Science.gov

Sample records for centralized review process

  1. Centralized drug review processes: are they fair?

    PubMed

    Mitton, Craig R; McMahon, Meghan; Morgan, Steve; Gibson, Jennifer

    2006-07-01

    Numerous countries have implemented centralized drug review processes to assist in making drug coverage decisions. In addition to examining the final recommendations of these bodies, it is also important to ensure fairness in decision making. Accountability for reasonableness is an ethics-based framework for examining the fairness of priority setting processes. The objective of this study was to assess the fairness of four internationally established centralized drug review processes using accountability for reasonableness. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with stakeholders in Canada, New Zealand, Australia and the UK (n=16). Participants were asked to evaluate their country's centralized drug review process against the four conditions of accountability for reasonableness. Each centralized drug review process satisfied at least one of the four ethical conditions, but none satisfied all four conditions. All participants viewed transparency as critical to both the legitimacy and fairness of centralized drug review processes. Additional strides need to be made in each of the four countries under study to improve the fairness of their centralized drug review processes. Ideally, a fair priority setting process should foster constructive stakeholder engagement and enhance the legitimacy of decisions made in assessing pharmaceutical products for funding. As policy makers are under increasing scrutiny in allocating limited resources, fair process should be seen as a critical component of such activity. This study represents the first attempt to conduct an international comparison of the fairness of centralized drug review agencies in the eyes of participating stakeholders.

  2. Central Processing Dysfunctions in Children: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalfant, James C.; Scheffelin, Margaret A.

    Research on central processing dysfunctions in children is reviewed in three major areas. The first, dysfunctions in the analysis of sensory information, includes auditory, visual, and haptic processing. The second, dysfunction in the synthesis of sensory information, covers multiple stimulus integration and short-term memory. The third area of…

  3. Centralized drug review processes in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; McMahon, Meghan; Mitton, Craig; Roughead, Elizabeth; Kirk, Ray; Kanavos, Panos; Menon, Devidas

    2006-01-01

    Many countries have centralized the clinical and economic assessments necessary for evidence-based drug coverage policy. We analyze such processes in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. These countries apply comparable approaches to the assessment and appraisal of evidence but apply the processes to different types of drugs and use the reviews within different decision-making contexts. Review processes applied to all medicines and clearly tied to coverage decisions appear to influence national drug use. Rigor of process and transparency of data and rationale are believed to be important for maximizing the impact and political acceptability of the processes.

  4. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; Davis, Caroline; McCabe, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare centralized reimbursement/coverage decision-making processes for health technologies in 23 European countries, according to: mandate, authority, structure, and policy options; mechanisms for identifying, selecting, and evaluating technologies; clinical and economic evidence expectations; committee composition, procedures, and factors considered; available conditional reimbursement options for promising new technologies; and the manufacturers’ roles in the process. Methods: A comprehensive review of publicly available information from peer-reviewed literature (using a variety of bibliographic databases) and gray literature (eg, working papers, committee reports, presentations, and government documents) was conducted. Policy experts in each of the 23 countries were also contacted. All information collected was reviewed by two independent researchers. Results: Most European countries have established centralized reimbursement systems for making decisions on health technologies. However, the scope of technologies considered, as well as processes for identifying, selecting, and reviewing them varies. All systems include an assessment of clinical evidence, compiled in accordance with their own guidelines or internationally recognized published ones. In addition, most systems require an economic evaluation. The quality of such information is typically assessed by content and methodological experts. Committees responsible for formulating recommendations or decisions are multidisciplinary. While criteria used by committees appear transparent, how they are operationalized during deliberations remains unclear. Increasingly, reimbursement systems are expressing interest in and/or implementing reimbursement policy options that extend beyond the traditional “yes,” “no,” or “yes with restrictions” options. Such options typically require greater involvement of manufacturers which, to date, has been limited

  5. Preliminary design review package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Central Data Processing System (CDPS) is designed to transform the raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems. Software requirements for the CDPS are described. The programming standards to be used in development, documentation, and maintenance of the software are discussed along with the CDPS operations approach in support of daily data collection and processing.

  6. Central waste processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept for processing spacecraft type wastes has been evaluated. The feasibility of reacting various waste materials with steam at temperatures of 538 - 760 C in both a continuous and batch reactor with residence times from 3 to 60 seconds has been established. Essentially complete gasification is achieved. Product gases are primarily hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. Water soluble synthetic wastes are readily processed in a continuous tubular reactor at concentrations up to 20 weight percent. The batch reactor is able to process wet and dry wastes at steam to waste weight ratios from 2 to 20. Feces, urine, and synthetic wastes have been successfully processed in the batch reactor.

  7. 25 CFR 273.27 - Central Office review and decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Office review and decision. 273.27 Section 273.27... ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Application Process § 273.27 Central...) days after the Central Office receives the application. (b) Review the application for completeness and...

  8. The Role and Treatment Implications of Peripheral and Central Processing of Pain, Pruritus, and Nausea in Heightened Somatic Awareness: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Alexander; Lyons, Alexis; Ansari, Umer; Mccroskey, Aidan L.; Luehrs, Eric; Barr, Lauren; Le, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Pain, pruritus, and nausea are complex sensory and emotional physiological symptoms that can vary widely between people and even within an individual, depending on the context and meaning of the symptom and the psychological state of the person. This article reviews the acute neural transmission of pain, pruritus, and nausea symptoms, which can begin in the periphery and/or viscera. The subsequent multiple pathways in the central nervous system that become involved in the processing of these symptoms are also discussed. The authors describe human brain imaging studies that have revealed consistent cortical and subcortical networks activated by these symptoms, including sensory, limbic, and associative regions. In particular, the authors discuss information revealed by the studies regarding the primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, prefrontal cortex and thalamus, are the brain areas most commonly activated by noxious stimuli. Finally, the authors describe treatment options for chronic presentations of these symptoms, which are, in part, based on central nervous processing of these sensations.

  9. Central poststroke pain: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Singer, Jonathan; Conigliaro, Alyssa; Spina, Elizabeth; Law, Susan W; Levine, Steven R

    2017-06-01

    Background Physical, psychological, and/or social impairment can result after a stroke and can be exacerbated by pain. One type of pain after stroke, central poststroke pain, is believed to be due to primary central nervous system mechanisms. Estimated prevalence of central poststroke pain ranges widely from 8% to 55% of stroke patients, suggesting a difficulty in reliably, accurately, and consistently identifying central poststroke pain. This may be due to the absence of a generally accepted definition. Aim We aimed to clarify the role of thalamic strokes and damage to the spinothalamic pathway in central poststroke pain patients. Also, we aimed to gain a current understanding of anatomic substrates, brain imaging, and treatment of central poststroke pain. Summary of review Two independent reviewers identified 10,144 publications. Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, we extracted data from 23 papers and categorized the articles' aims into four sections: somatosensory deficits, pathway stimulation, clinical trials, and brain imaging. Conclusions Our systematic review suggests that damage to the spinothalamic pathway is associated with central poststroke pain and this link could provide insights into mechanisms and treatment. Moreover, historical connection of strokes in the thalamic region of the brain and central poststroke pain should be reevaluated as many studies noted that strokes in other regions of the brain have high occurrence of central poststroke pain as well.

  10. NCI Central Review Board Receives Accreditation

    Cancer.gov

    The Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs has awarded the NCI Central Institutional Review Board full accreditation. AAHRPP awards accreditation to organizations demonstrating the highest ethical standards in clinical res

  11. External Review Teams Training in Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva-Trivino, Moises; Ramirez-Gatica, Soledad

    2004-01-01

    Many Latin American countries have started actions to promote a higher education quality assurance system. Central America appears as a regional effort that includes universities from all seven countries under the initiative of Central American University Higher Council (CSUCA). After focusing in quality management and self-study processes, CSUCA…

  12. External Review Teams Training in Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva-Trivino; Moises; Ramirez-Gatica, Soledad

    2004-01-01

    Many Latin American countries have started actions to promote a higher education quality assurance system. Central America appears as a regional effort that includes universities from all seven countries under the initiative of Central American University Higher Council (CSUCA). After focusing in quality management and self-study processes, CSUCA…

  13. Central registry in psychiatry: A structured review

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jyoti; Ramakrishnan, TS; Das, R. C.; Srivastava, K.; Mehta, Suresh; Shashikumar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Central registry in psychiatry is being practiced in few countries and has been found useful in research and clinical management. Role of central registry has also expanded over the years. Materials and Methods: All accessible internet database Medline, Scopus, Embase were accessed from 1990 till date. Available data were systematically reviewed in structured manner and analyzed. Results: Central registry was found useful in epidemiological analysis, association studies, outcome studies, comorbidity studies, forensic issue, effective of medication, qualitative analysis etc., Conclusion: Central registry proves to be effective tool in quantitative and qualitative understanding of psychiatry practice. Findings of studies from central registry can be useful in modifying best practice and evidence based treatment in psychiatry. PMID:25535438

  14. Word Processing: Coordination without Centralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seim, Sandra K.; Stoneking, Cheryl A.

    1981-01-01

    In February 1980, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Lukes Medical Center in Chicago appointed a task force to study word processing/office automation and to make recommendations for acquisition, implementation, and administration. The group's working approach, findings, and conclusions are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  15. Central exclusive production within the Durham model: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Khoze, V. A.; Ryskin, M. G.; Stirling, W. J.

    2014-06-01

    We review recent results within the Durham model of central exclusive production. We discuss the theoretical aspects of this approach and consider the phenomenological implications in a variety of processes, comparing to existing collider data and addressing the possibilities for the future.

  16. Centralized National Ethical Review of Clinical Trials in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vitezić, Dinko; Lovrek, Maja; Tomić, Siniša

    2009-01-01

    Aim To present the Croatian system of ethical review of clinical trials and assessment outcomes of the applications reviewed by the Croatian Central Ethics Committee. Methods Clinical trial applications reviewed by the Croatian Central Ethics Committee, which has the legal mandate to review clinical trials of medicinal products and medical devices, were retrospectively analyzed from May 2004 to the end of 2008 according to the number, research area, and type of opinion issued. Applications from 2008 were analyzed separately according to the study phase, participants (adult trials vs pediatric trials), and sponsor (commercial trials vs academic trials). Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results Since its establishment in 2004, the Croatian Central Ethics Committee has reviewed 407 trials. The greatest number of clinical trials was in the field of oncology (n = 69), mental and behavioral disorders (n = 52), and endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases (n = 50). In the initial assessment of clinical trials, 60% applications received a conditionally positive opinion. In 28% of applications, the opinion had to be postponed because additional documentation or explanations were required. In 2008, the Croatian Central Ethics Committee reviewed 99 trials, most of which were phase III trials (n = 57). Five clinical trials included pediatric population and 3 were academic clinical trials. Conclusion The model of centralized clinical trial review seems to be appropriate for the current number of clinical trials conducted in Croatia. The efficient and standardized review process of clinical trials by the Central Ethics Committee may positively affect the increasing number of clinical trials conducted in Croatia. Future development includes the transparency of the clinical trials through a publically available database and establishing the basis for conducting academic clinical trials. PMID:19399943

  17. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  18. Central Auditory Processing Disorders: Mostly Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, M. Gay; Stecker, Nancy A.; Katz, Jack

    This book offers the latest available information on central auditory processing disorders (CAPDs) drawn from a State University of New York at Buffalo conference on CAPDs in September of 1996. It is divided into three parts: introduction, management approaches, and specific methods and populations. Chapters include: (1) "Overview and Update…

  19. Central Auditory Processing Disorders: Mostly Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, M. Gay; Stecker, Nancy A.; Katz, Jack

    This book offers the latest available information on central auditory processing disorders (CAPDs) drawn from a State University of New York at Buffalo conference on CAPDs in September of 1996. It is divided into three parts: introduction, management approaches, and specific methods and populations. Chapters include: (1) "Overview and Update…

  20. Sono-leather technology with ultrasound: a boon for unit operations in leather processing - review of our research work at Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), India.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Swaminathan, Gopalaraman; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound is a sound wave with a frequency above the human audible range of 16 Hz to 16 kHz. In recent years, numerous unit operations involving physical as well as chemical processes are reported to have been enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation. There have been benefits such as improvement in process efficiency, process time reduction, performing the processes under milder conditions and avoiding the use of some toxic chemicals to achieve cleaner processing. These could be a better way of augmentation for the processes as an advanced technique. The important point here is that ultrasonic irradiation is physical method activation rather than using chemical entities. Detailed studies have been made in the unit operations related to leather such as diffusion rate enhancement through porous leather matrix, cleaning, degreasing, tanning, dyeing, fatliquoring, oil-water emulsification process and solid-liquid tannin extraction from vegetable tanning materials as well as in precipitation reaction in wastewater treatment. The fundamental mechanism involved in these processes is ultrasonic cavitation in liquid media. In addition to this there also exist some process specific mechanisms for the enhancement of the processes. For instance, possible real-time reversible pore-size changes during ultrasound propagation through skin/leather matrix could be a reason for diffusion rate enhancement in leather processing as reported for the first time. Exhaustive scientific research work has been carried out in this area by our group working in Chemical Engineering Division of CLRI and most of these benefits have been proven with publications in valued peer-reviewed international journals. The overall results indicate that about 2-5-fold increase in the process efficiency due to ultrasound under the given process conditions for various unit operations with additional benefits. Scale-up studies are underway for converting these concepts in to a real viable larger scale operation. In

  1. A Review of Select Centralized Pain Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aparna; McCroskey, Aidan L.; Ahmadi, Tamana; Simmelink, Drew; Oldfield, Edward C.; Pryor, Christopher R.; Faschan, Michael; Raulli, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Pain can be broadly divided into 3 classes, including nociceptive or inflammatory pain (protective), neuropathic (pathological, occurring after damage to the nervous system), or centralized (pathological, due to abnormal function but with no damage or inflammation to the nervous system). The latter has been posited to occur when descending analgesic pathways are attenuated and/or glutamatergic transmission is facilitated. Additionally, this “pain prone phenotype” can be associated with early life trauma and a suboptimal response to opiates. This article will review the relationships between centralized pain syndromes (ie, fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain), childhood sexual abuse, and opiate misuse. Finally, treatment implications, potentially effecting primary care physicians, will be discussed. PMID:28462250

  2. Some effects of aging on central auditory processing.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey S; Jerger, James F

    2005-01-01

    Seniors often have more difficulty understanding speech than younger adults, particularly in noisy environments. While loss in peripheral hearing sensitivity explains many of the listening problems of elderly persons, age-related declines in general cognitive skill and central auditory processing also appear to contribute. In this article, we focus primarily on the effects of age on central auditory mechanisms. To this end, we review research examining a central locus for deficits in temporal processing and summarize behavioral and event-related potential findings from our laboratory's research on the effects of aging on dichotic listening performance. Results show that age-related deficits in interhemispheric information processing may underlie some of the listening problems among seniors. We also discuss implications for clinical audiological rehabilitative efforts in this population.

  3. Registration Review Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA will review each registered pesticide at least every 15 years to determine whether it continues to meet the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) standard for registration. There are currently 745 registration review cases.

  4. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are... order with all linked records on the central computer system. (b) A company that has central processing... the company owns and operates....

  5. Analysis and Optimization of Central Processing Unit Process Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaja Bantha Navas, R.; Venkata Chaitana Vignan, Budi; Durganadh, Margani; Rama Krishna, Chunduri

    2017-05-01

    The rapid growth of computer has made processing more data capable, which increase the heat dissipation. Hence the system unit CPU must be cooled against operating temperature. This paper presents a novel approach for the optimization of operating parameters on Central Processing Unit with single response based on response graph method. These methods have a series of steps from of proposed approach which are capable of decreasing uncertainty caused by engineering judgment in the Taguchi method. Orthogonal Array value was taken from ANSYS report. The method shows a good convergence with the experimental and the optimum process parameters.

  6. Auditory Training for Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Chermak, Gail D.; Musiek, Frank E.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) is an important component of rehabilitation for patients with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The present article identifies and describes aspects of AT as they relate to applications in this population. A description of the types of auditory processes along with information on relevant AT protocols that can be used to address these specific deficits is included. Characteristics and principles of effective AT procedures also are detailed in light of research that reflects on their value. Finally, research investigating AT in populations who show CAPD or present with auditory complaints is reported. Although efficacy data in this area are still emerging, current findings support the use of AT for treatment of auditory difficulties. PMID:27587909

  7. Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tkačik, Gašper

    2014-01-01

    Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime—when sampling limitations constrain performance—efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03722.001 PMID:25396297

  8. Central Institutional Review Board Review for an Academic Trial Network

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Petra; O’Rourke, P. Pearl

    2016-01-01

    Problem Translating discoveries into therapeutics is often delayed by lengthy start-up periods for multicenter clinical trials. One cause of delay can be multiple institutional review board (IRB) reviews of the same protocol. Approach When developing the Network for Excellence in Neuroscience Clinical Trials (NeuroNEXT; hereafter, NN), the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) established a central IRB (CIRB) based at Massachusetts General Hospital, the academic medical center that received the NN clinical coordinating center grant. The 25 NN sites, located at U.S. academic institutions, agreed to required CIRB use for NN trials. Outcomes To delineate roles and establish legal relationships between the NN sites and the CIRB, the CIRB executed reliance agreements with the sites and their affiliates that hold federalwide assurance for the protection of human subjects (FWA); this took, on average, 84 days. The first NN protocol reviewed by the CIRB achieved full approval to allow participant enrollment within 56 days and went from grant award to the first patient visit in less than four months. The authors describe anticipated challenges related to institutional oversight responsibilities versus regulatory CIRB review as well as unanticipated challenges related to working with complex organizations that include multiple FWA-holding affiliates. Next Steps The authors anticipate that CIRB use will decrease NN trial start-up time and thus promote efficient trial implementation. They plan to collect data on timelines and costs associated with CIRB use. The NINDS plans to promote CIRB use in future initiatives. PMID:25406606

  9. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.24 Central processing of orders. (a) A supplier that has one or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are... order with all linked records on the central computer system. (b) A company that has central...

  10. Using Different Criteria to Diagnose (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder: How Big a Difference Does It Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Wayne J.; Arnott, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify how 9 different diagnostic criteria affected potential (central) auditory processing disorder ([C]APD) diagnoses in a large sample of children referred for (central) auditory processing ([C]AP) assessment. Method: A file review was conducted on 150 children (94 boys and 56 girls; ages 7.0-15.6 years) with normal peripheral…

  11. Using Different Criteria to Diagnose (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder: How Big a Difference Does It Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Wayne J.; Arnott, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify how 9 different diagnostic criteria affected potential (central) auditory processing disorder ([C]APD) diagnoses in a large sample of children referred for (central) auditory processing ([C]AP) assessment. Method: A file review was conducted on 150 children (94 boys and 56 girls; ages 7.0-15.6 years) with normal peripheral…

  12. Four central questions about prediction in language processing.

    PubMed

    Huettig, Falk

    2015-11-11

    The notion that prediction is a fundamental principle of human information processing has been en vogue over recent years. The investigation of language processing may be particularly illuminating for testing this claim. Linguists traditionally have argued prediction plays only a minor role during language understanding because of the vast possibilities available to the language user as each word is encountered. In the present review I consider four central questions of anticipatory language processing: Why (i.e. what is the function of prediction in language processing)? What (i.e. what are the cues used to predict up-coming linguistic information and what type of representations are predicted)? How (what mechanisms are involved in predictive language processing and what is the role of possible mediating factors such as working memory)? When (i.e. do individuals always predict up-coming input during language processing)? I propose that prediction occurs via a set of diverse PACS (production-, association-, combinatorial-, and simulation-based prediction) mechanisms which are minimally required for a comprehensive account of predictive language processing. Models of anticipatory language processing must be revised to take multiple mechanisms, mediating factors, and situational context into account. Finally, I conjecture that the evidence considered here is consistent with the notion that prediction is an important aspect but not a fundamental principle of language processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Records of Precambrian Early Palaeozoic volcanic and sedimentary processes in the Central European Variscides: A review of SHRIMP zircon data from the Kaczawa succession (Sudetes, SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryza, Ryszard; Zalasiewicz, Jan

    2008-12-01

    The early, pre-orogenic stages of evolution in the Variscan belt, i.e. rifting processes, opening of sedimentary basins and associated igneous activities, are often obscure because many successions have yielded little or no biostratigraphic data, have a strong metamorphic overprint and are tectonically deformed and dislocated. The increasing application of SHRIMP zircon dating has provided useful constraints on magmatic and metamorphic processes, helped locate probable source areas for detritus within sedimentary successions and facilitated large-scale palaeogeographic correlations. This methodology has recently thrown considerable light on the age and relationships of the previously poorly constrained rock units of the Kaczawa Complex in the Polish West Sudetes. Thus, recent SHRIMP studies in the Kaczawa Mountains have yielded Early Ordovician ages of the initial rift type bimodal volcanic suites at the bottom part of the Kaczawa Succession: c. 503 Ma for metarhyodacites of crustal derivation, and c. 485 Ma for alkaline metatrachytes of mantle signature. These dates provide a firm temporal constraint on the initial rift magmatism interpreted as related to the continental break-up of the northern peripheries of Gondwana. New SHRIMP data from metavolcaniclastic and metasedimentary rocks of the Kaczawa Complex have yielded results that have provided significantly changed interpretations on their age and relationships. For instance, a siliciclastic sequence interpreted as belonging to the lower part of the Kaczawa Complex (the Gackowa Sandstones) and seemingly sourced (using an array of geochemical and mineralogical evidence) from nearby early Ordovician volcanic rocks has, surprisingly, yielded zircon ages not younger than Precambrian and thus this unit has tentatively been reinterpreted as a possible correlative of the Neoproterozoic Lusatian Graywackes. Felsic metavolcaniclastic rocks embedded in the carbonate succession of the Wojcieszów Limestone have yielded

  14. The Software Technical Review Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    section differentiates between formal and informal sistent manner in which every developer has their reviews. These terms are ill-defined and must be...cited. SEI-CM-3-1.5 13 The Software Technical Review Process Remus79 Eng. SE-JO, 1 (Jan. 1984), 68-72. Remus, H., and S. Zilles . "Prediction and Manage...34 Fourth International Conference on Software equation in a project management system. There Engineering. Silver Spring, MD: IEEE Computer are several

  15. Lessons learned from independent central review.

    PubMed

    Ford, R; Schwartz, L; Dancey, J; Dodd, L E; Eisenhauer, E A; Gwyther, S; Rubinstein, L; Sargent, D; Shankar, L; Therasse, P; Verweij, J

    2009-01-01

    Independent central review (ICR) is advocated by regulatory authorities as a means of independent verification of clinical trial end-points dependent on medical imaging, when the data from the trials may be submitted for licensing applications [Food and Drug Administration. United States food and drug administration guidance for industry: clinical trial endpoints for the approval of cancer drugs and biologics. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2007; Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use. European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) guideline on the evaluation of anticancer medicinal products in man. London, UK: European Medicines Agency; 2006; United States Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Approval package for application number NDA 21-492 (oxaliplatin). Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2002; United States Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Approval package for application number NDA 21-923 (sorafenib tosylate). Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2005; United States Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Approval package for application number NDA 22-065 (ixabepilone). Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2007; United States Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Approval package for application number NDA 22-059 (lapatinib ditosylate). Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2007; United States Food and Drug Administration Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. Approval package for BLA numbers 97-0260 and BLA Number 97-0244 (rituximab). Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1997; United States Food and Drug Administration. FDA clinical review of BLA 98-0369 (Herceptin((R)) trastuzumab (rhuMAb HER2)). FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research

  16. Fact sheet for Applicants Intergovernmental Review Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    When submitting your application for Federal assistance, please observe the following steps pertaining to the intergovernmental review process. This is the Fact sheet for Applicants Intergovernmental Review Process.

  17. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Mutidisciplinary Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Ajit Kumar; Choudhary, Shweta; Kaur, Ravneet

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may interfere with the development of permanent dentition. Among the many malformations, dilaceration is particularly important to the clinician. Management of dilacerated maxillary central incisor requires a multidisciplinary approach. The main purpose of this review is to present the etiological factors, the mechanism, clinical features, radiographic features and treatment of dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. How to cite this article: Walia PS, Rohilla AK, Choudhary S, Kaur R. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Multidisciplinary Challenge. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):90-98. PMID:27274164

  18. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Mutidisciplinary Challenge.

    PubMed

    Walia, Pawanjit Singh; Rohilla, Ajit Kumar; Choudhary, Shweta; Kaur, Ravneet

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may interfere with the development of permanent dentition. Among the many malformations, dilaceration is particularly important to the clinician. Management of dilacerated maxillary central incisor requires a multidisciplinary approach. The main purpose of this review is to present the etiological factors, the mechanism, clinical features, radiographic features and treatment of dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. How to cite this article: Walia PS, Rohilla AK, Choudhary S, Kaur R. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Multidisciplinary Challenge. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):90-98.

  19. Central nervous system manifestations of neonatal lupus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Lin, K-L; Chen, C-L; Wong, A May-Kuen; Huang, J-L

    2013-12-01

    Neonatal lupus is a rare and acquired autoimmune disease. Central nervous system abnormalities are potential manifestations in neonatal lupus. Through a systematic literature review, we analyzed the clinical features of previously reported neonatal lupus cases where central nervous system abnormalities had been identified. Most reported neonatal lupus patients with central nervous system involvement were neuroimaging-determined and asymptomatic. Only seven neonatal lupus cases were identified as having a symptomatic central nervous system abnormality which caused physical disability or required neurosurgery. A high percentage of these neurosymptomatic neonatal lupus patients had experienced a transient cutaneous skin rash and had no maternal history of autoimmune disease before pregnancy.

  20. (Central) auditory processing disorders in individuals with and without dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Simões, Mariana Buncana; Schochat, Eliane

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of (central) auditory processing disorders in children with and without dyslexia. To compare the (central) auditory processing disorders in Brazilian children with and without dyslexia using speech in noise, dichotic digits and pattern of frequency tests. Forty-five children with ages ranging between 7:0 and 12:11 years were assessed; twenty children composed the dyslexic group and twenty composed the (Central) auditory processing disorder group. The tests used involved closing aural, auditory figure-ground and temporal ordering abilities. Individuals of the (Central) auditory processing disorder group presented a higher alteration probability in the speech in noise and dichotic digits tests than those from the dyslexic group. Subjects from the dyslexic group presented different patterns of (central) auditory processing disorder, with greater alteration in the tests that evaluate the temporal processing when compared to the tests that evaluate other auditory abilities.

  1. The Interaction between Central and Peripheral Processes in Handwriting Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, Sebastien; McKeeff, Thomas J.; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Afonso, Olivia; Kandel, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Written production studies investigating central processing have ignored research on the peripheral components of movement execution, and vice versa. This study attempts to integrate both approaches and provide evidence that central and peripheral processes interact during word production. French participants wrote regular words (e.g. FORME),…

  2. Impact of centrality on cooperative processes.

    PubMed

    Reia, Sandro M; Herrmann, Sebastian; Fontanari, José F

    2017-02-01

    The solution of today's complex problems requires the grouping of task forces whose members are usually connected remotely over long physical distances and different time zones. Hence, understanding the effects of imposed communication patterns (i.e., who can communicate with whom) on group performance is important. Here we use an agent-based model to explore the influence of the betweenness centrality of the nodes on the time the group requires to find the global maxima of NK-fitness landscapes. The agents cooperate by broadcasting messages, informing on their fitness to their neighbors, and use this information to copy the more successful agents in their neighborhood. We find that for easy tasks (smooth landscapes), the topology of the communication network has no effect on the performance of the group, and that the more central nodes are the most likely to find the global maximum first. For difficult tasks (rugged landscapes), however, we find a positive correlation between the variance of the betweenness among the network nodes and the group performance. For these tasks, the performances of individual nodes are strongly influenced by the agents' dispositions to cooperate and by the particular realizations of the rugged landscapes.

  3. Impact of centrality on cooperative processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reia, Sandro M.; Herrmann, Sebastian; Fontanari, José F.

    2017-02-01

    The solution of today's complex problems requires the grouping of task forces whose members are usually connected remotely over long physical distances and different time zones. Hence, understanding the effects of imposed communication patterns (i.e., who can communicate with whom) on group performance is important. Here we use an agent-based model to explore the influence of the betweenness centrality of the nodes on the time the group requires to find the global maxima of NK-fitness landscapes. The agents cooperate by broadcasting messages, informing on their fitness to their neighbors, and use this information to copy the more successful agents in their neighborhood. We find that for easy tasks (smooth landscapes), the topology of the communication network has no effect on the performance of the group, and that the more central nodes are the most likely to find the global maximum first. For difficult tasks (rugged landscapes), however, we find a positive correlation between the variance of the betweenness among the network nodes and the group performance. For these tasks, the performances of individual nodes are strongly influenced by the agents' dispositions to cooperate and by the particular realizations of the rugged landscapes.

  4. Clinical relevance of central blood pressure - a critical review.

    PubMed

    Kostapanos, Michael; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B

    2016-11-01

    Vital organs are exposed to the central rather than the brachial blood pressure. To date, central blood pressure can be assessed noninvasively through the use of several devices. In this review, we critically discuss the clinical relevance of central blood pressure assessment. Considerable evidence suggests that central blood pressure is a better predictor of end-organ damage than brachial blood pressure. However, there is still uncertainty concerning the value of central pressure for predicting cardiovascular outcomes, as the existing studies are underpowered to address this issue. A full synthesis of the available data is needed in this regard. Among the different antihypertensive drug classes, beta-blockers appear to lower central blood pressure less than brachial blood pressure. This difference may, at least in part, explain the reduced efficacy of beta-blockers in the prevention of cardiovascular outcomes compared with the other antihypertensive drug classes, which may lower central and brachial blood pressure to a similar extent. Nevertheless, this differential effect might not be relevant to the newer beta-blockers with vasodilating properties, including nebivolol, celliprolol and carvedilol. However, whether a preferential reduction of central blood pressure results in better outcomes should be further assessed by appropriately powered clinical trials. Other emerging challenges include the assessment of the potential predictive value of central blood pressure variability and the development of new antihypertensive medications based on central blood pressure rather than brachial blood pressure.

  5. Field Review of Fish Habitat Improvement Projects in Central Idaho.

    SciTech Connect

    Beschta, Robert L.; Griffith, Jack; Wesche, Thomas A.

    1993-05-01

    The goal of this field review was to provide information to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) regarding previous and ongoing fish habitat improvement projects in central Idaho. On July 14, 1992, the review team met at the Sawtooth National Recreation Area office near Ketchum, Idaho, for a slide presentation illustrating several habitat projects during their construction phases. Following the slide presentation, the review team inspected fish habitat projects that have been implemented in the last several years in the Stanley Basin and adjacent valleys. At each site the habitat project was described to the field team and a brief period for project inspection followed. The review team visited approximately a dozen sites on the Challis, Sawtooth, and Boise National Forests over a period of approximately two and a half days. There are two objectives of this review namely to summarize observations for specific field sites and to provide overview commentary regarding the BPA habitat improvement program in central Idaho.

  6. "Terminological" Processes in North-Central Romani

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubschmannova, M.; Neustupny, J. V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper applies the management model of language to Romani in the Czech Republic, showing how intellectualisation processes in discourse lead to the solution of problems associated with the creation of functional dialects or Languages for Special Purposes (LSP). These problems include, but are not limited to, the building-up of terminologies.…

  7. Mountain building processes in the Central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, A. L.; Isacks, B. L.

    1986-01-01

    False color composite images of the Thematic Mapper (TM) bands 5, 4, and 2 were examined to make visual interpretations of geological features. The use of the roam mode of image display with the International Imaging Systems (IIS) System 600 image processing package running on the IIS Model 75 was very useful. Several areas in which good comparisons with ground data existed, were examined in detail. Parallel to the visual approach, image processing methods are being developed which allow the complete use of the seven TM bands. The data was organized into easily accessible files and a visual cataloging of the quads (quarter TM scenes) with preliminary registration with the best available charts for the region. The catalog has proved to be a valuable tool for the rapid scanning of quads for a specific investigation. Integration of the data into a complete approach to the problems of uplift, deformation, and magnetism in relation to the Nazca-South American plate interaction is at an initial stage.

  8. Peer review and the publication process.

    PubMed

    Ali, Parveen Azam; Watson, Roger

    2016-10-01

    To provide an overview of the peer review process, its various types, selection of peer reviewers, the purpose and significance of the peer review with regard to the assessment and management of quality of publications in academic journals. Discussion paper. This paper draws on information gained from literature on the peer review process and the authors' knowledge and experience of contributing as peer reviewers and editors in the field of health care, including nursing. There are various types of peer review: single blind; double blind; open; and post-publication review. The role of the reviewers in reviewing manuscripts and their contribution to the scientific and academic community remains important.

  9. Statistical challenges for central monitoring in clinical trials: a review.

    PubMed

    Oba, Koji

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the complexity and costs of clinical trials have increased dramatically, especially in the area of new drug development. Risk-based monitoring (RBM) has been attracting attention as an efficient and effective trial monitoring approach, which can be applied irrespectively of the trial sponsor, i.e., academic institution or pharmaceutical company. In the RBM paradigm, it is expected that a statistical approach to central monitoring can help improve the effectiveness of on-site monitoring by prioritizing and guiding site visits according to central statistical data checks, as evidenced by examples of actual trial datasets. In this review, several statistical methods for central monitoring are presented. It is important to share knowledge about the role and performance capabilities of statistical methodology among clinical trial team members (i.e., sponsors, investigators, data managers, monitors, and biostatisticians) in order to adopt central statistical monitoring for assessing data quality in the actual clinical trial.

  10. Operating The Central Process Systems At Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, Carly P.

    2004-01-01

    As a research facility, the Glenn Research Center (GRC) trusts and expects all the systems, controlling their facilities to run properly and efficiently in order for their research and operations to occur proficiently and on time. While there are many systems necessary for the operations at GRC, one of those most vital systems is the Central Process Systems (CPS). The CPS controls operations used by GRC's wind tunnels, propulsion systems lab, engine components research lab, and compressor, turbine and combustor test cells. Used widely throughout the lab, it operates equipment such as exhausters, chillers, cooling towers, compressors, dehydrators, and other such equipment. Through parameters such as pressure, temperature, speed, flow, etc., it performs its primary operations on the major systems of Electrical Dispatch (ED), Central Air Dispatch (CAD), Central Air Equipment Building (CAEB), and Engine Research Building (ERB). In order for the CPS to continue its operations at Glenn, a new contract must be awarded. Consequently, one of my primary responsibilities was assisting the Source Evaluation Board (SEB) with the process of awarding the recertification contract of the CPS. The job of the SEB was to evaluate the proposals of the contract bidders and then to present their findings to the Source Selecting Official (SSO). Before the evaluations began, the Center Director established the level of the competition. For this contract, the competition was limited to those companies classified as a small, disadvantaged business. After an industry briefing that explained to qualified companies the CPS and type of work required, each of the interested companies then submitted proposals addressing three components: Mission Suitability, Cost, and Past Performance. These proposals were based off the Statement of Work (SOW) written by the SEB. After companies submitted their proposals, the SEB reviewed all three components and then presented their results to the SSO. While the

  11. Demystifying the peer-review process - workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific writing and peer-review are integral parts of the publishing process. This workshop aims to demystify the peer-review process for early career scientists and provide insightful tips for streamlining the submission and peer review process for all researchers. Providing ...

  12. Demystifying the peer-review process - workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific writing and peer-review are integral parts of the publishing process. This workshop aims to demystify the peer-review process for early career scientists and provide insightful tips for streamlining the submission and peer review process for all researchers. Providing ...

  13. Thiophene Scaffold as Prospective Central Nervous System Agent: A Review.

    PubMed

    Deep, Aakash; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Aggarwal, Swati; Kaushik, Dhirender; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Heterocyclic compounds are extensively dispersed in nature and are vital for life. Various investigational approaches towards Structural Activity Relationship that focus upon the exploration of optimized candidates have become vastly important. Literature studies tell that for a series of compounds that are imperative in industrial and medicinal chemistry, thiophene acts as parent. Among various classes of heterocyclic compounds that have potential central nervous system activity, thiophene is the most important one. In the largely escalating chemical world of heterocyclic compounds showing potential pharmacological character, thiophene nucleus has been recognized as the budding entity. Seventeen Papers were included in this review article to define the central nervous system potential of thiophene. This review article enlightens the rationalized use and scope of thiophene scaffold as novel central nervous system activity such as anticonvulsant, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5/p25) inhibitors, CNS depressant, capability to block norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine reuptake by their respective transporters etc. The Finding of this review confirm the importance of thiophene scaffold as potential central nervous system agents. From this outcome, ideas for future molecular modifications leading to the novel derivatives with better constructive pharmacological potential may be derived.

  14. Central sensitization in chronic low back pain: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Sanzarello, Ilaria; Merlini, Luciano; Rosa, Michele Attilio; Perrone, Mariada; Frugiuele, Jacopo; Borghi, Raffaele; Faldini, Cesare

    2016-11-21

    Low back pain is one of the four most common disorders in all regions, and the greatest contributor to disability worldwide, adding 10.7% of total years lost due to this health state. The etiology of chronic low back pain is, in most of the cases (up to 85%), unknown or nonspecific, while the specific causes (specific spinal pathology and neuropathic/radicular disorders) are uncommon. Central sensitization has been recently recognized as a potential pathophysiological mechanism underlying a group of chronic pain conditions, and may be a contributory factor for a sub-group of patients with chronic low back pain. The purposes of this narrative review are twofold. First, to describe central sensitization and its symptoms and signs in patients with chronic pain disorders in order to allow its recognition in patients with nonspecific low back pain. Second, to provide general treatment principles of chronic low back pain with particular emphasis on pharmacotherapy targeting central sensitization.

  15. Abdominal migraine reviewed from both central and peripheral aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Wang, Zhong I; Haginoya, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Despite the 2%-5% prevalence of abdominal migraine (AM) during childhood, the precise mechanism remains unknown. In this review, we present recent studies on AM and speculate its mechanism from both peripheral and central nervous system aspects. Although the main symptoms of AM exist at the peripheral level, previous studies have reported possible dysfunction of central nervous system, including photophobia, phonophobia and abnormal visual evoked responses. Recently, a case has been reported with AM combined with “Alice in Wonderland” syndrome with visual and/or bodily distortions, which serves as another piece of evidence of central dysfunction. Another case reported an AM patient having peculiar stereotypical ecchymosis in the legs and buttocks associated with pain attack, which implied possible involvement of peripheral nervous system. Although further investigations and accumulation of AM cases are still needed, we believe that the schema hypothesized here is helpful to plan further experimental approach to clarify the mechanism of this peculiar disease. PMID:24520537

  16. Abdominal migraine reviewed from both central and peripheral aspects.

    PubMed

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Wang, Zhong I; Haginoya, Kazuhiro

    2012-08-20

    Despite the 2%-5% prevalence of abdominal migraine (AM) during childhood, the precise mechanism remains unknown. In this review, we present recent studies on AM and speculate its mechanism from both peripheral and central nervous system aspects. Although the main symptoms of AM exist at the peripheral level, previous studies have reported possible dysfunction of central nervous system, including photophobia, phonophobia and abnormal visual evoked responses. Recently, a case has been reported with AM combined with "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome with visual and/or bodily distortions, which serves as another piece of evidence of central dysfunction. Another case reported an AM patient having peculiar stereotypical ecchymosis in the legs and buttocks associated with pain attack, which implied possible involvement of peripheral nervous system. Although further investigations and accumulation of AM cases are still needed, we believe that the schema hypothesized here is helpful to plan further experimental approach to clarify the mechanism of this peculiar disease.

  17. 10 CFR 1017.15 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review process. 1017.15 Section 1017.15 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Review of a Document or Material for Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.15 Review... document outside of his or her organization for the review, he or she must mark the front of the...

  18. [Central blockades in Pediatrics: A review of current literature].

    PubMed

    Eizaga Rebollar, R; García Palacios, M V; Morales Guerrero, J; Torres Morera, L M

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric neuraxial anesthesia is an effective tool that can be used as a supplement or alternative to general anesthesia. However, there have always been doubts about its usefulness and risk-benefit ratio. The purpose of this review is to describe the current role of central blockades in pediatric patients, upgrade practical and safety aspects, and review the latest technological advances applied to this procedure. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Systematic Review of Central Post Stroke Pain: What Is Happening in the Central Nervous System?

    PubMed

    Akyuz, Gulseren; Kuru, Pinar

    2016-08-01

    Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is one of the most common central neuropathic pain syndromes seen after stroke. It is mainly related with vascular damage at certain brain territory and pain related to corresponding body areas. In the past, it was described as one of the definitive symptoms of thalamic lesion. However, recent findings suggest that it is not only seen after thalamic lesions but also seen after vascular lesions in any part of the central nervous system. Although there are certain hypotheses to explain physiopathologic mechanisms of CPSP, further evidence is needed. The majority of the cases are intractable and unresponsive to analgesic treatment. Electrical stimulation such as deep brain stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation seems to be effective in certain cases. In this systematic review, recent advancements related to CPSP mechanisms have been evaluated. Further investigations are needed in order to reveal the mystery of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of CPSP.

  20. Time-course analysis of temporal preparation on central processes.

    PubMed

    Leonhard, Tanja; Bratzke, Daniel; Schröter, Hannes; Ulrich, Rolf

    2012-03-01

    Participants usually respond faster to a response signal (RS) when this signal is preceded by a warning stimulus than when it is not. A question of theoretical importance is the locus of this facilitating effect within the information processing stream. Recently, Los and Schut (Cogn Psychol 57:20-55, 2008) suggested that temporal preparation acts on central processes while perception of the RS is under way. The present study provides a stochastic model (central preparation model, CPM) based on this hypothesis and presents three experiments testing this model. To track the complete time-course of temporal preparation, the warning signal could either precede or follow the RS. The data show some systematic deviation from the model's predictions, questioning CPM's assumption that temporal preparation acts only on central processes. An alternative mechanism of temporal preparation based on the parallel grains model [Miller and Ulrich (Cogn Psychol 46:101-151, 2003)] is discussed.

  1. Overview of NRC review process

    SciTech Connect

    Tokar, M.; Kane, J.D.

    1989-11-01

    This paper describes the NRC staff`s review of the Prototype License Application Safety Analysis Report (PLASAR) for an Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunker low-level waste disposal facility. Described are the objectives of the review, the resources (e.g., background guidance documents and staff technical disciplines) used, and the products produced. Evaluation conclusions are summarized.

  2. Can Children with (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders Ignore Irrelevant Sounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Emily M.; Bhagat, Shaum P.; Lynn, Sharon D.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of irrelevant sounds on the serial recall performance of visually presented digits in a sample of children diagnosed with (central) auditory processing disorders [(C)APD] and age- and span-matched control groups. The irrelevant sounds used were samples of tones and speech. Memory performance was significantly…

  3. Can Children with (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders Ignore Irrelevant Sounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Emily M.; Bhagat, Shaum P.; Lynn, Sharon D.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of irrelevant sounds on the serial recall performance of visually presented digits in a sample of children diagnosed with (central) auditory processing disorders [(C)APD] and age- and span-matched control groups. The irrelevant sounds used were samples of tones and speech. Memory performance was significantly…

  4. Living and Working with a Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, Judith W.

    This paper describes adult symptoms of Central Auditory Processing Disorder and provides strategies for dealing with this disability. Symptoms include talking or turning on the television louder than normal, interpreting words too literally, needing remarks repeated, having difficulty sounding out words, ignoring people, being unusually sensitive…

  5. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

  6. Central auditory processing in elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Tomader Taha Abdel; Mohamed, Somaia Tawfeek; Albanouby, Mohamed Hasan; Bekhet, Hanaa Farag

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess if central auditory processing affected patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or not and to assess sensitivity and specificity of central auditory processing tests in detection of MCI. This was a case-control study conducted at the Geriatrics Department and Audiology Unit, Ain Shams University Hospital. Participants were 150 elderly diagnosed as MCI compared with 150 normal subjects, based on a neuropsychological diagnostic test battery, the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), and who were matched for age, sex and average threshold of hearing. Both cases and control groups were subjected to otological examination, immittancemetry, pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and central auditory processing assessment by the use of a selective auditory attention test, dichotic digits test, auditory fusion test, pitch pattern sequences test and auditory memory battery of Goldman-Fristoe-Woodcock. The MCI group scored significantly lower than the control group in central auditory processing tests (P < 0.05). Sensitivity of dichotic digit test, pitch pattern sequence test and recognition memory test were 76.6%, 71.7% and 70.4%, respectively, while specificity were 56.2%, 81.2% and 92.2%, respectively. When the previous three tests were used together the sensitivity and specificity were 82.8% and 93.2%, respectively. Central auditory processing was affected in MCI patients. The dichotic digit test, pitch pattern sequence test and recognition memory test can be used in detection of MCI with high sensitivity and specificity. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Dilaceration of maxillary central incisor: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Topouzelis, Nikolaos; Tsaousoglou, Phoebus; Pisoka, Vasiliki; Zouloumis, Lampros

    2010-10-01

    The main purpose of this review is to present the aetiological factors and the mechanism that cause dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. In early developmental stages, the permanent tooth germ of the maxillary incisor is situated palatally and superiorly to the apex of the primary incisor and gradually changes direction in a labial direction with its crown coming closer to the resorbing primary root. For reasons of this close relationship between the permanent tooth germ and the apex of the primary incisor, it is believed that an acute trauma to the primary predecessor can cause dilaceration of the long axis of the permanent successor. Clinically, dilaceration can be revealed by palpation high in the labial sulcus or in the hard palate, while its radiographic view is characteristic. The therapeutic approach to the dilacerated maxillary central incisors has to be carefully planned and needs the cooperation of several specialities to attain the final objective. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Negative ion formation processes: A general review

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    The principal negative ion formation processes will be briefly reviewed. Primary emphasis will be placed on the more efficient and universal processes of charge transfer and secondary ion formation through non-thermodynamic surface ionization. 86 refs., 20 figs.

  9. Understanding the Federal Proposal Review Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavin, Janis I.

    Information on the peer review process for the evaluation of federal grant proposals is presented to help college grants administrators and faculty develop good proposals. This guidebook provides an overview of the policies and conventions that govern the review and selection of proposals for funding, and details the review procedures of the…

  10. Dynamic Quantitative Sensory Testing to Characterize Central Pain Processing

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Ian G.; Dixon, Eric A.; Johnson, Kevin; Kong, Jiang-Ti

    2017-01-01

    Central facilitation and modulation of incoming nociceptive signals play an important role in the perception of pain. Disruption in central pain processing is present in many chronic pain conditions and can influence responses to specific therapies. Thus, the ability to precisely describe the state of central pain processing has profound clinical significance in both prognosis and prediction. Because it is not practical to record neuronal firings directly in the human spinal cord, surrogate behavior tests become an important tool to assess the state of central pain processing. Dynamic QST is one such test, and can probe both the ascending facilitation and descending modulation of incoming nociceptive signals via TS and CPM, respectively. Due to the large between-individual variability in the sensitivity to noxious signals, standardized TS and CPM tests may not yield any meaningful data in up to 50% of the population due to floor or ceiling effects. We present methodologies to individualize TS and CPM so we can capture these measures in a broader range of individuals than previously possible. We have used these methods successfully in several studies at the lab, and data from one ongoing study will be presented to demonstrate feasibility and potential applications of the methods. PMID:28287532

  11. Understanding scoping reviews: Definition, purpose, and process.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jessica; Pearce, Patricia F; Ferguson, Laurie Anne; Langford, Cynthia A

    2017-01-01

    Scoping review design represents a methodology that allows assessment of emerging evidence, as well as a first step in research development. Despite its increasing use, to date no article reflecting use of scoping review methodology has been submitted for review at JAANP. The purpose of this article is to provide detailed information on scoping reviews, including definition, related processes, and uses, and discuss the relationship to nurse practitioner (NP) practice, policy, education, and research. The longer-term goal is that NPs will understand the related techniques, consider the methodology as a viable one for NP scholarship, and bring related reports to the forefront of NP publications. This manuscript represents a brief report. Processes to develop the brief include detailed search and review of scoping review literature in CINAHL and PubMed. Both methodologic reports and reviews were included. Definitions and uses of scoping reviews were reviewed. The definition and process of scoping review are evolving. Although there is controversy regarding the methodology, there is increasing visibility of scoping review methodology in the published literature since the year 2000, with over 500 published reviews currently available. A well-executed scoping review has potential to inform NP practice, policy, education, and research. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. Clinical psychoacoustics in Alzheimer's disease central auditory processing disorders and speech deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Iliadou, Vassiliki; Kaprinis, Stergios

    2003-01-01

    Background Difficulty in speech understanding in the presence of background noise or competing auditory signals is typically present in central auditory processing disorders. These disorders may be diagnosed in Alzheimer's disease as a result of degeneration in the central auditory system. In addition perception and processing of speech may be affected. Material and Methods A MEDLINE research was conducted in order to answer the question whether there is a central auditory processing disorder involved in Alzheimer's disease. A second question to be investigated was what, if any is the connection, between central auditory processing disorders and speech deterioration? Articles were retrieved from the Medline to find relevance of Alzheimer's dis ease with central auditory processing disorders, they summed up to 34. Twelve papers were studied that contained testing for CAPD through psychoacoustic investigation. An additional search using the keywords 'speech production' and 'AD' produced a result of 33 articles, of them 14 are thoroughly discussed in this review as they have references concerning CAPD. The rest do not contain any relavent information on the central auditory system. Results Psychoacoustic tests reveal significantly lower scores in patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with normal subjects. Tests concerning sound localization and perception of tones as well as phoneme discrimination and tonal memory reveal deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Central auditory processing disorders may exist several years before the onset of clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Segmental characteristics of speech are normal. Deficits exist concerning the supra-segmental components of speech. Conclusions Central auditory processing disorders have been found in many cases when patients with Alzheimer's disease are tested. They may present as an early manifestation of Alzheimer's disease, preceding the disease by a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 10 years. During these

  13. Medical journal peer review: process and bias.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Scientific peer review is pivotal in health care research in that it facilitates the evaluation of findings for competence, significance, and originality by qualified experts. While the origins of peer review can be traced to the societies of the eighteenth century, it became an institutionalized part of the scholarly process in the latter half of the twentieth century. This was a response to the growth of research and greater subject specialization. With the current increase in the number of specialty journals, the peer review process continues to evolve to meet the needs of patients, clinicians, and policy makers. The peer review process itself faces challenges. Unblinded peer review might suffer from positive or negative bias towards certain authors, specialties, and institutions. Peer review can also suffer when editors and/or reviewers might be unable to understand the contents of the submitted manuscript. This can result in an inability to detect major flaws, or revelations of major flaws after acceptance of publication by the editors. Other concerns include potentially long delays in publication and challenges uncovering plagiarism, duplication, corruption and scientific misconduct. Conversely, a multitude of these challenges have led to claims of scientific misconduct and an erosion of faith. These challenges have invited criticism of the peer review process itself. However, despite its imperfections, the peer review process enjoys widespread support in the scientific community. Peer review bias is one of the major focuses of today's scientific assessment of the literature. Various types of peer review bias include content-based bias, confirmation bias, bias due to conservatism, bias against interdisciplinary research, publication bias, and the bias of conflicts of interest. Consequently, peer review would benefit from various changes and improvements with appropriate training of reviewers to provide quality reviews to maintain the quality and integrity of

  14. Central auditory processing and migraine: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to verify and compare central auditory processing (CAP) performance in migraine with and without aura patients and healthy controls. Methods Forty-one volunteers of both genders, aged between 18 and 40 years, diagnosed with migraine with and without aura by the criteria of “The International Classification of Headache Disorders” (ICDH-3 beta) and a control group of the same age range and with no headache history, were included. Gaps-in-noise (GIN), Duration Pattern test (DPT) and Dichotic Digits Test (DDT) tests were used to assess central auditory processing performance. Results The volunteers were divided into 3 groups: Migraine with aura (11), migraine without aura (15), and control group (15), matched by age and schooling. Subjects with aura and without aura performed significantly worse in GIN test for right ear (p = .006), for left ear (p = .005) and for DPT test (p < .001) when compared with controls without headache, however no significant differences were found in the DDT test for the right ear (p = .362) and for the left ear (p = .190). Conclusions Subjects with migraine performed worsened in auditory gap detection, in the discrimination of short and long duration. They also presented impairment in the physiological mechanism of temporal processing, especially in temporal resolution and temporal ordering when compared with controls. Migraine could be related to an impaired central auditory processing. Clinical trial registration Research Ethics Committee (CEP 0480.10) – UNIFESP PMID:25380661

  15. Central pain processing in osteoarthritis: implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hafiz; Walsh, David A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of pain and is characterized by loss of articular cartilage integrity, synovitis and remodeling of subchondral bone. However, OA pain mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Pain severity does not always correlate with the extent of joint damage. Furthermore, many people with OA continue to experience pain despite optimal use of standard therapies that target the joints, including joint-replacement surgery. There is compelling evidence that altered central pain processing plays an important role in maintaining pain and increasing pain severity in some people with OA. A key challenge is to identify this subgroup of patients with abnormal central pain processing in order to improve their clinical outcomes by developing and targeting specific analgesic treatments.

  16. Central Diffractive Processes at the Tevatron, RHIC and LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Stirling, W. J.; Khoze, V. A.; Ryskin, M. G.

    2011-07-15

    Central exclusive production (CEP) processes in high-energy hadron collisions offer a very promising framework for studying both novel aspects of QCD and new physics signals. We report on the results of a theoretical study of the CEP of heavy quarkonia ({chi} and {eta}) at the Tevatron, RHIC and LHC (see for details [1]-[3]). These processes provide important information on the physics of bound states and can probe the current ideas and methods of QCD, such as effective field theories and lattice QCD.

  17. Central pain processing is altered in people with Achilles tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Tompra, Nefeli; van Dieën, Jaap H; Coppieters, Michel W

    2016-08-01

    Tendinopathy is often a chronic condition. The mechanisms behind persistent tendon pain are not yet fully understood. It is unknown whether, similar to other persistent pain states, central pain mechanisms contribute to ongoing tendon pain. We investigated the presence of altered central pain processing in Achilles tendinopathy by assessing the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) effect in people with and without Achilles tendinopathy. 20 people with Achilles tendinopathy and 23 healthy volunteers participated in this cross-sectional study. CPM was assessed by the cold pressor test. The pressure pain threshold (PPT) was recorded over the Achilles tendon before and during immersion of the participant's hand into cold water. The CPM effect was quantified as the absolute difference in PPT before and during the cold pressor test. An increase in PPT was observed in the Achilles tendinopathy and control group during the cold pressor test (p<0.001). However, the CPM effect was stronger in the control group (mean difference=160.5 kPa, SD=84.9 kPa) compared to the Achilles tendinopathy group (mean difference=36.4 kPa, SD=68.1 kPa; p<0.001). We report a reduced conditioned pain modulation effect in people with Achilles tendinopathy compared to people without Achilles tendinopathy. A reduced conditioned pain modulation effect reflects altered central pain processing which is believed to contribute to the persistence of pain in other conditions. Altered central pain processing may also be an important factor in persistent tendon pain that has traditionally been regarded to be dominated by peripheral mechanisms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Process control strategy for ITER central solenoid operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, R.; Takami, S.; Iwamoto, A.; Chang, H.-S.; Forgeas, A.; Chalifour, M.

    2016-12-01

    ITER Central Solenoid (CS) pulse operation induces significant flow disturbance in the forced-flow Supercritical Helium (SHe) cooling circuit, which could impact primarily on the operation of cold circulator (SHe centrifugal pump) in Auxiliary Cold Box (ACB). Numerical studies using Venecia®, SUPERMAGNET and 4C have identified reverse flow at the CS module inlet due to the substantial thermal energy deposition at the inner-most winding. To assess the reliable operation of ACB-CS (dedicated ACB for CS), the process analyses have been conducted with a dynamic process simulation model developed by Cryogenic Process REal-time SimulaTor (C-PREST). As implementing process control of hydrodynamic instability, several strategies have been applied to evaluate their feasibility. The paper discusses control strategy to protect the centrifugal type cold circulator/compressor operations and its impact on the CS cooling.

  19. Environmental Restoration Project, Peer Review Process Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    are risk based, technically sound, and cost effective, the Air Force instituted a peer review program in 1992. The objective of this research is to...describe and analyze the peer review process. Through triangulation of data from interviews, observations, official and academic documents, and surveys...characteristics. A questionnaire was used to gather perceptions of peer review effectiveness--the criterion variable--and of the seven constructs. A total of 141

  20. Central auditory processing in aging: the dichotic listening paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hommet, C; Mondon, K; Berrut, G; Gouyer, Y; Isingrini, M; Constans, T; Belzung, C

    2010-11-01

    Aging is associated with cognitive changing. Central auditory processing dysfunction may explain some understanding difficulties in elderly. It may be evaluated with the dichotic listening (DL) test, a widely-used experimental paradigm for studying inter-hemispheric interactions and attentional processes. This study examines central auditory language processing with a dichotic listening task in right-handed old subjects according to their age. Cross sectional-study. memory clinic and geriatric unit. Adult group (Ad) consisted in 26 subjects (21 women and 5 men) aged 50-69 years and an old adults group (Old-Ad) consisted in 20 subjects (19 women and 1 man) aged 70 to 89 years. DL consisted in a free-recall word task and a digit forced-attention task (forced-right: FR and forced-left: FL) in order to study central auditory language processing. In addition, we used neuropsychological tests to study executive functions and cognitive control, sustained by the prefrontal cortex. In the free recall condition, we confirmed the classic right ear advantage (REA) in both groups, particularly in older subjects. In the forced condition, we observed an ear advantage with a change in ear asymmetry as a consequence of instruction: REA in FR and a left-ear advantage (LEA) in FL. We compared contaminations by the contra-lateral inattentive ear: reports of the left ear (LE) in the FR condition and reports of the right ear (RE) in the FL condition. Contaminations by the RE in the FL condition were more pronounced in Old-Ad suggesting difficulties in competition between the natural tendency for the RE and the instruction. In the Old-Ad group, the correlation between the RE score in FL and TMT B-A/A suggests an impairment in mental flexibility. DL may be helpful to study central auditory dysfunction in aging. Our results suggest difficulties in attentional control and executive functions. Central auditory dysfunction should be evaluated in elderly because it potentially contributes to

  1. Enterovirus Infections of the Central Nervous System Review

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Ross E.; Tabor-Godwin, Jenna M.; Tsueng, Ginger; Feuer, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) frequently infect the central nervous system (CNS) and induce neurological diseases. Although the CNS is composed of many different cell types, the spectrum of tropism for each EV is considerable. These viruses have the ability to completely shut down host translational machinery and are considered highly cytolytic, thereby causing cytopathic effects. Hence, CNS dysfunction following EV infection of neuronal or glial cells might be expected. Perhaps unexpectedly given their cytolytic nature, EVs may establish a persistent infection within the CNS, and the lasting effects on the host might be significant with unanticipated consequences. This review will describe the clinical aspects of EV-mediated disease, mechanisms of disease, determinants of tropism, immune activation within the CNS, and potential treatment regimes. PMID:21251690

  2. Review of image processing fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingsley, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    Image processing through convolution, transform coding, spatial frequency alterations, sampling, and interpolation are considered. It is postulated that convolution in one domain (real or frequency) is equivalent to multiplication in the other (frequency or real), and that the relative amplitudes of the Fourier components must be retained to reproduce any waveshape. It is suggested that all digital systems may be considered equivalent, with a frequency content approximately at the Nyquist limit, and with a Gaussian frequency response. An optimized cubic version of the interpolation continuum image is derived as a set of cubic spines. Pixel replication has been employed to enlarge the visable area of digital samples, however, suitable elimination of the extraneous high frequencies involved in the visable edges, by defocusing, is necessary to allow the underlying object represented by the data values to be seen.

  3. A review of definitions of the Himalayan Main Central Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Aaron J.

    2016-11-01

    Most workers regard the Main Central Thrust (MCT) as one of the key high strain zones in the Himalaya because it accommodated at least 90 km of shortening, because that shortening exhumed and buried hanging wall and footwall rocks, and due to geometric and kinematic connections between the Main Central Thrust and the structurally overlying South Tibet Detachment. Geologists currently employ three unrelated definitions of the MCT: metamorphic-rheological, age of motion-structural, or protolith boundary-structural. These disparate definitions generate map and cross-section MCT positions that vary by up to 5 km of structural distance. The lack of consensus and consequent shifting locations impede advances in our understanding of the tectonic development of the orogen. Here, I review pros and cons of the three MCT definitions in current use. None of these definitions is flawless. The metamorphic-rheological and age of motion-structural definitions routinely fail throughout the orogen, whereas the protolith boundary-structural definition may fail only in rare cases, all limited to sectors of the eastern Himalaya. Accordingly, a definition based on high strain zone geometry and kinematics combined with identification of a protolith boundary is the best working definition of the MCT.

  4. A review of definitions of the Himalayan Main Central Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Aaron J.

    2017-09-01

    Most workers regard the Main Central Thrust (MCT) as one of the key high strain zones in the Himalaya because it accommodated at least 90 km of shortening, because that shortening exhumed and buried hanging wall and footwall rocks, and due to geometric and kinematic connections between the Main Central Thrust and the structurally overlying South Tibet Detachment. Geologists currently employ three unrelated definitions of the MCT: metamorphic-rheological, age of motion-structural, or protolith boundary-structural. These disparate definitions generate map and cross-section MCT positions that vary by up to 5 km of structural distance. The lack of consensus and consequent shifting locations impede advances in our understanding of the tectonic development of the orogen. Here, I review pros and cons of the three MCT definitions in current use. None of these definitions is flawless. The metamorphic-rheological and age of motion-structural definitions routinely fail throughout the orogen, whereas the protolith boundary-structural definition may fail only in rare cases, all limited to sectors of the eastern Himalaya. Accordingly, a definition based on high strain zone geometry and kinematics combined with identification of a protolith boundary is the best working definition of the MCT.

  5. Noncongenital central nervous system infections in children: radiology review.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Jorge Humberto Davila; Rantes, Claudia Isabel Lazarte; Arbelaez, Andres; Restrepo, Feliza; Castillo, Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are a very common worldwide health problem in childhood with significant morbidity and mortality. In children, viruses are the most common cause of CNS infections, followed by bacterial etiology, and less frequent due to mycosis and other causes. Noncomplicated meningitis is easier to recognize clinically; however, complications of meningitis such as abscesses, infarcts, venous thrombosis, or extra-axial empyemas are difficult to recognize clinically, and imaging plays a very important role on this setting. In addition, it is important to keep in mind that infectious process adjacent to the CNS such as mastoiditis can develop by contiguity in an infectious process within the CNS. We display the most common causes of meningitis and their complications.

  6. Prediction of Central Burst Defects in Copper Wire Drawing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, G.; Haddi, A.; Imad, A.

    2011-01-17

    In this study, the prediction of chevron cracks (central bursts) in copper wire drawing process is investigated using experimental and numerical approaches. The conditions of the chevron cracks creation along the wire axis depend on (i) the die angle, the friction coefficient between the die and the wire, (ii) the reduction in crosssectional area of the wire, (iii) the material properties and (iv) the drawing velocity or strain rate. Under various drawing conditions, a numerical simulation for the prediction of central burst defects is presented using an axisymmetric finite element model. This model is based on the application of the Cockcroft and Latham fracture criterion. This criterion was used as the damage value to estimate if and where defects will occur during the copper wire drawing. The critical damage value of the material is obtained from a uniaxial tensile test. The results show that the die angle and the reduction ratio have a significant effect on the stress distribution and the maximum damage value. The central bursts are expected to occur when the die angle and reduction ratio reach a critical value. Numerical predictions are compared with experimental observations.

  7. Prediction of Central Burst Defects in Copper Wire Drawing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, G.; Haddi, A.; Imad, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the prediction of chevron cracks (central bursts) in copper wire drawing process is investigated using experimental and numerical approaches. The conditions of the chevron cracks creation along the wire axis depend on (i) the die angle, the friction coefficient between the die and the wire, (ii) the reduction in crosssectional area of the wire, (iii) the material properties and (iv) the drawing velocity or strain rate. Under various drawing conditions, a numerical simulation for the prediction of central burst defects is presented using an axisymmetric finite element model. This model is based on the application of the Cockcroft and Latham fracture criterion. This criterion was used as the damage value to estimate if and where defects will occur during the copper wire drawing. The critical damage value of the material is obtained from a uniaxial tensile test. The results show that the die angle and the reduction ratio have a significant effect on the stress distribution and the maximum damage value. The central bursts are expected to occur when the die angle and reduction ratio reach a critical value. Numerical predictions are compared with experimental observations.

  8. Native tissue repair for central compartment prolapse: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Paz-Levy, Dorit; Yohay, David; Neymeyer, Joerg; Hizkiyahu, Ranit; Weintraub, Adi Y

    2017-02-01

    Central descent due to a level 1 defect is a main component in pelvic organ prolapse (POP) reconstructive surgery, whether for symptomatic apical prolapse or for the prolapse repair of other compartments. A recent growth in the rate of native tissue repair procedures for POP, following the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warnings regarding the safety and efficacy of synthetic meshes, requires a re-evaluation of these procedures. The safety, efficacy, and determination of the optimal surgical approach should be the center of attention. Functional outcome measures and patient-centered results have lately gained importance and received focus. A comprehensive literature review was performed to evaluate objective and subjective outcomes of apical prolapse native tissue repair, with a special focus on studies reporting impact on patients' functional outcomes, quality of life, and satisfaction. We performed a MEDLINE search for articles in the English language by using the following key words: apical prolapse, sacrospinous ligament fixation, uterosacral ligament suspension, sacral colpopexy, McCall culdoplasty, iliococcygeus vaginal fixation, and functional outcomes. We reviewed references as well. Despite a prominent shortage of studies reporting standardized prospective outcomes for native tissue repair interventions, we noted a high rate of safety and efficacy, with a low complication rate for most procedures and low recurrence or re-treatment rates. The objective and subjective results of different procedures are reviewed. Functional outcomes of native tissue repair procedures have not been studied sufficiently, though existing data present those procedures as favorable and not categorically inferior to sacrocolpopexy. Apical compartment prolapse repair using native tissue is not a compromise. Functional outcomes of native tissue repair procedures are favorable, have a high rate of success, improve women's quality of life (QoL), and result in high rates of

  9. Report of the Shuttle Processing Review Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this report is to summarize the assessment of the shuttle processing operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) as requested by the NASA Administrator. He requested a team reaffirmation that safety is the number one priority and review operations to ensure confidence in the shuttle processing procedures at KSC.

  10. Process mining in healthcare: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Eric; Munoz-Gama, Jorge; Sepúlveda, Marcos; Capurro, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Process Mining focuses on extracting knowledge from data generated and stored in corporate information systems in order to analyze executed processes. In the healthcare domain, process mining has been used in different case studies, with promising results. Accordingly, we have conducted a literature review of the usage of process mining in healthcare. The scope of this review covers 74 papers with associated case studies, all of which were analyzed according to eleven main aspects, including: process and data types; frequently posed questions; process mining techniques, perspectives and tools; methodologies; implementation and analysis strategies; geographical analysis; and medical fields. The most commonly used categories and emerging topics have been identified, as well as future trends, such as enhancing Hospital Information Systems to become process-aware. This review can: (i) provide a useful overview of the current work being undertaken in this field; (ii) help researchers to choose process mining algorithms, techniques, tools, methodologies and approaches for their own applications; and (iii) highlight the use of process mining to improve healthcare processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vulnerable periods and processes during central nervous system development.

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, P M

    1994-01-01

    The developing central nervous system (CNS) is the organ system most frequently observed to exhibit congenital abnormalities. While the developing CNS lacks a blood brain barrier, the characteristics of known teratogens indicate that differential doses to the developing vs mature brain are not the major factor in differential sensitivity. Instead, most agents seem to act on processes that occur only during development. Thus, it appears that the susceptibility of the developing brain compared to the mature one depends to a great extent on the presence of processes sensitive to disruption. Yet cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation characterize many other developing organs, so the difference between CNS and other organs must depend on other properties of the developing CNS. The most important of these is probably the fact that nervous system development takes much longer than development of other organs, making it subject to injury over a longer period. PMID:7925182

  12. A Developmental Approach to Graduate Education Review: A New Take on a Traditional Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkola, Leah; King, Jean A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe the Graduate Review and Improvement Process (GRIP), an innovative evaluation process that makes student input central, now beginning its fifth year of implementation at the University of Minnesota. We begin by contrasting GRIP with traditional graduate program review, and we then explain the conceptual underpinnings of…

  13. Discordance in pathology report after central pathology review: Implications for breast cancer adjuvant treatment.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Laura; Viale, Giuseppe; Bria, Emilio; Lutrino, Eufemia Stefania; Sperduti, Isabella; Carbognin, Luisa; Schiavone, Paola; Quaranta, Annamaria; Fedele, Palma; Caliolo, Chiara; Calvani, Nicola; Criscuolo, Mario; Cinieri, Saverio

    2016-12-01

    Pathological predictive factors are the most important markers when selecting early breast cancer adjuvant therapy. In randomized clinical trials the variability in pathology report after central pathology review is noteworthy. We evaluated the discordance rate (DR) and inter-rater agreement between local and central histopathological report and the clinical implication on treatment decision. A retrospective analysis was conducted in a series of consecutive early breast cancer tumors diagnosed by local pathologists and subsequently reviewed at the Pathology Division of European Institute of Oncology. The inter-rater agreement (k) between local and central pathology was calculated for Ki-67, grading, hormone receptors (ER/PgR) and HER2/neu. The Bland-Altman plots were derived to determine discrepancies in Ki-67, ER and PgR. DR was calculated for ER/PgR and HER2. From 2007 to 2013, 187 pathology specimens from 10 Cancer Centers were reviewed. Substantial agreement was observed for ER (k0.612; 95% CI, 0538-0.686), PgR (k0.659; 95% CI, 0580-0.737), Ki-67 (k0.609; 95% CI, 0.534-0.684) and grading (k0.669; 95% CI, 0.569-0.769). Moderate agreement was found for HER2 (k0.546; 95% CI, 0444-0.649). DR was 9.5% (negativity to positivity) and 31.7% (positivity to negativity) for HER2 and 26.2% (negativity to positivity) and 12.5% (positivity to negativity) for ER/PgR. According to changes in Her2 and ER/PgR status, 23 (12.2%) and 33 (17.6%) systemic prescription were respectively modified. In our retrospective analysis, central pathological review has a significant impact in the decision-making process in early breast cancer, as shown in clinical trials. Further studies are warranted to confirm these provocative results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Review article: Hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia - status and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Fang, Gonghuan; Li, Zhi

    2017-02-01

    Meltwater from glacierized catchments is one of the most important water supplies in central Asia. Therefore, the effects of climate change on glaciers and snow cover will have increasingly significant consequences for runoff. Hydrological modeling has become an indispensable research approach to water resources management in large glacierized river basins, but there is a lack of focus in the modeling of glacial discharge. This paper reviews the status of hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia, discussing the limitations of the available models and extrapolating these to future challenges and directions. After reviewing recent efforts, we conclude that the main sources of uncertainty in assessing the regional hydrological impacts of climate change are the unreliable and incomplete data sets and the lack of understanding of the hydrological regimes of glacierized catchments of central Asia. Runoff trends indicate a complex response to changes in climate. For future variation of water resources, it is essential to quantify the responses of hydrologic processes to both climate change and shrinking glaciers in glacierized catchments, and scientific focus should be on reducing uncertainties linked to these processes.

  15. Hadron spectroscopy in diffractive and central production processes at COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, Prometeusz Kryspin

    2011-07-15

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment using secondary high-energetic hadron beams provided by the CERN SPS. In 2008 and 2009, a large amount of data has been collected with a 190 GeV/c pion beam for the investigation of the hadron spectrum in diffractive and central production processes. A big variety of observed final states, including {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup -}{eta}{eta}, {pi}{sup -}K{sub s}K{sub s}, {pi}{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup -}, K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, and centrally produced 4{pi}, is being analysed. The potential for systematic spectroscopic studies especially concerning the existence and nature of spin-exotic, hybrid and glueball states is discussed. In addition, we show the first results from the data set collected with a proton beam in 2008. These data indicate the chance of COMPASS to contribute to the field of baryon spectroscopy.

  16. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  17. Association between central auditory processing mechanism and cardiac autonomic regulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to describe the association between central auditory processing mechanism and the cardiac autonomic regulation. Methods It was researched papers on the topic addressed in this study considering the following data bases: Medline, Pubmed, Lilacs, Scopus and Cochrane. The key words were: “auditory stimulation, heart rate, autonomic nervous system and P300”. Results The findings in the literature demonstrated that auditory stimulation influences the autonomic nervous system and has been used in conjunction with other methods. It is considered a promising step in the investigation of therapeutic procedures for rehabilitation and quality of life of several pathologies. Conclusion The association between auditory stimulation and the level of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has received significant contributions in relation to musical stimuli. PMID:24834128

  18. The evolution of the cancer formulary review in Canada: Can centralization improve the use of economic evaluation?

    PubMed

    Wranik, W Dominika; Gambold, Liesl; Hanson, Natasha; Levy, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Public reimbursement of drugs is a costly proposition for health care systems. Decisions to add drugs to the public formulary are often guided by review processes and committees. The evolution of the formulary review process in Canada's publicly funded health system is characterized by increased centralization and systematization. In the past, the review of evidence and recommendation was conducted at the regional level, but was replaced with the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review in 2011. We assess the extent to which centralization and systematization of the review process have responded to past challenges, focusing on the use of economic evaluation in the process. Past challenges with economic evaluation experienced by regionalized review committees were identified from literature and qualitative data collected in the province of Nova Scotia. We categorize these using a typology with a macro-, meso, and micro-level hierarchy, which provides a useful framework for understanding at which level change is required, and who has the authority to influence change. Using grounded theory methods, we identify approaches used by Nova Scotia past committee members to compensate for perceived shortcomings of the process. These include an undue reliance on other committee members, on the multidisciplinarity of the committee, and on past decisions. Using a policy analysis approach, we argue that centralization and systematization of the review process only partially address the shortcomings of the previous regionalized process. Lessons from Canada can inform policy discussions across all health systems, where similar challenges with the formulary review process have been identified. © 2016 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Neurophysiological advances in carpal tunnel syndrome: process of central sensitisation or local neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Santiago, R; de-la-Llave-Rincon, A I; Laguarta-Val, S; Martinez-Perez, A; Pareja, J A; Fernandez-de-Las-Penas, C

    2012-04-16

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is considered a simple entrapment of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel. In the last years, several studies have demonstrated the presence of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms. To review the basis neurophysiology of peripheral and central sensitization by applying them to CTS and to determine their clinical repercussions. Several studies have revealed that patients with CTS exhibit somato-sensory changes in areas innervated by the median nerve and also in areas non-related with the median nerve. Individuals with CTS exhibited widespread mechanical and thermal pain hyperalgesia, although they suffered from unilateral symptoms. Further, patients also showed wide-spread impairments in vibration conduction, deficits in fine motor control and changes in the somato-sensory cortex. These evidences support the presence of a complex process of peripheral and central sensitization in patients with CTS which may constitute a negative prognosis factor for the management of these patients. The advances in neurosciences in the last years support the presence of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms in CTS. These mechanisms justify the necessity of conceptual changes and in the management, both conservative and surgical, of this syndrome. Additionally, central sensitization can also play a relevant role in the prognosis of CTS since it can constitute a negative prognosis factor for its treatment.

  20. Background Noise Degrades Central Auditory Processing in Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Haapala, Sini; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Kujala, Teija

    2015-01-01

    Noise, as an unwanted sound, has become one of modern society's environmental conundrums, and many children are exposed to higher noise levels than previously assumed. However, the effects of background noise on central auditory processing of toddlers, who are still acquiring language skills, have so far not been determined. The authors evaluated the effects of background noise on toddlers' speech-sound processing by recording event-related brain potentials. The hypothesis was that background noise modulates neural speech-sound encoding and degrades speech-sound discrimination. Obligatory P1 and N2 responses for standard syllables and the mismatch negativity (MMN) response for five different syllable deviants presented in a linguistic multifeature paradigm were recorded in silent and background noise conditions. The participants were 18 typically developing 22- to 26-month-old monolingual children with healthy ears. The results showed that the P1 amplitude was smaller and the N2 amplitude larger in the noisy conditions compared with the silent conditions. In the noisy condition, the MMN was absent for the intensity and vowel changes and diminished for the consonant, frequency, and vowel duration changes embedded in speech syllables. Furthermore, the frontal MMN component was attenuated in the noisy condition. However, noise had no effect on P1, N2, or MMN latencies. The results from this study suggest multiple effects of background noise on the central auditory processing of toddlers. It modulates the early stages of sound encoding and dampens neural discrimination vital for accurate speech perception. These results imply that speech processing of toddlers, who may spend long periods of daytime in noisy conditions, is vulnerable to background noise. In noisy conditions, toddlers' neural representations of some speech sounds might be weakened. Thus, special attention should be paid to acoustic conditions and background noise levels in children's daily environments

  1. Bringing Kids into the Scientific Review Process.

    PubMed

    Kastner, Sabine; Knight, Robert T

    2017-01-04

    Frontiers for Young Minds puts kids in charge of scientific publications by having them control the review process. This provides kids the ability to shape the way science is taught and to better understand the scientific method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive Processes in Orienteering: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Roland

    1996-01-01

    Reviews recent research on information processing and decision making in orienteering. The main cognitive demands investigated were selection of relevant map information for route choice, comparison between map and terrain in map reading and in relocation, and quick awareness of mistakes. Presents a model of map reading based on results. Contains…

  3. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J D

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  4. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  5. Cognitive Processes in Orienteering: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Roland

    1996-01-01

    Reviews recent research on information processing and decision making in orienteering. The main cognitive demands investigated were selection of relevant map information for route choice, comparison between map and terrain in map reading and in relocation, and quick awareness of mistakes. Presents a model of map reading based on results. Contains…

  6. Geophysical Monitoring of Geodynamic Processes of Central Armenia Earth Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetyan, R.; Pashayan, R.

    2016-12-01

    The method of geophysical monitoring of earth crust was introduced. It allows by continuous supervision to track modern geodynamic processes of Armenia. Methodological practices of monitoring come down to allocation of a signal which reflects deformation of rocks. The indicators of deformations are not only deviations of geophysical indicators from certain background values, but also parameters of variations of these indicators. Data on changes of parameters of barometric efficiency and saw tooth oscillations of underground water level before seismic events were received. Low-amplitude periodic fluctuations of water level are the reflection of geodynamic processes taking place in upper levels of earth crust. There were recorded fluctuations of underground water level resulting from luni-solar tides and enabling to control the systems of borehole-bed in changes of voluminous deformations. The slow lowering (raising) of underground water level in the form of trend reflects long-period changes of stress-deformative state of environment. Application of method promotes identification of medium-term precursors on anomalous events of variations of geomagnetic field, change of content of subsoil radon, dynamics of level of underground water, geochemistry and water temperature. Increase of activity of geodynamic processes in Central Armenian tectonic complex is observed to change macro component Na+, Ca2+, Mg2-, CL-, SO42-, HCO3-, H4SiO4, pH and gas - CO2 structure of mineral water. Modern geodynamic movements of earth crust of Armenia are the result of seismic processes and active geodynamics of deep faults of longitudinal and transversal stretching. Key Words: monitoring, hydrogeodynamics, geomagnetic field, seismicity, deformation, earth crust

  7. (Central) Auditory Processing: the impact of otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Leticia Reis; Paschoal, Jorge Rizzato; Colella-Santos, Maria Francisca

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze auditory processing test results in children suffering from otitis media in their first five years of age, considering their age. Furthermore, to classify central auditory processing test findings regarding the hearing skills evaluated. METHODS: A total of 109 students between 8 and 12 years old were divided into three groups. The control group consisted of 40 students from public school without a history of otitis media. Experimental group I consisted of 39 students from public schools and experimental group II consisted of 30 students from private schools; students in both groups suffered from secretory otitis media in their first five years of age and underwent surgery for placement of bilateral ventilation tubes. The individuals underwent complete audiological evaluation and assessment by Auditory Processing tests. RESULTS: The left ear showed significantly worse performance when compared to the right ear in the dichotic digits test and pitch pattern sequence test. The students from the experimental groups showed worse performance when compared to the control group in the dichotic digits test and gaps-in-noise. Children from experimental group I had significantly lower results on the dichotic digits and gaps-in-noise tests compared with experimental group II. The hearing skills that were altered were temporal resolution and figure-ground perception. CONCLUSION: Children who suffered from secretory otitis media in their first five years and who underwent surgery for placement of bilateral ventilation tubes showed worse performance in auditory abilities, and children from public schools had worse results on auditory processing tests compared with students from private schools. PMID:23917659

  8. Chemometrics applications in biotech processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S; Bhushan, Nitish; Hadpe, Sandip

    2011-01-01

    Biotech unit operations are often characterized by a large number of inputs (operational parameters) and outputs (performance parameters) along with complex correlations amongst them. A typical biotech process starts with the vial of the cell bank, ends with the final product, and has anywhere from 15 to 30 such unit operations in series. The aforementioned parameters can impact process performance and product quality and also interact amongst each other. Chemometrics presents one effective approach to gather process understanding from such complex data sets. The increasing use of chemometrics is fuelled by the gradual acceptance of quality by design and process analytical technology amongst the regulators and the biotech industry, which require enhanced process and product understanding. In this article, we review the topic of chemometrics applications in biotech processes with a special focus on recent major developments. Case studies have been used to highlight some of the significant applications.

  9. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  10. Physical Modeling of Hydrologic Processes in South Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hassan, A.; Sharif, H.; Xie, H.; Terrance, J.; Mcclelland, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood magnitude and recurrence modeling and analysis play an important role in water resources planning, management, and permitting. In both urban and rural situations, flood analysis is important to flood plain mapping and the development of best management practices for both environmental and engineering concerns. The majority of annual precipitation in South Texas results from extreme, large storm events, which produce flash floods (the number one cause of weather-related deaths in Texas). Surface geology such as such as Edward out crop faulting zone at Balcones escarpment has different properties than the classified soil; affect the soil parameters such as infiltration or hydraulic conductivity. This result in a very high infiltration and channel loss as a recharge component to the Edward aquifer from the surface runoff and rivers that are crossing the recharge zone, such as Nueces, San Antonio, Guadalupe and Colorado Rivers. Water quality is another issue in hydrological modeling, specifically in south central Texas. Water quality assessment is another issue on hydrological modeling in south central Texas. SWAT Soil and water assessment tool model is used for water quality assessment in San Antonio River basin since the rainfall runoff simulation is a necessity to derive the surface water quality process especially in the streams. With the advances in the Geographical information system (GIS) and instant precipitation products such as next generation radar (NEXRAD) and data acquisition for these products, the accuracy of the hydrological models has improved. Different hydrological models were used to evaluate the surface water and other hydrological cycle components in different watersheds in south central Texas through different events and their different causes and effects in these watersheds. Some of them are semi distributed and lumped models such as Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) and physically based

  11. A Review of Expertise and Judgment Processes for Risk Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    A major challenge of risk and reliability analysis for human errors or hardware failures is the need to enlist expert opinion in areas for which adequate operational data are not available. Experts enlisted in this capacity provide probabilistic estimates of reliability, typically comprised of a measure of central tendency and uncertainty bounds. While formal guidelines for expert elicitation are readily available, they largely fail to provide a theoretical basis for expertise and judgment. This paper reviews expertise and judgment in the context of risk analysis; overviews judgment biases, the role of training, and multivariate judgments; and provides guidance on the appropriate use of atomistic and holistic judgment processes.

  12. Central hyperexcitability as measured with nociceptive flexor reflex threshold in chronic musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Edwin Choon Wyn; Sterling, Michele; Stone, Andrew; Vicenzino, Bill

    2011-08-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal conditions are increasingly conceived as involving altered central nervous system processing, and impaired nociceptive flexor reflex (NFR) appears to reflect altered central nervous system processing. The primary objective was to synthesize the evidence for impaired NFR in these conditions. The secondary objective was to evaluate the NFR stimuli parameters employed by reviewed studies. Electronic databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PEDro, Google Scholar, and Cochrane library were searched from the mid-1960s to June 2010. Experimental reports were systematically reviewed and meta-analysis (where possible) was performed. NFR thresholds and parameters of NFR stimuli were extracted. Sixteen trials were identified, 11 of which were suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Compared to healthy controls, standardized mean differences in NFR threshold were significantly lower in subjects with primary headache (-0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.77 to -0.13, P=0.005), fibromyalgia (-0.63; 95% CI -0.93 to -0.34, P<0.0001), knee pain (-1.51; 95% CI -2.10 to -0.93, P<0.00001) and whiplash (-0.73; 95% CI -1.11 to -0.35, P=0.0002). Employed stimuli parameters vary between studies, with inter-pulse duration (P=0.044) being identified by multiple regression analysis as independent predictors of the variability in NFR threshold in healthy controls. The results indicate that there is evidence of central hyperexcitability in people with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Our review also suggests that shorter inter-pulse duration tends to yield smaller variability in NFR threshold. However, further research investigating optimal stimulation parameters is still warranted.

  13. Global processing in amblyopia: a review

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Lisa M.; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Thompson, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of the visual system that is associated with disrupted binocular vision during early childhood. There is evidence that the effects of amblyopia extend beyond the primary visual cortex to regions of the dorsal and ventral extra-striate visual cortex involved in visual integration. Here, we review the current literature on global processing deficits in observers with either strabismic, anisometropic, or deprivation amblyopia. A range of global processing tasks have been used to investigate the extent of the cortical deficit in amblyopia including: global motion perception, global form perception, face perception, and biological motion. These tasks appear to be differentially affected by amblyopia. In general, observers with unilateral amblyopia appear to show deficits for local spatial processing and global tasks that require the segregation of signal from noise. In bilateral cases, the global processing deficits are exaggerated, and appear to extend to specialized perceptual systems such as those involved in face processing. PMID:24987383

  14. Health-related quality of life and other patient-reported outcomes in the European centralized drug regulatory process: a review of guidance documents and performed authorizations of medicinal products 1995 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Szende, Agota; Leidy, Nancy K; Revicki, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review and analyze the use of health-related quality of life (HRQL) and other patient-reported outcome (PRO) evaluations for the approval of new pharmaceutical products by the European Medicines Agency (EMEA). All published EMEA guidance documents and regulatory information for products authorized at the EMEA and appearing in the European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) database between 1995 and 2003 were examined for reference to HRQL and other PROs. More than half of the guidance documents for clinical investigation of pharmaceutical products in specific disease areas included reference to HRQL or other PROs. Guidance notes for 10 conditions indicated PROs can serve as primary endpoints in clinical trials, among which three included HRQL outcomes. The review of EPAR documentation uncovered HRQL and other PRO data for 34% of the drugs registered during the period of the review, with cancer-related treatments most frequently including PRO data. There was a trend toward increasing HRQL and other PRO claims in regulatory documents of pharmaceutical products in recent years, with the proportion exceeding 30% from 1999 to 2003. There is further scope for health outcomes researchers and regulatory decision-makers to contribute to the more efficient utilization of PROs and HRQL outcomes. Health researchers need to better justify the inclusion of these outcomes in clinical trials and highlight the added value of PRO data; while the regulators should develop harmonized procedures and capacities to adequately appraise the submitted information.

  15. [Review process of new oncology drug application in Japan--role of MD reviewer].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Y

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of discussion by the Committee for Drug Safety Ensuring Measures, the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) has amended the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law and related laws, and is reforming its review system for approving new drugs. One of the most important changes in the review system is the establishment of Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Evaluation Center (PMDEC) in July, 1997 under the National Institute of Health Sciences, a research institute under MHW. PMDEC, the Evaluation and Licensing Division at MHW and the Organization for Drug ADR Relief, R&D Promotion and Product Review (the Drug Organization) are in charge of drug approval, and reexamination and reevaluation applications. Before the reform new drug application reviews had been conducted mainly by the Central Pharmaceutical Affairs Council (CPAC). After the reform PMDEC, employing technical officials who have expertise in pharmacology, toxicology, biostatistics, clinical medicine, or other scientific fields, jointly review the applications with CPAC. The Evaluation and Licensing Division takes charge of administrative matters, such as final decisions on approvals, developing guidelines concerning the review process, international affairs, and regulatory instructions. During the early part of review the Drug Organization conducts a compliance review on the documents, which a sponsor submits with the approval application, and GCP inspection.

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Monitoring of polymer melt processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alig, Ingo; Steinhoff, Bernd; Lellinger, Dirk

    2010-06-01

    The paper reviews the state-of-the-art of in-line and on-line monitoring during polymer melt processing by compounding, extrusion and injection moulding. Different spectroscopic and scattering techniques as well as conductivity and viscosity measurements are reviewed and compared concerning their potential for different process applications. In addition to information on chemical composition and state of the process, the in situ detection of morphology, which is of specific interest for multiphase polymer systems such as polymer composites and polymer blends, is described in detail. For these systems, the product properties strongly depend on the phase or filler morphology created during processing. Examples for optical (UV/vis, NIR) and ultrasonic attenuation spectra recorded during extrusion are given, which were found to be sensitive to the chemical composition as well as to size and degree of dispersion of micro or nanofillers in the polymer matrix. By small-angle light scattering experiments, process-induced structures were detected in blends of incompatible polymers during compounding. Using conductivity measurements during extrusion, the influence of processing conditions on the electrical conductivity of polymer melts with conductive fillers (carbon black or carbon nanotubes) was monitored.

  17. The Centrality of the Response Process in Construct Validity: An Illustration via the Rorschach Space Response.

    PubMed

    Mihura, Joni L; Dumitrascu, Nicolae; Roy, Manali; Meyer, Gregory J

    2017-04-27

    Recently, psychologists have emphasized the response process-that is, the psychological operations and behaviors that lead to test scores-when designing psychological tests, interpreting their results, and refining their validity. To illustrate the centrality of the response process in construct validity and test interpretation, we provide a historical, conceptual, and empirical review of the main uses of the background white space of the Rorschach cards, called space reversal (SR) and space integration (SI) in the Rorschach Performance Assessment System. We show how SR and SI's unique response processes result in different interpretations, and that reviewing their literatures with these distinct interpretations in mind produces the expected patterns of convergent and discriminant validity. That is, SR was uniquely related to measures of oppositionality; SI was uniquely related to measures of cognitive complexity; and both SR and SI were related to measures of creativity. Our review further suggests that the Comprehensive System use of a single space code for all uses of white space likely led to its lack of meta-analytic support as a measure of oppositionality (Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, & Bombel, 2013 ). We close by discussing the use of the response process to improve test interpretation, develop better measures, and advance the design of research.

  18. A brief review of digital image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingsley, F. C.

    1975-01-01

    The review is presented with particular reference to Skylab S-192 and Landsat MSS imagery. Attention is given to rectification (calibration) processing with emphasis on geometric correction of image distortions. Image enhancement techniques (e.g., the use of high pass digital filters to eliminate gross shading to allow emphasis of the fine detail) are described along with data analysis and system considerations (software philosophy).

  19. Processing of facial emotion expression in major depression: a review.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Cecilia; Douglas, Katie; Porter, Richard

    2010-08-01

    Processing of facial expressions of emotion is central to human interaction, and has important effects on behaviour and affective state. A range of methods and paradigms have been used to investigate various aspects of abnormal processing of facial expressions in major depression, including emotion specific deficits in recognition accuracy, response biases and attentional biases. The aim of this review is to examine and interpret data from studies of facial emotion processing in major depression, in the context of current knowledge about the neural correlates of facial expression processing of primary emotions. The review also discusses the methodologies used to examine facial expression processing. Studies of facial emotion processing and facial emotion recognition were identified up to December 2009 utilizing MEDLINE and Web of Science. Although methodological variations complicate interpretation of findings, there is reasonably consistent evidence of a negative response bias towards sadness in individuals with major depression, so that positive (happy), neutral or ambiguous facial expressions tend to be evaluated as more sad or less happy compared with healthy control groups. There is also evidence of increased vigilance and selective attention towards sad expressions and away from happy expressions, but less evidence of reduced general or emotion-specific recognition accuracy. Data is complicated by the use of multiple paradigms and the heterogeneity of major depression. Future studies should address methodological problems, including variations in patient characteristics, testing paradigms and procedures, and statistical methods used to analyse findings.

  20. A Meta-Analysis and Review of Holistic Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face recognition research, yet central questions related to holistic processing remain unanswered, and debates have thus far failed to reach a resolution despite accumulating empirical evidence. We argue that a considerable source of confusion in this literature stems from a methodological problem. Specifically, two different measures of holistic processing based on the composite paradigm (complete design and partial design) are used in the literature, but they often lead to qualitatively different results. First, we present a comprehensive review of the work that directly compares the two designs, and which clearly favors the complete design over the partial design. Second, we report a meta-analysis of holistic face processing according to both designs, and use this as further evidence for one design over the other. The meta-analysis effect size of holistic processing in the complete design is nearly three times that of the partial design. Effect sizes were not correlated between measures, consistent with the suggestion that they do not measure the same thing. Our meta-analysis also examines the correlation between conditions in the complete design of the composite task, and suggests that in an individual differences context, little is gained by including a misaligned baseline. Finally, we offer a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge about holistic processing based on evidence gathered from the measure we favor based on the first sections of our review—the complete design—and outline outstanding research questions in that new context. PMID:24956123

  1. A code inspection process for security reviews

    SciTech Connect

    Garzoglio, Gabriele; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, it has become more and more evident that software threat communities are taking an increasing interest in Grid infrastructures. To mitigate the security risk associated with the increased numbers of attacks, the Grid software development community needs to scale up effort to reduce software vulnerabilities. This can be achieved by introducing security review processes as a standard project management practice. The Grid Facilities Department of the Fermilab Computing Division has developed a code inspection process, tailored to reviewing security properties of software. The goal of the process is to identify technical risks associated with an application and their impact. This is achieved by focusing on the business needs of the application (what it does and protects), on understanding threats and exploit communities (what an exploiter gains), and on uncovering potential vulnerabilities (what defects can be exploited). The desired outcome of the process is an improvement of the quality of the software artifact and an enhanced understanding of possible mitigation strategies for residual risks. This paper describes the inspection process and lessons learned on applying it to Grid middleware.

  2. Processing medical data: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical data recording is one of the basic clinical tools. Electronic Health Record (EHR) is important for data processing, communication, efficiency and effectiveness of patients’ information access, confidentiality, ethical and/or legal issues. Clinical record promote and support communication among service providers and hence upscale quality of healthcare. Qualities of records are reflections of the quality of care patients offered. Methods Qualitative analysis was undertaken for this systematic review. We reviewed 40 materials Published from 1999 to 2013. We searched these materials from databases including ovidMEDLINE and ovidEMBASE. Two reviewers independently screened materials on medical data recording, documentation and information processing and communication. Finally, all selected references were summarized, reconciled and compiled as one compatible document. Result Patients were dying and/or getting much suffering as the result of poor quality medical records. Electronic health record minimizes errors, saves unnecessary time, and money wasted on processing medical data. Conclusion Many countries have been complaining for incompleteness, inappropriateness and illegibility of records. Therefore creating awareness on the magnitude of the problem has paramount importance. Hence available correct patient information has lots of potential in reducing errors and support roles. PMID:24107106

  3. Impact of central surgical review in a study of malignant germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Billmire, Deborah F; Rescorla, Frederick J; Ross, Jonathan H; Schlatter, Marc G; Dicken, Bryan J; Krailo, Mark D; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Olson, Thomas A; Cullen, John W; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2015-09-01

    Verification of surgical staging has received little attention in clinical oncology trials. Central surgical review was undertaken during a study of malignant pediatric germ cell tumors. Children's Oncology Group study AGCT0132 included central surgical review during the study. Completeness of submitted data and confirmation of assigned stage were assessed. Review responses were: assigned status confirmed, assignment withheld pending review of additional information requested, or institutional assignment of stage disputed with explanation given. Changes in stage assignment were at the discretion of the enrolling institution. A total of 206 patients underwent central review. Failure to submit required data elements or need for clarification was noted in 40%. Disagreement with stage assignment occurred in 10% with 17/21 discordant patients reassigned to stage recommended by central review. Four ovarian tumor patients not meeting review criteria for Stage I remained in that stratum by institutional decision. Two-year event free survival in Stage I ovarian patients was 25% for discordant patients compared to 57% for those meeting Stage I criteria by central review. Central review of stage assignment improved complete data collection and assignment of correct tumor stage at study entry, and allowed for prompt initiation of chemotherapy in patients determined not to have Stage I disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 70268 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; NIH NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ...), has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve the... member joins the CIRB to provide background information on workflow and processes of CIRB operations as... Government, business or other for-profits and not-for-profit institutions. Type of Respondents:...

  5. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP). Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse information. In the present study, thirty healthy adult volunteers (17 females and 13 males, aged 30.75 ± 7.14 years) were subjected to a pure tone audiometry test, a speech recognition threshold test, a speech recognition task, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSWT), and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT). Baseline (BSL) performance was compared to performance after 24 hours of being sleep deprived (24hSD) using the Student’s t test. Results Mean RGDT score was elevated in the 24hSD condition (8.0 ± 2.9 ms) relative to the BSL condition for the whole cohort (6.4 ± 2.8 ms; p = 0.0005), for males (p = 0.0066), and for females (p = 0.0208). Sleep deprivation reduced SSWT scores for the whole cohort in both ears [(right: BSL, 98.4 % ± 1.8 % vs. SD, 94.2 % ± 6.3 %. p = 0.0005)(left: BSL, 96.7 % ± 3.1 % vs. SD, 92.1 % ± 6.1 %, p < 0.0001)]. These effects were evident within both gender subgroups [(right: males, p = 0.0080; females, p = 0.0143)(left: males, p = 0.0076; females: p = 0.0010). Conclusion Sleep deprivation impairs RGDT and SSWT performance. These findings confirm that sleep deprivation has central effects that may impair performance in other areas of life. PMID:22823997

  6. Pediatric central neurocytoma: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Baishya, Basanta Kumar; Singh, Rishi Kant; Dutta, Deep; Hussain, Zakir

    2016-01-01

    Central neurocytomas are slow-growing primary brain tumors of neuronal origin having a predilection to arise mostly in the lateral ventricles. We report a case of a 9-year-old girl who presented with headache and vomiting of 1-month duration. Her magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of central neurocytoma of the third ventricle and was surgically managed, and tumor tissue was sent for histopathology and immunohistochemistry which confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:28217163

  7. The correlation between central auditory processing in autistic children and their language processing abilities.

    PubMed

    Azouz, Hanan Galal; Kozou, Hesham; Khalil, Mona; Abdou, Rania M; Sakr, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    To study the auditory profile at different levels of the auditory system in children with ASD and to verify the role of (Central) auditory processing disorder as an essential pathology of the autistic disorder or as an associated co-morbidity, and to establish the correlation between CAP findings and the language delay in these cases. The study included 30 children with definite autistic disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria and ADI-R among those attending the outpatient neuropsychiatry clinic of Alexandria University Children Hospital at El Shatby. An informed consent was taken from all patients in this part of the study. Confidentiality of the records was maintained. All cases were subjected to complete history taking and examination; special assessment to language skills and evoked potentials were done. The results concluded that (central) auditory processing disorder is an essential pathology of the autistic disorder. Autistic children possess a dysfunctioning or an immature central auditory nervous system at both the brainstem and cortical levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Review: Glial lineages and myelination in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    COMPSTON, ALASTAIR; ZAJICEK, JOHN; SUSSMAN, JON; WEBB, ANNA; HALL, GILLIAN; MUIR, DAVID; SHAW, CHRISTOPHER; WOOD, ANDREW; SCOLDING, NEIL

    1997-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes, derived from stem cell precursors which arise in subventricular zones of the developing central nervous system, have as their specialist role the synthesis and maintenance of myelin. Astrocytes contribute to the cellular architecture of the central nervous system and act as a source of growth factors and cytokines; microglia are bone-marrow derived macrophages which function as primary immunocompetent cells in the central nervous system. Myelination depends on the establishment of stable relationships between each differentiated oligodendrocyte and short segments of several neighbouring axons. There is growing evidence, especially from studies of glial cell implantation, that oligodendrocyte precursors persist in the adult nervous system and provide a limited capacity for the restoration of structure and function in myelinated pathways damaged by injury or disease. PMID:9061442

  9. Review and future perspective of central receiver design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guangdong; Libby, Cara

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technology provides a commercial solar option to the utility-scale electricity market. CSP is unique in its ability to include low-cost thermal storage; thus, it can generate electricity when the sun is not available and dispatch electricity to meet varying load requirements. Within the suite of CSP technologies, the central receiver design represents the state-of-the-art technology, promising low cost, high performance, and dispatchable energy production. Current total capacity of central receiver plants worldwide is about 1.0 gigawatt (electric) with operating plants in Spain and the United States, as well as projects under construction in Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa. Central receiver technology has been under development since the 1950s, and a variety of central receiver designs have been explored. A distinguishing feature is the heat transfer medium. Central receiver designs exist that use dense fluids, gases, and solid particles in this role. Water/steam and molten salt receivers have been adopted in current commercial plants and are often coupled with a steam-Rankine power cycle with an operating temperature of less than 600°C. Many new central receiver concepts, such as the volumetric air, supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2), solid particle, and liquid-metal receiver designs, are under active research and development (R&D). New designs target operating temperatures generally higher than 700°C-800°C—and even above 1000°C—so that higher-performance power cycles such as the sCO2-Brayton cycle or air-Brayton/steam-Rankine combined cycle can be used to promote greater overall system efficiency. Central receiver thermal storage provides dispatchability unavailable from variable-output renewables such as solar photovoltaic and wind power. Case study analysis of the California grid shows that there is a limit on the amount of non-dispatchable renewable generation that the grid can accommodate, beyond which

  10. Central pattern generators for locomotion control in animals and robots: a review.

    PubMed

    Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2008-05-01

    The problem of controlling locomotion is an area in which neuroscience and robotics can fruitfully interact. In this article, I will review research carried out on locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs), i.e. neural circuits capable of producing coordinated patterns of high-dimensional rhythmic output signals while receiving only simple, low-dimensional, input signals. The review will first cover neurobiological observations concerning locomotor CPGs and their numerical modelling, with a special focus on vertebrates. It will then cover how CPG models implemented as neural networks or systems of coupled oscillators can be used in robotics for controlling the locomotion of articulated robots. The review also presents how robots can be used as scientific tools to obtain a better understanding of the functioning of biological CPGs. Finally, various methods for designing CPGs to control specific modes of locomotion will be briefly reviewed. In this process, I will discuss different types of CPG models, the pros and cons of using CPGs with robots, and the pros and cons of using robots as scientific tools. Open research topics both in biology and in robotics will also be discussed.

  11. Central insulin-mediated regulation of hepatic glucose production [Review].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Insulin controls hepatic glucose production (HGP) and maintains glucose homeostasis through the direct action of hepatic insulin receptors, as well as the indirect action of insulin receptors in the central nervous system. Insulin acts on insulin receptors in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, activates ATP-sensitive potassium channels in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner, induces hyperpolarization of the hypothalamic neurons, and regulates HGP via the vagus nerve. In the liver, central insulin action augments IL-6 expression in Kupffer cells and activates STAT3 transcription factors in hepatocytes. Activated STAT3 suppresses the gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes, thereby reducing HGP. It has become evident that nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids act upon the hypothalamus together with insulin, affecting HGP. On the other hand, HGP control by central insulin action is impeded in obesity and impeded by insulin resistance due to disturbance of PI3K signaling and inflammation in the hypothalamus or inhibition of STAT3 signaling in the liver. Although the mechanism of control of hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression by central insulin action is conserved across species, its importance in human glucose metabolism has not been made entirely clear and its elucidation is anticipated in the future.

  12. Geomorphic Processes Along the Coastal Cliff, Central Coastline - Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J. Y.

    2007-12-01

    A study aimed at finding the nature, rate and causes of the morphological changes in the coastal cliff in central part of Israeli coastline, was carried out between 1991 and 1996, along the coast of Michmoret - Giv'at Olga, Israel. The stratigraphical sequence of this cliff, which is of Pleistocene age, consists of alternating layers of Kurkar (a carbonate cemented quartz eolianite) and Hamra (a red brown sandy loam). The morphological changes occurring in the coastal cliff were documented, prior, during and immediately after storms, by field observation, redundant surveying and photography. The retreat of the coastal cliff is composed of several steps. As a rule the moisture level in the Hamra layers is higher than that of the Kurkar layers because of the higher content of silt and clay in the Hamra. During the rainy season the increase of moisture in the Hamra increases the relative weight and lowers its friction. This in turn intensifies the process of rill development in the Hamra layers and slides of material from this layer occur. As a result the overlying Kurkar remains without support, until the overhanging Kurkar breaks down and falls to the bottom of the cliff. The debris, which accumulates at the foot of the cliff, forms a moderate slope and a stable cliff profile, which prevents continuation of the erosion process. This does not last for long, because sea waves remove the debris from the foot of the cliff leaving it with a precipitous slope and vulnerable to further erosion. The magnitude of the landslide or rock fall event determines, to a certain degree, the frequency of the event. The larger the event, the less likely another landslide or rock fall will occur at the same point in the near future. Losses of soil and rill development at the cliff slopes are a result of runoff action. The wind action has an effect on the erosion of the coastal cliff by blowing the loose sand from Kurkar and Hamra layers. The main factors influencing the changes (retreat

  13. Systematising "System": One Reviewer's Analysis of the Review Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes one reviewer's experience of reviewing for the journal "System" over an eight-year period, 2003-2011. The paper reports on the reviews produced by the single reviewer, which have been compiled into a specific purpose--an "occluded"--corpus (Swales, 1996) of 122 reviews, comprising 93,000 words. The paper first describes the…

  14. [Bilateral pleural effusion--a complication of central venous catheterization--a case review].

    PubMed

    Novák, P; Brabec, M; Novák, I; Manasová, M

    2008-02-01

    The authors present a case review of a 30-year old patient, who developed central pleural effusion, a complication related to central venous catheterization and the consequent use of the central venous line. The authors aim to highlight potential complications of the method. The interesting feature of this case is the fact, that no apparent mistakes in the venous line introduction or its later use have been recorded.

  15. Solitary central osteoma of mandible in a geriatric patient: Report and review

    PubMed Central

    Bhujbal, Ravi B.; Nayak, Ajay G.

    2016-01-01

    Solitary central osteomas of jaw are extremely rare lesions with only few previously documented cases. This paper reports a case of large solitary central osteoma involving mandible symphysis- parasymphysis region in an elderly female patient. A brief review of similar cases reported in the literature is also provided in this paper. Key words:Osteomas, osteogenic,bone, tumor, jaw, mandible. PMID:27034765

  16. Central Nervous System Blastomycosis in Children: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Theresa; Fatemi, Yasaman; Theel, Elitza S; Moodley, Amaran; Boyce, Thomas G

    2017-07-01

    We present a 7-year-old boy with chronic meningitis caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. A review of the literature revealed 32 cases of central nervous system blastomycosis in children between 1983 and 2016, of which 18 represented parenchymal disease of the brain or spinal cord. Blastomycosis affecting the central nervous system is rare but should be considered in children with chronic meningitis.

  17. Central Serous Chorioretinopathy in Air Force Aviators: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    initial evaluation as manifested by a leak on fluorescein too - angiography and/or serous detachment . Out of 55 eyes 24 (44%) were seen within 6...Depth Perception, Amsler Grid, Fluorescin Angiography 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) INTRODUCTION...DIECKERT, M.D., and T. J. TREDICI, M.D. GREEN RP JR, CARLSON DW, DIECKERT JP, TREDICi TJ. Central cein angiography of the fundus in 1961, however, that

  18. A review of thunderstorm electrification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.P.R. )

    1993-04-01

    Recent developments in the area of thunderstorm electrification processes are reviewed. These processes have two main divisions: (a) convective, in which particles charged by ion capture are moved by convection currents to strengthen the electric field in the cloud, and (b) processes involving charge transfer during particle interactions, following which oppositely charged particles move apart in the updraft to form the observed charge centers. Type-b processes are further subdivided into inductive (relying on the preexistence of an electric field) and noninductive charge-transfer mechanisms, Field and laboratory evidence points to the importance of interactions between particles of the ice phase, in the presence of liquid water droplets, in separating electric charge in thunderstorms. Recent experimental studies have investigated the dependence of charge transfer on the size and relative velocity of the interacting particles and have determined the dependence of the sign of the charge transfer on temperature and cloud liquid water content. Field data upon which the laboratory simulations are based are obtained by increasingly sophisticated airborne and ground-based means. Calculations of electric field growth using experimental charge-transfer data in numerical models of the dynamical and microphysical development of thunderstorms show agreement with observations, although further refinement is required. Some directions for future research are outlined. 121 refs., 2 figs.

  19. The DFVLR main department for central data processing, 1976 - 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Data processing, equipment and systems operation, operative and user systems, user services, computer networks and communications, text processing, computer graphics, and high power computers are discussed.

  20. The Relationship between Central Auditory Processing, Language, and Cognition in Children Being Evaluated for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Brenneman, Lauren; Cash, Elizabeth; Chermak, Gail D; Guenette, Linda; Masters, Gay; Musiek, Frank E; Brown, Mallory; Ceruti, Julianne; Fitzegerald, Krista; Geissler, Kristin; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is frequently comorbid with other childhood disorders. However, few studies have examined the relationship between commonly used CAPD, language, and cognition tests within the same sample. The present study examined the relationship between diagnostic CAPD tests and "gold standard" measures of language and cognitive ability, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). A retrospective study. Twenty-seven patients referred for CAPD testing who scored average or better on the CELF and low average or better on the WISC were initially included. Seven children who scored below the CELF and/or WISC inclusion criteria were then added to the dataset for a second analysis, yielding a sample size of 34. Participants were administered a CAPD battery that included at least the following three CAPD tests: Frequency Patterns (FP), Dichotic Digits (DD), and Competing Sentences (CS). In addition, they were administered the CELF and WISC. Relationships between scores on CAPD, language (CELF), and cognition (WISC) tests were examined using correlation analysis. DD and FP showed significant correlations with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient, and the DD left ear and the DD interaural difference measures both showed significant correlations with working memory. However, ∼80% or more of the variance in these CAPD tests was unexplained by language and cognition measures. Language and cognition measures were more strongly correlated with each other than were the CAPD tests with any CELF or WISC scale. Additional correlations with the CAPD tests were revealed when patients who scored in the mild-moderate deficit range on the CELF and/or in the borderline low intellectual functioning range on the WISC were included in the analysis. While both the DD and FP tests showed significant correlations with one or more cognition measures, the majority of the variance in these

  1. The EuroNet paediatric hodgkin network - modern imaging data management for real time central review in multicentre trials.

    PubMed

    Kurch, L; Mauz-Körholz, C; Bertling, S; Wallinder, M; Kaminska, M; Marwede, D; Tchavdarova, L; Georgi, T W; Elsner, A; Barthel, A; Stoevesandt, D; Hasenclever, D; Sattler, B; Sabri, O; Körholz, D; Kluge, R

    2013-11-01

    Since 2007, children and adolescents with Hodgkin lymphomas are treated in the Europe-wide EuroNet-PHL trials. A real time central review process for stratification of the patients enhances quality control and efficient therapy management. This process includes reading of all cross-sectional-images. Since reference evaluation is time critical, a fast, easy to handle and safe data transfer is important. In addition, immediate and constant access to all the data has to be guaranteed in case of queries and for regulatory reasons. To meet the mentioned requirements the EuroNet Paediatric Hodgkin Data Network (funded by the European Union - Project Number: 2007108) was established between 2008 and 2011. A respective tailored data protection plan was formulated. The aim of this article is to describe the networks' mode of operation and the advantages for multi-centre trials that include centralized image review.

  2. Clinical effects of air pollution on the central nervous system; a review.

    PubMed

    Babadjouni, Robin M; Hodis, Drew M; Radwanski, Ryan; Durazo, Ramon; Patel, Arati; Liu, Qinghai; Mack, William J

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe recent clinical and epidemiological studies examining the adverse effects of urban air pollution on the central nervous system (CNS). Air pollution and particulate matter (PM) are associated with neuroinflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). These processes affect multiple CNS pathways. The conceptual framework of this review focuses on adverse effects of air pollution with respect to neurocognition, white matter disease, stroke, and carotid artery disease. Both children and older individuals exposed to air pollution exhibit signs of cognitive dysfunction. However, evidence on middle-aged cohorts is lacking. White matter injury secondary to air pollution exposure is a putative mechanism for neurocognitive decline. Air pollution is associated with exacerbations of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Increases in stroke incidences and mortalities are seen in the setting of air pollution exposure and CNS pathology is robust. Large populations living in highly polluted environments are at risk. This review aims to outline current knowledge of air pollution exposure effects on neurological health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Furan in Thermally Processed Foods - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Yun-Jeong; Her, Jae-Young; Kim, Yong-Gun; Kim, Min Yeop; Jeong, Soo Young; Kim, Mina K.; Lee, Jee-yeon; Kim, Cho-il; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Furan (C4H4O) is a volatile compound formed mostly during the thermal processing of foods. The toxicity of furan has been well documented previously, and it was classified as “possible human carcinogen (Group 2B)” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Various pathways have been reported for the formation of furan, that is, thermal degradation and/or thermal rearrangement of carbohydrates in the presence of amino acids, thermal degradation of certain amino acids, including aspartic acid, threonine, α-alanine, serine, and cysteine, oxidation of ascorbic acid at higher temperatures, and oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids. Owing to the complexity of the formation mechanism, a vast number of studies have been published on monitoring furan in commercial food products and on the potential strategies for reducing furan. Thus, we present a comprehensive review on the current status of commercial food monitoring databases and the possible furan reduction methods. Additionally, we review analytical methods for furan detection and the toxicity of furan. PMID:26483883

  4. The communication process in Telenursing: integrative review.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Ingrid de Almeida; Silva, Karen Cristina da Conceição Dias da; Silva, Vladimir Araújo da; Silva, Maria Júlia Paes da

    2016-01-01

    to identify scientific evidence about the communication process in Telenursing and analyze them. integrative review performed in March 2014. The search strategy, structured with the descriptors "telenursing" and "communication", was implemented in the databases Medline, Bireme, Cinahl, Scopus, Web of Science, Scielo, and Cochrane. ten studies were selected after inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main challenges were: the clinical condition of patients, the possibility for inadequate communication to cause misconduct, the absence of visual references in interactions without video, and difficulty understanding nonverbal communication. distance imposes communicative barriers in all elements: sender, recipient and message; and in both ways of transmission, verbal and nonverbal. The main difficulty is to understand nonverbal communication. To properly behave in this context, nurses must receive specific training to develop abilities and communication skills.

  5. Time models and cognitive processes: a review

    PubMed Central

    Maniadakis, Michail; Trahanias, Panos

    2014-01-01

    The sense of time is an essential capacity of humans, with a major role in many of the cognitive processes expressed in our daily lifes. So far, in cognitive science and robotics research, mental capacities have been investigated in a theoretical and modeling framework that largely neglects the flow of time. Only recently there has been a rather limited, but constantly increasing interest in the temporal aspects of cognition, integrating time into a range of different models of perceptuo-motor capacities. The current paper aims to review existing works in the field and suggest directions for fruitful future work. This is particularly important for the newly developed field of artificial temporal cognition that is expected to significantly contribute in the development of sophisticated artificial agents seamlessly integrated into human societies. PMID:24578690

  6. 42 CFR 457.1140 - Program specific review process: Core elements of review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program specific review process: Core elements of review. 457.1140 Section 457.1140 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... review process: Core elements of review. In adopting the procedures for review of matters described in...

  7. 42 CFR 457.1140 - Program specific review process: Core elements of review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Program specific review process: Core elements of review. 457.1140 Section 457.1140 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... review process: Core elements of review. In adopting the procedures for review of matters described...

  8. 20 CFR 422.603 - Overview of the review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overview of the review process. 422.603... Administrative Review Process Under the Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act of 1992 § 422.603 Overview of the review process. Our notice of assignment will inform you as the assigned operator (or...

  9. 20 CFR 422.603 - Overview of the review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Overview of the review process. 422.603... Administrative Review Process Under the Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act of 1992 § 422.603 Overview of the review process. Our notice of assignment will inform you as the assigned operator (or...

  10. DOD Service Academies: Academic Review Processes. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. National Security and International Affairs Div.

    This report examined the academic review processes at the three Department of Defense service academies, describing how the academies use these processes to review cases of students who have not met academic performance standards. Based on interviews with academy officials and relevant documents, it outlines the review processes in place at the…

  11. Determinants of central processing order in psychological refractory period paradigms: central arrival times, detection times, or preparation?

    PubMed

    Leonhard, Tanja

    2011-10-01

    Three psychological refractory period (PRP) experiments were conducted to assess the effect of central arrival times at the bottleneck on task order scheduling. In Experiment 1, a visual first task (plus-minus symbol discrimination) was combined with an auditory second task (left-right tone judgement) in a standard PRP paradigm with constant task order. In Experiment 2, the order of the tasks varied unpredictably. In Experiment 3, visual-auditory dual-task trials were randomly mixed with single-task trials. To dissociate central arrival times from stimulus detection times, the perceptual stage of the visual task was extended using stimulus degradation. Most importantly, no evidence for a first-come, first-served principle at the central bottleneck was found with the employed paradigms. Instead, the results indicated that preparation (Experiment 1) and the detection times of the stimuli (Experiments 2 and 3) were the main determinants of central processing order in the present study. In the light of previous research, the results indicate that central processing order can be influenced by various factors. The interplay between these factors seems to depend highly on the conditions and requirements of the employed experimental paradigm.

  12. The Impact of Mild Central Auditory Processing Disorder on School Performance during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heine, Chyrisse; Slone, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Central Auditory Processing (CAP) difficulties have attained increasing recognition leading to escalating rates of referrals for evaluation. Recognition of the association between (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder ((C)APD) and language, learning, and literacy difficulties has resulted in increased referrals and detection in school-aged…

  13. Neural substrates underlying vestibular compensation: contribution of peripheral versus central processing.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Kathleen E; Minor, Lloyd B; Beraneck, Mathieu; Sadeghi, Soroush G

    2009-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), which functions to stabilize gaze and ensure clear vision during everyday activities, shows impressive adaptation in response to environmental requirements. In particular, the VOR exhibits remarkable recovery following the loss of unilateral labyrinthine input as a result of injury or disease. The relative simplicity of the pathways that mediate the VOR, make it an excellent model system for understanding the changes (learning) that occur in the brain following peripheral vestibular loss to yield adaptive changes. This mini review considers the findings of behavioral, single unit recording and lesion studies of VOR compensation. Recent experiments have provided evidence that the brain makes use of multiple plasticity mechanisms (i.e., changes in peripheral as well as central processing) during the course of vestibular compensation to accomplish the sensory-motor transformations required to accurately guide behavior.

  14. Central Neurocytoma: A Review of Clinical Management and Histopathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung J; Bui, Timothy T; Chen, Cheng Hao Jacky; Lagman, Carlito; Chung, Lawrance K; Sidhu, Sabrin; Seo, David J; Yong, William H; Siegal, Todd L; Kim, Minsu; Yang, Isaac

    2016-10-01

    Central neurocytoma (CN) is a rare, benign brain tumor often located in the lateral ventricles. CN may cause obstructive hydrocephalus and manifest as signs of increased intracranial pressure. The goal of treatment for CN is a gross total resection (GTR), which often yields excellent prognosis with a very high rate of tumor control and survival. Adjuvant radiosurgery and radiotherapy may be considered to improve tumor control when GTR cannot be achieved. Chemotherapy is also not considered a primary treatment, but has been used as a salvage therapy. The radiological features of CN are indistinguishable from those of other brain tumors; therefore, many histological markers, such as synaptophysin, can be very useful for diagnosing CNs. Furthermore, the MIB-1 Labeling Index seems to be correlated with the prognosis of CN. We also discuss oncogenes associated with these elusive tumors. Further studies may improve our ability to accurately diagnose CNs and to design the optimal treatment regimens for patients with CNs.

  15. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System: A Pictorial Review

    PubMed Central

    Gavito-Higuera, Jose; Mullins, Carola Birgit; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Olivas Chacon, Cristina Ivette; Hakim, Nawar; Palacios, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a threat to especially immunocompromised patients and their development is primarily determined by the immune status of the host. With an increasing number of organ transplants, chemotherapy, and human immunodeficiency virus infections, the number of immunocompromised patients as susceptible hosts is growing and fungal infections of the CNS are more frequently encountered. They may result in meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation, cryptococcoma, and meningeal vasculitis with rapid disease progression and often overlapping symptoms. Although radiological characteristics are often nonspecific, unique imaging patterns can be identified through computer tomography as a first imaging modality and further refined by magnetic resonance imaging. A rapid diagnosis and the institution of the appropriate therapy are crucial in helping prevent an often fatal outcome. PMID:27403402

  16. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System: A Pictorial Review.

    PubMed

    Gavito-Higuera, Jose; Mullins, Carola Birgit; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Olivas Chacon, Cristina Ivette; Hakim, Nawar; Palacios, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a threat to especially immunocompromised patients and their development is primarily determined by the immune status of the host. With an increasing number of organ transplants, chemotherapy, and human immunodeficiency virus infections, the number of immunocompromised patients as susceptible hosts is growing and fungal infections of the CNS are more frequently encountered. They may result in meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation, cryptococcoma, and meningeal vasculitis with rapid disease progression and often overlapping symptoms. Although radiological characteristics are often nonspecific, unique imaging patterns can be identified through computer tomography as a first imaging modality and further refined by magnetic resonance imaging. A rapid diagnosis and the institution of the appropriate therapy are crucial in helping prevent an often fatal outcome.

  17. Central Neurocytoma: A Review of Clinical Management and Histopathologic Features

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung J.; Bui, Timothy T.; Chen, Cheng Hao Jacky; Lagman, Carlito; Chung, Lawrance K.; Sidhu, Sabrin; Seo, David J.; Yong, William H.; Siegal, Todd L.; Kim, Minsu

    2016-01-01

    Central neurocytoma (CN) is a rare, benign brain tumor often located in the lateral ventricles. CN may cause obstructive hydrocephalus and manifest as signs of increased intracranial pressure. The goal of treatment for CN is a gross total resection (GTR), which often yields excellent prognosis with a very high rate of tumor control and survival. Adjuvant radiosurgery and radiotherapy may be considered to improve tumor control when GTR cannot be achieved. Chemotherapy is also not considered a primary treatment, but has been used as a salvage therapy. The radiological features of CN are indistinguishable from those of other brain tumors; therefore, many histological markers, such as synaptophysin, can be very useful for diagnosing CNs. Furthermore, the MIB-1 Labeling Index seems to be correlated with the prognosis of CN. We also discuss oncogenes associated with these elusive tumors. Further studies may improve our ability to accurately diagnose CNs and to design the optimal treatment regimens for patients with CNs. PMID:27867912

  18. Metronidazole-induced central nervous system toxicity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Akira; Jackson, Jeffrey L; Doi, Asako; Kamiya, Toru

    2011-01-01

    To assess patient and medication factors that contribute to metronidazole toxicity. We searched PUBMED from 1965 through April 7, 2011, and performed a hand search of bibliographies. Case reports or case series reporting metronidazole-induced central nervous toxicity. Two authors independently abstracted demographics, metronidazole indication, dose and duration, neurological manifestations, and outcomes as well as brain imaging findings. Among 64 patients, 48 (77%) had cerebellar dysfunction, 21 (33%) had altered mental status, and 8 (15%) had seizures. Patients' ages averaged 53.3 years (range, 12-87 years), and 64% were male. The median duration of metronidazole was 54 days, although 26% had taken it less than a week and 11% had taken it less than 72 hours. Among cases with outcome data, most patients either improved (n = 18 [29%]) or had complete resolution of their symptoms with discontinuation of metronidazole (n = 41 [65%]). There was no difference in resolution of symptom by age (P = 0.71) or sex (P = 0.34). The patients with cerebellar dysfunction were less likely to experience complete resolution than those with mental status changes or seizures (relative risk, 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.49-0.92). Nearly all patients (n = 55 [86%]) underwent imaging of the brain: 44 (69%) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 12 (19%) underwent computed tomographic studies. All patients with cerebellar dysfunction had abnormalities on imaging: 93% (n = 39) had a cerebellar lesion, although numerous areas in the brain were affected. On follow-up MRIs, 25 patients (83%) had complete resolution of abnormalities. Metronidazole can rarely cause central nervous system toxicity; it does not seem to be a dose- or duration-related phenomenon. Most patients will have MRI abnormalities. Prognosis is excellent with metronidazole cessation.

  19. Improving management decision processes through centralized communication linkages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanton, D. F.; Garman, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Information flow is a critical element to intelligent and timely decision-making. At NASA's Johnson Space Center the flow of information is being automated through the use of a centralized backbone network. The theoretical basis of this network, its implications to the horizontal and vertical flow of information, and the technical challenges involved in its implementation are the focus of this paper. The importance of the use of common tools among programs and some future concerns related to file transfer, graphics transfer, and merging of voice and data are also discussed.

  20. Natural Language Processing in Oncology: A Review.

    PubMed

    Yim, Wen-Wai; Yetisgen, Meliha; Harris, William P; Kwan, Sharon W

    2016-06-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) has the potential to accelerate translation of cancer treatments from the laboratory to the clinic and will be a powerful tool in the era of personalized medicine. This technology can harvest important clinical variables trapped in the free-text narratives within electronic medical records. Natural language processing can be used as a tool for oncological evidence-based research and quality improvement. Oncologists interested in applying NLP for clinical research can play pivotal roles in building NLP systems and, in doing so, contribute to both oncological and clinical NLP research. Herein, we provide an introduction to NLP and its potential applications in oncology, a description of specific tools available, and a review on the state of the current technology with respect to cancer case identification, staging, and outcomes quantification. More automated means of leveraging unstructured data from daily clinical practice is crucial as therapeutic options and access to individual-level health information increase. Research-minded oncologists may push the avenues of evidence-based research by taking advantage of the new technologies available with clinical NLP. As continued progress is made with applying NLP toward oncological research, incremental gains will lead to large impacts, building a cost-effective infrastructure for advancing cancer care.

  1. Microalgae harvesting and processing: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Shelef, G.; Sukenik, A.; Green, M.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to present a discussion of the literature review performed on methods of harvesting microalgae. There is no single best method of harvesting microalgae. The choice of preferable harvesting technology depends on algae species, growth medium, algae production, end product, and production cost benefit. Algae size is an important factor since low-cost filtration procedures are presently applicable only for harvesting fairly large microalgae. Small microalgae should be flocculated into larger bodies that can be harvested by one of the methods mentioned above. However, the cells' mobility affects the flocculation process, and addition of nonresidual oxidants to stop the mobility should be considered to aid flocculation. The decision between sedimentation or flotation methods depends on the density difference between the algae cell and the growth medium. For oil-laden algae with low cell density, flotation technologies should be considered. Moreover, oxygen release from algae cells and oxygen supersaturation conditions in growth medium support the use of flotation methods. If high-quality algae are to be produced for human consumption, continuous harvesting by solid ejecting or nozzle-type disc centrifuges is recommended. These centrifuges can easily be cleaned and sterilized. They are suitable for all types of microalgae, but their high operating costs should be compared with the benefits from their use. Another basic criterion for selecting the suitable harvesting procedure is the final algae paste concentration required for the next process. Solids requirements up to 30% can be attained by established dewatering processes. For more concentrated solids, drying methods are required. The various systems for algae drying differ both in the extent of capital investment and the energy requirements. Selection of the drying method depends on the scale of operation and the use for which the dried product is intended.

  2. The role of event-related brain potentials in assessing central auditory processing.

    PubMed

    Alain, Claude; Tremblay, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    The perception of complex acoustic signals such as speech and music depends on the interaction between peripheral and central auditory processing. As information travels from the cochlea to primary and associative auditory cortices, the incoming sound is subjected to increasingly more detailed and refined analysis. These various levels of analyses are thought to include low-level automatic processes that detect, discriminate and group sounds that are similar in physical attributes such as frequency, intensity, and location as well as higher-level schema-driven processes that reflect listeners' experience and knowledge of the auditory environment. In this review, we describe studies that have used event-related brain potentials in investigating the processing of complex acoustic signals (e.g., speech, music). In particular, we examine the role of hearing loss on the neural representation of sound and how cognitive factors and learning can help compensate for perceptual difficulties. The notion of auditory scene analysis is used as a conceptual framework for interpreting and studying the perception of sound.

  3. Pupillary contagion: central mechanisms engaged in sadness processing

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Neil A.; Singer, Tania; Rotshtein, Pia; Dolan, Ray J.; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2006-01-01

    Empathic responses underlie our ability to share emotions and sensations with others. We investigated whether observed pupil size modulates our perception of other's emotional expressions and examined the central mechanisms modulated by incidental perception of pupil size in emotional facial expressions. We show that diminishing pupil size enhances ratings of emotional intensity and valence for sad, but not happy, angry or neutral facial expressions. This effect was associated with modulation of neural activity within cortical and subcortical regions implicated in social cognition. In an identical context, we show that the observed pupil size was mirrored by the observers’ own pupil size. This empathetic contagion engaged the brainstem pupillary control nuclei (Edinger–Westphal) in proportion to individual subject's sensitivity to this effect. These findings provide evidence that perception–action mechanisms extend to non-volitional operations of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:17186063

  4. Prevention of central venous line associated bloodstream infections in adult intensive care units: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Velasquez Reyes, Diana Carolina; Bloomer, Melissa; Morphet, Julia

    2017-06-26

    In adult Intensive Care Units, the complexity of patient treatment requirements make the use of central venous lines essential. Despite the potential benefits central venous lines can have for patients, there is a high risk of bloodstream infection associated with these catheters. Identify and critique the best available evidence regarding interventions to prevent central venous line associated bloodstream infections in adult intensive care unit patients other than anti-microbial catheters. A systematic review of studies published from January 2007 to February 2016 was undertaken. A systematic search of seven databases was carried out: MEDLINE; CINAHL Plus; EMBASE; PubMed; Cochrane Library; Scopus and Google Scholar. Studies were critically appraised by three independent reviewers prior to inclusion. Nineteen studies were included. A range of interventions were found to be used for the prevention or reduction of central venous line associated bloodstream infections. These interventions included dressings, closed infusion systems, aseptic skin preparation, central venous line bundles, quality improvement initiatives, education, an extra staff in the Intensive Care Unit and the participation in the 'On the CUSP: Stop Blood Stream Infections' national programme. Central venous line associated bloodstream infections can be reduced by a range of interventions including closed infusion systems, aseptic technique during insertion and management of the central venous line, early removal of central venous lines and appropriate site selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Centralized Digital Picture Processing System For Cardiac Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeFree, M. T.; Vogel, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    We have designed and implemented a system for the centralized acquisition, display, analysis and archiving of diagnostic cardiac medical images from x-ray fluoroscopy, two-dimensional ultrasonography and nuclear scintigraphy. Centered around a DLC PUP 11/34 minicomputer with an existing gamma camera interface, we have added a closed-circuit television system with a 256x512x8-bit video digitizer and image display controller to interface the video output of the fluoroscope and ultrasonograph. A video disc recorder (under computer control) is used as an input and playback buffer, allowing for data transfer to and from digital disc drives. Thus, real-time video digitization is possible for up to ten seconds of incoming RS-170-compatible video. The digitizer separates video fields at real-time into two 256x256x8-bit refresh memories, providing 60Hz temporal resolution. Generally, however, we choose to record at non-real-time rates to encompass more than ten seconds. In addition to I/O software controlling data acquisition ana playback, we have developed a versatile data analysis package (offering such capabilities as image algebra, Fourier analysis and convolutional filtering), as well as interactive data reduction subroutines (such as region-of-interest definition, profile plotting and regional extraction of statistical and probabilistic information). We have found the system useful for standard cardiac image analysis, for simultaneous display of images from the three modalities, for picture storage and retrieval, and as a research tool. future plans include the addition of intelligent terminals at each modality and progression to a 32-bit machine for the central processor.

  6. Independence Community College Program Review Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, Robert J.

    Program review at Independence Community College (ICC) is structured so that every program of study will undergo review within a 5-year period. The purpose of the program review effort is to assess the relationship of inputs to outcomes, so that actual outcomes can be compared to expected outcomes. Each program of study is evaluated according to…

  7. 10 CFR 1017.15 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... thinks may contain UCNI must send the document to a Reviewing Official for a determination before it is... thinks the information should be identified as UCNI, then the Reviewing Official must send the document... possesses material that he or she thinks may contain or reveal UCNI must consult with a Reviewing Official...

  8. 10 CFR 1017.15 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... thinks may contain UCNI must send the document to a Reviewing Official for a determination before it is... thinks the information should be identified as UCNI, then the Reviewing Official must send the document... possesses material that he or she thinks may contain or reveal UCNI must consult with a Reviewing Official...

  9. 10 CFR 1017.15 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... thinks may contain UCNI must send the document to a Reviewing Official for a determination before it is... thinks the information should be identified as UCNI, then the Reviewing Official must send the document... possesses material that he or she thinks may contain or reveal UCNI must consult with a Reviewing Official...

  10. 10 CFR 1017.15 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... thinks may contain UCNI must send the document to a Reviewing Official for a determination before it is... thinks the information should be identified as UCNI, then the Reviewing Official must send the document... possesses material that he or she thinks may contain or reveal UCNI must consult with a Reviewing Official...

  11. Rhyolitic volcanism of the central Snake River Plain: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J. A.; Boroughs, S.; Mark, D. F.; Starkel, W. A.; Bonnichsen, B.

    2013-08-01

    The central Snake River Plain (CSRP) of southern Idaho and northern Nevada, USA, forms part of the Columbia River-Yellowstone large igneous province. Volcanic rocks of the province are compositionally bimodal (basalt-rhyolite), and the rhyolites produce a broadly time-transgressive record of a hotspot which is currently located under Yellowstone. Snake River Plain rhyolites represent hot (>850 °C), dry magmas and have field characteristics consistent with high emplacement temperatures. Individual ignimbrite sheets reach 1,000 km3 and exhibit little to no compositional zonation on a large scale but reveal considerable complexity on a crystal scale, particularly with regard to pyroxene compositions. Multiple pyroxene compositions may exist in a single ignimbrite which, along with multiple glass compositions in widely dispersed fallout tephra, suggests complex storage of rhyolite prior to eruption. Unlike most igneous rocks, the mineral cargo of the CSRP rhyolites exhibits little isotopic variability, with unimodal 87Sr/86Sr values returned from plagioclase grains inferred to represent the combination of strong crystal-melt coupling and rapid diffusional re-equilibriation. All the rhyolites within the CSRP have a characteristic low- δ 18O signature; with >20,000 km3 of rhyolite exhibiting this depletion, the CSRP represents the largest low- δ 18O province on Earth. The low-18O nature of the rhyolites requires assimilation of hydrothermally altered materials which may be from altered Eocene batholithic rocks or from down-dropped intra-caldera tuffs. The wide range of crustal assimilants, with highly variable radiogenic isotope characteristics, available in the CSRP is permissive of a variety of petrogenetic models based on radiogenic isotopic data.

  12. Effect of hyperthermia on the central nervous system: a review.

    PubMed

    Sminia, P; van der Zee, J; Wondergem, J; Haveman, J

    1994-01-01

    Experimental data show that nervous tissue is sensitive to heat. Animal data indicate that the maximum tolerated heat dose after local hyperthermia of the central nervous system (CNS) lies in the range of 40-60 min at 42-42 x 5 degrees C or 10-30 min at 43 degrees C. No conclusions concerning the heat sensitivity of nervous tissue can be derived from clinical studies using localized hyperthermia. The choice whether or not to exceed the critical heat dose, as derived from laboratory studies, in clinical practice is very much dependent on the clinical situation such as the anatomical site and volume of the tissue involved, and prior therapy. Data on clinical application of whole body hyperthermia (WBH) show that nervous tissue can withstand a slightly higher heat dose than after localized heating, which might be the result of developing thermal resistance during treatment. Expression of thermotolerance was observed in the spinal cord of laboratory animals. After WBH in man at a maximum between 40 and 43 degrees C for 6 h-30 min CNS complications were reported, but other complications seemed to be more life-threatening. Most studies indicate that impairment of the CNS after WBH was not due to direct heat injury to the brain or spinal cord, but was secondary as a result of physiological changes. Heat, at least if applied shortly after X-rays, enhances the response of nervous tissue to radiation. Neurotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs does not seem to be a limiting complication in hyperthermia if combined with chemotherapy, but only few data are available. The limited clinical experience shows that safe hyperthermic treatment of CNS malignancies or tumours located close to the CNS seems feasible under appropriate technical conditions with adequate thermometry and taking the sensitivity of the surrounding normal nervous tissue into account.

  13. Associative and Propositional Processes in Evaluation: An Integrative Review of Implicit and Explicit Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawronski, Bertram; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2006-01-01

    A central theme in recent research on attitudes is the distinction between deliberate, "explicit" attitudes and automatic, "implicit" attitudes. The present article provides an integrative review of the available evidence on implicit and explicit attitude change that is guided by a distinction between associative and propositional processes.…

  14. Associative and Propositional Processes in Evaluation: An Integrative Review of Implicit and Explicit Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawronski, Bertram; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2006-01-01

    A central theme in recent research on attitudes is the distinction between deliberate, "explicit" attitudes and automatic, "implicit" attitudes. The present article provides an integrative review of the available evidence on implicit and explicit attitude change that is guided by a distinction between associative and propositional processes.…

  15. Mobility and HIV in Central America and Mexico: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Perez-Rosales, Maria D; Sued, Omar

    2012-02-01

    Mobility is a key determinant of HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission dynamics in Asia and Africa. Scant data exist regarding its dynamic impacts on HIV/STI risk in Central America and Mexico. Our objective was to critically review the epidemiology and social and structural context of HIV/STI risk among mobile populations in Central America and Mexico. Eligible articles were published in English or Spanish between January 1, 2000 and August 31, 2010; conducted in Central America or Mexico; specified the mobile population included; and described primary research. 2045 records were screened, 275 articles reviewed, and 22 studies included. Mobility is associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, though it also may increase preventive behaviors. Among mobile groups in Central America and Mexico, social isolation, the socio-economic impacts of displacement, gender inequalities, and stigma/discrimination shape HIV risk. Epidemiologic research and multi-level interventions that target and engage vulnerable groups in transit stations are recommended.

  16. Geomorphology of the central Red Sea Rift: Determining spreading processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, Nico; van der Zwan, Froukje M.; Devey, Colin W.; Ligi, Marco; Kwasnitschka, Tom; Feldens, Peter; Bantan, Rashad A.; Basaham, Ali S.

    2016-12-01

    Continental rifting and ocean basin formation is occurring today in the Red Sea, providing a possible modern analogue for the creation of mid-ocean ridges. Yet many of the seafloor features observed along the axis of the Red Sea appear anomalous compared to ancient and modern examples of mid-ocean ridges in other parts of the world, making it unclear, until recently, whether the Red Sea is truly analogous. Recent work suggests that the main morphological differences between the Red Sea Rift (RSR) and other mid-ocean ridges are due to the presence and movement of giant, submarine salt flows, which blanket large portions of the rift valley and thereby the oceanic crust. Using ship-based, high-resolution multibeam bathymetry of the central RSR between 16.5°N and 23°N we focus here on the RSR volcanic terrains not covered by salt and sediments and compare their morphologies to those observed along slow and ultra-slow spreading ridges elsewhere. Regional variations in style and intensity of volcanism can be related to variations in volcanic activity and mantle heat flow. The Red Sea oceanic seafloor shows typical features of mature (ultra)slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges, such as 2nd order discontinuities (overlapping spreading centres) and magma focussing in the segment centres (forming spreading-perpendicular volcanic ridges of thick oceanic crust). The occurrence of melt-salt interaction at locations where salt glaciers blanket the neovolcanic zone, and the absence of large detachment faults are unique features of the central RSR. These features can be related to the young character of the Red Sea and may be applicable to all young oceanic rifts, associated with plumes and/or evaporites. Thus, the RSR falls in line with (ultra)slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges globally, which makes the Red Sea a unique but highly important type example for initiation of slow rifting and seafloor spreading and one of the most interesting targets for future ocean research.

  17. Central olfactory processing in patients with disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Nigri, A; Ferraro, S; Bruzzone, M G; Nava, S; D'Incerti, L; Bertolino, N; Sattin, D; Leonardi, M; Lundström, J N

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that individuals suffering from disorder of consciousness (DOC) maintain some minor neural processing of percepts mediated by senses that early in their pathway intersect the thalamus, a key dysfunctional area in DOC patients. Here the degree of sensory preservation within the olfactory system, a system that lacks an obligatory thalamic relay, and its relationship to the consciousness level in DOC patients of various etiologies was assessed. Clinical Coma Recovery Scale - Revised (CRS-R) as well as cerebral responses to odors by means of functional magnetic resonance were obtained in a group of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (n = 26) patients, minimally conscious state (n = 7) patients and healthy controls (n = 25). A majority of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome patients (58%) and 100% of minimally conscious state patients demonstrated a significant preservation of olfactory neural processing, manifested by activation within the piriform cortex, an area considered as a primary olfactory region. Degree of preservation of olfactory processing differed linearly in line with the patients' etiologies where groups demonstrating greater conscious awareness demonstrated more significant processing. Viewed over all DOC patients, there was a significant negative association between odor-related activity in the orbitofrontal cortex and CRS-R scores. It is demonstrated that DOC patients exhibit a significant preservation of olfactory neural processing with a clear relationship to etiopathologies and clinical measures even years after of chronification of DOC. © 2015 EAN.

  18. Central Processing of the Chemical Senses: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Our knowledge regarding the neural processing of the three chemical senses has been considerably lagging behind that of our other senses. It is only during the last 25 years that significant advances have been made in our understanding of where in the human brain odors, tastants, and trigeminal stimuli are processed. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of how the human brain processes chemical stimuli based on findings in neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, we provide new insights from recent meta-analyses, on the basis of all published neuroimaging studies of the chemical senses, of where the chemical senses converge in the brain. PMID:21503268

  19. Mesh-particle interpolations on graphics processing units and multicore central processing units.

    PubMed

    Rossinelli, Diego; Conti, Christian; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2011-06-13

    Particle-mesh interpolations are fundamental operations for particle-in-cell codes, as implemented in vortex methods, plasma dynamics and electrostatics simulations. In these simulations, the mesh is used to solve the field equations and the gradients of the fields are used in order to advance the particles. The time integration of particle trajectories is performed through an extensive resampling of the flow field at the particle locations. The computational performance of this resampling turns out to be limited by the memory bandwidth of the underlying computer architecture. We investigate how mesh-particle interpolation can be efficiently performed on graphics processing units (GPUs) and multicore central processing units (CPUs), and we present two implementation techniques. The single-precision results for the multicore CPU implementation show an acceleration of 45-70×, depending on system size, and an acceleration of 85-155× for the GPU implementation over an efficient single-threaded C++ implementation. In double precision, we observe a performance improvement of 30-40× for the multicore CPU implementation and 20-45× for the GPU implementation. With respect to the 16-threaded standard C++ implementation, the present CPU technique leads to a performance increase of roughly 2.8-3.7× in single precision and 1.7-2.4× in double precision, whereas the GPU technique leads to an improvement of 9× in single precision and 2.2-2.8× in double precision.

  20. 42 CFR 457.1130 - Program specific review process: Matters subject to review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... review process: Matters subject to review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must ensure that... services matter. A State must ensure that an enrollee has an opportunity for external review of a— (1... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program specific review process: Matters subject...

  1. 42 CFR 457.1140 - Program specific review process: Core elements of review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program specific review process: Core elements of... review process: Core elements of review. In adopting the procedures for review of matters described in... decisions are written; and (d) Applicants and enrollees have an opportunity to— (1) Represent themselves...

  2. 42 CFR 457.1130 - Program specific review process: Matters subject to review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... review process: Matters subject to review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must ensure that... services matter. A State must ensure that an enrollee has an opportunity for external review of a— (1... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Program specific review process: Matters subject to...

  3. Emotional language processing in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lartseva, Alina; Dijkstra, Ton; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2015-01-01

    In his first description of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Kanner emphasized emotional impairments by characterizing children with ASD as indifferent to other people, self-absorbed, emotionally cold, distanced, and retracted. Thereafter, emotional impairments became regarded as part of the social impairments of ASD, and research mostly focused on understanding how individuals with ASD recognize visual expressions of emotions from faces and body postures. However, it still remains unclear how emotions are processed outside of the visual domain. This systematic review aims to fill this gap by focusing on impairments of emotional language processing in ASD. We systematically searched PubMed for papers published between 1990 and 2013 using standardized search terms. Studies show that people with ASD are able to correctly classify emotional language stimuli as emotionally positive or negative. However, processing of emotional language stimuli in ASD is associated with atypical patterns of attention and memory performance, as well as abnormal physiological and neural activity. Particularly, younger children with ASD have difficulties in acquiring and developing emotional concepts, and avoid using these in discourse. These emotional language impairments were not consistently associated with age, IQ, or level of development of language skills. We discuss how emotional language impairments fit with existing cognitive theories of ASD, such as central coherence, executive dysfunction, and weak Theory of Mind. We conclude that emotional impairments in ASD may be broader than just a mere consequence of social impairments, and should receive more attention in future research. PMID:25610383

  4. Recognition of oral spelling is diagnostic of the central reading processes.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Teresa; McCloskey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The task of recognition of oral spelling (stimulus: "C-A-T", response: "cat") is often administered to individuals with acquired written language disorders, yet there is no consensus about the underlying cognitive processes. We adjudicate between two existing hypotheses: Recognition of oral spelling uses central reading processes, or recognition of oral spelling uses central spelling processes in reverse. We tested the recognition of oral spelling and spelling to dictation abilities of a single individual with acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia. She was impaired relative to matched controls in spelling to dictation but unimpaired in recognition of oral spelling. Recognition of oral spelling for exception words (e.g., colonel) and pronounceable nonwords (e.g., larth) was intact. Our results were predicted by the hypothesis that recognition of oral spelling involves the central reading processes. We conclude that recognition of oral spelling is a useful tool for probing the integrity of the central reading processes.

  5. 7 CFR 275.9 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., reporting points, and data management units selected for review and the techniques used to select them; (iv... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Management Evaluation...

  6. 7 CFR 275.9 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., reporting points, and data management units selected for review and the techniques used to select them; (iv... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Management Evaluation...

  7. 7 CFR 275.9 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., reporting points, and data management units selected for review and the techniques used to select them; (iv... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Management Evaluation...

  8. 7 CFR 275.9 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., reporting points, and data management units selected for review and the techniques used to select them; (iv... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Management Evaluation...

  9. 7 CFR 275.9 - Review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., reporting points, and data management units selected for review and the techniques used to select them; (iv... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Management Evaluation...

  10. Central nervous system physiology of electroreception, a review.

    PubMed

    Bell, C C

    1979-01-01

    There are several reasons why one can expect that the study of electric fish may prove instructive about general mechanisms of sensory processing and neuronal integration. These reasons include the following: the simplicity of the electrical signals which are the normal input and output; the availability of a variety of stereotyped behaviors to characterize the system as a whole; the case with which individual receptors or primary afferents can be activated; the demonstrated presence of corollary discharge and reafference mechanisms for motor control over sensory input; the presence of highly specialized CNS structures which have evolved to meet the unusual demands of the electrosensory system. Work relating to these and other aspects of the electrosensory systems is discussed with an emphasis on the potential which these systems offer.

  11. Constellation Mission Operation Working Group: ESMO Maneuver Planning Process Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Earth Science Mission Operation (ESMO) Project created an Independent Review Board to review our Conjunction Risk evaluation process and Maneuver Planning Process to identify improvements that safely manages mission conjunction risks, maintains ground track science requirements, and minimizes overall hours expended on High Interest Events (HIE). The Review Board is evaluating the current maneuver process which requires support by multiple groups. In the past year, there have been several changes to the processes although many prior and new concerns exist. This presentation will discuss maneuver process reviews and Board comments, ESMO assessment and path foward, ESMO future plans, recent changes and concerns.

  12. CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREMS FOR CONDITIONALLY LINEAR RANDOM PROCESSES WITH APPLICATIONS TO MODELS OF RADAR CLUTTER,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    models are called conditionally linear processes, and the description of the correlator output requires a central limit theorem for sums of dependent...random variables. The conditions for the central limit theorem are related to physically reasonable conditions on the model. The results of the study

  13. Central Auditory Processing of Temporal and Spectral-Variance Cues in Cochlear Implant Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Carol Q.; Bremen, Peter; Shen, Weidong; Yang, Shi-Ming; Middlebrooks, John C.; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Mc Laughlin, Myles

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) listeners have difficulty understanding speech in complex listening environments. This deficit is thought to be largely due to peripheral encoding problems arising from current spread, which results in wide peripheral filters. In normal hearing (NH) listeners, central processing contributes to segregation of speech from competing sounds. We tested the hypothesis that basic central processing abilities are retained in post-lingually deaf CI listeners, but processing is hampered by degraded input from the periphery. In eight CI listeners, we measured auditory nerve compound action potentials to characterize peripheral filters. Then, we measured psychophysical detection thresholds in the presence of multi-electrode maskers placed either inside (peripheral masking) or outside (central masking) the peripheral filter. This was intended to distinguish peripheral from central contributions to signal detection. Introduction of temporal asynchrony between the signal and masker improved signal detection in both peripheral and central masking conditions for all CI listeners. Randomly varying components of the masker created spectral-variance cues, which seemed to benefit only two out of eight CI listeners. Contrastingly, the spectral-variance cues improved signal detection in all five NH listeners who listened to our CI simulation. Together these results indicate that widened peripheral filters significantly hamper central processing of spectral-variance cues but not of temporal cues in post-lingually deaf CI listeners. As indicated by two CI listeners in our study, however, post-lingually deaf CI listeners may retain some central processing abilities similar to NH listeners. PMID:26176553

  14. Review: apoptotic mechanisms in bacterial infections of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Geetha; Philipp, Mario T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the apoptotic mechanisms most frequently encountered in bacterial infections of the central nervous system (CNS). We focus specifically on apoptosis of neural cells (neurons and glia), and provide first an overview of the phenomenon of apoptosis itself and its extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. We then describe apoptosis in the context of infectious diseases and inflammation caused by bacteria, and review its role in the pathogenesis of the most relevant bacterial infections of the CNS. PMID:23060884

  15. Association of diabetes mellitus and structural changes in the central nervous system in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pourabbasi, Ata; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Qavam, Soqra Ebrahimi; Arzaghi, Seyed Masoud; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes and academic performance have been of great interest to researchers during the year to date. Many studies have been conducted to discover this relationship during three recent decades. But, evaluation of the structural changes of brain in the context of diabetes is of paramount importance especially in children and adolescents. This study is a systematic review conducted to investigate the structural changes in the central nervous system in children and adolescents living with diabetes. Among about 500 papers published in this area in Pubmed and SCOPUS, 13 articles in the field of assessing structural changes in the central nervous system in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus were entered into the evaluation process. As can be seen in these studies, a huge proportion of structures of the central nervous system have been affected by diabetes that include different areas of gray and white matters. In the majority of these studies, it has become clear that high glycemic changes, especially recurrent hyperglycemic attacks are very seriously associated with structural changes in the brain. It seems the findings of this review can positively aid other researchers to develop medical guidelines to prevent or resolve the brain changes in central nervous structure and consequently cognitive impairments in children and adolescents.

  16. Impact of Different Cutoff Criteria on Rate of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders Diagnosis Using the Central Test Battery

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Mohsin Ahmed; Fox-Thomas, Lisa; Tucker, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify how the use of two different cutoff criteria affects the test failure rate and potential diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder ([C]APD) in a sample of children subjected to central auditory processing ([C]AP) assessment. Test failure rates for the central test battery (CTB) using two different cutoff criteria (1 and 2 SDs below the mean) were measured retrospectively for 98 children who completed (C)AP assessment. The rates of potential (C)APD diagnosis ranged from 86.8% [when a 1 standard deviation (SD) cutoff was used] to 66.2% (when a 2 SD cutoff was used). The current use of two different cutoffs for the CTB has a large impact on the diagnostic rate for (C)APD. These findings have clinical implications for the diagnosis of (C)APD due to the widespread use of the CTB in the United States for the assessment of (C)APD in children. Thus, it is important to create awareness among audiologists that use of the 2 SDs cutoff criterion is recommended for reducing false positives (error). PMID:27942373

  17. Solar augmentation for process heat with central receiver technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzé, Johannes P.; du Toit, Philip; Bode, Sebastian J.; Larmuth, James N.; Landman, Willem A.; Gauché, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Coal fired boilers are currently one of the most widespread ways to deliver process heat to industry. John Thompson Boilers (JTB) offer industrial steam supply solutions for industry and utility scale applications in Southern Africa. Transport cost add significant cost to the coal price in locations far from the coal fields in Mpumalanga, Gauteng and Limpopo. The Helio100 project developed a low cost, self-learning, wireless heliostat technology that requires no ground preparation. This is attractive as an augmentation alternative, as it can easily be installed on any open land that a client may have available. This paper explores the techno economic feasibility of solar augmentation for JTB coal fired steam boilers by comparing the fuel savings of a generic 2MW heliostat field at various locations throughout South Africa.

  18. Centralized Alert-Processing and Asset Planning for Sensorwebs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Chien, Steve A.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Tang, Benyang

    2010-01-01

    A software program provides a Sensorweb architecture for alert-processing, event detection, asset allocation and planning, and visualization. It automatically tasks and re-tasks various types of assets such as satellites and robotic vehicles in response to alerts (fire, weather) extracted from various data sources, including low-level Webcam data. JPL has adapted cons iderable Sensorweb infrastructure that had been previously applied to NASA Earth Science applications. This NASA Earth Science Sensorweb has been in operational use since 2003, and has proven reliability of the Sensorweb technologies for robust event detection and autonomous response using space and ground assets. Unique features of the software include flexibility to a range of detection and tasking methods including those that require aggregation of data over spatial and temporal ranges, generality of the response structure to represent and implement a range of response campaigns, and the ability to respond rapidly.

  19. The Cilium: Cellular Antenna and Central Processing Unit.

    PubMed

    Malicki, Jarema J; Johnson, Colin A

    2017-02-01

    Cilia mediate an astonishing diversity of processes. Recent advances provide unexpected insights into the regulatory mechanisms of cilium formation, and reveal diverse regulatory inputs that are related to the cell cycle, cytoskeleton, proteostasis, and cilia-mediated signaling itself. Ciliogenesis and cilia maintenance are regulated by reciprocal antagonistic or synergistic influences, often acting in parallel to each other. By receiving parallel inputs, cilia appear to integrate multiple signals into specific outputs and may have functions similar to logic gates of digital systems. Some combinations of input signals appear to impose higher hierarchical control related to the cell cycle. An integrated view of these regulatory inputs will be necessary to understand ciliogenesis and its wider relevance to human biology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. EPA Region 4 Intergovernmental Review Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Executive Order 12372 & EPA's implementing regulation 40 CFR Part 29 require that all interested state, area-wide, regional, and local agencies be given the opportunity to review & comment on proposed Federal assistance within their area(s) of jurisdiction

  1. Review of current loop coalescence process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, J.-I.

    This paper concentrates on the developments since the review by Sakai and Ohsawa (1987) dealing with particle acceleration by magnetic reconnection and shocks during current loop coalescence in solar flares.

  2. EPA Region 7 Intergovernmental Review Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Executive Order 12372 & EPA's implementing regulation 40 CFR Part 29 require that all interested state, area-wide, regional, and local agencies be given the opportunity to review & comment on proposed Federal assistance within their area(s) of jurisdiction

  3. Big Data Processing for a Central Texas Groundwater Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu, A.; Rivera, O.; Martínez, A.; Lewis, D. H.; Gentle, J. N., Jr.; Fuentes, G.; Pierce, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    As computational methods improve, scientists are able to expand the level and scale of experimental simulation and testing that is completed for case studies. This study presents a comparative analysis of multiple models for the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer. Several numerical simulations using state-mandated MODFLOW models ran on Stampede, a High Performance Computing system housed at the Texas Advanced Computing Center, were performed for multiple scenario testing. One goal of this multidisciplinary project aims to visualize and compare the output data of the groundwater model using the statistical programming language R to find revealing data patterns produced by different pumping scenarios. Presenting data in a friendly post-processing format is covered in this paper. Visualization of the data and creating workflows applicable to the management of the data are tasks performed after data extraction. Resulting analyses provide an example of how supercomputing can be used to accelerate evaluation of scientific uncertainty and geological knowledge in relation to policy and management decisions. Understanding the aquifer behavior helps policy makers avoid negative impact on the endangered species, environmental services and aids in maximizing the aquifer yield.

  4. Contrasting serpentinization processes in the eastern Central Alps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhard, D.J.M.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotope compositions have been determined for serpentinites from between Davos (Arosa-Platta nappe, Switzerland) and the Valmalenco (Italy). ??D and ??18O values (-120 to -60 and 6-10???, respectively) in the Arosa-Platta nappe indicate that serpentinization took place on the continent at relatively low temperatures in the presence of limited amounts of metamorphic fluids that contained a component of meteoric water. One sample of chrysotile has a ??18O value of 13??? providing evidence of high W/R ratios and low formation temperature of lizardite-chrysotile in this area. In contrast, relatively high ??D values (-42 to -34???) and low ??18O values (4.4-7.4???) for serpentine in the eastern part of the Valmalenco suggest a serpentinization process that took place at moderate temperatures in fluids that were dominated by ocean water. The antigorite in the Valmalenco is the first reported example of continental antigorite with an ocean water signature. An amphibole sample from a metasomatically overprinted contact zone to metasediments (??D=-36???) indicates that the metasomatic event also took place in the presence of ocean water. Lower ??D values (-93 to -60???) of serpentines in the western part of the Valmalenco suggest a different alteration history possibly influenced by fluids associated with contact metamorphism. Low water/rock ratios during regional metamorphism (and metasomatism) have to be assumed for both regions. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Phase 5 storage (Project W-112) Central Waste Complex operational readiness review, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wight, R.H.

    1997-05-30

    This document is the final report for the RFSH conducted, Contractor Operational Readiness Review (ORR) for the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Project W-112 and Interim Safety Basis implementation. As appendices, all findings, observations, lines of inquiry and the implementation plan are included.

  6. [Care bundle to reduce central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Brachine, Juliana Dane Pereira; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2012-12-01

    This is an integrative review of literature aimed to identify evidence-based interventions which make up care bundles to reduce central venous catheter-related or associated bloodstream infections. To collect data in Brazilian and international databases were used the key word bundle and the descriptors catheter-related infection, infection control and central venous catheterization, resulting in fifteen articles, after inclusion criteria application. This work showed five interventions as those commonly employed in the bundles methods: hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate for skin antisepsis, use of maximal sterile barrier precaution during the catheter insertion, avoid the femoral access and daily review of catheter necessity with prompt removal as no longer essential. The majority of the studies showed a significant reduction in bloodstream infection related to or associated with central venous catheters.

  7. Localized gingival enlargement associated with alveolar process expansion: peripheral ossifying fibroma coincident with central odontogenic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cléverson O; Sallum, Antônio Wilson; do Couto-Filho, Carlos Eduardo Gomes; Costa Pereira, Alessandro Antônio; Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa; Tatakis, Dimitris N

    2007-07-01

    Despite the common occurrence of localized gingival enlargements, which often represent reactive lesions, the temporal and spatial association of such a lesion with a central jaw lesion has not been reported. The purpose of this case report is to present the exceptional combination of a peripheral ossifying fibroma and a central odontogenic fibroma. The differential diagnosis and management of each lesion is reviewed. A 45-year-old black female presented with a chief complaint of a painless protuberance in the left mandible of 1-year duration. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed a gingival enlargement localized between teeth #21 and #23 and a multilocular radiolucent lesion with radiopaque foci in the same area. Excisional biopsy of the gingival lesion and incisional biopsy of the central lesion were performed, and specimens were submitted for histopathological analysis. Biopsy of the gingival lesion revealed stratified squamous epithelium and highly cellular fibroblastic component presenting central areas of calcification, features consistent with a diagnosis of peripheral ossifying fibroma. The central lesion was characterized by cellular fibrous tissue admixed with rests of odontogenic epithelium and few calcification areas, features consistent with a diagnosis of central odontogenic fibroma/World Health Organization type. Subsequently, the central lesion was enucleated. After 1-year follow-up, no recurrence has been observed. The combination of a rare central lesion with a common gingival lesion may present unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Clinician awareness regarding the possibility of such a combined presentation and its implications will help to ensure optimal treatment outcomes.

  8. Central Venous Catheter-Related Tachycardia in the Newborn: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Aya; Broadbent, Roland S.; Edmonds, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Central venous access is an important aspect of neonatal intensive care management. Malpositioned central catheters have been reported to induce cardiac tachyarrhythmia in adult populations and there are case reports within the neonatal population. We present a case of a preterm neonate with a preexisting umbilical venous catheter (UVC), who then developed a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). This was initially treated with intravenous adenosine with transient reversion. Catheter migration was subsequently detected, with the UVC tip located within the heart. Upon withdrawal of the UVC and a final dose of adenosine, the arrhythmia permanently resolved. Our literature review confirms that tachyarrhythmia is a rare but recognised neonatal complication of malpositioned central venous catheters. We recommend the immediate investigation of central catheter position when managing neonatal tachyarrhythmia, as catheter repositioning is an essential aspect of management. PMID:28058050

  9. Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong-ha; Park, Lydia K.; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2016-06-24

    Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. Dramatic improvements such as these lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality. Because of these benefits, process intensification can play a major role in industrial and manufacturing sectors, including chemical, pulp and paper, energy, critical materials, and water treatment, among others. This article provides an overview of process intensification, including definitions, principles, tools, and possible applications, with the objective to contribute to the future development and potential applications of modular chemical process intensification in industrial and manufacturing sectors. Drivers and barriers contributing to the advancement of process intensification technologies are discussed.

  10. Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Yong-ha; Park, Lydia K.; Yiacoumi, Sotira; ...

    2016-06-24

    Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. Dramatic improvements such as these lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality. Because of these benefits, process intensification can play a major role in industrial and manufacturing sectors, including chemical, pulp and paper, energy, critical materials, and water treatment, among others. Thismore » article provides an overview of process intensification, including definitions, principles, tools, and possible applications, with the objective to contribute to the future development and potential applications of modular chemical process intensification in industrial and manufacturing sectors. Drivers and barriers contributing to the advancement of process intensification technologies are discussed.« less

  11. Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Park, Lydia K; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2017-06-07

    Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. These dramatic improvements lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality. Because of these benefits, process intensification can play a major role in industrial and manufacturing sectors, including chemical, pulp and paper, energy, critical materials, and water treatment, among others. This article provides an overview of process intensification, including definitions, principles, tools, and possible applications, with the objective to contribute to the future development and potential applications of modular chemical process intensification in industrial and manufacturing sectors. Drivers and barriers contributing to the advancement of process intensification technologies are discussed.

  12. What Are the Predictors of Altered Central Pain Modulation in Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Populations? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jacqui; Nijs, Jo; Yeowell, Gillian; Goodwin, Peter Charles

    2017-09-01

    factors (somatization and poor self-expectation of recovery), at a pre-morbid or acute stage baseline. At the times of the article publications, the current definitions and clinical guidelines for identifying altered central pain modulation were not yet available. Careful interpretation of the information provided using current knowledge and published guidelines was necessary to extract information specific to altered central pain modulation in some of the studies, avoiding unwarranted assumptions. Premorbid and acute stage high sensory sensitivity and/or somatization are the strongest predictors of altered central pain modulation in chronic musculoskeletal pain to date. This is the first systematic review specifically targeting altered central pain modulation as the primary outcome in musculoskeletal pain populations. Early identification of people at risk of developing chronic pain with altered central pain modulation may guide clinicians in appropriate management, diminishing the burden of persistent pain on patients and heath care providers alike. Systematic Review Registration no.: PROSPERO 2015:CRD42015032394.Key words: Predictive factors, pre-morbid and acute stage baselines, altered central pain modulation, chronic musculoskeletal pain, sensory processing, somatization.

  13. Productive Skills for Process Operatives. Skills Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, L.; Kodz, J.; Evans, C.

    A study of process operatives examined the developments in processing work in 20 organizations within the chemical and food and drink processing industries. Seven exploratory interviews were followed by 20 employer interviews. Technological innovations caused job losses and layoffs. Organizational responses adopted to meet increasing competitive…

  14. Examining Marketing Journals' Publication Process and Reviewer Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Vicky L.; Reisenwitz, Timothy H.; Schibrowsky, John A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines reviewer practices at 11 marketing journals. The results for the top three journals are compared to eight comparable journals that are typically considered to be non-top-tier journals. The results suggest that the reviewers and the review processes at the top journals differ significantly from those of the non-top-tier…

  15. Examining Marketing Journals' Publication Process and Reviewer Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Vicky L.; Reisenwitz, Timothy H.; Schibrowsky, John A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines reviewer practices at 11 marketing journals. The results for the top three journals are compared to eight comparable journals that are typically considered to be non-top-tier journals. The results suggest that the reviewers and the review processes at the top journals differ significantly from those of the non-top-tier…

  16. The influence of (central) auditory processing disorder in speech sound disorders.

    PubMed

    Barrozo, Tatiane Faria; Pagan-Neves, Luciana de Oliveira; Vilela, Nadia; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of auditory information for the acquisition and organization of phonological rules, the assessment of (central) auditory processing contributes to both the diagnosis and targeting of speech therapy in children with speech sound disorders. To study phonological measures and (central) auditory processing of children with speech sound disorder. Clinical and experimental study, with 21 subjects with speech sound disorder aged between 7.0 and 9.11 years, divided into two groups according to their (central) auditory processing disorder. The assessment comprised tests of phonology, speech inconsistency, and metalinguistic abilities. The group with (central) auditory processing disorder demonstrated greater severity of speech sound disorder. The cutoff value obtained for the process density index was the one that best characterized the occurrence of phonological processes for children above 7 years of age. The comparison among the tests evaluated between the two groups showed differences in some phonological and metalinguistic abilities. Children with an index value above 0.54 demonstrated strong tendencies towards presenting a (central) auditory processing disorder, and this measure was effective to indicate the need for evaluation in children with speech sound disorder. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Design for Review - Applying Lessons Learned to Improve the FPGA Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueiredo, Marco A.; Li, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Flight Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) designs are required to be independently reviewed. This paper provides recommendations to Flight FPGA designers to properly prepare their designs for review in order to facilitate the review process, and reduce the impact of the review time in the overall project schedule.

  18. Concise Review: Modeling Central Nervous System Diseases Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hunsberger, Joshua G.; Simeonov, Anton; Malik, Nasir; Pei, Ying; Rao, Mahendra

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an opportunity to delve into the mechanisms underlying development while also affording the potential to take advantage of a number of naturally occurring mutations that contribute to either disease susceptibility or resistance. Just as with any new field, several models of screening are being explored, and innovators are working on the most efficient methods to overcome the inherent limitations of primary cell screens using iPSCs. In the present review, we provide a background regarding why iPSCs represent a paradigm shift for central nervous system (CNS) disease modeling. We describe the efforts in the field to develop more biologically relevant CNS disease models, which should provide screening assays useful for the pharmaceutical industry. We also provide some examples of successful uses for iPSC-based screens and suggest that additional development could revolutionize the field of drug discovery. The development and implementation of these advanced iPSC-based screens will create a more efficient disease-specific process underpinned by the biological mechanism in a patient- and disease-specific manner rather than by trial-and-error. Moreover, with careful and strategic planning, shared resources can be developed that will enable exponential advances in the field. This will undoubtedly lead to more sensitive and accurate screens for early diagnosis and allow the identification of patient-specific therapies, thus, paving the way to personalized medicine. PMID:25368377

  19. Results-Based Financing in Mozambique’s Central Medical Store: A Review After 1 Year

    PubMed Central

    Spisak, Cary; Morgan, Lindsay; Eichler, Rena; Rosen, James; Serumaga, Brian; Wang, Angela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Public health commodity supply chains are typically weak in low-income countries, partly because they have many disparate yet interdependent functions and components. Approaches to strengthening supply chains in such settings have often fallen short—they address technical weaknesses, but not the incentives that motivate staff to perform better. Methods: We reviewed the first year of a results-based financing (RBF) program in Mozambique, which began in January 2013. The program aimed to improve the performance of the central medical store—Central de Medicamentos e Artigos Medicos (CMAM)—by realigning incentives. We completed in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 33 key informants, including representatives from CMAM and donor agencies, and collected quantitative data on performance measures and use of funds. Implementation: The RBF agreement linked CMAM performance payments to quarterly results on 5 performance indicators related to supply planning, distribution planning, and warehouse management. RBF is predicated on the theory that a combination of carrot and stick—i.e., shared financial incentives, plus increased accountability for results—will spur changes in behavior. Important design elements: (1) indicators were measured against quarterly targets, and payments were made only for indicators that met those targets; (2) targets were set based on documented performance, at levels that could be reasonably attained, yet pushed for improvement; (3) payment was shared with and dependent on all staff, encouraging teamwork and collaboration; (4) results were validated by verifiable data sources; and (5) CMAM had discretion over how to use the funds. Findings: We found that CMAM’s performance continually improved over baseline and that CMAM achieved many of its performance targets, for example, timely submission of quarterly supply and distribution planning reports. Warehouse indicators, such as inventory management and

  20. Results-Based Financing in Mozambique's Central Medical Store: A Review After 1 Year.

    PubMed

    Spisak, Cary; Morgan, Lindsay; Eichler, Rena; Rosen, James; Serumaga, Brian; Wang, Angela

    2016-03-01

    Public health commodity supply chains are typically weak in low-income countries, partly because they have many disparate yet interdependent functions and components. Approaches to strengthening supply chains in such settings have often fallen short-they address technical weaknesses, but not the incentives that motivate staff to perform better. We reviewed the first year of a results-based financing (RBF) program in Mozambique, which began in January 2013. The program aimed to improve the performance of the central medical store-Central de Medicamentos e Artigos Medicos (CMAM)-by realigning incentives. We completed in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 33 key informants, including representatives from CMAM and donor agencies, and collected quantitative data on performance measures and use of funds. The RBF agreement linked CMAM performance payments to quarterly results on 5 performance indicators related to supply planning, distribution planning, and warehouse management. RBF is predicated on the theory that a combination of carrot and stick-i.e., shared financial incentives, plus increased accountability for results-will spur changes in behavior. Important design elements: (1) indicators were measured against quarterly targets, and payments were made only for indicators that met those targets; (2) targets were set based on documented performance, at levels that could be reasonably attained, yet pushed for improvement; (3) payment was shared with and dependent on all staff, encouraging teamwork and collaboration; (4) results were validated by verifiable data sources; and (5) CMAM had discretion over how to use the funds. We found that CMAM's performance continually improved over baseline and that CMAM achieved many of its performance targets, for example, timely submission of quarterly supply and distribution planning reports. Warehouse indicators, such as inventory management and order fulfillment, proved more challenging but were nonetheless

  1. 38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Review and appeal process... Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.904 Review and appeal process. For purposes of §§ 17.900...

  2. Marketing Academics' Perceptions of the Peer Review Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Charles D.; Hair, Joe F.; Hermanson, Dana R.; Crittenden, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    Publication in refereed journals is critical to career success for most marketing faculty members, and the peer review process is the gatekeeper for a refereed journal. The study reported here examines marketing academics' perceptions of this peer review process. Based on responses from 653 marketing academics, we find favorable overall…

  3. 49 CFR 242.505 - Processing certification review petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Processing certification review petitions. 242.505... Procedures § 242.505 Processing certification review petitions. (a) Each petition shall be acknowledged in writing by FRA. The acknowledgment shall contain the docket number assigned to the petition and a...

  4. 49 CFR 242.505 - Processing certification review petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Processing certification review petitions. 242.505... Procedures § 242.505 Processing certification review petitions. (a) Each petition shall be acknowledged in writing by FRA. The acknowledgment shall contain the docket number assigned to the petition and a...

  5. 49 CFR 240.405 - Processing qualification review petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Processing qualification review petitions. 240.405... Resolution Procedures § 240.405 Processing qualification review petitions. (a) Each petition shall be acknowledged in writing by FRA. The acknowledgment shall contain the docket number assigned to the petition and...

  6. 49 CFR 240.405 - Processing qualification review petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Processing qualification review petitions. 240.405... Resolution Procedures § 240.405 Processing qualification review petitions. (a) Each petition shall be acknowledged in writing by FRA. The acknowledgment shall contain the docket number assigned to the petition and...

  7. 42 CFR 457.1180 - Program specific review process: Notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program specific review process: Notice. 457.1180... State Plan Requirements: Applicant and Enrollee Protections § 457.1180 Program specific review process: Notice. A State must provide enrollees and applicants timely written notice of any...

  8. Marketing Academics' Perceptions of the Peer Review Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Charles D.; Hair, Joe F.; Hermanson, Dana R.; Crittenden, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    Publication in refereed journals is critical to career success for most marketing faculty members, and the peer review process is the gatekeeper for a refereed journal. The study reported here examines marketing academics' perceptions of this peer review process. Based on responses from 653 marketing academics, we find favorable overall…

  9. 8 CFR 287.10 - Expedited internal review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to employees of the former INS, persons may contact the Office of Internal Audit, Bureau of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited internal review process. 287.10... OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.10 Expedited internal review process. (a) Violations of standards for...

  10. 49 CFR 240.405 - Processing qualification review petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing qualification review petitions. 240.405... Resolution Procedures § 240.405 Processing qualification review petitions. (a) Each petition shall be acknowledged in writing by FRA. The acknowledgment shall contain the docket number assigned to the petition and...

  11. Review of dextromethorphan administration in 18 patients with subacute methotrexate central nervous system toxicity.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Maryam; Birnbaum, Daniel; Golden, Carla

    2014-06-01

    The pathogenesis of methotrexate central nervous system toxicity is multifactorial, but it is likely related to central nervous system folate homeostasis. The use of folinate rescue has been described to decrease toxicity in patients who had received intrathecal methotrexate. It has also been described in previous studies that there is an elevated level of homocysteine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients who had received intrathecal methotrexate. Homocysteine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist. The use of dextromethorphan, noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor receptor antagonist, has been used in the treatment of sudden onset of neurological dysfunction associated with methotrexate toxicity. It remains unclear whether the dextromethorphan impacted the speed of recovery, and its use remains controversial. This study reviews the use of dextromethorphan in the setting of subacute methotrexate central nervous system toxicity. Charts of 18 patients who had sudden onset of neurological impairments after receiving methotrexate and were treated with dextromethorphan were reviewed. The use of dextromethorphan in most of our patients resulted in symptomatic improvement. In this patient population, earlier administration of dextromethorphan resulted in faster improvement of impairments and led to prevention of recurrence of seizure activity induced by methotrexate central nervous system toxicity. Our study provides support for the use of dextromethorphan in patients with subacute methotrexate central nervous system toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Teaching peer review and the process of scientific writing.

    PubMed

    Guilford, W H

    2001-12-01

    Many undergraduate and graduate students understand neither the process of scientific writing nor the significance of peer review. In response, some instructors have created writing assignments that teach or mimic parts of the scientific publishing process. However, none fully reproduced peer review and revision of papers together with the writing and publishing process from research to final, accepted draft. In addition, most have been instituted at the graduate rather than undergraduate level. We present a detailed method for teaching undergraduate students the full scientific publishing process, including anonymous peer review, during the process of writing a "term paper." The result is a review article in the format for submission to a major scientific journal. This method has been implemented in the course Cell and Molecular Biology for Engineers at the University of Virginia. Use of this method resulted in improved grades, much higher quality in the final manuscript, greater objectivity in grading, and improved understanding of the importance of peer review.

  13. Modeling Land Application of Food-Processing Wastewater in the Central Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Y.; Benito, P.; Miller, G.; McLaughlin, J.; Hou, Z.; Hermanowicz, S.; Mayer, U.

    2007-12-01

    California's Central Valley contains over 640 food-processing plants, serving a multi-billion dollar agricultural industry. These processors consume approximately 7.9 x 107 m3 of water per year. Approximately 80% of these processors discharge the resulting wastewater, which is typically high in organic matter, nitrogen, and salts, to land, and many of these use land application as a treatment method. Initial investigations revealed elevated salinity levels to be the most common form of groundwater degradation near land application sites, followed by concentrations of nitrogen compounds, namely ammonia and nitrate. Enforcement actions have been taken against multiple food processors, and the regulatory boards have begun to re-examine the land disposal permitting process. This paper summarizes a study that was commissioned in support of these actions. The study has multiple components which will be reviewed briefly, including: (1) characterization of the food-processing related waste stream; (2) fate and transport of the effluent waste stream in the unsaturated zone at the land application sites; (3) fate and transport of the effluent waste stream at the regional scale; (4) predictive uncertainty due to spatial variability and data scarcity at the land application sites and at the regional scale; (5) problem mitigation through off-site and in-situ actions; (6) long-term solutions. The emphasis of the talk will be placed on presenting and demonstrating a stochastic framework for modeling the transport and attenuation of these wastes in the vadose zone and in the saturated zone, and the related site characterization needs, as affected by site conditions, water table depth, waste water application rate, and waste constituent concentrations.

  14. Central retinal vein occlusion in people aged 40 years or less: a review of 17 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Walters, R F; Spalton, D J

    1990-01-01

    Seventeen patients with central retinal vein occlusion aged 40 or under were reviewed. Ocular involvement was characteristically unilateral, with moderate degrees of retinal haemorrhage, little retinal ischaemia, and a tendency to optic disc swelling. Visual prognosis was good. Follow-up showed that most patients have good general health and no involvement of the fellow eye. There was little evidence to support an inflammatory aetiology or underlying vascular disease in most of the patients. An alternative explanation for the development of CRVO in young patients might be a congenital anomaly of the central retinal vein. PMID:2306442

  15. Abnormal Large Central Occipital Emissary Vein: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dolati, Parviz; Fusco, Matthew R; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Thomas, Ajith J.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed description of the anatomy of the central occipital emissary vein, its embryology, anatomy, and abnormal variations is not available in the literature. This is the first known case report. A 48-year-old female underwent cerebral angiography to rule out dural arterio-venous fistula. Her angiography revealed an abnormally large central occipital emissary vein originating from the torcula, penetrating the cranium and draining into the suboccipital venous plexus. We provide discussion of the case with a review of the related literature. This case and its attached radiological images introduce a new type of entity to the existing data about the cranial emissary veins. PMID:27330871

  16. The Measurement Of Relative Blood Flow: An Example Of Centralized Radiological Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankovich, Nicholas J.; Papin, Patrick J.; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Huang, H. K.; Hernandez-Armas, Jose

    1984-06-01

    The ability to perform post-processing on diagnostic images is becomming more and more important especially as an effort to extract additional information to aid diagnosis. However, it is often the case that researchers need to implement their own image analysis which is beyond the ability of manufacturer-supplied software. This analysis can be done by either directly programming the clinical device or performing the analysis on a centralized image processing system. This paper presents an example where advanced image analysis was performed on a centralized system. Digital fluorographic (DF) blood flow analysis was done after DF images were transferred from the Angiographic Laboratory to the Image Processing Laboratory. The advantages and disadvantages of the use of such a centralized processing scheme are discussed in the light of the DF example.

  17. Observations on the Use of SCAN To Identify Children at Risk for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Maria F.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The SCAN: A Screening Test for Auditory Processing Disorders was administered to 14 elementary children with a history of otitis media and 14 typical children, to evaluate the validity of the test in identifying children with central auditory processing disorder. Another experiment found that test results differed based on the testing environment…

  18. Observations on the Use of SCAN To Identify Children at Risk for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Maria F.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The SCAN: A Screening Test for Auditory Processing Disorders was administered to 14 elementary children with a history of otitis media and 14 typical children, to evaluate the validity of the test in identifying children with central auditory processing disorder. Another experiment found that test results differed based on the testing environment…

  19. Predictive information processing in music cognition. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin A; Koelsch, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    Expectation and prediction constitute central mechanisms in the perception and cognition of music, which have been explored in theoretical and empirical accounts. We review the scope and limits of theoretical accounts of musical prediction with respect to feature-based and temporal prediction. While the concept of prediction is unproblematic for basic single-stream features such as melody, it is not straight-forward for polyphonic structures or higher-order features such as formal predictions. Behavioural results based on explicit and implicit (priming) paradigms provide evidence of priming in various domains that may reflect predictive behaviour. Computational learning models, including symbolic (fragment-based), probabilistic/graphical, or connectionist approaches, provide well-specified predictive models of specific features and feature combinations. While models match some experimental results, full-fledged music prediction cannot yet be modelled. Neuroscientific results regarding the early right-anterior negativity (ERAN) and mismatch negativity (MMN) reflect expectancy violations on different levels of processing complexity, and provide some neural evidence for different predictive mechanisms. At present, the combinations of neural and computational modelling methodologies are at early stages and require further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Key Steps in the Special Review Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA uses this process when it has reason to believe that the use of a pesticide may result in unreasonable adverse effects on people or the environment. Steps include comprehensive risk and benefit analyses and multiple Position Documents.

  1. Standardized severe maternal morbidity review: rationale and process.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Sarah J; Berg, Cynthia; Bernstein, Peter; Bingham, Debra; Delgado, Ana; Callaghan, William M; Harris, Karen; Lanni, Susan; Mahoney, Jeanne; Main, Elliot; Nacht, Amy; Schellpfeffer, Michael; Westover, Thomas; Harper, Margaret

    2014-08-01

    Severe maternal morbidity and mortality have been rising in the United States. To begin a national effort to reduce morbidity, a specific call to identify all pregnant and postpartum women experiencing admission to an intensive care unit or receipt of 4 or more units of blood for routine review has been made. While advocating for review of these cases, no specific guidance for the review process was provided. Therefore, the aim of this expert opinion is to present guidelines for a standardized severe maternal morbidity interdisciplinary review process to identify systems, professional, and facility factors that can be ameliorated, with the overall goal of improving institutional obstetric safety and reducing severe morbidity and mortality among pregnant and recently pregnant women. This opinion was developed by a multidisciplinary working group that included general obstetrician-gynecologists, maternal-fetal medicine subspecialists, certified nurse-midwives, and registered nurses all with experience in maternal mortality reviews. A process for standardized review of severe maternal morbidity addressing committee organization, review process, medical record abstraction and assessment, review culture, data management, review timing, and review confidentiality is presented. Reference is made to a sample severe maternal morbidity abstraction and assessment form.

  2. Central load reduces peripheral processing: Evidence from incidental memory of background speech.

    PubMed

    Halin, Niklas; Marsh, John E; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    Is there a trade-off between central (working memory) load and peripheral (perceptual) processing? To address this question, participants were requested to undertake an n-back task in one of two levels of central/cognitive load (i.e., 1-back or 2-back) in the presence of a to-be-ignored story presented via headphones. Participants were told to ignore the background story, but they were given a surprise memory test of what had been said in the background story, immediately after the n-back task was completed. Memory was poorer in the high central load (2-back) condition in comparison with the low central load (1-back) condition. Hence, when people compensate for higher central load, by increasing attentional engagement, peripheral processing is constrained. Moreover, participants with high working memory capacity (WMC) - with a superior ability for attentional engagement - remembered less of the background story, but only in the low central load condition. Taken together, peripheral processing - as indexed by incidental memory of background speech - is constrained when task engagement is high.

  3. Nonlinear joint transmit-receive processing for coordinated multi-cell systems: centralized and decentralized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhirui; Feng, Chunyan; Zhang, Tiankui; Niu, Qin; Chen, Yue

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a nonlinear joint transmit-receive (tx-rx) processing scheme for downlink-coordinated multi-cell systems with multi-stream multi-antenna users. The nonlinear joint tx-rx processing is formulated as an optimization problem to maximize the minimum signal-to-interference noise ratio (SINR) of streams to guarantee the fairness among streams of each user. Nonlinear Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (THP) is applied at transmitters, and linear receive processing is applied at receivers, to eliminate the inter-user interference and inter-stream interference. We consider multi-cell systems under two coordinated modes: centralized and decentralized, corresponding to systems with high- and low-capacity backhaul links, respectively. For the centralized coordinated mode, transmit and receive processing matrices are jointly determined by the central processing unit based on the global channel state information (CSI) shared by base stations (BSs). For the decentralized coordinated mode, transmit and receive processing matrices are computed independently based on the local CSI at each BS. In correspondence, we propose both a centralized and a decentralized algorithm to solve the optimization problem under the two modes, respectively. Feasibility and computational complexity of the proposed algorithms are also analyzed. Simulation results prove that the proposed nonlinear joint tx-rx processing scheme can achieve user fairness by equalizing the bit error rate (BER) among streams of each user and the proposed scheme outperforms the existing linear joint tx-rx processing. Moreover, consistent with previous research results, performance of the proposed centralized nonlinear joint tx-rx processing scheme is proved to be better than that of the decentralized nonlinear joint tx-rx processing.

  4. The JSC Engineering Directorate Product Peer Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, Kenneth C.

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Engineering Directorate has developed a Product Peer Review process in support of NASA policies for project management and systems engineering. The process complies with the requirements of NPR 7120.5, NPR 7123.1 and NPR 7150.2 and follows the guidance in NASA/SP-2007-6105. This presentation will give an overview of the process followed by a brief demonstration of an actual peer review, with audience participation.

  5. Central sensitization syndrome and the initial evaluation of a patient with fibromyalgia: a review.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kevin C; Volcheck, Mary M

    2015-04-01

    In both primary care and consultative practices, patients presenting with fibromyalgia (FM) often have other medically unexplained somatic symptoms and are ultimately diagnosed as having central sensitization (CS). Central sensitization encompasses many disorders where the central nervous system amplifies sensory input across many organ systems and results in myriad symptoms. A pragmatic approach to evaluate FM and related symptoms, including a focused review of medical records, interviewing techniques, and observations, is offered here, giving valuable tools for identifying and addressing the most relevant symptoms. At the time of the clinical evaluation, early consideration of CS may improve the efficiency of the visit, reduce excessive testing, and help in discerning between typical and atypical cases so as to avoid an inaccurate diagnosis. Discussion of pain and neurophysiology and sensitization often proves helpful.

  6. Meteorological variability and infectious disease in Central Africa: a review of meteorological data quality.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Alexandra; Little, Eliza; Ng, Sophia; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2016-10-01

    Central African countries may bear high climate change-related infectious disease burdens because of preexisting high rates of disease, poor healthcare infrastructure, land use changes, and high environmental change vulnerabilities. However, making connections between climate and infectious diseases in this region is hampered by the paucity of high-quality meteorological data. This review analyzes the sources and quality of meteorological data used to study the interactions between weather and infectious diseases in Central African countries. Results show that 23% of studies used meteorological data that mismatched with the disease spatial scale of interest. Use of inappropriate weather data was most frequently identified in analyses using meteorological station data or gridded data products. These findings have implications for the interpretation of existing analyses and provide guidance for the use of climate data in future analyses of the connections between meteorology and infectious diseases in Central Africa. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Central Sensitization Syndrome and the Initial Evaluation of a Patient with Fibromyalgia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Kevin C.; Volcheck, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    In both primary care and consultative practices, patients presenting with fibromyalgia (FM) often have other medically unexplained somatic symptoms and are ultimately diagnosed as having central sensitization (CS). Central sensitization encompasses many disorders where the central nervous system amplifies sensory input across many organ systems and results in myriad symptoms. A pragmatic approach to evaluate FM and related symptoms, including a focused review of medical records, interviewing techniques, and observations, is offered here, giving valuable tools for identifying and addressing the most relevant symptoms. At the time of the clinical evaluation, early consideration of CS may improve the efficiency of the visit, reduce excessive testing, and help in discerning between typical and atypical cases so as to avoid an inaccurate diagnosis. Discussion of pain and neurophysiology and sensitization often proves helpful. PMID:25973272

  8. Efficacy of Epidural Injections in the Treatment of Lumbar Central Spinal Stenosis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Kaye, Alan David; Manchikanti, Kavita; Boswell, Mark; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Hirsch, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lumbar central spinal stenosis is common and often results in chronic persistent pain and disability, which can lead to multiple interventions. After the failure of conservative treatment, either surgical or nonsurgical modalities such as epidural injections are contemplated in the management of lumbar spinal stenosis. Evidence Acquisition: Recent randomized trials, systematic reviews and guidelines have reached varying conclusions about the efficacy of epidural injections in the management of central lumbar spinal stenosis. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of all three anatomical epidural injection approaches (caudal, interlaminar, and transforaminal) in the treatment of lumbar central spinal stenosis. A systematic review was performed on randomized trials published from 1966 to July 2014 of all types of epidural injections used in the management of lumbar central spinal stenosis. Methodological quality assessment and grading of the evidence was performed. Results: The evidence in managing lumbar spinal stenosis is Level II for long-term improvement for caudal and lumbar interlaminar epidural injections. For transforaminal epidural injections, the evidence is Level III for short-term improvement only. The interlaminar approach appears to be superior to the caudal approach and the caudal approach appears to be superior to the transforaminal one. Conclusions: The available evidence suggests that epidural injections with local anesthetic alone or with local anesthetic with steroids offer short- and long-term relief of low back and lower extremity pain for patients with lumbar central spinal stenosis. However, the evidence is Level II for the long-term efficacy of caudal and interlaminar epidural injections, whereas it is Level III for short-term improvement only with transforaminal epidural injections. PMID:25789241

  9. Review and evaluation of space processing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Materials research in space which offers advantages in studying phenomena and preparing materials under conditions which cannot be realized in the gravity field of the Earth is discussed. Many techniques were developed to improve processing systems and reduce the effect of gravitationally induced restrictions. The space-based devices take advantage of a wide range of low-gravity facilities including drop towers and tubes, aircraft and sounding rocket parabolic trajectories, simple materials experiment accommodations in the Space Shuttle, and more complex capabilities in Spacelab. All these systems are used to produce novel materials and to study material processing under unique conditions.

  10. Pharmacogenetic research activity in Central America and the Caribbean: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Céspedes-Garro, Carolina; Naranjo, María-Eugenia G; Rodrigues-Soares, Fernanda; LLerena, Adrián; Duconge, Jorge; Montané-Jaime, Lazara K; Roblejo, Hilda; Fariñas, Humberto; Campos, María de Los A; Ramírez, Ronald; Serrano, Víctor; Villagrán, Carmen I; Peñas-LLedó, Eva M

    2016-10-01

    The present review was aimed at analyzing the pharmacogenetic scientific activity in Central America and the Caribbean. A literature search for pharmacogenetic studies in each country of the region was conducted on three databases using a list of the most relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers including 'phenotyping probe drugs' for major drug metabolizing enzymes. The review included 132 papers involving 47 biomarkers and 35,079 subjects (11,129 healthy volunteers and 23,950 patients). The country with the most intensive pharmacogenetic research was Costa Rica. The most studied medical therapeutic area was oncology, and the most investigated biomarkers were CYP2D6 and HLA-A/B. Conclusion: Research activity on pharmacogenetics in Central American and the Caribbean populations is limited or absent. Therefore, strategies to promote effective collaborations, and foster interregional initiatives and research efforts among countries from the region could help for the rational clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine.

  11. Pharmacogenetic research activity in Central America and the Caribbean: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Céspedes-Garro, Carolina; Naranjo, María-Eugenia G; Rodrigues-Soares, Fernanda; LLerena, Adrián; Duconge, Jorge; Montané-Jaime, Lazara K; Roblejo, Hilda; Fariñas, Humberto; Campos, María de los A; Ramírez, Ronald; Serrano, Víctor; Villagrán, Carmen I; Peñas-LLedó, Eva M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present review was aimed at analyzing the pharmacogenetic scientific activity in Central America and the Caribbean. Materials & methods: A literature search for pharmacogenetic studies in each country of the region was conducted on three databases using a list of the most relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers including ‘phenotyping probe drugs’ for major drug metabolizing enzymes. The review included 132 papers involving 47 biomarkers and 35,079 subjects (11,129 healthy volunteers and 23,950 patients). Results: The country with the most intensive pharmacogenetic research was Costa Rica. The most studied medical therapeutic area was oncology, and the most investigated biomarkers were CYP2D6 and HLA-A/B. Conclusion: Research activity on pharmacogenetics in Central American and the Caribbean populations is limited or absent. Therefore, strategies to promote effective collaborations, and foster interregional initiatives and research efforts among countries from the region could help for the rational clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine. PMID:27633613

  12. Civil capacity in transition-age youth with history of central nervous system compromise: a review.

    PubMed

    Donders, Jacobus

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review various aspects of decision-making capacities in children and adolescents with a history of central nervous system compromise over the course of development and into transition to adulthood. The literature on consent capacity in various domains is reviewed, with reference to state-specific legal definitions and requirements, and illustrated with a case example. Neuropsychologists who use an evidence-based assessment approach, and who can clearly communicate their findings in reference to specific probate court standards, can make a unique contribution to the legal system while serving their clients who are transitioning from adolescence into adulthood.

  13. Motivation enhances visual working memory capacity through the modulation of central cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Motoyuki; Ikeda, Koki; Kimura, Kenta; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-09-01

    Motivation is well known to enhance working memory (WM) capacity, but the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. The WM process can be divided into encoding, maintenance, and retrieval, and in a change detection visual WM paradigm, the encoding and retrieval processes can be subdivided into perceptual and central processing. To clarify which of these segments are most influenced by motivation, we measured ERPs in a change detection task with differential monetary rewards. The results showed that the enhancement of WM capacity under high motivation was accompanied by modulations of late central components but not those reflecting attentional control on perceptual inputs across all stages of WM. We conclude that the "state-dependent" shift of motivation impacted the central, rather than the perceptual functions in order to achieve better behavioral performances. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Investigation of Central Pain Processing in Post-Operative Shoulder Pain and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Carolina; Fillingim, Roger B.; Bishop, Mark; Wu, Samuel S.; Wright, Thomas W.; Moser, Michael; Farmer, Kevin; George, Steven Z.

    2014-01-01

    Measures of central pain processing like conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and suprathreshold heat pain response (SHPR) have been described to assess different components of central pain modulatory mechanisms. Central pain processing potentially play a role in the development of postsurgical pain, however, the role of CPM and SHPR in explaining postoperative clinical pain and disability is still unclear. Seventy eight patients with clinical shoulder pain were included in this study. Patients were examined before shoulder surgery, at 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. The primary outcome measures were pain intensity and upper extremity disability. Analyses revealed that the change score (baseline – 3 months) of 5th pain rating of SHPR accounted for a significant amount of variance in 6 month postsurgical clinical pain intensity and disability after age, sex, preoperative pain intensity, and relevant psychological factors were considered. The present study suggests that baseline measures of central pain processing were not predictive of 6 month postoperative pain outcome. Instead, the 3 month change in SHPR might be a relevant factor in the transition to elevated 6-month postoperative pain and disability outcomes. In patients with shoulder pain, the 3 month change in a measure of central pain processing might be a relevant factor in the transition to elevated 6-month postoperative pain and disability scores. PMID:24042347

  15. Does Acupuncture Alter Pain-related Functional Connectivity of the Central Nervous System? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Villarreal Santiago, María; Tumilty, Steve; Mącznik, Aleksandra; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Acupuncture has been studied for several decades to establish evidence-based clinical practice. This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in influencing the functional connectivity of the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify studies in which the central response of acupuncture in patients with musculoskeletal pain was evaluated by neuroimaging techniques. Databases searched were AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PEDro, Pubmed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscuss, and Web of Science. Included studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for their methodological quality by using the Downs and Black questionnaire and for their levels of completeness and transparency in reporting acupuncture interventions by using Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) criteria. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four studies were nonrandomized controlled trials (NRCTs). The neuroimaging techniques used were functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Positive effects on the functional connectivity of the central nervous system more consistently occurred during long-term acupuncture treatment. The results were heterogeneous from a descriptive perspective; however, the key findings support acupuncture's ability to alter pain-related functional connectivity in the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain.

  16. Edible lipids modification processes: A review.

    PubMed

    Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Shamma, M Najeeb

    2017-01-02

    Lipid is the general name given to fats and oils, which are the basic components of cooking oils, shortening, ghee, margarine, and other edible fats. The chosen term depends on the physical state at ambient temperature; fats are solids and oils are liquids. The chemical properties of the lipids, including degree of saturation, fatty acid chain length, and acylglycerol molecule composition are the basic determinants of physical characteristics such as melting point, cloud point, solid fat content, and thermal behavior. This review will discuss the major lipid modification strategies, hydrogenation, and chemical and enzymatic interesterification, describing the catalysts used mechanisms, kinetics, and impacts on the health-related properties of the final products. Enzymatic interesterification will be emphasized as method that produces a final product with good taste, zero trans fatty acids, and a low number of calories, requires less contact with chemicals, and is cost efficient.

  17. Review of self-relations in the psychotherapy process.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, John S

    2006-01-01

    Reviews the book, Self-Relations in the Psychotherapy Process by J. Christopher Muran (see record 2000-16556-000). The self is alive and well and living in psychology, at least if the contributors to J. Christopher Muran's stimulating volume, Self-Relations in the Psychotherapy Process, are to be taken seriously. The self is a central construct in psychoanalytic, humanistic, and cognitive-behavioral theories, but nowadays even some radical behaviorists find the self to be an important concept. Thus, the present is a propitious time for a book that presents the major theoretical approaches to the self in psychotherapy and, fortunately for us, Muran, by gathering the views of leading psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive-behavioral, and radical behavioral thinkers, has assembled a volume of almost uniformly high quality. Inspired by postmodernism, especially by the growing popularity of dialogic and perspectival epistemologies, Muran has a constructed this book as a set of six dialogues among contributors of varying theoretical persuasions, and although I doubt that dialogic and perspectival epistemologies are necessarily postmodern, I nevertheless find that this volume's dialogic structure makes for interesting reading and adds to its intellectual contributions. Because Muran's contention, with which I agree, is that the self is not an isolated entity but rather part of a relational matrix, it is perhaps necessary for this book to be structured dialogically. Whether postmodern or not, this book is an important one, one that conveys a great deal about what it means to be human as we enter the 21st century. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Central Executive as a Search Process: Priming Exploration and Exploitation across Domains

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Thomas T.; Todd, Peter M.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The trade-off between exploration and exploitation is common to a wide variety of problems involving search in space and mind. The prevalence of this trade-off and its neurological underpinnings led us to propose domain-general cognitive search processes (Hills, Todd, & Goldstone, 2008). Here, we propose further that these are consistent with the idea of a central executive search process that combines goal-handling across subgoal hierarchies. The present study investigates three aspects of this proposal. First, the existence of a unitary central executive search process should allow priming from one search task to another, and at multiple hierarchical levels. We confirm this by showing cross-domain priming from a spatial search task to two different cognitive levels within a lexical search task. Second, given the neural basis of the proposed generalized cognitive search process and the evidence that the central executive is primarily engaged during complex tasks, we hypothesize that priming should require ‘search’ in the sense of a self-regulated making and testing of sequential predictions about the world. This was confirmed by showing that when participants were allowed to collect spatial resources without searching for them, no priming occurred. Finally, we provide a mechanism for the underlying search process and investigate three alternative hypotheses for subgoal hierarchies using the Central Executive as a Search Process model (CESP). CESP envisions the central executive as having both emergent and unitary processes, with one of its roles being a generalized cognitive search process that navigates goal hierarchies by mediating persistence on and switching between subgoals. PMID:21038983

  19. A Review of Titanium Welding Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-03

    Welding ( GTAW )............................. 2 jPlasma Arc Welding (PAW) ................................... 3 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW...earliest use of gas tungsten arc welding ( GTAW ). Submerged arc welding (SAW) was introduced in 1944 (p.149(4)). Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) was developed...discussion. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding GTAW )" The GTAW process is due to the heating from an arc between a noncon- sumable tungsten electrode and the work

  20. Gender Differences in Processing Speed: A Review of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2011-01-01

    A review of recent large-scale studies on gender differences in processing speed and on the cognitive factors assumed to affect processing speed was performed. It was found that females have an advantage in processing speed tasks involving digits and alphabets as well as in rapid naming tasks while males are faster on reaction time tests and…

  1. Gender Differences in Processing Speed: A Review of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2011-01-01

    A review of recent large-scale studies on gender differences in processing speed and on the cognitive factors assumed to affect processing speed was performed. It was found that females have an advantage in processing speed tasks involving digits and alphabets as well as in rapid naming tasks while males are faster on reaction time tests and…

  2. Coupling centrality and authority of co-processing model on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhanli; Li, Huibin

    2016-04-01

    Coupling centrality and authority of co-processing model on complex networks are investigated in this paper. As one crucial factor to determine the processing ability of nodes, the information flow with potential time lag is modeled by co-processing diffusion which couples the continuous time processing and the discrete diffusing dynamics. Exact results on master equation and stationary state are obtained to disclose the formation. Considering the influence of a node to the global dynamical behavior, coupling centrality and authority are introduced for each node, which determine the relative importance and authority of nodes in the diffusion process. Furthermore, the experimental results on large-scale complex networks confirm our analytical prediction.

  3. NASA/MSFC FY-82 atmospheric processes research review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC FY-82 Atmospheric Processes Research Program was reviewed. The review covered research tasks in the areas of upper atmosphere, global weather, and severe storms and local weather. Also included was research on aviation safety environmental hazards. The research project summaries, in narrative outline form, supplied by the individual investigators together with the agenda and other information about the review are presented.

  4. Program Review and Evaluation: Designing and Implementing the Review Process. AIR Forum 1978 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, R. Sue

    Problems, issues, and options related to the design and implementation phase of an academic program review process are considered. Directed toward administrators and other nonexpert participants in program review, the analysis is intended to assist in the decision of what kind of review is needed, how it might be carried out, and how results might…

  5. Video Views and Reviews: Neurulation and the Fashioning of the Vertebrate Central Nervous System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is the first adult organ system to appear during vertebrate development, and the process of its emergence is commonly called neurulation. Such biological "urgency" is perhaps not surprising given the structural and functional complexity of the CNS and the importance of neural function to adaptive behavior and…

  6. Video Views and Reviews: Neurulation and the Fashioning of the Vertebrate Central Nervous System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is the first adult organ system to appear during vertebrate development, and the process of its emergence is commonly called neurulation. Such biological "urgency" is perhaps not surprising given the structural and functional complexity of the CNS and the importance of neural function to adaptive behavior and…

  7. The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis for Central Processing of Autonomic Function

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Karin; Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Napadow, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is of paramount importance for daily life. Its regulatory action on respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, and many other systems is controlled by a number of structures in the CNS. While the majority of these nuclei and cortices have been identified in animal models, neuroimaging studies have recently begun to shed light on central autonomic processing in humans. In this study, we used activation likelihood estimation to conduct a meta-analysis of human neuroimaging experiments evaluating central autonomic processing to localize (1) cortical and subcortical areas involved in autonomic processing, (2) potential subsystems for the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS, and (3) potential subsystems for specific ANS responses to different stimuli/tasks. Across all tasks, we identified a set of consistently activated brain regions, comprising left amygdala, right anterior and left posterior insula and midcingulate cortices that form the core of the central autonomic network. While sympathetic-associated regions predominate in executive- and salience-processing networks, parasympathetic regions predominate in the default mode network. Hence, central processing of autonomic function does not simply involve a monolithic network of brain regions, instead showing elements of task and division specificity. PMID:23785162

  8. Antiseptic barrier cap effective in reducing central line-associated bloodstream infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Voor In 't Holt, Anne F; Helder, Onno K; Vos, Margreet C; Schafthuizen, Laura; Sülz, Sandra; van den Hoogen, Agnes; Ista, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Microorganisms can intraluminally access a central venous catheter via the catheter hub. The catheter hub should be appropriately disinfected to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). However, compliance with the time-consuming manual disinfection process is low. An alternative is the use of an antiseptic barrier cap, which cleans the catheter hub by continuous passive disinfection. To compare the effects of antiseptic barrier cap use and manual disinfection on the incidence of CLABSIs. Systematic review and meta-analysis. We systematically searched Embase, Medline Ovid, Web-of-science, CINAHL EBSCO, Cochrane Library, PubMed Publisher and Google Scholar until May 10, 2016. The primary outcome, reduction in CLABSIs per 1000 catheter-days, expressed as an incidence rate ratio (IRR), was analyzed with a random effects meta-analysis. Studies were included if 1) conducted in a hospital setting, 2) used antiseptic barrier caps on hubs of central lines with access to the bloodstream and 3) reported the number of CLABSIs per 1000 catheter-days when using the barrier cap and when using manual disinfection. A total of 1537 articles were identified as potentially relevant and after exclusion of duplicates, 953 articles were screened based on title and abstract; 18 articles were read full text. Eventually, nine studies were included in the systematic review, and seven of these nine in the random effects meta-analysis. The pooled IRR showed that use of the antiseptic barrier cap was effective in reducing CLABSIs (IRR=0.59, 95% CI=0.45-0.77, P<0.001). Use of an antiseptic barrier cap is associated with a lower incidence CLABSIs and is an intervention worth adding to central-line maintenance bundles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pyrochemical processing of plutonium. Technology review report

    SciTech Connect

    Coops, M.S.; Knighton, J.B.; Mullins, L.J.

    1982-09-08

    Non-aqueous processes are now in routine use for direct conversion of plutonium oxide to metal, molten salt extraction of americium, and purification of impure metals by electrorefining. These processes are carried out at elevated temperatures in either refractory metal crucibles or magnesium-oxide ceramics in batch-mode operation. Direct oxide reduction is performed in units up to 700 gram PuO/sub 2/ batch size with molten calcium metal as the reductant and calcium chloride as the reaction flux. Americium metal is removed from plutonium metal by salt extraction with molten magnesium chloride. Electrorefining is used to isolate impurities from molten plutonium by molten salt ion transport in a controlled potential oxidation-reduction cell. Such cells can purify five or more kilograms of impure metal per 5-day electrorefining cycle. The product metal obtained is typically > 99.9% pure, starting from impure feeds. Metal scrap and crucible skulls are recovered by hydriding of the metallic residues and recovered either as impure metal or oxide feeds.

  10. 42 CFR 456.236 - Continued stay review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... physician members of the committee, one of whom is knowledgeable in the treatment of mental diseases, review... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Continued stay review process. 456.236 Section 456.236 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  11. 42 CFR 456.135 - Continued stay review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....135 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Need for Continued Stay § 456.135 Continued stay review process. The UR plan must provide that— (a... physician reviews the case to decide the need for continued stay; (f) If the committee or subgroup making...

  12. 42 CFR 456.123 - Admission review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Need for Admission 1 § 456.123 Admission review process. The UR plan must provide that— (a) Admission... includes at least one physician reviews the case to decide the need for admission; (e) If the committee or...

  13. The AP Course Audit Syllabus Review Process: Methodological Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.

    2007-01-01

    The AP Course Audit utilizes a criterion-based professional judgment method of analysis within a nested multi-step review process. The overall goal of the methodology is to yield a final judgment on each syllabus that is ultimately valid. While reviewer consistency is an important consideration, the most important goal is to reach a final judgment…

  14. Consensus-oriented group peer review: a new process to review radiologist work output.

    PubMed

    Alkasab, Tarik K; Harvey, H Benjamin; Gowda, Vrushab; Thrall, James H; Rosenthal, Daniel I; Gazelle, G Scott

    2014-02-01

    The Joint Commission and other regulatory bodies have mandated that health care organizations implement processes for ongoing physician performance review. Software solutions, such as RADPEER™, have been created to meet this need efficiently. However, the authors believe that available systems are not optimally designed to produce changes in practice and overlook many important aspects of quality by excessive focus on diagnosis. The authors present a new model of peer review known as consensus-oriented group review, which is based on group discussion of cases in a conference setting and places greater emphasis on feedback than traditional systems of radiology peer review. By focusing on the process of peer review, consensus-oriented group review is intended to optimize performance improvement and foster group standards of practice. The authors also describe the software tool developed to implement this process of enriched peer review. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving the peer-review process from the perspective of an author and reviewer.

    PubMed

    Faggion, C M

    2016-02-26

    The peer-review process is a fundamental component in the advancement of science. In this process, independent reviewers evaluate the quality of a manuscript and its suitability for publication in a particular scientific journal. Thus, to favour the publication of the highest-level information, the peer-review system should be as unbiased as possible. Although the peer-review system is the most commonly used method to select manuscripts for publication, it has several potential limitations. The main objective of this manuscript is to discuss some limitations of the peer-review system and suggest potential solutions from the perspective of an author and reviewer. This article may contribute to the always-dynamic development of the peer-review process.

  16. Review of the Reference Dose and Reference Concentration Processes Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summarizes the review and deliberations of the Risk Assessment Forum’s RfD/RfC Technical Panel and its recommendations for improvements in oral referencedose/inhalation reference concentration (RfD/RfC) process.

  17. BACE1 dependent neuregulin processing: review.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Daniel; Garratt, Alistair N; Haass, Christian; Willem, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Neuregulin-1 (NRG1), known also as heregulin, acetylcholine receptor inducing activity (ARIA), glial growth factor (GGF), or sensory and motor neuron derived factor (SMDF), plays essential roles in several developmental processes, and is required also later in life. Many variants of NRG1 are produced via alternative splicing and usage of distinct promoters. All contain an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain, which alone is sufficient to bind and activate the cognate receptors, members of the ErbB family. NRG1 mediated signaling is crucial for cardiogenesis and the development of the mammary gland and ErbB2 (HER2), an orphan co-receptor for NRG1 is the target of the drug Herceptin� (trastuzumab) used for treatment of metastatic breast cancer. In the nervous system, NRG1 controls the early development of subpopulations of neural crest cells. In particular, NRG1 acts as an essential paracrine signaling molecule expressed on the axonal surface, where it signals to Schwann cells throughout development and regulates the thickness of the myelin sheath. NRG1 is required also by other cell types in the nervous system, for instance as an axonal signal released by proprioceptive afferents to induce development of the muscle spindle, and it controls aspects of cortical interneuron development as well as the formation of thalamocortical projections. Work from several laboratories implicates dysregulation of NRG1/ErbB4 signaling in the etiology of schizophrenia. Biochemical studies have shown that the precursor proteins of NRG1 can be released from the membrane through limited proteolysis. In addition, most NRG1 isoforms contain a transmembrane domain, which is processed by γ-secretase after shedding. Thereby the intracellular domain is released into the cytoplasm. Despite this, the importance of NRG1 cleavage for its functions in vivo remained unclear until recently. β- Secretase (β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1, BACE1) was first identified through

  18. [The "peer-review" process in biomedical journals: characteristics of "Elite" reviewers].

    PubMed

    Alfonso, F

    2010-01-01

    The "peer-review" system is used to improve the quality of submitted scientific papers and provides invaluable help to the Editors in their decision-making process. The "peer-review" system remains the cornerstone of the scientific process and, therefore, its quality should be closely monitored. The profile of the "elite" reviewers has been described, but further studies are warranted to better identify their main characteristics. A major challenge, not only for Editors but also for medical scientific societies as a whole, is to continue to guarantee the excellence in the "peer-review" process and to ensure that it receives adequate academic recognition.

  19. The caBIG Terminology Review Process

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J.; Hayamizu, Terry F.; Bodenreider, Olivier; Davis, Brian; Stafford, Grace A.; Ringwald, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing an integrated biomedical informatics infrastructure, the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®), to support collaboration within the cancer research community. A key part of the caBIG architecture is the establishment of terminology standards for representing data. In order to evaluate the suitability of existing controlled terminologies, the caBIG Vocabulary and Data Elements Workspace (VCDE WS) working group has developed a set of criteria that serve to assess a terminology's structure, content, documentation, and editorial process. This paper describes the evolution of these criteria and the results of their use in evaluating four standard terminologies: the Gene Ontology (GO), the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt), the Common Terminology for Adverse Events (known as CTCAE), and the laboratory portion of the Logical Objects, Identifiers, Names and Codes (LOINC). The resulting caBIG criteria are presented as a matrix that may be applicable to any terminology standardization effort. PMID:19154797

  20. Medicinal plants used to treat snakebite in Central America: Review and assessment of scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Peter; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

    2017-03-06

    Every year between 1.2 and 5.5 million people worldwide are victims of snakebites, with about 400,000 left permanently injured. In Central America an estimated 5500 snakebite cases are reported by health centres, but this is likely to be an underestimate due to unreported cases in rural regions. The aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used traditionally to treat snakebites in seven Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. A literature search was performed on published primary data on medicinal plants of Central America and those specifically pertaining to use against snakebites. Plant use reports for traditional snakebite remedies identified in primary sources were extracted and entered in a database, with data analysed in terms of the most frequent numbers of use reports. The scientific evidence that might support the local uses of the most frequently reported species was also examined. A total of 260 independent plant use reports were recorded in the 34 sources included in this review, encompassing 208 species used to treat snakebite in Central America. Only nine species were reported in at least three studies: Cissampelos pareira L., Piper amalago L., Aristolochia trilobata L., Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce, Strychnos panamensis Seem., Dorstenia contrajerva L., Scoparia dulcis L., Hamelia patens Jacq., and Simaba cedron Planch. Genera with the highest number of species used to treat snakebite were Piper, Aristolochia, Hamelia, Ipomoea, Passiflora and Peperomia. The extent of the scientific evidence available to understand any pharmacological basis for their use against snakebites varied between different plant species. At least 208 plant species are traditionally used to treat snakebite in Central America but there is a lack of clinical research to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Available pharmacological data suggest different plant species may target different symptoms of

  1. Randomized controlled trials in central vascular access devices: A scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Samantha; Rickard, Claire M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for central venous access devices, however, high complication rates remain. Scoping reviews map the available evidence and demonstrate evidence deficiencies to focus ongoing research priorities. Method A scoping review (January 2006–December 2015) of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to improve central venous access device outcomes; including peripherally inserted central catheters, non-tunneled, tunneled and totally implanted venous access catheters. MeSH terms were used to undertake a systematic search with data extracted by two independent researchers, using a standardized data extraction form. Results In total, 178 trials were included (78 non-tunneled [44%]; 40 peripherally inserted central catheters [22%]; 20 totally implanted [11%]; 12 tunneled [6%]; 6 non-specified [3%]; and 22 combined device trials [12%]). There were 119 trials (68%) involving adult participants only, with 18 (9%) pediatric and 20 (11%) neonatal trials. Insertion-related themes existed in 38% of trials (67 RCTs), 35 RCTs (20%) related to post-insertion patency, with fewer trials on infection prevention (15 RCTs, 8%), education (14RCTs, 8%), and dressing and securement (12 RCTs, 7%). There were 46 different study outcomes reported, with the most common being infection outcomes (161 outcomes; 37%), with divergent definitions used for catheter-related bloodstream and other infections. Conclusion More high quality randomized trials across central venous access device management are necessary, especially in dressing and securement and patency. These can be encouraged by having more studies with multidisciplinary team involvement and consumer engagement. Additionally, there were extensive gaps within population sub-groups, particularly in tunneled devices, and in pediatrics and neonates. Finally, outcome definitions need to be unified for results to be meaningful and

  2. A review of seismoelectric data processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warden, S. D.; Garambois, S.; Jouniaux, L.; Sailhac, P.

    2011-12-01

    Seismoelectric tomography is expected to combine the sensitivity of electromagnetic methods to hydrological properties such as water-content and permeability, to the high resolution of conventional seismic surveys. This innovative exploration technique seems very promising as it could characterize the fluids contained in reservoir rocks and detect thin layers invisible to other methods. However, it still needs to be improved before it can be successfully applied to real case problems. One of the main issues that need to be addressed is the development of wave separation techniques enabling to recover the signal of interest. Seismic waves passing through a fluid-saturated porous layered medium convert into at least two types of electromagnetic waves: the coseismic field (type I), accompanying seismic body and surface waves, and the independently propagating interface response (type II). The latter occurs when compressional waves encounter a contrast between electrical, chemical or mechanical properties in the subsurface, thus acting as a secondary source that can be generally approximated by a sum of electrical dipoles oscillating at the first Fresnel zone. Although properties of the medium in the vicinity of the receivers can be extracted from the coseismic waves, only the interface response provides subsurface information at depth, which makes it critical to separate both types of energy. This is a delicate problem, as the interface response may be several orders of magnitude weaker than the coseismic field. However, as reviewed by Haines et al. (2007), several properties of the interface response can be used to identify it: its dipolar amplitude pattern, its opposite polarity on opposite sides of the shot point and the electromagnetic velocity at which it travels, several orders of magnitude greater than seismic velocities. This latter attribute can be exploited to implement filtering techniques in frequency-wavenumber (f-k) and radon (tau-p) domain, which we

  3. Review of solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Si Joon; Yoon, Seokhyun; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-02-01

    In this review, we summarize solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) researches based on our fulfillments. We describe the fundamental studies of precursor composition effects at the beginning in order to figure out the role of each component in oxide semiconductors, and then present low temperature process for the adoption of flexible devices. Moreover, channel engineering for high performance and reliability of solution-processed oxide TFTs and various coating methods: spin-coating, inkjet printing, and gravure printing are also presented. The last topic of this review is an overview of multi-functional solution-processed oxide TFTs for various applications such as photodetector, biosensor, and memory.

  4. The Effect of Citalopram Versus a Placebo on Central Auditory Processing in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Polanski, Jose Fernando; Soares, Alexandra Dezani; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo; Laercio de Mendonça Cruz, Oswaldo

    2017-10-01

    Evaluate the effects of therapy with citalopram on the central auditory processing in the elderly measured by central auditory tests. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Tertiary referral center. Thirty-nine patients older than 60 years with normal hearing thresholds or symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss up to 70 dBHL, word-recognition score equal to or better than 70%, and diagnosed with central auditory processing disorders completed the study. They underwent the mini-mental state examination, as a way to screen those with the possibility of dementia; they also underwent the Beck depression inventory, for screening individuals with depression. Citalopram 20 mg/d or placebo for 6 months. The central auditory tests were applied to the selection of individuals with auditory processing disorders and repeated after 6 months' treatment. The tests were sound localization, speech in noise, dichotic digits test, pitch pattern sequence, duration pattern test, and gaps-in-noise. Comparisons of central auditory tests pre- and posttreatment in groups showed: sound localization (p = 0.022), pitch pattern sequence humming (p = 0.110), pitch pattern sequence nomination (p = 0.355), duration pattern test humming (p = 0.801), duration pattern test nomination (p = 0.614), and gaps-in-noise (p = 0.230). Dichotic tests in right and left ears respectively: speech in noise (p = 0.949; p = 0.722), dichotic digits test (p = 0.943; p = 0.513). There was no clinical effect with the use of citalopram in central auditory processing tests of the subjects.

  5. Psychosocial wellbeing in the Central and Eastern European transition: an overview and systematic bibliographic review.

    PubMed

    Eiroá Orosa, Francisco José

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the psychosocial wellbeing of populations in Central and Eastern Europe during the transition period subsequent to the fall of the SovietBloc. A revision of research addressing emotional wellbeing trends in this period and theoretical models was carried in order to verify their validity in the analysis of empirical studies. Hence, a systematic bibliographic review was conducted, aiming to find possible subjective mediators between social variables derived from change sand emotional wellbeing. The results of the review show that subjective mediators such as locus of control,perceived control, self-efficacy beliefs, perceived familial support, and the subjective evaluation of social change explain part of the relationship between macrosocial changes and emotional wellbeing. Results appear coherent with proposed multidimensional models of social change and mental health, although further research should be conducted to determine the specific weight of these phenomena in individual emotional wellbeing.

  6. Safeguarding children: the benefits of a peer-review process.

    PubMed

    Morris-Thompson, Trish; Shepherd, Janet; Rogers, Maggie; Ladbury, Briony; Kirk, Catherine; Marks-Maran, Di

    Nurses in hospitals and in the community are increasingly taking a leading role in safeguarding children. NHS London established a Safeguarding Improvement Team (SIT) in 2009. The SIT project was designed as a one-off activity to raise performance related to safeguarding children in London. This article presents a peer-review process that was established by NHS London and implemented across the 31 PCTs across London. This article presents the peer-review process methodology and a summary of the findings from the SIT visits. Feedback was requested from participants about participants' perceptions of the peer-review process immediately after the SIT visits and again, several months after the completion of all SIT visits. Findings show that the peer-review process was of value, both organisationally and professionally, and the process itself led to identification of good practice as well as gaps in existing practices. The non-threatening nature of the peer-review process was particularly valued, as was the feedback offered by the review teams.

  7. Peer Review Re-Viewed: Investigating the Juxtaposition of Composition Students' Eye Movements and Peer-Review Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Eric J.; Alexander, Jonathan; Armstrong, Sonya

    2007-01-01

    While peer review is a common practice in college composition courses, there is little consistency in approach and effectiveness within the field, owing in part to the dearth of empirical research that investigates peer-review processes. This study is designed to shed light on what a peer reviewer actually reads and attends to while providing…

  8. Peer Review Re-Viewed: Investigating the Juxtaposition of Composition Students' Eye Movements and Peer-Review Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Eric J.; Alexander, Jonathan; Armstrong, Sonya

    2007-01-01

    While peer review is a common practice in college composition courses, there is little consistency in approach and effectiveness within the field, owing in part to the dearth of empirical research that investigates peer-review processes. This study is designed to shed light on what a peer reviewer actually reads and attends to while providing…

  9. TAFE Curriculum Research: A Review of Group Process Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tony; Jones, Neil

    The issue of how to react quickly to the educational needs arising from technological change has been deemed a central problem facing Technical and Further Education (TAFE) in Australia. Therefore, a national study examined various curriculum research methods that hold promise for speeding up the curriculum research and development process. The…

  10. A Systematic Approach to Process Evaluation in the Central Oklahoma Turning Point (COTP) Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Cheney, Marshall K.; Chrislip, David D.; Blankenship, Derek; Troup, Pam; Hann, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Formation is an important stage of partnership development. Purpose: To describe the systematic approach to process evaluation of a Turning Point initiative in central Oklahoma during the formation stage. The nine-month collaborative effort aimed to develop an action plan to promote health. Methods: A sound planning framework was used in the…

  11. Readability of Questionnaires Assessing Listening Difficulties Associated with (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atcherson, Samuel R.; Richburg, Cynthia M.; Zraick, Richard I.; George, Cassandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Eight English-language, student- or parent proxy-administered questionnaires for (central) auditory processing disorders, or (C)APD, were analyzed for readability. For student questionnaires, readability levels were checked against the approximate reading grade levels by intended administration age per the questionnaires' developers. For…

  12. Readability of Questionnaires Assessing Listening Difficulties Associated with (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atcherson, Samuel R.; Richburg, Cynthia M.; Zraick, Richard I.; George, Cassandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Eight English-language, student- or parent proxy-administered questionnaires for (central) auditory processing disorders, or (C)APD, were analyzed for readability. For student questionnaires, readability levels were checked against the approximate reading grade levels by intended administration age per the questionnaires' developers. For…

  13. Central pathology review with two-stage quality assurance for pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the ARTemis Trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jeremy St John; Provenzano, Elena; Hiller, Louise; Dunn, Janet; Blenkinsop, Clare; Grybowicz, Louise; Vallier, Anne-Laure; Gounaris, Ioannis; Abraham, Jean; Hughes-Davies, Luke; McAdam, Karen; Chan, Stephen; Ahmad, Rizvana; Hickish, Tamas; Houston, Stephen; Rea, Daniel; Caldas, Carlos; Bartlett, John Ms; Cameron, David Allan; Hayward, Richard Laurence; Earl, Helena Margaret

    2017-08-01

    The ARTemis Trial tested standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy±bevacizumab in the treatment of HER2-negative early breast cancer. We compare data from central pathology review with report review and also the reporting behavior of the two central pathologists. Eight hundred women with HER2-negative early invasive breast cancer were recruited. Response to chemotherapy was assessed from local pathology reports for pathological complete response in breast and axillary lymph nodes. Sections from the original core biopsy and surgical excision were centrally reviewed by one of two trial pathologists blinded to the local pathology reports. Pathologists recorded response to chemotherapy descriptively and also calculated residual cancer burden. 10% of cases were double-reported to compare the central pathologists' reporting behavior. Full sample retrieval was obtained for 681 of the 781 patients (87%) who underwent surgery within the trial and were evaluable for pathological complete response. Four hundred and eighty-three (71%) were assessed by JSJT, and 198 (29%) were assessed by EP. Residual cancer burden calculations were possible in 587/681 (86%) of the centrally reviewed patients, as 94/681 (14%) had positive sentinel nodes removed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy invalidating residual cancer burden scoring. Good concordance was found between the two pathologists for residual cancer burden classes within the 65-patient quality assurance exercise (kappa 0.63 (95% CI: 0.57-0.69)). Similar results were obtained for the between-treatment arm comparison both from the report review and the central pathology review. For pathological complete response, report review was as good as central pathology review but for minimal residual disease, report review overestimated the extent of residual disease. In the ARTemis Trial central pathology review added little in the determination of pathological complete response but had a role in evaluating low levels of residual disease. Calculation

  14. The role of the manuscript reviewer in the peer review process.

    PubMed

    Polak, J F

    1995-09-01

    Peer review of submitted manuscripts is recognized as a critical component of the publication process in all major medical journals. It lends respectability and scientific credibility to those journals that have adopted the process [1]. This function is delegated to a group of persons who perform the task selflessly and without compensation. Of the many facets of the peer review process, the selection of manuscript reviewers and their subsequent interaction with both editors and authors may be so poorly understood by aspiring authors that certain misconceptions ensue. Authors of rejected manuscripts may fear that reviewers have acted in an arbitrary and possibly censorial fashion [2, 3]. Conversely, authors of accepted manuscripts who face a mountain of revisions may wonder if such an effort is likely to improve their manuscript [4, 5]. The following questions come to mind: Where do the reviewers come from? What do they do, and what constitutes a good reviewer? What power do they have? How is reviewer performance measured? Can the editor recognize publicly the good reviewer? Are reviewers really blinded? How does one become a good reviewer? Who will be the reviewers of the future? While looking at these questions, we should consider objective approaches of assessing reviewer quality and wonder whether they would improve the quality of the published manuscript.

  15. On the Need for Quantitative Bias Analysis in the Peer-Review Process.

    PubMed

    Fox, Matthew P; Lash, Timothy L

    2017-05-15

    Peer review is central to the process through which epidemiologists generate evidence to inform public health and medical interventions. Reviewers thereby act as critical gatekeepers to high-quality research. They are asked to carefully consider the validity of the proposed work or research findings by paying careful attention to the methodology and critiquing the importance of the insight gained. However, although many have noted problems with the peer-review system for both manuscripts and grant submissions, few solutions have been proposed to improve the process. Quantitative bias analysis encompasses all methods used to quantify the impact of systematic error on estimates of effect in epidemiologic research. Reviewers who insist that quantitative bias analysis be incorporated into the design, conduct, presentation, and interpretation of epidemiologic research could substantially strengthen the process. In the present commentary, we demonstrate how quantitative bias analysis can be used by investigators and authors, reviewers, funding agencies, and editors. By utilizing quantitative bias analysis in the peer-review process, editors can potentially avoid unnecessary rejections, identify key areas for improvement, and improve discussion sections by shifting from speculation on the impact of sources of error to quantification of the impact those sources of bias may have had. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effects of physical exercise on central nervous system functions: a review of brain region specific adaptations.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Julie A; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    Pathologies of central nervous system (CNS) functions are involved in prevalent conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and Parkinson's disease. Notable pathologies include dysfunctions of circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, central stress responses, and movement mediated by the basal ganglia. Although evidence suggests exercise may benefit these conditions, the neurobiological mechanisms of exercise in specific brain regions involved in these important CNS functions have yet to be clarified. Here we review murine evidence about the effects of exercise on discrete brain regions involved in important CNS functions. Exercise effects on circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, stress responses in the brain stem and hypothalamic pituitary axis, and movement are examined. The databases Pubmed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for articles investigating regional brain adaptations to exercise. Brain regions examined included the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia. We found evidence of multiple regional adaptations to both forced and voluntary exercise. Exercise can induce molecular adaptations in neuronal function in many instances. Taken together, these findings suggest that the regional physiological adaptations that occur with exercise could constitute a promising field for elucidating molecular and cellular mechanisms of recovery in psychiatric and neurological health conditions.

  17. [Process optimization by central control of acute pain therapy: implementation of standardized treatment concepts and central pain management in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Erlenwein, J; Stüder, D; Lange, J-P; Bauer, M; Petzke, F; Przemeck, M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to describe the effects of standardization and central control of the processes involved in postoperative pain management from patient and employee perspectives. Patients (n = 282/307) and respective hospital staff (n = 149/119) evaluated the processes, the quality of postoperative pain management and result parameters 3 months before and 12 months after the introduction of standardization of the postoperative pain therapy process using a set of standardized questionnaires. Pain level and the waiting period for an analgesic partially decreased and a higher subjective effectiveness of medication was achieved in patients after the standardization. Patients felt that the pain was taken more seriously and contacted the staff for additional medication more frequently. From an employee viewpoint the quality of care and individual competence and ability to treat pain increased after the introduction of standardization. Pain assessment was improved and employees rated their knowledge and education level as higher than before the intervention. Patients with pre-existing chronic pain and patients with special regional therapy benefited only partially after the introduction and an increase in pain intensity was even observed. The quality of care was improved by standardization of the postoperative pain management. The legal and practical ability of the nursing stuff to administer pain medication within well-defined margins reduced the dependence on the ward doctor and at the same time patient pain levels. Patients received analgesics more quickly and experienced increased effectiveness. These results should be an incentive to reconsider the importance of the organization of postoperative pain management, because the quality of care with all potential medical and economic advantages, can be easily optimized by such simple mechanisms. They also show that the quality assessment of acute pain and the selection of appropriate indicators

  18. Using a peer review exercise to teach students the value of the peer review process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, G. W.; Cook, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    The peer review process is integral to legitimate scientific study. Undergraduate students in geoscience classes often have a poor understanding of the process and specifically do not understand what constitutes peer-reviewed literature. This becomes especially apparent in situations where students are asked to write research-oriented papers or essays that make use of peer-reviewed scientific sources. Often, they believe that news articles and online sources such as blogs constitute valid (peer-reviewed) scientific sources. We make use of a relatively simple in-class exercise in our introductory geoscience classes that teaches students the necessity of the review process and educates them about the true nature and value of peer-reviewed literature. It also reinforces an understanding of the scientific method in the context of conducting literature-based research. Students report that they are better equipped to conduct research using scientific literature as a result of participating in the exercise.

  19. Spatial frequency processing in the central and peripheral visual field during scene viewing.

    PubMed

    Cajar, Anke; Engbert, Ralf; Laubrock, Jochen

    2016-10-01

    Visuospatial attention and gaze control depend on the interaction of foveal and peripheral processing. The foveal and peripheral regions of the visual field are differentially sensitive to parts of the spatial-frequency spectrum. In two experiments, we investigated how the selective attenuation of spatial frequencies in the central or the peripheral visual field affects eye-movement behavior during real-world scene viewing. Gaze-contingent low-pass or high-pass filters with varying filter levels (i.e., cutoff frequencies; Experiment 1) or filter sizes (Experiment 2) were applied. Compared to unfiltered control conditions, mean fixation durations increased most with central high-pass and peripheral low-pass filtering. Increasing filter size prolonged fixation durations with peripheral filtering, but not with central filtering. Increasing filter level prolonged fixation durations with low-pass filtering, but not with high-pass filtering. These effects indicate that fixation durations are not always longer under conditions of increased processing difficulty. Saccade amplitudes largely adapted to processing difficulty: amplitudes increased with central filtering and decreased with peripheral filtering; the effects strengthened with increasing filter size and filter level. In addition, we observed a trade-off between saccade timing and saccadic selection, since saccade amplitudes were modulated when fixation durations were unaffected by the experimental manipulations. We conclude that interactions of perception and gaze control are highly sensitive to experimental manipulations of input images as long as the residual information can still be accessed for gaze control.

  20. Evidence-based measures to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections: a systematic review 1

    PubMed Central

    Perin, Daniele Cristina; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Higashi, Giovana Dorneles Callegaro; Sasso, Grace Teresinha Marcon Dal

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify evidence-based care to prevent CLABSI among adult patients hospitalized in ICUs. Method: systematic review conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Web of Science, Lilacs, Bdenf and Cochrane Studies addressing care and maintenance of central venous catheters, published from January 2011 to July 2014 were searched. The 34 studies identified were organized in an instrument and assessed by using the classification provided by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Results: the studies presented care bundles including elements such as hand hygiene and maximal barrier precautions; multidimensional programs and strategies such as impregnated catheters and bandages and the involvement of facilities in and commitment of staff to preventing infections. Conclusions: care bundles coupled with education and the commitment of both staff and institutions is a strategy that can contribute to decreased rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections among adult patients hospitalized in intensive care units. PMID:27598378

  1. 60 FR 15115 - Marine Safety Investigation Process Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-03-22

    ... Coast Guard 46 CFR Parts 4 and 5 Marine Safety Investigation Process Review AGENCY: Coast Guard, DOT... safety investigation process to identify possible improvements, and is seeking input from the public... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. W.D. Rabe, Marine Investigation Division, Office of Marine Safety, Security...

  2. A Review of Literature: Training and the Change Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, Maurice

    This document is a review of literature on the educational change process; it is designed to detail the role of training in the process of dissemination in a changing climate of education. To do this, it gives attention to defining educational change. The document is divided into five chapters. Chapter one, entitled "Defining the Change…

  3. NASA/MSFC FY-83 Atmospheric Processes Research Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The atmospheric processes research program was reviewed. Research tasks sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications, Earth Sciences and Applications Division in the areas of upper atmosphere, global weather, and mesoscale processes are discussed. The are: the research project summaries, together with the agenda and other information about the meeting.

  4. Identification, Placement and Review Process: Parents'/Guardians' Opinions #179.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larter, Sylvia; And Others

    A study assessed parental satisfaction or concern with the identification, placement, and review process as developed and implemented by the Special Education Department of the Toronto Board of Education. Interviews were completed with 208 parents who participated in the process during January and February 1986. Fifty-eight percent of the parents…

  5. Review of Solids Handling. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit which summarizes and reviews most of the solids handling processes in common use in municipal treatment plants. No attempt is made to detail the theory and operation of the processes. Topics discussed include: (1) sources of sludge; (2) the importance of sludge management;…

  6. Isolation of a central bottleneck of information processing with time-resolved FMRI.

    PubMed

    Dux, Paul E; Ivanoff, Jason; Asplund, Christopher L; Marois, René

    2006-12-21

    When humans attempt to perform two tasks at once, execution of the first task usually leads to postponement of the second one. This task delay is thought to result from a bottleneck occurring at a central, amodal stage of information processing that precludes two response selection or decision-making operations from being concurrently executed. Using time-resolved functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), here we present a neural basis for such dual-task limitations, e.g. the inability of the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex, and possibly the superior medial frontal cortex, to process two decision-making operations at once. These results suggest that a neural network of frontal lobe areas acts as a central bottleneck of information processing that severely limits our ability to multitask.

  7. Desmopressin administration in children with central diabetes insipidus: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Hooi Leng; Maguire, Ann M; Ambler, Geoffrey R

    2013-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disorder in children caused by a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone arginine (vasopressin). Desmopressin is the first line agent in management of central DI. However, one of the side effects of desmopressin is water intoxication and hyponatraemia. This study reviews the patterns of desmopressin use and side effects in our institution. Retrospective chart review of all patients with central DI followed up in one tertiary centre between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2010. Forty-one patients (22 males and 19 females) were included. Twelve patients (29.3%) had congenital and 29 patients (70.7%) had acquired DI, mostly as a result of intracranial tumours. Thirty-six (87.8%) patients were on oral desmopressin and the remaining on nasal formulation. The median oral dose was 9.5 (4.2-17.0) μg/kg/day with median frequency of 2.5 (2-3). The median nasal dose was 0.7 (0.4-1.4) μg/kg/day with median frequency of 2.0 (2-3.5). Fourteen patients (34.1%) were switched from nasal to oral desmopressin with the median dose conversion factor of 20.1 (10.7-31.8). Forty percent of patients on nasal desmopressin experienced hypo/hypernatraemia compared to 18.1% on oral, however, there were no significance difference between standardized hypo/hypernatraemia episodes per treatment year. Oral desmopressin is used in the majority of our patients including infants and toddlers. There is wide inter-individual variation in dose requirement and dosing intervals. Management of central diabetes insipidus remains a challenge in adipsic patients and in young children during intercurrent illness regardless of the desmopressin formulation.

  8. Sensory Processing in Autism: A Review of Neurophysiologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Elysa Jill; Hinkley, Leighton Barett Nicholas; Hill, Susanna Shan; Nagarajan, Srikantan Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Atypical sensory-based behaviors are a ubiquitous feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this article, we review the neural underpinnings of sensory processing in autism by reviewing the literature on neurophysiological responses to auditory, tactile, and visual stimuli in autistic individuals. We review studies of unimodal sensory processing and multi-sensory integration that use a variety of neuroimaging techniques, including: electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). We then explore the impact of covert and overt attention on sensory processing. With additional characterization, neurophysiologic profiles of sensory processing in ASD may serve as valuable biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic interventions for autism and reveal potential strategies and target brain regions for therapeutic interventions. PMID:21289533

  9. Response assessment in lymphoma: Concordance between independent central review and local evaluation in a clinical trial setting.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Ajay K; Pro, Barbara; Connors, Joseph M; Younes, Anas; Engert, Andreas; Shustov, Andrei R; Chi, Xuedong; Larsen, Emily K; Kennedy, Dana A; Sievers, Eric L

    2016-10-01

    Independent central review of clinical imaging remains the standard for oncology clinical trials with registration potential. A limited independent central review strategy has been proposed for solid tumor trials based on concordance between central and local evaluation of response. Concordance between independent central review and local evaluation of response in hematological malignancies is not known. We retrospectively evaluated concordance between prospectively performed central and local assessments of response using the Revised Response Criteria for Malignant Lymphoma across two international, open-label, single-arm, registration studies of brentuximab vedotin in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (N = 102) or systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (N = 58). Overall objective response rates were similar between assessors for both the trial in Hodgkin lymphoma (75% independent central review, 72% local evaluation) and the trial in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (86% independent central review, 83% local evaluation). Patient-specific objective response concordance was also substantial (Hodgkin lymphoma: kappa = 0.68; anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: kappa = 0.74). Median progression-free survival was similar between assessors for patients with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (14.3 months by independent central review (95% confidence interval: 6.9, -); 14.5 months by local evaluation (95% confidence interval: 9.4, -)), but longer by local evaluation in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (5.8 months by independent central review (95% confidence interval: 5.0, 9.0); 9.0 months by local evaluation (95% confidence interval: 7.1, 12.0)). Median duration of response was longer by local evaluation in both malignancies, which was primarily attributable to earlier computed tomography and positron emission tomography-based scoring of progression by independent central review. A limited independent review audit strategy for clinical

  10. Jet Fuel, Noise, and the Central Auditory Nervous System: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Warner, Rachelle; Fuente, Adrian; Hickson, Louise

    2015-09-01

    Prompted by the continued prevalence of hearing related disabilities accepted as eligible for compensation and treatment under Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs legislation, a review of recent literature regarding possible causation mechanisms and thus, possible prevention strategies, is timely. The emerging thoughts on the effects of a combination of jet fuel and noise exposure on the central auditory nervous system (CANS) have relevance in the military aviation context because of the high exposures to solvents (including fuels) and unique noise hazards related to weapons systems and military aircraft. This literature review aimed to identify and analyze the current knowledge base of the effects of combined exposure to JP-8 jet fuel (or its aromatic solvent components) and noise on the CANS in human populations. We reviewed articles examining electrophysiological and behavioral measurement of the CANS following combined exposures to jet fuel (or its aromatic constituents) and noise. A total of 6 articles met the inclusion criteria for the review and their results are summarized. The articles considered in this review indicate that assessment of the CANS should be undertaken as part of a comprehensive test battery for military members exposed to both noise and solvents in the workplace.

  11. Central gain restores auditory processing following near-complete cochlear denervation

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Anna R.; Resnik, Jennifer; Yuan, Yasheng; Whitton, Jonathon P.; Edge, Albert S.; Liberman, M. Charles; Polley, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory organ damage induces a host of cellular and physiological changes in the periphery and the brain. Here, we show that some aspects of auditory processing recover after profound cochlear denervation due to a progressive, compensatory plasticity at higher stages of the central auditory pathway. Lesioning >95% of cochlear nerve afferent synapses, while sparing hair cells, in adult mice virtually eliminated the auditory brainstem response and acoustic startle reflex, yet tone detection behavior was nearly normal. As sound-evoked responses from the auditory nerve grew progressively weaker following denervation, sound-evoked activity in the cortex – and to a lesser extent the midbrain – rebounded or surpassed control levels. Increased central gain supported the recovery of rudimentary sound features encoded by firing rate, but not features encoded by precise spike timing such as modulated noise or speech. These findings underscore the importance of central plasticity in the perceptual sequelae of cochlear hearing impairment. PMID:26833137

  12. Assessing the quality of the peer review process: author and editorial board member perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bunner, Christina; Larson, Elaine L

    2012-10-01

    Because peer review is central to the publication of rigorous research, periodic assessment of the process's effectiveness is clearly warranted. Two online surveys, one for authors (n = 102) and the other for Editorial Board members (n = 20), were conducted to assess their perspectives on the quality and timeliness of peer review. The χ(2) or Fisher exact test was used to analyze differences between authors and Board member responses. Authors of accepted manuscripts were significantly more likely to rate the review as the same or better than other peer reviews they had received when compared with authors of rejected manuscripts (93.3% vs 47.4%, respectively, P = .001). In general, perceptions of review quality among Board members and authors were similar, but Board members were significantly more likely to rate reviewers as fair and unbiased (91.4% and 70%, respectively, P = .04). Approximately one-fourth (23.5%) of authors reported that length of time between manuscript submission and receipt of decision was 0 to 4 weeks, 38.2% indicated 5 to 7 weeks, 18.6% took 8 to 10 weeks, and 19.6% of authors reported that the decision required more than 10 weeks. This survey of authors and Board members provided important insights into perceptions of the peer review process and identified areas for improvement. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatiotemporal processing of linear acceleration: primary afferent and central vestibular neuron responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Spatiotemporal convergence and two-dimensional (2-D) neural tuning have been proposed as a major neural mechanism in the signal processing of linear acceleration. To examine this hypothesis, we studied the firing properties of primary otolith afferents and central otolith neurons that respond exclusively to horizontal linear accelerations of the head (0.16-10 Hz) in alert rhesus monkeys. Unlike primary afferents, the majority of central otolith neurons exhibited 2-D spatial tuning to linear acceleration. As a result, central otolith dynamics vary as a function of movement direction. During movement along the maximum sensitivity direction, the dynamics of all central otolith neurons differed significantly from those observed for the primary afferent population. Specifically at low frequencies (central otolith neurons peaked in phase with linear velocity, in contrast to primary afferents that peaked in phase with linear acceleration. At least three different groups of central response dynamics were described according to the properties observed for motion along the maximum sensitivity direction. "High-pass" neurons exhibited increasing gains and phase values as a function of frequency. "Flat" neurons were characterized by relatively flat gains and constant phase lags (approximately 20-55 degrees ). A few neurons ("low-pass") were characterized by decreasing gain and phase as a function of frequency. The response dynamics of central otolith neurons suggest that the approximately 90 degrees phase lags observed at low frequencies are not the result of a neural integration but rather the effect of nonminimum phase behavior, which could arise at least partly through spatiotemporal convergence. Neither afferent nor central otolith neurons discriminated between gravitational and inertial components of linear acceleration. Thus response sensitivity was indistinguishable during 0.5-Hz pitch oscillations and fore-aft movements

  14. What do we know about past changes in the water cycle of Central Asian headwaters? A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Farinotti, Daniel; Gafurov, Abror; Duethmann, Doris; Mandychev, Alexander; Merz, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    We have reviewed about 100 studies on past changes in climate, snow cover, glaciers and runoff in Central Asian headwater catchments, which have been published in the past 20 years. We included studies published by Central Asian researchers in Russian language, which are usually not easily accessible to international researchers.

  15. Review of HIV vulnerability and condom use in central and eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A

    2012-03-01

    The epidemiological trend of increasing HIV incidence rates due to sexual transmission in central and eastern Europe has been documented. The current review analysed research articles that report on a wide spectrum of vulnerable populations from this world region. Studies of injection drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men, adolescents and young adults all reported inconsistent condom use. However, these patterns varied across populations and geographic areas. Populations in former Soviet countries - the most affected by HIV - also often appeared to have lower condom use rates. Intensified, comprehensive and locally tailored measures to curb sexual HIV transmission are urgently needed. Social development programs need to incorporate HIV prevention.

  16. A review of preventing central sleep apnea by inspired CO2.

    PubMed

    Mulchrone, A; Shokoueinejad, M; Webster, J

    2016-05-01

    Although almost completely unknown half a century ago, sleep disorders are gaining recognition as major issues to public health due to their growing prevalence and dire societal consequences. Despite being linked to several infamous catastrophic events such as Chernobyl, it is estimated that 90% of sufferers fail to get diagnosed and receive treatment, and a significant portion of the ones that do are often non-compliant due to the side effects of current treatments. This article presents a review of the current standard treatment for central sleep apnea, and investigates the advantages and possible consequences of using inspired carbon dioxide (CO2) as an alternative treatment option.

  17. Systematic reviews in laboratory medicine: principles, processes and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Andrea Rita; Pewsner, Daniel

    2004-04-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are generally accepted to represent the highest level of evidence, and are a cornerstone in practising evidence-based medicine. So far, these efforts have been largely confined to the evaluation of the efficacy and effectiveness of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Systematic reviews in laboratory medicine are scarce and many of them do not meet essential quality criteria [Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 38 (2000) 577]. Most of these problems are related to the poor design and heterogeneity of primary research, and that there are no agreed methods or quality standards for making systematic reviews in laboratory medicine. For better evidence in laboratory medicine, not only higher quality primary studies but also standardized methodologies for designing, conducting and reporting systematic reviews in diagnostics are needed. The aim of this review is to present the general principles and provide a step-by-step process of systematic reviewing in laboratory medicine. This narrative review is based on the overview of the medical literature on the methodology of systematic reviewing and that of the "state of the art" of evidence-based diagnosis. Systematic reviews of diagnostic interventions differ from that of therapeutic interventions in the methods of question formulation, the choice of study design, the assessment of study quality and the statistical methods used to combine results. Therefore, the general principles of systematic reviewing are adapted to the specialist field of laboratory medicine. The process of systematic reviewing consists of six key steps: (1) preparation for the review, (2) systematic search of the primary literature, (3) selection of papers for review, (4) critical appraisal of the selected literature, (5) analysis and synthesis of data, and (6) interpretation of data. The most important technical and methodological aspects of each step and the essential elements of a good systematic review in laboratory

  18. How "Central" Is Central Coherence?: Preliminary Evidence on the Link between Conceptual and Perceptual Processing in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Beatriz; Leekam, Susan R.; Arts, Gerda R. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to test the assumption drawn from weak central coherence theory that a central cognitive mechanism is responsible for integrating information at both conceptual and perceptual levels. A visual semantic memory task and a face recognition task measuring use of holistic information were administered to 15 children with autism and 16…

  19. Sad mood increases pain sensitivity upon thermal grill illusion stimulation: implications for central pain processing.

    PubMed

    Boettger, Michael Karl; Schwier, Christiane; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    In different fields of neuroscience research, illusions have successfully been used to unravel underlying mechanisms of stimulus processing. One such illusion existing for the field of pain research is the so-called thermal grill illusion. Here, painful sensations are elicited by interlacing warm and cold bars, with stimulus intensities (temperatures) of these bars being below the respective heat pain or cold pain thresholds. To date, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not completely understood. There is some agreement, however, that the sensation evoked by this stimulation is generated by central nervous interactions. Therefore, we followed two approaches in this study: firstly, we aimed at developing and validating a water-driven device which might be used in fMRI scanners in future studies - subject to minor adaptations. Secondly, we aimed to interfere with this illusion by induction of a sad mood state, a procedure which is suggested to influence central nervous structures that are also involved in pain processing. The newly developed device induced thermal grill sensations similar to those reported in the literature. Induction of sad, but not neutral mood states, resulted in higher pain and unpleasantness ratings of the painful illusion. These findings might be of importance for the understanding of pain processing in healthy volunteers, but putatively even more so in patients with major depressive disorder. Moreover, our results might indicate that central nervous structures involved in the affective domain or cognitive domain of pain processing might be involved in the perception of the illusion.

  20. Business process performance measurement: a structured literature review of indicators, measures and metrics.

    PubMed

    Van Looy, Amy; Shafagatova, Aygun

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the performance of business processes has become a central issue in both academia and business, since organizations are challenged to achieve effective and efficient results. Applying performance measurement models to this purpose ensures alignment with a business strategy, which implies that the choice of performance indicators is organization-dependent. Nonetheless, such measurement models generally suffer from a lack of guidance regarding the performance indicators that exist and how they can be concretized in practice. To fill this gap, we conducted a structured literature review to find patterns or trends in the research on business process performance measurement. The study also documents an extended list of 140 process-related performance indicators in a systematic manner by further categorizing them into 11 performance perspectives in order to gain a holistic view. Managers and scholars can consult the provided list to choose the indicators that are of interest to them, considering each perspective. The structured literature review concludes with avenues for further research.

  1. Use of trial register information during the peer review process.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Sylvain; Chan, An-Wen; Ravaud, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Evidence in the medical literature suggests that trial registration may not be preventing selective reporting of results. We wondered about the place of such information in the peer-review process. We asked 1,503 corresponding authors of clinical trials and 1,733 reviewers to complete an online survey soliciting their views on the use of trial registry information during the peer-review process. 1,136 authors (n = 713) and reviewers (n = 423) responded (37.5%); 676 (59.5%) had reviewed an article reporting a clinical trial in the past 2 years. Among these, 232 (34.3%) examined information registered on a trial registry. If one or more items (primary outcome, eligibility criteria, etc.) differed between the registry record and the manuscript, 206 (88.8%) mentioned the discrepancy in their review comments, 46 (19.8%) advised editors not to accept the manuscript, and 8 did nothing. The reviewers' reasons for not using the trial registry information included a lack of registration number in the manuscript (n = 132; 34.2%), lack of time (n = 128; 33.2%), lack of usefulness of registered information for peer review (n = 100; 25.9%), lack of awareness about registries (n = 54; 14%), and excessive complexity of the process (n = 39; 10.1%). This survey revealed that only one-third of the peer reviewers surveyed examined registered trial information and reported any discrepancies to journal editors.

  2. Variability of Reviewers' Comments in the Peer Review Process for Orthopaedic Research.

    PubMed

    Iantorno, Stephanie E; Andras, Lindsay M; Skaggs, David L

    2016-07-01

    Retrospective analysis of peer review comments. To assess the likelihood that comments provided by peer reviewers of one orthopaedic journal would be similar to comments of reviewers from the same journal and a second journal. The consistency of the peer review process in orthopedic research has not been objectively examined. Nine separate clinical papers related to spinal deformity were submitted for publication in major peer-reviewed journals and initially rejected. The exact same manuscripts were then submitted to different journals. All papers were returned with comments from two to three reviewers from each journal. Reviews were divided into distinct conceptual criticisms that were regarded as separate comments. Comments were compared between reviewers of the same journal and to comments from reviewers of the second journal. When comparing comments from reviewers of the same journal, an average of 11% of comments were repeated (range 0% [0/12] to 23% [3/13]). On average, 20% of comments from the first journal were repeated by a reviewer at the second journal (range 10% [1/10] to 33% [6/18]). If a comment was made by two or more reviewers from the first journal, it had a higher likelihood (43% [6/14]) of being repeated by a reviewer from the second journal. When an identical manuscript is submitted to a second journal after being rejected, 80% of peer review comments from the first journal are not repeated by reviewers from the second journal. One may question if addressing every peer review comment in a rejected manuscript prior to resubmission is an efficient use of resources. Comments that appear twice or more in the first journal review are more likely to reappear and may warrant special attention from the researcher. Level IV. Copyright © 2016 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A multi-criteria assessment of scenarios on thermal processing of infectious hospital wastes: A case study for Central Macedonia

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiannidis, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Perkoulidis, G.; Sanida, G.; Samaras, P.

    2010-02-15

    In Greece more than 14,000 tonnes of infectious hospital waste are produced yearly; a significant part of it is still mismanaged. Only one off-site licensed incineration facility for hospital wastes is in operation, with the remaining of the market covered by various hydroclave and autoclave units, whereas numerous problems are still generally encountered regarding waste segregation, collection, transportation and management, as well as often excessive entailed costs. Everyday practices still include dumping the majority of solid hospital waste into household disposal sites and landfills after sterilization, still largely without any preceding recycling and separation steps. Discussed in the present paper are the implemented and future treatment practices of infectious hospital wastes in Central Macedonia; produced quantities are reviewed, actual treatment costs are addressed critically, whereas the overall situation in Greece is discussed. Moreover, thermal treatment processes that could be applied for the treatment of infectious hospital wastes in the region are assessed via the multi-criteria decision method Analytic Hierarchy Process. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed and the analysis demonstrated that a centralized autoclave or hydroclave plant near Thessaloniki is the best performing option, depending however on the selection and weighing of criteria of the multi-criteria process. Moreover the study found that a common treatment option for the treatment of all infectious hospital wastes produced in the Region of Central Macedonia, could offer cost and environmental benefits. In general the multi-criteria decision method, as well as the conclusions and remarks of this study can be used as a basis for future planning and anticipation of the needs for investments in the area of medical waste management.

  4. An Improved Effective Cost Review Process for Value Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Joo, D. S.; Park, J. I.

    2014-01-01

    Second-look value engineering (VE) is an approach that aims to lower the costs of products for which target costs are not being met during the production stage. Participants in second-look VE typically come up with a variety of ideas for cost cutting, but the outcomes often depend on their levels of experience, and not many good alternatives are available during the production stage. Nonetheless, good ideas have been consistently generated by VE experts. This paper investigates past second-look VE cases and the thinking processes of VE experts and proposes a cost review process as a systematic means of investigating cost-cutting ideas. This cost review process includes the use of an idea checklist and a specification review process. In addition to presenting the process, this paper reports on its feasibility, based on its introduction into a VE training course as part of a pilot study. The results indicate that the cost review process is effective in generating ideas for later analysis. PMID:25580459

  5. An improved effective cost review process for value engineering.

    PubMed

    Joo, D S; Park, J I

    2014-01-01

    Second-look value engineering (VE) is an approach that aims to lower the costs of products for which target costs are not being met during the production stage. Participants in second-look VE typically come up with a variety of ideas for cost cutting, but the outcomes often depend on their levels of experience, and not many good alternatives are available during the production stage. Nonetheless, good ideas have been consistently generated by VE experts. This paper investigates past second-look VE cases and the thinking processes of VE experts and proposes a cost review process as a systematic means of investigating cost-cutting ideas. This cost review process includes the use of an idea checklist and a specification review process. In addition to presenting the process, this paper reports on its feasibility, based on its introduction into a VE training course as part of a pilot study. The results indicate that the cost review process is effective in generating ideas for later analysis.

  6. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C. A.

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  7. Understanding Earthquake Processes in the Central and Eastern US and Implications for Nuclear Reactor Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seber, D.; Tabatabai, S.

    2012-12-01

    All of the early site permits and new reactor licensing applications, which have been submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC), are located in the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). Furthermore, among the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) already licensed to operate in the US, 96 are located in the CEUS. While there are many considerations in siting commercial NPPs, the perceived lower seismic hazard in the CEUS compared to the Western United States is one of the reasons why the majority of operating and potential future nuclear reactors are located in the CEUS. However, one important criterion used in the licensing and safe operation of a nuclear power plant is its seismic design basis, which establishes the plant's ability to withstand ground motions produced by moderate- to large-sized earthquakes without suffering any damage to its critical safety related structures, systems, and components. The seismic design basis for a NPP is site specific and determined using up-to-date knowledge and information about seismic sources surrounding the site and seismic wave propagation characteristics. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the processes generating earthquakes (tectonic or man-made) and the seismic wave propagation characteristics in the CEUS is crucial. The U.S. NRC's seismic review process for evaluating new reactor siting applications heavily relies upon up-to-date scientific knowledge of seismic sources within at least 320 km of a proposed site. However, the availability of up-to-date knowledge and information about potential seismic sources in low-seismicity regions is limited and relevant data are sparse. Recently, the NRC participated in a joint effort to develop new seismic source models to be used in the CEUS seismic hazard studies for nuclear facilities. In addition, efforts are underway to better understand the seismic potential of the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone. While very large and successful scientific

  8. System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The central data processing system provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. Overall software system requirements were established for use in the central integration facility which transforms raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems.

  9. Central serous chorioretinopathy in U.S. Air Force aviators: a review.

    PubMed

    Green, R P; Carlson, D W; Dieckert, J P; Tredici, T J

    1988-12-01

    Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSC) is an uncommon disease with the potential to cause loss of visual acuity, decreased color vision, and decreased depth perception. These visual changes may become permanent and require removal of aviators from flight status. This study reviews 55 eyes of 47 USAF aviators with ICSC examined at the United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine (USAFSAM), Brooks AFB, TX. Clinical and aeromedical findings, both on initial and on follow-up ophthalmic examination were studied. Ninety-seven percent of aviators otherwise medically qualified were ultimately returned to flight status. Overall, 51% had recurrent episodes, 17% had bilateral disease, and 13% underwent laser photocoagulation. Visual acuity correlated with active disease, and there was a trend toward poor stereopsis and diminished color vision with worsening visual acuity. Eighty-six percent attained a final visual acuity of 20/20 or better. On final examination, 90% had normal stereopsis, 87% had normal color vision, and 49% had a normal central visual field. Eyes with recurrent disease tended to have degraded final visual acuity, stereopsis, color vision, and central visual field. The visual and aeromedical prognosis from a single attack of ICSC is generally favorable, but repeated attacks can lead to a significant decrease in visual functions that may jeopardize flying status.

  10. The Human Central Canal of the Spinal Cord: A Comprehensive Review of its Anatomy, Embryology, Molecular Development, Variants, and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Brandon M; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Loukas, Marios; Iwanaga, Joe; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2016-01-01

    The human central canal of the spinal cord is often overlooked. However, with advancements in imaging quality, this structure can be visualized in more detail than ever before. Therefore, a timely review of this part of the cord seemed warranted. Using standard search engines, a literature review was performed for the development, anatomy, and pathology involving the central canal. Clinicians who treat patients with issues near the spine or interpret imaging of the spinal cord should be familiar with the morphology and variants of the central canal.   PMID:28097078

  11. Risk factors for central venous catheter-related infections in a neonatal population - systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Viviane; Camargos, Paulo A M; Anchieta, Lêni M; Bouzada, Maria C F; Oliveira, Gabriela M de; Clemente, Wanessa T; Romanelli, Roberta M de C

    2017-08-30

    This was a systematic review of the incidence density and risk factors for central venous catheter-related infections in a neonatal population. The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, BDENF, SciELO, and LILACS databases were used without date or language restriction. Studies that analyzed risk factors for bloodstream infections in newborns were identified. A total of 134 articles were found that met the eligibility criteria. Of these articles, 14 were selected that addressed risk factors for central venous catheter-related infection in neonates. Catheter-related bloodstream infections remain an important complication, as shown by the incidence rates reported in the studies included in this review. The observed risk factors indicate that low birth weight, prematurity, and longer catheter permanence are related to a higher incidence of bloodstream infections. It has been observed that low rates of catheter-related infections, i.e., close to zero, are already a reality in health institutions in developed countries, since they use infection surveillance and control programs. Catheter-related bloodstream infections still show high incidence density rates in developing countries. The authors emphasize the need for further longitudinal studies and the need for better strategies to prevent risk factors, aiming at the reduction of catheter-related infections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  12. A review on alcohol: from the central action mechanism to chemical dependency.

    PubMed

    Costardi, João Victor Vezali; Nampo, Rafael Augusto Teruaki; Silva, Gabriella Lourenço; Ribeiro, Maria Aparecida Ferreira; Stella, Heryck José; Stella, Mercia Breda; Malheiros, Sônia Valéria Pinheiro

    2015-08-01

    alcohol is a psychotropic depressant of the central nervous system (CNS) that promotes simultaneous changes in several neuronal pathways, exerting a profound neurological impact that leads to various behavioral and biological alterations. to describe the effects of alcohol on the CNS, identifying the signaling pathways that are modified and the biological effects resulting from its consumption. a literature review was conducted and articles published in different languages over the last 15 years were retrieved. the studies reviewed describe the direct effect of alcohol on several neurotransmitter receptors (gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA], glutamate, endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG, among others), the indirect effect of alcohol on the limbic and opioid systems, and the effect on calcium and potassium channels and on proteins regulated by GABA in the hippocampus. the multiple actions of alcohol on the CNS result in a general effect of psychomotor depression, difficulties in information storage and logical reasoning and motor incoordination, in addition to stimulating the reward system, a fact that may explain the development of addiction. Knowledge on the neuronal signaling pathways that are altered by alcohol allows the identification of effectors which could reduce its central action, thus, offering new therapeutic perspectives for the rehabilitation of alcohol addicts.

  13. Central thalamic deep brain stimulation for cognitive neuromodulation: a review of proposed mechanisms and investigational studies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sudhin A.; Schiff, Nicholas D.

    2010-01-01

    We review the history of efforts to apply central thalamic deep brain stimulation (CT/DBS) to restore consciousness in patients in coma and vegetative state by changing the arousal state. Early experimental and clinical studies and the results of a recent single-subject human study that demonstrated both immediate behavioral facilitation and carry-over effects of CT/DBS are reviewed. We consider possible mechanisms underlying CT/DBS effects on cognitively-mediated behaviors in conscious patients in light of the anatomical connectivity and physiological specializations of the central thalamus. Immediate and carry-over effects of CT/DBS are discussed within the context of possible effects on neuronal plasticity and gene expression. We conclude that CT/DBS be studied as a therapeutic intervention to improve impaired cognitive function in severely brain-injured patients who in addition to demonstrating clinical evidence of consciousness and goal-directed behavior, retain sufficient preservation of large-scale cerebral networks within the anterior forebrain. Although available data provide evidence for proof-of-concept, very significant challenges for study design and development of CT/DBS for clinical use are identified. PMID:21039953

  14. Investigation of central pain processing in shoulder pain: converging results from two musculoskeletal pain models

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Carolina; Kindler, Lindsay L.; Fillingim, Roger B.; George, Steven Z.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports suggest deficits in conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and enhanced suprathreshold heat pain response (SHPR) potentially play a role in the development of chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether central pain processing was altered in 2 musculoskeletal shoulder pain models. The goals of this study were to determine whether central pain processing: 1) differs between healthy subjects and patients with clinical shoulder pain, 2) changes with induction of exercise induced muscle pain (EIMP), and 3) changes 3 months after shoulder surgery. Fifty eight patients with clinical shoulder pain and 56 age and sex matched healthy subjects were included in these analyses. The healthy cohort was examined before inducing EIMP, and 48 and 96 hours later. The clinical cohort was examined before shoulder surgery and 3 months later. CPM did not differ between the cohorts, however; SHPR was elevated for patients with shoulder pain compared to healthy controls. Induction of acute shoulder pain with EIMP resulted in increased shoulder pain intensity but did not change CPM or SHPR. Three months following shoulder surgery clinical pain intensity decreased but CPM was unchanged from pre-operative assessment. In contrast SHPR was decreased and showed values comparable with healthy controls at 3 months. Therefore, the present study suggests that: 1) clinical shoulder pain is associated with measurable changes in central pain processing, 2) exercise-induced shoulder pain did not affect measures of central pain processing, and 3) elevated SHPR was normalized with shoulder surgery. Collectively our findings support neuroplastic changes in pain modulation were associated with decreases in clinical pain intensity only, and could be detected more readily with thermal stimuli. PMID:22208804

  15. Peer review in design: Understanding the impact of collaboration on the review process and student perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandala, Mahender Arjun

    A cornerstone of design and design education is frequent situated feedback. With increasing class sizes, and shrinking financial and human resources, providing rich feedback to students becomes increasingly difficult. In the field of writing, web-based peer review--the process of utilizing equal status learners within a class to provide feedback to each other on their work using networked computing systems--has been shown to be a reliable and valid source of feedback in addition to improving student learning. Designers communicate in myriad ways, using the many languages of design and combining visual and descriptive information. This complex discourse of design intent makes peer reviews by design students ambiguous and often not helpful to the receivers of this feedback. Furthermore, engaging students in the review process itself is often difficult. Teams can complement individual diversity and may assist novice designers collectively resolve complex task. However, teams often incur production losses and may be impacted by individual biases. In the current work, we look at utilizing a collaborative team of reviewers, working collectively and synchronously, in generating web based peer reviews in a sophomore engineering design class. Students participated in a cross-over design, conducting peer reviews as individuals and collaborative teams in parallel sequences. Raters coded the feedback generated on the basis of their appropriateness and accuracy. Self-report surveys and passive observation of teams conducting reviews captured student opinion on the process, its value, and the contrasting experience they had conducting team and individual reviews. We found team reviews generated better quality feedback in comparison to individual reviews. Furthermore, students preferred conducting reviews in teams, finding the process 'fun' and engaging. We observed several learning benefits of using collaboration in reviewing including improved understanding of the assessment

  16. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that relies upon a synergistic effort of a diverse group of microbial communities for metabolizing diverse organic substrates. However, AD is highly sensitive to process disturbances, and thus it is advantageous to use online monitoring and process control techniques to efficiently operate AD process. A range of electrochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic devices can be deployed for on-line monitoring and control of the AD process. While complexity of the control strategy ranges from a feedback control to advanced control systems, there are some debates on implementation of advanced instrumentations or advanced control strategies. Centralized AD plants could be the answer for the applications of progressive automatic control field. This article provides a critical overview of the available automatic control technologies that can be implemented in AD processes at different scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The learning process of capita selecta based on journals review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniaty, Artina; Febriana, Beta Wulan; Arlianty, Widinda Normalia

    2017-03-01

    The learning process on capita selecta subject of Chemistry Education Department, Islamic University of Indonesia, was carried out based on reviewing of journals in chemistry and chemistry education scopes. The learning process procedure included planning, implementation and reflection. The purposes of learning were 1) students got an insight into the trend research in chemistry and chemistry education scopes, 2) students knew how to access and search journals, 3) increased students learning motivation on reading scientific journals, 4) students had be trained for reviewing scientific journals, and inspiring students to think about research ideas, performed research and publishing in scientific journals. The result showed that the students' responses in this learning were good.

  18. Concise Review: Dental Pulp Stem Cells: A Novel Cell Therapy for Retinal and Central Nervous System Repair.

    PubMed

    Mead, Ben; Logan, Ann; Berry, Martin; Leadbeater, Wendy; Scheven, Ben A

    2017-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) are neural crest-derived ecto-mesenchymal stem cells that can relatively easily and non-invasively be isolated from the dental pulp of extracted postnatal and adult teeth. Accumulating evidence suggests that DPSC have great promise as a cellular therapy for central nervous system (CNS) and retinal injury and disease. The mode of action by which DPSC confer therapeutic benefit may comprise multiple pathways, in particular, paracrine-mediated processes which involve a wide array of secreted trophic factors and is increasingly regarded as the principal predominant mechanism. In this concise review, we present the current evidence for the use of DPSC to repair CNS damage, including recent findings on retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection and regeneration in optic nerve injury and glaucoma. Stem Cells 2017;35:61-67. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  19. Correlation between altered central pain processing and concentration of peritoneal fluid inflammatory cytokines in endometriosis patients with chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Neziri, Alban Y; Bersinger, Nick A; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mueller, Michael D; Curatolo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Translational research has not yet elucidated whether alterations in central pain processes are related to peripheral inflammatory processes in chronic pain patients. We tested the hypothesis that the concentration of cytokines in the peritoneal fluid of endometriosis patients with chronic pain correlate with parameters of hyperexcitability of the nociceptive system. The concentrations of 15 peritoneal fluid cytokines were measured in 11 patients with chronic pelvic pain and a diagnosis of endometriosis. Six parameters assessing central pain processes were recorded. Positive correlations between concentration of some cytokines in the peritoneal fluid and amplification of central pain processing were found. The results suggest that inflammatory mechanisms may be important in the pathophysiology of altered central pain processes and that cytokines produced in the environment of endometriosis could act as mediators between the peripheral lesion and changes in central nociceptive processes.

  20. Altered central nervous system processing of baroreceptor input following hindlimb unloading in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, J. A.; Schadt, J. C.; Hasser, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of cardiovascular deconditioning on central nervous system processing of baroreceptor afferent activity was evaluated following 14 days of hindlimb unloading (HU). Inactin-anesthetized rats were instrumented with catheters, renal sympathetic nerve electrodes, and aortic depressor nerve electrodes for measurement of mean arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and aortic depressor nerve activity (ADNA). Baroreceptor and baroreflex functions were assessed during infusion of phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Central processing of baroreceptor afferent input was evaluated by linear regression relating RSNA to ADNA. The maximum baroreflex-elicited increase in RSNA was significantly reduced in HU rats (122 +/- 3.8 vs. 144 +/- 4.9% of baseline RSNA), whereas ADNA was not altered. The slope (-0.18 +/- 0.04 vs. -0.40 +/- 0.04) and y-intercept (121 +/- 3.2 vs. 146 +/- 4.3) of the linear regression relating increases in efferent RSNA to decreases in afferent ADNA during hypotension were significantly reduced in HU rats. There were no differences during increases in arterial pressure. Results demonstrate that the attenuation in baroreflex-mediated increases in RSNA following HU is due to changes in central processing of baroreceptor afferent information rather than aortic baroreceptor function.

  1. Altered central nervous system processing of baroreceptor input following hindlimb unloading in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, J. A.; Schadt, J. C.; Hasser, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of cardiovascular deconditioning on central nervous system processing of baroreceptor afferent activity was evaluated following 14 days of hindlimb unloading (HU). Inactin-anesthetized rats were instrumented with catheters, renal sympathetic nerve electrodes, and aortic depressor nerve electrodes for measurement of mean arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and aortic depressor nerve activity (ADNA). Baroreceptor and baroreflex functions were assessed during infusion of phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Central processing of baroreceptor afferent input was evaluated by linear regression relating RSNA to ADNA. The maximum baroreflex-elicited increase in RSNA was significantly reduced in HU rats (122 +/- 3.8 vs. 144 +/- 4.9% of baseline RSNA), whereas ADNA was not altered. The slope (-0.18 +/- 0.04 vs. -0.40 +/- 0.04) and y-intercept (121 +/- 3.2 vs. 146 +/- 4.3) of the linear regression relating increases in efferent RSNA to decreases in afferent ADNA during hypotension were significantly reduced in HU rats. There were no differences during increases in arterial pressure. Results demonstrate that the attenuation in baroreflex-mediated increases in RSNA following HU is due to changes in central processing of baroreceptor afferent information rather than aortic baroreceptor function.

  2. 75 FR 49938 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NIH NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget... CIRB to provide background information on workflow and processes of CIRB operations as well as a non...: Once, except for the SAE Reviewer Worksheet. Affected Public: Includes the Federal Government,...

  3. The systematic review as a research process in music therapy.

    PubMed

    Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna; Sena Moore, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Music therapists are challenged to present evidence on the efficacy of music therapy treatment and incorporate the best available research evidence to make informed healthcare and treatment decisions. Higher standards of evidence can come from a variety of sources including systematic reviews. To define and describe a range of research review methods using examples from music therapy and related literature, with emphasis on the systematic review. In addition, the authors provide a detailed overview of methodological processes for conducting and reporting systematic reviews in music therapy. The systematic review process is described in five steps. Step 1 identifies the research plan and operationalized research question(s). Step 2 illustrates the identification and organization of the existing literature related to the question(s). Step 3 details coding of data extracted from the literature. Step 4 explains the synthesis of coded findings and analysis to answer the research question(s). Step 5 describes the strength of evidence evaluation and results presentation for practice recommendations. Music therapists are encouraged to develop and conduct systematic reviews. This methodology contributes to review outcome credibility and can determine how information is interpreted and used by clinicians, clients or patients, and policy makers. A systematic review is a methodologically rigorous research method used to organize and evaluate extant literature related to a clinical problem. Systematic reviews can assist music therapists in managing the ever-increasing literature, making well-informed evidence based practice and research decisions, and translating existing music-based and nonmusic based literature to clinical practice and research development. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Computational modeling in the primary processing of titanium: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Vasisht; Wilson, Andrew; Kamal, Manish; Thomas, Matthew; Lambert, Dave

    2009-05-01

    Process modeling is increasingly becoming a vital tool for modern metals manufacturing. This paper reviews process modeling initiatives started at TIMET over the last decade for the primary processing of titanium alloys. SOLAR, a finite volume-based numerical model developed at the Ecole de Mine at Nancy, has been successfully utilized to optimize vacuum arc remelting process parameters, such as electromagnetic stirring profiles in order to minimize macrosegregation and improve ingot quality. Thermo-mechanical modeling of heat treating, billet forging, and slab rolling is accomplished via the commercial finite element analysis model, DEFORM, to determine heating times, cooling rates, strain distributions, etc.

  5. Peripherally inserted central venous catheter safety in burn care: a single-center retrospective cohort review.

    PubMed

    Austin, Ryan E; Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Bolourani, Siavash; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-01-01

    The use of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line for central venous access in thermally injured patients has increased in recent years despite a lack of evidence regarding safety in this patient population. A recent survey of invasive catheter practices among 44 burn centers in the United States found that 37% of burn units use PICC lines as part of their treatment protocol. The goal of this study was to compare PICC-associated complication rates with the existing literature in both the critical care and burn settings. The methodology involved is a single institution retrospective cohort review of patients who received a PICC line during admission to a regional burn unit between 2008 and 2013. Fifty-three patients were identified with a total of seventy-three PICC lines. The primary outcome measurement for this study was indication for PICC line discontinuation. The most common reason for PICC line discontinuation was that the line was no longer indicated (45.2%). Four cases of symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (5.5%) and three cases of central line-associated bloodstream infection (4.3%, 2.72 infections per 1000 line days) were identified. PICC lines were in situ an average of 15 days (range 1 to 49 days). We suggest that PICC line-associated complication rates are similar to those published in the critical care literature. Though these rates are higher than those published in the burn literature, they are similar to central venous catheter-associated complication rates. While PICC lines can be a useful resource in the treatment of the thermally injured patient, they are associated with significant and potentially fatal risks.

  6. Traditional use of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe: review and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine has remained as the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the primary healthcare system of resource poor communities in Zimbabwe. The local people have a long history of traditional plant usage for medicinal purposes. Despite the increasing acceptance of traditional medicine in Zimbabwe, this rich indigenous knowledge is not adequately documented. Documentation of plants used as traditional medicines is needed so that the knowledge can be preserved and the utilized plants conserved and used sustainably. The primary objective of this paper is to summarize information on traditional uses of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe, identifying research gaps and suggesting perspectives for future research. Methods This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, reports from national, regional and international organizations, theses, conference papers and other grey materials. Results A total of 93 medicinal plant species representing 41 families and 77 genera are used in south-central Zimbabwe. These plant species are used to treat 18 diseases and disorder categories, with the highest number of species used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by sexually transmitted infections, cold, cough and sore throat and gynaecological problems. Shrubs and trees (38% each) were the primary sources of medicinal plants, followed by herbs (21%) and climbers (3%). The therapeutic claims made on medicinal plants documented in south-central Zimbabwe are well supported by literature, with 82.8% of the plant species having similar applications in other regions of Zimbabwe as well as other parts of the world and 89.2% having documented biological and pharmacological properties. Conclusion This study illustrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment and management of human diseases and ailments in south-central Zimbabwe. Traditional medicines still play an important

  7. HIV among people who inject drugs in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a systematic review with implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, Emma; Rhodes, Tim; Platt, Lucy; Hope, Vivian; Latypov, Alisher; Donoghoe, Martin; Wilson, David

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health concern in Eastern and Central Europe and Central Asia. HIV transmission in this group is growing and over 27 000 HIV cases were diagnosed among PWID in 2010 alone. The objective of this systematic review was to examine risk factors associated with HIV prevalence among PWID in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia and to describe the response to HIV in this population and the policy environments in which they live. Design A systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV prevalence among PWID and a synthesis of key resources describing the response to HIV in this population. We used a comprehensive search strategy across multiple electronic databases to collect original research papers addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors among PWID since 2005. We summarised the extent of key harm reduction interventions, and using a simple index of ‘enabling’ environment described the policy environments in which they are implemented. Studies reviewed Of the 5644 research papers identified from electronic databases and 40 documents collected from our grey literature search, 70 documents provided unique estimates of HIV and 14 provided multivariate risk factors for HIV among PWID. Results HIV prevalence varies widely, with generally low or medium (<5%) prevalence in Central Europe and high (>10%) prevalence in Eastern Europe. We found evidence for a number of structural factors associated with HIV including gender, socio-economic position and contact with law enforcement agencies. Conclusions The HIV epidemic among PWID in the region is varied, with the greatest burden generally in Eastern Europe. Data suggest that the current response to HIV among PWID is insufficient, and hindered by multiple environmental barriers including restricted access to services and unsupportive policy or social environments. PMID:23087014

  8. Central Data Processing System (CDPS) user's manual: Solar heating and cooling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The software and data base management system required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at multiple sites is presented. The instrumentation data associated with these systems is collected, processed, and presented in a form which supported continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. The CDPS consisted of three major elements: communication interface computer, central data processing computer, and performance evaluation data base. Users of the performance data base were identified, and procedures for operation, and guidelines for software maintenance were outlined. The manual also defined the output capabilities of the CDPS in support of external users of the system.

  9. [Diagnostic studies in the planning process of human resources: the Central American experience].

    PubMed

    de Canales, F; Martínez Chopen, O; Tercero Talavera, I; González, G

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the authors analyze various aspects of one of the essential stages in the process of planning human resources--diagnostic studies and research which will serve as a starting point. They stress the role of diagnostic personnel studies in formulating human resources policies and planning, and describe the phases to be followed in their execution, according to the results obtained in the three Central American countries (Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) in which the studies were completed. The paper concludes with a summary of the process in the three countries.

  10. Results from a National Central Auditory Processing Disorder Service: A Real-World Assessment of Diagnostic Practices and Remediation for Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Sharon; Glyde, Helen; Dillon, Harvey; King, Alison; Gillies, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of a national service to diagnose and remediate central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Data were gathered from 38 participating Australian Hearing centers over an 18-month period from 666 individuals age 6, 0 (years, months) to 24, 8 (median 9, 0). A total of 408 clients were diagnosed with either a spatial processing disorder (n = 130), a verbal memory deficit (n = 174), or a binaural integration deficit (n = 104). A hierarchical test protocol was used so not all children were assessed on all tests in the battery. One hundred fifty clients decided to proceed with deficit-specific training (LiSN & Learn or Memory Booster) and/or be fitted with a frequency modulation system. Families were provided with communication strategies targeted to a child's specific listening difficulties and goals. Outcomes were measured using repeat assessment of the relevant diagnostic test, as well as the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement measure and Listening Inventories for Education teacher questionnaire. Group analyses revealed significant improvements postremediation for all training/management options. Individual posttraining performance and results of outcome measures also are discussed. PMID:27587910

  11. Relationship between play and sensory processing: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Watts, Tara; Stagnitti, Karen; Brown, Ted

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We examined the empirical evidence to answer the research question, What is the relationship between play and sensory processing in children ages 3-12 yr? METHOD. The PRISMA guidelines were followed to complete a systematic review. Academic databases were searched using play, leisure, sensory processing, and sensory integration as primary search terms. Of 6,230 articles initially identified, 35 full-text articles were screened for eligibility. Of these, 8 met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS. All 8 studies were conducted within the United States. The evidence of the relationship between play and sensory processing fell mainly into the low levels of evidence: case studies and cohort studies. CONCLUSION. This review provides occupational therapists with an emerging understanding of the relationship between play and sensory processing based on current evidence and its importance in the occupational development of children. Rigorous research is needed in the area.

  12. Status of pulse milling processes and technologies: A review.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Rajesh Kumar; Shivhare, Uma Shanker; Gupta, Ram Kishore; Yadav, Deep Narayan; Jaiswal, Arvind; Prasad, Priyanka

    2017-01-26

    Pulses are essential component of the human diet in the underdeveloped and the developing countries. Pulse milling mainly focuses on complete removal of the hull with minimum generation of powder, broken, and in certain cases dehulled split formation. Physical and mechanical properties of different pulses are described and their role in dehulling is discussed in this review. The review discusses nature of gums that binds hull and cotyledons together and their effect on milling characteristics. Pitting operation is performed for all pulses prior to the pretreatment for better dehulling. Various pretreatment processes (soaking, edible oils, chemicals, enzymes, hydrothermal) developed to loosen the bond are examined for their dehulling efficacy from commercial application viewpoint. Dependence of dehulling characteristics of different pulses on size, shape, variety, grain hardness, and moisture content are discussed. Most of the machines developed for pulses dehulling in India are abrasion based emery-cylinder concave system. The studies done for optimization of different pretreatment process conditions are also reviewed. The losses taking place in the form of broken and powder during pulse milling are described. Methods for performance evaluation of the pulse dehulling system are reviewed and expressions are suggested for proper evaluation. This review gives complete overview of the processes and technological status of pulse milling in present context.

  13. An Assessment of the Human Subjects Protection Review Process for Exempt Research.

    PubMed

    Loe, Jonathan D; Winkelman, D Alex; Robertson, Christopher T

    2016-09-01

    Medical and public health research includes surveys, interviews, and biospecimens - techniques that do not present substantial risks to subjects. Consequently, this research is exempt from regulation under the Federal Common Rule. Nevertheless, at many institutions, exempt research is frequently subject to the same regulatory process that is required for non-exempt research, requiring the consumption of time and resources for review by Institutional Review Board members or staff. The federal government has indicated an intention to reform and centralize this system, but has not yet specified the form that it will use instead. By examining the policies of the top 50 research institutions, this article assesses institutional practices surrounding exempt research, quantifies the extent of exempt-research review requirements, documents a problem of "over-compliance," and makes recommendations for reform. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  14. A review of some digital image processing in cometary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, S. M.

    The development of electronic digitizers, digital detector arrays and modern high speed computer processing has led to more efficient, quantitative methods of studying the spatial, temporal and photometric properties of cometary phenomena. Digital image processing techniques are being used and further developed to reduce two dimensional data, to enhance the visibility of cometary features, and to quantify spatial and temporal changes. Some of these methods are reviewed, and their merits and limitations are discussed.

  15. Communications, Signal Processing, and Telemetering Research Program Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Communications, Signal Processing, and Telemetering Research Program Review was held on February 23, 1999. Research conducted under the grant was presented and reviewed, for progress, and for possible technology transfers. The research reviewed was in the following areas: (1) Bandwidth-efficient Modulation and nonlinear equalization; (2) Investigation of an architecture for parallel signal processing applicable to communications problems; (3)Coded partial response over satellites; (4) synchronization at Low SNR; (5) Serial concatenated convolutional codes and some implementation issues on high rate turbo codes; (6) Flight experiments; (7) Real time doppler tracking; (8) Space protocol testing; (9) Lightweight optical communications without carrying a laser in space. The presentations are given by the graduate students who performed the research.

  16. Lexical Processing in Toddlers with ASD: Does Weak Central Coherence Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Ellis Weismer, Susan; Haebig, Eileen; Edwards, Jan; Saffran, Jenny; Venker, Courtney E

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated whether vocabulary delays in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be explained by a cognitive style that prioritizes processing of detailed, local features of input over global contextual integration-as claimed by the weak central coherence (WCC) theory. Thirty toddlers with ASD and 30 younger, cognition-matched typical controls participated in a looking-while-listening task that assessed whether perceptual or semantic similarities among named images disrupted word recognition relative to a neutral condition. Overlap of perceptual features invited local processing whereas semantic overlap invited global processing. With the possible exception of a subset of toddlers who had very low vocabulary skills, these results provide no evidence that WCC is characteristic of lexical processing in toddlers with ASD.

  17. PRISM, Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion Data Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, E.; Jones, J. M.; Stephens, C. D.; Ng, P.

    2016-12-01

    A continually increasing number of high-quality digital strong-motion records from stations of the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as well as data from regional seismic networks within the U.S., calls for automated processing of strong-motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. PRISM automates the processing of strong-motion records by providing batch-processing capabilities. The PRISM software is platform-independent (coded in Java), open-source, and does not depend on any closed-source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine composed of modules for each processing step, and a graphical user interface (GUI) for manual review and processing. To facilitate the use by non-NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and GUI components) is easy to install and run as a stand-alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate implementation of new processing techniques. Input to PRISM currently is limited to data files in the Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) V0 format, so that all retrieved acceleration time series need to be converted to this format. Output products include COSMOS V1, V2 and V3 files as: (i) raw acceleration time series in physical units with mean removed (V1), (ii) baseline-corrected and filtered acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series (V2), and (iii) response spectra, Fourier amplitude spectra and common earthquake-engineering intensity measures (V3). A thorough description of the record processing features supported by PRISM is presented with examples and validation results. All computing features have been

  18. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application review and approval process. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... accordance with § 1304.5) when: (1) TVA deems a hearing is necessary or appropriate in determining any...

  19. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Application review and approval process. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... accordance with § 1304.5) when: (1) TVA deems a hearing is necessary or appropriate in determining any...

  20. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application review and approval process. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... accordance with § 1304.5) when: (1) TVA deems a hearing is necessary or appropriate in determining any...

  1. A Peer Review Process for Games and Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Bride

    2008-01-01

    A peer-review process for assessing the contribution of artifacts, such as games and software to research, is proposed. Games and software produced as research output by academics tend to be accredited within their institution through discussion of the artifact, rather than directly. An independent judgment by peers confirming an artifact's…

  2. 38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Review and appeal process. 17.904 Section 17.904 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea...

  3. 44 CFR 209.8 - Application and review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... official under current codes or ordinances; or (C) Were demolished due to damage or environmental... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application and review process. 209.8 Section 209.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY...

  4. 38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review and appeal process. 17.904 Section 17.904 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17...

  5. Review of "Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoliar, Stephen W.

    This review of the book, "Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine," by John F. Sowa, argues that anyone who plans to get involved with issues of knowledge representation should have at least a passing acquaintance with Sowa's conceptual graphs for a database interface. (Used to model the underlying semantics of…

  6. 44 CFR 152.5 - Review process and evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review process and evaluation criteria. 152.5 Section 152.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM §...

  7. 38 CFR 17.276 - Appeal/review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... will review the claim, and any relevant supporting documentation, and issue a decision in writing that... of Benefits (EOB) form. The EOB form is generated by the CHAMPVA automated payment processing system... believes the decision is in error and must include any new and relevant information not previously...

  8. 38 CFR 17.276 - Appeal/review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... will review the claim, and any relevant supporting documentation, and issue a decision in writing that... of Benefits (EOB) form. The EOB form is generated by the CHAMPVA automated payment processing system... believes the decision is in error and must include any new and relevant information not previously...

  9. Characteristics of Auditory Processing Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Ellen; Visser-Bochane, Margot I.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Dijk, Pim; van der Schans, Cees P.; Luinge, Margreet R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review article is to describe characteristics of auditory processing disorders (APD) by evaluating the literature in which children with suspected or diagnosed APD were compared with typically developing children and to determine whether APD must be regarded as a deficit specific to the auditory modality or as a…

  10. 42 CFR 456.23 - Post-payment review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Post-payment review process. 456.23 Section 456.23 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: All Medicaid Services § 456...

  11. Computer processing of ocular photographs--a review.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, J

    1987-01-01

    The use of digital image processing for enhancement and analysis of ocular photographs is a growing field of clinical research and application. The value of ocular image analysis and the requirements for acquisition and storage of digital images are outlined. A number of techniques for image enhancement and analysis are introduced, and their applications to lens and fundus images are reviewed.

  12. Teaching Undergraduates the Process of Peer Review: Learning by Doing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangachari, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    An active approach allowed undergraduates in Health Sciences to learn the dynamics of peer review at first hand. A four-stage process was used. In "stage 1", students formed self-selected groups to explore specific issues. In "stage 2", each group posted their interim reports online on a specific date. Each student read all the…

  13. Main trends in the biotechnological processing of coals: a review

    SciTech Connect

    I.P. Ivanov

    2007-02-15

    A review of the literature concerning the studies of the biotechnological processing of coal in Russia and abroad is presented. This environmentally safe technology is demonstrated to be promising for the conversion of solid fossil fuels into valuable fuel and chemical products. 73 refs.

  14. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application review and approval process. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER...

  15. The Peer Review Process: Acceptances, Revisions, and Outright Rejections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John V., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the manuscript review process at "Library Quarterly," discussing the accepted manuscript; the revise and resubmit manuscript; the rejected manuscript; and unethical conduct. Provides a "Library Quarterly" time to decisions table (overall days to decide acceptance, revision, or reject) by year (1996-2000). Includes the…

  16. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application review and approval process. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND...

  17. Characteristics of Auditory Processing Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Ellen; Visser-Bochane, Margot I.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Dijk, Pim; van der Schans, Cees P.; Luinge, Margreet R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review article is to describe characteristics of auditory processing disorders (APD) by evaluating the literature in which children with suspected or diagnosed APD were compared with typically developing children and to determine whether APD must be regarded as a deficit specific to the auditory modality or as a…

  18. Review of Solids Handling. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W.

    This unit (which consists of a single lesson) summarizes and reviews most of the solids handling processes in common use in municipal treatment plants. The instructor's guide for the unit includes: (1) an overview of the lesson; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of 72 slides); (4) student worksheet (with answers); and (5) two…

  19. Techno-economic comparison of centralized versus decentralized biorefineries for two alkaline pretreatment processes.

    PubMed

    Stoklosa, Ryan J; Del Pilar Orjuela, Andrea; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Williams, Daniel L; Dale, Bruce E; Hodge, David B; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-02-01

    In this work, corn stover subjected to ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™)(1) pretreatment or alkaline pre-extraction followed by hydrogen peroxide post-treatment (AHP pretreatment) were compared for their enzymatic hydrolysis yields over a range of solids loadings, enzymes loadings, and enzyme combinations. Process techno-economic models were compared for cellulosic ethanol production for a biorefinery that handles 2000tons per day of corn stover employing a centralized biorefinery approach with AHP or a de-centralized AFEX pretreatment followed by biomass densification feeding a centralized biorefinery. A techno-economic analysis (TEA) of these scenarios shows that the AFEX process resulted in the highest capital investment but also has the lowest minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) at $2.09/gal, primarily due to good energy integration and an efficient ammonia recovery system. The economics of AHP could be made more competitive if oxidant loadings were reduced and the alkali and sugar losses were also decreased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence-based evaluation of information: the centrality and limitations of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Järvholm, Bengt; Bohlin, Ingemar

    2014-03-01

    This introductory paper considers the value and limitations of the methodology of systematic reviews especially according to the evidence-based movement. It explains some terms and organisations producing systematic reviews. It also discusses controversies. The first concerns the criteria by which the quality of individual studies is assessed, the second the possible effects of the affiliation of some reviewers, and the third the value of formalisation of procedure (i.e. the tensions between formal tools and professional judgments). The article contrasts the evidence-based formalism with other formalisms as those by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. It discusses systematic reviews in social science where interventions are complex, difficult to blind, and depend on context. Systematic reviews in working life research are often focusing on prevention. The formal evidence-based process may devaluate or disregard findings from mechanistic and observational studies. Hence such reviews may falsely conclude that existing knowledge about the risk of the factor is limited or nonexistent.

  1. HTA and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe: Results from a survey.

    PubMed

    García-Mochón, Leticia; Espín Balbino, Jaime; Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; Caro Martinez, Araceli; Martin Ruiz, Eva; Pérez Velasco, Román

    2017-03-31

    To gain knowledge and insights on health technology assessment (HTA) and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe (CESEE) countries. A cross-sectional study was performed. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was developed in a multi-stage process. The questionnaire was arranged according to 5 broad domains: (i) introduction/country settings; (ii) use of HTA in the country; (iii) decision-making process; (iv) implementation of decisions; and (v) HTA and decision-making: future challenges. Potential survey respondents were identified through literature review-with a total of 118 contacts from the 24 CESEE countries. From March to July 2014, the survey was administered via e-mail. A total of 22 questionnaires were received generating an 18.6% response rate, including 4 responses indicating that their institutions had no involvement in HTA. Most of the CESEE countries have entities under government mandates with advisory functions and different responsibilities for decision-making, but mainly in charge of the reimbursement and pricing of medicines. Other areas where discrepancies across countries were found include criteria for selecting technologies to be assessed, stakeholder involvement, evidence requirements, use of economic evaluation, and timeliness of HTA. A number of CESEE countries have created formal decision-making processes for which HTA is used. However, there is a high level of heterogeneity related to the degree of development of HTA structures, and the methods and processes followed. Further studies focusing on the countries from which information is scarcer and on the HTA of health technologies other than medicines are warranted. Reviews/comparative analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional MRI demonstrates pain perception in hand osteoarthritis has features of central pain processing

    PubMed Central

    Sofat, Nidhi; Smee, Cori; Hermansson, Monika; Howard, Matthew; Baker, Emma H; Howe, Franklyn A; Barrick, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Background Hand osteoarthritis (HOA) is typified by pain and reduced function. We hypothesised that people with HOA have enhanced sensitivity and activation of peripheral nociceptors in the hand, thereby potentiating chronic pain. In our study we aimed to assess if central sensitisation mediates pain perception in osteoarthritis of the hand. Methods Participants with proximal and distal interphalangeal joint (PIP/DIP) HOA and non-OA controls were recruited. Clinical pain scores using the visual analogue scale (VAS) were recorded before and after performing a painful hand task. Central pain processing was evaluated with functional brain neuroimaging (fMRI) using a finger flexion-extension (FFE) task performed over 3 minutes. Data was analysed with FMRIB software (www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl). Group mean activation of functional MRI signal between hand osteoarthritis and control non-arthritic participants was compared. Results Our group of hand OA participants reported high pain levels compared with non-arthritic controls as demonstrated by the mean VAS in hand OA participants of 59.31± 8.19 mm compared to 4.00 ± 1.89 mm in controls (p < 0.0001), despite all participants reporting analgesic use. Functional MRI analysis showed increased activation in the thalamus, cingulate, frontal and somatosensory cortex in the hand OA group but not in controls (thresholded at p < 0.05). Regions of activation were mapped to Brodmann areas 3, 4, 6, 9, 13, 22, 24 and 44. Activated regions found in our study are recognised higher brain pain processing centres implicated in central sensitisation. Conclusions People with hand osteoarthritis demonstrated features of central sensitisation that was evident after a finger flexion-extension task using functional MRI. Functional MRI is a useful biomarker in detecting pain in hand osteoarthritis and could be used in future hand osteoarthritis pain studies to evaluate pain modulation strategies. PMID:24294351

  3. Functional MRI demonstrates pain perception in hand osteoarthritis has features of central pain processing.

    PubMed

    Sofat, Nidhi; Smee, Cori; Hermansson, Monika; Howard, Matthew; Baker, Emma H; Howe, Franklyn A; Barrick, Thomas R

    2013-11-01

    Hand osteoarthritis (HOA) is typified by pain and reduced function. We hypothesised that people with HOA have enhanced sensitivity and activation of peripheral nociceptors in the hand, thereby potentiating chronic pain. In our study we aimed to assess if central sensitisation mediates pain perception in osteoarthritis of the hand. Participants with proximal and distal interphalangeal joint (PIP/DIP) HOA and non-OA controls were recruited. Clinical pain scores using the visual analogue scale (VAS) were recorded before and after performing a painful hand task. Central pain processing was evaluated with functional brain neuroimaging (fMRI) using a finger flexion-extension (FFE) task performed over 3 minutes. Data was analysed with FMRIB software (www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl). Group mean activation of functional MRI signal between hand osteoarthritis and control non-arthritic participants was compared. Our group of hand OA participants reported high pain levels compared with non-arthritic controls as demonstrated by the mean VAS in hand OA participants of 59.31± 8.19 mm compared to 4.00 ± 1.89 mm in controls (p < 0.0001), despite all participants reporting analgesic use. Functional MRI analysis showed increased activation in the thalamus, cingulate, frontal and somatosensory cortex in the hand OA group but not in controls (thresholded at p < 0.05). Regions of activation were mapped to Brodmann areas 3, 4, 6, 9, 13, 22, 24 and 44. Activated regions found in our study are recognised higher brain pain processing centres implicated in central sensitisation. People with hand osteoarthritis demonstrated features of central sensitisation that was evident after a finger flexion-extension task using functional MRI. Functional MRI is a useful biomarker in detecting pain in hand osteoarthritis and could be used in future hand osteoarthritis pain studies to evaluate pain modulation strategies.

  4. Pedogenetic processes in anthrosols with pretic horizon (Amazonian Dark Earth) in Central Amazon, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Rodrigo S.; Teixeira, Wenceslau G.; Corrêa, Marcelo M.; Martins, Gilvan C.

    2017-01-01

    Anthrosols known as Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) have borne witness to the intensification of sedentary patterns and the demographic increase in Central Amazon. As a result, a recurring pattern has been observed of mounds with ADE arising from domestic activities and the disposal of waste. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the relationship of these anthropic activities with pedogenetic formation processes of ADE in the municipality of Iranduba, Brazil. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were taken from two areas of ADE (pretic horizon) and from a non-anthropic pedon. Physical, chemical, micromorphological and SEM-EDS analyses were performed. The coarse material of the pretic horizons consisted predominantly of quartz, iron nodules, ceramics and charcoal fragments, and the fine material is organo-mineral. There was a direct relationship between the color of pretic horizons and the number of charcoal fragments. The thickness of the ADE results from the redistribution of charcoal at depth through bioturbation, transforming subsurface horizons into anthropic horizons. ADE presents granular microaggregates of geochemical and zoogenetic origin. Degradation of iron nodules is intensified in pretic horizons, promoting a reverse pedogenic process contributing to the xanthization process. Surprisingly the anthropic activities also favor clay dispersion and argilluviation; clay coatings on the ceramic fragments and in the pores demonstrate that this is a current process. Processes identified as contributing to ADE genesis included: i) addition of organic residues and ceramic artifacts (cumulization) with the use of fire; ii) mechanical action of humans, roots and macrofauna (bioturbation); iii) melanization of deeper horizons as a result of bioturbation; iv) argilluviation and degradation of iron nodules. This study offers new support to archaeological research in respect to ADE formation processes in Central Amazon and confirmed the hypothesis that ancient

  5. Understanding Central Mechanisms of Acupuncture Analgesia Using Dynamic Quantitative Sensory Testing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jiang-Ti; Schnyer, Rosa N.; Johnson, Kevin A.; Mackey, Sean

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the emerging translational tools for the study of acupuncture analgesia with a focus on psychophysical methods. The gap between animal mechanistic studies and human clinical trials of acupuncture analgesia calls for effective translational tools that bridge neurophysiological data with meaningful clinical outcomes. Temporal summation (TS) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) are two promising tools yet to be widely utilized. These psychophysical measures capture the state of the ascending facilitation and the descending inhibition of nociceptive transmission, respectively. We review the basic concepts and current methodologies underlying these measures in clinical pain research, and illustrate their application to research on acupuncture analgesia. Finally, we highlight the strengths and limitations of these research methods and make recommendations on future directions. The appropriate addition of TS and CPM to our current research armamentarium will facilitate our efforts to elucidate the central analgesic mechanisms of acupuncture in clinical populations. PMID:23762107

  6. Review of the genera of Conoderinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) from North America, Central America, and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Anzaldo, Salvatore S

    2017-01-01

    The thirty-nine extant genera of Conoderinae known to occur in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean are reviewed based on external morphology. An identification key is provided along with diagnoses, distributions, species counts, and natural history information, when known, for each genus. Morphological character systems of importance for weevil classification are surveyed, potential relationships among the tribes and genera are discussed, and groups most in need of taxonomic and phylogenetic attention are identified. The following genera are transferred to new tribes: Acoptus LeConte, 1876 from the Lechriopini to the Othippiini (new placement) and the South American genus Hedycera Pascoe, 1870 from the Lechriopini to the Piazurini (new placement). Philides Champion, 1906 and Philinna Champion, 1906 are transferred from the Lechriopini to Conoderinae incertae sedis(new placement) although their placement as conoderines is uncertain. The species Copturomimus cinereus Heller, 1895 is designated as the type species of the genus Copturomimus Heller, 1895.

  7. Review of HIV Vulnerability and Condom Use in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological trend of increasing HIV incidence rates due to sexual transmission in Central and Eastern Europe has been documented. The current review analyzed research articles that report on a wide spectrum of vulnerable populations from this world region. Studies of injection drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men, adolescents and young adults all reported inconsistent condom use. However, these patterns varied across populations and geographic areas. Populations in former Soviet countries—most affected by HIV—also often appeared to have lower condom use rates. Intensified, comprehensive, and locally-tailored measures to curb sexual HIV transmission are urgently needed. Social development programs need to incorporate HIV prevention. PMID:22348631

  8. Management of pediatric central nervous system emergencies: a review for general radiologists.

    PubMed

    Rebollo Polo, M

    2016-05-01

    To review the most common and most important diseases and disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) in pediatric emergencies, discussing the indications for different imaging tests in each context. In pediatric patients, acute neurologic symptoms (seizures, deteriorating level of consciousness, focal neurologic deficits, etc.) can appear in diverse clinical situations (trauma, child abuse, meningoencephalitis, ischemia…). It is important to decide on the most appropriate neuroimaging diagnostic algorithm for each situation and age group, as well as to know the signs of the most typical lesions that help us in the etiological differential diagnosis. Pediatric patients' increased vulnerability to ionizing radiation and the possible need for sedation in studies that require more time are factors that should be taken into account when indicating an imaging test. It is essential to weigh the risks and benefits for the patient and to avoid unnecessary studies. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. A review on the molecular diagnostics of Lynch syndrome: a central role for the pathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Margot G F; Wagner, Anja; van Leerdam, Monique E; Biermann, Katharina; Kuipers, Ernst J; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Dubbink, Hendrikus Jan; Dinjens, Winand N M

    2010-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by mutations in mismatch repair genes and is characterized by a high cumulative risk for the development of mainly colorectal carcinoma and endometrial carcinoma. Early detection of LS is important since surveillance can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, the diagnosis of LS is complicated by the absence of a pre-morbid phenotype and germline mutation analysis is expensive and time consuming. Therefore it is standard practice to precede germline mutation analysis by a molecular diagnostic work-up of tumours, guided by clinical and pathological criteria, to select patients for germline mutation analysis. In this review we address these molecular analyses, the central role for the pathologist in the selection of patients for germline diagnostics of LS, as well as the molecular basis of LS.

  10. Potential Roles of Adropin in Central Nervous System: Review of Current Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shahjouei, Shima; Ansari, Saeed; Pourmotabbed, Tayebeh; Zand, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Adropin is a 4.9 kDa peptide that is important for maintenance of metabolic and non-metabolic homeostasis. It regulates glucose and fatty acid metabolism and is involved in endothelial cell function and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase bioactivity as well as physical activity and motor coordination. Adropin is expressed in many tissues and organs including central nervous system (CNS). This peptide plays a crucial role in the development of various CNS disorders such as stroke, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder as well as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. In this comprehensive review, the potential roles of adropin in cellular signaling pathways that lead to pathogenesis and/or treatment of CNS disorders will be discussed. PMID:27446928

  11. A review of Central European methods for the biological estimation of water pollution levels*

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Hartmut

    1963-01-01

    With the increasing amount and variety of pollution of surface and other waters in the modern world, there is an increasing need for simple, rapid and reliable methods for assessing the degree of purity or contamination of water. Partly for historical reasons, chemical methods have been used more widely than biological ones, although the latter possess certain advantages not shared by the former. Much important work on the biological assessment of water pollution has been done in Central Europe, and the author of this paper reviews the more significant of the modern methods evolved there. Some are ecological, some physiological; and certain of them merit consideration as standardizable procedures, applicable over a wider range of waters than those for which they were developed. To this end it will be necessary to conduct carefully controlled field trials under varying climatic and other conditions. PMID:14058231

  12. Mini-review: Antimicrobial central venous catheters--recent advances and strategies.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cláudia; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2011-07-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) nowadays constitute critical devices used in medical care, namely in intensive care units. However, CVCs also represent one of the indwelling medical devices with enhanced risk of nosocomial device-related infection. Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality, often justifying premature catheter removal and an increase in costs and use of resources. Adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation on the surfaces of indwelling catheters is elemental to the onset of pathogenesis. Seeking the prevention of CVC colonisation and CRI, a variety of approaches have been studied, tested and, in some cases, already applied in clinical practice. This review looks at the current preventive strategies often used to decrease the risk of CRIs due to colonization and biofilm formation on catheter surfaces, as well as at the more recent approaches under investigation.

  13. Understanding central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia using dynamic quantitative sensory testing: a review.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jiang-Ti; Schnyer, Rosa N; Johnson, Kevin A; Mackey, Sean

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the emerging translational tools for the study of acupuncture analgesia with a focus on psychophysical methods. The gap between animal mechanistic studies and human clinical trials of acupuncture analgesia calls for effective translational tools that bridge neurophysiological data with meaningful clinical outcomes. Temporal summation (TS) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) are two promising tools yet to be widely utilized. These psychophysical measures capture the state of the ascending facilitation and the descending inhibition of nociceptive transmission, respectively. We review the basic concepts and current methodologies underlying these measures in clinical pain research, and illustrate their application to research on acupuncture analgesia. Finally, we highlight the strengths and limitations of these research methods and make recommendations on future directions. The appropriate addition of TS and CPM to our current research armamentarium will facilitate our efforts to elucidate the central analgesic mechanisms of acupuncture in clinical populations.

  14. Review of the genera of Conoderinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) from North America, Central America, and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Anzaldo, Salvatore S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The thirty-nine extant genera of Conoderinae known to occur in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean are reviewed based on external morphology. An identification key is provided along with diagnoses, distributions, species counts, and natural history information, when known, for each genus. Morphological character systems of importance for weevil classification are surveyed, potential relationships among the tribes and genera are discussed, and groups most in need of taxonomic and phylogenetic attention are identified. The following genera are transferred to new tribes: Acoptus LeConte, 1876 from the Lechriopini to the Othippiini (new placement) and the South American genus Hedycera Pascoe, 1870 from the Lechriopini to the Piazurini (new placement). Philides Champion, 1906 and Philinna Champion, 1906 are transferred from the Lechriopini to Conoderinae incertae sedis (new placement) although their placement as conoderines is uncertain. The species Copturomimus cinereus Heller, 1895 is designated as the type species of the genus Copturomimus Heller, 1895. PMID:28769729

  15. Processing of polysiloxane-derived porous ceramics: a review

    PubMed Central

    Manoj Kumar, B V; Kim, Young-Wook

    2010-01-01

    Because of the unique combination of their attractive properties, porous ceramics are considered as candidate materials for several engineering applications. The production of porous ceramics from polysiloxane precursors offers advantages in terms of simple processing methodology, low processing cost, and easy control over porosity and other properties of the resultant ceramics. Therefore, considerable research has been conducted to produce various Si(O)C-based ceramics from polysiloxane precursors by employing different processing strategies. The complete potential of these materials can only be achieved when properties are tailored for a specific application, whereas the control over these properties is highly dependent on the processing route. This review deals with processing strategies of polysiloxane-derived porous ceramics. The essential features of processing strategies—replica, sacrificial template, direct foaming and reaction techniques—are explained and the available literature reports are thoroughly reviewed with particular regard to the critical issues that affect pore characteristics. A short note on the cross-linking methods of polysiloxanes is also provided. The potential of each processing strategy on porosity and strength of the resultant SiC or SiOC ceramics is outlined. PMID:27877344

  16. Economic Evaluation of Quality Improvement Interventions for Bloodstream Infections Related to Central Catheters: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nuckols, Teryl K; Keeler, Emmett; Morton, Sally C; Anderson, Laura; Doyle, Brian; Booth, Marika; Shanman, Roberta; Grein, Jonathan; Shekelle, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Although quality improvement (QI) interventions can reduce central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), their economic value is uncertain. To systematically review economic evaluations of QI interventions designed to prevent CLABSI and/or CRBSI in acute care hospitals. A search of Ovid MEDLINE, Econlit, Centre for Reviews & Dissemination, New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report, Worldcat, prior systematic reviews (January 2004 to July 2016), and IDWeek conference abstracts (2013-2016), was conducted from 2013 to 2016. We included English-language studies of any design that evaluated organizational or structural changes to prevent CLABSI or CRBSI, and reported program and infection-related costs. Dual reviewers assessed study design, effectiveness, costs, and study quality. For each eligible study, we performed a cost-consequences analysis from the hospital perspective, estimating the incidence rate ratio (IRR) and incremental net savings. Unadjusted weighted regression analyses tested predictors of these measures, weighted by catheter-days per study per year. Of 505 articles, 15 unique studies were eligible, together representing data from 113 hospitals. Thirteen studies compared Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality-recommended practices with usual care, including 7 testing insertion checklists. Eleven studies were based on uncontrolled before-after designs, 1 on a randomized controlled trial, 1 on a time-series analysis, and 2 on modeled estimates. Overall, the weighted mean IRR was 0.43 (95% CI, 0.35-0.51) and incremental net savings were $1.85 million (95% CI, $1.30 million to $2.40 million) per hospital over 3 years (2015 US dollars). Each $100 000-increase in program cost was associated with $315 000 greater savings (95% CI, $166 000-$464 000; P < .001). Infections and net costs declined when hospitals already used checklists or had baseline infection rates of 1

  17. Meta-analysis and review: effectiveness, safety, and central port design of the intraocular collamer lens.

    PubMed

    Packer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant data from publications appearing in the peer-reviewed scientific literature over the past decade since US Food and Drug Administration approval of the implantable collamer lens (ICL), and, in particular, to review studies relating to sizing methodology, safety, and effectiveness, as well as more recent studies reporting clinical outcomes of the V4c Visian ICL with KS Aquaport, VICMO. A literature search was conducted using two databases, PubMed.gov and Science.gov, to identify all articles published after 2005 related to the Visian ICL (STAAR Surgical, Inc.). Articles were examined for their relevance to sizing methodology, clinical safety, and effectiveness, and the references cited in each article were also searched for additional relevant publications. The literature review revealed that all currently reported methods of determining the best-fit size of the ICL achieve similarly satisfactory results in terms of vault, the safe distance between the crystalline lens and the ICL. Specifically, meta-analysis demonstrated that sulcus-to-sulcus and white-to-white measurement-based sizing methods do not result in clinically meaningful nor statistically significant differences in vault (two-sample two-sided t-test using pooled mean and standard deviations; t (2,594)=1.33; P=0.18). The reported rates of complications related to vault are very low, except in two case series where additional risk factors such as higher levels of myopia and older age impacted the incidence of cataract. On the basis of preclinical studies and initial clinical reports, with up to 5 years of follow-up, the new VICMO central port design holds promise for further reduction of complications. Given its safety record and the significant improvement in vision and quality of life that the ICL makes possible, the benefits of ICL implantation outweigh the risks.

  18. Meta-analysis and review: effectiveness, safety, and central port design of the intraocular collamer lens

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant data from publications appearing in the peer-reviewed scientific literature over the past decade since US Food and Drug Administration approval of the implantable collamer lens (ICL), and, in particular, to review studies relating to sizing methodology, safety, and effectiveness, as well as more recent studies reporting clinical outcomes of the V4c Visian ICL with KS Aquaport, VICMO. A literature search was conducted using two databases, PubMed.gov and Science.gov, to identify all articles published after 2005 related to the Visian ICL (STAAR Surgical, Inc.). Articles were examined for their relevance to sizing methodology, clinical safety, and effectiveness, and the references cited in each article were also searched for additional relevant publications. The literature review revealed that all currently reported methods of determining the best-fit size of the ICL achieve similarly satisfactory results in terms of vault, the safe distance between the crystalline lens and the ICL. Specifically, meta-analysis demonstrated that sulcus-to-sulcus and white-to-white measurement-based sizing methods do not result in clinically meaningful nor statistically significant differences in vault (two-sample two-sided t-test using pooled mean and standard deviations; t (2,594)=1.33; P=0.18). The reported rates of complications related to vault are very low, except in two case series where additional risk factors such as higher levels of myopia and older age impacted the incidence of cataract. On the basis of preclinical studies and initial clinical reports, with up to 5 years of follow-up, the new VICMO central port design holds promise for further reduction of complications. Given its safety record and the significant improvement in vision and quality of life that the ICL makes possible, the benefits of ICL implantation outweigh the risks. PMID:27354760

  19. Second-Generation central venous catheter in the prevention of bloodstream infection: a systematic review 1

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Janislei Gislei Dorociaki; Hoers, Hellen; Pott, Franciele Soares; Crozeta, Karla; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida; Meier, Marineli Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness and safety in the use of second-generation central venous catheters impregnated in clorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine when compared with other catheters, being them impregnated or not, in order to prevent the bloodstream infection prevention. Method: systematic review with meta-analysis. Databases searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS/SciELO, Cochrane CENTRAL; search in Congress Proceedings and records from Clinical Trials. Results: 1.235 studies were identified, 97 were pre-selected and 4 were included. In catheter-related bloodstream infection, there was no statistical significance between second-generation impregnated catheter compared with the non-impregnated ones, absolute relative risk 1,5% confidence interval 95% (3%-1%), relative risk 0,68 (confidence interval 95%, 0,40-1,15) and number needed to treat 66. In the sensitivity analysis, there was less bloodstream infection in impregnated catheters (relative risk 0,50, confidence interval 95%, 0,26-0,96). Lower colonization, absolute relative risk 9,6% (confidence interval 95%, 10% to 4%), relative risk 0,51 (confidence interval 95% from 0,38-0,85) and number needed to treat 5. Conclusion: the use of second-generation catheters was effective in reducing the catheter colonization and infection when a sensitivity analysis is performed. Future clinical trials are suggested to evaluate sepsis rates, mortality and adverse effects. PMID:27508901

  20. Effect of Probiotics on Central Nervous System Functions in Animals and Humans: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiying; Lee, In-Seon; Braun, Christoph; Enck, Paul

    2016-10-30

    To systematically review the effects of probiotics on central nervous system function in animals and humans, to summarize effective interventions (species of probiotic, dose, duration), and to analyze the possibility of translating preclinical studies. Literature searches were conducted in Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Only randomized controlled trials were included. In total, 38 studies were included: 25 in animals and 15 in humans (2 studies were conducted in both). Most studies used Bifidobacterium (eg, B. longum, B. breve , and B. infantis ) and Lactobacillus (eg, L. helveticus , and L. rhamnosus ), with doses between 10⁸ and 10¹⁰ colony-forming units for 2 weeks in animals and 4 weeks in humans. These probiotics showed efficacy in improving psychiatric disorder-related behaviors including anxiety, depression, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, and memory abilities, including spatial and non-spatial memory. Because many of the basic science studies showed some efficacy of probiotics on central nervous system function, this background may guide and promote further preclinical and clinical studies. Translating animal studies to human studies has obvious limitations but also suggests possibilities. Here, we provide several suggestions for the translation of animal studies. More experimental designs with both behavioral and neuroimaging measures in healthy volunteers and patients are needed in the future.

  1. Effect of Probiotics on Central Nervous System Functions in Animals and Humans: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiying; Lee, In-Seon; Braun, Christoph; Enck, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the effects of probiotics on central nervous system function in animals and humans, to summarize effective interventions (species of probiotic, dose, duration), and to analyze the possibility of translating preclinical studies. Literature searches were conducted in Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Only randomized controlled trials were included. In total, 38 studies were included: 25 in animals and 15 in humans (2 studies were conducted in both). Most studies used Bifidobacterium (eg, B. longum, B. breve, and B. infantis) and Lactobacillus (eg, L. helveticus, and L. rhamnosus), with doses between 109 and 1010 colony-forming units for 2 weeks in animals and 4 weeks in humans. These probiotics showed efficacy in improving psychiatric disorder-related behaviors including anxiety, depression, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, and memory abilities, including spatial and non-spatial memory. Because many of the basic science studies showed some efficacy of probiotics on central nervous system function, this background may guide and promote further preclinical and clinical studies. Translating animal studies to human studies has obvious limitations but also suggests possibilities. Here, we provide several suggestions for the translation of animal studies. More experimental designs with both behavioral and neuroimaging measures in healthy volunteers and patients are needed in the future. PMID:27413138

  2. Review of the genus Lesteva Latreille, 1797 of Central Asia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Omaliinae: Anthophagini).

    PubMed

    Shavrin, Alexey V

    2015-06-19

    A taxonomic review of the genus Lesteva Latreille, 1797 of the Central Asia is presented. The type material of the following species was revised: L. bucharica Fauvel, 1900, L. fasciata Luze, 1903, L. nova Bernhauer, 1902, L. transcaspica Bernhauer, 1935 and L. turkestanica Luze, 1904. Lectotypes for L. bucharica and L. turkestanica, a lectotype and paralectotype for L. transcaspica are designated. One species is described as new: L. (s.str.) schuelkei sp. n. (Tajikistan, NW Pamir: Peter-I Mts. and Hissar Mts.). Three synonyms are proposed: L. (s.str.) fasciata=L. (s.str.) turkestanica, syn n.=L. (s.str.) transcaspica, syn. n., L. nova=L. (s.str.) aculeata Shavrin, 2010, syn. n. Three species are redescribed: L. (s.str.) bucharica, L. (s.str.) fasciata and L. (s.str.) nova. All species are illustrated and their distribution mapped. A key to species known from Central Asia, as well as new provincial records for L. (s.str.) barsevskisi Shavrin, 2010, L. (s.str.) bucharica and L. (s.str.) fasciata are provided.

  3. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter-associated Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Fallouh, Nabil; McGuirk, Helen M; Flanders, Scott A; Chopra, Vineet

    2015-07-01

    Although common, little is known about factors associated with peripherally inserted central catheter-related deep vein thrombosis (PICC-DVT). To better guide clinicians, we performed a comprehensive literature review to summarize best practices for this condition. A systematic search of the literature for studies reporting epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of PICC-DVT was conducted. Algorithms for diagnosis and management were compiled using available evidence. The incidence of PICC-DVT varied between 2% and 75% according to study population, testing modality and threshold for diagnosis. Studies evaluating the diagnostic utility of clinical symptoms suggested that these were neither sensitive nor specific for PICC-DVT; conversely, ultrasonography had excellent sensitivity and specificity and is recommended as the initial diagnostic test. Although more specific, contrast venography should be reserved for cases with high clinical probability and negative ultrasound findings. Centrally positioned, otherwise functional and clinically necessary PICCs need not be removed despite concomitant DVT. Anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin or warfarin for at least 3 months represents the mainstay of treatment. The role of pharmacologic prophylaxis and screening for PICC-DVT in the absence of clinical symptoms is unclear at this time. PICC-DVT is common, costly and morbid. Available evidence provides guidance for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this condition. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Review article: intestinal barrier dysfunction and central nervous system disorders--a controversial association.

    PubMed

    Julio-Pieper, M; Bravo, J A; Aliaga, E; Gotteland, M

    2014-11-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) development and physiopathology are greatly affected by environmental stimuli. The intestinal barrier restricts the entrance of toxins, pathogens, and antigens while modulating the expression of various neuroactive compounds. The existence of a rich gut-to-brain communication raises the possibility that intestinal barrier alterations may take part in the pathophysiology of CNS disorders. To review evidence associating intestinal barrier dysfunction with the development of CNS disorders. Literature search was conducted on PubMed using the following terms: intestinal barrier, intestinal permeability, central nervous system, mental disorders, schizophrenia, autism, stress, anxiety, depression, and neurodegeneration. Clinical and animal model studies of the association between intestinal barrier and schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, neurodegenerative diseases or depression were reviewed. The majority of reports concentrated on schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. About half of these described increased intestinal permeability/mucosal damage in patients compared with healthy controls, with up to 43% of children with autism spectrum disorders and up to 35% of schizophrenia patients displaying abnormally high urinary excretion of the sugars used as permeability markers. However, another substantial group of studies did not find such differences. In autism spectrum disorders, some reports show that the use of diets such as the gluten-free casein-free diet may contribute to the normalisation of lactulose/mannitol ratio, but to date there is no adequately controlled study showing improvement in behavioural symptoms following these dietary interventions. Evidence of altered intestinal permeability in individuals suffering from CNS disorders is limited and cannot be regarded as proven. Moreover the efficacy of targeting gut barrier in the management of neurological and behavioural aspects of CNS disorders has not yet been

  5. Powered Exoskeletons for Walking Assistance in Persons with Central Nervous System Injuries: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Esquenazi, Alberto; Talaty, Mukul; Jayaraman, Arun

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with central nervous system injuries are a large and apparently rapidly expanding population-as suggested by 2013 statistics from the American Heart Association. Increasing survival rates and lifespans emphasize the need to improve the quality of life for this population. In persons with central nervous system injuries, mobility limitations are among the most important factors contributing to reduced life satisfaction. Decreased mobility and subsequently reduced overall activity levels also contribute to lower levels of physical health. Braces to assist walking are options for greater-functioning individuals but still limit overall mobility as the result of increased energy expenditure and difficulty of use. For individuals with greater levels of mobility impairment, wheelchairs remain the preferred mobility aid yet still fall considerably short compared with upright bipedal walking. Furthermore, the promise of functional electrical stimulation as a means to achieve walking has yet to materialize. None of these options allow individuals to achieve walking at speeds or levels comparable with those seen in individuals with unimpaired gait. Medical exoskeletons hold much promise to fulfill this unmet need and have advanced as a viable option in both therapeutic and personal mobility state, particularly during the past decade. The present review highlights the major developments in this technology, with a focus on exoskeletons for lower limb that may encompass the spine and that aim to allow independent upright walking for those who otherwise do not have this option. Specifically reviewed are powered exoskeletons that are either commercially available or have the potential to restore upright walking function. This paper includes a basic description of how each exoskeleton device works, a summation of key features, their known limitations, and a discussion of current and future clinical applicability. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine

  6. Neural correlates of variations in event processing during learning in central nucleus of amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Calu, Donna J.; Roesch, Matthew R.; Haney, Richard Z.; Holland, Peter C.; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Attention or variations in event processing help drive learning. Lesion studies have implicated the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in this process, particularly when expected rewards are omitted. However, lesion studies cannot specify how information processing in CeA supports such learning. To address these questions, we recorded CeA neurons in rats performing a task in which rewards were delivered or omitted unexpectedly. We found that activity in CeA neurons increased selectively at the time of omission and declined again with learning. Increased firing correlated with CeA-inactivation sensitive measures of attention. Notably CeA neurons did not fire to the cues or in response to unexpected rewards. These results indicate that CeA contributes to learning in response to reward omission due to a specific role in signaling actual omission rather than a more general involvement in signaling expectancies, errors, or reward value. PMID:21145010

  7. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Petschow, Christine; Scheef, Lukas; Paus, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Nadine; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson’s disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson’s disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels. Methods 13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson’s disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI) during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ) and higher (E = 640 mJ) target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale. Results No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson’s disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson’s disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusion Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson’s disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced

  8. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Petschow, Christine; Scheef, Lukas; Paus, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Nadine; Schild, Hans H; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson's disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels. 13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson's disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI) during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ) and higher (E = 640 mJ) target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale. No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson's disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson's disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex. Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson's disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced stages of Parkinson's disease.

  9. A Short Review of Membrane Fouling in Forward Osmosis Processes

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Youngpil; Mulcahy, Dennis; Zou, Linda; Kim, In S.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in forward osmosis (FO) research has rapidly increased in the last decade due to problems of water and energy scarcity. FO processes have been used in many applications, including wastewater reclamation, desalination, energy production, fertigation, and food and pharmaceutical processing. However, the inherent disadvantages of FO, such as lower permeate water flux compared to pressure driven membrane processes, concentration polarisation (CP), reverse salt diffusion, the energy consumption of draw solution recovery and issues of membrane fouling have restricted its industrial applications. This paper focuses on the fouling phenomena of FO processes in different areas, including organic, inorganic and biological categories, for better understanding of this long-standing issue in membrane processes. Furthermore, membrane fouling monitoring and mitigation strategies are reviewed. PMID:28604649

  10. A Short Review of Membrane Fouling in Forward Osmosis Processes.

    PubMed

    Chun, Youngpil; Mulcahy, Dennis; Zou, Linda; Kim, In S

    2017-06-12

    Interest in forward osmosis (FO) research has rapidly increased in the last decade due to problems of water and energy scarcity. FO processes have been used in many applications, including wastewater reclamation, desalination, energy production, fertigation, and food and pharmaceutical processing. However, the inherent disadvantages of FO, such as lower permeate water flux compared to pressure driven membrane processes, concentration polarisation (CP), reverse salt diffusion, the energy consumption of draw solution recovery and issues of membrane fouling have restricted its industrial applications. This paper focuses on the fouling phenomena of FO processes in different areas, including organic, inorganic and biological categories, for better understanding of this long-standing issue in membrane processes. Furthermore, membrane fouling monitoring and mitigation strategies are reviewed.

  11. Orographic Barriers, Rainshadows, and Earth Surface Processes in the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookhagen, B.; Strecker, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Central Andes of NW Argentina, northern Chile, and SW Bolivia are characterized by a steep E-W topographic, climatic and environmental gradient. The first windward topographic rise in the eastern Central Andes forces high orographic rainfall and dense vegetation. In contrast, the higher-elevation areas of the windward flanks become progressively drier, until arid conditions are attained in the orogen interior. On seasonal, annual, and inter-annual timescales, large rainstorms may propagate into the semi-arid to arid high-elevation sectors and cause erosion and mass-transport processes that impact infrastructure and the natural environment. Similar to these present-day effects of climate variability the Central Andes experienced pronounced paleoclimatic changes with deeper penetration of moisture into the orogen and thus an orogenward shift of the climate gradient during Pleistocene and Holocene times, lasting several millennia. In this presentation, we demonstrate the impact of climate change on Earth surface processes at different timescales ranging from the late Pleistocene to the past decade. For millennial timescales and beyond, we rely on field observations, dating of geomorphic markers, erosion rates from cosmogenic nuclide dating, and the analysis of sedimentary archives to reconstruct past environmental conditions. For the last decades we use, satellite-derived rainfall and landcover observations, climate models, hydrometeorologic data, and riverbed-elevation changes are used to characterize environmental and atmospheric conditions. Decadal-scale climate variability shows statistically significant hydrometeorologic trends and exhibits changes of fluvial-transport magnitudes. Hydrometeorologic data, their trends and change points suggest that highest rainfall magnitudes have increased most in the past decades, resulting in large, event-driven mass-transport processes with fundamental impacts on population and infrastructure.

  12. Sleep in children with neoplasms of the central nervous system: case review of 14 children.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Gerald M; Bendel, Anne E; Neglia, Joseph P; Moertel, Christopher L; Mahowald, Mark

    2003-07-01

    Sleep is a complex neurologic process that is generated by and primarily benefits the brain. Sleep can be disrupted by a wide range of brain injuries, many of which may occur in children with neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS). The specific sleep problems that have been associated with brain injuries include sleepiness, apnea, insomnia, and loss of circadian rhythmicity. The objective of this study was to characterize the sleep problems seen in children with neoplasms of the CNS through a comprehensive clinical and objective sleep evaluation. A retrospective case series review was conducted of all children with neoplasms of the CNS referred to the sleep clinic for a clinical evaluation between 1994 and 2002. The sleep evaluation of the 14 children in this report included a sleep history, a sleep log, and a polysomnogram. In the 12 children with complaints of daytime sleepiness and/or fatigue, a multiple sleep latency test was performed the day after the polysomnogram. Three children also had a 2-week actigraphic study. The most common sleep complaint in this group of children was excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), present in 9 of the 14 children. In these children, the sleepiness was manifest by 1 or more of the following symptoms: 1) an increase in total sleep time per 24 hours; 2) the resumption of daytime naps that had been previously discontinued at a younger age; 3) an inability to awaken in the morning to begin the days activities; or 4) the inability to remain awake during activities of daily living, such as school. Of the 9 children with daytime sleepiness, 8 had brain tumors requiring neurosurgical procedures at the time of their diagnosis, 6 of whom required ventricular shunting. The children with the most severe sleepiness had evidence of hypothalamic/pituitary injury with deficiencies in both anterior and posterior pituitary hormones. Five of the children with EDS had polysomnographic evidence of symptomatic narcolepsy with rapid eye

  13. [Ecological security of wastewater treatment processes: a review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Sai; Hua, Tao

    2013-05-01

    Though the regular indicators of wastewater after treatment can meet the discharge requirements and reuse standards, it doesn't mean the effluent is harmless. From the sustainable point of view, to ensure the ecological and human security, comprehensive toxicity should be considered when discharge standards are set up. In order to improve the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, toxicity reduction should be considered when selecting and optimizing the treatment processes. This paper reviewed the researches on the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, with the focus on the purposes of various treatment processes, including the processes for special wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, and for the safety of receiving waters. Conventional biological treatment combined with advanced oxidation technologies can enhance the toxicity reduction on the base of pollutants removal, which is worthy of further study. For the process aimed at wastewater reuse, the integration of different process units can complement the advantages of both conventional pollutants removal and toxicity reduction. For the process aimed at ecological security of receiving waters, the emphasis should be put on the toxicity reduction optimization of process parameters and process unit selection. Some suggestions for the problems in the current research and future research directions were put forward.

  14. The influence of (central) auditory processing disorder on the severity of speech-sound disorders in children

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Nadia; Barrozo, Tatiane Faria; de Oliveira Pagan-Neves, Luciana; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify a cutoff value based on the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index that could indicate the likelihood of a child with a speech-sound disorder also having a (central) auditory processing disorder. METHODS: Language, audiological and (central) auditory processing evaluations were administered. The participants were 27 subjects with speech-sound disorders aged 7 to 10 years and 11 months who were divided into two different groups according to their (central) auditory processing evaluation results. RESULTS: When a (central) auditory processing disorder was present in association with a speech disorder, the children tended to have lower scores on phonological assessments. A greater severity of speech disorder was related to a greater probability of the child having a (central) auditory processing disorder. The use of a cutoff value for the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index successfully distinguished between children with and without a (central) auditory processing disorder. CONCLUSIONS : The severity of speech-sound disorder in children was influenced by the presence of (central) auditory processing disorder. The attempt to identify a cutoff value based on a severity index was successful. PMID:26934233

  15. [Study on the flax seed enzymatic degumming process by central composite design and response surface method].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-shuan; Li, Ji-wen; Li, Xi-xiang; Wu, Xiao-qin; Li, Yan-kui

    2012-09-01

    To optimize extraction condition of degumming from flax seed by the response surface method. The central composite design-response surface method selected the best technology and forecasting analysis with the ratio of material to liquid, sodium chloride dosage, soaks time as the independent variable and flax seed dry rubber weight for the dependent variable, through to the level of the independent variable multiple linear regression and binomial fitting. The optimum process condition was as follows: ratio of liquid to materials was 37:1, sodium chloride dosage was 2 g, soaks time was 120 min. The method is simple, reasonable, stable and predictability.

  16. A randomized clinical trial of mesalazine suppository: the usefulness and problems of central review of evaluations of colonic mucosal findings.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kiyonori; Hirai, Fumihito; Naganuma, Makoto; Watanabe, Kenji; Ando, Takafumi; Nakase, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2014-11-01

    The methods of evaluating endoscopic mucosal findings and the definition of mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease have not been standardized. To examine a third-party central review of colonic mucosal evaluations. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial was performed for 4weeks, which involved continuous administration of a 1-g mesalazine suppository to 129 patients with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis and active rectal inflammatory findings. Mucosal findings were evaluated by using a 4-grade score (0, 1, 2, 3). Reviews by attending physicians were considered the primary evaluations. Concurrently, a central review committee of 7 gastroenterologists served as the third party. The endoscopic remission induction rate from the attending physicians' evaluations was 82.8% in the mesalazine suppository group and 31.1% in the placebo suppository group, whereas the respective rates from the central review committee were 90.6% and 59.0%. However, there was a difference of 27.9 percentage points between the remission induction rates of the placebo group found by the two groups of raters. Differences in the evaluations of mucosal finding scores were also found among the third-party reviewers. The evaluations of the attending physicians were consistent with those of the central review committee in showing the effectiveness of mesalazine suppository through the index of mucosal healing. However, differences were observed among the raters in their evaluations of mucosal finding scores. Therefore, standardizing evaluation criteria and improving review methods for mucosal findings would enable the more effective use of third-party central reviews in clinical drug trials. Copyright © 2014 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of aging on peripheral and central auditory processing in rats.

    PubMed

    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Prévost, François; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss is a hallmark sign in the elderly population. Decline in auditory perception provokes deficits in the ability to localize sound sources and reduces speech perception, particularly in noise. In addition to a loss of peripheral hearing sensitivity, changes in more complex central structures have also been demonstrated. Related to these, this study examines the auditory directional maps in the deep layers of the superior colliculus of the rat. Hence, anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats underwent distortion product of otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to assess cochlear function. Then, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were assessed, followed by extracellular single-unit recordings to determine age-related effects on central auditory functions. DPOAE amplitude levels were decreased in aged rats although they were still present between 3.0 and 24.0 kHz. ABR level thresholds in aged rats were significantly elevated at an early (cochlear nucleus - wave II) stage in the auditory brainstem. In the superior colliculus, thresholds were increased and the tuning widths of the directional receptive fields were significantly wider. Moreover, no systematic directional spatial arrangement was present among the neurons of the aged rats, implying that the topographical organization of the auditory directional map was abolished. These results suggest that the deterioration of the auditory directional spatial map can, to some extent, be attributable to age-related dysfunction at more central, perceptual stages of auditory processing. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Design Review of the D0 Central Calorimeter Module Assembly to Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, M.; /Fermilab

    1987-11-01

    The D-Zero Central Calorimeter Module Assembly is a segmented ring structure consisting of an assemblage of trapezoidal modules. It is housed inside a vessel containing liquid argon. The modules contain specialized equipment for use in particle physics experiments. The design review of the D-Zero Central Calorimeter Module Assembly evaluated all major structural elements for adequacy for their design loads. They were evaluated in accordance with applicable specifications from Reference 1. The allowable stresses of the Specifications provide an approximate safety factor of 2.0 or more on failure and 1.67 on serviceability of the structure. This margin is typical of buildings, bridges, and other large structures executed in steel. To the extent that calculated stresses are less than the allowable stresses, the margin is proportionately greater. For additional conservatism to account for inherent uncertainties in estimating design loads, an arbitrary load factor of 1.25 was also applied. Design loads were calculated for deadwe1ghted plus thermal expansion, neglecting the effects of friction, and for deadweight only, considering postulated effects of friction. All of the major structural elements were found to be provisionally acceptable for their intended service and the predicted design loads. The provisions are as follows: (1) That the connect pins be fabricated of Inconel 718 or functional equivalent, instead of the originally specified Type 304 stainless steel; and (2) That conditions on bearing surfaces be modified to effectively reduce the potential coefficient of friction. The affected bearing interfaces include those between the CH, FH, and EM rings, and between the CH ring and its support members. The D-Zero Central Calorimeter Module Assembly is a segmented ring structure consisting of an assemblage of trapezoidal modules. It is housed inside a vessel containing liquid argon. The modules contain specialized equipment for use in particle physics experiments

  19. Central Myxoma / Myxofibroma of the Jaws: A Clinico-Epidemiologic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Agbara; Benjamin, Fomete; Athanasius-Chukwudi, Obiadazie; Uchenna-Kevin, Omeje; Modupeola-Omotara, Samaila

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Myxomas are a group of benign rare tumors of connective-tissue origin that occur in both hard (central) and soft tissues of the body. The aim of this study is to highlight our experience in the management of central myxoma of the jaw, with emphasis on its clinic-epidemiologic features as seen in our environment. Materials and Methods: All patients who were managed for central myxoma of the jaw at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department of a regional University Teaching Hospital between September 1997 and October 2015 were retrospectively studied. Details sourced included age, sex, site of tumor, duration, signs/symptoms, treatment given, and complications. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and Microsoft Excel 2007 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA). Results from descriptive statistics were represented in the form of tables and charts, with a test for significance (ρ) using Pearson Chi-square (χ2) set at 0.05. Results: A total of 16 patients were managed within the period reviewed, consisting of 10 (62.5%) females and six (37.5%) males, giving a male-to-female ratio of 1:1.7. The ages of patients ranged from 5 to 70 years, with a mean of 27.06±15.45 years. The mandible accounted for nine (56.3%) cases and the maxilla for six (37.5%) cases, while a combination of the maxilla and the zygoma were involved in one (6.3%) case. Bucco-lingual or bucco-palatal expansion were the most common presentation (six [46.2%] cases each). Histological assessment of tissue specimens showed that fibromyxoma accounted for seven (43.8%) cases, while the remaining nine (56.3%) cases were diagnosed as myxoma. All patients had jaw resections, and these consisted of mandibulectomies in nine (60.0%) patients and maxillectomies in six (40.0%) patients. The duration of hospital stay ranged from 5 to 29 days, with a mean of 17.86±7.68 days. Complications were noted in three patients, and all were

  20. Moral judgment as information processing: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    How do humans make moral judgments about others’ behavior? This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two distinct questions: (1) What input information guides moral judgments? and (2) What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states) that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework and critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds; it then outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and concludes with conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information-processing framework provides a useful theoretical lens through which to organize extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment. PMID:26579022

  1. The Altaids of Central Asia: A tectonic and evolutionary innovative review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhem, Caroline; Windley, Brian F.; Stampfli, Gérard M.

    2012-07-01

    The Altaids, one of the largest and long-lived accretionary orogens in the world, developed from ca. 600 Ma to 250 Ma by the multiple accretions of terranes of different origin, chiefly microcontinents and island arcs. Considerable geological information supported by geochemical, radiometric and isotopic data suggest that modern geodynamic processes such as seamounts/plateau accretion, ridge-trench interaction, the formation of supra-subduction ridges and back-arc basins, arc-arc collisions and oroclinal bending were responsible for the evolution of the Altaid archipelagos. Because of the paucity of palaeomagnetic and radiogenic data it is still not possible to present a definitive palaeo-reconstruction of the Altaids. Nevertheless, considering the voluminous literature appearing today on the Altaids, it is timely and appropriate to present a review of current understanding of the many inherent tectonic problems, some of which are controversial. The Altaids began its development in Vendian (610-570 Ma)-Early Palaeozoic oceans between three approaching cratons, Siberia, Gondwana and Tarim-North China, where it continually evolved during the Middle-Late Palaeozoic. The peri-Siberian part of the orogen formed around the microcontinents of Tuva-Mongolia and Altai-Mongolia through the multiple accretion of exotic Izu-Bonin-type island arcs (e.g. Uimen-Lebed, Lake-Khamsara), and oceanic islands/seamounts/plateaus (e.g. Kurai, Dzhida, Bayanhongor), and by the formation of back-arc basins (i.e. Altai-Sayan, Barguzin). These multiple accretion-collision events led to the formation of major peri-Siberian sutures by the end of the Early Palaeozoic (e.g. Bayanhongor, Dariv-Agardagh, Borus, Kurtushiba, Dzhida, Olkhon). The Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean opened within this new accreted continent in the Early-Middle Palaeozoic. The Kazakhstan Continent formed mostly by the Early Silurian in Eastern Gondwana by the accretion-collision of several ribbon-microcontinents (e.g. Chatkal

  2. [Replication process of HIV: with a central focus on the viral genome].

    PubMed

    Sakuragi, Jun-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    It has been 30 years passed since the discovery of HIVs as the agents of AIDS. During the period, many energetic research works about this gigantic menace have been performed globally and many outcomes have been applied to intercept the epidemic. Because of a brilliant progress of the therapeutic strategy, it is said that AIDS is no longer the deadly disease, but one of the mere chronic disease nowadays. On the other hand, giving an eye to the virus itself, many dark gaps are found in a superficially good-looking story of the viral replication. Thus, we are still far from fundamental understanding of the virus. In this review, I especially pick up the viral genome RNA as a central player of the story and give an introduction about various steps of viral replication. With several recent reports, I will exposit well-known and/or unclear events around virus.

  3. The NPG 7120.5A Electronic Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBrayer, Robert; Ives, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The use of electronics to review a document is well within the technical realm of today's state-of-the-art workplace. File servers and web site interaction are common tools for many NASA employees. The electronic comment processing described here was developed for the NPG 7120.5A review to augment the existing NASA Online Directives Information System (NODIS). The NODIS system is NASA's official system for formal review, approval and storage of NASA Directives. The electronic review process worked so well that NASA and other agencies may want to consider it as one of our "best practices." It was participatory decision making at its very best, a process that attracted dozens of very good ideas to improve the document as well as the way we can be managing projects far more effectively. The revision of NPG 7120.5A has significant implications for the way all elements of the Agency accomplish program and project management. Therefore, the review of NPG 7120.5A was an Agencywide effort with high visibility, heavy participation and a short schedule. The level of involvement created interest in supplementing the formal NODIS system with a system to collect comments efficiently and to allow the Centers and Codes to review and consolidate their comments into the official system in a short period of time. In addition, the Program Management Council Working Group (PMCWG), responsible for the revision of the document and the disposition of official comments, needed an electronic system to manage the disposition of comments, obtain PMCWG consensus on each disposition, and coordinate the disposition with the appropriate Headquarters Code that had submitted the official comment. The combined NASA and contractor talents and resources provided a system that supplemented the NODIS system and its operating personnel to produce a thorough review and approval of NPG 7120.5A on April 3, 1998, 7.5 months from the start of the process. The original six-month schedule is indicated. All

  4. The NPG 7120.5A Electronic Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBrayer, Robert; Ives, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The use of electronics to review a document is well within the technical realm of today's state-of-the-art workplace. File servers and web site interaction are common tools for many NASA employees. The electronic comment processing described here was developed for the NPG 7120.5A review to augment the existing NASA Online Directives Information System (NODIS). The NODIS system is NASA's official system for formal review, approval and storage of NASA Directives. The electronic review process worked so well that NASA and other agencies may want to consider it as one of our "best practices." It was participatory decision making at its very best, a process that attracted dozens of very good ideas to improve the document as well as the way we can be managing projects far more effectively. The revision of NPG 7120.5A has significant implications for the way all elements of the Agency accomplish program and project management. Therefore, the review of NPG 7120.5A was an Agencywide effort with high visibility, heavy participation and a short schedule. The level of involvement created interest in supplementing the formal NODIS system with a system to collect comments efficiently and to allow the Centers and Codes to review and consolidate their comments into the official system in a short period of time. In addition, the Program Management Council Working Group (PMCWG), responsible for the revision of the document and the disposition of official comments, needed an electronic system to manage the disposition of comments, obtain PMCWG consensus on each disposition, and coordinate the disposition with the appropriate Headquarters Code that had submitted the official comment. The combined NASA and contractor talents and resources provided a system that supplemented the NODIS system and its operating personnel to produce a thorough review and approval of NPG 7120.5A on April 3, 1998, 7.5 months from the start of the process. The original six-month schedule is indicated. All

  5. Lack of evidence for central sensitization in idiopathic, non-traumatic neck pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Malfliet, Annaleen; Kregel, Jeroen; Cagnie, Barbara; Kuipers, Mandy; Dolphens, Mieke; Roussel, Nathalie; Meeus, Mira; Danneels, Lieven; Bramer, Wichor M; Nijs, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a common problem with a poorly understood pathophysiology. Often no underlying structural pathology can be found and radiological imaging findings are more related to age than to a patient's symptoms. Besides its common occurrence, chronic idiopathic neck pain is also very disabling with almost 50% of all neck pain patients showing moderate disability at long-term follow-up. Central sensitization (CS) is defined as "an amplification of neural signaling within the central nervous system that elicits pain hypersensitivity," "increased responsiveness of nociceptive neurons in the central nervous system to their normal or subthreshold afferent input," or "an augmentation of responsiveness of central neurons to input from unimodal and polymodal receptors." There is increasing evidence for involvement of CS in many chronic pain conditions. Within the area of chronic idiopathic neck pain, there is consistent evidence for the presence and clinical importance of CS in patients with traumatic neck pain, or whiplash-associated disorders. However, the majority of chronic idiopathic neck pain patients are unrelated to a traumatic injury, and hence are termed chronic idiopathic non-traumatic neck pain. When comparing whiplash with idiopathic non-traumatic neck pain, indications for different underlying mechanisms are found. The goal of this article was to review the existing scientific literature on the role of CS in patients with chronic idiopathic non-traumatic neck pain. Systematic review. All selected studies were case control studies. A systematic search of existing, relevant literature was performed via the electronic databases Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl, PubMed, and Google Scholar. All titles and abstracts were checked to identify relevant articles. An article was considered eligible if it met following inclusion criteria: (1) participants had to be human adults (> 18 years) diagnosed with idiopathic non-traumatic chronic (present for at

  6. Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma: A Critical Review of the Role of Surgery for Resection

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jonathan; Iwamoto, Fabio M.; Sonabend, Adam M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) are rare CNS tumors that carry a poor prognosis, with most patients suffering recurrence. Progress has been made in the treatment of this pathology, notably with the widespread use of systemic high dose methotrexate. However, unlike most other malignant CNS neoplasms, surgery for cytoreduction is not routinely performed for this disease, mainly as a result of negative experiences decades ago. Since these studies were published, the availability of intraoperative monitoring, MR imaging and neuro-navigation as well as surgical adjuncts such as fluorescence- guided resection have greatly improved the safety of intracranial procedures. More recent data is suggestive of a potential survival benefit for resection of single PCNSL lesions when patients are subsequently treated with modern regimen high-dose methotrexate, yet this evidence is limited, and should be interpreted conservatively. Methods and findings A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify trials evaluating surgical options for the treatment of PCNSL. Conclusion In this review, we provide a critical overview of the evidence favoring and discouraging resection for PCNSL. This literature suffers from several biases and limitations that must be considered in the context of the extrapolation of this literature into clinical decision-making. PMID:28239600

  7. Central and Peripheral Fatigue During Resistance Exercise – A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Zając, Adam; Chalimoniuk, Małgorzata; Maszczyk, Adam; Gołaś, Artur; Lngfort, Józef

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise is a popular form of conditioning for numerous sport disciplines, and recently different modes of strength training are being evaluated for health benefits. Resistance exercise differs significantly in nature, and several variables determine the direction and range of adaptive changes that occur in the muscular and skeletal system of the body. Some modes of resistance training can also be effective in stimulating the cardiovascular system. These variables include exercise selection (general, specific, single or multi joint, dynamic, explosive), type of resistance (free weights, variable resistance, isokinetics), order of exercise (upper and lower body or push and pull exercises), and most of all the training load which includes intensity expressed as % of 1RM, number of repetitions, number of sets and the rest interval between sets. Manipulating these variables allows for specific adaptive changes which may include gains in muscle mass, muscle strength or muscle endurance. It has been well established that during resistance exercise fatigue occurs, regardless of the volume and intensity of work applied. The peripheral mechanisms of fatigue have been studied and explained in more detail than those related to the CNS. This review is an attempt to bring together the latest knowledge regarding fatigue, both peripheral and central, during resistance exercise. The authors of this review concentrated on physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying fatigue in exercises performed with maximal intensity, as well as those performed to exhaustion with numerous repetitions and submaximal load. PMID:26839616

  8. Non-invasive neuromuscular electrical stimulation in patients with central nervous system lesions: an educational review.

    PubMed

    Schuhfried, Othmar; Crevenna, Richard; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this educational review is to provide an overview of the clinical application of transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the extremities in patients with upper motor neurone lesions. In general two methods of electrical stimulation can be distinguished: (i) therapeutic electrical stimulation, and (ii) functional electrical stimulation. Therapeutic electrical stimulation improves neuromuscular functional condition by strengthening muscles, increasing motor control, reducing spasticity, decreasing pain and increasing range of motion. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation may be used for neuromuscular electrical stimulation inducing repetitive muscle contraction, electromyography-triggered neuromuscular electrical stimulation, position-triggered electrical stimulation and subsensory or sensory transcutaneous electric stimulation. Functional electrical stimulation provokes muscle contraction and thereby produces a functionally useful movement during stimulation. In patients with spinal cord injuries or stroke, electrical upper limb neuroprostheses are applied to enhance upper limb and hand function, and electrical lower limb neuroprostheses are applied for restoration of standing and walking. For example, a dropped foot stimulator is used to trigger ankle dorsiflexion to restore gait function. A review of the literature and clinical experience of the use of therapeutic electrical stimulation as well as of functional electrical stimulation in combination with botulinum toxin, exercise therapy and/or splinting are presented. Although the evidence is limited we conclude that neuromuscular electrical stimulation in patients with central nervous system lesions can be an effective modality to improve function, and that combination with other treatments has an additive therapeutic effect.

  9. Central nervous system injuries in sport and recreation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Toth, Cory; McNeil, Stephen; Feasby, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Many sports have been associated with a variety of neurological injuries affecting the central nervous system (CNS), with some injuries specific to that sport. A systematic review of sport-specific CNS injuries has not been attempted previously, and could assist in the understanding of morbidity and mortality associated with particular sporting activities, either professional or amateur. A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed (1965-2003) examining all known sports and a range of possible CNS injuries attributable to that sport. Numerous sporting activities (45) have associated CNS injuries as reported within the literature. The sports most commonly associated with CNS injuries are: football, boxing, hockey, use of a trampoline, and various winter activities. A number of sporting activities are associated with unique CNS injuries or injury-related diseases such as heat stroke in auto racing, vertebral artery dissection in the martial arts, and dementia pugilistica in boxing. Neurological injuries of the CNS due to sport comprise a wide collection of maladies that are important for the neurologist, neurosurgeon, orthopaedic surgeon, physiatrist, sports medicine doctor, athletic trainer and general physician to recognise.

  10. [Effects of electromagnetic field from cellular phones on selected central nervous system functions: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Bak, Marek; Zmyślony, Marek

    2010-01-01

    In the opinion of some experts, a growing emission of man-made electromagnetic fields (EMF), also known as electromagnetic is a source of continuously increasing health hazards to the general population. Due to their large number and very close proximity to the user's head, mobile phones deserve special attention. This work is intended to give a systematic review of objective studies, assessing the effects of mobile phone EMF on the functions of the central nervous system (CNS) structures. Our review shows that short exposures to mobile phone EMF, experienced by telephone users during receiving calls, do not affect the cochlear function. Effects of GSM mobile phone EMF on the conduction of neural impulses from the inner car neurons to the brainstem auditory centres have not been detected either. If Picton's principle, saying that P300 amplitude varies with the improbability of the targets and its latency varies with difficulty of discriminating the target stimulus from standard stimuli, is true, EMF changes the improbability of the targets without hindering their discrimination. Experiments with use of indirect methods do not enable unequivocal verification of EMF effects on the cognitive functions due to the CNS anatomical and functional complexity. Thus, it seems advisable to develop a model of EMF effects on the excitable brain structures at the cellular level.

  11. A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K

    2015-05-01

    The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed.

  12. Perfectionism as a transdiagnostic process: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Egan, Sarah J; Wade, Tracey D; Shafran, Roz

    2011-03-01

    Perfectionism is a risk and maintaining factor for eating disorders, anxiety disorders and depression. The objective of this paper is to review the four bodies of evidence supporting the notion that perfectionism is a transdiagnostic process. First, a review of the literature was conducted that demonstrates the elevation of perfectionism across numerous anxiety disorders, depression, and eating disorders compared to healthy controls. Data is presented that shows perfectionism increases vulnerability for eating disorders, and that it maintains obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety and depression as it predicts treatment outcome in these disorders. Second, evidence is examined showing that elevated perfectionism is associated with co-occurrence of psychopathology. Third, the different conceptualisations of perfectionism are reviewed, including a cognitive-behavioural conceptualisation of clinical perfectionism that can be utilised to understand this transdiagnostic process. Fourth, evidence that treatment of perfectionism results in reductions in anxiety, depression and eating pathology is reviewed. Finally, the importance of clinicians considering the routine assessment and treatment of perfectionism is outlined.

  13. Development of discordant likelihood metrics for use in evaluation of 'double reviewer' performance in blinded independent central review (BICR) RECIST imaging studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, J. Michael; Sharma, Manish; Singareddy, Anitha; Schmid, Annette

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: Perform a retrospective review of a number studies (n=20) for the purpose of proposing basic likelihood metrics for evaluation of discordance between two reviewers performing RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) assessments in a Blinded Independent Central Review (BICR) Methods: Retrospective data analysis using R programming scripts to determine discordance subsets of interest and analyze these datasets for both time point discordance and case discordance. Results: We present a basic time point discordant ratio and a cases discordance ratio based on a range of aggregated time points per case for RECIST datasets. Conclusions: We propose basic ratios that that might be useful to improve reviewer performance monitoring models

  14. Alexithymia and automatic processing of emotional stimuli: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Suslow, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and the utilization of a cognitive style that is oriented toward external events, rather than intrapsychic experiences. Alexithymia is considered a vulnerability factor influencing onset and course of many psychiatric disorders. Even though emotions are, in general, elicited involuntarily and emerge without conscious effort, it is surprising that little attention in etiological considerations concerning alexithymia has been given to deficits in automatic emotion processing and their neurobiological bases. In this article, results from studies using behavioral or neurobiological research methods were systematically reviewed in which automatic processing of external emotional information was investigated as a function of alexithymia in healthy individuals. Twenty-two studies were identified through a literature search of Psycinfo, PubMed, and Web of Science databases from 1990 to 2016. The review reveals deficits in the automatic processing of emotional stimuli in alexithymia at a behavioral and neurobiological level. The vast majority of the reviewed studies examined visual processing. The alexithymia facets externally oriented thinking and difficulties identifying feelings were found to be related to impairments in the automatic processing of threat-related facial expressions. Alexithymic individuals manifest low reactivity to barely visible negative emotional stimuli in brain regions responsible for appraisal, encoding, and affective response, e.g. amygdala, occipitotemporal areas, and insula. Against this background, it appears plausible to assume that deficits in automatic emotion processing could be factors contributing to alexithymic personality characteristics. Directions for future research on alexithymia and automatic emotion perception are suggested.

  15. [American judge preserves confidentiality in the peer review process].

    PubMed

    Overbeke, A J P M

    2008-07-12

    Pharmaceutical concern Pfizer subpoenaed various medical journals, including JAMA and Annals of Internal Medicine, to hand over confidential documents relating to studies on its cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors celecoxib and valdecoxib. Pfizer wanted this information to help defend 3000 product liability lawsuits over alleged side effects of the 2 drugs. However, a federal judge in Chicago rejected the company's bid, thereby preserving the confidentiality of the peer review process. It is unlikely that subpoenas like this will take place in the Netherlands.

  16. Consent Processes for Mobile App Mediated Research: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Thorogood, Adrian; Winship, Ingrid; Zawati, Ma'n; Doerr, Megan

    2017-08-30

    Since the launch of ResearchKit on the iOS platform in March 2015 and ResearchStack on the Android platform in June 2016, many academic and commercial institutions around the world have adapted these frameworks to develop mobile app-based research studies. These studies cover a wide variety of subject areas including melanoma, cardiomyopathy, and autism. Additionally, these app-based studies target a variety of participant populations, including children and pregnant women. The aim of this review was to document the variety of self-administered remote informed consent processes used in app-based research studies available between May and September 2016. Remote consent is defined as any consenting process with zero in-person steps, when a participant is able to join a study without ever seeing a member of the research team. This type of review has not been previously conducted. The research community would benefit from a rigorous interrogation of the types of consent taken as part of the seismic shift to entirely mobile meditated research studies. This review examines both the process of information giving and specific content shared, with special attention to data privacy, aggregation, and sharing. Consistency across some elements of the app-based consent processes was found; for example, informing participants about how data will be curated from the phone. Variations in other elements were identified; for example, where specific information is shared and the level of detail disclosed. Additionally, several novel elements present in eConsent not typically seen in traditional consent for research were highlighted. This review advocates the importance of participant informedness in a novel and largely unregulated research setting.

  17. Process Control in Alumina Refining, Review and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffaud, Jean-Pierre

    This paper will review the evolution of process control in the alumina industry. The comparison with others such as Oil and Gas will be useful to measure where we are now and what other steps, particularly in advanced control, we can envisage to bring value to our business. We will look at what this might (and will) imply both in terms of equipment infrastructure and development of the organization.

  18. Some opinions on the review process of research papers destined for publication.

    PubMed

    Roohi, Ehsan; Mahian, Omid

    2015-06-01

    The current paper discusses the peer review process in journals that publish research papers purveying new science and understandings (scientific journals). Different aspects of peer review including the selection of reviewers, the review process and the decision policy of editor are discussed in details. Here, the pros and cons of different conventional methods of review processes are mentioned. Finally, a suggestion is presented for the review process of scientific papers.

  19. Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-07

    The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)

  20. Aeolian Processes and Landforms in River Valleys of Central Russian Plain in MIS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlakhova, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    Late Pleistocene terraces in river valleys of Central Russian Plain were subject to aeolian reworking after the alluvial sedimentation had finished. Severe natural conditions of LGM (cold and dry climate, scarce vegetation) contributed activation of aeolian processes. Ground water lowering because of deep pre-LGM incision of rivers made deep aeolian reworking possible at low hypsometric levels of valley bottom. We studied lithological structure of terraces in river valleys of Central Russian Plain. The key sites were located in Seim (the middle Dnieper catchment) and Khoper (the middle Don catchment) river valleys. Field data was combined with quartz grains morphoscopy technique (study of texture of sediment particles using scanning electron microscope). Wide participation of aeolian sediments in terrace deposits was detected. During this study a new technique of the distinguishing of short-term aeolian reworking of alluvial deposits using quartz grains morphoscopy technique was developed. The main problem of interpretation the results of quartz grains morphoscopy is that aeolian signals are sometimes not clear due to short duration of wind action over alluvial sands. However, detailed studies of the quartz grains surfaces under scanning electron microscope helped to solve this problem. We used scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM-661 LV and worked with magnification from ×160 to ×400 for whole grains and up to ×1800 for some parts of grains. Deep aeolian reworking of Late Pleistocene terrace alluvium in river valleys of Central Russian Plain during LGM led to the formation of aeolian covers on the terrace surfaces. Also there are many relict dunes on Late Pleistocene river terrace surfaces. Sometimes the development of aeolian processes could led to more significant changes in the shape of the valley and formation of aeolian aprons. The thickness of aeolian covers can reach 3-5 m or more. Due to this reason morphology and topography of river terraces could

  1. Review of neural network modelling of cracking process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, M. N.; Aziz, N.

    2016-11-01

    Cracking process is a very important process that converts low value products into high value products such as conversion of naphtha into ethylene and propylene. The process is nonlinear with extensive reaction network. Thus, nonlinear technique such as artificial neural network is explored to develop the model of the system. The paper will review and discuss the research works done on the technique in modelling cracking process using artificial neural network starting from early 1990s until recent development in 2015. Timeline is provided to show progression of work done throughout the years, the main issues addressed, and the proposed techniques for each. In the next section, the main objective of each work and each techniques explored by previous researchers is discussed in more detail. A table that summarizes previous works is provided to show common works done throughout the years. Lastly, potential gap for future works in the area is highlighted.

  2. Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: an integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change.

    PubMed

    Gawronski, Bertram; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2006-09-01

    A central theme in recent research on attitudes is the distinction between deliberate, "explicit" attitudes and automatic, "implicit" attitudes. The present article provides an integrative review of the available evidence on implicit and explicit attitude change that is guided by a distinction between associative and propositional processes. Whereas associative processes are characterized by mere activation independent of subjective truth or falsity, propositional reasoning is concerned with the validation of evaluations and beliefs. The proposed associative-propositional evaluation (APE) model makes specific assumptions about the mutual interplay of the 2 processes, implying several mechanisms that lead to symmetric or asymmetric changes in implicit and explicit attitudes. The model integrates a broad range of empirical evidence and implies several new predictions for implicit and explicit attitude change.

  3. Numerical simulation of tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Peryshkin, A. Yu.; Makarov, P. V. Eremin, M. O.

    2014-11-14

    An evolutionary approach proposed in [1, 2] combining the achievements of traditional macroscopic theory of solid mechanics and basic ideas of nonlinear dynamics is applied in a numerical simulation of present-day tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia. Relative values of strength parameters of rigid blocks with respect to the soft zones were characterized by the δ parameter that was varied in the numerical experiments within δ = 1.1–1.8 for different groups of the zonal-block divisibility. In general, the numerical simulations of tectonic block motion and accompanying seismic process in the model geomedium indicate that the numerical solutions of the solid mechanics equations characterize its deformation as a typical behavior of a nonlinear dynamic system under conditions of self-organized criticality.

  4. Auditory performance and central auditory processing after cochlear implantation in patients deafened by meningitis.

    PubMed

    García, Juan Manuel; Aparicio, Maria Leonor; Peñaranda, Augusto; Barón, Clemencia; Cutha, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the auditory performance of patients deafened by meningitis in closed-set, open-set and language tests (Luria's test). Ten paediatric subjects deafened by meningitis were compared with a peer group of ten paediatric congenitally deaf subjects. All the subjects had a full insertion of a Nucleus device. Three of the subjects in each group had a longer follow-up period and were selected to perform the Luria test. The closed-set tests did not show statistically significant differences between the two groups (p < 0.21) but comparative results of open-set bisyllabic tests did show statistically significant differences (p < 0.003). It was concluded that meningitis might affect the central auditory processing and acquisition process of language. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Right cerebral hemisphere and central auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Murphy-Ruiz, Paulina C; Peñaloza-López, Yolanda R; García-Pedroza, Felipe; Poblano, Adrián

    2013-11-01

    We hypothesized that if the right hemisphere auditory processing abilities can be altered in children with developmental dyslexia (DD), we can detect dysfunction using specific tests. We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. We studied 20 right-handed children with DD and 20 healthy right-handed control subjects (CS). Children in both groups were age, gender, and school-grade matched. Focusing on the right hemisphere's contribution, we utilized tests to measure alterations in central auditory processing (CAP), such as determination of frequency patterns; sound duration; music pitch recognition; and identification of environmental sounds. We compared results among the two groups. Children with DD showed lower performance than CS in all CAP subtests, including those that preferentially engaged the cerebral right hemisphere. Our data suggests a significant contribution of the right hemisphere in alterations of CAP in children with DD. Thus, right hemisphere CAP must be considered for examination and rehabilitation of children with DD.

  6. Optimization of the French cystic fibrosis newborn screening programme by a centralized tracking process.

    PubMed

    Munck, Anne; Delmas, Dominique; Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Lemonnier, Lydie; Cheillan, David; Roussey, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the French cystic fibrosis newborn screening algorithm, based on data tracked by a centralized monitoring process, from 2002 to 2014. The programme aimed to attain European Standards in terms of positive predictive value, sensitivity, the ratio of screen positive patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis to infants who screen positive but with inconclusive diagnosis (CFSPID), and time to diagnosis. Methods Retrospective analysis of programme performance, compliance with the algorithm, and changes in screening strategy. Results Modifications in the flow chart protocol improved the positive predictive value to 0.31 while maintaining the sensitivity at 0.95. Among infants diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, or identified as CFSPID, sweat test results were obtained for 94%, and two mutations were identified after exhaustive screening for the gene, when applicable, in 99.6%. The rate of pending diagnosis was very low (0.5%). The ratio of infants with cystic fibrosis:CFSPID was 6.3:1. Age at initial visit at the CF centre was ≤ 35 days, respectively, in 53%/26%. Conclusion Performances were in agreement with European standards, but timeliness of initial visit needed improvement. Our data complement an accumulating body of evidence demonstrating that attention must be paid to such ethical considerations as limiting carrier detection and inconclusive diagnosis. Newborn screening programmes should have a rigorous centralized monitoring process to warrant adjustments for improving performance to attain consensus guidelines.

  7. Noise Equally Degrades Central Auditory Processing in 2- and 4-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Haapala, Sini; Kujala, Teija; Raappana, Antti; Kujala, Tiia; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2017-08-16

    The aim of this study was to investigate developmental and noise-induced changes in central auditory processing indexed by event-related potentials in typically developing children. P1, N2, and N4 responses as well as mismatch negativities (MMNs) were recorded for standard syllables and consonants, frequency, intensity, vowel, and vowel duration changes in silent and noisy conditions in the same 14 children at the ages of 2 and 4 years. The P1 and N2 latencies decreased and the N2, N4, and MMN amplitudes increased with development of the children. The amplitude changes were strongest at frontal electrodes. At both ages, background noise decreased the P1 amplitude, increased the N2 amplitude, and shortened the N4 latency. The noise-induced amplitude changes of P1, N2, and N4 were strongest frontally. Furthermore, background noise degraded the MMN. At both ages, MMN was significantly elicited only by the consonant change, and at the age of 4 years, also by the vowel duration change during noise. Developmental changes indexing maturation of central auditory processing were found from every response studied. Noise degraded sound encoding and echoic memory and impaired auditory discrimination at both ages. The older children were as vulnerable to the impact of noise as the younger children. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5233939.

  8. Fast parametric evaluation of central speech-sound processing with mismatch negativity (MMN).

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, Satu; Teinonen, Tuomas; Shestakova, Anna; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Kujala, Teija; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Näätänen, Risto; Huotilainen, Minna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a paradigm for obtaining a multi-feature profile for central auditory processing of different magnitudes of prosodic and phonetic changes in speech sounds. We recorded the MMNs to three vowel identity changes, three magnitudes of changes in intensity, and vowel duration as well as to two magnitudes of pitch changes from semi-synthetic vowels in 34min. Furthermore, we examined how the type and magnitude of deviation affect the size and timing of the MMN. All sound changes elicited statistically significant MMN responses, with the MMN amplitudes increasing with an increase in sound deviance. Importantly, the MMN amplitudes for the vowel changes reflected the differences between the phonemes, as did the MMNs to vowel-duration changes reflect the categorization of these sounds to short and long vowel categories, which are meaningful in the Finnish language. This new multi-feature MMN paradigm is suitable for investigating the central auditory processing of different magnitudes of speech-sound changes and can be used, for instance, in the investigation of pre-attentive phoneme categorization. The paradigm is especially useful for studying speech and language disorders in general, language development, and evolution of phoneme categories early in life, as well as brain plasticity during native or second language learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  10. A perturbative approach to central exclusive production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Khoze, V. A.; Ryskin, M. G.

    2015-02-01

    We review some selected results within the Durham model of central exclusive production. We present a detailed discussion of this theoretical approach for modeling exclusive processes and we briefly review some of its phenomenological applications.

  11. Polarity-dependent transcranial direct current stimulation effects on central auditory processing.

    PubMed

    Ladeira, Andrea; Fregni, Felipe; Campanhã, Camila; Valasek, Cláudia Aparecida; De Ridder, Dirk; Brunoni, André Russwsky; Boggio, Paulo Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    Given the polarity dependent effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in facilitating or inhibiting neuronal processing, and tDCS effects on pitch perception, we tested the effects of tDCS on temporal aspects of auditory processing. We aimed to change baseline activity of the auditory cortex using tDCS as to modulate temporal aspects of auditory processing in healthy subjects without hearing impairment. Eleven subjects received 2mA bilateral anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS over auditory cortex in a randomized and counterbalanced order. Subjects were evaluated by the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT), a test measuring temporal processing abilities in the auditory domain, before and during the stimulation. Statistical analysis revealed a significant interaction effect of time vs. tDCS condition for 4000 Hz and for clicks. Post-hoc tests showed significant differences according to stimulation polarity on RGDT performance: anodal improved 22.5% and cathodal decreased 54.5% subjects' performance, as compared to baseline. For clicks, anodal also increased performance in 29.4% when compared to baseline. tDCS presented polarity-dependent effects on the activity of the auditory cortex, which results in a positive or negative impact in a temporal resolution task performance. These results encourage further studies exploring tDCS in central auditory processing disorders.

  12. Cognitive flexibility, central coherence and social emotional processing in males with an eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Elizabeth; Carral-Fernández, Laura; Denneny, Emma; Campbell, Iain C; Treasure, Janet

    2014-05-01

    Females are more likely to develop an eating disorder (ED) than males. Studies of affected men may therefore inform models of risk and resilience to EDs. The aim of this study was to examine putative neurocognitive intermediate phenotypes of EDs in affected males. Cognitive flexibility, central coherence (global/detail processing), complex emotion recognition and social-threat sensitivity were investigated in men with EDs and healthy men. Measures of distress, perfectionism, and obsessive compulsivity were collected. Men with EDs were more cognitively inflexible across tasks and had more difficulty integrating global information than healthy men. Unexpectedly, there were no group differences on a visuospatial task of detail processing or on social-emotional processing tasks. Men with EDs had higher scores on measures of distress, perfectionism and obsessive compulsivity than healthy men. Men with EDs share some of the intermediate cognitive phenotype present in women with EDs. Like their female counterparts, males with EDs show an inflexible, fragmented cognitive style. However, relative to healthy men, men with EDs do not have superior detail processing abilities, poor emotion recognition or increased sensitivity to social-threat. It is possible that gender differences in social-threat processing contribute to the female preponderance of EDs.

  13. Editorial review: an update on central sensitivity syndromes and the issues of nosology and psychobiology.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Muhammad B

    2015-01-01

    Central sensitization (CS), simply defined as an amplified response of the central nervous system to peripheral input, is a concept of great importance in clinical medicine. It has helped to explain aspects of the pathophysiology of common diseases, e.g. fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), irritable bowel syndrome, vulvodynia, headaches, chronic pelvic pain and other overlapping conditions (collectively called central sensitivity syndromes, or CSS). It also applies to pain of complex regional pain syndrome, osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and post-operative pain. The pathology-pain gap in CSS is readily explained by CS. Many FMS and other CSS patients have peripheral pathology, e.g. nociceptive areas in the muscles, arthritis, small fiber neuropathy and inflammation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated in some patients. Identification of CS in patients with structural pathology, e.g. OA and RA, has helped to explain why not all patients benefit from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or joint replacement surgery, and require therapy directed at CS. Glial cells are important in pain processing. Remarkable advances have been achieved in neuroimaging, including visualization of grey matter and white matter, not only during provoked pain but also pain at rest. Based on CS mechanisms, targeted individual therapy may now be possible. Appropriate nosology is important particularly for effective patient care. Dichotomy of neurochemical-structural ("functional") and structural ("organic") pathology should be abandoned; many patients have both. Psychobiology is also biology. Patient-blaming terms like somatization, somatizer and catastrophizing should be avoided. For therapy, both pharmacological and non- pharmacological approaches are important, including recognition of subgroups and person/patient-centered care.

  14. The role of central dopamine D3 receptors in drug addiction: a review of pharmacological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Heidbreder, Christian A.; Gardner, Eliot L.; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Mugnaini, Manolo; Hagan, Jim J.; Ashby, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    The cDNA for the dopamine D3 receptor was isolated and characterized in 1990. Subsequent studies have indicated that D3 receptors, as well as D3 receptor mRNA, are primarily localized in limbic regions in mammals. This finding led to the postulate that D3 receptors may be involved in drug dependence and addiction. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to test due to the lack of compounds with high selectivity for central D3 receptors. The interpretation of results from studies using mixed D2/D3 agonists and/or antagonists is problematic because these agents have low selectivity for D3 over D2 receptors and it is likely that their actions are primarily related to D2 receptor antagonism and possibly interaction with other neurotransmitter receptors. Currently, with the synthesis and characterization of new highly selective D3 receptor antagonists such as SB-277011-A this difficulty has been surmounted. The purpose of the present article is to review, for the first time, the effects of various putative D3 receptor selective compounds in animal models of drug dependence and addiction. The results obtained with highly selective D3 receptor antagonists such as SB-277011-A, SB-414796, and NGB-2904 indicate that central D3 receptors may play an important role in drug-induced reward, drug-taking, and cue-, drug-, and stress-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. Provided these results can be extrapolated to human drug addicts, they suggest that selective DA D3 receptor antagonists may prove effective as potential pharmacotherapeutic agents to manage drug dependence and addiction. PMID:15960988

  15. A systematic review of the nutritional adequacy of the diet in the Central Andes.

    PubMed

    Berti, Peter R; Fallu, Cynthia; Cruz Agudo, Yesmina

    2014-11-01

    To examine dietary adequacy in the Andean area, including macro- and micronutrient intakes, with a particular focus on rural communities; to highlight nutrition priorities in the Andes; and to identify opportunities for improvement. A comprehensive literature search was conducted, identifying published and grey literature in English and Spanish related to diet in the central Andean countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Articles reporting data from dietary surveys or nutrition interventions were included. Thirty-four papers or reports published in 1969-2011 were included in the final review. The mean and variation in intakes by sex and age group of all presented nutrients were collated and the mean of means were calculated. Thiamin, niacin, and vitamin C intakes were usually adequate. Intakes of most other micronutrients, including iron, zinc, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin B12, folate, and zinc were low, likely resulting in high levels of inadequacy. Energy intakes were lower than requirements, but it is unlikely to be a common problem, rather, this result was probably due to the known tendency of most dietary survey tools to underreport intake. However, energy from fat intakes was very low, usually less than 20% of the total, and in some settings, less than 10%. The inadequate intake of some micronutrients is common in many developing countries, but the extremely low intake of dietary fat found in the central Andes is not. Increased consumption of animal-source foods would increase fat intakes, while addressing micronutrient deficiencies; however, the impact on the fragile ecosystem of the Andes needs considering. Indigenous crops, such as lupine bean, quinoa, and amaranth are also rich in fat or micronutrients.

  16. Designing persuasive health materials using processing fluency: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masahumi; Kato, Mio; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2017-06-08

    Health materials to promote health behaviors should be readable and generate favorable evaluations of the message. Processing fluency (the subjective experience of ease with which people process information) has been increasingly studied over the past decade. In this review, we explore effects and instantiations of processing fluency and discuss the implications for designing effective health materials. We searched seven online databases using "processing fluency" as the key word. In addition, we gathered relevant publications using reference snowballing. We included published records that were written in English and applicable to the design of health materials. We found 40 articles that were appropriate for inclusion. Various instantiations of fluency have a uniform effect on human judgment: fluently processed stimuli generate positive judgments (e.g., liking, confidence). Processing fluency is used to predict the effort needed for a given task; accordingly, it has an impact on willingness to undertake the task. Physical perceptual, lexical, syntactic, phonological, retrieval, and imagery fluency were found to be particularly relevant to the design of health materials. Health-care professionals should consider the use of a perceptually fluent design, plain language, numeracy with an appropriate degree of precision, a limited number of key points, and concrete descriptions that make recipients imagine healthy behavior. Such fluently processed materials that are easy to read and understand have enhanced perspicuity and persuasiveness.

  17. Snakebite Survivors Club: retrospective review of rattlesnake bites in Central California.

    PubMed

    Spano, Susanne; Macias, Fernando; Snowden, Brandy; Vohra, Rais

    2013-07-01

    We investigated clinical patterns of crotaline envenomation presenting to a tertiary-care academic hospital in Central California over a 10-year period. An IRB-approved, retrospective chart review was conducted on all patients diagnosed with snakebite from December 2000 to December 2010. Data abstracted: demographics, anatomic location of bite, comorbid conditions and intoxicants, length of stay, antivenom dose, laboratory results, and complications or procedures. There were 46 snakebite cases admitted over the study period. Five were "dry bites"; the remaining cases (41/46) received antivenom. There was a male predominance (83% male victims). Upper extremity bites were more common (32/41 upper vs 10/42 lower extremity). One victim sustained bilateral bites to the hands. Thirty-five patients (85%) were admitted, with an average length of stay 2.12 days. The longest hospitalization was 15 days. There were no fatalities. The average time from bite to ED presentation was 2 h 44 min. Bites occurred during every month except November, with the majority occurring during spring and summer months and peaking in June (12/42 cases). Most bites occurred in the hours between noon and 8 pm. The amount of antivenom given ranged from 2 to 35 vials (average, 9 vials). Interfacility transfers were common in our study population: thirteen (32%) patients were transferred into our emergency department for a higher level of care, and 3 (7%) were transferred out (two because of insurance requirements, and one for higher level of Pediatric ICU care). There were no surgical interventions in our study group. Intoxication did not appear to play a major role in this population as only 3 patients (7%) were found to be acutely intoxicated: one with cannabis and amphetamines, 1 with alcohol, and 1 with opioids. In Central California, crotaline envenomations occurred mainly in adult males. Dry bites, or bites not requiring antivenom administration, were uncommon, comprising only 10% of bites

  18. T2 hyperintense signal of the central tegmental tracts in children: disease or normal maturational process?

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Albesa, Sergio; Poretti, Andrea; Honnef, Dagmar; Aktas, Meral; Yoldi-Petri, Maria Eugenia; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Häusler, Martin

    2012-08-01

    Cerebral central tegmental tract hyperintense signal on T2-weighted MRI (CTTH) is known from various clinical conditions, including children treated with vigabatrin (VGB) for West syndrome (WS), with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, and metabolic diseases. Considering this clinical diversity, we hypothesized that CTTH might primarily mirror a physiologic process. We retrospectively analysed brain MRI data of the central tegmental tracts deriving from four different groups: (1) children with WS and VGB therapy (WS+VGB+), (2) children with WS but without VGB therapy (WS+VGB-), (3) children with different neurological diseases (WS-VGB-; maximum age 15 years), and (4) controls younger than 25 months of age (this age includes the peak age of WS). CTTH were detected in 4/17 WS+VGB+ children (24%), 4/34 WS+VGB- children (12%), 18/296 WS-VGB- children (6%), and 8/112 controls (7%). Independently from the underlying diagnosis, CTTH showed a peak age during early infancy and were not found before 4 months and after 7 years of life. The rate of CTTH among WS children ± VGB therapy was similar so that VGB therapy seems of minor etiological impact. However, comparison of WS patients younger than 25 months of age (CTTH present in 7/40) with age-matched controls (CTTH present in 8/112) revealed that CTTH tend to be more frequent among WS patients in general. Our study suggests that CTTH represents a physiological maturation-related process. The high prevalence of CTTH among patients with WS indicates that this physiological process may be modified by additional endo- or exogeneous factors.

  19. Modeling vadose zone processes during land application of food-processing waste water in California's Central Valley.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gretchen R; Rubin, Yoram; Mayer, K Ulrich; Benito, Pascual H

    2008-01-01

    Land application of food-processing waste water occurs throughout California's Central Valley and may be degrading local ground water quality, primarily by increasing salinity and nitrogen levels. Natural attenuation is considered a treatment strategy for the waste, which often contains elevated levels of easily degradable organic carbon. Several key biogeochemical processes in the vadose zone alter the characteristics of the waste water before it reaches the ground water table, including microbial degradation, crop nutrient uptake, mineral precipitation, and ion exchange. This study used a process-based, multi-component reactive flow and transport model (MIN3P) to numerically simulate waste water migration in the vadose zone and to estimate its attenuation capacity. To address the high variability in site conditions and waste-stream characteristics, four food-processing industries were coupled with three site scenarios to simulate a range of land application outcomes. The simulations estimated that typically between 30 and 150% of the salt loading to the land surface reaches the ground water, resulting in dissolved solids concentrations up to sixteen times larger than the 500 mg L(-1) water quality objective. Site conditions, namely the ratio of hydraulic conductivity to the application rate, strongly influenced the amount of nitrate reaching the ground water, which ranged from zero to nine times the total loading applied. Rock-water interaction and nitrification explain salt and nitrate concentrations that exceed the levels present in the waste water. While source control remains the only method to prevent ground water degradation from saline wastes, proper site selection and waste application methods can reduce the risk of ground water degradation from nitrogen compounds.

  20. Teaching undergraduates the process of peer review: learning by doing.

    PubMed

    Rangachari, P K

    2010-09-01

    An active approach allowed undergraduates in Health Sciences to learn the dynamics of peer review at first hand. A four-stage process was used. In stage 1, students formed self-selected groups to explore specific issues. In stage 2, each group posted their interim reports online on a specific date. Each student read all the other reports and prepared detailed critiques. In stage 3, each report was discussed at sessions where the lead discussant was selected at random. All students participated in the peer review process. The written critiques were collated and returned to each group, who were asked to resubmit their revised reports within 2 wk. In stage 4, final submissions accompanied by rebuttals were graded. Student responses to a questionnaire were highly positive. They recognized the individual steps in the standard peer review, appreciated the complexities involved, and got a first-hand experience of some of the inherent variabilities involved. The absence of formal presentations and the opportunity to read each other's reports permitted them to study issues in greater depth.

  1. Membrane contactors for CO2 capture processes - critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogalska, Adrianna; Trojanowska, Anna; Garcia-Valls, Ricard

    2017-07-01

    The use of membrane contactor in industrial processes is wide, and lately it started to be used in CO2 capture process mainly for gas purification or to reduce the emission. Use of the membrane contactor provides high contact surface area so the size of the absorber unit significantly decreases, which is an important factor for commercialization. The research has been caried out regarding the use of novel materials for the membrane production and absorbent solution improvements. The present review reveals the progress in membrane contactor systems for CO2 capture processes concerning solution for ceramic membrane wetting, comparison study of different polymers used for fabrication and methods of enzyme immobilization for biocomposite membrane. Also information about variety of absorbent solutions is described.

  2. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations.

  3. A review on spectral processing methods for geological remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadzadeh, Saeid; de Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto

    2016-05-01

    In this work, many of the fundamental and advanced spectral processing methods available to geologic remote sensing are reviewed. A novel categorization scheme is proposed that groups the techniques into knowledge-based and data-driven approaches, according to the type and availability of reference data. The two categories are compared and their characteristics and geologic outcomes are contrasted. Using an oil-sand sample scanned through the sisuCHEMA hyperspectral imaging system as a case study, the effectiveness of selected processing techniques from each category is demonstrated. The techniques used to bridge between the spectral data and other geoscience products are then discussed. Subsequently, the hybridization of the two approaches is shown to yield some of the most robust processing techniques available to multi- and hyperspectral remote sensing. Ultimately, current and future challenges that spectral analysis are expected to overcome and some potential trends are highlighted.

  4. Global transcriptomic analysis of Cyanothece 51142 reveals robust diurnal oscillation of central metabolic processes.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A; Liberton, Michelle; Kunnvakkam, Rangesh; Aurora, Rajeev; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2008-04-22

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic organisms and are the only prokaryotes known to have a circadian lifestyle. Unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 produce oxygen and can also fix atmospheric nitrogen, a process exquisitely sensitive to oxygen. To accommodate such antagonistic processes, the intracellular environment of Cyanothece oscillates between aerobic and anaerobic conditions during a day-night cycle. This is accomplished by temporal separation of the two processes: photosynthesis during the day and nitrogen fixation at night. Although previous studies have examined periodic changes in transcript levels for a limited number of genes in Cyanothece and other unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria, a comprehensive study of transcriptional activity in a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium is necessary to understand the impact of the temporal separation of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation on global gene regulation and cellular metabolism. We have examined the expression patterns of nearly 5,000 genes in Cyanothece 51142 during two consecutive diurnal periods. Our analysis showed that approximately 30% of these genes exhibited robust oscillating expression profiles. Interestingly, this set included genes for almost all central metabolic processes in Cyanothece 51142. A transcriptional network of all genes with significantly oscillating transcript levels revealed that the majority of genes encoding enzymes in numerous individual biochemical pathways, such as glycolysis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and glycogen metabolism, were coregulated and maximally expressed at distinct phases during the diurnal cycle. These studies provide a comprehensive picture of how a physiologically relevant diurnal light-dark cycle influences the metabolism in a photosynthetic bacterium.

  5. [Inappropriateness in ionizing imaging. The central node of the informed consent: from "event" model to "process" model].

    PubMed

    Dodaro, Antonio; Recchia, Virginia

    2011-11-01

    The phenomenon of inappropriateness in ionizing imaging and medical interventions is large-scale and increasing. This tendency causes noteworthy damages to health and to patient's autonomy. Moreover, this trend causes a huge increment of health expenditures, waiting lists, organizational conflicts, judicial disputes, insurance compensations. The actual passive signature on unreadable templates of informed consent in the Italian hospital context constitutes, by a matter of facts, a central node of inappropriateness problem. This way to manage informed consent - "event" model - mortifies the patient's right to decide freely and deliberately, being him unaware of biological consequences of clinical-therapeutical interventions on himself and his progeny's health. Physician himself can generate arbitrary clinical acts, with heavy deontological and legal consequences. Hence, informed consent in ionizing imaging necessitates a particular "process" management, useful to convey a series of other clinical and organisational processes towards a full realisation of therapeutic alliance among physician and patient. This review aims at highlighting - in a juridical and communicative key - a range of tools which are applicable to contrasting the hospital abuse of ionizing radiations, for defending both patients' health and patients' dignity, being them primarily persons and citizens of a rule-of-law State.

  6. Framing and the health policy process: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Koon, Adam D; Hawkins, Benjamin; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2016-07-01

    Framing research seeks to understand the forces that shape human behaviour in the policy process. It assumes that policy is a social construct and can be cast in a variety of ways to imply multiple legitimate value considerations. Frames provide the cognitive means of making sense of the social world, but discordance among them forms the basis of policy contestation. Framing, as both theory and method, has proven to generate considerable insight into the nature of policy debates in a variety of disciplines. Despite its salience for understanding health policy debates; however, little is known about the ways frames influence the health policy process. A scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley framework was conducted. The literature on framing in the health sector was reviewed using nine health and social science databases. Articles were included that explicitly reported theory and methods used, data source(s), at least one frame, frame sponsor and evidence of a given frame's effect on the health policy process. A total of 52 articles, from 1996 to 2014, and representing 12 countries, were identified. Much of the research came from the policy studies/political science literature (n = 17) and used a constructivist epistemology. The term 'frame' was used as a label to describe a variety of ideas, packaged as values, social problems, metaphors or arguments. Frames were characterized at various levels of abstraction ranging from general ideological orientations to specific policy positions. Most articles presented multiple frames and showed how actors advocated for them in a highly contested political process. Framing is increasingly an important, yet overlooked aspect of the policy process. Further analysis on frames, framing processes and frame conflict can help researchers and policymakers to understand opaque and highly charged policy issues, which may facilitate the resolution of protracted policy controversies.

  7. Framing and the health policy process: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Koon, Adam D; Hawkins, Benjamin; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2016-01-01

    Framing research seeks to understand the forces that shape human behaviour in the policy process. It assumes that policy is a social construct and can be cast in a variety of ways to imply multiple legitimate value considerations. Frames provide the cognitive means of making sense of the social world, but discordance among them forms the basis of policy contestation. Framing, as both theory and method, has proven to generate considerable insight into the nature of policy debates in a variety of disciplines. Despite its salience for understanding health policy debates; however, little is known about the ways frames influence the health policy process. A scoping review using the Arksey and O’Malley framework was conducted. The literature on framing in the health sector was reviewed using nine health and social science databases. Articles were included that explicitly reported theory and methods used, data source(s), at least one frame, frame sponsor and evidence of a given frame’s effect on the health policy process. A total of 52 articles, from 1996 to 2014, and representing 12 countries, were identified. Much of the research came from the policy studies/political science literature (n = 17) and used a constructivist epistemology. The term ‘frame’ was used as a label to describe a variety of ideas, packaged as values, social problems, metaphors or arguments. Frames were characterized at various levels of abstraction ranging from general ideological orientations to specific policy positions. Most articles presented multiple frames and showed how actors advocated for them in a highly contested political process. Framing is increasingly an important, yet overlooked aspect of the policy process. Further analysis on frames, framing processes and frame conflict can help researchers and policymakers to understand opaque and highly charged policy issues, which may facilitate the resolution of protracted policy controversies. PMID:26873903

  8. Pulsed electric field processing of egg products: a review.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K

    2016-02-01

    Thermal processing ensures safety and enhances the shelf-life of most of the food products. It alters the structural-chemical composition, modifies heat labile components, as well as affects the functional properties of food products. This has driven the development of non-thermal food processing techniques, primarily for extending the shelf-life of different food products. These techniques are currently also being evaluated for their effects on product processing, quality and other safety parameters. Pulsed electric field (PEF) is an example of non-thermal technique which can be applied for a variety of purpose in the food processing industry. PEF can be used for antimicrobial treatment of various food products to improve the storability or food safety, for extraction and recovery of some high-value compounds from a food matrix or for stabilization of various food products through inactivation of some enzymes or catalysts. Research on the application of PEF to control spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms in different egg products is being currently focused. It has been reported that PEF effectively reduces the activity of various microorganisms in a variety of egg products. However, the PEF treatment also alters the structural and functional properties to some extent and there is a high degree of variability between different studies. In addition to integrating findings, the present review also provides several explanations for the inconsistency in findings between different studies related to PEF processing of egg products. Several specific recommendations for future research directions on PEF processing are well discussed in this review.

  9. Evidence-based measures to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Perin, Daniele Cristina; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Higashi, Giovana Dorneles Callegaro; Sasso, Grace Teresinha Marcon Dal

    2016-09-01

    to identify evidence-based care to prevent CLABSI among adult patients hospitalized in ICUs. systematic review conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Web of Science, Lilacs, Bdenf and Cochrane Studies addressing care and maintenance of central venous catheters, published from January 2011 to July 2014 were searched. The 34 studies identified were organized in an instrument and assessed by using the classification provided by the Joanna Briggs Institute. the studies presented care bundles including elements such as hand hygiene and maximal barrier precautions; multidimensional programs and strategies such as impregnated catheters and bandages and the involvement of facilities in and commitment of staff to preventing infections. care bundles coupled with education and the commitment of both staff and institutions is a strategy that can contribute to decreased rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections among adult patients hospitalized in intensive care units. identificar evidências de cuidados para prevenção de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada a cateter venoso central em pacientes adultos em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva. revisão Sistemática realizada por meio de busca nas bases de dados Pubmed, Scopus, Cinahl, Web of Science, Lilacs, Bdenf e Cochrane. Foram buscadas pesquisas com cuidados com a cateterização e manutenção do cateter venoso central, publicados de janeiro de 2011 a julho de 2014. Os 34 estudos incluídos foram organizados em um instrumento e avaliados por meio da classificação do The Joanna Briggs Institute. os estudos apresentaram bundles de cuidados com elementos como a higiene das mãos e precauções máximas de barreira; programas multidimensionais e estratégias como cateteres e curativos impregnados e o envolvimento da instituição e engajamento da equipe nos esforços para prevenção de infecção. os cuidados no formato de bundles aliados com a educação e engajamento da equipe e

  10. The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report assesses the state of the science on the environmental impacts of mountaintop mines and valley fills (MTM-VF) on streams in the Central Appalachian Coalfields. Our review focused on the aquatic impacts of mountaintop removal coal mining, which, as its name suggests, ...

  11. The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report assesses the state of the science on the environmental impacts of mountaintop mines and valley fills (MTM-VF) on streams in the Central Appalachian Coalfields. Our review focused on the aquatic impacts of mountaintop removal coal mining, which, as its name suggests, ...

  12. Nanofibrillated cellulose as an additive in papermaking process: A review.

    PubMed

    Boufi, Sami; González, Israel; Delgado-Aguilar, Marc; Tarrès, Quim; Pèlach, M Àngels; Mutjé, Pere

    2016-12-10

    During the last two decades, cellulose nanofibres (CNF) have emerged as a promising, sustainable reinforcement with outstanding potential in material sciences. Though application of CNF in papermaking is recent, it is expected to find implementation in the near future to give a broader commercial market to this type of cellulose. The present review highlights recent progress in the field of the application of cellulose nanofibres as additives in papermaking. The effect of CNF addition on the wet end process is analysed according to the type of pulp used for papermaking. According to the literature consulted, improvement in paper's overall properties after CNF addition depended not only on the type and amount of CNF applied, but also in the pulp's origin and treatment. Bulk and surface application of CNF also presented significant differences regarding paper's final properties. This review also revises the mechanisms behind CNF reinforcing effect on paper and the effect of chemically modified CNF as additives.

  13. Space Station Freedom Program preliminary design review process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlise, R. F.; Adair, Billy

    1989-01-01

    To conduct the Program Requirements Review of the Space Station Freedom, a Preliminary Design Review Board (PDR) has been established. The PDR will assess the preliminary design of the assembled manned base including the assembly process, the launch, and on-orbit stage configuration, the design approach, the on-orbit verification plans, supportability, reliability, safety, interfaces with the NASA infrastructure (the NSTS, TDRSS, and Ground operations) and international partners. Issues such as the coordination of a common interpretation of design requirements, coordination of interfaces, and convergence of design perspectives vs. proper allocation of resources are discussed. The impact of the resolution of the secondary ripple effect of design decisions which may cause programmatic difficulties is also addressed.

  14. Pulsed electric field processing of foods: a review.

    PubMed

    Jeyamkondan, S; Jayas, D S; Holley, R A

    1999-09-01

    Use of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) for inactivation of microorganisms is one of the more promising nonthermal processing methods. Inactivation of microorganisms exposed to high-voltage PEFs is related to the electromechanical instability of the cell membrane. Electric field strength and treatment time are the two most important factors involved in PEF processing. Encouraging results are reported at the laboratory level, but scaling up to the industrial level escalates the cost of the command charging power supply and of the high-speed electrical switch. In this paper, we critically review the results of earlier experimental studies on PEFs and we suggest the future work that is required in this field. Inactivation tests in viscous foods and in liquid food containing particulates must be conducted. A successful continuous PEF processing system for industrial applications has yet to be designed. The high initial cost of setting up the PEF processing system is the major obstacle confronting those who would encourage the system's industrial application. Innovative developments in high-voltage pulse technology will reduce the cost of pulse generation and will make PEF processing competitive with thermal-processing methods.

  15. Review of computational fluid dynamics applications in biotechnology processes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, C; Malhotra, D; Rathore, A S

    2011-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is well established as a tool of choice for solving problems that involve one or more of the following phenomena: flow of fluids, heat transfer,mass transfer, and chemical reaction. Unit operations that are commonly utilized in biotechnology processes are often complex and as such would greatly benefit from application of CFD. The thirst for deeper process and product understanding that has arisen out of initiatives such as quality by design provides further impetus toward usefulness of CFD for problems that may otherwise require extensive experimentation. Not surprisingly, there has been increasing interest in applying CFD toward a variety of applications in biotechnology processing in the last decade. In this article, we will review applications in the major unit operations involved with processing of biotechnology products. These include fermentation,centrifugation, chromatography, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and freeze drying. We feel that the future applications of CFD in biotechnology processing will focus on establishing CFD as a tool of choice for providing process understanding that can be then used to guide more efficient and effective experimentation. This article puts special emphasis on the work done in the last 10 years.

  16. Liquid Metal Infiltration Processing of Metallic Composites: A Critical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sree Manu, K. M.; Ajay Raag, L.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Gupta, Manoj; Pai, B. C.

    2016-10-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are one of the advanced materials widely used for aerospace, automotive, defense, and general engineering applications. MMC can be tailored to have superior properties such as enhanced high-temperature performance, high specific strength and stiffness, increased wear resistance, better thermal and mechanical fatigue, and creep resistance than those of unreinforced alloys. To fabricate such composites with ideal properties, the processing technique has to ensure high volume fraction of reinforcement incorporation, uniform distribution of the reinforcement, and acceptable adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing phase without unwanted interfacial reactions which degrades the mechanical properties. A number of processing techniques such as stir casting/vortex method, powder metallurgy, infiltration, casting etc. have been developed to synthesize MMC employing a variety of alloy and the reinforcement's combinations. Among these, infiltration process is widely used for making MMC with high volume fraction of reinforcements and offers many more advantages compared to other conventional manufacturing processes. The present paper critically reviews the various infiltration techniques used for making the MMC, their process parameters, characteristics, and selected studies carried out worldwide and by authors on the development of metal ceramic composites by squeeze infiltration process.

  17. Sudomotor nerve conduction velocity and central processing time of the skin conductance response.

    PubMed

    Lim, C L; Seto-Poon, M; Clouston, P D; Morris, J G L

    2003-11-01

    To estimate the sudomotor nerve conduction velocity (CV), the central processing time (CPT) and habituation of the skin conductance response (SCR). SCRs in response to a single deep inspiratory breath, an electrical stimulus and a sound click were obtained from the fingers and toes of 30 healthy adults. Sudomotor nerve conduction velocities were determined after measuring extremity length and latency differences. CPT was estimated by subtracting the efferent time and the known afferent times and neuroeffector times from the onset latency. The inspiratory SCR habituated slower than the auditory or electrical SCRs. CVs of the 3 modalities did not differ statistically and their mean was 1.07 m s(-1) (95% CI: 1.01-1.13). The inspiratory SCR arrived at the fingers 1.26+/-0.09 s after the onset of chest wall movement. Electrical and auditory SCR onset latencies at the fingers were 1.60+/-0.03 and 1.75+/-0.04 s, respectively. Their CPTs were 140 and 160 ms, estimated from the electrical and auditory SCR onset latencies to the fingers. The CPT for inspiratory SCR was estimated to occur during the inspiratory CPT after the inspiratory decision and before chest movement. In contrast to the SCR following an electrical or auditory stimulus, initiation of deep inspiratory SCR occurs before the inspiratory act, precluding any possible input from respiratory afferent receptors and implicating a central generator. This study provides new insights into the origin of the SCR following inspiration.

  18. Processing information related to centrally initiated locomotor and voluntary movements by feline spinocerebellar neurones.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, E; Nilsson, E; Hammar, I

    2011-12-01

    Feed-back information on centrally initiated movements is processed at both supraspinal and spinal levels and is forwarded by a variety of neurones. The aim of the present study was to examine how descending commands relayed by reticulospinal neurones are monitored by a population of spinocerebellar tract neurones. Our main question was whether a spinal border (SB) subpopulation of ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT) neurones monitor actions of reticulospinal neurones with input from the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) as well as from pyramidal tract (PT) neurones. In the majority of intracellularly recorded SB neurons, stimuli applied in the MLR and in the medullary pyramids evoked EPSPs in parallel with EPSPs evoked by stimulation of axons of reticulospinal neurones in the medial longitudinal fascicle (MLF). In extracellularly recorded neurones short trains of stimuli applied in the ipsilateral and contralateral pyramids potently facilitated discharges evoked from the MLF, as well as EPSPs recorded intracellularly. In both cases the facilitation involved the disynaptic but not the monosynaptic actions. These results indicate that reticulospinal neurones activating SB neurones (or more generally VSCT neurones) are co-excited by axon-collaterals of other reticulospinal neurones and by fibres stimulated within the MLR and PTs. The study leads to the conclusion that these spinocerebellar neurones monitor descending commands for centrally initiated voluntary as well as locomotor movements relayed by reticulospinal neurones. Thereby they may provide the cerebellum with feed-back information on the likely outcome of these commands and any corrections needed to avoid errors in the issuing movements.

  19. Sol-gel processing of bioactive glass nanoparticles: A review.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kai; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2017-03-21

    Silicate-based bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGN) are gaining increasing attention in various biomedical applications due to their unique properties. Controlled synthesis of BGN is critical to their effective use in biomedical applications since BGN characteristics, such as morphology and composition, determining the properties of BGN, are highly related to the synthesis process. In the last decade, numerous investigations focusing on BGN synthesis have been reported. BGN can mainly be produced through the conventional melt-quench approach or by sol-gel methods. The latter approaches are drawing widespread attention, considering the convenience and versatility they offer to tune the properties of BGN. In this paper, we review the strategies of sol-gel processing of BGN, including those adopting different catalysts for initiating the hydrolysis and condensation of silicate precursors as well as those combining sol-gel chemistry with other techniques. The processes and mechanism of different synthesis approaches are introduced and discussed in detail. Considering the importance of the BGN morphology and composition to their biomedical applications, strategies put forward to control the size, shape, pore structure and composition of BGN are discussed. BGN are particularly interesting biomaterials for bone-related applications, however, they also have potential for other biomedical applications, e.g. in soft tissue regeneration/repair. Therefore, in the last part of this review, recently reported applications of BGN in soft tissue repair and wound healing are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. REVIEW ARTICLE: Spectrophotometric applications of digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawski, Roman Z.

    2006-09-01

    Spectrophotometry is more and more often the method of choice not only in analysis of (bio)chemical substances, but also in the identification of physical properties of various objects and their classification. The applications of spectrophotometry include such diversified tasks as monitoring of optical telecommunications links, assessment of eating quality of food, forensic classification of papers, biometric identification of individuals, detection of insect infestation of seeds and classification of textiles. In all those applications, large numbers of data, generated by spectrophotometers, are processed by various digital means in order to extract measurement information. The main objective of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art methodology for digital signal processing (DSP) when applied to data provided by spectrophotometric transducers and spectrophotometers. First, a general methodology of DSP applications in spectrophotometry, based on DSP-oriented models of spectrophotometric data, is outlined. Then, the most important classes of DSP methods for processing spectrophotometric data—the methods for DSP-aided calibration of spectrophotometric instrumentation, the methods for the estimation of spectra on the basis of spectrophotometric data, the methods for the estimation of spectrum-related measurands on the basis of spectrophotometric data—are presented. Finally, the methods for preprocessing and postprocessing of spectrophotometric data are overviewed. Throughout the review, the applications of DSP are illustrated with numerous examples related to broadly understood spectrophotometry.

  1. Primary melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system: a review with focus on molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Küsters-Vandevelde, Heidi V N; Küsters, Benno; van Engen-van Grunsven, Adriana C H; Groenen, Patricia J T A; Wesseling, Pieter; Blokx, Willeke A M

    2015-03-01

    Primary melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a spectrum of rare tumors. They can be benign or malignant and occur in adults as well as in children, the latter often in the context of neurocutaneous melanosis. Until recently, the genetic alterations in these tumors were largely unknown. This is in contrast with cutaneous and uveal melanomas, which are known to harbor distinct oncogenic mutations that can be used as targets for treatment with small-molecule inhibitors in the advanced setting. Recently, novel insights in the molecular alterations underlying primary melanocytic tumors of the CNS were obtained, including different oncogenic mutations in tumors in adult patients (especially GNAQ, GNA11) vs. children (especially NRAS). In this review, the focus is on molecular characteristics of primary melanocytic tumors of the CNS. We summarize what is known about their genetic alterations and discuss implications for pathogenesis and differential diagnosis with other pigmented tumors in or around the CNS. Finally, new therapeutic options with targeted therapy are discussed. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  2. Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle East and Central Asia (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini)

    PubMed Central

    Anichtchenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle East and Central Asia are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovi sp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickai sp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovi sp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timuri sp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixi sp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskii sp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidus sp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyi nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedlička, 1967, syn. n.; Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedlička, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records. PMID:22291510

  3. Occupational exposure and defects of the central nervous system in offspring: review.

    PubMed Central

    Roeleveld, N; Zielhuis, G A; Gabreëls, F

    1990-01-01

    A study of published work was carried out in a search for evidence of a causal role for parental occupational exposure in the origin of structural and functional defects of the central nervous system (CNS) in children. Studies that consider this topic are scarce and mostly refer to broad categories of exposures and effects. Non-occupational studies referring to environmental exposure of humans and studies on experimental animals were also reviewed. The studies on animals provided straightforward evidence about morphological and behavioural abnormalities resulting from some agents used occupationally. The studies on humans yielded a scala of defects that could be ascribed to exposure to high doses of various agents in the environment. Evidence for a causal role of occupational exposure has not been found, but a highly probable influence on the developing CNS is hypothesised for lead, methyl mercury, and ionising radiation. Parental occupational exposure to cadmium, organic solvents, anaesthetics, and pesticides may also play a part in causing defects of the CNS. Well designed future research is needed to test the above hypotheses. PMID:2207028

  4. Central venous catheter "pinch-off" and fracture: a review of two under-recognized complications.

    PubMed

    Nace, C S; Ingle, R J

    1993-09-01

    Although uncommon, "pinch-off syndrome" and catheter fracture are reported complications of central venous catheters (CVCs). Pinch-off syndrome is characterized by intermittent catheter malfunction in conjunction with radiologic evidence of catheter compression. Warning signs of pinch-off syndrome include difficulty with-drawing blood samples and resistance to infusion of IV fluids. CVC fracture is characterized by migration of the distal catheter fragment through the heart and, often, into the pulmonary artery; it may be accompanied by the sudden onset of chest pain, palpitations, and arrhythmias. Twenty-seven cases of CVC fracture were reviewed, including 22 cases reported in the literature as well as an analysis of 5 cases that occurred at the authors' institution. Among the 22 cases reported in the literature, the average length of time between catheter insertion and fracture was 6.7 months. In 82% of these cases, the fracture occurred at the clavicle/first rib junction, where mechanical friction against the catheter has been well established as the mechanism for most fractures. In 9 of these 22 cases, evidence of catheter compression was noted on chest x-ray prior to fracture. This paper discusses assessment criteria for pinch-off syndrome and catheter fracture, as well as nursing implications regarding the prevention and early detection of these potentially serious complications.

  5. REVIEW ARTICLE Tokamak equilibria with nearly zero central current: the current hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Takaaki

    2010-11-01

    The observation of stable sustainment of the 'current hole', namely the nearly zero current density region in the central part of a tokamak plasma, has opened a new class of configurations in tokamak plasmas, and a variety of research from the viewpoints of equilibrium, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stability, particle orbits and radial transport has been generated. Some theories and codes have been tested and extended by being applied to extreme conditions in the current hole with very weak poloidal field. The current hole is generated due to a transient negative toroidal electric field established when a large off-axis non-inductive current is rapidly formed. It has been observed in high confinement plasmas with a large fraction of bootstrap current in advanced tokamak operation. The current hole is very stiff against current drive, which suggests that it is a saturated or self-organized system. Appearance of the current hole in ITER and DEMO would be expected in some of the operation scenarios, and its influence and its control methods have been studied. Results of experimental and theoretical studies on the current hole are reviewed.

  6. Prevention of central venous catheter-related infection in the neonatal unit: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jacqueline E; McDonald, Susan J; Tan, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Central venous catheter infections are the leading cause of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections and contribute significantly to mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. Moreover, infection poses significant economic consequence which increased hospital costs and increased length of hospital stay. Prevention strategies are detailed in guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States; nevertheless, recent surveys in neonatal units in the United States, and Australia and New Zealand demonstrate these are not always followed. This review discusses the numerous evidence-based strategies to prevent catheter infections including hand hygiene, maximal sterile barriers during insertion, skin disinfection, selection of insertion site, dressings, aseptic non-touch technique, disinfection of catheter hubs/ports, administration set management, prompt removal of catheter, antibiotic locks, systemic antibiotic prophylaxis and chlorhexidine bathing. Furthermore, it will describe different strategies that can be implemented into clinical practice to reduce infection rates. These include the use of care bundles including checklists, education and the use of CVC teams.

  7. A systematic review of inhaled intranasal therapy for central nervous system neoplasms: an emerging therapeutic option.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Asa; Bansal, Amy; Hofman, Florence; Chen, Thomas C; Zada, Gabriel

    2014-02-01

    The intranasal route for drug delivery is rapidly evolving as a viable means for treating selected central nervous system (CNS) conditions. We aimed to identify studies pertaining to the application of intranasal drug administration for the treatment of primary CNS tumors. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify all studies published in the English language pertaining to intranasal therapy for CNS neoplasms, and/or general mechanisms and pharmacokinetics regarding targeted intranasal CNS drug delivery. A total of 194 abstracts were identified and screened. Thirty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. Of these, 21 focused on intranasal treatment of specific primary CNS tumors, including gliomas (11), meningiomas (1), and pituitary adenomas (4). An additional 16 studies focused on general mechanisms of intranasal therapy and drug delivery to the CNS using copolymer micelles, viral vectors, and nanoparticles. Inhaled compounds/substances investigated included perillyl alcohol, vesicular stomatitis virus, parvovirus, telomerase inhibitors, neural stem and progenitor cells, antimetabolites, somatostatin analogues, and dopamine agonists. Radiolabeling, CSF concentration measurement, imaging studies, and histological examination were utilized to clarify the mechanism and distribution by which drugs were delivered to the CNS. Successful drug delivery and tumor/symptom response was reported in all 21 tumor-specific studies. The intranasal route holds tremendous potential as a viable option for drug delivery for CNS neoplasms. A variety of antitumoral agents may be delivered via this route, thereby potentially offering a more direct delivery approach and ameliorating the adverse effects associated with systemic drug delivery.

  8. Reduction of Thoroughbred racing fatalities at New York Racing Association racetracks using a multi-disciplinary mortality review process.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Scott E; McDonough, Sean P; Mohammed, Hussni O

    2017-07-01

    Between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015, findings of a New York State Gaming Commission-Cornell University postmortem examination program were utilized in a multi-disciplinary mortality review process to review 129 racing fatalities at Thoroughbred racetracks operated by the New York Racing Association (NYRA). Musculoskeletal fractures comprised 79% of the fatalities; cardiopulmonary conditions accounted for 12% of the fatalities. Other causes of death included gastrointestinal (3%), respiratory (5%), and central nervous system (2%) conditions. Fetlock failure represented 50% of the musculoskeletal fatalities. The general distribution of these findings was very similar to that reported by the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System during the same period. These findings, used in conjunction with a comprehensive mortality review process and regulatory reform, have contributed to a significant reduction of the incidence of Thoroughbred racing fatalities at NYRA racetracks during the period of this review.

  9. Relationship between central auditory processing and reading skills: preliminary observations in Hebrew speaking children.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationships between central auditory processing (CAP) of sinusoidally modulated speech-like and non-speech acoustic signals and reading skills in shallow (pointed) and deep (unpointed) Hebrew orthographies. Twenty unselected fifth-grade Hebrew speakers performed a rate change detection (RCD) task using the aforementioned acoustic signals. They also performed reading and general ability (IQ) tests. After controlling for general ability, RCD tasks contributed a significant unique variance to the decoding skills. In addition, there was a fairly strong correlation between the score on the RCD with the speech-like stimuli and the unpointed text reading score. CAP abilities may affect reading skills, depending on the nature of orthography (deep vs shallow), at least in the Hebrew language.

  10. Data on nearshore wave process and surficial beach deposits, central Tamil Nadu coast, India.

    PubMed

    Joevivek, V; Chandrasekar, N

    2017-08-01

    The chronicles of nearshore morphology and surficial beach deposits provide valuable information about the nature of the beach condition and the depositional environment. It imparts an understanding about the spatial and temporal relationship of nearshore waves and its influence over the distribution of beach sediments. This article contains data about wave and sediment dynamics of the ten sandy beaches along the central Tamil Nadu coast, India. This present dataset comprises nearshore wave parameters, breaker wave type, beach morphodynamic state, grain size distribution and weight percentage of heavy and light mineral distribution. The dataset will figure out the beach morphology and hydrodynamic condition with respect to the different monsoonal season. This will act as a field reference to realize the coastal dynamics in an open sea condition. The nearshore entities were obtained from the intensive field survey between January 2011 and December 2011, while characteristics of beach sediments are examined by the chemical process in the laboratory environment.

  11. Cortisol, but not intranasal insulin, affects the central processing of visual food cues.

    PubMed

    Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Schulz, André; Streit, Fabian E; Turner, Jonathan D; Oitzl, Melly S; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2014-12-01

    Stress glucocorticoids and insulin are important endocrine regulators of energy homeostasis, but little is known about their central interaction on the reward-related processing of food cues. According to a balanced group design, healthy food deprived men received either 40IU intranasal insulin (n=13), 30mg oral cortisol (n=12), both (n=15), or placebo (n=14). Acoustic startle responsiveness was assessed during presentation of food and non-food pictures. Cortisol enhanced startle responsiveness during visual presentation of "high glycemic" food pictures, but not during presentation of neutral and pleasant non-food pictures. Insulin had no effect. Based on the "frustrative nonreward" model these results suggest that the reward value of high glycemic food items is specifically increased by cortisol.

  12. FMRI reveals abnormal central processing of sensory and pain stimuli in ill Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Kaundinya; Gandhi, Parina; Goyal, Aman; Jiang, Lei; Fang, Yan; Ouyang, Luo; Ganji, Sandeepkumar; Buhner, David; Ringe, Wendy; Spence, Jeffrey; Biggs, Melanie; Briggs, Richard; Haley, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Many veterans chronically ill from the 1991 Gulf War exhibit symptoms of altered sensation, including chronic pain. In this study of 55 veterans of a Construction Battalion previously examined in 1995-1996 and 1997-1998, brain activation to innocuous and noxious heat stimuli was assessed in 2008-2009 with a quantitative sensory testing fMRI protocol in control veterans and groups representing three syndrome variants. Testing outside the scanner revealed no significant differences in warm detection or heat pain threshold among the four groups. In the fMRI study, Syndrome 1 and Syndrome 2, but not Syndrome 3, exhibited hypo-activation to innocuous heat and hyper-activation to noxious heat stimuli compared to controls. The results indicate abnormal central processing of sensory and painful stimuli in 2 of 3 variants of Gulf War illness and call for a more comprehensive study with a larger, representative sample of veterans.

  13. Gravity or translation: central processing of vestibular signals to detect motion or tilt.

    PubMed

    Angelaki, Dora E; Dickman, J David

    2003-01-01

    The processing and detection of tilts relative to gravity from actual motion (translational accelerations) is one of the most fundamental issues for understanding vestibular sensorimotor control in altered gravity environments. In order to better understand the nature of multisensory signals in detecting motion and tilt, we summarize here our recent studies regarding the central processing of vestibular signals during multi-axis rotational and translational stimuli. Approximately one fourth of the cells in the vestibular nuclei exclusively encoded rotational movements (Canal-Only neurons) and were unresponsive to translation. The Canal-Only central neurons encoded head rotation in canal afferent coordinates, exhibited no orthogonal canal convergence and were characterized by significantly higher sensitivities to rotation as compared to canal afferents. Another fourth of the neurons modulated their firing rates during translation (Otolith-Only cells). During rotations, these neurons typically only responded when the axis of rotation was earth-horizontal and the head was changing orientation relative to gravity. The remaining cells (approximately half of total population) were sensitive to both rotations and translations (Otolith+Canal neurons). Maximum sensitivity vectors to rotation were distributed throughout the 3D space, suggesting strong convergence from multiple semicircular canals. Only a small subpopulation (approximately one third) of these Otolith+Canal neurons seems to encode a true estimate of the translational component of the imposed passive head and body movement. These results provide the first step in further understanding multisensory convergence in normal gravity, as this task is fundamental to our appreciation of neurovestibular adaptation to altered gravity.

  14. Central pain processing in chronic chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Boland, Elaine G; Selvarajah, Dinesh; Hunter, Mike; Ezaydi, Yousef; Tesfaye, Solomon; Ahmedzai, Sam H; Snowden, John A; Wilkinson, Iain D

    2014-01-01

    Life expectancy in multiple myeloma has significantly increased. However, a high incidence of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) can negatively influence quality of life during this period. This study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare areas associated with central pain processing in patients with multiple myeloma who had chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (MM-CIPN) with those from healthy volunteers (HV). Twenty-four participants (n = 12 MM-CIPN, n = 12 HV) underwent Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) fMRI at 3T whilst noxious heat-pain stimuli were applied to the foot and then thigh. Patients with MM-CIPN demonstrated greater activation during painful stimulation in the precuneus compared to HV (p = 0.014, FWE-corrected). Patients with MM-CIPN exhibited hypo-activation of the right superior frontal gyrus compared to HV (p = 0.031, FWE-corrected). Significant positive correlation existed between the total neuropathy score (reduced version) and activation in the frontal operculum (close to insular cortex) during foot stimulation in patients with MM-CIPN (p = 0.03, FWE-corrected; adjusted R2 = 0.87). Painful stimuli delivered to MM-CIPN patients evoke differential activation of distinct cortical regions, reflecting a unique pattern of central pain processing compared with healthy volunteers. This characteristic activation pattern associated with pain furthers the understanding of the pathophysiology of painful chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy. Functional MRI provides a tool for monitoring cerebral changes during anti-cancer and analgesic treatment.

  15. Towards A Synthesis Of Land Dynamics And Hydrological Processes Across Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolik, I. N.; Tatarskii, V.; Shiklomanov, A. I.; Henebry, G. M.; de Beurs, K.; Laruelle, M.

    2016-12-01

    We present results from an ongoing project that aims to synthesize land dynamics, hydrological processes, and socio-economic changes across the five countries of Central Asia. We have developed a fully coupled model that takes into account the reconstructed land cover and land use dynamics to simulate dust emissions. A comparable model has been developed to model smoke emissions from wildfires. Both models incorporate land dynamics explicitly. We also present a characterization of land surface change based on a suite of MODIS products including vegetation indices, evapotranspiration, land surface temperature, and albedo. These results are connected with ongoing land privatization reforms that different across the region. We also present a regional analysis of water resources, including the significant impact of using surface water for irrigation in an arid landscape. We applied the University of New Hampshire hydrological model to understand the consequences of changes in climate, water, and land use on regional hydrological processes and water use. Water security and its dynamic have been estimated through an analysis of multiple indices and variables characterizing the water availability and water use. The economic consequences of the water privatization processes will be presented.

  16. The combined influence of central and peripheral routes in the online persuasion process.

    PubMed

    SanJosé-Cabezudo, Rebeca; Gutiérrez-Arranz, Ana M; Gutiérrez-Cillán, Jesús

    2009-06-01

    The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) is one of the most widely used psychological theories in academic literature to account for how advertising information is processed. The current work seeks to overturn one of the basic principles of the ELM and takes account of new variables in the model that help to explain the online persuasion process more clearly. Specifically, we posit that in a context of high-involvement exposure to advertising (e.g., Web pages), central and peripheral processing routes may act together. In a repeated-measures experimental design, 112 participants were exposed to two Web sites of a fictitious travel agency, differing only in their design--serious versus amusing. Findings evidence that a peripheral cue, such as how the Web pages are presented, does prove relevant when attempting to reflect the level of effectiveness. Moreover, if we take account of individuals' motivation when accessing the Internet, whether cognitive or affective, the motivation will impact their response to the Web site design. The work contributes to ELM literature and may help firms to pinpoint those areas and features of Internet advertising that prove most efficient.

  17. Optimization of the coherence function estimation for multi-core central processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremnov, A. G.; Faerman, V. A.; Avramchuk, V. S.

    2017-02-01

    The paper considers use of parallel processing on multi-core central processing unit for optimization of the coherence function evaluation arising in digital signal processing. Coherence function along with other methods of spectral analysis is commonly used for vibration diagnosis of rotating machinery and its particular nodes. An algorithm is given for the function evaluation for signals represented with digital samples. The algorithm is analyzed for its software implementation and computational problems. Optimization measures are described, including algorithmic, architecture and compiler optimization, their results are assessed for multi-core processors from different manufacturers. Thus, speeding-up of the parallel execution with respect to sequential execution was studied and results are presented for Intel Core i7-4720HQ и AMD FX-9590 processors. The results show comparatively high efficiency of the optimization measures taken. In particular, acceleration indicators and average CPU utilization have been significantly improved, showing high degree of parallelism of the constructed calculating functions. The developed software underwent state registration and will be used as a part of a software and hardware solution for rotating machinery fault diagnosis and pipeline leak location with acoustic correlation method.

  18. A review of bioinformatics training applied to research in molecular medicine, agriculture and biodiversity in Costa Rica and Central America.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Allan; Morera, Jessica; Jiménez, Sergio; Boza, Ricardo

    2013-09-01

    Today, Bioinformatics has become a scientific discipline with great relevance for the Molecular Biosciences and for the Omics sciences in general. Although developed countries have progressed with large strides in Bioinformatics education and research, in other regions, such as Central America, the advances have occurred in a gradual way and with little support from the Academia, either at the undergraduate or graduate level. To address this problem, the University of Costa Rica's Medical School, a regional leader in Bioinformatics in Central America, has been conducting a series of Bioinformatics workshops, seminars and courses, leading to the creation of the region's first Bioinformatics Master's Degree. The recent creation of the Central American Bioinformatics Network (BioCANET), associated to the deployment of a supporting computational infrastructure (HPC Cluster) devoted to provide computing support for Molecular Biology in the region, is providing a foundational stone for the development of Bioinformatics in the area. Central American bioinformaticians have participated in the creation of as well as co-founded the Iberoamerican Bioinformatics Society (SOIBIO). In this article, we review the most recent activities in education and research in Bioinformatics from several regional institutions. These activities have resulted in further advances for Molecular Medicine, Agriculture and Biodiversity research in Costa Rica and the rest of the Central American countries. Finally, we provide summary information on the first Central America Bioinformatics International Congress, as well as the creation of the first Bioinformatics company (Indromics Bioinformatics), spin-off the Academy in Central America and the Caribbean.

  19. A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Biomass Torrefaction is gaining attention as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties and chemical composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of approximately 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-280 C. Thus, the process can be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. The present review work looks into (a) torrefaction process and different products produced during the process and (b) solid torrefied material properties which include: (i) physical properties like moisture content, density, grindability, particle size distribution and particle surface area and pelletability; (ii) chemical properties like proximate and ultimate composition; and (iii) storage properties like off-gassing and spontaneous combustion.

  20. Concise Review: Process Development Considerations for Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Andrew; Brieva, Thomas; Raviv, Lior; Rowley, Jon; Niss, Knut; Brandwein, Harvey; Oh, Steve; Karnieli, Ohad

    2015-10-01

    The development of robust and well-characterized methods of production of cell therapies has become increasingly important as therapies advance through clinical trials toward approval. A successful cell therapy will be a consistent, safe, and effective cell product, regardless of the cell type or application. Process development strategies can be developed to gain efficiency while maintaining or improving safety and quality profiles. This review presents an introduction to the process development challenges of cell therapies and describes some of the tools available to address production issues. This article will provide a summary of what should be considered to efficiently advance a cellular therapy from the research stage through clinical trials and finally toward commercialization. The identification of the basic questions that affect process development is summarized in the target product profile, and considerations for process optimization are discussed. The goal is to identify potential manufacturing concerns early in the process so they may be addressed effectively and thus increase the probability that a therapy will be successful. The present study contributes to the field of cell therapy by providing a resource for those transitioning a potential therapy from the research stage to clinical and commercial applications. It provides the necessary steps that, when followed, can result in successful therapies from both a clinical and commercial perspective. ©AlphaMed Press.