million (M) in total funding, and $1.02 billion (B) in total spending during FY 2014. The number of employees that live in Washington State is 4,026 or 93 percent of the Laboratory staff. he Laboratory directly and indirectly supported $1.45 billion in economic output, 6,832 jobs, and $517 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gained more than $1.19 billion in output, over 6,200 jobs, and $444 million in income through closely related economic activities such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community not-for-profit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which strengthen the

  14. Scoping risk assessment: Protection against oil spills in the marine waters of northwest Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, M.; Schwenk, J.; Watros, G.; Boniface, D.

    1997-07-18

    This report is intended to provide the Secretary of Transportation with information relevant to possible actions to increase safety of the waterways of northwest Washington State, including Puget Sound, Strait of Juan de Fuca, passages around and through the San Juan Islands, and the offshore waters of the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary. This scoping risk assessment is an initial characterization of the hazards which can cause oil spills by ships underway and the environmental sensitivity to such spills; deaths, injuries, and property losses are not accounted for in the consequences of accidents.

  15. ADULT CADDISFLY (TRICHOPTERA) PHENOLOGY AT THE HANFORD REACH NATIONAL MONUMENT, WASHINGTON STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Zack, Richard S.; Ruiter, David E.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Landolt, Peter J.

    2006-01-05

    Adult caddisflies were sampled on the Wahluke Wildlife Area and Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge subunits of the newly created (2000) Hanford Reach National Monument using 15-watt ''black lights'' from April 2002 through April 2003. A diverse fauna consisting of nine families, 21 genera, and 33 species were collected. Protoptila Coloma Ross, Agraylea multipunctata Curtis, Hydroptila xera Ross, Ceraclea alagma (Ross), Nectopsych Iahontanensis Haddock Oecetis cinerascens (Hagen), and Ylodes reuteri (MacLachlan) represent new records for Washington State. Species composition and phenology are presented in tabular form.

  16. Flux and Instrumentation Upgrade for the Epithermal Neutron Beam Facility at Washington State University

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg; J.R. Venhuizen; C.E. Wemple; G. E. Tripard; S. Sharp; K. Fox

    2004-11-01

    An epithermal neutron beam facility for preclinical neutron capture therapy research has been constructed at the Washington State University TRIGA research reactor installation. Subsequent to a recent upgrade, this new facility offers a high-purity epithermal beam with intensity on the order of 1.2×109 n/cm2 s. Key features include a fluoride-based design for the neutron filtering and moderating components as well as a novel collimator design that allows ease of assembly and disassembly of the beamline components.

  17. Area of Cascade Mountains southeast of Seattle in State of Washington

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-07-20

    AST-30-2601 (20 July 1975) --- An area of the Cascade Mountains southeast of Seattle in the State of Washington, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. The view includes Snoqualmie Pass, Cle Elum Lake, Kachess Lake and Keechelus Lake. The picture was taken at an altitude of 228 kilometers (141 statute miles) with a 70mm Hasselblad camera using medium-speed Ektachrome QX-807 type film.

  18. Chemical dependency treatment and employment outcomes: results from the 'ADATSA' program in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Luchansky, B; Brown, M; Longhi, D; Stark, K; Krupski, A

    2000-08-01

    The Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatment and Support Act (ADATSA) created a treatment program for indigent clients in Washington State. This research assesses the relationship between the level of treatment services received and subsequent employment outcomes. Clients who completed their plan of treatment earned more than those who did not, controlling for other factors. Those clients who received vocational services, in addition to completing treatment, earned more than those who completed treatment only. While on average wages were low, this study does show that clients once deemed 'unemployable' can become productive.

  19. The sexual assault of women at work in Washington State, 1980 to 1989.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, B H; Franklin, G M; Wolf, M E

    1994-01-01

    Sexual assault in the workplace and the related factors have not been well studied. Workers' compensation claims data were used to describe work-related sexual assaults in Washington State between 1980 and 1989. Sixty-three cases of work-related rape were identified during this study period. The occupations of the rape victims were similar to occupations identified as high risk for other intentional injuries, and the rape incidents were characterized by isolation from the public and from coworkers. Estimates of industry-specific rates are presented. The identification, evaluation, and prevention of sexual assault and other workplace violence are discussed. PMID:8154570

  20. Sudden, probably coseismic submergence of Holocene trees and grass in coastal Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, B.F.; Yamaguchi, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Growth-position plant fossils in coastal Washington State imply a suddenness of Holocene submergence that is better explained by coseismic lowering of the land than by decade- or century-long rise of the sea. Growth-position fossils implying sudden submergence include the stems and leaves of salt-marsh grass entombed in tide-flat mud close to 300 yr ago and roughly 1700 and 3100 yr ago. In some places the stems and leaves close to 300 yr old are surrounded by sand left by an extraordinary, landward-directed surge - probably a tsunami from a great thrust earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone. -from Authors

  1. Housing Insecurity and the Association With Health Outcomes and Unhealthy Behaviors, Washington State, 2011.

    PubMed

    Stahre, Mandy; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Siegel, Paul; Njai, Rashid

    2015-07-09

    Few studies of associations between housing and health have focused on housing insecurity and health risk behaviors and outcomes. We measured the association between housing insecurity and selected health risk behaviors and outcomes, adjusted for socioeconomic measures, among 8,415 respondents to the 2011 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Housing insecure respondents were about twice as likely as those who were not housing insecure to report poor or fair health status or delay doctor visits because of costs. This analysis supports a call to action among public health practitioners who address disparities to focus on social determinants of health risk behaviors and outcomes.

  2. Developing hydropower in Washington state. Volume 2: An electricity marketing manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, J. W.; McCoy, G. A.

    1982-03-01

    An electricity marketing manual for the potential small and micro-hydroelectric project developer within the state of Washington is presented. Public utility regulatory policies (PURPA) requires electric utilities to interconnect with and pay a rate based on their full avoided costs for the purchase of electrical output from qualifying small power production facilities. The determination of avoided costs, as business organizational considerations, utility interface concerns, interconnection requirements, metering options, and liability and wheeling are discussed. The utility responses are summarized, legislation which is of importance to hydropower developers and the powers and functions of the authorities responsible for enforcing the mandate of PURPA are described.

  3. Prevalence of the parasitic copepod Haemobaphes intermedius on juvenile buffalo sculpins from Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halpenny, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    The parasitic copepod, Haemobaphes intermedius, was detected in 62% of juvenile buffalo sculpins Enophrys bison, a previously unreported host, from the San Juan Islands archipelago in Washington State. Most infestations were characterized by the presence of a single female copepod infestations with multiple H. intermedius occurred either unilaterally or bilaterally in 29% of parasitized individuals. Impaired condition of parasitized hosts was indicated by significantly lower total lengths and weights (34.9 mm; 1.6 g) than in unparasitized cohorts (38.9 mm; 2.1 g). Host specificity was indicated by the failure to detect H. intermedius in 43 sympatric great sculpins Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus from the same location.

  4. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.; Moore, Leslie K.; Harrington, Neil; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Borchert, Jerry; Trainer, Vera L.

    2013-01-01

    The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters. PMID:24084788

  5. Work-related injuries among commercial janitors in Washington State, comparisons by gender.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline K; Anderson, Naomi J

    2017-09-01

    We analyzed workers' compensation (WC) data to identify characteristics related to workers' compensation claim outcomes among janitorial service workers in Washington State. We analyzed WC data from the Washington State Department of Labor & Industries (L&I) State Fund (SF) from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2013, for janitorial service workers employed in the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) Services Sector. We constructed multivariable models to identify factors associated with higher medical costs and increased time lost from work. There were 2,390 janitorial service compensable claims available for analysis. There were significant differences in injury type and other factors by gender, age, and language preference. Linguistic minority status was associated with longer time loss and higher median medical costs. Women were estimated to account for 35% of janitorial service workers but made up 55% of the compensable claims in this study. Janitorial service workers comprise a large vulnerable occupational group in the U.S. workforce. Identifying differences by injury type and potential inequitable outcomes by gender and language is important to ensuring equal treatment in the workers' compensation process. There were significant differences in injury and individual characteristics between men and women in this study. Women had twice the estimated rate of injury to men, and were more likely to require Spanish language materials. Improving communication for training and knowledge about the workers' compensation system appear to be high priorities in this population of injured janitorial service workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  6. Renewal of tidal forests in Washington State after a subduction earthquake in A.D. 1700

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, B.E.; Atwater, B.F.; Yamaguchi, D.K.; Amidon, L.J.; Brown, S.L.; Lewis, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    With few exceptions, today's tidal trees near Washington's Pacific coast postdate an earthquake that lowered the region by 1 m or more. The earthquake, which occurred in A.D. 1700, is the most recent to have ruptured much of the plate boundary at this central part of the Cascadia subduction zone. Because of the coseismic subsidence, lowland forests became tidal flats where thousands of trees died. Most of the trees killed were Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). In the centuries since the earthquake, tidal deposits have built new land that has been colonized by new Sitka spruce. All but several tens of the region's tidal spruce consequently postdate 1700, as shown by counts of annual rings in 121 of the largest spruce in tidal forests at Copalis River, Grays Harbor, and Willapa Bay. Forests began to return to each of these estuaries in the early 1700s and spread seaward in the late 1700s and 1800s. Annual rings in the oldest of the trees thus record a large fraction of the earthquake-recurrence interval that began with the 1700 earthquake. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  7. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  8. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  9. Fourth Time Is the Charm: Charter School Policy and the Influence of the Elite in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saultz, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, Washington was one of only eight states that did not have a charter school law in state policy heading into the Race to the Top (RTTT) competition. The RTTT competition incentivized local education agencies not only to allow charter schools, but also to increase or eliminate the cap on the number of charter schools that a state allowed to…

  10. Fourth Time Is the Charm: Charter School Policy and the Influence of the Elite in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saultz, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, Washington was one of only eight states that did not have a charter school law in state policy heading into the Race to the Top (RTTT) competition. The RTTT competition incentivized local education agencies not only to allow charter schools, but also to increase or eliminate the cap on the number of charter schools that a state allowed to…

  11. Low-Volume vs High-Volume Centers and Management of Fournier's Gangrene in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Osbun, Nathan; Hampson, Lindsay A; Holt, Sarah K; Gore, John L; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B

    2017-03-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a life-threatening infection affecting the perineum and genitals. Complex patient management often necessitates transfer to tertiary centers. We aimed to characterize hospital transfer patterns and assess morbidity among patients with FG in Washington State. The Washington State Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System includes claims from all hospital discharges in Washington. We identified patients with FG between 2007 and 2013, based on diagnosis and treatment codes. Analyses were stratified by center volume (low-volume centers [LVCs] or high-volume centers [HVCs]), and transfer status. Variables of interest included number of debridements, septic shock, acute renal failure, acute respiratory failure, length of hospitalization, and death. We identified 165 FG patients. Only 1 HVC treated more than 2 FG patients per year. Overall mortality was 6.7%. Most patients (57%) were treated entirely at LVCs; 87% of patients treated at the HVC were transferred from an LVC. High-volume center-treated patients had similar baseline comorbidities (p = 0.77) and similar mortality (p = 0.87), despite higher rates of septic shock (p < 0.01) and respiratory failure (p = 0.01) compared with LVC patients. Among HVC-transferred patients, immediate compared with delayed transfer was associated with fewer debridements (p < 0.01), lower rates of septic shock (p = 0.05), and acute renal failure (p = 0.04). Patients treated at the HVC were more acutely ill, yet mortality was similar compared with patients treated solely at LVCs, suggesting a benefit to transfer of high acuity patients. Immediate vs delayed transfer may benefit FG health outcomes; however, this may also reflect greater disease acuity of patients with delayed transfer status. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Employment outcomes among AFDC recipients treated for substance abuse in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Wickizer, T M; Campbell, K; Krupski, A; Stark, K

    2000-01-01

    In 1996, Congress passed sweeping welfare reform, abolishing the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Each state now administers its own welfare-to-work program under broad federal guidelines, which require eligible adult recipients to work or perform community service. High-risk welfare recipients, especially those with chemical dependency problems, face significant obstacles in their efforts to achieve greater self-sufficiency under the new welfare-to-work programs. State databases were used to track employment outcomes for AFDC clients admitted to treatment for chemical dependency in Washington State during a two-year period. Exposure to treatment was associated with a greater likelihood of becoming employed and with increased earnings for those who became employed. Ensuring that welfare recipients with substance abuse problems have access to appropriate treatment and vocational services is critical if welfare-to-work programs are to promote greater economic self-sufficiency.

  13. Evaluating spatial and temporal relationships between an earthquake cluster near Entiat, central Washington, and the large December 1872 Entiat earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian

    2017-01-01

    We investigate spatial and temporal relations between an ongoing and prolific seismicity cluster in central Washington, near Entiat, and the 14 December 1872 Entiat earthquake, the largest historic crustal earthquake in Washington. A fault scarp produced by the 1872 earthquake lies within the Entiat cluster; the locations and areas of both the cluster and the estimated 1872 rupture surface are comparable. Seismic intensities and the 1–2 m of coseismic displacement suggest a magnitude range between 6.5 and 7.0 for the 1872 earthquake. Aftershock forecast models for (1) the first several hours following the 1872 earthquake, (2) the largest felt earthquakes from 1900 to 1974, and (3) the seismicity within the Entiat cluster from 1976 through 2016 are also consistent with this magnitude range. Based on this aftershock modeling, most of the current seismicity in the Entiat cluster could represent aftershocks of the 1872 earthquake. Other earthquakes, especially those with long recurrence intervals, have long‐lived aftershock sequences, including the Mw">MwMw 7.5 1891 Nobi earthquake in Japan, with aftershocks continuing 100 yrs after the mainshock. Although we do not rule out ongoing tectonic deformation in this region, a long‐lived aftershock sequence can account for these observations.

  14. Regional frequency analysis to asses wind resource spatial and temporal variations in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortuza, M.; Demissie, D.

    2013-12-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy's annual wind technologies market report, the wind power capacity in the country grew from 2.5 gigawatts in early 2000 to 60 gigawatts in 2012, making it one of the largest new sources of electric capacity additions in the U.S. in recent years. With over 2.8 gigawatts of current capacity (eighth largest in the nation), Washington State plays a significant role in this rapidly increasing energy resource. To further expand and/or optimize these capacities, assessment of wind resource and its spatial and temporal variations are important. However, since at-site frequency analysis using meteorological data is not adequate for extending wind frequency to locations with no data, longer return period, and heterogeneous topography and surface, a regional frequency analysis based on L-moment method is adopted in this study to estimate regional wind speed patterns and return periods in Washington State using hourly mean wind speed data from 1979 - 2010. The analysis applies the k-means, hierarchical and self-organizing map clustering techniques to explore potential clusters or regions; statistical tests are then applied to identify homogeneous regions and appropriate probability distribution models. The result from the analysis is expected to provide essential knowledge about the areas with potential capacity of constructing wind power plants, which can also be readily extended to assist decisions on their daily operations.

  15. Food access and cost in American Indian communities in Washington State.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Meghan; Buchwald, Dedra S; Duncan, Glen E

    2011-09-01

    Limited access to foods that make up a nutritious diet at minimal cost may influence eating behaviors and, ultimately, obesity. This study examined the number and type of food stores (convenience, grocery, supermarket) on federal reservations in Washington State, and the availability and cost of foods in the US Department of Agriculture Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit market basket, to describe the food environment of American Indians. Stores were identified by telephone survey of tribal headquarters, a commercial database, and on-site visitation. Foods were assessed using a standardized instrument containing 68 items in seven major food groups during April and May 2009. Store type and availability and cost of foods were recorded on a checklist. Fifty stores were identified on 22 American Indian reservations, including 25 convenience, 16 grocery, and 9 supermarkets. Across all stores, about 38% of checklist items were available, with supermarkets having the most and convenience stores the fewest. Foods from the dairy and sugars/sweets groups were the most prevalent, while fresh fruits/vegetables were the least. Cost of the most commonly available items was lowest in supermarkets. Seventeen reservations did not have a supermarket on their reservation, and the nearest off-reservation supermarket was about 10 miles from the tribe's headquarters, which was used as the standard for distance calculations. These results demonstrate that American Indians living on federal reservations in Washington State may have limited access to foods that make up a nutritious diet at minimal cost.

  16. Notes on the Life History of Macaria curvata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Southcentral Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, Dennis L.; Driver, Crystal J.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Zack, Richard S.

    2006-06-09

    Macaria curvata (Grote) (Geometridae;Ennomine) is a common species found in arid habitats of the western United States and Canada. Intensive light trapping found the moth to be one of the most commonly collected throughout the Hanford Site of southcentral Washington State. To provide larvae and adults for concurrent studies, a laboratory colony of M. curvata was established and maintained. Live, wild females were collected and allowed to oviposite on their food plant, rubber rabbitbrush (Ericameria nauseosa var. speciosa (Hutt.) Nesom % Baird). In our southcentral Washington study area, adults generally emerge in late March and complete 4 - 5 generations throughout the season until early October when they overwinter in the pupal stage. Eggs are laid on the leaves and stems of the host plant, hatching in 6 - 10 days. The larvae undergo five instars before pupation takes place in the soil. Adult females produce and average of 131 eggs (SD = 62, N = 45). Adult females have an average wingspan of 23.4 mm (+-1.23 mm, N = 31) while males have a wingspan of 24.3 mm (+-1.3 mm, N = 55).

  17. Critical congenital heart disease screening practices among licensed midwives in washington state.

    PubMed

    Evers, Patrick D; Vernon, Margaret M; Schultz, Amy H

    2015-01-01

    Since 2011, pulse oximetry screening for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) has been recommended for newborns. Initial implementation guidelines focused on in-hospital births. Recent publications affirm the importance of universal screening, including for out-of-hospital births. No published data describe CCHD screening rates for out-of-hospital births. Licensed midwives in Washington state were surveyed regarding their current CCHD screening practices, volume of births attended annually, and typical newborn follow-up practices. For those who indicated they were screening, additional information was obtained about equipment used, timing of screening, and rationale for voluntarily initiating screening. For those who indicated that they were not screening, information regarding barriers to implementation was solicited. Of the 61 midwives in our sample, 98% indicated they were aware of published guidelines recommending universal newborn screening for CCHD utilizing pulse oximetry. Furthermore, 52% indicated that they were screening for CCHD currently. Ten percent stated they do not intend to screen, whereas the remaining respondents indicated that they plan to screen in the future. The primary barriers to screening were the cost of pulse oximetry equipment and inadequate training in screening technique and interpretation. Although voluntary implementation of CCHD screening by licensed midwives in Washington is increasing, it lags behind the implementation rates reported for in-hospital births. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Blakley, N.; Norton, D.; Stinson, M.; Boyer, R.

    1994-12-31

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) is developing guidelines to assess soil toxicity at hazardous waste sites being investigated under the Washington Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. To evaluate soil toxicity, Ecology selected five bioassay protocols -- Daphnia, Earthworm, Seedling, Fathead Minnow, and Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) -- for use as screening level assessment tools at six State hazardous waste sites. Sites contained a variety of contaminants including metals, creosote, pesticides, and petroleum products (leaking underground storage tanks). Three locations, representing high, medium, and low levels of contamination, were samples at each site. In general, the high contaminant samples resulted in the highest toxic response in all bioassays. The order of site toxicity, as assessed by overall toxic response, is creosote, petroleum products, metals, and pesticides. Results indicate that human health standards, especially for metals, may not adequately protect some of the species tested. The FETAX bioassay had the greatest overall number of toxic responses and lowest variance. The seedling and Daphnia bioassays had lower and similar overall toxic response results, followed by the earthworm and fathead minnow. Variability was markedly highest for the seedling. The Daphnia and fathead minnow variability were similar to the FETAX level, while the earthworm variability was slightly higher.

  19. Marijuana Legalization and Parents' Attitudes, Use, and Parenting in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A; Guttmannova, Katarina; Jones, Tiffany M; Eisenberg, Nicole; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

    2016-10-01

    The recent legalization of nonmedical marijuana use in several U.S. states has unknown implications for those who are actively parenting. This study examined parents' reactions to marijuana legalization and changes in attitudes and behaviors over time. Data were from a gender-balanced, ethnically diverse sample of 395 parents in Washington State who were participating in the longitudinal Seattle Social Development Project. Participants were interviewed 15 times between 1985 (age 10) and 2014 (age 39). Adult nonmedical marijuana use was legalized in Washington in 2012 and retail outlets opened in 2014. Results showed (1) one third of parents incorrectly believed the legal age of nonmedical marijuana use to be 18; (2) significant increase in approval of adult marijuana use and decrease in perceived harm of regular use; (3) wide opposition to teen use and use around one's children; and (4) substantial increases in frequency of use and marijuana use disorder among parents who used. Despite increased acceptance and frequency of adult use, parents remain widely opposed to teen use but need facts and strategies for talking with their children about marijuana. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The 1983 Temperature Gradient and Heat Flow Drilling Project for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Korosec, Michael A.

    1983-11-01

    During the Summer of 1983, the Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources carried out a three-hole drilling program to collect temperature gradient and heat flow information near potential geothermal resource target areas. The project was part of the state-coupled US Department of Energy Geothermal Program. Richardson Well Drilling of Tacoma, Washington was subcontracted through the State to perform the work. The general locations of the project areas are shown in figure 1. The first hole, DNR 83-1, was located within the Green River valley northwest of Mount St. Helens. This site is near the Green River Soda Springs and along the projection of the Mount St. Helens--Elk Lake seismic zone. The other two holes were drilled near Mount Baker. Hole DNR 83-3 was sited about 1/4 km west of the Baker Hot Springs, 10.5 km east of Mount Baker, while hole DNR 83-5 was located along Rocky Creek in the Sulphur Creek Valley. The Rocky Creek hole is about 10 km south-southwest of the peak. Two other holes, DNR 83-2 and DNR 83-4, were located on the north side of the Sulphur Creek Valley. Both holes were abandoned at early stages of drilling because of deep overburden and severe caving problems. The sites were apparently located atop old landslide deposits.

  1. Effect of severity of illness on cesarean delivery rates in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Hitti, Jane; Walker, Suzan; Benedetti, Thomas J

    2017-10-01

    Hospitals and providers are increasingly held accountable for their cesarean delivery rates. In the perinatal quality improvement arena, there is vigorous debate about whether all hospitals can be held to the same benchmark for an acceptable cesarean rate regardless of patient acuity. However, the causes of variation in hospital cesarean delivery rates are not well understood. We sought to evaluate the association and temporal trends between severity of illness at admission and the primary term singleton vertex cesarean delivery rate among hospitals in Washington State. We hypothesized that hospitals with higher patient acuity would have higher cesarean delivery rates and that this pattern would persist over time. In this cross-sectional analysis, we analyzed aggregate hospital-level data for all nonmilitary hospitals in Washington State with ≥100 deliveries/y during federal fiscal years 2010 through 2014 (287,031 deliveries). Data were obtained from the Washington State Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System, which includes inpatient demographic, diagnosis, procedure, and discharge information derived from hospital billing systems. Age, admission diagnoses and procedure codes were converted to patient-level admission severity-of-illness scores using the All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups classification system. This system is widely used throughout the United States to adjust hospital data for severity of illness. Mean admission hospital-level severity-of-illness scores were calculated for each fiscal year among the term singleton vertex population with no history of cesarean delivery. We used linear regression to evaluate the association between hospital admission severity of illness and the primary term singleton vertex cesarean delivery rate, calculated Pearson correlation coefficients, and compared regression line slopes and 95% confidence intervals for each fiscal year. Hospitals were diverse with respect to delivery volume, level of care

  2. Active tectonics of the Seattle fault and central Puget sound, Washington - Implications for earthquake hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.Y.; Dadisman, S.V.; Childs, J. R.; Stanley, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    We use an extensive network of marine high-resolution and conventional industry seismic-reflection data to constrain the location, shallow structure, and displacement rates of the Seattle fault zone and crosscutting high-angle faults in the Puget Lowland of western Washington. Analysis of seismic profiles extending 50 km across the Puget Lowland from Lake Washington to Hood Canal indicates that the west-trending Seattle fault comprises a broad (4-6 km) zone of three or more south-dipping reverse faults. Quaternary sediment has been folded and faulted along all faults in the zone but is clearly most pronounced along fault A, the northernmost fault, which forms the boundary between the Seattle uplift and Seattle basin. Analysis of growth strata deposited across fault A indicate minimum Quaternary slip rates of about 0.6 mm/yr. Slip rates across the entire zone are estimated to be 0.7-1.1 mm/yr. The Seattle fault is cut into two main segments by an active, north-trending, high-angle, strike-slip fault zone with cumulative dextral displacement of about 2.4 km. Faults in this zone truncate and warp reflections in Tertiary and Quaternary strata and locally coincide with bathymetric lineaments. Cumulative slip rates on these faults may exceed 0.2 mm/yr. Assuming no other crosscutting faults, this north-trending fault zone divides the Seattle fault into 30-40-km-long western and eastern segments. Although this geometry could limit the area ruptured in some Seattle fault earthquakes, a large event ca. A.D. 900 appears to have involved both segments. Regional seismic-hazard assessments must (1) incorporate new information on fault length, geometry, and displacement rates on the Seattle fault, and (2) consider the hazard presented by the previously unrecognized, north-trending fault zone.

  3. Incidence and course of adolescent deliberate self-harm in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, USA

    PubMed Central

    Heerde, Jessica A.; Toumbourou, John W.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Patton, George C.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There have been few longitudinal studies of deliberate self-harm (DSH) in adolescents. This cross-national longitudinal study outlines risk and protective factors for DSH incidence and persistence. Methods Seventh and ninth grade students (average ages 13 and 15 years) were recruited as state-representative cohorts, surveyed and then followed-up 12-months later (N = 3,876), using the same methods in Washington State and Victoria, Australia. The retention rate was 99% in both states at follow-up. A range of risk and protective factors for DSH were examined using multivariate analyses. Results The prevalence of DSH in the past year was 1.53% in grade 7 and .91% in grade 9 for males and 4.12% and 1.34% for grade 7 and 9 females, with similar rates across states. In multivariate analyses, incident DSH was lower in Washington State (OR .67, 95% CI .45, 1.00) relative to Victoria 12-months later. Risk factors for incident DSH included being female (OR 1.93, CI 1.35, 2.76), high depressive symptoms (OR 3.52, CI 2.37, 5.21), antisocial behavior (OR 2.42, CI 1.46, 4.00), and lifetime (OR 1.85, CI 1.11, 3.08) and past month (OR 2.70, CI 1.57, 4.64) alcohol use relative to never using alcohol. Conclusions Much self-harm in adolescents resolves over the course of 12 months. Young people who self-harm have high rates of other health risk behaviors associated with family and peer risks that may all be targets for preventive intervention. PMID:26499859

  4. Incidence and Course of Adolescent Deliberate Self-Harm in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State.

    PubMed

    Heerde, Jessica A; Toumbourou, John W; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Patton, George C; Catalano, Richard F

    2015-11-01

    There have been few longitudinal studies of deliberate self-harm (DSH) in adolescents. This cross-national longitudinal study outlines risk and protective factors for DSH incidence and persistence. Seventh and ninth grade students (average ages 13 and 15 years) were recruited as state-representative cohorts, surveyed, and then followed up 12 months later (N = 3,876), using the same methods in Washington State and Victoria, Australia. The retention rate was 99% in both states at follow-up. A range of risk and protective factors for DSH were examined using multivariate analyses. The prevalence of DSH in the past year was 1.53% in Grade 7 and .91% in Grade 9 for males and 4.12% and 1.34% for Grade 7 and Grade 9 females, respectively, with similar rates across states. In multivariate analyses, incident DSH was lower in Washington State (odds ratio [OR] = .67; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .45-1.00) relative to Victoria 12 months later. Risk factors for incident DSH included being female (OR = 1.93; CI = 1.35-2.76), high depressive symptoms (OR = 3.52; CI = 2.37-5.21), antisocial behavior (OR = 2.42; CI = 1.46-4.00), and lifetime (OR = 1.85; CI = 1.11-3.08) and past month (OR = 2.70; CI = 1.57-4.64) alcohol use relative to never using alcohol. Much self-harm in adolescents resolves over the course of 12 months. Young people who self-harm have high rates of other health risk behaviors associated with family and peer risks that may all be targets for preventive intervention. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cultural Norms in Conflict: Breastfeeding Among Hispanic Immigrants in Rural Washington State.

    PubMed

    Hohl, Sarah; Thompson, Beti; Escareño, Monica; Duggan, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To examine perceptions, experiences, and attitudes towards breastfeeding among Hispanic women living in rural Washington State. Methods Twenty parous Hispanic women of low acculturation, aged 25-48 years and residents in rural Washington State participated in an exploratory, face-to-face interview. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed, and analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach. Results Nine emergent themes were grouped into three overarching categories: (1) Breast is best; (2) Hispanic cultural and familial expectations to breastfeed; and (3) Adapting to life in the United States: cultural norms in conflict. Women said they were motivated to breastfeed because of their knowledge and observations of its health benefits for mother and child. They said breastfeeding is ingrained in their Hispanic cultural heritage, and infant feeding choices of female family members were particularly influential in women's own decision to breastfeed. Women said they experienced embarrassment about breastfeeding in the United States and as a result, often chose to initiate formula feeding as a complement so as to avoid feelings of shame. Additionally, they faced economic pressure to work, key barriers for continued breastfeeding among Hispanics in the United States. Conclusions for Practice Knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child and longstanding cultural practices of breastfeeding are not enough to encourage exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months among this rural Hispanic population. Continued support through family-level interventions as well as work place policies that encourage breastfeeding are needed for rural Hispanics to reach optimal breastfeeding rates.

  6. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. 

  7. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout.

    PubMed

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-06-13

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout.

  8. 76 FR 9051 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ..., Olympia, WA and University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA; Correction AGENCY..., WA, and in the physical custody of the University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle... remains. In addition, in the original Notice, the University of Washington, Department of Anthropology...

  9. 76 FR 48177 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ..., Olympia, WA, and University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park... University of Washington, Department of Anthropology have completed an inventory of human remains and an... the possession of the University of ] Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA. The human...

  10. Assessment of perceived injury risks and priorities among truck drivers and trucking companies in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Spielholz, Peregrin; Cullen, Jennifer; Smith, Caroline; Howard, Ninica; Silverstein, Barbara; Bonauto, David

    2008-01-01

    The trucking industry experiences one of the highest work-related injury rates. Little work has been conducted previously in the United States to assess the hazards, needs, and injury prevention priorities in trucking. Two separate industry-wide surveys of 359 trucking companies and 397 commercial truck drivers were conducted in Washington State. Trucking companies and drivers both ranked musculoskeletal and slip, trip, fall injuries as the top two priorities. Controlling heavy lifting, using appropriate equipment, and addressing slippery surfaces were frequently listed as solutions. There appears to be a gap in safety climate perception between workers and employers. However, driver and company priorities agreed with industry workers' compensation claims. There is room for safety program management improvement in the industry. The study findings detail opportunities for prioritizing and reducing injuries. This information can be used to focus and design interventions for the prevention of work-related injuries while improving industry competitiveness.

  11. Integrative monitoring of marine and freshwater harmful algae in Washington State for public health protection.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Vera L; Hardy, F Joan

    2015-04-09

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state's freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

  12. Maternal drug use and its effect on neonates: a population-based study in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Creanga, Andreea A; Sabel, Jennifer C; Ko, Jean Y; Wasserman, Cathy R; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Taylor, Polly; Barfield, Wanda; Cawthon, Laurie; Paulozzi, Leonard J

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the effect of maternal illicit and prescription drug use on neonates in Washington State between 2000 and 2008. We used state-linked birth certificate and hospital discharge (mother and neonate) data to calculate prenatal drug exposure and neonatal abstinence syndrome rates, and compared state neonatal abstinence syndrome rates with national-level data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. We identified the drugs of exposure, examined predictors of drug exposure and neonatal abstinence syndrome, and assessed perinatal outcomes among drug-exposed and neonatal abstinence syndrome-diagnosed neonates compared with unexposed neonates. Drug exposure and neonatal abstinence syndrome rates increased significantly between 2000 and 2008, neonatal abstinence syndrome rates being consistently higher than national figures (3.3 compared with 2.8 per 1,000 births in 2008; P<.05). The proportion of neonatal abstinence syndrome-diagnosed neonates exposed prenatally to opioids increased from 26.4% in 2000 to 41.7% in 2008 (P<.05). Compared with unexposed neonates, drug-exposed and neonatal abstinence syndrome-diagnosed neonates had a lower mean birth weight, longer birth hospitalization, were more likely to be born preterm, experience feeding problems, and have respiratory conditions (all P<.001). Maternal use of illicit and prescription drugs was associated with considerable neonatal morbidity and significantly higher rates of drug exposure and neonatal abstinence syndrome in recent years. Data suggest that opioid analgesics contributed to the increase in prenatal drug exposure and neonatal abstinence syndrome in Washington State. In accordance with current guidelines, our findings emphasize the need for clinicians to screen pregnant women for illicit and prescription drug use and minimize use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy. II.

  13. Work related injuries in Washington State's Trucking Industry, by industry sector and occupation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline K; Williams, Jena

    2014-04-01

    The trucking industry continues to have some of the highest work-related injury and illness rates and costs of any industry in the United States. Until recently, little focus has been placed on addressing non-motor vehicle collision related injuries within the trucking industry. Drivers are exposed to multiple physical risk factors that contribute to occupational injuries in order to complete their job duties, such as loading/unloading freight, decoupling trailers, strapping down loads and ingress and egress from the cab and trailer. About one-fourth of all truck driver injuries in the United States are related to slips, trips, and falls near the truck. The purpose of this descriptive study is to report on recent injuries in the trucking industry in Washington State. Data are presented by occupation and industry sector, in order to better understand the magnitude of specific injuries in terms of time-loss days and workers' compensation costs. All accepted, compensable (time-loss) claims from 2005 to 2010 within the trucking industry in Washington State were reviewed. Counts, rates, median and quartile data are presented. Logistic regression models are presented to identify factors associated with more severe claims. Non-traumatic musculoskeletal disorders of the neck, back and upper extremities are the most frequent injuries across all industry sectors and occupations in the trucking industry. Vehicle related claims had the highest median costs and time loss days and Courier and Messenger claims had the highest risk for higher time loss claims. Injuries varied substantially by sector and within sectors by occupation. It is important to review work-related injuries within the trucking industry by sector and occupation in order to maximize limited resources for injury prevention within this important sector. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Ninety five percent: an evaluation of law, policy, and programs to promote seat belt use in Washington state.

    PubMed

    Salzberg, Philip M; Moffat, John M

    2004-01-01

    Seat belt use in Washington state was 83% in 2001. In 2002, a series of law, policy, and program initiatives coalesced to produce a dramatic increase in seat belt use. Washington enacted a primary enforcement seat belt, the Chief of the Washington State Patrol made safety belt enforcement one of the core missions of that agency, and Washington participated in the national Memorial Day Click It or Ticket program during May 2002 and continued the program into 2003. Evaluation of these initiatives was accomplished through observation surveys of seat belt use, analysis of seat belt violation data, and analysis of data on traffic deaths of motor vehicle occupants. The major findings were that there was a two- to three-fold increase in enforcement of the seat belt law, belt use rates increased to 93% in 2002 and again to 95% in 2003, and motor-vehicle occupant fatalities decreased by 13%. IMPACT ON PRACTICE AND POLICY: The primary seat belt law and Click It or Ticket program activities were critical factors in increasing belt use in Washington state. Media and enforcement programs targeting seat belt use can be very effective in raising the belt use rate, but a long-term commitment to continuation of these program activities is essential. Other states implementing new primary seat belt laws should consider delivering a Click It or Ticket campaign prior to the effective date of the primary law and continuing these activities during subsequent months and years.

  15. The impact of school suspension on student tobacco use: a longitudinal study in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2012-02-01

    School suspension may have unintended consequences in contributing to problem behaviors, including dropping out from school, substance use, and antisocial behavior. Tobacco use is an early-onset problem behavior, but prospective studies of the effects of suspension on tobacco use are lacking. Longitudinal school-based survey of students drawn as a two-stage cluster sample, administered in 2002 and 2003, in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. The study uses statewide representative samples of students in Grades 7 and 9 (N = 3,599). Rates of tobacco use were higher for Victorian than Washington State students. School suspension remained a predictor of current tobacco use at 12-month follow-up, after controlling for established risk factors including prior tobacco and other drug use for Grade 7 but not Grade 9 students. School suspension is associated with early adolescent tobacco use, itself an established predictor of adverse outcomes in young people. Findings suggest the need to explore process mechanisms and alternatives to school suspensions as a response to challenging student behavior in early adolescence.

  16. VLF electromagnetic investigations of the crater and central dome of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Towle, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    A very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic induction survey in the crater of Mount St. Helens has identified several electrically conductive structures that appear to be associated with thermal anomalies and ground water within the crater. The most interesting of these conductive structures lies beneath the central dome. It is probably a partial melt of dacite similar to that comprising the June 1981 lobe of the central dome. ?? 1983.

  17. Relationship of infant and fetal mortality to operations at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, Washington State, 1946-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Cate, S.; Hansom, J.

    1986-09-01

    The relationship of infant and fetal mortality to numbers of nuclear reactors at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation was investigated. Mortality rates were obtained using 36 years of United States vital statistics data. Three different exposure groups were selected based on meteorologic studies of the Hanford area: group 1, counties downwind of Hanford all year; group 2, counties seasonally downwind; and group 3, counties not downwind. Washington state was used as an additional comparison group. Four periods of operation based on fluctuations in numbers of reactors were characterized. Log-linear analysis revealed that the three groups and Washington state had similar trends in infant mortality rates over the four time periods. On the other hand, the trend in fetal mortality rates for group 1 did differ significantly from trends for the two other groups and Washington state. The trends of fetal mortality rates for group 2, group 3, and Washington state were not statistically different. Fetal mortality rates in group 1, however, failed to decline from period 1 (1946-1954) to period 2 (1955-1964) as expected by the trends for the two groups and Washington state. During period 2, the greatest number of reactors were operating. County-specific analysis showed that, of the counties in group 1, the trend in fetal mortality for Benton County, where Hanford is located, was significantly different from that for Washington state. A possible link between Hanford and an excess in fetal deaths is suggested by the deviation in trend of group 1, which appears localized to Benton County and the period of peak activity at Hanford.

  18. 78 FR 46494 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York... prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin (order). The Cherry Industry Administrative Board...

  19. How I-BEST Works: Findings from a Field Study of Washington State's Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachen, John; Jenkins, Davis; Van Noy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training (I-BEST) is an innovative program and strategy developed by the Washington (WA) State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC) in conjunction with the state's 29 community colleges and five technical colleges. Its goal is to increase the rate at which adult basic education and…

  20. The End of Affirmative Action in Washington State and Its Impact on the Transition from High School to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan K.; Hirschman, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Changes in affirmative action policies in some states create possibilities for "natural experiments" to observe the effect of public policy on racial and ethnic inequality in American society. This study measured the impact of Initiative 200, a ballot measure that eliminated affirmative action in Washington State, on the transition from…

  1. Community and Technical College Foundations: The Results of a Survey of Washington State's Community and Technical College Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Henry P., Ed.

    In 1992, all 32 state community and technical colleges in Washington State were contacted to obtain information on the characteristics and activities of the non-profit foundations which have been, or are being, established at each institution. Selected findings include the following: (1) a total of 25 foundations were established between 1963 and…

  2. Children's Access to Health Insurance and Health Status in Washington State: Influential Factors. Research Brief. Publication #2009-21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Gregory; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Terzian, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Health insurance, and especially coverage for children, has been a subject of recent political debate in Washington State, as well as on the national stage. Policy makers and health care providers can use high-quality state-level data to assess which children lack health insurance and devise possible solutions to address this need. Illustrating…

  3. Estimated economic losses associated with the destruction of plants owing to Phytophthora ramorum quarantine efforts in Washington state

    Treesearch

    N.L. Dart; G.A. Chastagner

    2008-01-01

    The number and retail value of plants destroyed in Washington state nurseries due to Phytophthora ramorum quarantine efforts was estimated using Emergency Action Notification forms (EANs) issued by the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service between 2004 and 2005. Data collected from EANs indicate that...

  4. Children's Access to Health Insurance and Health Status in Washington State: Influential Factors. Research Brief. Publication #2009-21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Gregory; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Terzian, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Health insurance, and especially coverage for children, has been a subject of recent political debate in Washington State, as well as on the national stage. Policy makers and health care providers can use high-quality state-level data to assess which children lack health insurance and devise possible solutions to address this need. Illustrating…

  5. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from Cattle Farms in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Wonki; Kaya, Katherine N.; Hancock, Dale D.; Call, Douglas R.; Park, Yong Ho; Besser, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was investigated in cattle on Washington State farms. A total of 350 thermophilic Campylobacter isolates were isolated from 686 cattle sampled on 15 farms (eight dairies, two calf rearer farms, two feedlots, and three beef cow-calf ranches). Isolate species were identified with a combination of phenotypic tests, hipO colony blot hybridization, and multiplex lpxA PCR. Breakpoint resistance to four antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, erythromycin, and doxycycline) was determined by agar dilution. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequent species isolated (34.1%), followed by Campylobacter coli (7.7%) and other thermophilic campylobacters (1.5%). The most frequently detected resistance was to doxycycline (42.3% of 350 isolates). Isolates from calf rearer facilities were more frequently doxycycline resistant than isolates from other farm types. C. jejuni was most frequently susceptible to all four of the antimicrobial drugs studied (58.8% of 272 isolates). C. coli isolates were more frequently resistant than C. jejuni, including resistance to quinolone antimicrobials (89.3% of isolates obtained from calves on calf rearer farms) and to erythromycin (72.2% of isolates obtained from feedlot cattle). Multiple drug resistance was more frequent in C. coli (51.5%) than in C. jejuni (5.1%). The results of this study demonstrate that C. jejuni is widely distributed among Washington cattle farms, while C. coli is more narrowly distributed but significantly more resistant. PMID:15640184

  6. Cost inefficiency under financial strain: a stochastic frontier analysis of hospitals in Washington State through the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Izón, Germán M; Pardini, Chelsea A

    2015-12-17

    The importance of increasing cost efficiency for community hospitals in the United States has been underscored by the Great Recession and the ever-changing health care reimbursement environment. Previous studies have shown mixed evidence with regards to the relationship between linking hospitals' reimbursement to quality of care and cost efficiency. Moreover, current evidence suggests that not only inherently financially disadvantaged hospitals (e.g., safety-net providers), but also more financially stable providers, experienced declines to their financial viability throughout the recession. However, little is known about how hospital cost efficiency fared throughout the Great Recession. This study contributes to the literature by using stochastic frontier analysis to analyze cost inefficiency of Washington State hospitals between 2005 and 2012, with controls for patient burden of illness, hospital process of care quality, and hospital outcome quality. The quality measures included in this study function as central measures for the determination of recently implemented pay-for-performance programs. The average estimated level of hospital cost inefficiency before the Great Recession (10.4 %) was lower than it was during the Great Recession (13.5 %) and in its aftermath (14.1 %). Further, the estimated coefficients for summary process of care quality indexes for three health conditions (acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and heart failure) suggest that higher quality scores are associated with increased cost inefficiency.

  7. Field observations of the developing legal recreational cannabis economy in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eric L; Roussell, Aaron

    2016-07-01

    Washington State legalized the sale of recreational cannabis in 2012. This paper describes the unfolding of the market regulatory regime in an eastern portion of the state, including field descriptions to illustrate the setting. We made observations and conducted interviews of the local supply chain comprising a producer/processor, analytic facility, and retail establishments as well as querying the state director of the regulatory board. Interviews and observations of facilities suggest an overwhelming concern for black market diversion drives state regulatory efforts. The ongoing dialogue between market actors and the state has resulted in a more equitable distribution of profits at different stages in the process. State safety regulations have thus far been shifted to independent laboratories. Banks and insurance companies have slowly begun making inroads into the industry, despite federal prohibition. The law was conceived as a social justice remedy, but the bulk of the legal and regulatory activity surrounds cannabis marketplace management. This has been characterized by concerns for black market diversion, producer/processor profits, and a hands-off approach to safety regulation. Minor cannabis violations as a pathway to criminal justice system involvement have been reduced substantially but disproportionate enforcement upon racial/ethnic minorities continues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrative Monitoring of Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae in Washington State for Public Health Protection

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, Vera L.; Hardy, F. Joan

    2015-01-01

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state’s freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans. PMID:25860160

  9. Use and selection of brood-rearing habitat by Sage Grouse in south central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sveum, C.M.; Crawford, J.A.; Edge, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) brood-habitat use was examined during 1992 and 1993 at the Yakima Training Center in Yakima and Kittitas counties, Washington. During the 2 yr we followed 38 broods, of which 12 persisted to 1 August (x?? = approximately 1.5 chicks/brood). Food forb cover was greater at all brood locations than at random locations. Hens with broods in big sagebrush/bunchgrass habitat (Artemisia tridentata/Agropyron spicatum) selected for greater food forb cover, total forb cover, and lower shrub heights; broods in altered big sagebrush/bunchgrass habitats selected greater tall grass cover and vertical cover height; broods in grassland showed no preference for any measured vegetation characteristics. During the early rearing period (post-hatching-6 wk) each year, broods selected sagebrush/bunchgrass. Broods in 1993 made greater use of grasslands than in 1992 and selected grassland during the late brood-rearing period (7-12 wk). Broods selected for sagebrush/bunchgrass during midday, but 52% of brood locations in the afternoon were in grassland. Tall grass cover was greater at morning (0500-1000 h) and afternoon (1501-2000 h) brood locations than at midday (1001-1500 h) and random locations. Midday brood locations had greater shrub cover and height than morning and afternoon locations. Selection of habitat components was similar to the results of other studies, but habitat conditions coupled with a possible lack of 'alternate brood-rearing cover types resulted in low survival of chicks.

  10. Determinants of Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibition Among Agricultural Pesticide Handlers in Washington State: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Krenz, Jennifer E.; Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Smith, Theresa R.; Cunningham, Rad N.; Fenske, Richard A.; Simpson, Christopher D.; Keifer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides are used widely in agriculture to manage insect pests of economic importance. Agricultural workers are more likely to suffer exposure because of the widespread use of OP/CBs in agriculture, and pesticide-related illnesses among handlers may be more severe when compared to other farm workers. The goal of this study was to identify occupational and personal characteristics associated with butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition in participants recruited from the Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program from 2006 to 2011. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study among agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State during the OP/CB spray season (March–July) over a 6-year period (2006–2011). Linear mixed effects regression models were used to evaluate BuChE inhibition in relation to self-reported occupational and personal characteristics. Results: Relative to pre-season baseline levels, the mean decrease in BuChE activity during the OP/CB spray season over all years of the study period was 3.77% (P < 0.001). Greater BuChE inhibition was observed among handlers who reported using multiple OP/CBs (β = −2.70, P = 0.045), mixed or loaded OP/CBs (β = −3.97, P = 0.002), did not store personal protective equipment (PPE) in a locker at work (β = −3.4, P = 0.014), or did not wear chemical-resistant boots (β = −16.6, P < 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions: The Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program has provided a valuable opportunity to evaluate potential sources of OP/CB exposure among agricultural pesticide handlers. Several previously reported associations were confirmed in the current analysis, which included a larger number of pesticide handlers enrolled over a longer time period. The use of multiple OP/CBs and mixing/loading activities were significant risk factors, and the use of chemical-resistant boots and lockers for PPE storage were protective factors

  11. Determinants of butyrylcholinesterase inhibition among agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State: an update.

    PubMed

    Krenz, Jennifer E; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Smith, Theresa R; Cunningham, Rad N; Fenske, Richard A; Simpson, Christopher D; Keifer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides are used widely in agriculture to manage insect pests of economic importance. Agricultural workers are more likely to suffer exposure because of the widespread use of OP/CBs in agriculture, and pesticide-related illnesses among handlers may be more severe when compared to other farm workers. The goal of this study was to identify occupational and personal characteristics associated with butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition in participants recruited from the Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program from 2006 to 2011. We conducted a longitudinal study among agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State during the OP/CB spray season (March-July) over a 6-year period (2006-2011). Linear mixed effects regression models were used to evaluate BuChE inhibition in relation to self-reported occupational and personal characteristics. Relative to pre-season baseline levels, the mean decrease in BuChE activity during the OP/CB spray season over all years of the study period was 3.77% (P < 0.001). Greater BuChE inhibition was observed among handlers who reported using multiple OP/CBs (β = -2.70, P = 0.045), mixed or loaded OP/CBs (β = -3.97, P = 0.002), did not store personal protective equipment (PPE) in a locker at work (β = -3.4, P = 0.014), or did not wear chemical-resistant boots (β = -16.6, P < 0.001). The Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program has provided a valuable opportunity to evaluate potential sources of OP/CB exposure among agricultural pesticide handlers. Several previously reported associations were confirmed in the current analysis, which included a larger number of pesticide handlers enrolled over a longer time period. The use of multiple OP/CBs and mixing/loading activities were significant risk factors, and the use of chemical-resistant boots and lockers for PPE storage were protective factors. Our findings point toward logical interventions to reduce exposure

  12. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 7, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The States of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, which total 248,730 square miles, compose Segment 7 of this Atlas. The area is geologically and topographically diverse and contains a wealth of scenic beauty, natural resources, and ground and surface water that generally are suitable for all uses. Most of the area of Segment 7 is drained by the Columbia River, its tributaries, and other streams that discharge to the Pacific Ocean. Exceptions are those streams that flow to closed basins in southeastern Oregon and northern Nevada and to the Great Salt Lake in northern Utah. The Columbia River is one of the largest rivers in the Nation. The downstream reach of the Columbia River forms most of the border between Oregon and Washington. In 1990, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington had populations of 1.0 million, 2.8 million, and 4.9 million, respectively. The more densely populated parts are in lowland areas and stream valleys. Many of the mountains, the deserts, and the upland areas of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington lack major population centers. Large areas of Idaho and Oregon are uninhabited and are mostly public land (fig. 1) where extensive ground-water development is restricted. Surface water is abundant in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, though not always available when and where needed. In some places, surface water provides much of the water used for public-supply, domestic and commercial, agricultural (primarily irrigation and livestock watering), and industrial purposes. In arid parts of Segment 7, however, surface water has long been fully appropriated, chiefly for irrigation. Ground water is used when and where surface-water supplies are lacking. Ground water is commonly available to shallow wells that are completed in unconsolidated-deposit aquifers that consist primarily of sand and gravel but contain variable quantities of clay and silt. Many large-yield public-supply and irrigation wells and thousands of domestic wells are completed in these types of aquifers

  13. Variations in community exposure to lahar hazards from multiple volcanoes in Washington State (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communities are vulnerable to lahar hazards provides critical input for effective design and implementation of volcano hazard preparedness and mitigation strategies. Past vulnerability assessments have focused largely on hazards posed by a single volcano, even though communities and officials in many parts of the world must plan for and contend with hazards associated with multiple volcanoes. To better understand community vulnerability in regions with multiple volcanic threats, we characterize and compare variations in community exposure to lahar hazards associated with five active volcanoes in Washington State, USA—Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens—each having the potential to generate catastrophic lahars that could strike communities tens of kilometers downstream. We use geospatial datasets that represent various population indicators (e.g., land cover, residents, employees, tourists) along with mapped lahar-hazard boundaries at each volcano to determine the distributions of populations within communities that occupy lahar-prone areas. We estimate that Washington lahar-hazard zones collectively contain 191,555 residents, 108,719 employees, 433 public venues that attract visitors, and 354 dependent-care facilities that house individuals that will need assistance to evacuate. We find that population exposure varies considerably across the State both in type (e.g., residential, tourist, employee) and distribution of people (e.g., urban to rural). We develop composite lahar-exposure indices to identify communities most at-risk and communities throughout the State who share common issues of vulnerability to lahar-hazards. We find that although lahars are a regional hazard that will impact communities in different ways there are commonalities in community exposure across multiple volcanoes. Results will aid emergency managers, local officials, and the public in educating at-risk populations and developing

  14. Examining the Washington State Breastfeeding-Friendly Policy Development Process Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Lesley E; Bradford, Victoria; Quinn, Emilee; Otten, Jennifer J; McNamara, Jennifer; Fisher, Kari; Johnson, Donna B

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding promotion is increasingly recognized as a key public health strategy. Policies can promote breastfeeding by creating supportive environments and addressing challenges. In 2014, the Washington State legislature considered bills to create a voluntary recognition system for breastfeeding-friendly hospitals, clinics, worksites and childcare settings. These Breastfeeding-Friendly Washington (BFW) bills (SB 6298 and HB 2329) did not pass. Methods The purpose of this case study was to analyze the policy development process for the BFW bills using the Advocacy Coalition Framework. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the state policy process, and document review. We used thematic analysis to identify deductive and inductive themes. Results Though all policy actors indicated general support for breastfeeding, two main coalitions (proponents and opponents) diverged in their support of the BFW bills as policy solutions to address barriers to breastfeeding. We conducted 29 interviews with mainly bill proponents, and 54 documents confirmed data about bill opponents. Proponents supported the bills given increasingly strong evidence of breastfeeding's benefits and that public policy could address environmental challenges to breastfeeding. Opponents saw the bills as government overreach into the private matter of choosing to breastfeed. Opposition to the bills came late in the session, and proponents felt opponents' messaging misconstrued the intent of the legislation. Conclusions for Practice Key learnings for developing breastfeeding-friendly state policies include analyzing differences between proponents' and opponents' beliefs, framing advocacy messages beyond individuals and health, expanding the coalition outside of traditional health entities, and anticipating the opposition.

  15. Parkinsonism Signs and Symptoms in Agricultural Pesticide Handlers in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Searles Nielsen, Susan; Hu, Shu-Ching; Checkoway, Harvey; Negrete, Maria; Palmández, Pablo; Bordianu, Theresa; Racette, Brad A; Simpson, Christopher D

    2017-01-01

    Examine associations between pesticide exposure and signs or symptoms of parkinsonism. Prior to the 2014 pesticide spray season, the authors examined 38 active pesticide handlers aged 35 to 65 (median: 43.5) who participated in the State of Washington's cholinesterase monitoring program in the Yakima Valley, where cholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides are applied in fruit orchards. A movement disorder specialist assessed the workers using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor subscore 3 (UPDRS3). Participants also self-reported work and medical histories, including the UPDRS activities of daily living subscore 2 (UPDRS2). The authors explored the relation between these scores and lifetime occupational pesticide exposure while accounting for age. All participants were Hispanic men born in Mexico who had worked in agriculture for 4 to 43 years (median: 21 years, including 11 years applying pesticides, mostly in the United States). Ten participants (26%) reported difficulty with one or more UPDRS2 activities of daily living (maximum = 2), and nine (24%) had a UPDRS3 >0 (maximum = 10). The most common symptom and sign, respectively, were excess saliva (n = 6) and action tremor (n = 5). UPDRS2 and UPDRS3 scores were unrelated to the number of years applying pesticides, but UPDRS3, especially action tremor, was positively associated with living on or by a farm. Symptoms and signs of parkinsonism were absent to mild in this small sample of active workers who apply cholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides in Washington State, USA. Future studies should be larger and examine older, retired workers with greater cumulative exposure to agricultural pesticides at work and home, including other types of agricultural pesticides.

  16. Distribution of asthma by occupation: Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Data, 2006–2009

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zihong Joyce; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Bonauto, David K.; Rauser, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Objective Objective: To estimate the prevalence of asthma in workers by occupation in Washington State. Methods: Data from the 2006–2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the BRFSS Asthma Call-Back Survey (ACBS) in Washington State (WA) were analyzed. Using state-added and coded Industry and Occupation questions, we calculated prevalence ratios (PRs) for 19 occupational groups. Results: Of the 41 935 respondents who were currently employed during 2006–2009, the prevalence of current asthma was 8.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8–8.5%] When compared with the reference group of executive, administration and managerial occupations, three occupational groups had significantly (p < 0.05) higher PRs of current asthma: “Teachers, all levels, and Counselors’ (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1. 6%); ‘Administrative Support, including Clerical” (PR 1. 5, 95% CI 1.2–1.9%); and “Other Health Services” (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2–1.9). Half of the 2511 ACBS respondent workers (55.1%) indicated that they believed exposure at work had caused or worsened their asthma, but only 10.7% had ever spoken with a health care professional about their asthma being work related. Conclusions: Some occupations have a higher prevalence of current asthma than other occupations. The systematic collection of industry and occupation data can help identify worker populations with a high burden of asthma and can be used to target disease prevention efforts as well as to aid clinician recognition and treatment. Workers indicated that work-related asthma exposures are not discussed with their health care provider and this communication gap has implications for asthma management. PMID:24995660

  17. Distribution of asthma by occupation: Washington State behavioral risk factor surveillance system data, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Naomi J; Fan, Zihong Joyce; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Bonauto, David K; Rauser, Edmund

    2014-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of asthma in workers by occupation in Washington State. Data from the 2006-2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the BRFSS Asthma Call-Back Survey (ACBS) in Washington State (WA) were analyzed. Using state-added and coded Industry and Occupation questions, we calculated prevalence ratios (PRs) for 19 occupational groups. Of the 41,935 respondents who were currently employed during 2006-2009, the prevalence of current asthma was 8.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8-8.5%] When compared with the reference group of executive, administration and managerial occupations, three occupational groups had significantly (p < 0.05) higher PRs of current asthma: "Teachers, all levels, and Counselors' (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1. 6%); 'Administrative Support, including Clerical" (PR 1. 5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9%); and "Other Health Services" (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9). Half of the 2511 ACBS respondent workers (55.1%) indicated that they believed exposure at work had caused or worsened their asthma, but only 10.7% had ever spoken with a health care professional about their asthma being work related. Some occupations have a higher prevalence of current asthma than other occupations. The systematic collection of industry and occupation data can help identify worker populations with a high burden of asthma and can be used to target disease prevention efforts as well as to aid clinician recognition and treatment. Workers indicated that work-related asthma exposures are not discussed with their health care provider and this communication gap has implications for asthma management.

  18. The Contribution of Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants to Generalist Care in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Eric H; Palazzo, Lorella; Berkowitz, Bobbi; Pirani, Michael J; Hart, L Gary

    2003-01-01

    Objective To quantify the total contribution to generalist care made by nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) in Washington State. Data Sources State professional licensure renewal survey data from 1998–1999. Study Design Cross-sectional. Data on medical specialty, place of practice, and outpatient visits performed were used to estimate productivity of generalist physicians, NPs, and PAs. Provider head counts were adjusted for missing specialty and productivity data and converted into family physician full-time equivalents (FTEs) to facilitate estimation of total contribution to generalist care made by each provider type. Principal Findings Nurse practitioners and physician assistants make up 23.4 percent of the generalist provider population and provide 21.0 percent of the generalist outpatient visits in Washington State. The NP/PA contribution to generalist care is higher in rural areas (24.7 percent of total visits compared to 20.1 percent in urban areas). The PAs and NPs provide 50.3 percent of generalist visits provided by women in rural areas, 36.5 percent in urban areas. When productivity data were converted into family physician FTEs, the productivity adjustments were large. A total of 4,189 generalist physicians produced only 2,760 family physician FTEs (1 FTE=105 outpatient visits per week). The NP and PA productivity adjustments were also quite large. Conclusions Accurate estimates of available generalist care must take into account the contributions of NPs and PAs. Additionally, simple head counts of licensed providers are likely to result in substantial overestimates of available care. Actual productivity data or empirically derived adjustment factors must be used for accurate estimation of provider shortages. PMID:12968815

  19. Receiver function studies in the southwestern United States and correlation between stratigraphy and Poisson's ratio, southwestern Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilbride, Fiona Elizabeth Anne

    2000-10-01

    This dissertation consists of two separate lines of research. The first uses the receiver function technique to estimate crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio for three receiver stations in the southwestern United States. One station is located in El Paso because relatively few geophysical experiments have been conducted in the southern Rio Grande rift. Two stations are located on the Colorado Plateau, in an attempt to resolve an ongoing dispute concerning the crustal thickness of this province. The results of the receiver functions studies are used as additional constraints for gravity models along two regional profiles coincident with the much shorter profiles of the Pacific to Arizona Crustal Experiment (PACE) that was led by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Colorado Plateau. Because the profiles extend into adjacent provinces, these models are balanced for isostatic equilibrium and are consistent with elevations predicted by buoyancy calculations. The results are most consistent with a thick (≈50 km) crust for the Colorado Plateau and do not support the presence of large lateral thickness variations within the plateau. The second line of research presented also derives Poisson's ratio, in this case from seismic refraction data. The results are used to interpret a structural cross-section in southwest Washington State and to shed light on a feature of low resistivity (1--5 Om) located in the High Cascades (the Southern Washington Cascades Conductor or SWCC). This feature is delineated by the interpretation of magnetotelluric and seismic reflection profiles and has been interpreted to be largely composed of Lower Eocene marine sedimentary rocks. Both lines of research estimate Poisson's ratio using dissimilar techniques, but have produced results consistent with one another. Poisson's ratio for quartz-rich rocks (such as sandstones and granites) generally lies between 0.23 and 0.26, as exemplified by the upper crust of the Rio Grande rift, and by sedimentary

  20. Rapid deterioration of sediment surface habitats in Bellingham Bay, Washington State, as indicated by benthic foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Elizabeth A; Martin, Ruth A; Martin, David E; Apple, Jude

    2015-08-15

    Foraminiferal assemblages in sediment grab samples were utilized to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic activities on benthic habitats in Bellingham Bay, Washington State, U.S.A. Seventy-three samples taken in 1987, 1997, 2006 and 2010 yielded 35 species of foraminifera from 28 genera. Assemblage composition and diversity data indicate a marked deterioration between 1987 and 2010, contrary to the published Chemical Index, but analogous to the situation with macrobiota. Correlation of diversity with chemical pollutants and metals did not identify any significant correlations, however, an unrelated but highly relevant study of bottom water dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH in Bellingham Bay suggests eutrophication with accompanying hypoxia and acidification may be part of the cause. Thus, the metrics of contamination alone do not adequately characterize habitat viability, and benthic foraminiferal assemblages provide insight into the health of coastal ecosystems.