Science.gov

Sample records for centrally planned economies

  1. Assessing the efficiency versus the inefficiency of the energy sectors in formerly centrally planned economies

    SciTech Connect

    Vorsatz, D.

    1995-12-01

    As much the extreme inefficiency of Eastern European energy sectors is emphasized, as little attention their relatively efficient aspects receive. Indeed, a few efficiency indicators show the highest global efficiencies for the formerly centrally planned economies, such as the overall primary to useful energy efficiency. These figures draw the attention to an underestimated feature of former socialist energy sectors and to crucial policy implications: in some respects central planning lead to a more efficient use of energy than the market economy. Consequently, if transitions from the central planning to the market economy are not managed carefully, further reductions in energy efficiency can be expected in some sectors of the economy.

  2. A Home-School Token Economy Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Charles L.; Fairchild, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Presents a workable plan for all counselors who wish to establish cooperation and collaboration between parents and teachers concerning children's problems that involve achievement and misbehavior. A basic outline of how to implement a home-school token economy plan is presented with two case examples illustrating its use and effectiveness.…

  3. Socialist market economy and the family planning program in China: some theoretical issues reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Zuo, X

    1994-01-01

    Socialist market economies and planned economies differ in that planned economies have decision-making power concentrated at the top levels of administration, and government sets mandatory macrolevel planning. Socialist market economies have decentralized decision making, and government's role is in setting rules and regulations. The market provides information and prices in a socialist market economy, while in a planned economy the government supplies information. Material interests are the stimulus in a market economy, while ideology is the stimulus in planned economies. Externalities or market failures prevent the market from realizing maximum efficiency in resource allocation. Commodity production is best when the social marginal cost equals social marginal efficiency. Externalities can be handled by internalization, taxation or subsidies, or administrative intervention. Externalities in reproduction are costs within the family that are lower than the social costs. Family costs usually do not include consumption of scarce natural resources. Costs vary between rural and urban areas. In a rural area with limited natural resources, lower birth rates in a village mean a greater amount of natural resources per person. If externalities are internalized, resources could be allocated per family which equalized distribution between families so that high birth rates could be contained. Another solution to high birth rates would be to impose fines. In real life, externalities are localized at the village level; poverty in one village affects the region. Under the current Chinese socialist market economy, economic decisions and reproductive decisions are decentralized. Population control regulation exists by province and stipulates the age of childbearing, the conditions determining second children, and the length of birth interval. Each province is subject to macro central government plans which include quotas for birth rates and the number of births per province. Family

  4. Reform of China's Technical and Vocational Education in the Transition from a Planned Economy System to a Socialist Market Economy System--A Case Study. Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Zuguang; Zeng, Zida

    Since the early 1990s, China's government has followed a socialist market economy system. Accordingly, the technical and vocational education (TVE) should be restructured to meet its needs. Reform of the TVE system has four aspects. First, reform of the planning system includes a move from a central plan of enrollment to planning according to…

  5. Irregular migration and informal economy in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe: breaking the vicious cycle?

    PubMed

    Maroukis, Thanos; Iglicka, Krystyna; Gmaj, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The flexible and cheap labour that European “post-industrial” economies are in need of is often facilitated by undeclared labour. The undocumented migrant, from his/her part, relatively easily finds work that suits his -- at least initial -- plans. What lies behind this nexus between irregular migration and informal economy? To what extent can this nexus be attributed to the structural features of the so-called “secondary”, as opposed to “primary”, labour market? And how does migration policy correlate with this economic context and lead to the entrapment of migrants in irregularity? Finally, can this vicious cycle of interests and life-strategies be broken and what does the experience of the migrants indicate in this respect? This paper addresses these questions via an exploration of the grounds upon which irregular migration and the shadow economy complement each other in southern Europe (SE) and central and Eastern Europe (CEE) (two regions at different points in the migration cycle). In doing so, the dynamic character of the nexus between informal economy and irregular migration will come to the fore, and the abstract identity of the “average” undocumented migrant will be deconstructed.

  6. Capacity planning in a transitional economy: What issues? Which models?

    SciTech Connect

    Mubayi, V.; Leigh, R.W.; Bright, R.N.

    1996-03-01

    This paper is devoted to an exploration of the important issues facing the Russian power generation system and its evolution in the foreseeable future and the kinds of modeling approaches that capture those issues. These issues include, for example, (1) trade-offs between investments in upgrading and refurbishment of existing thermal (fossil-fired) capacity and safety enhancements in existing nuclear capacity versus investment in new capacity, (2) trade-offs between investment in completing unfinished (under construction) projects based on their original design versus investment in new capacity with improved design, (3) incorporation of demand-side management options (investments in enhancing end-use efficiency, for example) within the planning framework, (4) consideration of the spatial dimensions of system planning including investments in upgrading electric transmission networks or fuel shipment networks and incorporating hydroelectric generation, (5) incorporation of environmental constraints and (6) assessment of uncertainty and evaluation of downside risk. Models for exploring these issues include low power shutdown (LPS) which are computationally very efficient, though approximate, and can be used to perform extensive sensitivity analyses to more complex models which can provide more detailed answers but are computationally cumbersome and can only deal with limited issues. The paper discusses which models can usefully treat a wide range of issues within the priorities facing decision makers in the Russian power sector and integrate the results with investment decisions in the wider economy.

  7. DEFENSE LOGISTICS: Strategic Planning Weaknesses Leave Economy, Efficiency, and Effectiveness of Future Support Systems at Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    Report to Congressional Committees United States General Accounting Office GAO October 2001 DEFENSE LOGISTICS Strategic Planning Weaknesses Leave...Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle DEFENSE LOGISTICS: Strategic Planning Weaknesses Leave Economy, Efficiency, and Effectiveness of...unclassified Limitation of Abstract SAR Number of Pages 33 Page i GAO-02-106 Strategic Planning for Logistics Transformation Letter 1 Results in Brief 2

  8. How Colleges Can Keep Strategic Plans on Course in a Stormy Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article provides suggestions on how colleges can keep strategic plans on course in a stormy economy. These are: (1) Move quickly; (2) Develop contingencies; (3) Be flexible; (4) Make hard choices; and (5) Recognize opportunities.

  9. Vertex centralities in input-output networks reveal the structure of modern economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöchl, Florian; Theis, Fabian J.; Vega-Redondo, Fernando; Fisher, Eric O.'N.

    2011-04-01

    Input-output tables describe the flows of goods and services between the sectors of an economy. These tables can be interpreted as weighted directed networks. At the usual level of aggregation, they contain nodes with strong self-loops and are almost completely connected. We derive two measures of node centrality that are well suited for such networks. Both are based on random walks and have interpretations as the propagation of supply shocks through the economy. Random walk centrality reveals the vertices most immediately affected by a shock. Counting betweenness identifies the nodes where a shock lingers longest. The two measures differ in how they treat self-loops. We apply both to data from a wide set of countries and uncover salient characteristics of the structures of these national economies. We further validate our indices by clustering according to sectors’ centralities. This analysis reveals geographical proximity and similar developmental status.

  10. The Political Economy of College Prepaid Tuition Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Rising tuition has led many states to offer college prepaid tuition plans. These plans are consistent with the trend in higher education policy toward meeting the needs of wealthier households. The paper argues that the public interest in these plans is hard to find; moreover, median voter theory suggests that prepaid tuition plans may have the…

  11. Centralized Planning for Multiple Exploratory Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Barrett, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    A computer program automatically generates plans for a group of robotic vehicles (rovers) engaged in geological exploration of terrain. The program rapidly generates multiple command sequences that can be executed simultaneously by the rovers. Starting from a set of high-level goals, the program creates a sequence of commands for each rover while respecting hardware constraints and limitations on resources of each rover and of hardware (e.g., a radio communication terminal) shared by all the rovers. First, a separate model of each rover is loaded into a centralized planning subprogram. The centralized planning software uses the models of the rovers plus an iterative repair algorithm to resolve conflicts posed by demands for resources and by constraints associated with the all the rovers and the shared hardware. During repair, heuristics are used to make planning decisions that will result in solutions that will be better and will be found faster than would otherwise be possible. In particular, techniques from prior solutions of the multiple-traveling- salesmen problem are used as heuristics to generate plans in which the paths taken by the rovers to assigned scientific targets are shorter than they would otherwise be.

  12. PLAN FOR CLOSURE OF HANFORDS CENTRAL PLATEAU

    SciTech Connect

    AUSTIN, B.A.

    2004-12-15

    This paper summarizes an approach to reduce risk to the public and environment through accelerated closure of Hanford's Central Plateau, based on a plan developed by Fluor Hanford and submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE)-Richland Office, for consideration, in September, 2004. This plan provides a framework and starting point for discussions with regulators and further planning for closure activities on the Plateau. The closure strategy and approach required developing a full inventory of items needing closure as well as identifying and defining technical and regulatory approaches that were compatible with current regulatory processes, reduce risks, and met DOE objectives. This effort, and the paper that follows, integrates closure activities among several contractors and two DOE field offices.

  13. The Paper Airplane Challenge: A Market Economy Simulation. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kimberly

    This lesson plan features a classroom simulation that helps students understand the characteristics of a market economic system. The lesson plan states a purpose; cites student objectives; suggests a time duration; lists materials needed; and details a step-by-step teaching procedure. The "Paper Airplane Challenge" handout is attached. (BT)

  14. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  15. Central Alaska Network vital signs monitoring plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCluskie, Margaret C.; Oakley, Karen L.; McDonald, Trent; Wilder, Doug

    2005-01-01

    Denali National Park and Preserve, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, and Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve have been organized into the Central Alaska Network (CAKN) for the purposes of carrying out ecological monitoring activities under the National Park Services’ Vital Signs Monitoring program. The Phase III Report is the initial draft of the Vital Signs Monitoring Plan for the Central Alaska Network. It includes updated material from the Phase I and II documents. This report, and draft protocols for 11 of the network’s Vital Signs, were peer reviewed early in 2005. Review comments were incorporated into the document bringing the network to the final stage of having a Vital Signs Monitoring Plan. Implementation of the program will formally begin in FY 2006. The broad goals of the CAKN monitoring program are to: (1) better understand the dynamic nature and condition of park ecosystems; and (2) provide reference points for comparisons with other, altered environments. The focus of the CAKN program will be to monitor ecosystems in order to detect change in ecological components and in the relationships among the components. Water quality monitoring is fully integrated within the CAKN monitoring program. A monitoring program for lentic (non-moving water) has been determined, and the program for lotic systems (moving water) is under development.

  16. [Effect of development of rural commodity economy on family planning].

    PubMed

    Chen, X

    1986-05-01

    The paper discusses the effects of the changes of rural income level on family planning practice based a survey of 200 rural families in a affluent vegetable producing area of suburban Beijing. In 1984, 99.7% of child birth followed the local birth planning, and 99.1% of families with one child received One Child Certificates. The annual per capita income of the 200 families was 1,092 yuan (1 US$ = 3.7 yuan) in 1984 even higher than the community average. The number of children was negatively associated with the per capita income and per capita consumption except families with 4 children, most of whom have grown up. The rural mechanization in the community has greatly increased the need for skills and technology rather than strong laborers. The provision of community welfare programs and the increased living standard changed the value of children and also changed people's perception in favor of gender equality. Among families with 1 or 2 children, most preferred to have girls. And among families with more children, the preferred family size is smaller than the actual size, which shows a tendency towards favoring a small family. Among 1 child families, 58.7% considered 1 boy and 1 girl to be ideal, and 37.7% was happy with the only child. As the community becomes richer, both the community and individual families increased their investment in education. The spending on education per child was over 2 times as high in 1 child families than the families with more children. The educational status of parents is positively associated with the exception of children's future education and current spending on education. The concern of parents over children's education is an important factor in improving the quality of labor force. Women of higher education status are more acceptable to contraception and family planning policy. The relatively high level of education of the community has been conducive to it fertility decline.

  17. Planning applications in East Central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannah, J. W. (Principal Investigator); Thomas, G. L.; Esparza, F.; Millard, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This is a study of applications of ERTS data to planning problems, especially as applicable to East Central Florida. The primary method has been computer analysis of digital data, with visual analysis of images serving to supplement the digital analysis. The principal method of analysis was supervised maximum likelihood classification, supplemented by density slicing and mapping of ratios of band intensities. Land-use maps have been prepared for several urban and non-urban sectors. Thematic maps have been found to be a useful form of the land-use maps. Change-monitoring has been found to be an appropriate and useful application. Mapping of marsh regions has been found effective and useful in this region. Local planners have participated in selecting training samples and in the checking and interpretation of results.

  18. The Economy of Romania: How it Compares to Other Centrally-Planned Economies in Eastern Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Adminis- tration) assistance was all but terminated. The 6 8 Anton Logoreci, "Albania’s Future," New York Times... motor buses and trucks, high capacity tractors, farming machinery, Diesel and electric locomotives, aircraft and helicopters as well as installations...34 Yoga by Commissars." Economist. Volume 283, Number 7238, May 22, 1982, p. 80. "Yugoslav/Romanian Aircraft." Aviation Week and Space Tech- nology

  19. Children and the Transition to the Market Economy: Safety Nets and Social Policies in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornia, Giovanni Andrea, Ed.; Sipos, Sandor, Ed.

    Organized in two parts, this book explores methods for incorporating concern for human needs into economic policies in eastern and central European countries that are making the transition to a market economy. Part I of the book considers economic reform, social policy, and child welfare in central and eastern Europe as a whole. Topics include:…

  20. Economies of scale and scope in the Danish hospital sector prior to radical restructuring plans.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Troels; Olsen, Kim Rose; Kilsmark, Jannie; Lauridsen, Jørgen T; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller

    2012-07-01

    The Danish hospital sector faces a significant rebuilding program driven by recent regional reform and guidelines for acute admission hospitals. Within the next 5-10 years, the number of public hospitals offering acute admission will be reduced from 35 to approximately 20 larger hospitals. As the administrative data may be biased during the middle of a restructuring process our objective was to analyze whether the configuration of Danish public hospitals was subject to economies of scale and scope prior to the restructuring plans. We estimated a quadratic cost function using panel data on the total costs for somatic treatment, casemix adjusted DRG-production values, and other cost drivers for the three years before the 2007 reforms. A short-run cost function was used to derive estimates of a long-run cost function by applying the envelope condition. Next, we estimated economies of scale and scope. We identified moderate-to-significant economies of scale and scope. This indicates that the Danish hospital sector was characterized by unexploited gains from consolidation. Our results suggest that the proposed plans have the potential to result in hospitals that are more efficient. However, post-restructuring studies elsewhere show that the strategy of horizontal integration has failed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Strategic Plans in Higher Education: Planning to Survive and Prosper in the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luu, Hung Nguyen Quoc

    2006-01-01

    In the era of globalization, many schools have recognized strategic planning as the key factor to enhance their organizational performance. To survive and prosper in this hyper-competitive environment, institutional leaders are to implement strategic planning to help match all activities of the school to its environment and to its resource…

  2. Central room (delivery room on plan) between the east and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central room (delivery room on plan) between the east and west reading rooms, showing built-in card catalog drawers. View to south. - Sacramento Junior College, Library, 3835 Freeport Boulevard, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  3. 1994 U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Plan: Fueling a Competitive Economy

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy has a rich heritage of meeting important national goals in the areas of energy, national security, science, and technology. The end of the Cold War, and the election of President Clinton, have given us a new national agenda. Through a comprehensive strategic planning process, we have determined that the Department must now unleash its extraordinary scientific and technical talent and resources on new and more sharply focused goals: fueling a competitive economy, improving the environment through waste management and pollution prevention, and reducing the nuclear danger.

  4. Central Arizona College Master Plan for 1980-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Arizona Coll., Coolidge.

    College-wide and departmental goals are outlined for 1980 through 1985 in this master plan for Central Arizona College (CAC). The plan first presents CAC's institutional philosophy and then outlines 40 college-wide goals in terms of service objectives and desired outcomes. Population projections through 1985 for CAC's service district are followed…

  5. Central Arizona College Master Plan for 1980-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Arizona Coll., Coolidge.

    College-wide and departmental goals are outlined for 1980 through 1985 in this master plan for Central Arizona College (CAC). The plan first presents CAC's institutional philosophy and then outlines 40 college-wide goals in terms of service objectives and desired outcomes. Population projections through 1985 for CAC's service district are followed…

  6. Foreword for the Special Section on Power System Planning and Operation Towards a Low-Carbon Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yi; Kang, Chongqing; Wang, Jianhui; Chen, Yihsu; Hobbs, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    The nine papers in this special section on power system planning and operation towards a low-cost economy cover the following topics: power system planning models; power system operation methods and market behavior analysis; and risk assessment and emission management.

  7. Public timber supply, market adjustments, and local economies: economic assumptions of the Northwest Forest Plan.

    PubMed

    Power, Thomas Michael

    2006-04-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan in the Pacific Northwest sought to stabilize local economies, including local employment and income, by stabilizing the flow of wood fiber from public forests. This is also a common forest management objective in other regions and countries. Because this economic strategy ignores basic market adjustments, it is likely to fail and to unnecessarily damage forest ecosystems. Application of basic economic principles on how markets operate significantly changes the apparent efficacy of efforts to manage local economies by managing timber supply. The emphasis on timber supply tends to ignore the dominant role that the demand for wood fiber and wood products, rather than wood-fiber supply, plays in determining levels of harvest and production. Contemporary economics indicates that markets tend to operate to offset reductions in wood-fiber supply. This significantly moderates the economic cost of reducing commercial timber harvest in the pursuit of environmental objectives. In addition, contemporary economic analysis indicates that the economic links between natural forests and local communities are much broader than simply the flow of commercially valuable logs to manufacturing facilities. At least in the United States, the flow of environmental services from natural forests has increasingly become an amenity that has drawn people and economic activity to forested areas. Attractive site-specific qualities, including those supported by natural forests, can potentially support local economic development even in the face of reduced timber harvests. These market-related adjustments partially explain the Northwest Forest Plan's overestimation of the expected regional impacts associated with reduced federal timber supply and the ineffectiveness of the plan's efforts to protect communities by stabilizing federal timber supply

  8. Three-dimensional treatment planning for central lymphatic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J; Bryant, C; Ha, C S; Cox, J D; Antolak, J A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of 3-dimensional (3D) treatment planning for central lymphatic irradiation (CLI). CLI requires more than 1 course of treatment with large, highly blocked, overlapping beams, and careful planning is required to ensure that such treatments are delivered safely and effectively. Three patients were selected for this study. Each patient completed at least 1 course of radiation therapy for CLI and was scheduled to receive irradiation to an adjacent area with overlapping beams. Two treatment plans were generated for each patient: a standard, 2-dimensional (2D) treatment plan and a 3D treatment plan designed to mimic the standard plan, taking advantage of unique 3D features. The time required to complete the treatment plans and differences in the treatment planning processes were noted. The time required to generate a 3D treatment plan was approximately the same as the time required to generate a standard 2D treatment plan; however, the 3D planning process required less redundancy of data entry than the 2D process. The 3D treatment plan was qualitatively similar to the standard 2D treatment plan; however, differences in beam penumbra and beam junctions were noted, and are most likely due to differences in the dose-calculation models used in these 2 treatment planning systems. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were calculated for the spinal cord and were found to be useful to the physicians for quickly and accurately evaluating the presence or absence of hot spots in the junction region. 3D treatment-planning has some advantages over 2D treatment planning for CLI; the main advantage of the 3D treatment plan is that it provides a single plan for each patient with multiple views of the data, including different planar cross-sections and DVHs. For the 2D system, a separate plan was generated for each view, requiring redundant data entry. The quality of the output of the 3D treatment plans is superior to that of 2D

  9. COMPREHENSIVE CLOSURE PLAN FOR THE HANFORD CENTRAL PLATEAU

    SciTech Connect

    LACKEY, M.B.

    2005-05-31

    This paper describes a comprehensive and strategic plan that has been recently developed for the environmental closure of the Central Plateau area of the Hanford Site, a former weapons-production complex managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This approach was submitted to the DOE Richland Operations Office by Fluor Hanford to provide a framework and roadmap to integrate ongoing operations with closure of facilities that are no longer actively used--all with a view to closing the Central Plateau by 2035. The plan is currently under consideration by the DOE.

  10. The Great Leap Forward: Anatomy of a Central Planning Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wei; Yang, Dennis Tao

    2005-01-01

    The Great Leap Forward disaster, characterized by a collapse in grain production and a widespread famine in China between 1959 and 1961, is found attributable to a systemic failure in central planning. Wishfully expecting a great leap in agricultural productivity from collectivization, the Chinese government accelerated its aggressive…

  11. 78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... Water Management Plans (Criteria). For the purpose of this announcement, Water Management Plans...

  12. A Call for Different Styles of Data Management and Institutional Research: Centralized versus Decentralized Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Charles H.; Howard, Richard D.

    1979-01-01

    The planning processes at two universities are contrasted as they relate to styles of data management and institutional research required to support two different planning philosophies--centralized planning and decentralized planning. (Author/BH)

  13. Can we Plan. The political economy of commercial nuclear energy policy in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The dissertation is an analysis of the commercial nuclear energy sector's decline in the United States. The research attempts to reconcile the debate between Weberian-institutional and Marxist political theory about the state's inability to successfully plan industrial development in advanced capitalist countries. Synthesizing these views, the central hypothesis guiding the research is that the greater the state's relative autonomy from political and economic constraints in an institutional sense, i.e., the greater its insulation from the contradictions of capitalism and democracy, the greater its planning capacity and the more successful it will be in directing industrial performance. The research examines one industrial sector, commercial nuclear energy, and draws two major comparison. First, the French and US nuclear industries are compared, since the state's relative autonomy is much greater in the former than in the latter. This comparison is developed to identify policy areas where nuclear planning has succeeded in France but failed in America. Four areas are identified: reactor standardization, waste management, reactor safety, and financing. Second, looking particularly at the US, the policy areas are compared to analyze the development of policy and its effects on the sector's performance and to determine the degree to which planning was undermined by the structural constraints characteristic of a state with low relative autonomy.

  14. [Integration of demographic variables in development planning: the case of Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Bm'niyat Bangamboulou-te-niya, D

    1989-06-01

    Development is a complex phenomenon that concerns all the structures and subsystems of a society, affecting its quantitative aspects through economic growth and its qualitative aspects through social and cultural change. Planning is needed, but it is effective only to the extent that it is applied to a known and controllable reality. The integration of population and development is still a poorly defined concept despite the fat the it has been a topic of interest for the past several decades. at least since the 1946 creation of the UN Population Commission. Development planning should begin with evaluation of the past and present economic, social, and demographic situation of the country and should include formulation of clear objectives. The Central African Republic is a hugh country with some significant resources but a fragile and underdeveloped economy. The population, estimated at nearly 3 million, is very unevenly distributed, with 1/2 million living in the capital of Bangui. Fertility and mortality are high. The Central African Republic has had multi year development plans since 1948, but they have largely consisted of collections of projects funded by external investment. In the absence of institutional mechanisms capable of defining priorities and strategies leading to concrete decisions, the plans remained excessively general and ambitious. Economic planning has improved somewhat over the years, but there is still a lack of basic economic and social data, a shortage of financial resources, and inadequate mechanisms for setting priorities and strategies for decision making. No mechanism has been developed for integrating population and development although some research and family planning activities have been undertaken. A 1980 national seminar on problems of development was attended by representatives of all sectors, and in 1981 a national team formulated guidelines for a new strategy of social development. Family planning services were added to the

  15. Health implications of transition from a planned to a free-market economy--an overview.

    PubMed

    Baillie, K

    2008-03-01

    China and the Former Soviet Union have both undergone substantial political and economic change in recent years as they began the transition from planned to more liberal market economies. The approaches to market liberalization in Russia (privatization in the minimum time) and China (gradual liberalization of prices and slow withdrawal of agricultural subsidies) were quite different. This paper examines some of the health implications associated with these changes, particularly in relation to the increasing burden of diet-related chronic diseases. The changing patterns of tobacco and alcohol use, increase in sedentary lifestyles and increased consumption of non-traditional, energy-dense processed foods, high in salt, fat and sugar are examined, as are the strategies used by foreign direct investors in these emerging markets to ensure market penetration, to gain a fuller understanding of how children and adults' choices of food are being influenced as a result of these socioeconomic changes. Some of the threats and opportunities facing Chinese and foreign food producers in these new conditions are assessed. It is suggested that to ensure successful prevention of future diet-related chronic diseases in such rapidly changing conditions, there needs to be a move beyond reliance solely on health education programmes and individual or local community-based interventions. A series of strategies involving multiple stakeholders should be considered as options for intervention.

  16. Training Plan Central Archive for Reusable Software (CARDS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-07

    TECHNOLOGY FOR ADAPTABLE, RELIABLE SYSTEMS (STARS) Training Plan Central Archive for Reusable Software (CARDS) STARS-AC-04101/001/00 07 July 1992 Data Type... Software Technology for Adaptable, Reliable Systems (STARS) program, is approved for release under Distribution "A" of the Scientific and Tech- nical...Course. Asset Source for Software Engineering Technology (ASSET), National Software Technology Repository. STARS Reuse Concept of Operation. Task US30

  17. Integrating planning and design optimization for thermal power generation in developing economies: Designs for Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, John Dinh Chuong

    In the twenty first century, global warming and climate change have become environmental issues worldwide. There is a need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from thermal power plants through improved efficiency. This need is shared by both developed and developing countries. It is particularly important in rapidly developing economies (for example, Vietnam, South Korea, and China) where there is very significant need to increase generation capacity. This thesis addresses improving thermal power plant efficiency through an improved planning process that emphasizes integrated design. With the integration of planning and design considerations of key components in thermal electrical generation, along with the selection of appropriate up-to-date technologies, greater efficiency and reduction of emissions could be achieved. The major barriers to the integration of overall power plant optimization are the practice of individual island tendering packages, and the lack of coordinating efforts between major original equipment manufacturers (OEM). This thesis assesses both operational and design aspects of thermal power plants to identify opportunities for energy saving and the associated reduction of CO2 emissions. To demonstrate the potential of the integrated planning design approach, three advanced thermal power plants, using anthracite coal, oil and gas as their respective fuel, were developed as a case study. The three plant formulations and simulations were performed with the cooperation of several leading companies in the power industry including Babcock & Wilcox, Siemens KWU, Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation, Hitachi, Alstom Air Preheater, TLT-Covent, and ABB Flakt. The first plant is a conventional W-Flame anthracite coal-fired unit for base load operation. The second is a supercritical oil-fired plant with advanced steam condition, for two shifting and cycling operations. The third plant is a gas-fired combined cycle unit employing a modern steam-cooled gas

  18. Clean Cities Strategic Planning White Paper: Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Saulsbury, Bo; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Greene, David; Gibson, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency of motor vehicles is critical to achieving national energy goals of reduced petroleum dependence, protecting the global climate, and promoting continued economic prosperity. Even with fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards and various economic incentives for clean and efficient vehicles, providing reliable and accurate fuel economy information to the public is important to achieving these goals. This white paper reviews the current status of light-duty vehicle fuel economy in the United States and the role of the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities Program in disseminating fuel economy information to the public.

  19. Management and development of land in the name of the Green Economy: planning, landscape, efficiency, biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Promoting sustainable economic development is the basis of the Green Economy: a new vision of Agriculture, Environmental and Regional policy, shared by the wine sector, especially on some crucial issues, such as reducing the consumption of agricultural land, recognition as economically important of the green agricultural production space, spreading of organic farming, adoption of good agricultural practices. Sustainability, in fact , is not just about the use of analysis tools (carbonfoot print, Waterfoot print, etc .) but is about innovations to be introduced in the entire production process, protection of biodiversity, ethic work in the vineyard and winery. It means to disseminate as much as possible all those practices that can enable a more efficient land management also considering the recent climate changes: introduction of agro-energy and precision agriculture, rational use of water resources, creation of an observatory on temperatures and an interactive mapping system, viticultural zoning and municipal planning to make concrete balance between vitality in agronomic sector and landscape quality. Realizing such a regional geopedological mapping about agricultural soil, will allow companies to display a real-time access to all the data needed for a sustainable management of the funds, not only it would be an important tool to support the technical choices of farmers, enhancing their potential and optimizing production in relation to the current climate crisis, but would have a strong impact in terms of managing and saving water and energy resources. A strong efficacy in this context should be recognized at the "Urban Regulation Plans of the Wine Cities", which have developed since 2007 on the base of the guidelines promoted by the Italian Association Città del Vino, in order to enhance the quality of wine districts. The foundations of this multidisciplinary tool are based on: • in-depth knowledge of the characteristics of the wine territory; • unity and

  20. Research on wastewater reuse planning in Beijing central region.

    PubMed

    Jia, H; Guo, R; Xin, K; Wang, J

    2005-01-01

    The need to implement wastewater reuse in Beijing is discussed. Based on the investigation of the built wastewater reuse projects in Beijing, the differences between small wastewater reuse system and large systems were analyzed according to the technical, economical and social issues. The advantages and disadvantages of the small system and the large system were then given. In wastewater reuse planning in Beijing urban region, the large system was adopted. The rations of reclaimed water for difference land use type, including industrial reuse, municipal reuse, grass irrigation, and scenes water reuse were determined. Then according to the land use information in every block in central Beijing, using GIS techniques, the amounts of the reclaimed water needed in every block were calculated, and the main pipe system of reclaimed water was planned.

  1. Test and evaluation plan for the Centralized Storm Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The installation of the Centralized Storm Information System (CSIS) at the NOAA operational complex in Kansas City, Missouri is described. This complex includes the National Severe Storms Forecast center and a Satellite Field Service Station which is denoted in this research plan as NSSFC. CSIS computers will act in concert to merge analyze the many data sets needed to forecast severe convective storms. Specific aspects of CSIS are evaluated against the CSIS objectives. The functions to be evaluated characterize the attributes of a generalized interactive computer system. A major development in the CSIS program will allow communication between CSIS and the NSSFC Eclipse computer.

  2. Changes in Chinese Education under Globalisation and Market Economy: Emerging Issues and Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao; Guo, Yan; Beckett, Gulbahar; Li, Qing; Guo, Linyuan

    2013-01-01

    Fuelled by forces of globalisation, China has gradually shifted from a centrally planned economy to the "socialist market economy". This study examines changes in Chinese education under globalisation and market economy, focusing on the teaching and living conditions of teachers. The study reveals that the profound transformation of…

  3. Changes in Chinese Education under Globalisation and Market Economy: Emerging Issues and Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao; Guo, Yan; Beckett, Gulbahar; Li, Qing; Guo, Linyuan

    2013-01-01

    Fuelled by forces of globalisation, China has gradually shifted from a centrally planned economy to the "socialist market economy". This study examines changes in Chinese education under globalisation and market economy, focusing on the teaching and living conditions of teachers. The study reveals that the profound transformation of…

  4. EPA and NHTSA, in Coordination with California, Announce Plans to Propose Greenhouse Gas and Fuel Economy Standards for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks Factsheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet announces the joint Supplemental Notice of Intent (NOI) by EPA and NHTSA on their plan to propose stringent federal greenhouse gas and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicles in model years 2017-2025.

  5. Planning for the 80's: Post Secondary Education and the Maine Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1982

    The Maine postsecondary education situation, the state's economy, and their interrelationships are considered. The analysis is based on interviews with leaders of Maine private enterprises, postsecondary institutions, professional and trade union organizations, and state government. An operational model for higher education and economic…

  6. Education for Dynamic Economies: Action Plan To Accelerate Progress towards Education for All (EFA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    The World Bank's development committee met and reviewed the paper, "Education for Dynamic Economies." The paper assessed progress and identified key issues and challenges in meeting the goals of universal primary education. It concluded that these goals were unlikely to be attained without accelerated action at the country level and a…

  7. Modeling Social Influence via Combined Centralized and Distributed Planning Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaccaro, James; Guest, Clark

    2010-01-01

    Real world events are driven by a mixture of both centralized and distributed control of individual agents based on their situational context and internal make up. For example, some people have partial allegiances to multiple, contradictory authorities, as well as to their own goals and principles. This can create a cognitive dissonance that can be exploited by an appropriately directed psychological influence operation (PSYOP). An Autonomous Dynamic Planning and Execution (ADP&E) approach is proposed for modeling both the unperturbed context as well as its reaction to various PSYOP interventions. As an illustrative example, the unrest surrounding the Iranian elections in the summer of 2009 is described in terms applicable to an ADP&E modeling approach. Aspects of the ADP&E modeling process are discussed to illustrate its application and advantages for this example.

  8. 77 FR 37328 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Central Indiana...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Central... its Central Indiana 1997 8-hour ozone maintenance air quality State Implementation Plan (SIP) by...'s Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES) emissions model. The Central Indiana 1997 8-hour...

  9. 75 FR 6696 - Draft Recovery Plan for Tidal Marsh Ecosystems of Northern and Central California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Recovery Plan for Tidal Marsh Ecosystems of Northern and Central... draft recovery plan for Tidal Marsh Ecosystems of Northern and Central California for public review and... Marsh Ecosystems of Northern and Central California features five endangered species. The biology of...

  10. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E; Franzese, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  11. 75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... Bureau of Reclamation developed and published the Criteria for Evaluating Water Management...

  12. Planned Parenthood of Central New Jersey v. Farmer.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    Court Decision: 762 Atlantic Reporter, 2d Series 620; 2000 Aug 15 (date of decision). The Supreme Court of New Jersey held that the state's Parental Notification for Abortion Act (Act) was unconstitutional because it violated the right to equal protection. Planned Parenthood of Central New Jersey brought an action to prohibit the enforcement of the Act. The New Jersey Supreme Court held that women, both minors and adults, have a fundamental right to decide whether to terminate their pregnancies. Although the state may impose restrictions on a minor's rights in an effort to protect the minor from her own immaturity, the Court found that the Act imposed restrictions on minors seeking abortions that it did not impose on minors seeking medical and surgical care relating to their pregnancies. The Act required parental notification for a minor seeking an abortion but did not require parental notification for a cesarean section, a considerably more difficult and complicated procedure. The court found there to be no substantial need for the Act and its distinction between the two classes of minors since "the state has recognized a minor's maturity in matters relating to her sexuality, reproductive decisions, substance-abuse treatment, and placing her children for adoption."

  13. A comparison of low cost satellite imagery for pastoral planning projects in Central Asia

    Treesearch

    Matthew Reeves; Donald J. Bedunah

    2006-01-01

    We discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of satellite data for rangeland planning in Central Asia, with our emphasis being on sources of low cost or free data. The availability and use the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) as a base map and tool for coordinated natural resource planning in Central Asia is discussed in...

  14. Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel-Economy-Program marketing plan. Final technical report, September 29, 1980-January 29, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the program is to improve the utilization of fuel by commercial trucks and buses by updating and implementing specific approaches for educating and monitoring the trucking industry on methods and means of conserving fuels. The following outlines the marketing plan projects: increase use of program logo by voluntary program members and others; solicit trade publication membership and support; brief Congressional delegations on fuel conservation efforts; increase voluntary program presence before trade groups; increase voluntary program presence at truck and trade shows; create a voluntary program display for use at trade shows and in other areas; review voluntary program graphics; increase voluntary program membership; and produce placemats carrying fuel conservation messages; produce a special edition of Fuel Economy News, emphasizing the driver's involvement in fuel conservation; produce posters carrying voluntary program fuel conservation message. Project objectives, activities, and results for each project are summarized.

  15. 75 FR 13081 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Notice of Intent to Prepare a Recovery Plan for Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... Intent to Prepare a Recovery Plan for Central California Coast Coho Salmon AGENCY: National Marine... Draft Recovery Plan for Central California Coast coho salmon (Draft Plan) is available for public review and comment. The Draft Plan addresses the Central California Coast coho salmon (Oncorhynchus...

  16. Spatial planning for a green economy: National-level hydrologic ecosystem services priority areas for Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Tallis, Heather; Cole, Aaron; Schill, Steven; Martin, Erik; Heiner, Michael; Paiz, Marie-Claire; Aldous, Allison; Apse, Colin; Nickel, Barry

    2017-01-01

    Rapidly developing countries contain both the bulk of intact natural areas and biodiversity, and the greatest untapped natural resource stocks, placing them at the forefront of “green” economic development opportunities. However, most lack scientific tools to create development plans that account for biodiversity and ecosystem services, diminishing the real potential to be sustainable. Existing methods focus on biodiversity and carbon priority areas across large geographies (e.g., countries, states/provinces), leaving out essential services associated with water supplies, among others. These hydrologic ecosystem services (HES) are especially absent from methods applied at large geographies and in data-limited contexts. Here, we present a novel, spatially explicit, and relatively simple methodology to identify countrywide HES priority areas. We applied our methodology to the Gabonese Republic, a country undergoing a major economic transformation under a governmental commitment to balance conservation and development goals. We present the first national-scale maps of HES priority areas across Gabon for erosion control, nutrient retention, and groundwater recharge. Priority sub-watersheds covered 44% of the country’s extent. Only 3% of the country was identified as a priority area for all HES simultaneously, highlighting the need to conserve different areas for each different hydrologic service. While spatial tradeoffs occur amongst HES, we identified synergies with two other conservation values, given that 66% of HES priority areas intersect regions of above average area-weighted (by sub-watersheds) total forest carbon stocks and 38% intersect with terrestrial national parks. Considering implications for development, we identified HES priority areas overlapping current or proposed major roads, forestry concessions, and active mining concessions, highlighting the need for proactive planning for avoidance areas and compensatory offsets to mitigate potential

  17. [Market economy, health economy?].

    PubMed

    De Wever, A

    2002-09-01

    After the definition of the economy and its different types, we have to stress the political economy which integrates pure economy and society. The economical science will gradually introduce the health economy of which the definition urges to seek for a better distribution between public and private means to do more and better for the public health. The market economy is different from the state economy. She is principally conducted by the supply and demand law. The consumer's behaviour in a competitive market has some characteristics which favour the balance of this market. The healthcare market put also a health supply and demand forward but not with the same values. The needs, the supply, the consumption and the consumer's behaviour are different in this particular market which quickly evolves and progressively goes closer to the market economy. Is the healthcare an economical good or duty? The choices' criteria and the priorities are changeable. The role of the valuation studies in health economy is to try to clarify them and to favour a better use of the limited resources to the unlimited needs.

  18. Franchise Plan. Central Archive for Reusable Defense Software (CARDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-28

    process that assesses the business requirements and the critical success factors necessary to facilitate reuse planning. The Requirements/Implementaton...reuse infrastructure development: Analysis Implementation Study 3.4 I 3.5 !4.3 II4.4 Plan Figure 2-2 Reuse Analysis Activities "* Business Requirements which...functions. [MAR90] The business requirements will be determined by assessing the organization’s goals, objectives, domain infrastructure and technology

  19. Basic Trends in the Relations between Educational Investment and National Economy in Our Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yining, Li

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study by 20 Chinese higher education institutions about educational finance. Compares the relationship between educational investment and per capita national income in 38 market economies and 3 centrally planned economies. Provides a formula that indicates the rate of increased funding necessary for educational reform in China. (CFR)

  20. Basic Trends in the Relations between Educational Investment and National Economy in Our Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yining, Li

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study by 20 Chinese higher education institutions about educational finance. Compares the relationship between educational investment and per capita national income in 38 market economies and 3 centrally planned economies. Provides a formula that indicates the rate of increased funding necessary for educational reform in China. (CFR)

  1. From Latifundia to Central Planning and Onward to Agribusiness: A Rejoinder to Joachim Singelmann's Presidential Address on "From Central Planning to Markets"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szelenyi, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's rejoinder to Joachim Singelmann's presidential address on "From Central Planning to Markets." Joachim Singelmann in his presidential address challenged the received wisdom: socialism was doomed to fail; during the market transition all of its basic institutions had to be abolished and replaced by the…

  2. From Latifundia to Central Planning and Onward to Agribusiness: A Rejoinder to Joachim Singelmann's Presidential Address on "From Central Planning to Markets"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szelenyi, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's rejoinder to Joachim Singelmann's presidential address on "From Central Planning to Markets." Joachim Singelmann in his presidential address challenged the received wisdom: socialism was doomed to fail; during the market transition all of its basic institutions had to be abolished and replaced by the…

  3. 76 FR 58840 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY... Refuge Water Management Plans (Refuge Criteria). Several entities have each developed a Refuge Water... requirements of these Refuge Criteria (see list in Supplementary Information below). Willow Creek Mutual...

  4. Centralized Alert-Processing and Asset Planning for Sensorwebs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Chien, Steve A.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Tang, Benyang

    2010-01-01

    A software program provides a Sensorweb architecture for alert-processing, event detection, asset allocation and planning, and visualization. It automatically tasks and re-tasks various types of assets such as satellites and robotic vehicles in response to alerts (fire, weather) extracted from various data sources, including low-level Webcam data. JPL has adapted cons iderable Sensorweb infrastructure that had been previously applied to NASA Earth Science applications. This NASA Earth Science Sensorweb has been in operational use since 2003, and has proven reliability of the Sensorweb technologies for robust event detection and autonomous response using space and ground assets. Unique features of the software include flexibility to a range of detection and tasking methods including those that require aggregation of data over spatial and temporal ranges, generality of the response structure to represent and implement a range of response campaigns, and the ability to respond rapidly.

  5. Centralized operations and maintenance planning at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Bernhard; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Guniat, Serge; Hernandez, Octavio; Gairing, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA consists of 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. Since the inauguration of the observatory back in March 2013 there has been a continuous effort to establish solid operations processes for effective and efficient management of technical and administrative tasks on site. Here a key aspect had been the centralized maintenance and operations planning: input is collected from science stakeholders, the computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) and from the technical teams spread around the world, then this information is analyzed and consolidated based on the established maintenance strategy, the observatory long-term plan and the short-term priorities definitions. This paper presents the high-level process that has been developed for the planning and scheduling of planned- and unplanned maintenance tasks, and for site operations like the telescope array reconfiguration campaigns. We focus on the centralized planning approach by presenting its genesis, its current implementation for the observatory operations including related planning products, and we explore the necessary next steps in order to fully achieve a comprehensive centralized planning approach for ALMA in steady-state operations.

  6. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module VII. Central Nervous System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on the central nervous system is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians. Four units of study are presented: (1) anatomy and physiology; (2) assessment of patients with neurological problems; (3) pathophysiology and management of neurological problems; (4)…

  7. Steelhead of the south-central/southern California coast: Population characterization for recovery planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boughton, David A.; Adams, P.B.; Anderson, E.; Fusaro, Craig; Keller, E.; Kelley, Elsie; Lentsch, Leo; Nielsen, J. L.; Perry, Katie; Regan, Helen; Swift, C.; Watson, Fred

    2006-01-01

    This report by the National Marine Fisheries Service applies a formal evaluation framework to the problem of delineating Oncorhynchus mykiss populations in the South-Central/Southern California Coast recovery domain, in support of recovery planning under the Endangered Species Act.

  8. A Needs Assessment Study for Long Range Planning. Central Arizona College at Signal Peak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Dale R.

    In an effort to gather information needed in the development of a five-year plan (1980-1985), Central Arizona College (CAC) conducted a survey in 1979 to determine: (1) the future educational needs of area high school students; (2) the courses, programs, and services desired by permanent area residents; (3) the training needs of area businesses;…

  9. A Needs Assessment Study for Long Range Planning. Central Arizona College at Signal Peak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Dale R.

    In an effort to gather information needed in the development of a five-year plan (1980-1985), Central Arizona College (CAC) conducted a survey in 1979 to determine: (1) the future educational needs of area high school students; (2) the courses, programs, and services desired by permanent area residents; (3) the training needs of area businesses;…

  10. 77 FR 64316 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan South-Central California Coast Steelhead...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... Plan South-Central California Coast Steelhead Distinct Population Segment AGENCY: National Marine...) (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Distinct Population (DPS). NMFS is soliciting review and comment from the public and all... soliciting relevant information on SCCC Steelhead DPS populations and their freshwater/marine habitats. In...

  11. An Investigation into the State of Status Planning of Tiv Language of Central Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terkimbi, Atonde

    2016-01-01

    The Tiv language is one of the major languages spoken in central Nigeria. The language is of the Benue-Congo subclass of the Bantu parent family. It has over four million speakers spoken in five states of Nigeria. The language like many other Nigerian languages is in dire need of language planning efforts and strategies. Some previous efforts were…

  12. Building a Knowledge Culture: An Education and Training Action Plan for the Information Economy, 2005-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA) Joint Statement on Education and Training in the Information Economy released in 2005 provides a national vision for improving education and training outcomes for all Australians through the ubiquitous use of information and communications technology (ICT). In…

  13. 76 FR 7228 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western and Central Planning Areas of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Central Planning Areas of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau...- 2017 oil and gas leasing proposals in the Western and Central Planning Areas of the GOM, off the States... Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017 in the draft proposed Outer Continental Shelf Oil and...

  14. Developing an effective succession plan for your practice: why should I care? Seven strategies to prosper in today's new economy.

    PubMed

    Maley, Catherine

    2010-02-01

    The recession of 2008-2009 dramatically changed the landscape of the aesthetic enhancement industry. Patients were no longer spending freely on cosmetic procedures as they once were, and aesthetic physicians felt the crunch-some a little and others a lot. This article reviews sound advice and strategies for what an aesthetic physician can do to survive and even flourish in today's new economy. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  15. [Diagnostic studies in the planning process of human resources: the Central American experience].

    PubMed

    de Canales, F; Martínez Chopen, O; Tercero Talavera, I; González, G

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the authors analyze various aspects of one of the essential stages in the process of planning human resources--diagnostic studies and research which will serve as a starting point. They stress the role of diagnostic personnel studies in formulating human resources policies and planning, and describe the phases to be followed in their execution, according to the results obtained in the three Central American countries (Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) in which the studies were completed. The paper concludes with a summary of the process in the three countries.

  16. 78 FR 52562 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Central Planning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease... socioeconomic analyses in the Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sales: 2012-2017; Western Planning Area Lease... Oil and Gas Lease Sales: 2013-2014; Western Planning Area Lease Sale 233; Central Planning Area...

  17. Central New York Library Resources Council CLRC Regional Digitization Plan. Final Report for the Preparing Central New York History for the Future LSTA Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sywetz, Betsy

    The primary goal for digitization projects sponsored by the Central New York Library Resources Council (CLRC) is enhanced access for the people of the region to digital resources created from collections in Central New York's libraries, archives and museums. The CLRC Digitization Plan provides a framework for the support of digitization activities…

  18. Understanding the conviction of Binayak Sen: Neocolonialism, political violence and the political economy of health in the central Indian tribal belt.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Jonathan J; King, Lawrence P

    2011-05-01

    The health of adivasis' (Scheduled Tribes or indigenous peoples) is far worse than the general Indian population. Binayak Sen, a renowned Indian public health practitioner, has worked with adivasis in central India for over thirty years. On Christmas Eve 2010 Sen was convicted of involvement with Maoist insurgents and sentenced to life in prison. Sen's conviction has been condemned by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, and medical journals such as The Lancet and the British Medical Journal are campaigning for his release. This short report addresses the apparently vexing question of how such a miscarriage of justice could happen to a well-reputed physician in a country that is widely referred to as 'the world's largest democracy'. Both Sen's conviction and the health crisis among adivasis in central India are symptoms of what Paul Farmer (2005) refers to as 'deeper pathologies of power'; specifically, the neocolonial political economy in which the state is very active in dispossessing adivasis but inactive in providing benevolent functions. Thus, the case demonstrates the manner in which public health is intimately related to social, economic and political processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The planning of pregnancy among low-income women in central Harlem.

    PubMed

    McCormick, M C; Brooks-Gunn, J; Shorter, T; Wallace, C Y; Holmes, J H; Heagarty, M C

    1987-01-01

    A planned pregnancy is considered desirable, in part because of the potential of a better pregnancy outcome. Since the improvement of pregnancy outcome is of particular relevance in low-income populations, we have compared the characteristics of women with planned and unplanned pregnancies in central Harlem with regard to those factors that might affect pregnancy planning such as sociodemographic factors, attitudes toward child-rearing, environmental stress, social support, and maternal mental health. Of the 416 women in the study, a minority (27%) reported their pregnancy as being planned. They differed from the remainder in being more likely to be married and/or living with a boyfriend or husband and to have been born outside New York City. The two groups did not differ in any other risk factor or in outcome in terms of birth weight and gestational age. The results provide little support for the lack of planning of pregnancy as an indicator of risk in a low-income population and suggest that improvement of perinatal outcome must involve more broadly based interventions that are not confined to the periconceptional period.

  20. Gallium-cladding compatibility testing plan: Phase 3 -- Test plan for centrally heated surrogate rodlet test. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.N.; Baldwin, C.A.; Wilson, D.F.

    1998-07-01

    The Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) is investigating the use of weapons grade plutonium in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for light-water reactors (LWR). Commercial MOX fuel has been successfully used in overseas reactors for many years; however, weapons derived fuel may differ from the previous commercial fuels because of small amounts of gallium impurities. A concern presently exists that the gallium may migrate out of the fuel, react with and weaken the clad, and thereby promote loss of fuel pin integrity. Phases 1 and 2 of the gallium task are presently underway to investigate the types of reactions that occur between gallium and clad materials. This is a Level-2 document as defined in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program Light-Water Reactor Mixed-Oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan. This Plan summarizes the projected Phase 3 Gallium-Cladding compatibility heating test and the follow-on post test examination (PTE). This work will be performed using centrally-heated surrogate pellets, to avoid unnecessary complexities and costs associated with working with plutonium and an irradiation environment. Two sets of rodlets containing pellets prepared by two different methods will be heated. Both sets will have an initial bulk gallium content of approximately 10 ppm. The major emphasis of the PTE task will be to examine the material interactions, particularly indications of gallium transport from the pellets to the clad.

  1. 77 FR 29682 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Central Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 216/222

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of a Record of Decision (ROD) on a Final... and Gas Lease Sale: 2012 Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sale 216/222 Authority: This NOA...

  2. The ends of uncertainty: Air quality science and planning in Central California

    SciTech Connect

    Fine, James

    2003-09-01

    Air quality planning in Central California is complicated and controversial despite millions of dollars invested to improve scientific understanding. This research describes and critiques the use of photochemical air quality simulation modeling studies in planning to attain standards for ground-level ozone in the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Joaquin Valley during the 1990's. Data are gathered through documents and interviews with planners, modelers, and policy-makers at public agencies and with representatives from the regulated and environmental communities. Interactions amongst organizations are diagramed to identify significant nodes of interaction. Dominant policy coalitions are described through narratives distinguished by their uses of and responses to uncertainty, their exposures to risks, and their responses to the principles of conservatism, civil duty, and caution. Policy narratives are delineated using aggregated respondent statements to describe and understand advocacy coalitions. I found that models impacted the planning process significantly, but were used not purely for their scientific capabilities. Modeling results provided justification for decisions based on other constraints and political considerations. Uncertainties were utilized opportunistically by stakeholders instead of managed explicitly. Ultimately, the process supported the partisan views of those in control of the modeling. Based on these findings, as well as a review of model uncertainty analysis capabilities, I recommend modifying the planning process to allow for the development and incorporation of uncertainty information, while addressing the need for inclusive and meaningful public participation. By documenting an actual air quality planning process these findings provide insights about the potential for using new scientific information and understanding to achieve environmental goals, most notably the analysis of uncertainties in modeling applications. Concurrently, needed

  3. Data evaluation plan for the 10 MWe solar thermal central receiver pilot plant power production phase

    SciTech Connect

    Radosevich, L.G.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes the planned data evaluation for the three-year Power Production Phase of the 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant near Barstow, California. The Power Production Phase, which began in August 1984, will demonstrate the operational capability of the plant to reliably supply electrical power to the utility grid. Data evaluation will be performed for design point and annual plant energy output; heliostat optical performance and mirror module corrosion; receiver tube life and absorber coating life; storage fluid degradation and storage tank thermal stresses; plant availability, operating procedures, and operating costs; and component reliability and maintenance costs. The objective, test needs, data needs, approach, expected output, and planned data dissemination are presented for each evaluation.

  4. Measurement, "scriptural economies," and social justice: governing HIV/AIDS treatments by numbers in a fragile state, the Central African Republic (CAR).

    PubMed

    David, Pierre-Marie

    2017-04-01

    Fragile states have been raising increasing concern among donors since the mid-2000s. The policies of the Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis (GF) have not excluded fragile states, and this source has provided financing for these countries according to standardized procedures. They represent interesting cases for exploring the meaning and role of measurement in a globalized context. Measurement in the field of HIV/AIDS and its treatment has given rise to a private outsourcing of expertise and auditing, thereby creating a new form of value based on the social process of registration and the creation of realities produced by the intervention itself. These "scriptural economies" must be questioned in terms of the production of knowledge, but also in terms of social justice. Governing HIV/AIDS treatments by numbers in a fragile state is explored in this article through the experience of the Central African Republic (CAR) in terms of epidemiology and access to antiretroviral drugs. The unexpected effects of performance-based programs in this context underline the need for global health governance to be re-embedded into a social justice framework.

  5. Technical Education as a Catalyst for the Local Economy: Retraining the Unemployed and Increasing Productivity through Intermural Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Warren H.

    This report examines two models used by North Central Technical College (NCTC) in Ohio to respond to technological and social changes affecting the training requirements of its service area. As a means of illustrating a post-factum, rehabilitative response to such change, Part I of the report describes the development and outcomes of NCTC's…

  6. Mapping Ecosystem Services for Land Use Planning, the Case of Central Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumarga, Elham; Hein, Lars

    2014-07-01

    Indonesia is subject to rapid land use change. One of the main causes for the conversion of land is the rapid expansion of the oil palm sector. Land use change involves a progressive loss of forest cover, with major impacts on biodiversity and global CO2 emissions. Ecosystem services have been proposed as a concept that would facilitate the identification of sustainable land management options, however, the scale of land conversion and its spatial diversity pose particular challenges in Indonesia. The objective of this paper is to analyze how ecosystem services can be mapped at the provincial scale, focusing on Central Kalimantan, and to examine how ecosystem services maps can be used for a land use planning. Central Kalimantan is subject to rapid deforestation including the loss of peatland forests and the provincial still lacks a comprehensive land use plan. We examine how seven key ecosystem services can be mapped and modeled at the provincial scale, using a variety of models, and how large scale ecosystem services maps can support the identification of options for sustainable expansion of palm oil production.

  7. Mapping ecosystem services for land use planning, the case of Central Kalimantan.

    PubMed

    Sumarga, Elham; Hein, Lars

    2014-07-01

    Indonesia is subject to rapid land use change. One of the main causes for the conversion of land is the rapid expansion of the oil palm sector. Land use change involves a progressive loss of forest cover, with major impacts on biodiversity and global CO2 emissions. Ecosystem services have been proposed as a concept that would facilitate the identification of sustainable land management options, however, the scale of land conversion and its spatial diversity pose particular challenges in Indonesia. The objective of this paper is to analyze how ecosystem services can be mapped at the provincial scale, focusing on Central Kalimantan, and to examine how ecosystem services maps can be used for a land use planning. Central Kalimantan is subject to rapid deforestation including the loss of peatland forests and the provincial still lacks a comprehensive land use plan. We examine how seven key ecosystem services can be mapped and modeled at the provincial scale, using a variety of models, and how large scale ecosystem services maps can support the identification of options for sustainable expansion of palm oil production.

  8. Gulf of Mexico Sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses two proposed Federal actions, lease Sales 142 and 143, that will offer for lease Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas that may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. The lease sales are proposed for 1993 and include lease blocks in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA). Up to 10,099 blocks will be available for lease under the two proposed actions; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. On average, 401 blocks in the Central Gulf and 264 blocks in the Western Gulf have been leased in individual Gulf of Mexico OCS lease sales since 1984. Of the blocks that will be leased as a result of the two proposed actions, only a portion will be drilled and result in subsequent production. The scoping process was used to obtain information and comments on the proposed actions and the potential environmental effects from diverse interests, including the affected States, Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals. The input from these sources aided in the identification of significant issues, possible alternatives to the proposed actions, and potential mitigating measures.

  9. Gulf of Mexico Sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses two proposed Federal actions, lease Sales 142 and 143, that will offer for lease Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas that may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. The lease sales are proposed for 1993 and include lease blocks in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA). Up to 10,099 blocks will be available for lease under the two proposed actions; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. On average, 401 blocks in the Central Gulf and 264 blocks in the Western Gulf have been leased in individual Gulf of Mexico OCS lease sales since 1984. Of the blocks that will be leased as a result of the two proposed actions, only a portion will be drilled and result in subsequent production. The scoping process was used to obtain information and comments on the proposed actions and the potential environmental effects from diverse interests, including the affected States, Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals. This volume, Volume 2, reports on impacts from Sales 142 and 143.

  10. Ecosystem services from a degraded peatland of Central Kalimantan: implications for policy, planning, and management.

    PubMed

    Law, Elizabeth A; Bryan, Bretr A; Meijaard, Erik; Mallawaarachchi, Thilak; Struebig, Matthew; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, landscapes are managed for multiple objectives to balance social, economic, and environmental goals. The Ex-Mega Rice Project (EMRP) peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia provides a timely example with globally significant development, carbon, and biodiversity concerns. To inform future policy, planning, and management in the EMRP, we quantified and mapped ecosystem service values, assessed their spatial interactions, and evaluated the potential provision of ecosystem services under future land-use scenarios. We focus on key policy-relevant regulating (carbon stocks and the potential for emissions reduction), provisioning (timber, crops from smallholder agriculture, palm oil), and supporting (biodiversity) services. We found that implementation of existing land-use plans has the potential to improve total ecosystem service provision. We identify a number of significant inefficiencies, trade-offs, and unintended outcomes that may arise. For example, the potential development of existing palm oil concessions over one-third of the region may shift smallholder agriculture into low-productivity regions and substantially impact carbon and biodiversity outcomes. While improved management of conservation zones may enhance the protection of carbon stocks, not all biodiversity features will be represented, and there will be a reduction in timber harvesting and agricultural production. This study highlights how ecosystem service analyses can be structured to better inform policy, planning, and management in globally significant but data-poor regions.

  11. Robustness and closeness centrality for self-organized and planned cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolo Masucci, A.; Molinero, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Street networks are important infrastructural transportation systems that cover a great part of the planet. It is now widely accepted that transportation properties of street networks are better understood in the interplay between the street network itself and the so-called information or dual network, which embeds the topology of the street network's navigation system. In this work, we present a novel robustness analysis, based on the interaction between the primal and the dual transportation layer for two large metropolises, London and Chicago, thus considering the structural differences to intentional attacks for self-organized and planned cities. We elaborate the results through an accurate closeness centrality analysis in the Euclidean space and in the relationship between primal and dual space. Interestingly enough, we find that even if the considered planar graphs display very distinct properties, the information space induce them to converge toward systems which are similar in terms of transportation properties.

  12. Corrective action investigation plan for Central Nevada Test Area CAU No. 417

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of a US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded environmental investigation of the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The CNTA is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, adjacent to US Highway 6, about 15 kilometers (10 miles) northeast of Warm Springs. The CNTA was the site of Project Faultless, a nuclear device detonated in the subsurface by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in January 1968. The purpose of this test was to gauge the seismic effects of relatively large, high-yield detonations completed outside of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test was also used to determine the suitability of the site for future large detonations. The yield of the Faultless test was between 200 kilotons and 1 megaton (DOE, 1994c).

  13. Fluid Management Plan Central Nevada Test Area Corrective Action Unit 443

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office initiated the Offsites Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing at sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. Responsibility for environmental restoration of the sites that constitute the Offsites Project was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to the DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) on October 1, 2006. The scope of this Fluid Management Plan (FMP) is to support subsurface investigations at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996). The subsurface CAU 443 is associated with the underground nuclear testing conducted at UC-1 and is located approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada.

  14. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. Campbell

    2000-04-01

    This Corrective Action Plan provides methods for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 (DOE/NV, 1999). The CNTA is located in the Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, approximately 137 kilometers (85 miles) northeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CNTA consists of three separate land withdrawal areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, all of which are accessible to the public. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Results of the investigation activities completed in 1998 are presented in Appendix D of the Corrective Action Decision Document (DOE/NV, 1999). According to the results, the only Constituent of Concern at the CNTA is total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Of the 34 CASs, corrective action was proposed for 16 sites in 13 CASs. In fiscal year 1999, a Phase I Work Plan was prepared for the construction of a cover on the UC-4 Mud Pit C to gather information on cover constructibility and to perform site management activities. With Nevada Division of Environmental Protection concurrence, the Phase I field activities began in August 1999. A multi-layered cover using a Geosynthetic Clay Liner as an infiltration barrier was constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit. Some TPH impacted material was relocated, concrete monuments were installed at nine sites, signs warning of site conditions were posted at seven sites, and subsidence markers were installed on the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover. Results from the field activities indicated that the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover design was constructable and could be used at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP). However, because of the size of the UC-1 CMP this design would be extremely costly. An alternative cover design, a vegetated cover, is proposed for the UC-1 CMP.

  15. Gulf of Mexico Sales 139 and 141: Central and western planning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses two proposed Federal actions, lease Sales 139 and 141, that will offer for lease Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas that may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. The lease sales are proposed for 1992 and include lease blocks in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA). Approximately 9700 blocks will be available for lease under the two proposed actions; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. On average, 432 blocks in the Central Gulf and 279 blocks in the Western Gulf have been leased in individual Gulf of Mexico OCS lease sales since 1984. Of the blocks that will be leased as a result of the two proposed actions, only a portion will be drilled and will likely result in subsequent production. The analytical methods used in this EIS have been formulated over a period of years and are based on the methodology outlined within the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The first step of the analysis is the identification of significant environmental and socioeconomic resources through the scoping process. A range of impact levels is then defined for each of the significant resources to be analyzed. A range of energy resource estimates is derived from geologic and economic assumptions and a range of alternatives to the proposed action is established. Estimated levels of exploration and development actively are assumed for the purposes of the analysis. A scoping process was used to obtain information and comments on the proposed actions and the potential environmental effects from diverse interests, including the affected States, Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals.

  16. TREATABILITY TEST PLAN FOR DEEP VADOSE ZONE REMEDIATION AT THE HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW; MORSE JG; TRUEX MJ; LAST GV

    2007-11-29

    A treatability test plan has been prepared to address options for remediating portions of the deep vadose zone beneath a portion of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The vadose zone is the region of the subsurface that extends from the ground surface to the water table. The overriding objective of the treatability test plan is to recommend specific remediation technologies and laboratory and field tests to support the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 remedial decision-making process in the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site. Most of the technologies considered involve removing water from the vadose zone or immobilizing the contaminants to reduce the risk of contaminating groundwater. A multi-element approach to initial treatability testing is recommended, with the goal of providing the information needed to evaluate candidate technologies. The proposed tests focus on mitigating two contaminants--uranium and technetium. Specific technologies are recommended for testing at areas that may affect groundwater in the future, but a strategy to test other technologies is also presented.

  17. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for central lung tumors: Plan quality and long-term clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tekatli, Hilâl; Senan, Suresh; Dahele, Max; Slotman, Ben J; Verbakel, Wilko F A R

    2015-10-01

    Central lung SABR is less established due to toxicity concerns. We describe plan quality and clinical outcomes for patients treated with VMAT SABR using 8×7.5Gy. We studied 80 consecutive patients with primary NSCLC and PTV ⩽2cm from the proximal bronchial tree (PBT), treated between 2008 and 2013. Dosimetric data were compared with institutional guidelines and study protocols, and long-term clinical outcomes were analyzed. PTV V95% was 60Gy in 96% of patients. Dmax was ⩾60Gy in 40% of patients for PBT, 26.3% for aorta, 55% for heart, and 1.3% for trachea. Esophageal maximum Dmax was 58Gy. Mean lung V5Gy/V20Gy was 21/8%. 54 patients (68%) exceeded RTOG0813 Dmax for ⩾1 organ-at-risk (OAR), with 27 exceeding PBT Dmax. 5 of 78 patients (6.4%) with adequate follow-up information had grade 3 toxicity. Grade 4 toxicity was not observed. Treatment-related death was considered possible (n=3) or likely (n=3) in 6 patients (7.5%). With median follow-up of 47months, 3-year survival was 53%, compared with 57% for 252 peripheral tumors treated with 3/5-fractions SABR in the same period (p=0.369). Although a substantial proportion of central SABR patients received ⩾60Gy to OARs, the 3-year survival was no different from peripheral SABR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Guidelines for Establishing and Maintaining Token Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Brenda Smith; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The following stages in planning a token economy with students having behavior problems are discussed: (1) identifying target behaviors; (2) specifying and selecting reinforcers; (3) identifying token types and schedules; (4) planning token distribution and redemption; (5) initiating and implementing the token economy system; and (6) planning…

  19. Overall Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that they provide. So, to project employment, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) starts by projecting the gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the…

  20. Overall Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that these workers provide. So, to project employment, BLS starts by estimating the components of gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the size--in…

  1. 77 FR 31037 - Outer Continental Shelf, Central and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Areas, Oil and Gas Lease...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 101 (Thursday, May 24, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 31037-31038] [FR Doc No: 2012-12664] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf, Central and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Areas, Oil and Gas Lease Sales for Years 2012-2017...

  2. 78 FR 36571 - Extension of Post-Sale Evaluation Period for Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area Lease Sale 227

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Extension of Post-Sale Evaluation Period for Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area Lease Sale 227 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice to...-2710. Dated: June 11, 2013. Walter D. Cruickshank, Deputy Director, Bureau of Ocean and...

  3. 77 FR 59223 - Extension of Post-Sale Evaluation Period for Consolidated Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... of Mexico Planning Area Lease Sale 216/222 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior... 216/222. BOEM will complete the evaluation process for all bids received in this sale by October 18... Consolidated Central Gulf of Mexico Lease Sale 216/222, held June 20, 2012, BOEM received 593 bids on...

  4. Corrective action investigation plan for Central Nevada Test Area, CAU No. 417

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of a US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded environmental investigation of the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). This CAIP addresses the surface investigation and characterization of 15 identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs). In addition, several other areas of the CNTA project area have surface expressions that may warrant investigation. These suspect areas will be characterized, if necessary, in subsequent CAIPs or addendums to this CAIP prepared to address these sites. This CAIP addresses only the 15 identified CASs as shown in Table 2-1 that are associated with the drilling and construction of a number of testing wells designed as part of an underground nuclear testing program. The purpose of the wells at the time of construction was to provide subsurface access for the emplacement, testing, and post detonation evaluations of underground nuclear devices. If contamination is found at any of the 15-surface CASs, the extent of contamination will be determined in order to develop an appropriate corrective action.

  5. Statistical prediction of seasonal discharge in the Naryn basin for water resources planning in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Gafurov, Abror; Gerlitz, Lars; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merkushkin, Aleksandr; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid regions of Central Asia crucially depend on the water resources supplied by the mountainous areas of the Tien-Shan and Pamirs. During the summer months the snow and glacier melt water of the rivers originating in the mountains provides the only water resource available for agricultural production but also for water collection in reservoirs for energy production in winter months. Thus a reliable seasonal forecast of the water resources is crucial for a sustainable management and planning of water resources.. In fact, seasonal forecasts are mandatory tasks of national hydro-meteorological services in the region. Thus this study aims at a statistical forecast of the seasonal water availability, whereas the focus is put on the usage of freely available data in order to facilitate an operational use without data access limitations. The study takes the Naryn basin as a test case, at which outlet the Toktogul reservoir stores the discharge of the Naryn River. As most of the water originates form snow and glacier melt, a statistical forecast model should use data sets that can serve as proxy data for the snow masses and snow water equivalent in late spring, which essentially determines the bulk of the seasonal discharge. CRU climate data describing the precipitation and temperature in the basin during winter and spring was used as base information, which was complemented by MODIS snow cover data processed through ModSnow tool, discharge during the spring and also GRACE gravimetry anomalies. For the construction of linear forecast models monthly as well as multi-monthly means over the period January to April were used to predict the seasonal mean discharge of May-September at the station Uchterek. An automatic model selection was performed in multiple steps, whereas the best models were selected according to several performance measures and their robustness in a leave-one-out cross validation. It could be shown that the seasonal discharge can be predicted with

  6. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Michael G.

    2016-09-23

    This quality assurance project plan describes the technical requirements and quality assurance activities of the environmental data collection/analyses operations to close Central Facilities Area Sewage treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and the land application area. It describes the organization and persons involved, the data quality objectives, the analytical procedures, and the specific quality control measures to be employed. All quality assurance project plan activities are implemented to determine whether the results of the sampling and monitoring performed are of the right type, quantity, and quality to satisfy the requirements for closing Lagoon 3 and the land application area.

  7. 78 FR 35957 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Central Yukon Planning Area Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Framework Plan. Additionally, the RMP will cover lands in the Fairbanks North Star Borough that are... mining on fish and aquatic habitats; opening lands to new mineral entry; disposal of mineral material... governments; 7. The BLM will consider Department of the Interior guidance, Alaska Department of Fish and...

  8. Entrepreneurial and Vocational Education and Training: Lessons from Eastern and Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Jay; Matlay, Harry

    2004-01-01

    The social, economic and political systems of former communist countries have faced considerable changes since the late 1980s. Most countries in Eastern and Central Europe have undergone their own individual brand of transition from a centrally planned, command system to a more or less liberalized, Western-style market economy. Many observers…

  9. 77 FR 64544 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Dorado Irrigation District Lower Tule River Irrigation District City of Roseville East Bay Municipal... Irrigation District Porterville Irrigation District To meet the requirements of the Central Valley Project...

  10. 2 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - State/Local-Wide Central Service Cost Allocation Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Allocation Plans C Appendix C to Part 225 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR... “major local government” by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is also required to submit a plan...

  11. 2 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - State/Local-Wide Central Service Cost Allocation Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Allocation Plans C Appendix C to Part 225 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR... “major local government” by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is also required to submit a plan...

  12. 2 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - State/Local-Wide Central Service Cost Allocation Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Allocation Plans C Appendix C to Part 225 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR... “major local government” by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is also required to submit a plan...

  13. Nuclides Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-07-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  14. Policies, programs, and public participation: Environmental and occupational health in the emerging market economies and democracies of central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, B.S.; Levenstein, C.

    1993-12-31

    The report focuses on material presented at the Third Annual Symposium. The topics considered at this conference included policies and programs in Poland, in other countries in Europe, and in the United States; market economies and democratic political systems including reports on market forces and environmental health, and public participation, democracy in action; methods and applications; studies of environmental contamination and health; and studies of social factors and health. Based on the information given at the conference, the general conclusions were that there is a need to establish new working relationships and strengthen existing ones, to develop and provide educational and informational programs and materials, to find ways to balance environmental protection and economic development, to strengthen democratic institutions and processes, and to undertake new policy initiatives.

  15. 78 FR 63491 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... available for review: Westside Water District Stone Corral Water District Dunnigan Irrigation District Montecito Water District Lindmore Water District Exeter Irrigation District Ivanhoe Irrigation District Saucelito Irrigation District Westlands Water District To meet the requirements of the Central Valley...

  16. 76 FR 12756 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... available for review: Truckee-Carson Irrigation District. Goleta Water District. Delano-Earlimart Irrigation District. Feather Irrigation District. To meet the requirements of the Central Valley Project Improvement...

  17. Practical Token Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackerby, W. F.

    1988-01-01

    The article discusses special considerations in applying standard token economy techniques to behavior change with the head injured with examples of token economies at three rehabilitation facilities. (DB)

  18. Central station applications planning activities and supporting studies. [application of photovoltaic technology to power generation plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, S. L.; Siegel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The application of photovoltaic technology in central station (utility) power generation plants is considered. A program of data collection and analysis designed to provide additional information about the subset of the utility market that was identified as the initial target for photovoltaic penetration, the oil-dependent utilities (especially muncipals) of the U.S. Sunbelt, is described along with a series of interviews designed to ascertain utility industry opinions about the National Photovoltaic Program as it relates to central station applications.

  19. Antimatter Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  20. ARAC: a centralized computer assisted emergency planning, response, and assessment system for atmospheric releases of toxic material

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Knox, J.B.

    1986-10-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is an emergency planning, response, and assessment service, developed by the US Departments of Energy and Defense, and focused, thus far, on atmospheric releases of nuclear material. For the past 14 years ARAC has responded to over 150 accidents, potential accidents, and major exercises. The most notable accident responses are the COSMOS 954 reentry, the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) accident and subsequent purge of /sup 85/Kr from the containment vessel, the recent UF/sub 6/ accident at the Kerr-McGee Plant, Gore, Oklahoma, and the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union. Based on experience in the area of emergency response, developed during the past 14 years, this paper describes the cost effectiveness and other advantages of a centralized emergency planning, response, and assessment service for atmospheric releases of nuclear material.

  1. Time perspective and the theory of planned behavior: moderate predictors of physical activity among central Appalachian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gulley, Tauna; Boggs, Dusta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how well time perspective and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predicted physical activity among adolescents residing in the central Appalachian region of the United States. A descriptive, correlational design was used. The setting was a rural high school in central Appalachia. The sample included 185 students in grades 9 through 12. Data were collected in school. Variables included components of the TPB, time perspective, and various levels of exercise. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The TPB was a moderate predictor of exercise frequency among central Appalachian adolescents, accounting for 42% of the variance. Time perspective did not add to the predictive ability of the TPB to predict exercise frequency in this sample. This study provides support for the TPB for predicting frequency of exercise among central Appalachian adolescents. By understanding the role of the TPB in predicting physical activity among adolescents, nurse practitioners will be able to adapt intervention strategies to improve the physical activity behaviors of this population. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Evans

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the subsurface at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443, CNTA - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). CAU 443 is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, north of U.S. Highway 6, about 48 kilometers north of Warm Springs, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the corrective action plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for the UC-1 Cavity (Corrective Action Site 58-57-001) at CAU 443, as provided in the FFACO. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. A Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) was performed in several stages from 1999 to 2003, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Sites (Corrective Action Unit No. 443)'' (DOE/NV, 1999). Groundwater modeling was the primary activity of the CAI. Three phases of modeling were conducted for the Faultless underground nuclear test. The first involved the gathering and interpretation of geologic and hydrogeologic data into a three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow, and use of the output of the flow model for a transport model of radionuclide release

  3. University of Central Florida Work Plan Presentation for 2012-13 Board of Governors Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The State University System of Florida has developed three tools that aid in guiding the System's future: (1) The Board of Governors' new "Strategic Plan 2012-2025" is driven by goals and associated metrics that stake out where the System is headed; (2) The Board's "Annual Accountability Report" provides yearly tracking for how…

  4. University of Central Florida Work Plan Presentation for 2013-14 Board of Governors Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The State University System of Florida has developed three tools that aid in guiding the System's future: (1) The Board of Governors' new "Strategic Plan 2012-2025" is driven by goals and associated metrics that stake out where the System is headed; (2) The Board's "Annual Accountability Report" provides yearly tracking for how…

  5. University of Central Florida Work Plan Presentation for 2014-15 Board of Governors Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The State University System of Florida has developed three tools that aid in guiding the System's future: (1) The Board of Governors' new "Strategic Plan 2012-2025" is driven by goals and associated metrics that stake out where the System is headed; (2) The Board's "Annual Accountability Report" provides yearly tracking for how…

  6. A Planning Model for Post-Secondary Education in West Central Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuch, Peter Jacob

    This study presents a methodology for planning the efficient development of the educational infrastructure in a region. It is primarily concerned with solving the problem of how one allocates an exogenously fixed set of resources among different educational programs. In addition it deals with such related issues as: How does one choose among…

  7. A Planning Model for Post-Secondary Education in West Central Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuch, Peter Jacob

    This study presents a methodology for planning the efficient development of the educational infrastructure in a region. It is primarily concerned with solving the problem of how one allocates an exogenously fixed set of resources among different educational programs. In addition it deals with such related issues as: How does one choose among…

  8. Y-12 centralized sanitary landfill II closure/post-closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-24

    The following text details closure and post-closure activities to be conducted at the Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II, a landfill for nonhazardous and nonradioactive wastes. This report describes containment, drainage, groundwater monitoring, methane gas monitoring costs, and quality assurance.

  9. Y-12 centralized sanitary landfill II closure/post-closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-24

    The following text details closure and post-closure activities to be conducted at the Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II, a landfill for nonhazardous and nonradioactive wastes. This report describes containment, drainage, groundwater monitoring, methane gas monitoring costs, and quality assurance.

  10. Developing Tsunami Evacuation Plans, Maps, And Procedures: Pilot Project in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcos, N. P.; Kong, L. S. L.; Arcas, D.; Aliaga, B.; Coetzee, D.; Leonard, J.

    2015-12-01

    In the End-to-End tsunami warning chain, once a forecast is provided and a warning alert issued, communities must know what to do and where to go. The 'where to' answer would be reliable and practical community-level tsunami evacuation maps. Following the Exercise Pacific Wave 2011, a questionnaire was sent to the 46 Member States of Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWS). The results revealed over 42 percent of Member States lacked tsunami mass coastal evacuation plans. Additionally, a significant gap in mapping was exposed as over 55 percent of Member States lacked tsunami evacuation maps, routes, signs and assembly points. Thereby, a significant portion of countries in the Pacific lack appropriate tsunami planning and mapping for their at-risk coastal communities. While a variety of tools exist to establish tsunami inundation areas, these are inconsistent while a methodology has not been developed to assist countries develop tsunami evacuation maps, plans, and procedures. The International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC) and partners is leading a Pilot Project in Honduras demonstrating that globally standardized tools and methodologies can be applied by a country, with minimal tsunami warning and mitigation resources, towards the determination of tsunami inundation areas and subsequently community-owned tsunami evacuation maps and plans for at-risk communities. The Pilot involves a 1- to 2-year long process centered on a series of linked tsunami training workshops on: evacuation planning, evacuation map development, inundation modeling and map creation, tsunami warning & emergency response Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), and conducting tsunami exercises (including evacuation). The Pilot's completion is capped with a UNESCO/IOC document so that other countries can replicate the process in their tsunami-prone communities.

  11. Radiation processing and market economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagórski, Z. P.

    1998-06-01

    In the system of totalitarian economy, regulated by bureaucracy, the real value of equipment, materials and services is almost completely unknown, what makes impossible the comparison of different technologies, eliminates competition, disturbs research and development. With introduction of market economy in Central and Eastern Europe, the radiation processing has lost doubtful support, becoming an independent business, subject to laws of free market economy. Only the most valuable objects of processing have survived that test. At the top of the list are: radiation sterilization of medical equipment and radiation induced crosslinking of polymers, polyethylene in particular. New elements of competition has entered the scene, as well as questions of international regulations and standards have appeared.

  12. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Appendix A, cluster working group initiative business plans

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The business and community leaders who participated in a four-month long series of working groups developed business plans for initiatives which would lead to further growth and competitiveness of each of the industrial clusters. This appendix contains those business plans as they stood at the end of the working group session mid-September, 1995.

  13. The real new economy.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments.

  14. Assessing the value of the Central Everglades Planning Project (CEPP) in Everglades restoration: an ecosystem service approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Leslie A.; Keefe, Kelly; Huber, Christopher C.; Racevskis, Laila; Gregg, Reynolds; Thourot, Scott; Miller, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies a full range of ecosystem services that could be affected by a restoration project in the central Everglades and monetizes the economic value of a subset of these services using existing data. Findings suggest that the project will potentially increase many ecosystem services that have considerable economic value to society. The ecosystem services monetized within the scope of this study are a subset of the difference between the future-with the Central Everglades Planning Project (CEPP) and the future-without CEPP, and they totaled ~ $1.8 billion USD at a 2.5% discount rate. Findings suggest that the use of ecosystem services in project planning and communications may require acknowledgment of the difficulty of monetizing important services and the limitations associated with using only existing data and models. Results of this study highlight the need for additional valuation efforts in this region, focused on those services that are likely to be impacted by restoration activities but were notably challenging to value in this assessment due to shortages of data.

  15. Conceptual design and analysis of a 100-MWe line focus solar central power plant. Test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Semmens, M. G.; Fong, A.; Collaros, G. J.; Dascher, R. E.; Grassberger, R. E.; Griego, D. B.; Suteber, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    Plans for a test program are presented whose objectives are: to verify the overall efficiency of a linear parabolic trough solar collector with varied receiver tube subsystem configurations; to compare surface temperatures, and efficiency values to derived values from an analytical model; and to identify the optimal receivr tube and annulus combination as determined by economical, optical, and thermal efficiency. The test facility to be used is described with the aid ofnumerous photographs. The range in conditions under which testing is to be done is briefly described. The instrumentation and measurement plans for the tests are described, and include thermal, flow, and meteorological data. Th data acquisition and processing system is outlined. Means are discussed for calculating efficiency and thermal loss, and requirements for statistical data are given. The test schedule is diagrammed and discussed. (LEW)

  16. Planning Considerations for a Future Operational Campaign in NATO’s Central Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-31

    scale military operations. At the same time, many of these alternatives are not covered by extant military plans and NATO planners will face a tabula ... rasa from which to draw guidance. Moreover, many of these options fall outside traditional military missions or do not lend themselves strictly to the...systems and information, logistics capabilities, or transportation assets. On the other hand, if the United States desires a more positive role in the

  17. Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuokkanen, Rauna

    2011-01-01

    The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

  18. Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuokkanen, Rauna

    2011-01-01

    The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

  19. Multiple Natural Hazards Assessment and Comparison to Planned Land Use in an Andean Touristic Site within the Riskscape Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Andreas; Jaque Castillo, Edilia

    2017-04-01

    The Andes of central Chile are a natural environment characterized by multiple natural hazards (mass movements, volcanic hazards, seismic hazards, snow avalanches to name a few). The totality of these hazards, according to the notion of Müller-Mahn et al. an in relation to vulnerable entities, spans a riskscape. Spatial planning should take this riskscape into account in order to ensure a save an resilient regional development. However, as frequently observed in developing or newly developed countries, such precaution measures are only hardly realized. Spatial planing tends to be reactive to private inversion, opportunistic and frequently clientelistic. This results in spatial structures whose future development is vulnerable to natural disasters. The contribution analyses these circumstances within a riskscape in central Chile. Within the VIII. Region, close to the volcanic complex Nevados de Chillan, a touristic development around a Hotel for winter sports is established. However, the place is affected by a multitude of natural hazards. The contribution, on the basis of primary and secondary data, first provides hazard maps for several natural hazards. Secondly, the individual hazard maps are merged to an overall hazard map. This overall hazard map is related to the vulnerable entities to span a riskscape. The vulnerable entities are settlements, but also tourist infrastructures. Then, the contribution compares how a precautions spatial planning could have avoided putting vulnerable entities at risk, which spatial structure - especially regarding tourism - is actually found and which challenges for spatial development do exist. It reveals that the most important tourist infrastructures are found particularly at places, characterized by a high overall hazard. Furthermore, it will show that alternatives at economically equally attractive sites, but with a much smaller overall hazard, would have existed. It concludes by discussing possible reasons for this by

  20. Utility researchers plan future - with our money: EPRI's drive for centralized power, synfuels, and more nukes

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, A.

    1981-06-01

    Research efforts by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) focus on synfuels, coal, and nuclear energy at the expense of renewable energy sources and regulations to protect safety and the environment. EPRI is accused of pursuing industry profits, downgrading regulations, and centralized power. Evidence for these accusations is drawn from the EPRI budget, memos, and EPRI studies on nuclear projects, renewables, fuel cells, and battery technology. Funds have been diverted to alternative research programs in two states, but EPRI commands about $2.60 per year from each utility customer for its $260 million (1980) budget, which funds the industry's major research effort. (DCK)

  1. Virtual Planning at Work: A Tour of NASA Future Flight Central

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClenahen, Jim; Dorighi, Nancy S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    FutureFlight Central will permit integration of tomorrow's technologies in a risk-free simulation of any airport, airfield, and tower cab environment. The facility provides an opportunity for airlines to mitigate passenger delays by fine tuning airport hub operations, gate management and ramp movement procedures. It also allows airport managers an opportunity to study effects of various improvements at their airports. Finally, it enables air traffic controllers to provide feedback and to become familiar with new airport operations and technologies before final installation.

  2. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Ahmed E.

    2003-09-01

    This report discusses the long-term monitoring strategy developed for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), where the Faultless underground nuclear test was conducted. It includes a thorough literature review of monitoring well network design. A multi-staged approach for development of the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA is proposed, incorporating a number of issues, including uncertainty of the subsurface environment, cost, selection of well locations, etc. The first stage is to use hydrogeologic expertise combined with model simulations and probability based approaches to select the first set of monitoring wells. The second stage will be based on an optimum design methodology that uses a suitable statistical approach, combined with an optimization approach, to augment the initial set of wells and develop the final long-term monitoring network.

  3. Pediatric Sarcoma in Central America: Outcomes, Challenges and Plans for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Paola; Ortiz, Roberta; Strait, Kelly; Fuentes, Soad; Gamboa, Yéssica; Arambú, Ingrid; Ah-Chu-Sanchez, María; London, Wendy; Rodríguez-Galindo, Carlos; Antillón-Klussmann, Federico; Báez, Fulgencio

    2012-01-01

    Background Children with cancer in middle-income countries have inferior outcomes to those in high-income countries. The magnitude and drivers for this survival gap are not well understood. We sought to describe patterns of clinical presentation, magnitude of treatment abandonment, and survival in children with sarcoma in Central America. Methods Retrospective review of hospital-based registries from national pediatric oncology referral centers. Patients with newly diagnosed osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma (Ewing), rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), and soft tissue sarcomas (STS) between 1/1/00-12/31/09 were included. Survival analysis was performed using standard definitions of overall and event-free survival (OS and EFS) and with abandonment included as an event (AOS and AEFS). Results A total of 785 new cases of pediatric sarcoma were reported (264 osteosarcoma, 175 Ewing, 240 RMS, and 106 STS). Metastatic disease at presentation was high (osteosarcoma 38%, Ewing 39%, RMS 29% and STS 21%). Treatment abandonment rate was high, particularly among patients with extremity bone sarcomas (osteosarcoma 30%, Ewing 15%, RMS 25% and STS 15%). Of 559 patients experiencing a first event, 59% had either relapse or progressive disease. The 4-year OS was 40% (SE±3%) and EFS was 30% (SE±2%), but further decreased to 31% (SE±2%) and 24% (SE±2%), when abandonment was taken into account. Conclusion High rate of metastases and treatment abandonment, and difficulty with upfront treatment effectiveness are important contributors to poor survival of children with pediatric sarcomas in Central America. Initiatives for early diagnosis, psychosocial support, quality improvement, and multidisciplinary care are warranted to improve outcomes. PMID:22972687

  4. Preliminary results of MARECS-A measurements in Central Maryland and plans for 1988 MSS experiment in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius

    1988-01-01

    Past and future efforts are described, using L Band (1.5 GHz) satellite signals for mobile satellite system (MSS) propagation measurements. Preliminary results from the December 1987 campaign in Central Maryland with the Atlantic Ocean MARECS satellite are given. The fade level statistics from this 22 degree elevation source are consistent with helicopter measurements made along the same roads. The day to day repeatability of the fade probabilities is shown to be usually better than about 20 percent. An experiment plan is presented for measurements using the Experimental Test Satellite-V's (ETS-V's) southern beam. These measurements will be made in Australia in collaboration with Australia's National Satellite System (AUSSAT) during the July/August 1988 time-frame.

  5. Understanding the New Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  6. The next stage in the health care economy: aligning the interests of patients, providers, and third-party payers through consumer-driven health care plans.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Thomas W; Raleigh, Stephen G; Hower, Judith M; Schwartz, Richard W

    2003-08-01

    This article reviews employers' attempts over the past 25 years to address the cost and accessibility of health care services for their employees and the effect these efforts have had on U.S. health care delivery. The difficulties in aligning the interests of all parties in a third-party health beneficiary contract are examined. Many employers are considering consumer-driven health care plans as an alternative to managed care plans to both control health care costs and improve employee satisfaction. Such plans differ from fee-for-service and managed care models in terms of the economic alignment of the parties. Consumer-driven plans align the employer's economic interest with the employee/patient, and reduce health benefit costs by providing information, tools, and direct economic incentives to employees for self-management of health care dollars. Because these incentives are designed to reduce the consumption of services, providers are the party left out of economic alignment under the consumer-driven model.

  7. Field Sampling Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Michael George

    2016-10-01

    This field sampling plan describes sampling of the soil/liner of Lagoon 3 at the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The lagoon is to be closed, and samples obtained from the soil/liner will provide information to determine if Lagoon 3 and the land application area can be closed in a manner that renders it safe to human health and the environment. Samples collected under this field sampling plan will be compared to Idaho National Laboratory background soil concentrations. If the concentrations of constituents of concern exceed the background level, they will be compared to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels. If the concentrations of constituents of concern are lower than the background levels, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels, or the preliminary remediation goals, then Lagoon 3 and the land application area will be closed. If the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals are exceeded, additional sampling and action may be required.

  8. Central nervous system of Chaetoderma japonicum (Caudofoveata, Aplacophora): implications for diversified ganglionic plans in early molluscan evolution.

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Shuichi; Sasaki, Takenori; Haszprunar, Gerhard

    2007-10-01

    The organization of the central nervous system of an "aplacophoran" mollusc, Chaetoderma japonicum, is described as a means to understand a primitive condition in highly diversified molluscan animals. This histological and immunocytochemical study revealed that C. japonicum still retains a conservative molluscan tetra-neural plan similar to those of neomenioids, polyplacophorans, and tryblidiids. However, the ventral and lateral nerve cords of C. japonicum are obviously ganglionated to various degrees, and the cerebral cord-like ganglia display a lobular structure. The putative chemosensory networks are developed, being composed of sensory cells of the oral shield, eight precerebral ganglia, and eight neuropil compartments that form distinct masses of neurites. In the cerebral cord-like ganglia, three anterior, posterior, and dorsal lobes are distinguished with well-fasciculated tracts in their neuropils. Most neuronal somata are uniform in size, and no small globuli-like cell clusters are found; however, localized serotonin-like immunoreactivity and acetylated tubulin-containing tracts suggest the presence of functional subdivisions. These complicated morphological features may be adaptive structures related to the specialized foraminiferan food in muddy bottoms. Based on a comparative scheme in basal molluscan groups, we characterize an independent evolutionary process for the unique characters of the central nervous systems of chaetoderms.

  9. Ground-water quality in east-central New Jersey and a plan for sampling networks

    SciTech Connect

    Harriman, D.A.; Sargent, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Groundwater quality was evaluated in seven confined aquifers and the water table aquifer in east-central New Jersey based on 237 analyses of samples collected in 1981-82, and 225 older analyses. Investigation of the effect of land use on water quality and several sampling network proposals for the region are reported. Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentrations exceed US EPA drinking water standards in some wells screened in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. Sodium (Na) concentrations in samples from three wells more than 800 ft deep in the Englishtown aquifer exceed the standard. Iron and Mn concentrations in this aquifer may also exceed the standards. Iron concentrations in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer exceed the standard. Based on 15 analyses of water from the Vincetown aquifer, Mn is the only constituent that exceeds the drinking water standard. In the Manasquan aquifer, 4 of the 16 Na determinations exceed the standard, and 8 of 16 Fe determinations exceed the standard. Water quality in the Atlantic City 800-ft sand is generally satisfactory. However, 12 Fe and 1 of 12 Mn determinations exceed the standards. For the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, 1 of 3 Fe determinations exceed the standard. The Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system was the most thoroughly sampled (249 chemical analyses from 209 wells). Dissolved solids, chloride, Fe, nitrate, and Mn concentrations exceed drinking water standards in some areas. 76 refs., 36 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. A plan to study the aquifer system of the Central Valley of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertoldi, Gilbert L.

    1979-01-01

    Unconsolidated Quaternary alluvial deposits comprise a large complex aquifer system in the Central Valley of California. Millions of acre-feet of water is pumped from the system annually to support a large and expanding agribusiness industry. Since the 1950's, water levels have been steadily declining in many areas of the valley and concern has been expressed about the ability of the entire ground-water system to support agribusiness at current levels, not to mention its ability to function at projected expansion levels. At current levels of ground-water use, an estimated 1.5 to 2 million acre-feet is withdrawn from storage each year; that is, 1.5 to 2 million acre-feet of water is pumped annually in excess of annual replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 4-year study to develop geologic, hydrologic, and hydraulic information and to establish a valleywide ground-water data base that will be used to build computer models of the ground-water flow system. Subsequently, these models may be used to evaluate the system response to various ground-water management alternatives. This report describes current problems, objectives of the study, and outlines the general work to be accomplished in the study area. A bibliography of about 600 references is included. (Kosco-USGS)

  11. The Climate Resilience Toolkit: Central gateway for risk assessment and resilience planning at all governance scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, D.; Lipschultz, F.

    2016-12-01

    As people and organizations grapple with a changing climate amid a range of other factors simultaneously shifting, there is a need for credible, legitimate & salient scientific information in useful formats. In addition, an assessment framework is needed to guide the process of planning and implementing projects that allow communities and businesses to adapt to specific changing conditions, while also building overall resilience to future change. We will discuss how the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit (CRT) can improve people's ability to understand and manage their climate-related risks and opportunities, and help them make their communities and businesses more resilient. In close coordination with the U.S. Climate Data Initiative, the CRT is continually evolving to offer actionable authoritative information, relevant tools, and subject matter expertise from across the U.S. federal government in one easy-to-use location. The Toolkit's "Climate Explorer" is designed to help people understand potential climate conditions over the course of this century. It offers easy access to downloadable maps, graphs, and data tables of observed and projected temperature, precipitation and other decision-relevant climate variables dating back to 1950 and out to 2100. Since climate is only one of many changing factors affecting decisions about the future, it also ties climate information to a wide range of relevant variables to help users explore vulnerabilities and impacts. New topic areas have been added, such as "Fisheries," "Regions," and "Built Environment" sections that feature case studies and personal experiences in making adaptation decisions. A curated "Reports" section is integrated with semantic web capabilities to help users locate the most relevant information sources. As part of the USGCRP's sustained assessment process, the CRT is aligning with other federal activities, such as the upcoming 4th National Climate Assessment.

  12. Ground-water quality in east-central New Jersey, and a plan for sampling networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harriman, D.A.; Sargent, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Groundwater quality was evaluated in seven confined aquifers and the water table aquifer in east-central New Jersey based on 237 analyses of samples collected in 1981-82, and 225 older analyses. Investigation of the effect of land use on water quality and several sampling network proposals for the region are reported. Generally, water in the confined aquifers is of satisfactory quality for human consumption and most other uses. Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentrations exceed U.S. EPA drinking water standards in some wells screened in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. Sodium (Na) concentrations in samples from three wells more than 800 ft deep in the Englishtown aquifer exceed the standard. Iron and Mn concentrations in this aquifer may also exceed the standards. Iron concentrations in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer exceed the standard. Based on 15 analyses of water from the Vincetown aquifer, Mn is the only constituent that exceeds the drinking water standard. In the Manasquan aquifer, 4 of the 16 Na determinations exceed the standard, and 8 of 16 Fe determinations exceed the standard. Water quality in the Atlantic City 800-ft sand is generally satisfactory. However, 12 Fe and 1 of 12 Mn determinations exceed the standards. For the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, 1 of 3 Fe determinations exceed the standard. The Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system (the water table aquifer) was the most thoroughly sampled (249 chemical analyses from 209 wells). Dissolved solids, chloride, Fe, nitrate, and Mn concentrations exceed drinking water standards in some areas. The results of chi-square tests of constituent distributions based on analyses from 158 wells in the water table aquifer indicate that calcium is higher in industrial and commercial areas; and Mg, chloride, and nitrate-plus-nitrite is higher in residential areas. (Author 's abstract)

  13. Resource management and operations in central North Dakota: Climate change scenario planning workshop summary November 12-13, 2015, Bismarck, ND

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Shuurman, Gregor; Symstad, Amy; Ray, Andrea; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Miller, Brian; Rowland, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-Quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops project synthesizes climate data into 3-5 distinct but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; crafts quantitative summaries of these climate futures for two focal areas; and applies these local summaries by developing climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and, where possible, simulation models. The two focal areas are central North Dakota and southwest South Dakota (Figure 1). The primary objective of this project is to help resource managers and scientists in a focal area use scenario planning to make management and planning decisions based on assessments of critical future uncertainties.This report summarizes project work for public and tribal lands in the central North Dakota focal area, with an emphasis on Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The report explainsscenario planning as an adaptation tool in general, then describes how it was applied to the central North Dakota focal area in three phases. Priority resource management and climate uncertainties were identified in the orientation phase. Local climate summaries for relevant, divergent, and challenging climate scenarios were developed in the second phase. In the final phase, a two-day scenario planning workshop held November 12-13, 2015 in Bismarck, ND, featured scenario development and implications, testing management decisions, and methods for operationalizing scenario planning outcomes.

  14. Effect of TV and radio family planning messages on the probability of modern contraception utilization in post-Soviet Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Habibov, Nazim; Zainiddinov, Hakim

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of family planning message broadcast on radio and TV on the probability of modern contraception utilization in post-Soviet Central Asia. Viewing family planning messages on TV improves the chances of using modern contraception for a woman who actually saw the messages by about 11 and 8 per cent in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, respectively. If every woman in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan had an opportunity to watch a family planning message on TV, then the likelihood of using modern contraception would have improved by 10 and 7 per cent in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, respectively. By contrast, the effect of hearing family planning messages on radio is not significant in both countries. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Viewing family planning messages on TV improves the chances of using modern contraception for a woman who actually saw the messages by about 11 and 8 per cent in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, respectively. If every woman in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan had an opportunity to watch a family planning message on TV, then the probability of using modern contraception would have improved by 10 and 7 per cent in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, respectively. Consequently, using TV family planning messages in both countries should be encouraged. In comparison, the effect of hearing family planning messages on radio is not significant in both countries. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. 76 FR 16818 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Standard Criteria for Ag and Urban Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... ``Standard Criteria for Agricultural and Urban Water Management Plans'' (Criteria) are now available for... published the Criteria. The Criteria apply to any Water Management Plans (Plans) submitted to Reclamation as... Management Plans are considered the same as Water Conservation Plans. DATES: Submit written comments by...

  16. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    A. Hassan

    2003-09-02

    The groundwater flow and transport model of the Faultless underground nuclear test conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) was accepted by the state regulator and the environmental remediation efforts at the site have progressed to the stages of model validation and long-term monitoring design. This report discusses the long-term monitoring strategy developed for CNTA. Subsurface monitoring is an expensive and time-consuming process, and the design approach should be based on a solid foundation. As such, a thorough literature review of monitoring network design is first presented. Monitoring well networks can be designed for a number of objectives including aquifer characterization, parameter estimation, compliance monitoring, detection monitoring, ambient monitoring, and research monitoring, to name a few. Design methodologies also range from simple hydrogeologic intuition-based tools to sophisticated statistical- and optimization-based tools. When designing the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA, a number of issues are carefully considered. These are the uncertainty associated with the subsurface environment and its implication for monitoring design, the cost associated with monitoring well installation and operation, the design criteria that should be used to select well locations, and the potential conflict between different objectives such as early detection versus impracticality of placing wells in the vicinity of the test cavity. Given these considerations and the literature review of monitoring design studies, a multi-staged approach for development of the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA is proposed. This multi-staged approach will proceed in parallel with the validation efforts for the groundwater flow and transport model of CNTA. Two main stages are identified as necessary for the development of the final long-term monitoring well network for the site. The first stage is to use hydrogeologic expertise combined with model

  17. U.S. Department of the Interior South Central Climate Science Center strategic science plan, 2013--18

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, Kim T.; Dalton, Melinda S.; Shipp, Allison A.

    2013-01-01

    cultural resources. The South Central CSC will provide scientific information, tools, and techniques that managers and other parties interested in land, water, wildlife, and cultural resources can use to anticipate, monitor, and adapt to climate change, actively engaging LCCs and other partners in translating science into management decisions. This document is the first Strategic Science Plan for the South Central CSC (2013-18). Using the January 2011 DOI guidance as a model, this document (1) describes the role and interactions of the South Central CSC among partners and stakeholders including Federal, State, and non-governmental organizations throughout the region; (2) describes a concept of what the center will provide to its partners; (3) defines a context for climate impacts in the south central United States; and (4) establishes the science priorities the center will address through research. Science priorities are currently organized as immediate or future research needs; however, this document is intended to be reevaluated and modified as partner needs change and as scientific work progresses.

  18. 2 CFR Appendix V to Part 200 - State/Local Government and Indian Tribe-Wide Central Service Cost Allocation Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Central Service Cost Allocation Plans V Appendix V to Part 200 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GUIDANCE Reserved... contained in the governmental unit's accounting system; a revenue/expenses statement, with revenues broken...

  19. Preparing for Future Water Resources Conflicts through Climate Change Adaptation Planning: A Case Study in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehlert, B. B.; Neumann, J. E.; Strzepek, K.; Sutton, W.; Srivastava, J.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainties posed by climate change and rapidly rising global water demand suggest that existing conflicts over water resources are likely to be exacerbated and new conflicts will appear where little or no conflict occurs today. Successfully planning for and preventing conflicts first requires a sound scientific understanding of the timing, location, and magnitude of water resource shortfalls, identification of the most appropriate climate adaptation options based on multiple criteria, and development of broad, multi-level consensus within the affected community. We recently applied this approach in a World Bank-funded adaptation assessment for the agricultural sectors of four countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia-Albania, Macedonia, Moldova, and Uzbekistan. For each major basin, we first used a hydrological model to project changes in water availability through 2050 under country-specific high, medium, and low climate impact scenarios. Next, under the three climate scenarios, we projected changes in agricultural water demand using a crop model (i.e., AquaCrop and DSSAT), and changes in water demand in other sectors based on population projections and sectoral forecasts of changes in per capita use. We incorporated these water availability and demand projections-along with other characteristics of the water system such as water supply priorities, environmental and transboundary flow requirements, irrigation efficiency, and reservoir locations and volumes-into a monthly integrated water resource planning tool (the Water Evaluation And Planning tool, or WEAP) to generate projected unmet water demand under each climate scenario and to each sector through 2050. The findings suggest that the agricultural sector in each country (except the relatively water-rich Albania) would experience significant unmet water demands, up to 52 percent in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River basins of Uzbekistan. Potential adaptation responses to address unmet water demands-such as

  20. Growing a market economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  1. Underdeveloping Appalachia: Toward an environmental sociology of extractive economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishart, William Ryan

    This dissertation uses mixed methods to examine the role of the coal industry in the reproduction of Central Appalachia as an internal periphery within the United States and the economic, ecological, and human inequalities this entails. It also analyzes the related political economy and power structure of coal in a national context. Particularly important for analysis of the region's underdevelopment are the class relations involved in unequal ecological exchange and the establishment of successive "modes of extraction." I employ a historical comparative analysis of Appalachia to evaluate Bunker's thesis that resource dependent peripheries often become locked into a "mode of extraction" (with aspects parallel to Marxist concepts of mode of production) triggering economic and ecological path dependencies leading to underdevelopment. This historical comparative analysis establishes the background for a closer examination of the political economy of the modern US coal industry. After sketching the changes in the structure of monopoly and competition in the coal industry I employ network analysis of the directorate interlocks of the top twenty coal firms in the US within the larger energy policy-planning network to examine their connections with key institutions of the policy formation network of think tanks and business groups. My findings show the importance of the capacities of fossil fuel fractions of the capitalist class in formulating energy policy around issues such as the 2009 climate legislation. As a contribution to the growing literature applying the concept of metabolism as link between contemporary and classical theory, I examine the conflict at Coal River Mountain from the vantage points of ecology, political economy, and human development in dialectical rotation. Utilizing Marx's method of successive abstractions, the mountain is presented as a nexus of metabolic rifts in the human relationship to the earth's natural systems and an impediment to genuine

  2. Building remote sensing capacity in the North Central Climate Science Center's Resource for Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation and Mitigation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisette, J. T.; Evangelista, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) has established a broad strategic initiative to address climate change on resources of concern to DOI through eight regional DOI Climate Science Centers (CSC). The North Central Climate Science Center (NC CSC) is supporting resource managers and their decision process through its Resource for Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation and Mitigation Planning (ReVAMP). The NC CSC is focused primarily on Climate data as input to the ReVAMP. However, the NASA DEVELOP program is being used to evaluate how remote sensing data sets can contribute to the ecological response models that will be implemented in the ReVAMP system. This work is demonstrating the utility of remote sensing in vulnerability assessment and then making sure the remote sensing data sets are fully embedded in the ReVAMP system. The use of remote sensing products are helping to scale ground-based measurement collected on managed lands to larger regions more suitable for analysis against climate modeling grids.

  3. A digital model for planning water management at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, David A.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Fields, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge is an important area for waterfowl production and migratory stopover in west-central Montana. Eight wetland units covering about 5,600 acres are the essential features of the refuge. Water availability for the wetland units can be uncertain owing to the large natural variations in precipitation and runoff and the high cost of pumping supplemental water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, has developed a digital model for planning water management. The model can simulate strategies for water transfers among the eight wetland units and account for variability in runoff and pumped water. This report describes this digital model, which uses a water-accounting spreadsheet to track inputs and outputs to each of the wetland units of Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Inputs to the model include (1) monthly values for precipitation, pumped water, runoff, and evaporation; (2) water-level/capacity data for each wetland unit; and (3) the pan-evaporation coefficient. Outputs include monthly water volume and flooded surface area for each unit for as many as 5 consecutive years. The digital model was calibrated by comparing simulated and historical measured water volumes for specific test years.

  4. Integrating ecosystem services analysis into scenario planning practice: accounting for street tree benefits with i-Tree valuation in Central Texas.

    PubMed

    Hilde, Thomas; Paterson, Robert

    2014-12-15

    Scenario planning continues to gain momentum in the United States as an effective process for building consensus on long-range community plans and creating regional visions for the future. However, efforts to integrate more sophisticated information into the analytical framework to help identify important ecosystem services have lagged in practice. This is problematic because understanding the tradeoffs of land consumption patterns on ecological integrity is central to mitigating the environmental degradation caused by land use change and new development. In this paper we describe how an ecosystem services valuation model, i-Tree, was integrated into a mainstream scenario planning software tool, Envision Tomorrow, to assess the benefits of public street trees for alternative future development scenarios. The tool is then applied to development scenarios from the City of Hutto, TX, a Central Texas Sustainable Places Project demonstration community. The integrated tool represents a methodological improvement for scenario planning practice, offers a way to incorporate ecosystem services analysis into mainstream planning processes, and serves as an example of how open source software tools can expand the range of issues available for community and regional planning consideration, even in cases where community resources are limited. The tool also offers room for future improvements; feasible options include canopy analysis of various future land use typologies, as well as a generalized street tree model for broader U.S. application.

  5. Full waveform inversion of seismic reflection data from the Forsmark planned repository for spent nuclear fuel, eastern central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Juhlin, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has been carrying out extensive studies at the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel at the Forsmark site in the eastern part of central Sweden since 2002. Identification of subhorizontal to gently dipping seismic reflections is especially important since these may represent transport routes for radionuclides. Studies have shown that such reflections can be generated by water filled fracture zones that have a lower velocity than the surrounding bedrock. Lithological changes, that is, mafic sills, may also be responsible for reflections in some cases. At the Forsmark site, it is difficult to distinguish fracture zones from mafic sills in the standard reflection seismic processed sections. However, since mafic sills usually have a positive velocity contrast with the background velocity field compared to fractures zones that have a negative one, the two possibilities could be differentiated if we could reconstruct the underground velocity field. Seismic full waveform inversion has the potential to perform this reconstruction, allowing us to discriminate between fractures zones and mafic sills. In this study, we apply a 2-D waveform inversion code on crooked line data sets acquired at the Forsmark site. This implies we are dealing with a 3-D geometry. We handle this problem by applying 3-D to 2-D coordinate projections. First, we perform a synthetic benchmark test with a similar geometry to that of the projected real data. We test both amplitude and phase inversion and phase only inversion on the synthetic data. The results show that the phase only inversion has fewer artefacts and is more stable. After successful application on the synthetic data, we apply the phase only waveform inversion on the real data. The resulting velocity fields show more details compared with the starting model based on first arrival traveltime tomography. Time domain synthetic data sets generated from the final velocity fields

  6. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative’s model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South–South collaboration has been central to the initiative’s accomplishments: Guinea’s clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP

  7. What Does the Economy Bode for Fundraising?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourbon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    With the United States economy on a rollercoaster ride this year and words like "meltdown," "bailout," and "crisis" commonly used in recent weeks in connection with the financial markets, college and university administrators might find themselves becoming increasingly anxious about their fundraising plans. They…

  8. Facing the Challenges of a Turbulent Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, Pamela B.

    2009-01-01

    As college presidents face the challenges of a turbulent and uncertain economy, they are working to assess the impacts on their strategic financial positions and to develop response plans that reflect their institutional missions and values. How can college presidents navigate during these difficult economic times as they seek to hold on to the…

  9. What Does the Economy Bode for Fundraising?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourbon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    With the United States economy on a rollercoaster ride this year and words like "meltdown," "bailout," and "crisis" commonly used in recent weeks in connection with the financial markets, college and university administrators might find themselves becoming increasingly anxious about their fundraising plans. They…

  10. Facing the Challenges of a Turbulent Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, Pamela B.

    2009-01-01

    As college presidents face the challenges of a turbulent and uncertain economy, they are working to assess the impacts on their strategic financial positions and to develop response plans that reflect their institutional missions and values. How can college presidents navigate during these difficult economic times as they seek to hold on to the…

  11. Use of the Systems Approach for Successful Token Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Catherine C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The three basic steps of the systems approach are described: the mission profile, the functional analysis, and the method-means. The advantageous use of these steps in planning a token economy is illustrated by a systematic evaluation of a token economy implemented in a sixth-grade setting. (Author)

  12. The Acceptance of the Social Market Economy in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlösser, Hans Jürgen; Schuhen, Michael; Schürkmann, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Germany's economic order is labelled "Social Market Economy" in order to indicate that the economic system has both an economic and a social dimension. Its purpose is to reconcile efficiency goals and social responsibility. The concept of the Social Market Economy is based on central values such as freedom or justice. Under the label…

  13. Managing Reward in Developing Economies: The Challenge for Multinational Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opute, John

    2010-01-01

    Reward has been, and continues to be, subject to significant changes in developing economies; the industrial relations model prevalent being driven by the complex socio-economic and cultural paradigms and the increasing demands of globalisation. The issue of reward in developing economies is therefore central and dependent on numerous contextual…

  14. Managing Reward in Developing Economies: The Challenge for Multinational Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opute, John

    2010-01-01

    Reward has been, and continues to be, subject to significant changes in developing economies; the industrial relations model prevalent being driven by the complex socio-economic and cultural paradigms and the increasing demands of globalisation. The issue of reward in developing economies is therefore central and dependent on numerous contextual…

  15. A treatment-planning comparison of three beam arrangement strategies for stereotactic body radiation therapy for centrally located lung tumors using volumetric-modulated arc therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kentaro; Okada, Wataru; Ogino, Ryo; Kubo, Kazuki; Kishimoto, Shun; Nakahara, Ryuta; Kawamorita, Ryu; Ishii, Yoshie; Tada, Takuhito; Nakajima, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine appropriate beam arrangement for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT)-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of patients with centrally located lung tumors. Fifteen consecutive patients with centrally located lung tumors treated at our institution were enrolled. For each patient, three VMAT plans were generated using two coplanar partial arcs (CP VMAT), two non-coplanar partial arcs (NCP VMAT), and one coplanar full arc (Full VMAT). All plans were designed to deliver 70 Gy in 10 fractions. Target coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were compared across techniques. PTV coverage was almost identical for all approaches. The whole lung V10Gy was significantly lower with CP VMAT plans than with NCP VMAT plans, whereas no significant differences in the mean lung dose, V5Gy, V20Gy or V40Gy were observed. Full VMAT increased mean contralateral lung V5Gy by 12.57% and 9.15% when compared with NCP VMAT and CP VMAT, respectively. Although NCP VMAT plans best achieved the dose–volume constraints for mediastinal OARs, the absolute differences in dose were small when compared with CP VMAT. These results suggest that partial-arc VMAT may be preferable to minimize unnecessary exposure to the contralateral lung, and use of NCP VMAT should be considered when the dose–volume constraints are not achieved by CP VMAT. PMID:26951076

  16. Plan of study to define hydrogeologic characteristics of the Madera Limestone in the east mountain area of central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankin, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The east mountain area of central New Mexico includes the eastern one-third of Bernalillo County and portions of Sandoval, Santa Fe, and Torrance Counties. The area covers about 320 square miles. The Madera Limestone, the principal aquifer in the east mountain area, is the sole source of water for domestic, municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses for many residents. Some water is imported from wells near Edgewood by the Entranosa Water Cooperative, which serves a population of approximately 3,300. The remaining population is served by small water systems that derive supplies locally or by individually owned domestic wells. The population of the east mountain area has increased dramatically over the past 20 years. In 1970, the population of the east mountain area was about 4,000. Demographic projections suggest that approximately 1,000 people per year are moving into the area, and with a growth rate of 3.0 percent the population will be 16,700 in 2000. Consequently, ground-water withdrawals have increased substantially over the past 20 years, and will continue to increase. Little is known about the flow characteristics and hydrogeologic properties of the Madera Limestone. This report describes existing information about the geologic and hydrologic framework and flow characteristics of the Madera Limestone, and presents a plan of study for data-collection activities and interpretive studies that could be conducted to better define the hydrogeologic characteristics of the Madera Limestone. Data-collection activities and interpretive studies related to the hydrogeologic components of the Madera Limestone are prioritized. Activities that are necessary to improve the quantification of a component are prioritized as essential. Activities that could add additional understanding of a component, but would not be necessary to improve the quantification of a component, are prioritized as useful.

  17. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  18. Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

  19. Defense and the Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    AD A 66 28 o’py 9of 27 copiesII AD-A266 288-co, .o,,,, I IDA PAPER P-28 10I * DEFENSE AND THE ECONOMY David R. Graham An-Jen Tai Barbara A...TYPE AND DATES COVERED January 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Defense and the Economy C-MDA 903 89C 0003i...Fomr 298 (Rev 2-4g) 3Preserked by ANSI Sid, Z39- 2I0 I I I IDA PAPER P-2810() 3 DEFENSE AND THE ECONOMY I I David R. Graham An-Jen Tai Barbara A

  20. Policy model for space economy infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komerath, Narayanan; Nally, James; Zilin Tang, Elizabeth

    2007-12-01

    Extraterrestrial infrastructure is key to the development of a space economy. Means for accelerating transition from today's isolated projects to a broad-based economy are considered. A large system integration approach is proposed. The beginnings of an economic simulation model are presented, along with examples of how interactions and coordination bring down costs. A global organization focused on space infrastructure and economic expansion is proposed to plan, coordinate, fund and implement infrastructure construction. This entity also opens a way to raise low-cost capital and solve the legal and public policy issues of access to extraterrestrial resources.

  1. Strategic planning for instream flow restoration: a case study of potential climate change impacts in the central Columbia River basin.

    PubMed

    Donley, Erin E; Naiman, Robert J; Marineau, Mathieu D

    2012-10-01

    We provide a case study prioritizing instream flow restoration activities by sub-basin according to the habitat needs of Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed salmonids relative to climate change in the central Columbia River basin in Washington State (USA). The objective is to employ scenario analysis to inform and improve existing instream flow restoration projects. We assess the sensitivity of late summer (July, August, and September) flows to the following scenario simulations - singly or in combination: climate change, changes in the quantity of water used for irrigation and possible changes to existing water resource policy. Flows for four sub-basins were modeled using the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) under historical and projected conditions of 2020 and 2040 for each scenario. Results indicate that Yakima will be the most flow-limited sub-basin with average reductions in streamflow of 41% under climate conditions of 2020 and 56% under 2040 conditions; 1.3-2.5 times greater than those of other sub-basins. In addition, irrigation plays a key role in the hydrology of the Yakima sub-basin - with flow reductions ranging from 78% to 90% under severe to extreme (i.e., 20-40%) increases in agricultural water use (2.0-4.4 times the reductions in the other sub-basins). The Yakima and Okanogan sub-basins are the most responsive to simulations of flow-bolstering policy change (providing salmon with first priority water allocation and at biologically relevant flows), as demonstrated by 91-100% target flows attained. The Wenatchee and Methow sub-basins do not exhibit similar responsiveness to simulated policy changes. Considering climate change only, we conclude that flow restoration should be prioritized first in the Yakima and Wenatchee sub-basins, and second in the Okanogan and Methow. Considering both climate change and possible policy changes, we recommend that the Yakima sub-basin receive the highest priority for flow restoration activities to sustain

  2. The Effects: Economy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the U.S. economy, impacting tourism, property values, commercial fishing, recreational businesses and many other sectors that depend on clean water.

  3. Population and the Colombian economy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  4. Observing the economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Stan

    2009-07-01

    In "The (unfortunate) complexity of the economy" (April pp28-32) Jean-Philippe Bouchaud presents clear evidence that traditional assumptions of rational markets have to be abandoned. The old investor slogan "buy on promise, sell on rumour" quickly magnifies a downturn into a crisis, which triggers two questions. If physics-based models are applied (beyond understanding and prediction) to actual market decisions, does this make the economy more or less stable? And, is this cause for stronger regulation?

  5. Sanitary engineering and water economy in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Krul, W. F. J. M.

    1957-01-01

    The author deals with a wide variety of aspects of water economy and the development of water resources, relating them to the sanitary engineering problems they give rise to. Among those aspects are the balance between available resources and water needs for various purposes; accumulation and storage of surface and ground water, and methods of replenishing ground water supplies; pollution and purification; and organizational measures to deal with the urgent problems raised by the heavy demands on the world's water supply as a result of both increased population and the increased need for agricultural and industrial development. The author considers that at the national level over-all plans for developing the water economy of countries might well be drawn up by national water boards and that the economy of inter-State river basins should receive international study. In such work the United Nations and its specialized agencies might be of assistance. PMID:13472427

  6. www.FuelEconomy.gov

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    FuelEconomy.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel economy. The official U.S. government site for fuel economy information, it is operated by the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency. The site provides access to general information, widgets to help car buyers, and fuel economy datasets.

  7. A treatment-planning comparison of three beam arrangement strategies for stereotactic body radiation therapy for centrally located lung tumors using volumetric-modulated arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kentaro; Okada, Wataru; Ogino, Ryo; Kubo, Kazuki; Kishimoto, Shun; Nakahara, Ryuta; Kawamorita, Ryu; Ishii, Yoshie; Tada, Takuhito; Nakajima, Toshifumi

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine appropriate beam arrangement for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT)-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of patients with centrally located lung tumors. Fifteen consecutive patients with centrally located lung tumors treated at our institution were enrolled. For each patient, three VMAT plans were generated using two coplanar partial arcs (CP VMAT), two non-coplanar partial arcs (NCP VMAT), and one coplanar full arc (Full VMAT). All plans were designed to deliver 70 Gy in 10 fractions. Target coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were compared across techniques. PTV coverage was almost identical for all approaches. The whole lung V10Gy was significantly lower with CP VMAT plans than with NCP VMAT plans, whereas no significant differences in the mean lung dose, V5Gy, V20Gy or V40Gy were observed. Full VMAT increased mean contralateral lung V5Gy by 12.57% and 9.15% when compared with NCP VMAT and CP VMAT, respectively. Although NCP VMAT plans best achieved the dose-volume constraints for mediastinal OARs, the absolute differences in dose were small when compared with CP VMAT. These results suggest that partial-arc VMAT may be preferable to minimize unnecessary exposure to the contralateral lung, and use of NCP VMAT should be considered when the dose-volume constraints are not achieved by CP VMAT. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  8. Equilibrium transition from centralization to competitive market: Stochastic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, V.; Slastnikov, A.

    1994-12-31

    The paper deals with modelling changes of economic mechanism. Unlike most of the dynamic equilibrium models, both producers and consumers in our model act under budget restrictions. We associate different principles of budgets forming with different economic mechanisms and state a problem of transition from one economic mechanism to another. We focus on the following two mechanisms. The first one assumes the presence of Central Planning Board ({open_quotes}the State{close_quotes}) and may identify with centralized (state controlled) economy. Under the second mechanism, the role of the State is eliminated and its distributive functions are moved to the Market. In the framework of dynamic equilibrium theory we pro pose a model of gradual transition from economy with centralized budgets regulation to market economy. It is assumed that information about possible change of economic mechanism affects essentially on behavior of agents. Duration of transition period is regarded as a random variable. We study conditions when such transition allows firms to adapt their plans to future markets and guarantees the existence of equilibrium paths. The case of Shock (instantaneous transition), which may bring bankruptcy, jump of prices and deficit, is also discussed.

  9. Health Information Economy: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Health Information Economy (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. Methods: This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Results: Information Economy (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. Conclusion: According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science. PMID:26153182

  10. Health Information Economy: Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-04-19

    Health Information Economy (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Information Economy (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science.

  11. The Knowledge Economy and Innovation: Certain Uncertainty and the Risk Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Fahey, Johannah; Kenway, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge economy is a dominant force in today's world, and innovation policy and national systems of innovation are central to it. In this article, we draw on different sociological and economic theories of risk to engage critically with innovation policy and national systems of innovation. Beck's understanding of a risk society, Schumpeter's…

  12. The Knowledge Economy and Innovation: Certain Uncertainty and the Risk Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Fahey, Johannah; Kenway, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge economy is a dominant force in today's world, and innovation policy and national systems of innovation are central to it. In this article, we draw on different sociological and economic theories of risk to engage critically with innovation policy and national systems of innovation. Beck's understanding of a risk society, Schumpeter's…

  13. CIO in a Service Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, Paul G.

    The role of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) has evolved considerably since its inception in the 1980s. This paper begins with a brief review of the evolution of this role and sets the stage for future change brought about by the rise of the service economy. The enterprise of the future is then characterized based on an important global study by IBM. Using this characterization, the future challenges for CIOs in areas such as strategic planning, governance and operations management of information technology services are assessed from the perspectives of the four major elements of a service system (technology, people, organization and shared information). The paper concludes with a summary of the important findings, pointing to the challenge that CIOs of the future must be the leaders in their organizations in the delivery of smarter, on-demand service systems to smarter customers.

  14. The economies of synthesis†

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    In this tutorial review the economies of synthesis are analysed from both detailed and macroscopic perspectives, using case-studies from complex molecule synthesis. Atom, step, and redox economy are more than philosophical constructs, but rather guidelines, which enable the synthetic chemist to design and execute an efficient synthesis. Students entering the field of synthesis might find this tutorial helpful for understanding the subtle differences between these economic principles and also see real-world situations where such principles are put into practice. PMID:19847337

  15. Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

    directions of an industrial policy of region. The situational-analytical centers (SAC) of regional administration The major component of SAC is dynamic modeling, analysis, forecasting and optimization systems, based on modern intellectual information technologies. Spheres of SAC are not only financial streams management and investments optimization, but also strategic forecasting functions, which provide an optimum choice, "aiming", search of optimum ways of regional development and corresponding investments. It is expedient to consider an opportunity of formation of the uniform organizational-methodical center of an industrial policy of region. This organization can be directly connected to the scheduled-analytical services of the largest economic structures, local authorities, the ministries and departments. Such "direct communication" is capable to provide an effective regional development strategic management. Anyway, the output on foreign markets demands concentration of resources and support of authorities. Offered measures are capable to provide a necessary coordination of efforts of a various level economic structures. For maintenance of a regional industrial policy an attraction of all newest methods of strategic planning and management is necessary. Their activity should be constructed on the basis of modern approaches of economic systems management, cause the essence of an industrial policy is finally reduced to an effective regional and corporate economic activities control centers formation. Opportunities of optimum regional economy planning and management as uniform system Approaches to planning regional economic systems can be different. We will consider some most effective methods of planning and control over a regional facilities condition. All of them are compact and evident, that allows to put them into the group of average complexity technologies. At the decision of problems of a regional resource management is rather perspective the so

  16. The fight for reproductive rights in Central and Eastern Europe. Albania: discovering the human right to family planning.

    PubMed

    Sahatci, E

    1995-01-01

    Family planning in Albania is deficient due to the previous regime's prohibition of contraception and the subsequent lack of knowledge among couples and the medical profession. Contraceptives are difficult to obtain, and the infrastructure for importing and distributing contraceptives is deficient. During the early 1990s laws were passed allowing a range of modern contraceptives and abortion on request. Contraception is made available through pharmacies by prescriptions from general medical doctors. The minilap technique is used for voluntary surgical sterilization. The Albanian Family Planning Association maintains a clinic and program for obtaining contraceptives free of charge. The Association is improving and expanding the range of family planning services, training medical personnel about family planning methods, and changing existing knowledge and attitudes. Sex education will be offered in schools. Only a few pamphlets and posters on family planning are produced, and there is a need to develop a stronger IEC program. Compared to European standards, maternal mortality was very high under the old regime (in 1987 an estimated 57 per 100,000 live births and infant mortality of 28 per 1000 live births). A liberalized abortion law contributed to a rise in reported abortions (30,000 abortions per 77,000 live births in 1991 or 2 abortions for every 5 births) and a decline in maternal mortality to 32 per 100,000 live births in 1992.

  17. A REVIEW OF STUDIES OF ECONOMIES IN SCHOOLHOUSE CONSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOHERTY, LEO D.; WHEATLEY, ARTRELLE

    ECONOMIES IN PLANNING AND DESIGNING BEGIN WITH THE WISE CHOICE OF AN ARCHITECT. COMPLETE INFORMATION ON BUILDING NEEDS, ENROLLMENT PROJECTIONS, AND PROGRAM MUST BE AVAILABLE. INCLUSION OF MULTIPLE-USE ROOMS, MINIMAL PERIMETER WALLS, LOWERED CEILINGS, MINIMAL WASTE SPACE, MINIMAL USE OF GLASS, AND USE OF STOCK PLANS ARE CONCEPTS WHICH CAN EFFECT…

  18. Airline Safety and Economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  19. Costs and Potential Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, J. A.; And Others

    The University of Bradford was designated as the target for research directed toward identifying potential economies in the teaching of students under alternative sets of assumptions, in order that action may be taken to secure a more economic use of resources in the higher education sector. Part one looks generally at the nature of university…

  20. Airline Safety and Economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  1. Education and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Kevin M.

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between education and the United States (U.S.) economy was explored to identify research needed to inform employment policy in the future. Special attention was paid to the following topics: the state of education in the U.S.; key problems in grades K-12 that must be addressed; student achievement; inequity; costs of special…

  2. Fueling the Green Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, James

    2009-01-01

    The Obama administration, along with many others, has placed a high priority on accelerating the nation's transition to a cleaner, greener economy. Transforming the nation's economic, energy, and environmental systems to become more sustainable will require a level of expertise, innovation, and cooperation unseen since the 1940s war effort. Public…

  3. Economy of Command

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, David Peter

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a principle of "economy of command", arguing that it provides a simple and natural explanation for some well-known properties of human language syntax. The focus is on the abstract combinatorial system that constructs the hierarchical structure of linguistic expressions, with long-distance dependencies…

  4. The College Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    As the United States grinds its way through a halting economic recovery, one thing has become abundantly clear: The recession of 2007 continues to reshape the economy in significant and permanent ways. Perhaps the most profound change is the accelerating disappearance of good-paying jobs that require only a high-school education or less. That…

  5. Fueling the Green Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, James

    2009-01-01

    The Obama administration, along with many others, has placed a high priority on accelerating the nation's transition to a cleaner, greener economy. Transforming the nation's economic, energy, and environmental systems to become more sustainable will require a level of expertise, innovation, and cooperation unseen since the 1940s war effort. Public…

  6. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  7. Equality and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for economy. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…

  8. The College Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    As the United States grinds its way through a halting economic recovery, one thing has become abundantly clear: The recession of 2007 continues to reshape the economy in significant and permanent ways. Perhaps the most profound change is the accelerating disappearance of good-paying jobs that require only a high-school education or less. That…

  9. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  10. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  11. Token Economies in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; Nicholas, Heather

    1973-01-01

    Behavior modification has become a widely known practice in rehabilitation during the past decade. A medium of exchange or token is typically used to facilitate transactions and can be traded for backup reinforcers later on. This review of the use of token economies focuses on groups of individuals usually considered target rehabilitation…

  12. 78 FR 64243 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Notice of Sale (NOS) for Central Gulf of Mexico Planning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 231 (CPA Sale... public. With regard to oil and gas leasing on the OCS, the Secretary of the Interior, pursuant to section... ``Proposed Notice of Sale Package'' containing information essential to potential bidders may be obtained...

  13. Land-use planning for phosphate mining and resource areas: the central Florida case. A workshop synopsis

    SciTech Connect

    LaFevers, J. R.; Toner, W. J.; Guernsey, J. L.; Rifkin, E.

    1980-05-01

    On July 19-20, 1978, a workshop was conducted in Bartow, Florida, on the topic of land-use and reclamation planning in the local phosphate mining region. More than 100 participants attended the workshop representing the phosphate mining industry, environmental groups, research organizations, planning agencies, news media, and governmental regulatory agencies. Various aspects of the environmental and land-use impacts of phosphate mining, together with the state-of-the-art of mitigating adverse impacts, were discussed. The participants were required to work cooperatively to develop a series of alternative land-use plans for a selected mining site that was the focus of a half-day field trip. Overall, the participants developed a number of rational land-use and reclamation plans for the site that were considered acceptable by the majority of the group. There was general agreement that the most valuable aspect of the workshop was the opportunity for individuals with such diverse interests to work cooperatively on a common problem and develop acceptable solutions.

  14. 77 FR 40376 - Outer Continental Shelf, Oil and Gas Lease Sales in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... tracking table (the Table), which is designed to track the lineage and treatment of suggestions for inclusion of acreage, spatial exclusions, temporal deferrals, and/or mitigation from the Five-Year Program to the lease sale stage and on to the plan stage. This alternative and mitigation tracking table will...

  15. Paraguay: population and the economy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1986-01-01

    Paraguay's political conflicts and development experiences have been accompanied by compensatory population movements; however, economic and population policies of the past are not adequate to address the current economic challenges. The principal structural problem is dependence on international commodity prices. Since late 1984, the international prices for soya and cotton have declined more than 50%; these 2 products account for 83% of official exports. The external debt has grown significantly in the past 5 years and is increasingly difficult to service. A major problem the government faces in servicing the debt and maintaining economic growth is its inability to get control of foreign exchange. Much of Paraguay's external trade is contraband, with the dollars passing into the black market. As a result of the illegal economy, government earnings have been insufficient to cover expenses. Unemployment stands at 12% because of general economic decline, cuts in government expenditure, and the reduction of investment in hydroelectricity. Occupation of new land, the classic solution by the Paraguayan peasantry, is no longer a viable option since all land is now utilized. About 20-25% of Paraguayans live outside the country, expecially in Argentina. In 1986, a commission drafted an Adjustment Plan that recommended a devaluation of the official gurani rate, tax increases, higher tariffs for public services, and incentives to invest in priority areas; however, this plan has not been implemented to date.

  16. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  17. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  18. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  19. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  20. Development, features and application of DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP) software in supporting public health nutrition research in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC).

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Kadvan, Agnes; Nikolić, Marina; Zeković, Milica; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet growing public health nutrition challenges in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC) and Balkan countries, development of a Research Infrastructure (RI) and availability of an effective nutrition surveillance system are a prerequisite. The building block of this RI is an innovative tool called DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP), which is a platform for standardized and harmonized food consumption collection, comprehensive dietary intake assessment and nutrition planning. Its unique structure enables application of national food composition databases (FCDBs) from the European food composition exchange platform (28 national FCDBs) developed by EuroFIR (http://www.eurofir.org/) and in addition allows communication with other tools. DAP is used for daily menu and/or long-term diet planning in diverse public sector settings, foods design/reformulation, food labelling, nutrient intake assessment and calculation of the dietary diversity indicator, Minimum Dietary Diversity-Women (MDD-W). As a validated tool in different national and international projects, DAP represents an important RI in public health nutrition epidemiology in the CEEC region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to explore hospital-based nurses' intention to use peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC): a survey study.

    PubMed

    Bertani, Laura; Carone, Maria; Caricati, Luca; Demaria, Serena; Fantuzzi, Silvia; Guarasci, Alessandro; Pirazzoli, Luca

    2016-11-22

    The peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) have become an alternative to the traditional CVC. PICCs are usually inserted by trained nurses who decided to attend and complete a special training on PICC insertion and management. The present work aimed to investigate the intention of using PICC in a sample of hospital-based nurses using the theory of planned behavior as theoretical framework. A cross-sectional design was used in which a questionnaire was delivered to 199 nurses. According to the theory of planned behavior, the attitude toward the use of PICC, subjective norms and perceived self-efficacy predicted the intention to use PICC. Contrary to the expectations, the effect of subjective norms on intention to use PICC was mediated by attitude and self-efficacy. Finally, age of participants was negatively related to the intention to use the PICC. The theory of planned behavior offers a useful framework to explain nurses' intention to use PICC. Shared norms favoring the use of PICC seem to increase both nurse's positive attitudes and self-efficacy whit respect to the use of these devices. Thus, it appears that to train professionals individually does not necessarily results in an increased use of PICC.

  2. Clarification of Institutional Controls at the Rocky Flats Site Central Operable Unit and Implementation of the Soil Disturbance Review Plan - 13053

    SciTech Connect

    DiSalvo, Rick; Surovchak, Scott; Spreng, Carl; Moritz, Vera

    2013-07-01

    Cleanup and closure of DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado, which was placed on the CERCLA National Priority List in 1989, was accomplished under CERCLA, RCRA, and the Colorado Hazardous Waste Act (CHWA). The physical cleanup work was completed in late 2005 and all buildings and other structures that composed the Rocky Flats industrial complex were removed from the surface, but remnants remain in the subsurface. Other remaining features include two landfills closed in place with covers, four groundwater treatment systems, and surface water and groundwater monitoring systems. Under the 2006 Corrective Action Decision/Record of Decision for Rocky Flats Plant (US DOE) Peripheral Operable Unit and the Central Operable Unit (CAD/ROD), the response actions selected for the Central Operable Unit (OU) are institutional controls (ICs), physical controls, and continued monitoring and maintenance. The objectives of these ICs were to prevent unacceptable exposure to remaining subsurface contamination and to prevent contaminants from mobilizing to surface water and to prevent interfering with the proper functioning of the engineered components of the remedy. An amendment in 2011 of the 2006 CAD/ROD clarified the ICs to prevent misinterpretation that would prohibit work to manage and maintain the Central OU property. The 2011 amendment incorporated a protocol for a Soil Disturbance Review Plan for work subject to ICs that requires approval from the State and public notification by DOE prior to conducting approved soil-disturbing work. (authors)

  3. 76 FR 17808 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... NHTSA Vehicle Safety and Fuel Economy Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013 (Priority Plan) in... Final NHTSA Vehicle Safety and Fuel Economy Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013. This plan... economy that must meet Congressional mandates or Secretarial commitments. Since these are expected to...

  4. Use of a token economy with seriously mentally ill patients: criticisms and misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, P W

    1995-12-01

    Although use of a token economy has been shown to have significant impact on adults and children with serious mental illness who participate in inpatient and community treatment programs, the intervention has not been widely adopted. The paper presents common criticisms of token economies, which may explain the infrequent use of this treatment strategy. They include perceptions that token economies are ineffective, that their benefits do not readily generalize to other settings, that token economies do not foster individualized treatment plans, that participating in a token economy is humiliating, that token economies are abusive, that concerns about milieu management are unimportant and irrelevant to treatment delivery in the 1990s, and that effective token economies are impractical. In an effort to rekindle interest in this potent treatment technique, the author shows that many of these criticisms rest on misconceptions and provides rebuttals based on empirical research. He describes three steps in establishing a token economy.

  5. Oscillations in Rational Economies

    PubMed Central

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Economic (business) cycles are some of the most noted features of market economies, also ranked among the most serious of economic problems. Despite long historical persistence, the nature and the origin of business cycles remain controversial. In this paper we investigate the problem of the nature of business cycles from the positions of the market systems viewed as complex systems of many interacting market agents. We show that the development of cyclic instabilities in these settings can be traced down to just two fundamental factors – the competition of market agents for market shares in the settings of an open market, and the depression of market caused by accumulation of durable overproduced commodities on the market. These findings present the problem of business cycles in a new light as a systemic property of efficient market systems emerging directly from the free market competition itself, and existing in market economies at a very fundamental level. PMID:24505319

  6. Political economy of oil

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    A nontechnical discussion of the political economy of the world oil market is intended to inform the beginning student as well as serve as a reference book. Beginning with definitions and an explanation of units, the text covers the world economy, oil supply, oil prices, oil consumption and non-oil energy materials supplies, oil companies, macroeconomics, and the market in an effort to relate both macro- and microeconomic phenomena. Professor Banks feels that population is the most crucial factor in economics today, followed by nonfuel minerals and energy; the technical problems pertaining to energy, however, can be managed if the first two are faced and dealt with. He thinks the outlook is good for replacing oil with other energy sources. 143 references, 23 figures, 26 tables. (DKC)

  7. Oscillations in rational economies.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Economic (business) cycles are some of the most noted features of market economies, also ranked among the most serious of economic problems. Despite long historical persistence, the nature and the origin of business cycles remain controversial. In this paper we investigate the problem of the nature of business cycles from the positions of the market systems viewed as complex systems of many interacting market agents. We show that the development of cyclic instabilities in these settings can be traced down to just two fundamental factors - the competition of market agents for market shares in the settings of an open market, and the depression of market caused by accumulation of durable overproduced commodities on the market. These findings present the problem of business cycles in a new light as a systemic property of efficient market systems emerging directly from the free market competition itself, and existing in market economies at a very fundamental level.

  8. Implementing the ICPD Plan of Action in Central Asian Republics and Kazakhstan (CARAK). Turkmenistan. Abortion rate declines.

    PubMed

    Mamedov, K

    1995-05-01

    Turkmenistan has a population of 4,361,300. Its composition by nationality is 72% Turmen; 9.5% Russian; 9% Uzbek; 2.5% Kazakh; and 7% other. The majority of the population is Muslim. The annual rate of increase in population is 3%. The birth rate is 33.1 per 1000, and the natural growth rate is 25.2 per 1000. The maternal mortality rate is 105.3 per 100,000 live births. The main cause of maternal mortality is obstetrical hemorrhage, which accounts for one-third of deaths. The perinatal mortality rate is 23.8 per 1000 live births (stillbirths, 14.5; neonates, 9.3). Preterm infants account for 42.2% of perinatal mortality. A family planning service has existed in the country since 1989. The IUD is the most popular contraceptive method; 41,666 coils were inserted in 1993. Hormonal contraception was received by 0.2% (1610 women). In the past five years, the rate of abortion per 1000 women of childbearing age has declined by 27.2%. The widespread revival of the traditional practice of exclusive breast feeding has aided family planning; a level of up to 98% natural contraceptive protection can be achieved as a result of lactation amenorrhea until the infant is six months old, and up to 90-92% until the infant is 12 months old.

  9. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard D.; Barber, David S.; Betsill, J. David; Littlfield, Adriane C.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Shanks, Sonoya T.; Yuldashev, Bekhzad; Salikhbaev, Umar; Radyuk, Raisa; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Amwar; Vasilev, Ivan; Tolongutov, Bajgabyl; Valentina, Alekhina; Solodukhin, Vladimir; Pozniak, Victor

    2002-04-02

    The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site, and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

  10. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  11. Using Seabird Habitat Modeling to Inform Marine Spatial Planning in Central California’s National Marine Sanctuaries

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Jennifer; Hines, Ellen; Elliott, Meredith; Howar, Julie; Dransfield, Andrea; Nur, Nadav; Jahncke, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Understanding seabird habitat preferences is critical to future wildlife conservation and threat mitigation in California. The objective of this study was to investigate drivers of seabird habitat selection within the Gulf of the Farallones and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries to identify areas for targeted conservation planning. We used seabird abundance data collected by the Applied California Current Ecosystem Studies Program (ACCESS) from 2004–2011. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression to model species abundance and distribution as a function of near surface ocean water properties, distances to geographic features and oceanographic climate indices to identify patterns in foraging habitat selection. We evaluated seasonal, inter-annual and species-specific variability of at-sea distributions for the five most abundant seabirds nesting on the Farallon Islands: western gull (Larus occidentalis), common murre (Uria aalge), Cassin’s auklet (Ptychorampus aleuticus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata) and Brandt’s cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus). The waters in the vicinity of Cordell Bank and the continental shelf east of the Farallon Islands emerged as persistent and highly selected foraging areas across all species. Further, we conducted a spatial prioritization exercise to optimize seabird conservation areas with and without considering impacts of current human activities. We explored three conservation scenarios where 10, 30 and 50 percent of highly selected, species-specific foraging areas would be conserved. We compared and contrasted results in relation to existing marine protected areas (MPAs) and the future alternative energy footprint identified by the California Ocean Uses Atlas. Our results show that the majority of highly selected seabird habitat lies outside of state MPAs where threats from shipping, oil spills, and offshore energy development remain. This analysis accentuates the need for innovative marine

  12. Unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling: a management modality for treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in Henan Province of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-jun; Liu, Zhi-bin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Ji-ping; He, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Henan Province in China has a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Chinese medicine (CM) has been used throughout the last decade, and a management modality was developed, which can be described by unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling (UGC). The UGC modality has one primary concept (patient-centered medicine from CM theory), four basic foundations (classifying administrative region, characteristics of CM on disease treatment, health resource conditions, and distribution of patients living with HIV), six important relationships (the "three uniformities and three combinations," and the six relationships therein guide the treatment of AIDS with CM), and four key sections (management, operation, records, and evaluation). In this article, the authors introduce the UGC modality, which could be beneficial to developing countries or resource-limited areas for the management of chronic infectious disease.

  13. Economy, security slow EEZ work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The goal of a November 17-19, 1987, conference on the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was a cooperative scientific plan for the next decade of mapping of and research on the huge expanse of ocean floor lying within 200 nautical miles of U.S. shores. But two hard realities were evident in the speeches, discussions, and recommendations of the participants: Both economics and U.S. national security interests are stalling basic scientific research on the EEZ. The root of these problems, according to the conferees, is the lack of centralized national management of the marine dominion proclaimed by President Reagan in 1983.

  14. Gulf of Mexico Sales 139 and 141: Central and western planning areas. Final Environmental Impact Statement: Volume 2, Sections 4.D through 9

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses two proposed Federal actions, lease Sales 139 and 141, that will offer for lease Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas that may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. The lease sales are proposed for 1992 and include lease blocks in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA). Approximately 9700 blocks will be available for lease under the two proposed actions; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. On average, 432 blocks in the Central Gulf and 279 blocks in the Western Gulf have been leased in individual Gulf of Mexico OCS lease sales since 1984. Of the blocks that will be leased as a result of the two proposed actions, only a portion will be drilled and will likely result in subsequent production. The analytical methods used in this EIS have been formulated over a period of years and are based on the methodology outlined within the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The first step of the analysis is the identification of significant environmental and socioeconomic resources through the scoping process. A range of impact levels is then defined for each of the significant resources to be analyzed. A range of energy resource estimates is derived from geologic and economic assumptions and a range of alternatives to the proposed action is established. Estimated levels of exploration and development actively are assumed for the purposes of the analysis. A scoping process was used to obtain information and comments on the proposed actions and the potential environmental effects from diverse interests, including the affected States, Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals.

  15. The Methanol Economy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Olah, George; Prakash, G. K.

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  16. Research fuels local economies

    SciTech Connect

    Bosisio, M. )

    1990-04-01

    Research from US DOA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has resulted in a number of new products, alternative crops, and an increase in planted acreage of crops due to pest control by pheromones. Superslurper, produced from cornstarch, was found to absorb 1400 times its weight in moisture. This material is being used in fuel filters to remove water in fuel tanks and pumps. There is a growing market for these filters; superslurpers also are used in body powders, diapers, absorbent soft goods, batteries, soil additives, and in medical and recreational coldpacks. Local economies have benefited as a direct result of ARS efforts.

  17. Obtaining resources for evidence-based public health initiatives at the local level: insights from the Central Sydney Tobacco Control Plan.

    PubMed

    Rissel, C; McMaugh, K; O'Connor, D; Balafas, A; Ward, J

    1999-02-01

    In response to inquiries regarding the processes of developing a Tobacco Control Plan (TCP) for the Central Sydney Area Health Service (which in 1997 allocated dedicated funding of $ 800,000 over 2 1/2 years to implement the plan), this article describes the strengths and weaknesses of the TCP and outlines the process which contributed to its funding. Consistent with national and state priorities, the TCP recommended strategies based on best available evidence in the four action areas: reducing sales of cigarettes to minors, marketing, passive smoking and smoking cessation. Funding of this amount for a single public health issue at a local level represents a unique achievement in the application of an evidence-based approach to population health. Key elements of our advocacy methods included the involvement of all key primary health care and clinical stakeholders; comprehensive background research to identify evidence-based strategies; careful attention to budget options; strategic lobbying of senior staff and decision makers; the proposal for a multidisciplinary management structure for the TCP and specifications for funding allocation and evaluation. Early achievements and other reflections are discussed.

  18. Demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors among family planning service users, Batu town, Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haile, Anley; Fantahun, Mesganaw

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests a high unsatisfied demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited knowledge on demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors among women of age group 18-49 years in Batu town, East Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional survey was conducted in six service delivery points from March to April 2009 on 398 women of age 18-49 years old. Thirteen (3%) were using long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and 89 (22.4%) wanted no more child in the future making the total demand of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods 24.4%. Older age group, multiparty, that the provider asked about reproductive intention, and the provider explained side effects of method selected were significantly associated with using LA and MPs (P < 0.05). There is high total demand and several socio demographic and family planning service quality related factors were associated with demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods indicating that multi-dimensional measures are needed to improve the use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods.

  19. An Enhanced Role of the Economics Element of National Power in Military Operations: The Mexican Economy as a Case Study for U.S. Northern Command Theater Security Cooperation (TSC) Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-26

    Cooperation (TSC) Planning 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Theater Security Cooperation (TSC) plan focused on economics might be implemented to improve Mexico’s trade and commerce. Five recommendations based on...effective solutions developed by various nations facing challenges similar to those of Mexico are proposed in support of a TSC plan . These lines of

  20. Jobs Plan Highlights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    President Barack Obama is putting new money to save educators' jobs and help states refurbish aging school facilities at the center of a nearly $450 billion plan to jump-start the sluggish economy. The author talks about the president's plan which is sure to face hurdles in a politically polarized Washington where one house of Congress is…

  1. Financing pharmaceuticals in transition economies.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper (a) provides a methodological taxonomy of pricing, financing, reimbursement, and cost containment methodologies for pharmaceuticals; (b) analyzes complex agency relationships and the health versus industrial policy tradeoff; (c) pinpoints financing measures to balance safety and effectiveness of medicines and their affordability by publicly funded systems in transition; and (d) highlights viable options for policy-makers for the financing of pharmaceuticals in transition. Three categories of measures and their implications for pharmaceutical policy cost containing are analyzed: supply-side measures, targeting manufacturers, proxy demand-side measures, targeting physicians and pharmacists, and demand-side measures, targeting patients. In pursuing supply side measures, we explore free pricing for pharmaceuticals, direct price controls, cost-plus and cost pricing, average pricing and international price comparisons, profit control, reference pricing, the introduction of a fourth hurdle, positive and negative lists, and other price control measures. The analysis of proxy-demand measures includes budgets for physicians, generic policies, practice guidelines, monitoring the authorizing behavior of physicians, and disease management schemes. Demand-side measures explore the effectiveness of patient co-payments, the impact of allowing products over-the-counter and health promotion programs. Global policies should operate simultaneously on the supply, the proxy demand, and the demand-side. Policy-making needs to have a continuous long-term planning. The importation of policies into transition economy may require extensive and expensive adaptation, and/or lead to sub-optimal policy outcomes.

  2. Defense Spending and the Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-04

    DEFENSE SPENDING AND THE ECONOMY Statement of Alice M. Rivlin, Director Congressional Budget Office Before the Committee on Armed Services U.S. House...and the Economy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...keeping the unemployment rate high and the economy operating below capacity at least through 1984. The CBO forecast projects a continued significant

  3. Oil and the British economy

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, F.; Hall, S.

    1983-01-01

    Despite the 1976 discovery of North Sea oil, the British economy has floundered in the early 1980s. To uncover the reasons behind this predicament, the authors examine the North Sea oil sector, show the impact of its recent development on the British economy, and analyze the automatic responses of an economy to the development of such a new sector, the ''Kay debate,'' and the experience of six other countries with oil and the manufacturing industry.

  4. Macroeconomics in an open economy.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R N

    1986-09-12

    The customary treatment of national economies as closed and self-contained must be substantially modified to allow for those economies that typically trade goods, services, and securities with other countries in increasing volume. Open economy macroeconomics is essential to understanding the major events of the U.S. economy over the past half dozen years. Both the sharp rise in the dollar and the unprecedentedly large U.S. trade deficit are linked to the U.S. budget deficit, as is the drop in the rate of inflation.

  5. The economics of central billing offices.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, E; Nguyen, L

    2000-01-01

    The anticipation of economies of scale in physician billing has led many medical practices to consolidate their billing operations. This article analyzes these economies of scale, comparing performance indicators from centralized and decentralized operations. While consolidation provides compliance, control and information, diseconomies of scale can exist in the centralized receivables management process. The authors conclude that physician practices should consider a hybrid approach to billing, thus reaping the benefits of both centralization and decentralization.

  6. [Economy class syndrome].

    PubMed

    Morio, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    Economy class syndrome is venous thromboembolism following air travel. This syndrome was firstly reported in 1946, and many cases have been reported since 1990s. Low air pressure and low humidity in the aircraft cabin may contribute to the mechanism of this syndrome. Risk factors for venous thrombosis in the plane were old age, small height, obesity, hormonal therapy, malignancy, smoking, pregnancy or recent parturition, recent trauma or operation, chronic disease and history of venous thrombosis. In Japan, the feminine gender is also risk factor though reason was not well known. For prophylaxis, adequate fluid intake and leg exercise are recommended to all passengers. For passengers with high risk, prophylactic measures such as compression stockings, aspirin or low molecular weight heparin should be considered.

  7. A treatment planning comparison between modulated tri-cobalt-60 teletherapy and linear accelerator-based stereotactic body radiotherapy for central early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Merna, Catherine; Rwigema, Jean-Claude M; Cao, Minsong; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kishan, Amar U; Michailian, Argin; Lamb, James; Sheng, Ke; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Low, Daniel A; Kupelian, Patrick; Steinberg, Michael L; Lee, Percy

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of planning stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for large central early-stage non-small cell lung cancer with a tri-cobalt-60 (tri-(60)Co) system equipped with real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance, as compared to linear accelerator (LINAC)-based SBRT. In all, 20 patients with large central early-stage non-small cell lung cancer who were treated between 2010 and 2015 with LINAC-based SBRT were replanned using a tri-(60)Co system for a prescription dose of 50Gy in 4 fractions. Doses to organs at risk were evaluated based on established MD Anderson constraints for central lung SBRT. R100 values were calculated as the total tissue volume receiving 100% of the dose (V100) divided by the planning target volume and compared to assess dose conformity. Dosimetric comparisons between LINAC-based and tri-(60)Co SBRT plans were performed using Student׳s t-test and Wilcoxon Ranks test. Blinded reviews by radiation oncologists were performed to assess the suitability of both plans for clinical delivery. The mean planning target volume was 48.3cc (range: 12.1 to 139.4cc). Of the tri-(60)Co SBRT plans, a mean 97.4% of dosimetric parameters per patient met MD Anderson dose constraints, whereas a mean 98.8% of dosimetric parameters per patient were met with LINAC-based SBRT planning (p = 0.056). R100 values were similar between both plans (1.20 vs 1.21, p = 0.79). Upon blinded review by 4 radiation oncologists, an average of 90% of the tri-(60)Co SBRT plans were considered acceptable for clinical delivery compared with 100% of the corresponding LINAC-based SBRT plans (p = 0.17). SBRT planning using the tri-(60)Co system with built-in MRI is feasible and achieves clinically acceptable plans for most central lung patients, with similar target dose conformity and organ at risk dosimetry. The added benefit of real-time MRI-guided therapy may further optimize tumor targeting while improving normal tissue sparing, which warrants further

  8. A treatment planning comparison between modulated tri-cobalt-60 teletherapy and linear accelerator–based stereotactic body radiotherapy for central early-stage non−small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Merna, Catherine; Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Cao, Minsong; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kishan, Amar U.; Michailian, Argin; Lamb, James; Sheng, Ke; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Steinberg, Michael L.; Lee, Percy

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of planning stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for large central early-stage non−small cell lung cancer with a tri-cobalt-60 (tri-{sup 60}Co) system equipped with real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance, as compared to linear accelerator (LINAC)–based SBRT. In all, 20 patients with large central early-stage non−small cell lung cancer who were treated between 2010 and 2015 with LINAC-based SBRT were replanned using a tri-{sup 60}Co system for a prescription dose of 50 Gy in 4 fractions. Doses to organs at risk were evaluated based on established MD Anderson constraints for central lung SBRT. R{sub 100} values were calculated as the total tissue volume receiving 100% of the dose (V{sub 100}) divided by the planning target volume and compared to assess dose conformity. Dosimetric comparisons between LINAC-based and tri-{sup 60}Co SBRT plans were performed using Student's t-test and Wilcoxon Ranks test. Blinded reviews by radiation oncologists were performed to assess the suitability of both plans for clinical delivery. The mean planning target volume was 48.3 cc (range: 12.1 to 139.4 cc). Of the tri-{sup 60}Co SBRT plans, a mean 97.4% of dosimetric parameters per patient met MD Anderson dose constraints, whereas a mean 98.8% of dosimetric parameters per patient were met with LINAC-based SBRT planning (p = 0.056). R{sub 100} values were similar between both plans (1.20 vs 1.21, p = 0.79). Upon blinded review by 4 radiation oncologists, an average of 90% of the tri-{sup 60}Co SBRT plans were considered acceptable for clinical delivery compared with 100% of the corresponding LINAC-based SBRT plans (p = 0.17). SBRT planning using the tri-{sup 60}Co system with built-in MRI is feasible and achieves clinically acceptable plans for most central lung patients, with similar target dose conformity and organ at risk dosimetry. The added benefit of real-time MRI-guided therapy may further optimize tumor targeting while improving

  9. Addendum to: Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, DOE/NV-977

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    The environmental remediation closure process for the nuclear test at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) has progressed from the approved Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) to this addendum. The closure process required the installation of three monitoring/validation (MV) wells and validation analysis of the flow and transport model. The model validation analysis led to the conclusion that the hydraulic heads simulated by the flow model did not adequately predict observed heads at the MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3 validation points (wells and piezometers). The observed heads from screened intervals near the test horizon were higher than the model predicted and are believed to be the result of detonation-related effects that have persisted since the nuclear test. These effects, which include elevated heads out from the detonation zone and lower heads in the immediate vicinity of the detonation, are seen at other nuclear tests and typically dissipate within a few years. These effects were not included in the initial head distribution of the model. The head variations at CNTA are believed to have persisted due to the very low permeability of the material at the detonation level.

  10. SU-E-J-55: Dosimetric Evaluation of Centrally Located Lung Tumors: A Monte Carlo (MC) Study of Lung SBRT Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhrel, D; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Saleh, H; Estes, C; Park, J; Kumar, P; Wang, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare dose distributions calculated using the iPlan XVMC algorithm and heterogeneities corrected/uncorrected Pencil Beam (PB-hete/PB-homo) algorithms for SBRT treatments of lung tumors. Methods: Ten patients with centrally located solitary lung tumors were treated using MC-based SBRT to 60Gy in 5 fractions for PTVV100%=95%. ITV was delineated on MIP-images based on 4D-CT scans. PTVs(ITV+5mm margins) ranged from 10.1–106.5cc(mean=48.6cc). MC-SBRT plans were generated with a combination of non-coplanar conformal arcs/beams using iPlan-XVMC-algorithm (BrainLABiPlan ver.4.1.2) for Novalis-TX consisting of HD-MLCs and 6MV-SRS(1000MU/min) mode, following RTOG 0813 dosimetric criteria. For comparison, PB-hete/PB-homo algorithms were used to re-calculate dose distributions using same beam configurations, MLCs/monitor units. Plans were evaluated with isocenter/maximal/mean doses to PTV. Normal lung doses were evaluated with V5/V10/V20 and mean-lung-dose(MLD), excluding PTV. Other OAR doses such as maximal spinal cord/2cc-esophagus/max bronchial tree (BT/maximal heart doses were tabulated. Results: Maximal/mean/isocenter doses to PTV calculated by PB-hete were uniformly larger than MC plans by a factors of 1.09/1.13/1.07, on average, whereas they were consistently lower by PB-homo by a factors of 0.9/0.84/0.9, respectively. The volume covered by 5Gy/10Gy/20Gy isodose-lines of the lung were comparable (average within±3%) when calculated by PB-hete compared to XVMC, but, consistently lower by PB-homo by a factors of 0.90/0.88/0.85, respectively. MLD was higher with PB-hete by 1.05, but, lower by PB-homo by 0.9, on average, compared to XVMC. XVMC max-cord/max-BT/max-heart and 2cc of esophagus doses were comparable to PB-hete; however, PB-homo underestimates by a factors of 0.82/0.89/0.88/0.86, on average, respectively. Conclusion: PB-hete significantly overestimates dose to PTV relative to XVMC -hence underdosing the target. MC is more complex and accurate with

  11. The Economy of Energy Conservation in Educational Facilities. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    Prepared with the assistance of a panel of experts, this report sets forth available information for school architects and administrators facing the energy crisis. The booklet tells specifically how economies can be effected in the operation and maintenance of school buildings; in the modernization of existing schools; and in the planning of…

  12. Developing Graduate Marketing Programs for Economies in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadraba, Petr G.; O'Keefe, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes some of the authors' experiences in introducing marketing concepts to students involved in the transition from planned to market economies. It addresses critical issues involved in the translation of these concepts within languages that often have no words that are synonymous with these terms. The authors discuss methods…

  13. Worklife Visions. Redefining Work for the Information Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Jeffrey J.

    The changing economy is affecting everyone's life, especially from the standpoint of prospects for earning a living and pursuing a meaningful career. A clear understanding of the changing nature and dimensions of work is a necessary requisite to planning careers, managing employees, and developing effective employment policies. Preparing for the…

  14. Developing Graduate Marketing Programs for Economies in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadraba, Petr G.; O'Keefe, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes some of the authors' experiences in introducing marketing concepts to students involved in the transition from planned to market economies. It addresses critical issues involved in the translation of these concepts within languages that often have no words that are synonymous with these terms. The authors discuss methods…

  15. Worklife Visions. Redefining Work for the Information Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Jeffrey J.

    The changing economy is affecting everyone's life, especially from the standpoint of prospects for earning a living and pursuing a meaningful career. A clear understanding of the changing nature and dimensions of work is a necessary requisite to planning careers, managing employees, and developing effective employment policies. Preparing for the…

  16. Virtual Economies: Threats and Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Hammer, Jessica; Camp, Jean; Callas, Jon; Bond, Mike

    In virtual economies, human and computer players produce goods and services, hold assets, and trade them with other in-game entities, in the same way that people and corporations participate in "real-world" economies. As the border between virtual worlds and the real world grows more and more permeable, privacy and security in virtual worlds matter more and more.

  17. Political economy challenges in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Balarajan, Yarlini; Reich, Michael R

    2016-11-05

    Historically, implementing nutrition policy has confronted persistent obstacles, with many of these obstacles arising from political economy sources. While there has been increased global policy attention to improving nutrition in recent years, the difficulty of translating this policy momentum into results remains. We present key political economy themes emanating from the political economy of nutrition literature. Together, these interrelated themes create a complex web of obstacles to moving nutrition policy forward. From these themes, we frame six political economy challenges facing the implementation of nutrition policy today. Building awareness of the broader political and economic issues that shape nutrition actions and adopting a more systematic approach to political economy analysis may help to mitigate these challenges. Improving nutrition will require managing the political economy challenges that persist in the nutrition field at global, national and subnational levels. We argue that a "mindshift" is required to build greater awareness of the broader political economy factors shaping the global nutrition landscape; and to embed systematic political economy analysis into the work of stakeholders navigating this field. This mindshift may help to improve the political feasibility of efforts to reform nutrition policy and implementation-and ensure that historical legacies do not continue to shape the future.

  18. Fuel Economy Testing and Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Fuel Economy pages provide information on current standards and how federal agencies work to enforce those laws, testing for national Corporate Average Fuel Economy or CAFE standards, and what you can do to reduce your own vehicle emissions.

  19. Why Classroom Token Economies Fail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabman, Ronald S.; Tucker, Richard D.

    1974-01-01

    The reasons for clinical failures of classroom token economies are divided into three groups: (1) Problems associated with the token program itself, (2) Problems associated with the teacher, and (3) Problems associated with the specific population on which the classroom token economy is used. Each of these problem areas is discussed. (Author)

  20. Can Education Save the Economy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noy, Michelle; Zeidenberg, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The recent global economic downturn is causing U.S. workers and employers to look to the educational system for skills that will allow them to thrive when the economy recovers. Education alone cannot save the economy. Much larger forces are at work, such as international equity and debt markets, the banking crisis, and the deflation of consumer …

  1. Teaching about the American Economy in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Teh-wei

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates the current state of teaching about the U.S. economy in the People's Republic of China. Provides information to promote a better understanding of the background of economics of students coming from China to the United States as well as providing information to U.S. economists planning on teaching about the economy of China. (BSR)

  2. Ocean climate indicators: A monitoring inventory and plan for tracking climate change in the north-central California coast and ocean region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, Benet; Higgason, Kelley; Suchanek, Tom; Largier, John; Stachowicz, Jay; Allen, Sarah; Bograd, Steven; Breen, R.; Gellerman, Holly; Hill, Tessa; Jahncke, Jaime; Johnosn, Rebecca; Lonhart, Steve I.; Morgan, Steven; Wilkerson, Frances; Roletto, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of climate change, defined as increasing atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide and associated increases in average global temperature and oceanic acidity, have been observed both globally and on regional scales, such as in the North-central California coast and ocean, a region that extends from Point Arena to Point Año Nuevo and includes the Pacific coastline of the San Francisco Bay Area. Because of the high economic and ecological value of the region’s marine environment, the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) and other agencies and organizations have recognized the need to evaluate and plan for climate change impacts. Climate change indicators can be developed on global, regional, and site-specific spatial scales, and they provide information about the presence and potential impacts of climate change. While indicators exist for the nation and for the state of California as a whole, no system of ocean climate indicators exist that specifically consider the unique characteristics of the California coast and ocean region. To that end, GFNMS collaborated with over 50 regional, federal, and state natural resource managers, research scientists, and other partners to develop a set of 2 ocean climate indicators specific to this region. A smaller working group of 13 regional partners developed monitoring goals, objectives, strategies, and activities for the indicators and recommended selected species for biological indicators, resulting in the Ocean Climate Indicators Monitoring Inventory and Plan. The working group considered current knowledge of ongoing monitoring, feasibility of monitoring, costs, and logistics in selecting monitoring activities and selected species.

  3. Project plan-Surficial geologic mapping and hydrogeologic framework studies in the Greater Platte River Basins (Central Great Plains) in support of ecosystem and climate change research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Margaret E.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Slate, Janet L.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Sawyer, David A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basin area spans a central part of the Midcontinent and Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains on the west to the Missouri River on the east, and is defined to include drainage areas of the Platte, Niobrara, and Republican Rivers, the Rainwater Basin, and other adjoining areas overlying the northern High Plains aquifer. The Greater Platte River Basin contains abundant surficial deposits that were sensitive to, or are reflective of, the climate under which they formed: deposits from multiple glaciations in the mountain headwaters of the North and South Platte Rivers and from continental ice sheets in eastern Nebraska; fluvial terraces (ranging from Tertiary to Holocene in age) along the rivers and streams; vast areas of eolian sand in the Nebraska Sand Hills and other dune fields (recording multiple episodes of dune activity); thick sequences of windblown silt (loess); and sediment deposited in numerous lakes and wetlands. In addition, the Greater Platte River Basin overlies and contributes surface water to the High Plains aquifer, a nationally important groundwater system that underlies parts of eight states and sustains one of the major agricultural areas of the United States. The area also provides critical nesting habitat for birds such as plovers and terns, and roosting habitat for cranes and other migratory birds that travel through the Central Flyway of North America. This broad area, containing fragile ecosystems that could be further threatened by changes in climate and land use, has been identified by the USGS and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln as a region where intensive collaborative research could lead to a better understanding of climate change and what might be done to adapt to or mitigate its adverse effects to ecosystems and to humans. The need for robust data on the geologic framework of ecosystems in the Greater Platte River Basin has been acknowledged in proceedings from the 2008 Climate Change Workshop and in draft

  4. A Political Economy of University Funding: The English Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Murray

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the coalition United Kingdom government policy on university funding in England as a political economy. It depicts higher education as a public and private good in the context of international trends in "cost sharing" and it addresses the centrality of economic drivers for the profile and orientation of higher…

  5. Work in Progress: Narratives of Aspiration from the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George

    2006-01-01

    Central to the discourses of the new economy is the model of the flexible, adaptive, ambitious and individualistic worker. This article considers the subjective purchase of that model by analysing interviews with three young women living and working in urban Australia. Their respective narratives of aspiration illustrate contrasting responses to…

  6. A Political Economy of University Funding: The English Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Murray

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the coalition United Kingdom government policy on university funding in England as a political economy. It depicts higher education as a public and private good in the context of international trends in "cost sharing" and it addresses the centrality of economic drivers for the profile and orientation of higher…

  7. Hidden Challenges to Education Systems in Transition Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Sue E.

    This book, published by the World Bank, sounds the alarm for education in Europe and Central Asia (ECA). It describes how the transition from communism to free-market economies has left many countries' educational systems in disarray. At the start of transition, ECA education systems had solved problems that plagued other regions of the world,…

  8. Hidden Challenges to Education Systems in Transition Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Sue E.

    This book, published by the World Bank, sounds the alarm for education in Europe and Central Asia (ECA). It describes how the transition from communism to free-market economies has left many countries' educational systems in disarray. At the start of transition, ECA education systems had solved problems that plagued other regions of the world,…

  9. The European House of Education: Education and Economy--A New Partnership. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    Five areas essential to developing partnerships between the education systems and economies of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe were analyzed: (1) state and social partner roles in supporting links between education/training and the economy; (2) contribution of the world of work to education and training; (3) education/training to…

  10. Annual Plan - Fiscal Year 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This plan describes how the OIG will achieve its statutory mission of promoting economy, efficiency, effectiveness and integrity relating to the programs and operations of the EPA and the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.

  11. Annual Plan - Fiscal Year 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This plan describes how the OIG will achieve its statutory mission of promoting economy, efficiency, effectiveness and integrity relating to the programs and operations of the EPA and the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.

  12. A theory for classification of health care organizations in the new economy.

    PubMed

    Vimarlund, Vivian; Sjöberg, Cecilia; Timpka, Toomas

    2003-10-01

    Most of the available studies into information technology (IT) have been limited to investigating specific issues, such as how IT can support decision makers distributing the information throughout health care organization, or how technology impacts organizational performance. In this study, for use in the planning of information system development projects, a theoretical model for the classification of health care organizations is proposed. We try to reflect the development in the contemporary digital economy by theoretically classifying health care organizations into three types, namely traditional, developing, and flexible. We describe traditional health care organizations as organizations with a centralized system for management and control. In developing health care organizations, IT is spread over the horizontal dimension and is used for coordinating the different parties throughout the organization. Finally, flexible health care organizations are those which work actively with the design of new health care organizational structure while they are designing the information system.

  13. Fertility and the economy.

    PubMed

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when

  14. Pakistan: social basis of the economy.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    Pakistan's gross domestic product (GDP) has grown at an average of 5.3%/year since 1950 and real per capita income has increased 3.7%/year over the past decade, despite a 3% annual population growth rate. Contributing to this dynamic economic growth have been migration, the construction of a new national economy following independence, controlled irrigation, foreign exchange availability, and an expectation on the part of the public of higher earnings and consumption. Despite these trends, the Pakistan economy is structurally weak and there have been rapid increases in both the domestic and foreign debt. Economic growth has been based largely on trading and soft services. Government departments are known for their corruption. This self-contradictory economic picture derives directly from the structure of Pakistani society, which is dominated by the elite of Punjab Province. Urbanization is increasing economic inequality in the society, and government taxation policies are biased toward big agriculture and industry. Pakistan's poor performance in education, social development, and family planning are expected to inhibit future economic development. Only 26% of Pakistanis are literate, reflecting the low social value placed on education. Even in urban areas, there is no evidence of a decline in fertility. This results from the psychological and economic need for children, women's limited roles, Islamic opposition to family planning, and inefficient government delivery of social services. Within a few years, population growth will magnify the structural weaknesses of the Pakistan economy. It is hoped that the dynamic nature of Panjabi values and behavior, especially of the new middle class, will lead to a redress of this situation.

  15. Statement of basis/proposed plan for the Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit (631-6G). Revision 1, Final

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1996-10-24

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G (BRP6G) located at SRS, in northwestern Barnwell County, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process. Arsenic, beryllium, iron, and octachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin isomers (OCDD) concentrations in the pit soil are at levels consistent with those found in the background. Therefore, the only contamination attributable to actions in BRP6G is PCB-1254. After the risk contributions of these chemicals are eliminated, the only remaining risk attributable to the pit soil is from PCB-1254 (about 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} via ingestion of vegetables grown on-site). The maximum concentration of PCB-1254 detected in the pit was 0.115 mg/kg, approximately 10% of the residential action level for PCBs of 1 mg/kg. Based on the results of the remedial investigation and the BRA, it is proposed that No Action be performed for the BRP6G. Considering the low levels of residual contamination present principally below 1.2 meters (4 feet) within the pit and the associated risks (about 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}) within the lower level of EPA`s target risk range, action is not warranted for this unit.

  16. Economies of scale and scope in Vietnamese hospitals.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Marcia; Deolalikar, Anil

    2004-07-01

    Hospitals consume a large share of health resources in developing countries, but little is known about the efficiency of their scale and scope. The Ministry of Health of Vietnam and World Bank collected data in 1996 from the largest sample ever surveyed in a developing country. The sample included 654 out of 815 public hospitals, six categories of hospitals and a broad range of sizes. These data were used to estimate total variable cost as a function of multiple products, such as admissions and outpatient visits. We report results for two specifications: (1) estimates with a single variable for beds and (2) estimates with interaction terms for beds and the category of hospital. The coefficient estimates were used to calculate marginal costs, short-run returns to the variable factor, economies of scale, and economies of scope for each category of hospital. There were important differences across categories of hospitals. The measure of economies of scale was 1.09 for central general and 1.05 for central specialty hospitals with a mean of 516 and 226 beds, respectively, indicating roughly constant returns to scale. The measure was well below one for both provincial general and specialty hospitals with a mean of 357 and 192 beds, respectively, indicating large diseconomies of scale. The measure was 1.16 for district hospitals and 0.89 other ministry hospitals indicating modest economies and diseconomies of scale, respectively. There were large economies of scope for central and provincial general hospitals. We conclude that in a system of public hospitals in a developing country that followed an administrative structure, the variable cost function differed significantly across categories of hospitals. Economies of scale and scope depended on the category of the hospital in addition to the number of beds and volume of output. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. An Estimate of Nova Southeastern University's Impact on Florida's Economy in 2010: Contributions from the Planned $500 Million Medical and Research-Intensive Academic Village and from Projected Student Enrollment. Report 04-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    Nova Southeastern University is the 10th largest private, not-for-profit, postsecondary institution in the United States, based on Fall Term 2002 unduplicated enrollment statistics reported to the National Center for Education Statistics. It was recently announced that Nova Southeastern University plans to build a $500 million academic village,…

  18. Digitalizing the Circular Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Markus A.

    2016-12-01

    Metallurgy is a key enabler of a circular economy (CE), its digitalization is the metallurgical Internet of Things (m-IoT). In short: Metallurgy is at the heart of a CE, as metals all have strong intrinsic recycling potentials. Process metallurgy, as a key enabler for a CE, will help much to deliver its goals. The first-principles models of process engineering help quantify the resource efficiency (RE) of the CE system, connecting all stakeholders via digitalization. This provides well-argued and first-principles environmental information to empower a tax paying consumer society, policy, legislators, and environmentalists. It provides the details of capital expenditure and operational expenditure estimates. Through this path, the opportunities and limits of a CE, recycling, and its technology can be estimated. The true boundaries of sustainability can be determined in addition to the techno-economic evaluation of RE. The integration of metallurgical reactor technology and systems digitally, not only on one site but linking different sites globally via hardware, is the basis for describing CE systems as dynamic feedback control loops, i.e., the m-IoT. It is the linkage of the global carrier metallurgical processing system infrastructure that maximizes the recovery of all minor and technology elements in its associated refining metallurgical infrastructure. This will be illustrated through the following: (1) System optimization models for multimetal metallurgical processing. These map large-scale m-IoT systems linked to computer-aided design tools of the original equipment manufacturers and then establish a recycling index through the quantification of RE. (2) Reactor optimization and industrial system solutions to realize the "CE (within a) Corporation—CEC," realizing the CE of society. (3) Real-time measurement of ore and scrap properties in intelligent plant structures, linked to the modeling, simulation, and optimization of industrial extractive process

  19. Building a knowledge based economy in Russia using guided entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznik, Boris N.; Daniels, Marc; Ichim, Thomas E.; Reznik, David L.

    2005-06-01

    Despite advanced scientific and technological (S&T) expertise, the Russian economy is presently based upon manufacturing and raw material exports. Currently, governmental incentives are attempting to leverage the existing scientific infrastructure through the concept of building a Knowledge Based Economy. However, socio-economic changes do not occur solely by decree, but by alteration of approach to the market. Here we describe the "Guided Entrepreneurship" plan, a series of steps needed for generation of an army of entrepreneurs, which initiate a chain reaction of S&T-driven growth. The situation in Russia is placed in the framework of other areas where Guided Entrepreneurship has been successful.

  20. NAFTA and the Mexican Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-04

    their social and economic environment. The study states that NAFTA accelerated the transition of Mexico to a liberalized economy but did not create the...Trade Agreement (NAFTA), in effect since January 1994, plays a very strong role in the bilateral economic relationship between Mexico and the United...health issues. The effects of NAFTA on Mexico and the state of the Mexican economy have important impacts on U.S. economic and political interests. As

  1. Defense Spending and the Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-07

    DEFENSE SPENDING AND THE ECONOMY Rudolph G. Penner Director Congressional Budget Office Before the Task Force on Economic Policy and Growth...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Spending and the Economy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Administration budgets have proposed even more defense spending and less nondefense spending than provided in the resolution. Additional emphasis on defense

  2. A Planning Revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heneghan, C.

    1999-01-01

    The traditional centralized planning and scheduling of complex fast moving projects are value-added activites. However, centralized scheduling has some severe deficiencies that have plagued managers since the Polaris project when PERT analysis was invented.

  3. A Planning Revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heneghan, C.

    1999-01-01

    The traditional centralized planning and scheduling of complex fast moving projects are value-added activites. However, centralized scheduling has some severe deficiencies that have plagued managers since the Polaris project when PERT analysis was invented.

  4. MARKAL-MACRO: A linked model for energy-economy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Manne, A.S. ); Wene, C.O. Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg )

    1992-02-01

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage for energy and economy analysis. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy strategy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing the technologies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the development of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled top-down macroeconomic'' and bottom-up engineering'' perspectives. MARKAL is a systems engineering (physical process) analysis built on the concept of a Reference Energy System (RES). MARKAL is solved by means of dynamic linear programming. In most applications, the end use demands are fixed, and an economically efficient solution is obtained by minimizing the present value of energy system's costs throughout the planning horizon. MACRO is a macroeconomic model with an aggregated view of long-term economic growth. The basis input factors of production are capital, labor and individual forms of energy. MACRO is solved by nonlinear optimization.

  5. MARKAL-MACRO: A linked model for energy-economy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Manne, A.S.; Wene, C.O. |

    1992-02-01

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage for energy and economy analysis. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy strategy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing the technologies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the development of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled ``top-down macroeconomic`` and ``bottom-up engineering`` perspectives. MARKAL is a systems engineering (physical process) analysis built on the concept of a Reference Energy System (RES). MARKAL is solved by means of dynamic linear programming. In most applications, the end use demands are fixed, and an economically efficient solution is obtained by minimizing the present value of energy system`s costs throughout the planning horizon. MACRO is a macroeconomic model with an aggregated view of long-term economic growth. The basis input factors of production are capital, labor and individual forms of energy. MACRO is solved by nonlinear optimization.

  6. Data integration modeling applied to drill hole planning through semi-supervised learning: A case study from the Dalli Cu-Au porphyry deposit in the central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatehi, Moslem; Asadi, Hooshang H.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the application of a transductive support vector machine (TSVM), an innovative semi-supervised learning algorithm, has been proposed for mapping the potential drill targets at a detailed exploration stage. The semi-supervised learning method is a hybrid of supervised and unsupervised learning approach that simultaneously uses both training and non-training data to design a classifier. By using the TSVM algorithm, exploration layers at the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit in the central Iran were integrated to locate the boundary of the Cu-Au mineralization for further drilling. By applying this algorithm on the non-training (unlabeled) and limited training (labeled) Dalli exploration data, the study area was classified in two domains of Cu-Au ore and waste. Then, the results were validated by the earlier block models created, using the available borehole and trench data. In addition to TSVM, the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was also implemented on the study area for comparison. Thirty percent of the labeled exploration data was used to evaluate the performance of these two algorithms. The results revealed 87 percent correct recognition accuracy for the TSVM algorithm and 82 percent for the SVM algorithm. The deepest inclined borehole, recently drilled in the western part of the Dalli deposit, indicated that the boundary of Cu-Au mineralization, as identified by the TSVM algorithm, was only 15 m off from the actual boundary intersected by this borehole. According to the results of the TSVM algorithm, six new boreholes were suggested for further drilling at the Dalli deposit. This study showed that the TSVM algorithm could be a useful tool for enhancing the mineralization zones and consequently, ensuring a more accurate drill hole planning.

  7. Value of three-dimensional volume rendering images in the assessment of the centrality index for preoperative planning in patients with renal masses.

    PubMed

    Sofia, C; Magno, C; Silipigni, S; Cantisani, V; Mucciardi, G; Sottile, F; Inferrera, A; Mazziotti, S; Ascenti, G

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the precision of the centrality index (CI) measurement on three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering technique (VRT) images in patients with renal masses, compared to its standard measurement on axial images. Sixty-five patients with renal lesions underwent contrast-enhanced multidetector (MD) computed tomography (CT) for preoperative imaging. Two readers calculated the CI on two-dimensional axial images and on VRT images, measuring it in the plane that the tumour and centre of the kidney were lying in. Correlation and agreement of interobserver measurements and inter-method results were calculated using intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients and the Bland-Altman method. Time saving was also calculated. The correlation coefficients were r=0.99 (p<0.05) and r=0.99 (p<0.05) for both the CI on axial and VRT images, with an ICC of 0.99, and 0.99, respectively. Correlation between the two methods of measuring the CI on VRT and axial CT images was r=0.99 (p<0.05). The two methods showed a mean difference of -0.03 (SD 0.13). Mean time saving per each examination with VRT was 45.5%. The present study showed that VRT and axial images produce almost identical values of CI, with the advantages of greater ease of execution and a time saving of almost 50% for 3D VRT images. In addition, VRT provides an integrated perspective that can better assist surgeons in clinical decision making and in operative planning, suggesting this technique as a possible standard method for CI measurement. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plan of study to quantify the hydrologic relations between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system near Albuquerque, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAda, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin in central New Mexico covers an area of about 3,060 square miles. Ground water from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system of the Albuquerque Basin is the principal source of water for municipal, domestic, commercial, and industrial uses in the Albuquerque area, an area of about 410 square miles. Ground- water withdrawal in the basin has increased from about 97,000 acre-feet in 1970 to about 171,000 acre-feet in 1994. About 92 percent of the 1994 total was withdrawn in the Albuquerque area. Management of ground water in the Albuquerque Basin is related to the surface water in the Rio Grande. Because the aquifer system is hydraulically connected to the Rio Grande and water in the river is fully appropriated, the ability to reliably estimate the effects of ground-water withdrawals on flow in the river is important. This report describes the components of the Rio Grande/Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque area and the data availability and data and interpretation needs relating to those components, and presents a plan of study to quantify the hydrologic relations between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. The information needs related to the components of the river/aquifer system are prioritized. Information that is necessary to improve the understanding or quantification of a component in the river/aquifer system is prioritized as essential. Information that could add additional understanding of the system, but would not be necessary to improve the quantification of the system, is prioritized as useful. The study elements are prioritized in the same manner as the information needs; study elements designed to provide information considered necessary to improve the quantification of the system are prioritized as essential, and those designed to provide information that would add additional understanding of the system, but would not be necessary to improve the quantification of the system, are prioritized as useful.

  9. Education Stimulus Funds: An Opportunity to Plan Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakrani, Sharif

    2009-01-01

    Designed to stimulate the economy and employment, the "American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009" (ARRA), commonly referred to as the stimulus package or plan, is a crucial step in a massive effort to create and save 3 to 4 million jobs, jump-start the U.S. economy and begin the process of transforming the economy for the 21st…

  10. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  11. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a) Vehicle...

  12. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a) Vehicle...

  13. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a) Vehicle...

  14. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  15. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  16. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  17. Model Year 2017 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  18. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  19. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    PubMed

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies.

  20. Statistical mechanics of complex economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardoscia, Marco; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    In the pursuit of ever increasing efficiency and growth, our economies have evolved to remarkable degrees of complexity, with nested production processes feeding each other in order to create products of greater sophistication from less sophisticated ones, down to raw materials. The engine of such an expansion have been competitive markets that, according to general equilibrium theory (GET), achieve efficient allocations under specific conditions. We study large random economies within the GET framework, as templates of complex economies, and we find that a non-trivial phase transition occurs: the economy freezes in a state where all production processes collapse when either the number of primary goods or the number of available technologies fall below a critical threshold. As in other examples of phase transitions in large random systems, this is an unintended consequence of the growth in complexity. Our findings suggest that the Industrial Revolution can be regarded as a sharp transition between different phases, but also imply that well developed economies can collapse if too many intermediate goods are introduced.

  1. Overjustification effects in token economies.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, E B

    1979-01-01

    This study tested the relevance to clinical token economies of the overjustification hypothesis that tangible reward interferes with intrinsic interest in target behaviors and causes such behaviors to be less probable following a period of reinforcement than preceding such a period. The study was carried out in an ongoing token economy for chronic psychiatric patients. Alternated over an 8-week period were weeks of token and no-token reward for one of the program's target behaviors, toothbrushing. Two different amounts of token reward were employed in order to examine whether reward magnitude might influence the presence or extent of overjustification effects. Little evidence was found for the presence of overjustification effects in token economies. However, maintenance of toothbrushing was greater in no-token weeks following weeks of low amounts of token reward than in no-token weeks following weeks of higher amounts of reward. The importance of such complex functional relationships is discussed. PMID:511808

  2. Joint Applications Pilot of the National Climate Predictions and Projections Platform and the North Central Climate Science Center: Delivering climate projections on regional scales to support adaptation planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.; Ojima, D. S.; Morisette, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    The DOI North Central Climate Science Center (NC CSC) and the NOAA/NCAR National Climate Predictions and Projections (NCPP) Platform and have initiated a joint pilot study to collaboratively explore the "best available climate information" to support key land management questions and how to provide this information. NCPP's mission is to support state of the art approaches to develop and deliver comprehensive regional climate information and facilitate its use in decision making and adaptation planning. This presentation will describe the evolving joint pilot as a tangible, real-world demonstration of linkages between climate science, ecosystem science and resource management. Our joint pilot is developing a deliberate, ongoing interaction to prototype how NCPP will work with CSCs to develop and deliver needed climate information products, including translational information to support climate data understanding and use. This pilot also will build capacity in the North Central CSC by working with NCPP to use climate information used as input to ecological modeling. We will discuss lessons to date on developing and delivering needed climate information products based on this strategic partnership. Four projects have been funded to collaborate to incorporate climate information as part of an ecological modeling project, which in turn will address key DOI stakeholder priorities in the region: Riparian Corridors: Projecting climate change effects on cottonwood and willow seed dispersal phenology, flood timing, and seedling recruitment in western riparian forests. Sage Grouse & Habitats: Integrating climate and biological data into land management decision models to assess species and habitat vulnerability Grasslands & Forests: Projecting future effects of land management, natural disturbance, and CO2 on woody encroachment in the Northern Great Plains The value of climate information: Supporting management decisions in the Plains and Prairie Potholes LCC. NCCSC's role in

  3. Hydrogeology of stratified-drift aquifers and water quality in the Nashua Regional Planning Commission Area, south-central New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toppin, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nashua Regional Planning Commission area in south-central New Hampshire is a 12-community area that is experiencing increases in population and in demands for water supply. The study area is underlain by 129 sq mi (40% of the area) of stratified drift which, where sufficiently saturated and permeable, form the most productive aquifers in the area. Eight towns use the stratified-drift aquifers for municipal water supply. The saturated thickness of stratified drift in the study area ranges from 0 or < 20 ft near aquifer boundaries to more than 100 ft in the Souhegan and Merrimack River valleys. The transmissivity of stratified drift ranges from < 2,000 sq ft/day throughout much of the area to more than 8,000 sq ft/day in the communities of Amherst, Brookline, Hollis, Hudson, Litchfield, Merrimack, Milford, Nashua, and Pelham. Directions of groundwater flow are generally from valley walls to surface waters, which act as drains for the stratified drift aquifers. The estimated total yield of community water-supply systems in the study area (surface and groundwater combined) is 22 mgd (million gallons per day). Analytical modeling indicates that an additional 12 mgd could be obtained from six aquifers located in the communities of Amherst, Litchfield, Merrimack, Milford, and Pelham. Other aquifers in the area, not modeled in the study, could also provide increased amounts of water especially where yields could be augmented by induced recharge of surface water. Groundwater quality in the study area is characterized by naturally elevated levels of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). Of 32 wells sampled, 7 exceeded EPA recommended drinking water limits for both Fe and Mn, and 3 wells exceeded the Mn limit only. The average total dissolved solids concentration for 32 samples was 121 mg/L. Groundwater in the area is slightly corrosive; pH 's ranged from 5.0-7.3. Groundwater contamination has been detected at two ' Superfund ' sites in the study area located in Milford and

  4. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy.

    PubMed

    Frenken, Koen

    2017-06-13

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing economy: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing economy: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Material demand reduction’. PMID:28461431

  6. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenken, Koen

    2017-05-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing economy: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  7. Consumers Need More Reliable Automobile Fuel Economy Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-28

    MAY ENCOUNTER ADDITIONAL OBSTAC LES 16 EPA’s proposed improvements in the fuel economy labeling program 16 General Motors Corporation 18 Ford Motor...from the Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, and Chrysler Corporation to discuss, among other things, their cur- rent and future plans to...between the EPA ratings and on-road performance. We also compared recent studies from EPA, Ford, and General Motors that indicate how technologies

  8. The North Korean Economy: Leverage and Policy Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-26

    States and South Korea. The DPRK has embarked on a program of limited economic reforms that include allowing open markets , allowing prices to better...reflect market values, reducing dependence on rationing of essential commodities, trimming centralized control over factory operations, and opening areas...rapid growth and trade liberalization to China, Thailand, Malaysia and other Asian nations. The “Stalinist” North Korean economy can be

  9. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Roger D.

    1996-01-01

    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize…

  10. Enterprise Skills for the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Laura; Anderson, Maggie; Brown, Wendy; Wilson, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Purpose ? In response to the emergence of an enterprise economy, government claims that building an enterprise culture is vital. Correspondingly, provision of entrepreneurship education in higher education has expanded. The paper aims to assess the potential of entrepreneurship education to develop skills, and of whether students perceive them as…

  11. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Roger D.

    1996-01-01

    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize…

  12. Schools for a Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    English schools have always been involved with the economy of their time, but it was not until the mid-nineteenth century that schooling for the poor became primarily an adjunct of industry, rather than of the Church. This industrial style of education, preparation for the production line, still informs the school system, though Britain is no…

  13. Adventures in the Alaska Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee

    This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's economy. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…

  14. Adventures in the Alaska Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee

    This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's economy. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…

  15. Remedial investigation/feasibility study Work Plan and addenda for Operable Unit 4-12: Central Facilities Area Landfills II and III at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, K.N.; Stormberg, G.J.; Porro, I.; Sondrup, A.J.; McCormick, S.H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is divided into two main sections -- the Work Plan and the addenda. The Work Plan describes the regulatory history and physical setting of Operable Unit 4-12, previous sampling activities, and data. It also identifies a preliminary conceptual model, preliminary remedial action alternatives, and preliminary applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. In addition, the Work Plan discusses data gaps and data quality objectives for proposed remedial investigation activities. Also included are tasks identified for the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and a schedule of RI/FS activities. The addenda include details of the proposed field activities (Field Sampling Plan), anticipated quality assurance activities (Quality Assurance Project Plan), policies and procedures to protect RI/FS workers and the environment during field investigations (Health and Safety Plan), and policies, procedures, and activities that the Department of Energy will use to involve the public in the decision-making process concerning CFA Landfills II and III RI/FS activities (Community Relations Plan).

  16. Institutional Plan, FY 1995--2000

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    Sandia recently completed an updated strategic plan, the essence of which is presented in chapter 4. Sandia`s Strategic Plan 1994 takes its direction from DOE`s Fueling a Competitive Economy: Strategic Plan and provides tangible guidance for Sandia`s programs and operations. Although it is impossible to foresee precisely what activities Sandia will pursue many years from now, the strategic plan makes one point clear: the application of our scientific and engineering skills to the stewardship of the nation`s nuclear deterrent will be central to our service to the nation. We will provide the necessary institutional memory and continuity, experience base, and technical expertise to ensure the continued safety, security, and reliability of the nuclear weapons stockpile. As a multiprogram laboratory, Sandia will also continue to focus maximum effort on a broad spectrum of other topics consistent with DOE`s enduring core mission responsibilities: Defense (related to nuclear weapons), Energy, Environment (related to waste management and environmental remediation), and Basic Science.

  17. Population problems and population research in a market economy.

    PubMed

    Tian, X

    1994-01-01

    A market driven economy has many effects on population growth. The laws of social production were explicated by Marx and Engels, and Comrade Deng Xiaoping presents his views on China's socialist market economy and population problems in this article. Modern market economies have changed greatly over time. Before the 1960s, the focus of the interaction between population and economic change was in macro control. Since the 1960s, the focus shifted to micro control. Theories on maximum growth and neomodern population theory provide only a few useful elements. Cost-benefit analysis of child production functions, despite limitations, has universal appeal. Western theories with sound scientific evidence and Marxist theories should be examined and integrated within the Chinese experience. Two areas of concern in China are the spatial imbalance between population and economic development and an appropriate time period for any research activity. Scientific research in China will be advanced by careful integration of theory and practice, careful study of the Chinese experience, in-depth analysis, and bold, practical approaches which incorporate existing research results from the West. There are three dominant views of economic reforms. 1) Economic development plans should include a market economy. 2) Chinese population control would depend upon administrative means rather than market forces. 3) There are indirect ways in which the market affects population production. The last position is favored. The conclusions are made that family planning has been and continues to be a driving force in declining birth rates and that a focus on government population control does not discount the importance of the influence of economic factors on changes in the birth rate. Market forces are beginning to show their impact on people's choice in reproduction, and the impact is increasing. Reforms must be made appropriate to both the position and the negative influence of the market economy on

  18. Model Year 2007 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  19. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  20. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  1. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  2. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  3. Model Year 2006 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2005-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  4. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  5. Model Year 2008 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  6. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  7. Improving the effectiveness of planning EIA (PEIA) in China: Integrating planning and assessment during the preparation of Shenzhen's Master Urban Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Che Xiuzhen; English, Alex; Lu Jia; Chen, Yongqin David

    2011-11-15

    The enactment and implementation of the 2003 EIA Law in China institutionalised the role of plan environmental impact assessment (PEIA). While the philosophy, methodology and mechanisms of PEIA have gradually permeated through the various levels of government with a positive effect on the process and outcome of urban planning, only a few cities in China have so far carried out PEIA as a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)-type procedure. One such case is the southern city of Shenzhen. During the past three decades, Shenzhen has grown from a small town to a large and booming city as China has successfully and rapidly developed its economy by adopting the 'reform and open door' policy. In response to the challenges arising from the generally divergent processes of rapid urbanisation, economic transformation and environment protection, Shenzhen has incrementally adopted the SEA concept in developing the city's Master Urban Plan. As such, this paper reviews the effectiveness of PEIA in three ways: {center_dot}as a tool and process for achieving more sustainable and strategic planning; {center_dot}to determine the level of integration of SEA within the planning system; and, {center_dot}its effectiveness vis-a-vis implementation. The implementation of PEIA within Shenzhen's Master Urban Plan offers important insights into the emergence of innovative practices in undertaking PEIA as well as theoretical contributions to the field, especially in exploring the relationship between PEIA and SEA and highlighting the central role of local governing institutions in SEA development.

  8. Scenario planning.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    In facing future developments in health care, scenario planning offers a complementary approach to traditional strategic planning. Whereas traditional strategic planning typically consists of predicting the future at a single point on a chosen time horizon and mapping the preferred plans to address such a future, scenario planning creates stories about multiple likely potential futures on a given time horizon and maps the preferred plans to address the multiple described potential futures. Each scenario is purposefully different and specifically not a consensus worst-case, average, or best-case forecast; nor is scenario planning a process in probabilistic prediction. Scenario planning focuses on high-impact, uncertain driving forces that in the authors' example affect the field of radiology. Uncertainty is the key concept as these forces are mapped onto axes of uncertainty, the poles of which have opposed effects on radiology. One chosen axis was "market focus," with poles of centralized health care (government control) vs a decentralized private market. Another axis was "radiology's business model," with one pole being a unified, single specialty vs a splintered, disaggregated subspecialty. The third axis was "technology and science," with one pole representing technology enabling to radiology vs technology threatening to radiology. Selected poles of these axes were then combined to create 3 scenarios. One scenario, termed "entrepreneurialism," consisted of a decentralized private market, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. A second scenario, termed "socialized medicine," had a centralized market focus, a unified specialty business model, and enabling technology and science. A third scenario, termed "freefall," had a centralized market focus, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. These scenarios provide a range of futures that ultimately allow the identification of defined "signposts" that can

  9. Possible Areas for Economy in Plant Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonigan, Richard

    1972-01-01

    Identifies a number of techniques that can help keep down the cost of operating plant management programs. Discussed are administrative economies, purchasing economies, manpower savings, maintenance saving, and cost-benefit analysis. (Author/DN)

  10. Look Ahead: Long-Range Learning Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Faced with an unsteady economy and fluctuating learning needs, planning a learning strategy designed to last longer than the next six months can be a tall order. But a long-range learning plan can provide a road map for success. In this article, four companies (KPMG LLP, CarMax, DPR Construction, and EMC Corp.) describe their learning plans, and…

  11. Look Ahead: Long-Range Learning Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Faced with an unsteady economy and fluctuating learning needs, planning a learning strategy designed to last longer than the next six months can be a tall order. But a long-range learning plan can provide a road map for success. In this article, four companies (KPMG LLP, CarMax, DPR Construction, and EMC Corp.) describe their learning plans, and…

  12. Digital Economy and Management in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  13. Serving Business in an Information Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1988

    1988-01-01

    The 23 articles in this theme issue focus on various aspects of library services to business in an information economy: "Serving Business in an Information Economy" (C. Bain); "New York's Resurging Economy and State Economic Development Information" (R. G. Paolino); "Department of Economic Development Library: Services to…

  14. Digital Economy and Management in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  15. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Engine and Vehicle Compliance Certification and Fuel Economy Inventory contains measured emissions and fuel economy compliance information for light duty vehicles. Data is collected by EPA to certify compliance with the applicable fuel economy provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) and The Energy Independent Security Act of 2007

  16. Teaching Economics in the Mini-Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet produced by the State of Indiana introduces elementary teachers to economic concepts appropriate to the elementary curriculum and explains how to use mini-economy activities to teach these concepts. Chapter 1 describes how the mini-economy works, while chapter 2 introduces basic economic vocabulary and discusses market economy. Ideas…

  17. Serving Business in an Information Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1988

    1988-01-01

    The 23 articles in this theme issue focus on various aspects of library services to business in an information economy: "Serving Business in an Information Economy" (C. Bain); "New York's Resurging Economy and State Economic Development Information" (R. G. Paolino); "Department of Economic Development Library: Services to…

  18. Sandia Strategic Plan 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Sandia embarked on its first exercise in corporate strategic planning during the winter of 1989. The results of that effort were disseminated with the publication of Strategic Plan 1990. Four years later Sandia conducted their second major planning effort and published Strategic Plan 1994. Sandia`s 1994 planning effort linked very clearly to the Department of Energy`s first strategic plan, Fueling a Competitive Economy. It benefited as well from the leadership of Lockheed Martin Corporation, the management and operating contractor. Lockheed Martin`s corporate success is founded on visionary strategic planning and annual operational planning driven by customer requirements and technology opportunities. In 1996 Sandia conducted another major planning effort that resulted in the development of eight long-term Strategic Objectives. Strategic Plan 1997 differs from its predecessors in that the robust elements of previous efforts have been integrated into one comprehensive body. The changes implemented so far have helped establish a living strategic plan with a stronger business focus and with clear deployment throughout Sandia. The concept of a personal line of sight for all employees to this strategic plan and its objectives, goals, and annual milestones is becoming a reality.

  19. [Immigration in the world economy].

    PubMed

    Sassen, S

    1995-01-01

    "Immigration is at least partly an outcome of the actions of the governments and major private economic actors of the developed countries. The case of Japan is of interest here because it allows us to capture the intersection of economic internationalization and immigration in its inception.... This paper argues that [Japan's] new immigration is part of the globalisation of [its] economy. Japan is a major presence in a regional Asian economic system where it is the leading investor, foreign aid donor, and exporter of consumer goods (including cultural products). The new immigration to Japan is not unrelated to these processes of internationalization. Internationalization provides a context within which bridges are built with the countries of origin of potential emigrants and internationalization contributes to make the Japanese economy more porous, particularly so in the case of large cities." (EXCERPT)

  20. 78 FR 46799 - Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 RIN 0625-XC001 Use of Market Economy Input Prices in... (``NME'') producer pays to a market economy supplier when a factor of production is purchased from a market economy supplier and paid for in market economy currency, in the calculation of normal value (``NV...

  1. Political economy of population growth.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S; Mehta, H S

    1987-01-01

    Tracing the origin of political economy as a class-science, this paper focuses on the political economy of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist economies, it discusses the subsequent revival of the Malthusian model during the period of de-colonization and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in the developing and developed countries. Taking India, China, and Japan as some case studies, the paper examines the relationship between birth rate levels and some correlates. It elaborates on the Indian experience, emphasizing the association of population growth with poverty and unemployment and lays bare some of the hidden causes of these phenomena. The authors examine some interstate variations in India and identify constraints and prospects of the existing population policy. The paper proposes outlines of a democratic population policy as an integral part of India's development strategy which should recognize human beings not simply as consumers but also as producers of material values. It pleads for 1) restructuring of property relations; 2) bringing down the mortality rates and raising of the literacy levels, especially among females; and 3) improving nutritional levels, as prerequisites for bringing down birth rates.

  2. An empirical study of economies of scope in home healthcare.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, T I

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To apply the economic theory of economies of scope to the home healthcare industry. DATA SOURCES: Data on 488 observations obtained from the Cost Report (HCFA Form 1728-86) of all Connecticut state-licensed, Medicare-certified home health agencies. STUDY DESIGN: The Cost Report was the primary source of data for this study. Information on total cost, scope, and other related factors was collected. Logarithmic and nonlinear regression analyses were used to identify factors related to scope and also to test for economies of scope. DATA COLLECTION METHOD: Data collected were both cross-sectional and time series (from 1988-1992). Data accuracy was verified using description of frequencies, measures of central tendency and variation, and a calculation package so that a computer calculation on the data could be compared with the agency's calculation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: It was determined that initially as scope increases, costs go down, thus proving economies of scope. For larger values of scope, it was determined that costs go up, proving diseconomies of scope. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the home health agencies included in this study provide more services than is cost effective given the economic theory of economies of scope. PMID:9240283

  3. An empirical study of economies of scope in home healthcare.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, T I

    1997-08-01

    To apply the economic theory of economies of scope to the home healthcare industry. Data on 488 observations obtained from the Cost Report (HCFA Form 1728-86) of all Connecticut state-licensed, Medicare-certified home health agencies. The Cost Report was the primary source of data for this study. Information on total cost, scope, and other related factors was collected. Logarithmic and nonlinear regression analyses were used to identify factors related to scope and also to test for economies of scope. Data collected were both cross-sectional and time series (from 1988-1992). Data accuracy was verified using description of frequencies, measures of central tendency and variation, and a calculation package so that a computer calculation on the data could be compared with the agency's calculation. It was determined that initially as scope increases, costs go down, thus proving economies of scope. For larger values of scope, it was determined that costs go up, proving diseconomies of scope. Many of the home health agencies included in this study provide more services than is cost effective given the economic theory of economies of scope.

  4. Hydrogen: Its Future Role in the Nation's Energy Economy.

    PubMed

    Winsche, W E; Hoffman, K C; Salzano, F J

    1973-06-29

    electrolysis, from coal, and directly from thermal energy could be found that are less expensive than those now available; inexpensive fuel cells could be developed, and high-temperature turbines could be used for the efficient conversion of hydrogen (and oxygen) to electricity. The use of hydrogen as an automotive fuel would be a key factor in the development of a hydrogen energy economy, and safe storage techniques for carrying sufficient quantities of hydrogen in automotive systems can certainly be developed. The use of hydrogen in automobiles would significantly reduce urban pollution because the dispersed fossil fuel emissions would be replaced by radioactive wastes generated at large central stations. The conversion of internal or external combustion engines for combustion of hydrogen fuel would probably have less economic impact on the automotive industry than the mass introduction of electric automobiles. However, this is a subject that requires more detailed study. All of the safety aspects of hydrogen utilization will have to be examined, especially the problems of safety in the domestic use and the long distance transport of hydrogen in pipelines at high pressures. It is our opinion that the various energy planning agencies should now begin to outline the mode of implementing hydrogen energy delivery systems in the energy economy. The initial transition to hydrogen energy derived from available fossil fuels such as coal should be considered together with the long range view of all the hydrogen being derived eventually from nuclear energy. By the year 1985 when petroleum imports may be in excess of the domestic supply, these plans could set the stage for the transition period from fossil to a predominantly nuclear energy economy able to supply abundant synthetic fuels such as hydrogen. Synthetic fuels will obviously be more expensive than fuels now derived from petroleum; however, there may be no other viable choice. Thus, it is essential that the analysis and

  5. A Plan for Continuing Education in Nursing in Five North Central States (Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and Wisconsin): A Proposal for Discussion and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Signe W.; Byrns, Helene Hestad

    The purpose of the paper is to provide recommendations and suggest approaches for the coordination of continuing education in the North Central States of Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and Wisconsin. The document is directed to non-credit continuing education exclusively and does not consider inservice education within its scope.…

  6. TRU waste inventory collection and work off plans for the centralization of TRU waste characterization/certification at INL - on your mark - get set - 9410

    SciTech Connect

    Mctaggert, Jerri Lynne; Lott, Sheila A; Gadbury, Casey

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) amended the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Program: Treatment and Storage of Transuranic Waste to centralize transuranic (TRU) waste characterization/certification from fourteen TRU waste sites. This centralization will allow for treatment, characterization and certification ofTRU waste from the fourteen sites, thirteen of which are sites with small quantities ofTRU waste, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to shipping the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Centralization of this TRU waste will avoid the cost of building treatment, characterization, certification, and shipping capabilities at each of the small quantity sites that currently do not have existing facilities. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) and Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) will provide centralized shipping facilities, to WIPP, for all of the small quantity sites. Hanford, the one large quantity site identified in the ROD, has a large number of waste in containers that are overpacked into larger containers which are inefficient for shipment to and disposal at WIPP. The AMWTF at the INL will reduce the volume of much of the CH waste and make it much more efficient to ship and dispose of at WIPP. In addition, the INTEC has a certified remote handled (RH) TRU waste characterization/certification program at INL to disposition TRU waste from the sites identified in the ROD.

  7. TRU waste inventory collection and work-off plans for the centralization of TRU waste characterization at INL - on your mark - get set - 9410

    SciTech Connect

    Mctaggert, Jerri Lynne; Lott, Sheila; Gadbury, Casey

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) amended the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Program: Treatment and Storage ofTransuranic Waste to centralize transuranic (TRU) waste characterization/certification from fourteen TRU waste sites. This centralization will allow for treatment, characterization and certification ofTRU waste from the fourteen sites, thirteen of which are sites with small quantities ofTRU waste, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to shipping the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Centralization ofthis TRU waste will avoid the cost ofbuilding treatment, characterization, certification, and shipping capabilities at each ofthe small quantity sites that currently do not have existing facilities. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) and Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) will provide centralized shipping facilities, to WIPP, for all ofthe small quantity sites. Hanford, the one large quantity site identified in the ROD, has a large number ofwaste in containers that are overpacked into larger containers which are inefficient for shipment to and disposal at WIPP. The AMWTP at the INL will reduce the volume ofmuch of the CH waste and make it much more efficient to ship and dispose of at WIPP. In addition, the INTEC has a certified remote handled (RH) TRU waste characterization/certification program at INL to disposition TRU waste from the sites identified in the ROD.

  8. Insights on the Higher Education-Economy Relationship: Interviews with the Stakeholders. Higher Education and the Economy of the West. Working Paper #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.

    This paper, one of a series from the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education's (WICHE) project "Higher Education and the Economy of the West," presents a summary of interviews, conducted by the WICHE staff during the fall and winter of 1991-92 with 22 "Frontier Thinkers." Issues discussed included planning for the…

  9. Coupling the academic research enterprise to the innovation economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soileau, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    The UCF approach to aiding Florida's innovation economy is discussed. The approach is to focus on key areas of research that overlap our state's economic development plans, work in partnership with existing high tech industry, and develop our regions innovation economy eco-system. One method of focus is to develop multidisciplinary research and education centers that support existing and emerging economic sectors. One example is CREOL, the Center for Research in Optics and Lasers. We incentivize faculty to make their labs and skills available to regional industry through a matching grants program. We work in partnership with regional governments to develop a network of company incubators with high wage and high growth potential.

  10. Physical growth in a transitional economy: the aftermath of South African apartheid.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Noël

    2003-01-01

    The economic transition in developing countries is not always the result of the change from a centrally-planned to a free-market economy, but may be found within an already existing free-market economy as a result of profound political change, as in South Africa. The release of Nelson Mandela in February 1990 heralded an end both to the political system of apartheid and to the concomitant social, political, and economic disenfranchisement of 30 million non-White people in South Africa. The first freely elected non-White government came to power in 1994 and initiated a number of social and economic reforms aimed at alleviating the worst consequences of apartheid. This paper examines the effect of post-apartheid economic and social transition on the growth and development of urban children. Over 4000 children born in Soweto and Johannesburg were enrolled in the Birth to Ten (BTT) birth-cohort study in 1990. Whilst these children were born with lower birth weights than in developed countries, they did grow strongly in infancy, particularly in weight, to reflect normal reference values for body mass index (BMI) by 1 year of age. While post-apartheid social and economic changes were expected to take some time to affect child growth and development, the rate of change has been slower than expected. Data from the BTT study demonstrate that the growth of White children continues to be superior to that of their non-White peers and differences that existed at birth and during infancy have not diminished during childhood and early adolescence. Whatever factors are changed at the national or community levels during economic (and social) transition in South Africa appear not yet to have resulted in improved child physical growth.

  11. Impact of economic conditions on the secondary sex ratio in a post-communist economy.

    PubMed

    Ządzińska, E; Rosset, I; Mikulec, A; Domański, C; Pawłowski, B

    2011-06-01

    According to the Trivers-Willard hypothesis the secondary sex ratio (SSR, the ratio of male to female newborns [M/F]) should be positively related to the parents' living conditions. This also means that if in some population parents experience environmental (e.g. economic) stress, the SSR should be relatively low. If this holds true, the fluctuations in the SSR of offspring could be one of the ways the human population reacts to environmental (and also socio-economic) changes. Although confirmed for many human populations, such a relationship was not observed in the populations living in the communist-era planned-economy countries until recently. We test the hypothesis that economic stress in Poland after the communist era is also related to the SSR decrease. Using quarterly data from the years 1995-2007 about the total number of live male (M) and female (F) newborns born in central Poland (sample size=310,532), we calculated the time series of the SSR. The quarterly economic conditions of the studied population within the period under consideration constituted the time series of the percentage change in private consumption at constant prices of the year 2000. The relationship between the SSR and the economic conditions in the analyzed 47 quarters of the year was tested with the use of the ARMA models. We have found that four quarters (one year) after the occurrence of economic stress there was a decline in the SSR. This result is consistent with the Trivers-Willard hypothesis at the population level in a modern free-trade economy of a post-communist country.

  12. Equilibrium in a Production Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarolla, Maria B.; Haussmann, Ulrich G.

    2011-06-15

    Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.

  13. Bolivia's economy--an update.

    PubMed

    Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis

    2008-01-01

    This report looks at Bolivia's main economic indicators over the past year (mid-2006 to mid-2007), noting improvements in growth, fiscal balances, balance of payments, and international reserves. These improvements were largely due to government policies and choices, such as increased hydrocarbons royalties and control over the hydrocarbons sector, and have allowed the government to embark on a number of programs targeting the poor and landless. The report also notes that Bolivia faces many challenges: expansion of land reform, more rapid growth and poverty reduction, the reduction of regional and demographic disparities, and an accelerated diversification of the economy away from hydrocarbons and minerals.

  14. West German Study Group Phase III PlanB Trial: First Prospective Outcome Data for the 21-Gene Recurrence Score Assay and Concordance of Prognostic Markers by Central and Local Pathology Assessment.

    PubMed

    Gluz, Oleg; Nitz, Ulrike A; Christgen, Matthias; Kates, Ronald E; Shak, Steven; Clemens, Michael; Kraemer, Stefan; Aktas, Bahriye; Kuemmel, Sherko; Reimer, Toralf; Kusche, Manfred; Heyl, Volker; Lorenz-Salehi, Fatemeh; Just, Marianne; Hofmann, Daniel; Degenhardt, Tom; Liedtke, Cornelia; Svedman, Christer; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Kreipe, Hans H; Harbeck, Nadia

    2016-07-10

    The 21-gene Recurrence Score (RS) assay is a validated prognostic/predictive tool in early hormone receptor-positive breast cancer (BC); however, only a few prospective outcome results have been available so far. In the phase III PlanB trial, RS was prospectively used to define a subset of patients who received only endocrine therapy. We present 3-year outcome data and concordance analysis (among biomarkers/RS). Central tumor bank was established prospectively from PlanB (intermediate and high-risk, locally human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative BC). After an early amendment, HR-positive, pN0-1 patients with RS ≤ 11 were recommended to omit chemotherapy. From 2009 to 2011, PlanB enrolled 3,198 patients with a median age of 56 years; 41.1% had node-positive and 32.5% grade 3 disease. In 348 patients (15.3%), chemotherapy was omitted based on RS ≤ 11. After 35 months median follow-up, 3-year disease-free survival in patients with RS ≤ 11 and endocrine therapy alone was 98% versus 92% and 98% in RS > 25 and RS 12 to 25 in chemotherapy-treated patients, respectively. Nodal status, central and local grade, the Ki-67 protein encoded by the MKI67 gene, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, tumor size, and RS were univariate prognostic factors for disease-free survival; only nodal status, both central and local grade, and RS were independent multivariate factors. Histologic grade was discordant between central and local laboratories in 44%. RS was positively but moderately correlated with the Ki-67 protein encoded by the MKI67 gene and grade and negatively correlated with progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor. In this prospective trial, patients with enhanced clinical risk and omitted chemotherapy on the basis of RS ≤ 11 had excellent 3-year survival. The substantial discordance observed between traditional prognostic markers and RS emphasizes the need for standardized assessment and supports the potential integration of standardized, well

  15. Long range program plan for safety and fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Feirice, B.

    1983-11-01

    An analysis was made to determine which potential highway and motor vehicle safety activies were most deserving of further pursuit so as to obtain the greatest improvement in safety at the least cost. Criteria were established to guide in the rating and ranking of potential safety projects. The most significant national safety problems were identified and a description and schedule of the chosen safety projects to address those problems were prepared.

  16. Planning Framework for a Climate-Resilient Economy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This framework can help communities assess their economic vulnerability to climate change and identify ways to build economic resilience and take advantage of opportunities that might arise as the climate changes.

  17. A Study to Develop an Implementation Plan for a Centralized Materiel Management System at the US Army Medical Department Activity, Ft. Sill, OK

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    Functional Roles Met by Centralized Materiel Managenent System ...... ................. 9 2. Comparative Flow Diagrams for Supply Distribution to...Perspective," Hospital Materiel Management Quarterly 2 (Winter 1980): 90. Fig. 2. Comparative Flow Diagrams for Supply Distribution to Nursing Floor 13 and...methods of distribution are the PAR-level and the exchange cart system.37 These systems are compared in Figure 2, above. Implementation of a

  18. Safety Training for the Hydrogen Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, Linda L.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Akers, Bret M.

    2006-04-11

    PNNL and the Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training and Education Center are helping to prepare emergency responders and permitting/code enforcement officials for their respective roles in the future Hydrogen Economy. Safety will be a critical component of the anticipated hydrogen transition. Public confidence goes hand in hand with perceived safety to such an extent that, without it, the envisioned transition is unlikely to occur. Stakeholders and the public must be reassured that hydrogen, although very different from gasoline and other conventional fuels, is no more dangerous. Ensuring safety in the hydrogen infrastructure will require a suitably trained emergency response force for containing the inevitable incidents as they occur, coupled with knowledgeable code officials to ensure that such incidents are kept to a minimum. PNNL and HAMMER are, therefore, designing a hydrogen safety training program, funded by DOE's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program, and modeled after the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s multi-tiered approach to hazardous materials training. Capabilities under development at HAMMER include classroom and long-distance (i.e., satellite and internet broadcast) learning, as well as life-size, hands-on hydrogen burn props for “training as real as it gets.” This paper presents insights gained from the early emergency response hydrogen safety training courses held in 2005 and current plans for design and construction of a number of hydrogen burn props.

  19. The political economy of national defense

    SciTech Connect

    Weida, W.J.; Gertcher, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    This timely study covers both the economic and the political aspects of defense spending-first by providing a theoretical framework and then by explaining, in a political economy context, the results of decisions to allocate scarce resources to defense. The authors provide a comprehensive picture of the interaction between defense spending and the economic and political structure of the United States, complementing their exploration of topical concerns such as SDI with analysis of long-term trends and issues of timeless importance in the defense debate. Because of the politicizing of defense planning and procurement, there have been few significant applications of optimization techniques to high-level defense issues over the past decade. As a result, there has been a rapid decline in the importance of those techniques-historically the focus of books on defense economics. Like its predecessors, this book presents optimization techniques applicable to a wide variety of defense problems, but it also illustrates what happens in actual practice and why defense decisions are often not economically efficient. The authors discuss alternatives for cases when political constraints make efficient solutions unlikely and explore changes in the defense establishment and political structures that would make economically efficient resource allocations a reality.

  20. Does the economy affect teenage substance use?

    PubMed

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    This research examines how teenage drug and alcohol use responds to changes in the economy. In contrast to the recent literature confirming pro-cyclical alcohol use among adults, this research offers strong evidence that a weaker economy leads to greater teenage marijuana and hard-drug use and some evidence that a weaker economy also leads to higher teenage alcohol use. The findings are based on logistic models with state and year fixed effects, using teenagers from the NLSY-1997. The evidence also indicates that teenagers are more likely to sell drugs in weaker economies. This suggests one mechanism for counter-cyclical drug use - that access to illicit drugs is easier when the economy is weaker. These results also suggest that the strengthening economy in the 1990s mitigated what would otherwise have been much larger increases in teenage drug use.

  1. Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy?

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, Andrea; Külahoglu, Canan; Tazelaar, Anne O E; Kurz, Samantha; Nierop, Klaas G J; van der Werf, Adrie; Weber, Andreas P M; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2014-05-01

    Due to its phenomenal growth requiring neither nitrogen fertilizer nor arable land and its biomass composition, the mosquito fern Azolla is a candidate crop to yield food, fuels and chemicals sustainably. To advance Azolla domestication, we research its dissemination, storage and transcriptome. Methods for dissemination, cross-fertilization and cryopreservation of the symbiosis Azolla filiculoides-Nostoc azollae are tested based on the fern spores. To study molecular processes in Azolla including spore induction, a database of 37 649 unigenes from RNAseq of microsporocarps, megasporocarps and sporophytes was assembled, then validated. Spores obtained year-round germinated in vitro within 26 d. In vitro fertilization rates reached 25%. Cryopreservation permitted storage for at least 7 months. The unigene database entirely covered central metabolism and to a large degree covered cellular processes and regulatory networks. Analysis of genes engaged in transition to sexual reproduction revealed a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like protein in ferns with special features induced in sporulating Azolla fronds. Although domestication of a fern-cyanobacteria symbiosis may seem a daunting task, we conclude that the time is ripe and that results generated will serve to more widely access biochemicals in fern biomass for a biobased economy. No claim to original European Union works. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. The Economy of the Arab Maghrib Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-09

    TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) THE ECONOMY OF THE ARAB MAGHRIB UNION (UNCL) 12. PERSONAL...be released for open publication until it has been cleared by the appropriate militar- service or government agency. THE ECONOMY OF THE ARAB MAGHRIB...Chedly Khedimi, LTC, FA TITLE: The Economy of the Arab Maghrib Union FORMAT: Individual Study Project DATE: 9 April 1991 PAGES: 21 CLASSIFICATION

  3. Develop Improved Materials to Support the Hydrogen Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Michael C. Martin

    2012-07-18

    The Edison Materials Technology Center (EMTEC) solicited and funded hydrogen infrastructure related projects that have a near term potential for commercialization. The subject technology of each project is related to the US Department of Energy hydrogen economy goals as outlined in the multi-year plan titled, 'Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan.' Preference was given to cross cutting materials development projects that might lead to the establishment of manufacturing capability and job creation. The Edison Materials Technology Center (EMTEC) used the US Department of Energy hydrogen economy goals to find and fund projects with near term commercialization potential. An RFP process aligned with this plan required performance based objectives with go/no-go technology based milestones. Protocols established for this program consisted of a RFP solicitation process, white papers and proposals with peer technology and commercialization review (including DoE), EMTEC project negotiation and definition and DoE cost share approval. Our RFP approach specified proposals/projects for hydrogen production, hydrogen storage or hydrogen infrastructure processing which may include sensor, separator, compression, maintenance, or delivery technologies. EMTEC was especially alert for projects in the appropriate subject area that have cross cutting materials technology with near term manufacturing and commercialization opportunities.

  4. Economy Home Improvement, Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Economy Home Improvement, Inc. (the Company) is located in Lexington, Kentucky. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Lexington, Kentucky.

  5. Building Green Economies on Tribal Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Division of Energy and Mineral Development (DEMD) is assisting tribes in strengthening and diversifying their economies by utilizing the power generated from renewable resources on tribal reservations.

  6. Gulf of Mexico Sales 147 and 150: Central and Western planning areas. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 1: Sections 1 through 4.C

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covers the proposed 1994 Gulf of Mexico OCS oil and gas lease sales [Central Gulf of Mexico Sale 147 (March 1994) and Western Gulf of Mexico Sale 150 (August 1994)]. This document includes the purpose and background of the proposed actions, the alternatives, the descriptions of the affected environment, and the potential environmental impacts of the proposed actions and alternatives. Proposed mitigating measures and their effects are analyzed, in addition to potential cumulative impacts resulting from proposed activities.

  7. Chapter 11. Fuel Economy: The Case for Market Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; German, John; Delucchi, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    more effective. The chapter explores the roles of uncertainty and loss-aversion in the market for automotive fuel economy. The focus is on the determination of the technical efficiency of the vehicle rather than consumers choices among vehicles. Over the past three decades, changes in the mix of vehicles sold has played little if any role in raising the average fuel economy of new light-duty vehicles from 13 miles per gallon (mpg) in 1975 to 21 mpg today (Heavenrich, 2006). Over that same time period, average vehicle weight is up 2 percent, horsepower is up 60 percent, passenger car interior volume increased by 2 percent and the market share of light trucks grew by 31 percentage points. Historically, at least, increasing light-duty vehicle fuel economy in the United States has been a matter of manufacturers decisions to apply technology to increase the technical efficiency of cars and light trucks. Understanding how efficiently the market determines the technical fuel economy of new vehicles would seem to be critical to formulating effective policies to encourage future fuel economy improvement. The central issue is whether or not the market for fuel economy is economically efficient. Rubenstein (1998) lists the key assumptions of the rational economic decision model. The decision maker must have a clear picture of the choice problem he or she faces. He should be fully aware of the set of alternatives from which to choose and have the skill necessary to make complicated calculations needed to discover the optimal course of action. Finally, the decision maker should have the unlimited ability to calculate and be indifferent to alternatives and choice sets.

  8. Planned updates and refinements to the Central Valley hydrologic model with an emphasis on improving the simulation of land subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.; Martin, Peter; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    California's Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world for more than 50 years. To better understand the groundwater availability in the valley, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed the Central Valley hydrologic model (CVHM). Because of recent water-level declines and renewed subsidence, the CVHM is being updated to better simulate the geohydrologic system. The CVHM updates and refinements can be grouped into two general categories: (1) model code changes and (2) data updates. The CVHM updates and refinements will require that the model be recalibrated. The updated CVHM will provide a detailed transient analysis of changes in groundwater availability and flow paths in relation to climatic variability, urbanization, stream flow, and changes in irrigated agricultural practices and crops. The updated CVHM is particularly focused on more accurately simulating the locations and magnitudes of land subsidence. The intent of the updated CVHM is to help scientists better understand the availability and sustainability of water resources and the interaction of groundwater levels with land subsidence.

  9. Planned updates and refinements to the central valley hydrologic model, with an emphasis on improving the simulation of land subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faunt, C.C.; Hanson, R.T.; Martin, P.; Schmid, W.

    2011-01-01

    California's Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world for more than 50 years. To better understand the groundwater availability in the valley, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed the Central Valley hydrologic model (CVHM). Because of recent water-level declines and renewed subsidence, the CVHM is being updated to better simulate the geohydrologic system. The CVHM updates and refinements can be grouped into two general categories: (1) model code changes and (2) data updates. The CVHM updates and refinements will require that the model be recalibrated. The updated CVHM will provide a detailed transient analysis of changes in groundwater availability and flow paths in relation to climatic variability, urbanization, stream flow, and changes in irrigated agricultural practices and crops. The updated CVHM is particularly focused on more accurately simulating the locations and magnitudes of land subsidence. The intent of the updated CVHM is to help scientists better understand the availability and sustainability of water resources and the interaction of groundwater levels with land subsidence. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  10. Results of a token economy.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, D T; Cayner, J J; McLaughlin-Reidel, T

    1978-12-01

    A token economy for chronic psychiatric patients (average hospital stay of ten years) is reported. One hundred seventy-four patients were treated. Follow-up data were obtained on 173 patients who had been discharged from the hospital for an average of three years at the time of follow-up. One hundred twenty-five patients completed the program, which featured a graduated method for shaping behavior (functional levels). Ninety-one of the 125 patients who completed the program and were living in the community were employed. The program was most effective with patients who had been in the hospital for less than ten years and had an IQ above 80.

  11. Surface Currents. Central Indian Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    ATLASES ADD TO THE WEALTH OF NAUTICAL INFORMATION UPON WHICH OPERA- TIONAL PLANNING, NAVIGATIONAL SAFETY, AND SHIPPING ECONOMY DEPEND. RAPID PRODUCTION...on land) have been eliminated. , i The accepted data are considered most useful when used collectively as In summaries s where a uber of observations...opposite rvatbons. lhere pair. This generally Indicates variability uber of observa- that occurs In zones of entraisent between opposing carrents (see

  12. Circular Flows: A Teaching Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainer, Richard

    The United States is a multi-trillion dollar economy that annually allocates a staggering amount of resources to produce a variety of goods and services for domestic and world consumption, and provides employment and income for millions of individuals. This lesson plan for social studies and economics teachers traces a series of interconnected…

  13. Consultancy on Strategic Information Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pejova, Zdravka, Ed.; Horton, Forest W., Ed.

    At the workshop, better management through strategic planning of information and consultancy was discussed as one way in which developing and Eastern European countries could tackle the complex information problems they are facing during the transition to a market economy. The sixteen papers in this volume are grouped into three basic categories:…

  14. Consultancy on Strategic Information Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pejova, Zdravka, Ed.; Horton, Forest W., Ed.

    At the workshop, better management through strategic planning of information and consultancy was discussed as one way in which developing and Eastern European countries could tackle the complex information problems they are facing during the transition to a market economy. The sixteen papers in this volume are grouped into three basic categories:…

  15. Annual Plan - Fiscal Year 2017

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dec 19, 2016. This plan describes how the OIG will achieve its statutory mission of promoting economy, efficiency, effectiveness and integrity relating to the programs and operations of the EPA and the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.

  16. Training in Toronto's "New Economy"=La formation dans la "nouvelle" economie de Toronto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Perspectives Series, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This Community Perspectives Series document includes statements about the new economy in Toronto made by four participants in a March 2001 forum. The new economy was defined by the moderator as "an economy that emphasizes knowledge and technical processes put to the production of goods and other outputs so that an individual's knowledge is…

  17. Child Care and the New Economy: Part I--Three Pillars of the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Late in 2008, when it was becoming apparent that the economic downturn was not a simple blip but a serious recession, Warren Buffet confidently predicted that the American economy would bounce back and be as strong as ever. However, he observed, "the economy that emerges will not be the same economy that entered the downturn." Since then, one…

  18. Automotive Stirling engine development program. [fuel economy assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitzner, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    The Ford/DOE automotive Stirling engine development program is directed towards establishing the technological and developmental base that would enable a decision on whether an engineering program should be directed at Stirling engine production. The fuel economy assessment aims to achieve, with a high degree of confidence, the ERDA proposal estimate of 20.6 MPG (gasoline) for a 4500 lb 1WC Stirling engine passenger car. The current M-H fuel economy projection for the 170 HP Stirling engine is 15.7 MPG. The confidence level for this projection is 32%. A confidence level of 29% is projected for a 22.1 MPG estimate. If all of the planned analyses and test work is accomplished at the end of the one year effort, and the projected improvements are substantiated, the confidence levels would rise to 59% for the 20.6 MPG projection and 54% for the 22.1 MPG projection. Progress achieved thus far during the fuel economy assessment is discussed.

  19. Deregulation and competitive power markets -- Its impact on developing economies

    SciTech Connect

    Saran, K.

    1998-07-01

    The aim of privatization in developed countries is to encourage competition in generation and supply of power whereas the focus of developing economies is to bridge the demand supply gap by addition of capacity. However, there needs to be a reconciliation between these two apparently having conflicting objectives even in case of developing economies. In competitive power markets it is necessary that rules of the game are identified in advance and followed uniformly by all players. Existence of a ``referee'' would be necessary to regulate the game so as to ensure fair play. The regulatory institution would serve this purpose and work as a stimulator to development of privatization and competitive power markets in developing economies. Consumer interests should be of upper-most priority in the mind while establishing power markets and regulatory institutions, particularly as market forces are unfavorable to consumer interests in power shortage conditions. As competition fosters, gradually market forces take over and the ``harsh'' regulator would convert itself to a ``silent vigil referee'' so as to ensure genuine competition. The debate of deregulation vs. regulation will continue but the show must go on for building of an increasingly sound, competitive and vibrant power sector in the interest of end use consumers. The planned and phased restructuring though a delayed process is a preferred process and India is fully determined to achieve this.

  20. A groundwater perspective on the river basin management plan for central Portugal - developing a methodology to assess the potential impact of N fertilizers on groundwater bodies.

    PubMed

    Mendes, M P; Ribeiro, L; Nascimento, J; Condesso de Melo, T; Stigter, T Y; Buxo, A

    2012-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive establishes that the river basin management plans must have a summary of the pressures and impacts of human activities, such as agriculture, on the chemical and quantitative status of groundwater bodies. In order to identify those areas where a potential impact from agricultural activities on groundwater bodies exists, but currently lacking groundwater monitoring data, a methodology was developed that combines the use of gross nitrogen balance values with the results of a specific vulnerability assessment index. A farm management efficiency parameter is added, to identify the factors that contribute to nitrogen use efficiency and to assess the near-future scenarios. This methodology allows the identification of significant pressures that may be responsible for a groundwater body failing good status where there is no representative monitoring network.

  1. Preferential Use of Total Thyroidectomy without Prophylactic Central Lymph Node Dissection for Early-Stage Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Oncologic Outcomes in an Integrated Health Plan.

    PubMed

    Said, Meena; Fujimoto, Michele; Franken, Cara; Woo, Sunee; Vuong, Brooke; Haigh, Philip I

    2016-01-01

    The oncologic benefit of prophylactic central lymph node dissection (pCLND) in node-negative papillary thyroid cancer has been debated. To determine the use of pCLND in an integrated health care system and to evaluate recurrence in the cohort. Retrospective cohort study of patients with clinically node-negative papillary thyroid cancer who underwent total thyroidectomy with or without pCLND in Kaiser Permanente Southern California Region hospitals between January 1996 and December 2008. Chart review of all patients was performed to collect demographic data, tumor features, stage, and recurrences. Proportion undergoing pCLND and recurrence rate of papillary thyroid cancer. There were 864 patients identified (mean age, 46.1 years). Almost all patients had total thyroidectomy alone, and 34 (3.9%) underwent pCLND. The TNM (tumor, node, metastasis) stages for the 2 groups were not significantly different (p = 0.18). Overall recurrence was 24 (2.8%). There were 23 (2.8%) recurrences in the no-pCLND group and 1 (2.9%) recurrence in the pCLND group (p = 0.95). The rate of recurrence in the central neck compartment in those without pCLND was 1.1% and 0% in the pCLND group (p = 0.54). The recurrence rate in the lateral neck compartment in the no-pCLND group was 2.2%, and this rate was 2.9% in the pCLND group (p = 0.76). The no-pCLND group had a recurrence-free survival rate of 96.4% at 10 years vs 96.8% in the pCLND patients (p = 0.80). Presently, routine pCLND is difficult to advocate in our medical system.

  2. Predictors of "New Economy" Career Orientation in an Australian Sample of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter; Macpherson, Jennifer; Hood, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The authors surveyed 207 late adolescents on measures of new economy career orientation (protean and boundaryless career orientation), career adaptability (planning, self-exploration, environmental exploration, decision making, and self-regulation), disposition (proactive disposition), and environmental support (social support) and hypothesized…

  3. An Australian "Smart State" Serves Up Lessons for a Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, the Australian state of Queensland was famous more for its beaches than for its brain power. Fellow Australians thought of Queenslanders as miners, farmers, or surfers, not as professors or scientists. When Queensland announced in 1998 that it was planning to become a "Smart State," or a knowledge economy, locals…

  4. Community Service and University Roles: An Action Research Based on the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    This study employs action research to develop community service through university roles by applying the philosophy of sufficiency economy of His Majesty the King Bhumibol Adulyadej to fulfill villagers' way of life. Participatory learning, seminar, field trip and supervision were employed for strategic plan. Data were collected by participatory…

  5. An Australian "Smart State" Serves Up Lessons for a Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, the Australian state of Queensland was famous more for its beaches than for its brain power. Fellow Australians thought of Queenslanders as miners, farmers, or surfers, not as professors or scientists. When Queensland announced in 1998 that it was planning to become a "Smart State," or a knowledge economy, locals…

  6. Predictors of "New Economy" Career Orientation in an Australian Sample of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter; Macpherson, Jennifer; Hood, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The authors surveyed 207 late adolescents on measures of new economy career orientation (protean and boundaryless career orientation), career adaptability (planning, self-exploration, environmental exploration, decision making, and self-regulation), disposition (proactive disposition), and environmental support (social support) and hypothesized…

  7. Economic Diversification in Brunei: The Need for Closer Correspondence between Education and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnis, John R.

    1997-01-01

    Introduces plans to prepare workers for new positions in industrial and commercial sectors to diversify the economy and render the country less dependent on the oil and gas industry. Argues that if human-resource development is to be successful, greater correspondence between formal education and work may be desirable. (DSK)

  8. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  9. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data asset contains measured summary fuel economy estimates and test data for light-duty vehicle manufacturers by model for certification as required under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA) and The Energy Independent Security Act of 2007 (EISA) to collect vehicle fuel economy estimates for the creation of Economy Labels and for the calculation of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). Manufacturers submit data on an annual basis, or as needed to document vehicle model changes.The EPA performs targeted fuel economy confirmatory tests on approximately 15% of vehicles submitted for validation. Confirmatory data on vehicles is associated with its corresponding submission data to verify the accuracy of manufacturer submissions beyond standard business rules. Submitted data comes in XML format or as documents, with the majority of submissions being sent in XML, and includes descriptive information on the vehicle itself, fuel economy information, and the manufacturer's testing approach. This data may contain proprietary information (CBI) such as information on estimated sales or other data elements indicated by the submitter as confidential. CBI data is not publically available; however, within the EPA data can accessed under the restrictions of the Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) CBI policy [RCS Link]. Datasets are segmented by vehicle model/manufacturer and/or year with corresponding fuel economy, te

  10. Getting Tenure in a Down Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Darla; Maidment, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Academic tenure is now under attack. A down economy has placed greater pressure on institutions making tenure more difficult to obtain. Nineteen tips for gaining tenure in a down economy are presented along with several justifications for tenure and why tenure is important for the preservation of the academy and the freedom to research and teach.

  11. Manufacturing Careers, Skilled Workers and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In order to jumpstart the economy, "Made in the U.S.A." needs to be synonymous with in-demand, high-quality products sold throughout the world. Recognizing the importance of the manufacturing industry and its connection to a healthy economy, President Obama addressed Carnegie Mellon University and launched the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership…

  12. The Hydrogen Economy as a Technological Bluff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is a technological bluff in its implied assurance that, despite the accelerating pace at which we are depleting the remaining half of our fossil fuels, our energy future is secure. Elementary thermodynamic considerations are developed to show that a hydrogen economy is about as feasible as a perpetual motion machine. Hydrogen…

  13. The solar-hydrogen economy: an analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Warren D.

    2007-09-01

    The 20th Century was the age of the Petroleum Economy while the 21st Century is certainly the age of the Solar-Hydrogen Economy. The global Solar-Hydrogen Economy that is now emerging follows a different logic. Under this new economic paradigm, new machines and methods are once again being developed while companies are restructuring. The Petroleum Economy will be briefly explored in relation to oil consumption, Hubbert's curve, and oil reserves with emphasis on the "oil crash". Concerns and criticisms about the Hydrogen Economy will be addressed by debunking some of the "hydrogen myths". There are three major driving factors for the establishment of the Solar-Hydrogen Economy, i.e. the environment, the economy with the coming "oil crash", and national security. The New Energy decentralization pathway has developed many progressive features, e.g., reducing the dependence on oil, reducing the air pollution and CO II. The technical and economic aspects of the various Solar-Hydrogen energy options and combinations will be analyzed. A proposed 24-hour/day 200 MWe solar-hydrogen power plant for the U.S. with selected energy options will be discussed. There are fast emerging Solar Hydrogen energy infrastructures in the U.S., Europe, Japan and China. Some of the major infrastructure projects in the transportation and energy sectors will be discussed. The current and projected growth in the Solar-Hydrogen Economy through 2045 will be given.

  14. Getting Tenure in a Down Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Darla; Maidment, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Academic tenure is now under attack. A down economy has placed greater pressure on institutions making tenure more difficult to obtain. Nineteen tips for gaining tenure in a down economy are presented along with several justifications for tenure and why tenure is important for the preservation of the academy and the freedom to research and teach.

  15. Government and the Economy--Stabilization Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkin, John W.

    This document describes the operation of public and private sector mechanisms which work to keep the Canadian economy stable. Part I discusses the many sources of instability in the Canadian economy. Instability is measured primarily in fluctuations in aggregate income or gross national product. Two important contributors to economic fluctuations…

  16. Government and the Economy--Stabilization Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkin, John W.

    This document describes the operation of public and private sector mechanisms which work to keep the Canadian economy stable. Part I discusses the many sources of instability in the Canadian economy. Instability is measured primarily in fluctuations in aggregate income or gross national product. Two important contributors to economic fluctuations…

  17. Knowledge Production in a Cooperative Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottey, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge here means something similar to but broader than science--it is reliable but not necessarily as systematic or explicit. A cooperative economy is contrasted with the competitive economy that has dominated political thinking almost everywhere for about half a century - the neo-liberal period. It is argued that the neo-liberal ideology and…

  18. Towards the Political Economy of Pluriactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Explores theoretical concerns of political economy approaches in agriculture and links these to farm pluriactivity. Focuses on relevance of debates concerning labor commoditization and uneven development, suggesting recognition of pluriactivity for broader understanding of political economy. Recommends broader approach for understanding economic…

  19. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  20. "Developing" the Self in the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, James D.

    2008-01-01

    The term "knowledge economy", like the term "globalisation", has become a catchword in political and educational debate over the last decade or so, especially in debates upon educational policy where the role of education in preparing young people to take their part in the Knowledge Economy is often seen as paramount over other traditional…

  1. Alternative Perspectives on the Political Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, William

    This paper investigates certain dimensions of the term "political economy" with specific reference to its application in analyzing educational organizations. The first section reviews classical and modern formulations of political economy to show how modern political economists operate within a received paradigm embodying five basic…

  2. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  3. Higher Education, Development and the Learning Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the claims for the new economy as necessary background to analyzing changes in knowledge production and the role of the university in the so-called learning economy. The article develops an argument for "knowledge networks" as a basis for the university to promote regional development at home and international development…

  4. Knowledge Production in a Cooperative Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottey, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge here means something similar to but broader than science--it is reliable but not necessarily as systematic or explicit. A cooperative economy is contrasted with the competitive economy that has dominated political thinking almost everywhere for about half a century - the neo-liberal period. It is argued that the neo-liberal ideology and…

  5. The Rural Economy in a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas G.

    Technological change, globalization, and localization have changed rural economies. They have increased labor productivity, reducing the importance of labor costs in location decisions; decreased the importance of distance; increased the importance of economies of scale; and increased the role of local conditions and choices in determining…

  6. Indicators of Education and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoachlander, E. Gareth; And Others

    Eighteen indicators represent important considerations for discussions about education and the economy and strategies for public policy. They describe major aspects of the economy, the demand for labor, and levels for human capital. The indicators are the following: (1) shifts in sectors' relative share of gross national product and the labor…

  7. The Hydrogen Economy as a Technological Bluff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is a technological bluff in its implied assurance that, despite the accelerating pace at which we are depleting the remaining half of our fossil fuels, our energy future is secure. Elementary thermodynamic considerations are developed to show that a hydrogen economy is about as feasible as a perpetual motion machine. Hydrogen…

  8. Using Classroom Token Economies as Instructional Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minner, Sam; Knutson, Richard

    1980-01-01

    The use of a token economy in teaching special needs students is outlined. Steps in establishing a token economy are presented and activities, such as the use of charge cards and a classroom bank, which help develop related skills are discussed. (PHR)

  9. Politics Between Economy and Culture. Introductory Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokkan, Stein

    The introductory statement to the plenary session of the Ninth World Congress of the International Political Science Association announces the first of two major themes, politics between economy and culture. This theme is described as investigating the culture-economy dialectic at all levels of politics -- global, territorial, national, community,…

  10. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  11. Higher Education, Development and the Learning Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the claims for the new economy as necessary background to analyzing changes in knowledge production and the role of the university in the so-called learning economy. The article develops an argument for "knowledge networks" as a basis for the university to promote regional development at home and international development…

  12. Manual of Planning Standards for School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This book presents New York State planning standards for school buildings. The standards offer advice and counsel to school districts, architects, and engineers to help them resolve their school building problems while considering educational and planning efficiency, conservation of natural resources, and initial and long-range economy within the…

  13. 78 FR 15797 - Service Delivery Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Service Delivery Plan AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are requesting public input as we finalize our Service Delivery Plan (SDP). We... Nation's economy. Today, the challenge of service delivery is greater than at any other point in...

  14. HOW THEY PLANNED THEIR FOOD SERVICE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    DESIRABLE OBJECTIVES SUCH AS QUALITY FOOD PREPARATION, EFFICIENT SERVICE, ECONOMY AND EFFECTIVENESS FOR FOOD PREPARATION IN GRANT TOWERS AT NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY, DEKALB, WAS SATISFIED BY THE USE OF INFORMED PRE-PLANNING, COMPREHENSIVE SPACE-STUDIES, AND CRITICAL PATH PLANNING PROCEDURES. THE ARTICLE PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF THE DESIRED FOOD…

  15. HOW THEY PLANNED THEIR FOOD SERVICE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    DESIRABLE OBJECTIVES SUCH AS QUALITY FOOD PREPARATION, EFFICIENT SERVICE, ECONOMY AND EFFECTIVENESS FOR FOOD PREPARATION IN GRANT TOWERS AT NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY, DEKALB, WAS SATISFIED BY THE USE OF INFORMED PRE-PLANNING, COMPREHENSIVE SPACE-STUDIES, AND CRITICAL PATH PLANNING PROCEDURES. THE ARTICLE PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF THE DESIRED FOOD…

  16. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related... economy calculations. The calculations of vehicle fuel economy values require the weighted...

  17. The Informal Economy: Recent Trends, Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Martha Alter

    2016-08-01

    Informal employment represents more than half of nonagricultural employment in most developing regions, contributes to the overall economy, and provides pathways to reduction of poverty and inequality. Support to the informal economy should include the expansion of occupational health and safety to include informal workers, based on an analysis of their work places and work risks. The paper presents main schools of thought and argues for a holistic understanding of the different segments of the informal work force and for policies and interventions tailored to the needs and constraints of these different segments. The paper recommends a policy approach which seeks to extend social protection, including occupational health and safety services, to informal workers, and to increase the productivity of informal enterprises and informal workers through an enabling environment and support services. The paper calls for a new paradigm of a hybrid economy which would value and integrate the informal economy alongside the formal economies.

  18. International Economic Diplomacy: A Guide to the Global Economy: The Issues, Institutions, and Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, NY.

    This guide is designed to help teachers to prepare students for the rapidly arriving new world order through study of market economics and the global economy. The central section of the guide presents 10 case studies that describe a range of international economic concepts: (1) Debt and Oil; (2) Trade and Protection; (3) Foreign Exchange; (4)…

  19. Advancing the National and Global Knowledge Economy: The Role of Research Universities in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    Research universities are a central part of all academic systems. They are the key points of international contact and involvement. Research is produced, disseminated and in many cases imported. For developing countries, the mechanisms for the involvement of research universities in the global knowledge economy is complex, and includes issues of…

  20. International Economic Diplomacy: A Guide to the Global Economy: The Issues, Institutions, and Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, NY.

    This guide is designed to help teachers to prepare students for the rapidly arriving new world order through study of market economics and the global economy. The central section of the guide presents 10 case studies that describe a range of international economic concepts: (1) Debt and Oil; (2) Trade and Protection; (3) Foreign Exchange; (4)…

  1. Competing in an International Era: Preparing the Workforce for the Global Economy. In Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Robert, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    During the past decade, countries in Asia, Latin America, and Central Europe have been experiencing a number of converging factors that drive economic growth, propelling them toward greater economic competitiveness with the economies of the United States (U.S.), Japan, and Western Europe. A major driving force behind this global economic growth is…

  2. Advancing the National and Global Knowledge Economy: The Role of Research Universities in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    Research universities are a central part of all academic systems. They are the key points of international contact and involvement. Research is produced, disseminated and in many cases imported. For developing countries, the mechanisms for the involvement of research universities in the global knowledge economy is complex, and includes issues of…

  3. Flagging Economy Propels Financial Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    On the same day President Bush signed a $150 billion economic-stimulus package in an attempt to head off a recession and offset a crisis in the home-mortgage market, a group of financial experts and educators met a few blocks from the White House to craft a plan for better preparing Americans, young and old, to manage their money. Financial…

  4. Flagging Economy Propels Financial Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    On the same day President Bush signed a $150 billion economic-stimulus package in an attempt to head off a recession and offset a crisis in the home-mortgage market, a group of financial experts and educators met a few blocks from the White House to craft a plan for better preparing Americans, young and old, to manage their money. Financial…

  5. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    PubMed

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  6. It’s the Economy that Matters Most

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-07

    economy. This paper explains why the economy must be an integral element of a future National Security Strategy, and offers some domestic and foreign policy recommendations to enable and protect an adaptive, responsive economy.

  7. The economy of solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Scheer, H. |

    1994-12-31

    Solar energy is often regarded as environmentally-friendly, but, at the same time as not economical. A global economical view shows, however, that renewable energies can bring about substantial economic and social benefits today, even before their wide market introduction has begun. They are a basic economic innovation for durably overcoming the ever increasing risk innate in the current economic development: they provide new jobs in industry, crafts, and agriculture; a long-term reduction of administrative and health costs; reduced subsidies, increased foreign exchange assets for national economies; reduced military expenses to secure the energy supply structure; and preservation of agriculture on a sustainable basis. In the medium- and long-term, they are a precondition for reducing operation and management costs of the energy supply system. On the basis of a completely new tax system - the entropy tax - solar energy can become the trigger of a new economic dynamics which remains within the ecological limits of growth. 27 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Quantifying the vitamin D economy.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D economy, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Welcome to the experience economy.

    PubMed

    Pine, B J; Gilmore, J H

    1998-01-01

    First there was agriculture, then manufactured goods, and eventually services. Each change represented a step up in economic value--a way for producers to distinguish their products from increasingly undifferentiated competitive offerings. Now, as services are in their turn becoming commoditized, companies are looking for the next higher value in an economic offering. Leading-edge companies are finding that it lies in staging experiences. To reach this higher level of competition, companies will have to learn how to design, sell, and deliver experiences that customers will readily pay for. An experience occurs when a company uses services as the stage--and goods as props--for engaging individuals in a way that creates a memorable event. And while experiences have always been at the heart of the entertainment business, any company stages an experience when it engages customers in a personal, memorable way. The lessons of pioneering experience providers, including the Walt Disney Company, can help companies learn how to compete in the experience economy. The authors offer five design principles that drive the creation of memorable experiences. First, create a consistent theme, one that resonates throughout the entire experience. Second, layer the theme with positive cues--for example, easy-to-follow signs. Third, eliminate negative cues, those visual or aural messages that distract or contradict the theme. Fourth, offer memorabilia that commemorate the experience for the user. Finally, engage all five senses--through sights, sounds, and so on--to heighten the experience and thus make it more memorable.

  10. Exercise economy in skiing and running.

    PubMed

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46), body mass (r = -0.09-0.46) and body height (r = 0.11-0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  11. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    PubMed Central

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00–0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03–0.46), body mass (r = −0.09–0.46) and body height (r = 0.11–0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects. PMID:24478718

  12. Policy and Purpose: The Economy of Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Schwartz.indd 11 2/2/09 2:29:38 PM Policy and Purpose The Economy of Deterrence Norton A. Schwartz, General, USAF Timothy R. Kirk, Lieutenant...00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Policy and Purpose. The Economy of Deterrence 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...article concludes with an assessment of the economy of deterrence policy within the theory framework as we examine the implications for US Air

  13. Economies of Size in Production Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Economies of size refer to the ability of a farm to lower costs of production by increasing production. Agriculture production displays an L-shaped average cost curve where costs are lower initially but reach a point where no further gains are achieved. Spreading fixed costs, bulk purchases, and marketing power are cited as reasons for economies of size. Labor-reducing technologies may be the primary reason. Most studies do not include the external costs from prophylactic antibiotic use, impact on rural communities, and environmental damage associated with large-scale production. These can contribute to the economies of size. PMID:23144676

  14. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  15. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  16. Market-Based Manpower Planning with Labour Market Signals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Adams, Arvil; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Labor market planning techniques must take into account the dynamic nature of economies. A better approach than labor needs forecasting is use of labor market signals developed by monitoring wage and employment changes and evaluating training programs. (SK)

  17. Historical Improvement in Speed Skating Economy.

    PubMed

    Noordhof, Dionne A; van Tok, Elmy; Joosten, Florentine S J G M; Hettinga, Florentina J; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Foster, Carl; de Koning, Jos J

    2017-02-01

    Half the improvement in 1500-m speed-skating world records can be explained by technological innovations and the other half by athletic improvement. It is hypothesized that improved skating economy is accountable for much of the athletic improvement.

  18. The Clean Air Act and the Economy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Since 1970, cleaner air and a growing economy have gone hand in hand. The Act has created market opportunities that have helped to inspire innovation in cleaner technologies for which the United States has become a global market leader.

  19. E3: Economy, Energy and Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    E3 is a technical assistance framework helping communities, manufacturers, and manufacturing supply chains adapt and thrive in today's green economy. Find information on pollution prevention, sustainable business practices, and energy efficiency.

  20. Traffic airships with special reference to economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leyensetter, Walther

    1921-01-01

    The first part of this report details the efficiency and economy of airship travel, while the second part presents methods of economic efficiency with regards to construction, cost of upkeep and operation, and the establishment of airship lines.

  1. Transportation Fuels and the Hydrogen Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbard, Alex

    2004-11-01

    An energy analysis of transportation fuels is performed for comparing automobiles and fuels currently in the marketplace as real world benchmarks projected as "hydrogen economy" requirements. Comparisons are made for ideal case average energy values at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) at 20°C, 1 atmosphere with no loses. "Real world" benchmarks currently in the marketplace illuminate the challenges to be met if an equivalent "hydrogen economy" is to become reality. The idea of a "hydrogen economy" is that, at some time in the future, world energy needs will be supplied in part or totally from hydrogen; in part as compared to the current "petroleum economy" that is the source of most of the world's transportation fuels and only a portion of total energy use, or hydrogen as the source of all energy consumption.

  2. Power from space and the hydrogen economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Philip K.; Haynes, William E.

    2005-07-01

    Recent discoveries of methane hydrates under the Arctic permafrost and on continental shelves have revealed an immense energy resource. This has two major implications for the Solar Power Satellite (SPS). First, the SPS will not be built unless it can produce electricity at a price competitive with that generated using methane from hydrates (perhaps with sequestration of carbon dioxide). Second, steam reformation of methane is much cheaper than water electrolysis as a source of hydrogen, so there is little role for the SPS (or any other electric power technology) in the proposed hydrogen economy. On the other hand, an economy based on methane-electric hybrid vehicles offers advantages quite comparable to the hydrogen economy, without its technical problems and immense capital requirements. The methane economy also offers a transitional path to increasing direct use of electricity in transportation, a development that could create a major market for the SPS.

  3. Worker Displacement in an Expanding Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipple, Steven

    1997-01-01

    As the economy grew in the mid-1900s, job loss declined and the rate of reemployment rose. Job losses that did occur were more widely dispersed across industries and occupations than in earlier years. (Author)

  4. Policy Simulation of the International Coffee Economy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    roastings ACCUS Dwmmy variable for United States apparent green coffee roastings DCUS Dummy variable for extremes in United States coffee roasting ...AD-AI1N 682 DEPARTMENT OF STATE. WASHINGTON DC OFFICE OF EXTERNAL-ETC F/8 5/3 POLICY SIMULATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COFFEE ECONOMY.(U) 1981 W C...POLICY SIMULATION OF T=E INTERNATIONAL COFFEE ECONOMY: FINAL REPORT by Walter C. Labys* This final report describes the completed research of the coffee

  5. Integrative Literature Review: Human Capital Planning--A Review of Literature and Implications for Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zula, Kenneth J.; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    The shift in the U.S. economy from a manufacturing powerhouse to a service-driven economy has placed a great emphasis on human capital planning within organizations in order to remain competitive in a new global economy. The link between critical business strategy and the successful implementation of strategy has been well documented in the…

  6. Integrative Literature Review: Human Capital Planning--A Review of Literature and Implications for Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zula, Kenneth J.; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    The shift in the U.S. economy from a manufacturing powerhouse to a service-driven economy has placed a great emphasis on human capital planning within organizations in order to remain competitive in a new global economy. The link between critical business strategy and the successful implementation of strategy has been well documented in the…

  7. The token economy: a decade later.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, A E

    1982-01-01

    In the last decade, the token economy has been extended widely across populations and behaviors in treatment, rehabilitation, educational, and community settings. Outcome research has expanded as well to include large-scale program evaluations and comparative and combined treatment studies of the token economy. In a previous review (Kazdin & Bootzin, 1972), several obstacles were identified for the effective application of the token economy. These included identifying procedures to enhance program efficacy, to train staff, to overcome client resistance, and to promote long-term maintenance and transfer of training. The present paper discusses recent advances in research and reviews progress on the major issues identified previously. New issues have become salient in the last decade that pertain to the extension of the token economy to institutional settings. The demands for maintaining the integrity of treatment, the ability to integrate token economies within existing institutional constraints, and the disseminability of the procedures on a large scale are major issues that may dictate the future of the token economy.

  8. Experiences in manpower planning for geomatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbairn, D.

    2014-04-01

    This paper addresses the issue of manpower planning in meeting the needs of national and international economies for trained geomatics professionals. Estimated statistics for the numbers of such personnel, and experience in assessing recruitment into the profession reveal considerable skills gaps, particularly in the mature economies of the developed world. In general, centralised manpower planning has little official role in western economies. However, informal surveys of shortfalls in supply of qualified graduates in many fields, including geomatics, are undertaken by professional organisations, educational establishments and consultancies. This paper examines examples of such manpower surveys and considers whether more effective manpower planning would ensure a more efficient geomatics industry in a nation, and what the nature of such an exercise should be.

  9. The Sellafield Plan - 12458

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, Iain

    2012-07-01

    The Sellafield Performance Plan represents the start of a new era for the Sellafield site. It is a key driver in the Nuclear Management Partners mission to make Sellafield safer, cleaner, more productive, more cost effective and a better neighbour. When published in summer 2011, the Sellafield Performance Plan set out exactly what work would be completed at Sellafield between 2010/11 and 2025/26, how all of the facilities on the site interact, and what new facilities would be needed in order to deliver the risk and hazard reduction mission. The plan is the first credible and underpinned lifetime plan for the Sellafield site - the most complex part of the UK's civil nuclear estate. Under the Sellafield Performance Plan there are projected to be more jobs longer creating opportunities for the site, its workforce and the economic stability of West Cumbria. The Sellafield Ltd performance plan sets out how NMP will apply their global experience to improve operations, generate efficiencies and deliver detailed programmes of work with the aim of accelerating decommissioning and providing value for money. Successful delivery of the plan will also ensure the site continues to effectively operate critical national infrastructure that supports the UK's energy programme, and maintains the safe and secure management and storage of nuclear materials. The NDA and UK Government have demonstrated their confidence in NMP and Sellafield Ltd's capability to deliver this plan by providing the highest-ever Annual Site Funding Limit for the site in 2011/12. The Sellafield Performance Plan also creates both the foundation and the environment for a vibrant West Cumbrian economy through significant opportunities for the local supply chain and real prospects for further inward investment. By working flexibly and accelerating the decommissioning programme, the plan provides the opportunity for significant retraining to adapt to future challenges on the site and for other potential new nuclear

  10. Essays on Firm Behavior in Developing Economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeberese, Ama Baafra

    The performance of firms is central to growth in developing economies. A burgeoning literature within development economics seeks to understand the behavior of firms in developing countries and the constraints to their performance. This dissertation explores two types of constraints---infrastructure-related constraints and trade-related constraints---faced by manufacturing firms in developing countries. Despite the widely acknowledged importance of infrastructure for economic growth, there has been relatively little research on how infrastructure affects the decisions of firms. Electricity, in particular, is commonly cited by firms in developing countries as a major obstacle to their performance. In the first two chapters, I analyze the responses of firms to two types of electricity constraints, namely electricity prices and electricity shortages. Chapter 1 provides evidence on how electricity prices affect a firm's industry choice and productivity growth using data on Indian manufacturing firms. I construct an instrument for electricity price as the interaction between the price of coal paid by power utilities, which is arguably exogenous to firm characteristics, and the initial share of thermal generation in a state's total electricity generation capacity. I find that, in response to an exogenous increase in electricity price, firms reduce their electricity consumption and switch to industries with less electricity-intensive production processes. I also find that firm output, machine intensity and labor productivity decline with an increase in electricity price. In addition to these level effects, I show that firm output and productivity growth rates are negatively affected by high electricity prices. These results suggest that electricity constraints faced by firms may limit a country's growth by leading firms to operate in industries with fewer productivity-enhancing opportunities. Chapter 2 examines the impact of electricity shortages on firm investment. I

  11. 40 CFR 600.113-93 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-93... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-93 Fuel economy calculations....

  12. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-88 Fuel economy calculations....

  13. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-78 Fuel economy calculations....

  14. Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

  15. Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

  16. Translation, the Knowledge Economy, and Crossing Boundaries in Contemporary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yun-Shiuan

    2016-01-01

    Significant developments in the global economy and information technology have been accompanied by a transformation in the nature and process of knowledge production and dissemination. Concepts such as the knowledge economy or creative economy have been formulated to accommodate the new and complex developments in knowledge, creativity, economy,…

  17. 40 CFR 1066.840 - Highway fuel economy test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Highway fuel economy test procedure... Highway fuel economy test procedure. This section describes the procedure for the highway fuel economy test (HFET). This test involves emission sampling and fuel economy measurement for certain vehicles as...

  18. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related... economy calculations. The Administrator will use the calculation procedure set forth in this paragraph...

  19. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  20. Translation, the Knowledge Economy, and Crossing Boundaries in Contemporary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yun-Shiuan

    2016-01-01

    Significant developments in the global economy and information technology have been accompanied by a transformation in the nature and process of knowledge production and dissemination. Concepts such as the knowledge economy or creative economy have been formulated to accommodate the new and complex developments in knowledge, creativity, economy,…

  1. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  2. Profile of the oral healthcare team in countries with emerging economies.

    PubMed

    Nash, D; Ruotoistenmäki, J; Argentieri, A; Barna, S; Behbehani, J; Berthold, P; Catalanotto, F; Chidzonga, M; Goldblatt, L; Jaafar, N; Kikwilu, E; Konoo, T; Kouzmina, E; Lindh, C; Mathu-Muju, K; Mumghamba, E; Nik Hussein, N; Phantumvanit, P; Runnel, R; Shaw, H; Forna, N; Orliaguet, T; Honkala, E

    2008-02-01

    Health is a critical dimension of human well-being and flourishing, and oral health is an integral component of health: one is not healthy without oral health. Significant barriers exist to ensuring the world's people receive basic healthcare, including oral healthcare. Amongst these are poverty, ignorance, inadequate financial resources and lack of adequate numbers of educated and trained (oral) healthcare workers. Emerging economies are encouraged to develop a national strategic plan for oral health. International organizations have developed goals for oral health that can be referenced and adapted by emerging economies as they seek to formulate specific objectives for their countries. Demographic data that assess the nature and extent of oral diseases in a country are essential to sound planning and the development of an oral healthcare system that is relevant, effective and economically viable. Prevention should be emphasized and priority consideration be given to oral healthcare for children. The types and numbers of members of the oral healthcare team (workforce) will vary from country to country depending on the system developed. Potential members of the workforce include: generalist dentists, specialist dentists, dental therapists, dental hygienists, denturists, expanded function dental assistants (dental nurses) and community oral health workers/aides. Competences for dentists, and other members of the team, should be developed to ensure quality care and developed economies should cooperate with emerging economies. The development, by more advanced economies, of digital, virtual curricula, which could be used by emerging economies for educating and training members of the oral healthcare team, should be an important initiative. The International Federation of Dental Educators and Associations (IFDEA) should lead in such an effort.

  3. The effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Joel T; Bellenger, Clint R; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-03-01

    The effect of footwear on running economy has been investigated in numerous studies. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis has synthesised the available literature and the effect of footwear on running performance is not known. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners, by reviewing controlled trials that compare different footwear conditions or compare footwear with barefoot. The Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), EMBASE, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), CINAHL and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from inception up until April 2014. Included articles reported on controlled trials that examined the effects of footwear or footwear characteristics (including shoe mass, cushioning, motion control, longitudinal bending stiffness, midsole viscoelasticity, drop height and comfort) on running performance or running economy and were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Of the 1,044 records retrieved, 19 studies were included in the systematic review and 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No studies were identified that reported effects on running performance. Individual studies reported significant, but trivial, beneficial effects on running economy for comfortable and stiff-soled shoes [standardised mean difference (SMD) <0.12; P < 0.05), a significant small beneficial effect on running economy for cushioned shoes (SMD = 0.37; P < 0.05) and a significant moderate beneficial effect on running economy for training in minimalist shoes (SMD = 0.79; P < 0.05). Meta-analysis found significant small beneficial effects on running economy for light shoes and barefoot compared with heavy shoes (SMD < 0.34; P < 0.01) and for minimalist shoes compared with conventional shoes (SMD = 0.29; P < 0.01). A significant positive association between shoe mass and metabolic cost of running

  4. A theory of family, economy, and gender.

    PubMed

    Huber, J

    1988-03-01

    Historically, the requirements of population replacement have interacted with modes of subsistence technology to shape the differential distribution of power and prestige by sex. Two assumptions undergird Huber's argument: in all societies, producers have more power than consumers; those who control the distribution of valued goods beyond the family have the most power. Evidence comes from societies based on foraging, the hoe, the plow, herding, and industrial technologies. Huber concludes that changes in the work people do have altered the stratification and family systems of plow societies. Declines in mortality and fertility and changes in lactation customs have reduced the time that women spend pregnant or nursing. Increases in educational levels and employment rates enable women to provide sizable shares of family income. These trends have increased the centrality of individual goal attainment in the Western ideational system. Now women, along with men, have been swept into the occupational streams of the industrial revolution, though not quite into the mainstream. Still in question is the extent to which women will hold a fair share of top positions. This will hinge on responsibility for housework and childcare early in a woman's career, a time when most single parents or couples lack resources to command full-time quality care for the daily needs of their children. Ambitious women can avoid much conflict by remaining childless, but that is the point; ambitious men need not make that choice. Women cannot become men's social equals until the most talented women can aspire as realistically as their male counterparts to contribute in proportion to their talents. Thus, the overlap of family, economy, and gender, reshaped by continuing technological change, continues to affect women's status. Industrialization 1st turned the cost-benefit ratio of children upside down. Then wives were drawn into the labor force, raising the opportunity cost of their time, and

  5. Education and the Economy: Boosting California's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  6. Education and the Economy: Boosting North Carolina's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  7. Education and the Economy: Boosting Idaho's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  8. Education and the Economy: Boosting Arizona's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  9. Education and the Economy: Boosting Kansas' Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  10. Education and the Economy: Boosting Texas's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  11. Education and the Economy: Boosting Iowa's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  12. Education and the Economy: Boosting Hawaii's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  13. Education and the Economy: Boosting Pennsylvania's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  14. Education and the Economy: Boosting Nevada's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  15. Education and the Economy: Boosting Colorado's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  16. Education and the Economy: Boosting Delaware's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  17. Education and the Economy: Boosting the District of Columbia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  18. Education and the Economy: Boosting Georgia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  19. Education and the Economy: Boosting Vermont's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  20. Education and the Economy: Boosting Virginia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  1. Education and the Economy: Boosting South Carolina's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  2. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Jersey's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  3. Education and the Economy: Boosting Arkansas' Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  4. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Hampshire's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  5. Education and the Economy: Boosting Indiana's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  6. Education and the Economy: Boosting Oklahoma's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  7. Education and the Economy: Boosting Wisconsin's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  8. Education and the Economy: Boosting Alaska's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  9. Education and the Economy: Boosting Illinois's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  10. Education and the Economy: Boosting West Virginia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  11. Education and the Economy: Boosting Oregon's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  12. Education and the Economy: Boosting New York's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  13. Education and the Economy: Boosting Tennessee's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  14. Education and the Economy: Boosting the Nation's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  15. Education and the Economy: Boosting Wyoming's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  16. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Mexico's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  17. Education and the Economy: Boosting Florida's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  18. Education and the Economy: Boosting Ohio's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  19. Education and the Economy: Boosting Rhode Island's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  20. Education and the Economy: Boosting Utah's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…