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Sample records for centrosome-associated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling

  1. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of influenza A virus proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yu, Meng; Zheng, Weinan; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-05-22

    Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected host cells. The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex of influenza virus is the essential genetic unit of the virus. The viral proteins play important roles in multiple processes, including virus structural maintenance, mediating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the vRNP complex, virus particle assembly, and budding. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins occurs throughout the entire virus life cycle. This review mainly focuses on matrix protein (M1), nucleoprotein (NP), nonstructural protein (NS1), and nuclear export protein (NEP), summarizing the mechanisms of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the regulation of virus replication through their phosphorylation to further understand the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in host adaptation of the viruses.

  2. P68 RNA Helicase Is A Nucleocytoplasm Shuttling Protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haizhen; Gao, Xueliang; Huang, Yun; Yang, Jenny; Liu, Zhi-Ren

    2009-01-01

    P68 RNA helicase is a prototypical DEAD box RNA helicase. The protein plays a very important role in early organ development and maturation. In consistence with the function of the protein in transcriptional regulation and pre-mRNA splicing, p68 was found to predominately localize in the cell nucleus. However, recent experiments demonstrate a transient cytoplasmic localization of the protein. We report here that p68 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of p68 is mediated by two nuclear localization signal (NLS) and two nuclear exporting signal (NES) sequence elements. Our experiments reveal that p68 shuttles via a classical RanGTPase dependent pathway. PMID:19786986

  3. The rules and roles of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins.

    PubMed

    Gama-Carvalho, M; Carmo-Fonseca, M

    2001-06-08

    The spatial separation of mRNA synthesis from translation, while providing eukaryotes with the possibility to achieve higher complexity through a more elaborate regulation of gene expression, has set the need for transport mechanisms through the nuclear envelope. In a simplistic view of nucleocytoplasmic transport, nuclear proteins are imported into the nucleus while RNAs are exported to the cytoplasm. The reality is, however, that transport of either proteins or RNAs across the nuclear envelope can be bi-directional. During the past years, an increasing number of proteins have been identified that shuttle continuously back and forth between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The emerging picture is that shuttling proteins are key factors in conveying information on nuclear and cytoplasmic activities within the cell.

  4. The first identified nucleocytoplasmic shuttling herpesviral capsid protein: herpes simplex virus type 1 VP19C.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Zheng, Chunfu

    2012-01-01

    VP19C is a structural protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 viral particle, which is essential for assembly of the capsid. In this study, a nuclear export signal (NES) of VP19C is for the first time identified and mapped to amino acid residues 342 to 351. Furthermore, VP19C is demonstrated to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm through the NES in a chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-dependent manner involving RanGTP hydrolysis. This makes VP19C the first herpesviral capsid protein with nucleocytoplasmic shuttling property and adds it to the list of HSV-1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins.

  5. Characterization of molecular determinants for nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of PRV UL54

    SciTech Connect

    Li Meili; Wang Shuai; Cai Mingsheng; Guo Hong; Zheng Chunfu

    2011-09-01

    The pseudorabies virus (PRV) early protein UL54 is a homologue of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate-early protein ICP27, which is a multifunctional protein and essential for HSV-1 infection. To determine if UL54 might shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm, as has been shown for its homologues in human herpesviruses, the molecular determinants for its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling were investigated. Heterokaryon assays demonstrated that UL54 was a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein and this property could not be blocked by leptomycin B, an inhibitor of chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1). However, TAP/NXF1 promoted the nuclear export of UL54 and interacted with UL54, suggesting that UL54 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm via a TAP/NXF1, but not CRM1, dependent nuclear export pathway. Furthermore, UL54 was demonstrated to target to the nucleus through a classic Ran-, importin {beta}1- and {alpha}5-dependent nuclear import mechanism.

  6. Sox10 is an active nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein, and shuttling is crucial for Sox10-mediated transactivation.

    PubMed

    Rehberg, Stephan; Lischka, Peter; Glaser, Gabi; Stamminger, Thomas; Wegner, Michael; Rosorius, Olaf

    2002-08-01

    Sox10 belongs to a family of transcription regulators characterized by a DNA-binding domain known as the HMG box. It plays fundamental roles in neural crest development, peripheral gliogenesis, and terminal differentiation of oligodendrocytes. In accord with its function as transcription factor, Sox10 contains two nuclear localization signals and is most frequently detected in the nucleus. In this study, we report that Sox10 is an active nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein, competent of both entering and exiting the nucleus. We identified a functional Rev-type nuclear export signal within the DNA-binding domain of Sox10. Mutational inactivation of this nuclear export signal or treatment of cells with the CRM1-specific export inhibitor leptomycin B inhibited nuclear export and consequently nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Sox10. Importantly, the inhibition of the nuclear export of Sox10 led to decreased transactivation of transfected reporters and endogenous target genes, arguing that continuous nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is essential for the function of Sox10. To our knowledge this is the first time that nuclear export has been reported and shown to be functionally relevant for any Sox protein.

  7. P19ARF stabilizes p53 by blocking nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of Mdm2

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Weikang; Levine, Arnold J.

    1999-01-01

    The INK4a-ARF locus encodes two distinct tumor suppressors, p16INK4a and p19ARF. Whereas p16INK4a restrains cell growth through preventing phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein, p19ARF acts by attenuating Mdm2-mediated degradation of p53, thereby stabilizing p53. Recent data indicate that Mdm2 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and that nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of Mdm2 is essential for Mdm2’s ability to promote p53 degradation. Therefore, Mdm2 must export p53 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it targets p53 for degradation. We show here that coexpression of p19ARF blocks the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of Mdm2. Moreover, subnuclear localization of Mdm2 changes from the nucleoplasm to the nucleolus in a shuttling time-dependent manner, whereas p19ARF is exclusively located in the nucleolus. In heterokaryons containing Mdm2 and p19ARF, the longer the Mdm2 shuttling is allowed, the more Mdm2 protein colocalizes with p19ARF in the nucleolus, implying that Mdm2 moves from the nucleoplasm to the nucleolus and then associates with p19ARF there. Furthermore, whether or not Mdm2 colocalizes with p19ARF in the nucleolus, p19ARF prevents Mdm2 shuttling. This observation suggests that Mdm2 might be exported through the nucleolus and p19ARF could inhibit the nuclear export of Mdm2 by tethering Mdm2 in the nucleolus. Taken together, p19ARF could stabilize p53 by inhibiting the nuclear export of Mdm2. PMID:10359817

  8. A gamma-2 herpesvirus nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein interacts with importin alpha 1 and alpha 5.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, D J; Whitehouse, A

    2001-06-08

    Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) is the prototype gamma-2 herpesvirus. This is an increasing important subfamily of herpesviruses due to the identification of the first human gamma-2 herpesvirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. The HVS open reading frame (ORF) 57 protein is a multifunctional trans-regulatory protein homologous to genes identified in all classes of herpesviruses. Recent analysis has demonstrated that ORF 57 has the ability to bind viral RNA and to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm, and is required for efficient nuclear export of viral transcripts. Here we have investigated the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling mechanism utilized by the ORF 57 protein. The yeast two-hybrid system was employed to identify interacting cellular proteins using ORF 57 as bait. We demonstrate that ORF 57 interacts with importin alpha isoforms 1 and 5. In addition, the binding of ORF 57 to importin alpha was mediated by the importin alpha hydrophobic internal armadillo repeats. An ORF 57 amino-terminal arginine-rich sequence, which functions as a nuclear localization sequence, was also required for this interaction. Furthermore, the ORF 57 protein is responsible for the redistribution of importin alpha into the nucleoli. These results identify novel cellular interactions essential for the functioning of this important herpesvirus regulatory protein.

  9. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Bovine Papillomavirus E1 Helicase Downregulates Viral DNA Replication in S Phase▿

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chiung-Yueh; Mechali, Francisca; Bonne-Andrea, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    The papillomavirus E1 protein is essential for the initiation of viral replication. We previously showed that the bovine papillomavirus E1 protein is unstable and becomes resistant to ubiquitin-mediated degradation when tightly bound to cyclin E-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) before the start of DNA synthesis. However, neither the protection nor the targeted degradation of E1 appears to depend on its phosphorylation by Cdk. Here, we report that Cdk phosphorylation of E1 is also not a prerequisite for the initiation of viral DNA replication either in vitro or in vivo. Nevertheless, we found that phosphorylation of one Cdk site, Ser283, abrogates E1 replicative activity only in a cellular context. We show that this site-specific phosphorylation of E1 drives its export from the nucleus and promotes its continuous nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. In addition, we find that E1 shuttling occurs in S phase, when cyclin A-Cdk2 is activated. E1 interacts with the active cyclin A-Cdk2 complex and is phosphorylated on Ser283 by this kinase. These data suggest that the phosphorylation of E1 on Ser283 is a negative regulatory event that is involved in preventing the amplification of viral DNA during S phase. This finding reveals a novel facet of E1 regulation that could account for the variations of the viral replication capacity during different cell cycle phases, as well as in different stages of the viral cycle. PMID:17035309

  10. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Young-Hee; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Kim, Soo-A.

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.

  11. NFATc1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is controlled by nerve activity in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tothova, Jana; Blaauw, Bert; Pallafacchina, Giorgia; Rudolf, Rüdiger; Argentini, Carla; Reggiani, Carlo; Schiaffino, Stefano

    2006-04-15

    Calcineurin-NFAT signaling has been shown to control activity-dependent muscle gene regulation and induce a program of gene expression typical of slow oxidative muscle fibers. Following Ca2+-calmodulin stimulation, calcineurin dephosphorylates NFAT proteins and induces their translocation into the nucleus. However, NFAT nuclear translocation has never been investigated in skeletal muscle in vivo. To determine whether NFATc1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling depends on muscle activity, we transfected fast and slow mouse muscles with plasmids coding for an NFATc1-GFP fusion protein. We found that NFATc1-GFP has a predominantly cytoplasmic localization in the fast tibialis anterior muscle but a predominantly nuclear localization in the slow soleus muscle, with a characteristic focal intranuclear distribution. Two hours of complete inactivity, induced by denervation or anaesthesia, cause NFATc1 export out of the nucleus in soleus muscle fibers, whereas electrostimulation of tibialis anterior with a low-frequency tonic impulse pattern, mimicking the firing pattern of slow motor neurons, causes NFATc1 nuclear translocation. The activity-dependent nuclear import and export of NFATc1 is a rapid event, as visualized directly in vivo by two-photon microscopy. The calcineurin inhibitor cain/cabin1 causes nuclear export of NFATc1 both in normal soleus and stimulated tibialis anterior muscle. These findings support the notion that in skeletal muscle NFATc1 is a calcineurin-dependent nerve activity sensor.

  12. G2E3 IS A NUCLEO-CYTOPLASMIC SHUTTLING PROTEIN WITH DNA DAMAGE RESPONSIVE LOCALIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, William S.; Banerjee, Sami; Crawford, David F.

    2007-01-01

    G2E3 was originally described as a G2/M-specific gene with DNA damage responsive expression. The presence of a conserved HECT domain within the carboxy-terminus of the protein indicated that it likely functions as an ubiquitin ligase or E3. Although HECT domains are known to function in this capacity for many proteins, we demonstrate that a portion of the HECT domain from G2E3 plays an important role in the dynamic subcellular localization of the protein. We have shown that G2E3 is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein with nuclear export mediated by a novel nuclear export domain that functions independently of CRM1. In full-length G2E3, a separate region of the HECT domain suppresses the function of the NES. Additionally, G2E3 contains a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) in its amino terminus. Localization of G2E3 to the nucleolus is a dynamic process, and the protein delocalizes from the nucleolus rapidly after DNA damage. Cell cycle phase-specific expression and highly regulated subcellular localization of G2E3 suggest a possible role in cell cycle regulation and the cellular response to DNA damage. PMID:17239372

  13. G2E3 is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein with DNA damage responsive localization

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, William S.; Banerjee, Sami; Crawford, David F. . E-mail: dfc@uab.edu

    2007-02-15

    G2E3 was originally described as a G2/M-specific gene with DNA damage responsive expression. The presence of a conserved HECT domain within the carboxy-terminus of the protein indicated that it likely functions as a ubiquitin ligase or E3. Although HECT domains are known to function in this capacity for many proteins, we demonstrate that a portion of the HECT domain from G2E3 plays an important role in the dynamic subcellular localization of the protein. We have shown that G2E3 is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein with nuclear export mediated by a novel nuclear export domain that functions independently of CRM1. In full-length G2E3, a separate region of the HECT domain suppresses the function of the NES. Additionally, G2E3 contains a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) in its amino terminus. Localization of G2E3 to the nucleolus is a dynamic process, and the protein delocalizes from the nucleolus rapidly after DNA damage. Cell cycle phase-specific expression and highly regulated subcellular localization of G2E3 suggest a possible role in cell cycle regulation and the cellular response to DNA damage.

  14. GNL3L Is a Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Shuttling Protein: Role in Cell Cycle Regulation.

    PubMed

    Thoompumkal, Indu Jose; Subba Rao, Malireddi Rama Krishna; Kumaraswamy, Anbarasu; Krishnan, Rehna; Mahalingam, Sundarasamy

    2015-01-01

    GNL3L is an evolutionarily conserved high molecular weight GTP binding nucleolar protein belonging to HSR1-MMR1 subfamily of GTPases. The present investigation reveals that GNL3L is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein and its export from the nucleus is sensitive to Leptomycin B. Deletion mutagenesis reveals that the C-terminal domain (amino acids 501-582) is necessary and sufficient for the export of GNL3L from the nucleus and the exchange of hydrophobic residues (M567, L570 and 572) within the C-terminal domain impairs this process. Results from the protein-protein interaction analysis indicate that GNL3L interaction with CRM1 is critical for its export from the nucleus. Ectopic expression of GNL3L leads to lesser accumulation of cells in the 'G2/M' phase of cell cycle whereas depletion of endogenous GNL3L results in 'G2/M' arrest. Interestingly, cell cycle analysis followed by BrdU labeling assay indicates that significantly increased DNA synthesis occurs in cells expressing nuclear export defective mutant (GNL3L∆NES) compared to the wild type or nuclear import defective GNL3L. Furthermore, increased hyperphosphorylation of Rb at Serine 780 and the upregulation of E2F1, cyclins A2 and E1 upon ectopic expression of GNL3L∆NES results in faster 'S' phase progression. Collectively, the present study provides evidence that GNL3L is exported from the nucleus in CRM1 dependent manner and the nuclear localization of GNL3L is important to promote 'S' phase progression during cell proliferation.

  15. The BRO proteins of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus are nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins that utilize the CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Won Kyung . E-mail: wkkang@riken.jp; Kurihara, Masaaki . E-mail: mkuri@riken.jp; Matsumoto, Shogo . E-mail: smatsu@riken.jp

    2006-06-20

    The BRO proteins of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) display a biphasic pattern of intracellular localization during infection. At early times, they reside in the nucleus but then show both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization as the infection proceeds. Therefore, we examined the possibility of nuclear export. Using inhibitors, we reveal that BmNPV BRO proteins shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Mutations on the leucine-rich region of BRO proteins resulted in nuclear accumulation of transiently expressed proteins, suggesting that this region functions as a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES). On the contrary, mutant BRO-D with an altered NES did not show nuclear accumulation in infected cells, although protein production seemed to be reduced. RT-PCR analysis showed that the lower level of protein production was due to a reduction in RNA synthesis. Taken together, our results suggest that BRO proteins are nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins that utilize the CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway.

  16. p35 regulates the CRM1-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of nuclear hormone receptor coregulator-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Su; Fu, Wing-Yu; Chien, Winnie W Y; Li, Zhen; Fu, Amy K Y; Ip, Nancy Y

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase, which plays critical roles in a wide spectrum of neuronal functions including neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth, and synapse development and plasticity. Cdk5 activity is controlled by its specific activators: p35 or p39. While knockout studies reveal that Cdk5/p35 is critical for neuronal migration during early brain development, functions of Cdk5/p35 have been unraveled through the identification of the interacting proteins of p35, most of which are Cdk5/p35 substrates. However, it remains unclear whether p35 can regulate neuronal functions independent of Cdk5 activity. Here, we report that a nuclear protein, nuclear hormone receptor coregulator (NRC)-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1), is a new interacting partner of p35. Interestingly, p35 regulates the functions of NIF-1 independent of Cdk5 activity. NIF-1 was initially discovered as a transcriptional regulator that enhances the transcriptional activity of nuclear hormone receptors. Our results show that p35 interacts with NIF-1 and regulates its nucleocytoplasmic trafficking via the nuclear export pathway. Furthermore, we identified a nuclear export signal on p35; mutation of this site or blockade of the CRM1/exportin-dependent nuclear export pathway resulted in the nuclear accumulation of p35. Intriguingly, blocking the nuclear export of p35 attenuated the nuclear accumulation of NIF-1. These findings reveal a new p35-dependent mechanism in transcriptional regulation that involves the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription regulators.

  17. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of p62/SQSTM1 and Its Role in Recruitment of Nuclear Polyubiquitinated Proteins to Promyelocytic Leukemia Bodies*

    PubMed Central

    Pankiv, Serhiy; Lamark, Trond; Bruun, Jack-Ansgar; Øvervatn, Aud; Bjørkøy, Geir; Johansen, Terje

    2010-01-01

    p62, also known as sequestosome1 (SQSTM1), A170, or ZIP, is a multifunctional protein implicated in several signal transduction pathways. p62 is induced by various forms of cellular stress, is degraded by autophagy, and acts as a cargo receptor for autophagic degradation of ubiquitinated targets. It is also suggested to shuttle ubiquitinated proteins for proteasomal degradation. p62 is commonly found in cytosolic protein inclusions in patients with protein aggregopathies, it is up-regulated in several forms of human tumors, and mutations in the gene are linked to classical adult onset Paget disease of the bone. To this end, p62 has generally been considered to be a cytosolic protein, and little attention has been paid to possible nuclear roles of this protein. Here, we present evidence that p62 shuttles continuously between nuclear and cytosolic compartments at a high rate. The protein is also found in nuclear promyelocytic leukemia bodies. We show that p62 contains two nuclear localization signals and a nuclear export signal. Our data suggest that the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of p62 is modulated by phosphorylations at or near the most important nuclear localization signal, NLS2. The aggregation of p62 in cytosolic bodies also regulates the transport of p62 between the compartments. We found p62 to be essential for accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins in promyelocytic leukemia bodies upon inhibition of nuclear protein export. Furthermore, p62 contributed to the assembly of proteasome-containing degradative compartments in the vicinity of nuclear aggregates containing polyglutamine-expanded Ataxin1Q84 and to the degradation of Ataxin1Q84. PMID:20018885

  18. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of p62/SQSTM1 and its role in recruitment of nuclear polyubiquitinated proteins to promyelocytic leukemia bodies.

    PubMed

    Pankiv, Serhiy; Lamark, Trond; Bruun, Jack-Ansgar; Øvervatn, Aud; Bjørkøy, Geir; Johansen, Terje

    2010-02-19

    p62, also known as sequestosome1 (SQSTM1), A170, or ZIP, is a multifunctional protein implicated in several signal transduction pathways. p62 is induced by various forms of cellular stress, is degraded by autophagy, and acts as a cargo receptor for autophagic degradation of ubiquitinated targets. It is also suggested to shuttle ubiquitinated proteins for proteasomal degradation. p62 is commonly found in cytosolic protein inclusions in patients with protein aggregopathies, it is up-regulated in several forms of human tumors, and mutations in the gene are linked to classical adult onset Paget disease of the bone. To this end, p62 has generally been considered to be a cytosolic protein, and little attention has been paid to possible nuclear roles of this protein. Here, we present evidence that p62 shuttles continuously between nuclear and cytosolic compartments at a high rate. The protein is also found in nuclear promyelocytic leukemia bodies. We show that p62 contains two nuclear localization signals and a nuclear export signal. Our data suggest that the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of p62 is modulated by phosphorylations at or near the most important nuclear localization signal, NLS2. The aggregation of p62 in cytosolic bodies also regulates the transport of p62 between the compartments. We found p62 to be essential for accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins in promyelocytic leukemia bodies upon inhibition of nuclear protein export. Furthermore, p62 contributed to the assembly of proteasome-containing degradative compartments in the vicinity of nuclear aggregates containing polyglutamine-expanded Ataxin1Q84 and to the degradation of Ataxin1Q84.

  19. Identification of intracellular localization signals and of mechanisms underlining the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Yuichiro Miyama, Yasuo; Takane, Yusuke; Nakahama, Takayuki; Inouye, Yoshio

    2007-12-28

    Two members of the 'AhR family' (a family which is part of the bHLH-PAS superfamily), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR repressor (AhRR), originated from a common ancestor and form a regulatory circuit in xenobiotic signal transduction. AhRR is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein, harboring both a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a nuclear export signal (NES). Because NLS is dominant over NES, AhRR resides predominantly in the nuclear compartment. The NES of AhRR resembles that of AhR in sensitivity to leptomycin B, whereas the NLS of AhRR is monopartite and is, therefore, distinguished from the reported bipartite NLS of AhR. The NLS deletion mutant of GFP-AhRR was transported into the nuclear compartment in the presence of AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt), suggesting the assembly of an AhRR/Arnt heterodimer complex in the cytoplasmic compartment and Arnt-dependent nuclear translocation of this complex.

  20. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of oncoprotein Hdm2 is required for Hdm2-mediated degradation of p53

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Weikang; Levine, Arnold J.

    1999-01-01

    The Hdm2 oncoprotein inhibits p53 functions by two means: (i) it blocks p53’s transactivation activity and (ii) it targets p53 for degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. Recent data indicate that Hdm2 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and that the regulation of p53 levels by Hdm2 requires its nuclear export activity. Two different models are consistent with these observations. In the first, Hdm2 binds to p53 in the nucleus and shuttles p53 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and then it targets p53 to the cytoplasmic proteasome. Alternatively, Hdm2 and p53 could be exported separately from the nucleus and then associate in the cytoplasm, where Hdm2 promotes the degradation of p53. To distinguish between these two models, several Hdm2 mutants were employed. Hdm2NLS lacks the ability to enter the nucleus, whereas Hdm2NES is deficient in nuclear export. Hdm2NLS, Hdm2NES, or the combination of both mutants were unable to promote p53 degradation in the cotransfected 2KO cells (which were null for both the p53 and mdm2 genes), although wild-type Hdm2 efficiently reduced p53 levels under the same conditions. This observation is not a result of the differences in expression levels or stability between Hdm2 and these mutants. Moreover, coexpression of these mutants had no effect on wild-type Hdm-2-induced p53 destabilization. Thus, Hdm2 must shuttle p53 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm to target it for degradation in the cytoplasm. PMID:10077639

  1. The inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP1 is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein and enzymatically active in cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Nalaskowski, Marcus M; Metzner, Anja; Brehm, Maria A; Labiadh, Sena; Brauer, Helena; Grabinski, Nicole; Mayr, Georg W; Jücker, Manfred

    2012-03-01

    The inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP1 is a negative regulator of signaling processes in hematopoietic cells. SHIP1 mediates its regulatory function after relocalization from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane where it converts its substrate PI(3,4,5)P(3) to PI(3,4)P(2) thereby terminating PI3-kinase mediated signaling. In addition, SHIP1 converts Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) to Ins(1,3,4)P(3) thereby regulating inositol phosphate metabolism. Here we report, that SHIP1 can be detected in nuclear puncta of Jurkat cells by confocal microscopy after expression of SHIP1 from a tetracycline inducible vector. SHIP1-containing nuclear puncta partially co-localize with FLASH, a multifunctional nuclear protein that has been linked to apoptotic signaling and transcriptional control. Nuclear localization was confirmed for endogenously expressed SHIP1 in the myeloid leukemia cell line TF1. In addition, enzymatically active SHIP1 was found in nuclear fractions of Jurkat cells with a similar specific activity as cytoplasmic SHIP1. Further analysis revealed that SHIP1 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein which is actively imported into and exported out of the nucleus. Nuclear import is mediated by two canonical nuclear localization signals (NLS) i.e. K(327)KSK and K(547)KLR. Mutational inactivation of each NLS motif inhibited nuclear import and reduced the proliferation of cells indicating a functional role of nuclear SHIP1 for cell growth. Our data indicate that SHIP1 is partly localized in the nucleus and suggest that SHIP1 plays a role for nuclear phosphoinositide and/or nuclear inositol phosphate signaling.

  2. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of the Golgi Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase Pik1 Is Regulated by 14-3-3 Proteins and Coordinates Golgi Function with Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Demmel, Lars; Beck, Mike; Klose, Christian; Schlaitz, Anne-Lore; Gloor, Yvonne; Hsu, Peggy P.; Havlis, Jan; Shevchenko, Andrej; Krause, Eberhard; Kalaidzidis, Yannis

    2008-01-01

    The yeast phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase Pik1p is essential for proliferation, and it controls Golgi homeostasis and transport of newly synthesized proteins from this compartment. At the Golgi, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate recruits multiple cytosolic effectors involved in formation of post-Golgi transport vesicles. A second pool of catalytically active Pik1p localizes to the nucleus. The physiological significance and regulation of this dual localization of the lipid kinase remains unknown. Here, we show that Pik1p binds to the redundant 14-3-3 proteins Bmh1p and Bmh2p. We provide evidence that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Pik1p involves phosphorylation and that 14-3-3 proteins bind Pik1p in the cytoplasm. Nutrient deprivation results in relocation of Pik1p from the Golgi to the nucleus and increases the amount of Pik1p–14-3-3 complex, a process reversed upon restored nutrient supply. These data suggest a role of Pik1p nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in coordination of biosynthetic transport from the Golgi with nutrient signaling. PMID:18172025

  3. Fanconi anemia A is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling molecule required for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) transduction of the GnRH receptor.

    PubMed

    Larder, Rachel; Karali, Dimitra; Nelson, Nancy; Brown, Pamela

    2006-12-01

    GnRH binds its cognate G protein-coupled GnRH receptor (GnRHR) located on pituitary gonadotropes and drives expression of gonadotropin hormones. There are two gonadotropin hormones, comprised of a common alpha- and hormone-specific beta-subunit, which are required for gonadal function. Recently we identified that Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a DNA damage repair gene, is differentially expressed within the LbetaT2 gonadotrope cell line in response to stimulation with GnRH. FANCA is mutated in more than 60% of cases of Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, endocrine tissue cancer susceptibility, and infertility. Here we show that induction of FANCA protein is mediated by the GnRHR and that the protein constitutively adopts a nucleocytoplasmic intracellular distribution pattern. Using inhibitors to block nuclear import and export and a GnRHR antagonist, we demonstrated that GnRH induces nuclear accumulation of FANCA and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-FANCA before exporting back to the cytoplasm using the nuclear export receptor CRM1. Using FANCA point mutations that locate GFP-FANCA to the cytoplasm (H1110P) or functionally uncouple GFP-FANCA (Q1128E) from the wild-type nucleocytoplasmic distribution pattern, we demonstrated that wild-type FANCA was required for GnRH-induced activation of gonadotrope cell markers. Cotransfection of H1110P and Q1128E blocked GnRH activation of the alphaGsu and GnRHR but not the beta-subunit gene promoters. We conclude that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of FANCA is required for GnRH transduction of the alphaGSU and GnRHR gene promoters and propose that FANCA functions as a GnRH-induced signal transducer.

  4. Nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling dynamics of the transcriptional regulators XYR1 and CRE1 under conditions of cellulase and xylanase gene expression in Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    Lichius, Alexander; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei is a model for investigating the regulation of (hemi-)cellulase gene expression. Cellulases are formed adaptively, and the transcriptional activator XYR1 and the carbon catabolite repressor CRE1 are main regulators of their expression. We quantified the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling dynamics of GFP-fusion proteins of both transcription factors under cellulase and xylanase inducing conditions, and correlated their nuclear presence/absence with transcriptional changes. We also compared their subcellular localization in conidial germlings and mature hyphae. We show that cellulase gene expression requires de novo biosynthesis of XYR1 and its simultaneous nuclear import, whereas carbon catabolite repression is regulated through preformed CRE1 imported from the cytoplasmic pool. Termination of induction immediately stopped cellulase gene transcription and was accompanied by rapid nuclear degradation of XYR1. In contrast, nuclear CRE1 rapidly decreased upon glucose depletion, and became recycled into the cytoplasm. In mature hyphae, nuclei containing activated XYR1 were concentrated in the colony center, indicating that this is the main region of XYR1 synthesis and cellulase transcription. CRE1 was found to be evenly distributed throughout the entire mycelium. Taken together, our data revealed novel aspects of the dynamic shuttling and spatial bias of the major regulator of (hemi-)cellulase gene expression, XYR1, in T. reesei. PMID:25302561

  5. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK-2) mediated phosphorylation regulates nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling and cell growth control of Ras-associated tumor suppressor protein, RASSF2

    SciTech Connect

    Kumari, Gita; Mahalingam, S.

    2009-10-01

    Ras GTPase controls the normal cell growth through binding with an array of effector molecules, such as Raf and PI3-kinase in a GTP-dependent manner. RASSF2, a member of the Ras association domain family, is known to be involved in the suppression of cell growth and is frequently down-regulated in various tumor tissues by promoter hypermethylation. In the present study, we demonstrate that RASSF2 shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm by a signal-mediated process and its export from the nucleus is sensitive to leptomycin B. Amino acids between 240 to 260 in the C-terminus of RASSF2 harbor a functional nuclear export signal (NES), which is necessary and sufficient for efficient export of RASSF2 from the nucleus. Substitution of conserved Ile254, Val257 and Leu259 within the minimal NES impaired RASSF2 export from the nucleus. In addition, wild type but not the nuclear export defective RASSF2 mutant interacts with export receptor, CRM-1 and exported from the nucleus. Surprisingly, we observed nucleolar localization for the nuclear export defective mutant suggesting the possibility that RASSF2 may localize in different cellular compartments transiently in a cell cycle dependent manner and the observed nuclear localization for wild type protein may be due to faster export kinetics from the nucleolus. Furthermore, our data suggest that RASSF2 is specifically phosphorylated by MAPK/ERK-2 and the inhibitors of MAPK pathway impair the phosphorylation and subsequently block the export of RASSF2 from the nucleus. These data clearly suggest that ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of RASSF2. Interestingly, nuclear import defective mutant of RASSF2 failed to induce cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase and apoptosis suggesting that RASSF2 regulates cell growth in a nuclear localization dependent manner. Collectively, these data provided evidence for the first time that MAPK/ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation regulates

  6. Rho-kinase signaling controls nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) and transcriptional activation of orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1

    SciTech Connect

    Compagnucci, Claudia; Barresi, Sabina; Petrini, Stefania; Bertini, Enrico; Zanni, Ginevra

    2015-04-03

    Rho-kinase (ROCK) has been well documented to play a key role in RhoA-induced actin remodeling. ROCK activation results in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation either by direct action on MLC kinase (MLCK) or by inhibition of MLC phosphatase (MLCP), modulating actin–myosin contraction. We found that inhibition of the ROCK pathway in induced pluripotent stem cells, leads to nuclear export of HDAC7 and transcriptional activation of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 while in cells with constitutive ROCK hyperactivity due to loss of function of the RhoGTPase activating protein Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1), the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 is downregulated. Our study identify a new target of ROCK signaling via myosin phosphatase subunit (MYPT1) and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) at the nuclear level and provide new insights in the cellular functions of ROCK. - Highlights: • ROCK regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC7 via phosphorylation of MYPT1. • Nuclear export of HDAC7 and upregulation of NR4A1 occurs with low ROCK activity. • High levels of ROCK activity due to OPHN1 loss of function downregulate NR4A1.

  7. Nuclear import of RNA polymerase II is coupled with nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the RNA polymerase II-associated protein 2.

    PubMed

    Forget, Diane; Lacombe, Andrée-Anne; Cloutier, Philippe; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Blanchette, Mathieu; Coulombe, Benoit

    2013-08-01

    The RNA polymerase II (RNAP II)-associated protein (RPAP) 2 has been discovered through its association with various subunits of RNAP II in affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry experiments. Here, we show that RPAP2 is a mainly cytoplasmic protein that shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. RPAP2 shuttling is tightly coupled with nuclear import of RNAP II, as RPAP2 silencing provokes abnormal accumulation of RNAP II in the cytoplasmic space. Most notably, RPAP4/GPN1 silencing provokes the retention of RPAP2 in the nucleus. Our results support a model in which RPAP2 enters the nucleus in association with RNAP II and returns to the cytoplasm in association with the GTPase GPN1/RPAP4. Although binding of RNAP II to RPAP2 is mediated by an N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-170) that contains a nuclear retention domain, and binding of RPAP4/GPN1 to RPAP2 occurs through a C-terminal domain (amino acids 156-612) that has a dominant cytoplasmic localization domain. In conjunction with previously published data, our results have important implications, as they indicate that RPAP2 controls gene expression by two distinct mechanisms, one that targets RNAP II activity during transcription and the other that controls availability of RNAP II in the nucleus.

  8. The human actin-related protein hArp5: nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling and involvement in DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Kumiko; Kamo, Mariko; Oma, Yukako; Matsuda, Ryo; Uchida, Takafumi; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Ohyama, Takashi; Winsor, Barbara; Harata, Masahiko

    2009-01-15

    Certain actin-related proteins (Arps) of budding yeast are localized in the nucleus, and have essential roles as stoichiometric components of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and chromatin remodeling complexes. On the other hand, identification of vertebrate nuclear Arps and their functional analyses are just beginning. We show that human Arp5 (hArp5) proteins are localized in the nucleus, and that arp5Delta yeast cells are partially complemented by hArp5. Thus, hArp5 is a novel member of the nuclear Arps of vertebrates, which possess evolutionarily conserved functions from yeast to humans. We show here that hArp5 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Furthermore, after the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSB), cell growth and the accumulation of phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX) are impaired by hArp5 depletion. Association of hArp5 with the hIno80 chromatin remodeling enzyme and decrease of chromatin-bound hIno80 by hArp5-depletion indicate that hArp5 may have a role in the recruitment of the hINO80 complex to chromatin. Overexpression of hArp5 and hIno80 enhanced gamma-H2AX accumulation. These observations suggest that hArp5 is involved in the process of DSB repair through the regulation of the chromatin remodelling machinery.

  9. Identification of the sequence determinants mediating the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of TIAR and TIA-1 RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Delestienne, Nathalie; Huez, Georges; Kruys, Véronique; Gueydan, Cyril

    2005-12-01

    TIAR and TIA-1 are two closely related RNA-binding proteins which possess three RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) followed by an auxiliary region. These proteins are involved in several mechanisms of RNA metabolism, including alternative hnRNA splicing and regulation of mRNA translation. Here we characterize the subcellular localization of these proteins in somatic cells. We demonstrate that TIAR and TIA-1 continuously shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus and belong to the class of RNA-binding proteins whose nuclear import is transcription-dependent. We identified RRM2 and the first half of the auxiliary region as important determinants for TIAR and TIA-1 nuclear accumulation. In contrast, the nuclear export of TIAR and TIA-1 is mediated by RRM3. Both RRMs contribute to TIAR and TIA-1 nuclear accumulation or export by their RNA-binding capacity. Indeed, whereas mutations of the highly conserved RNP2 or RNP1 peptides in RRM2 redistribute TIAR to the cytoplasm, similar modifications in RRM3 abolish TIAR nuclear export. Moreover, TIAR and TIA-1 nuclear accumulation is a Ran-GTP-dependent pathway, in contrast to its nuclear export which is unaffected by Ran-GTP depletion and which is independent of the major CRM1-exporting pathway. This study demonstrates the importance of TIAR and TIA-1 RNA-binding domains for their subcellular localization and provides the first evidence for distinct functions of TIAR and TIA-1 RRMs.

  10. Reversibility in nucleocytoplasmic transport

    PubMed Central

    Kopito, Ronen Benjamine; Elbaum, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic exchange of proteins and RNAs is mediated by receptors that usher their cargo through the nuclear pores. Peptide localization signals on each cargo determine the receptors with which it will interact. Those interactions are normally regulated by the small GTPase Ran. Hydrolysis of GTP provides the chemical energy required to create a bona fide thermodynamic pump that selectively and directionally accumulates its substrates across the nuclear envelope. A common perception is that cargo delivery is irreversible, e.g., a protein imported to the nucleus does not return to the cytoplasm except perhaps via a specific export receptor. Quantitative measurements using cell-free nuclei reconstituted in Xenopus egg extract show that nuclear accumulation follows first-order kinetics and reaches steady state at a level that follows a Michaelis–Menten function of the cytoplasmic cargo concentration. This saturation suggests that receptor-mediated translocation across the nuclear pore occurs bidirectionally. The reversibility of accumulation was demonstrated directly by exchange of the cytosolic medium and by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Based on our results, we offer a simple biophysical model that predicts the observed behavior. A far-reaching consequence is that the nuclear localization signal dictates the fate of a protein population rather than that of the individual molecules that bear it, which remain free to shuttle back and forth. This implies an open communication between the nucleus and cytoplasm and a ubiquitous mechanism for signaling in both directions. PMID:17646647

  11. Regulated nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of human aci-reductone dioxygenase (hADI1) and its potential role in mRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Isamu; Uekita, Takamasa; Seiki, Motoharu

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial aci-reductone dioxygenase (ARD), a member of the cupin superfamily, has evolutionarily primitive protein folding and functions in the methionine recycling pathway. Recently, a human ARD orthologue (human ADI1, hADI1) has been identified and exhibits functions other than ARD activity. The hADI1 localizes mainly to the cytoplasm, but a substantial fraction is nuclear, suggesting functions in both cellular compartments. In this study, we report that nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of hADI1 is regulated by a non-canonical nuclear export signal (NES) located in the N-terminal region of hADI1. The NES is composed of multiple basic amino-acid residues instead of the canonical leucine-rich sequence. Nuclear export of hADI1 was not mediated by CRM1, a major transporter that binds to leucine-rich NES. Substitution of the basic residues with alanines abolished NES activity. Mutant hADI1 accumulated in the nucleus and formed speckles frequently observed with splicing factors and some transcription factors. Indeed, hADI1 specifically co-localized with the splicing factor U1-70K to the nucleus but not with another splicing factor, SC35. U1-70K over-expression induced nuclear accumulation of hADI1. Nuclear hADI1 expression significantly altered the splicing pattern of the adenovirus E1A mini-gene, which generates multiple alternatively spliced transcripts. Thus, hADI1 may have acquired a novel role in nuclear mRNA processing possibly by modulating U1-70K-related functions, an activity negatively regulated by a non-classical NES sequence.

  12. Viral Subversion of Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Yarbrough, Melanie L.; Mata, Miguel A.; Sakthivel, Ramanavelan; Fontoura, Beatriz M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Trafficking of proteins and RNA into and out of the nucleus occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Due to its critical function in many cellular processes, the NPC and transport factors are common targets of several viruses that disrupt key constituents of the machinery to facilitate viral replication. Many viruses such as poliovirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus inhibit protein import into the nucleus, while viruses such as influenza A virus target and disrupt host mRNA nuclear export. Current evidence indicates that these viruses may employ such strategies to avert the host immune response. Conversely, many viruses co-opt nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to facilitate transport of viral RNAs. Since viral proteins interact with key regulators of the host nuclear transport machinery, viruses have served as invaluable tools of discovery that led to the identification of novel constituents of nuclear transport pathways. In addition, this review explores the importance of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to viral pathogenesis as these studies revealed new antiviral therapeutic strategies and exposed previously unknown cellular mechanisms. Further understanding of nuclear transport pathways will determine whether such therapeutics will be useful treatments for important human pathogens. PMID:24289861

  13. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene product dystrophin Dp71d is dependent on the importin α/β and CRM1 nuclear transporters and microtubule motor dynein.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Sánchez, R; Aguilar, A; Wagstaff, K M; Velez, G; Azuara-Medina, P M; Gomez, P; Vásquez-Limeta, A; Hernández-Hernández, O; Lieu, K G; Jans, D A; Cisneros, B

    2014-05-01

    Even though the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene product Dystrophin Dp71d is involved in various key cellular processes through its role as a scaffold for structural and signalling proteins at the plasma membrane as well as the nuclear envelope, its subcellular trafficking is poorly understood. Here we map the nuclear import and export signals of Dp71d by truncation and point mutant analysis, showing for the first time that Dp71d shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm mediated by the conventional nuclear transporters, importin (IMP) α/β and the exportin CRM1. Binding was confirmed in cells using pull-downs, while in vitro binding assays showed direct, high affinity (apparent dissociation coefficient of c. 0.25nM) binding of Dp71d to IMPα/β. Interestingly, treatment of cells with the microtubule depolymerizing reagent nocodazole or the dynein inhibitor EHNA both decreased Dp71d nuclear localization, implying that Dp71d nuclear import may be facilitated by microtubules and the motor protein dynein. The role of Dp71d in the nucleus appears to relate in part to interaction with the nuclear envelope protein emerin, and maintenance of the integrity of the nuclear architecture. The clear implication is that Dp71d's previously unrecognised nuclear transport properties likely contribute to various, important physiological roles.

  14. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the adapter protein SH2B1beta (SH2-Bbeta) is required for nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent neurite outgrowth and enhancement of expression of a subset of NGF-responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Maures, Travis J; Chen, Linyi; Carter-Su, Christin

    2009-07-01

    The adapter protein SH2B1 (SH2-B, PSM) is recruited to multiple ligand-activated receptor tyrosine kinases, including the receptors for nerve growth factor (NGF), insulin, and IGF-I as well as the cytokine receptor-associated Janus kinase family kinases. In this study, we examine SH2B1's function in NGF signaling. We show that depleting endogenous SH2B1 using short hairpin RNA against SH2B1 inhibits NGF-dependent neurite outgrowth, but not NGF-mediated phosphorylation of Akt or ERKs 1/2. SH2B1 has been hypothesized to localize and function at the plasma membrane. We identify a nuclear localization signal within SH2B1 and show that it is required for nuclear translocation of SH2B1beta. Mutation of the nuclear localization signal has no effect on NGF-induced activation of TrkA and ERKs 1/2 but prevents SH2B1beta from enhancing NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Disruption of SH2B1beta nuclear import also prevents SH2B1beta from enhancing NGF-induced transcription of genes important for neuronal differentiation, including those encoding urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, and matrix metalloproteinases 3 and 10. Disruption of SH2B1beta nuclear export by mutation of its nuclear export sequence similarly prevents SH2B1beta enhancement of NGF-induced transcription of those genes. Nuclear translocation of the highly homologous family member SH2B2(APS) was not observed. Together, these data suggest that rather than simply acting as an adapter protein linking signaling proteins to the activated TrkA receptor at the plasma membrane, SH2B1beta must shuttle between the plasma membrane and nucleus to function as a critical component of NGF-induced gene expression and neuronal differentiation.

  15. Inherited human sex reversal due to impaired nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of SRY defines a male transcriptional threshold.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Shan; Racca, Joseph D; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A

    2013-09-17

    Human testis determination is initiated by SRY (sex determining region on Y chromosome). Mutations in SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis with female somatic phenotype. Two subtle variants (V60L and I90M in the high-mobility group box) define inherited alleles shared by an XY sterile daughter and fertile father. Whereas specific DNA binding and bending are unaffected in a rat embryonic pre-Sertoli cell line, the variants exhibited selective defects in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling due to impaired nuclear import (V60L; mediated by Exportin-4) or export (I90M; mediated by chromosome region maintenance 1). Decreased shuttling limits nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated (activated) SRY, in turn reducing occupancy of DNA sites regulating Sertoli-cell differentiation [the testis-specific SRY-box 9 (Sox9) enhancer]. Despite distinct patterns of biochemical and cell-biological perturbations, V60L and I90M each attenuated Sox9 expression in transient transfection assays by twofold. Such attenuation was also observed in studies of V60A, a clinical variant associated with ovotestes and hence ambiguity between divergent cell fates. This shared twofold threshold is reminiscent of autosomal syndromes of transcription-factor haploinsufficiency, including XY sex reversal associated with mutations in SOX9. Our results demonstrate that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY is necessary for robust initiation of testicular development. Although also characteristic of ungulate orthologs, such shuttling is not conserved among rodents wherein impaired nuclear export of the high-mobility group box and import-dependent phosphorylation are compensated by a microsatellite-associated transcriptional activation domain. Human sex reversal due to subtle defects in the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY suggests that its transcriptional activity lies near the edge of developmental ambiguity.

  16. Inherited human sex reversal due to impaired nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of SRY defines a male transcriptional threshold

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Shan; Racca, Joseph D.; Phillips, Nelson B.; Weiss, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Human testis determination is initiated by SRY (sex determining region on Y chromosome). Mutations in SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis with female somatic phenotype. Two subtle variants (V60L and I90M in the high-mobility group box) define inherited alleles shared by an XY sterile daughter and fertile father. Whereas specific DNA binding and bending are unaffected in a rat embryonic pre-Sertoli cell line, the variants exhibited selective defects in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling due to impaired nuclear import (V60L; mediated by Exportin-4) or export (I90M; mediated by chromosome region maintenance 1). Decreased shuttling limits nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated (activated) SRY, in turn reducing occupancy of DNA sites regulating Sertoli-cell differentiation [the testis-specific SRY-box 9 (Sox9) enhancer]. Despite distinct patterns of biochemical and cell-biological perturbations, V60L and I90M each attenuated Sox9 expression in transient transfection assays by twofold. Such attenuation was also observed in studies of V60A, a clinical variant associated with ovotestes and hence ambiguity between divergent cell fates. This shared twofold threshold is reminiscent of autosomal syndromes of transcription-factor haploinsufficiency, including XY sex reversal associated with mutations in SOX9. Our results demonstrate that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY is necessary for robust initiation of testicular development. Although also characteristic of ungulate orthologs, such shuttling is not conserved among rodents wherein impaired nuclear export of the high-mobility group box and import-dependent phosphorylation are compensated by a microsatellite-associated transcriptional activation domain. Human sex reversal due to subtle defects in the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY suggests that its transcriptional activity lies near the edge of developmental ambiguity. PMID:24003159

  17. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of hexokinase II in a cancer cell

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Catherine L.; Pastorino, John G.

    2010-04-16

    In yeast, the hexokinase type II enzyme (HXKII) translocates to the nucleus in the presence of excess glucose, and participates in glucose repression. However, no evidence has suggested a nuclear function for HXKII in mammalian cells. Herein, we present data showing nuclear localization of HXKII in HeLa cells, both by immunocytochemistry and subcellular fractionation. HXKII is extruded from the nucleus, at least in part, by the activity of the exportin 1/CrmA system, as demonstrated by increased nuclear expression and decreased cytoplasmic expression after incubation with leptomycin B, a bacterially-derived exportin inhibitor. Furthermore, cytoplasmic localization of HXKII is dependent on its enzymatic activity, as inhibiting HXKII activity using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) increased nuclear localization. This effect was more significant in cells incubated in the absence of glucose for 24 h prior to addition of 2DG. Regulated translocation of HXKII to the nucleus of mammalian cells could represent a previously unknown glucose-sensing mechanism.

  18. A Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Protein in Oxidative Stress Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Ow, David W.; Song, Wen

    2003-03-26

    Plants for effective extraction of toxic metals and radionuclides must tolerate oxidative stress. To identify genes that enhance oxidative stress tolerance, an S. pombe cDNA expression plasmid library was screened for the ability to yield hypertolerant colonies. Here, we report on the properties of one gene that confers hypertolerance to cadmium and oxidizing chemicals. This gene appears to be conserved in other organisms as homologous genes are found in human, mouse, fruitfly and Arabidopsis. The fruitfly and Arabidopsis genes likewise enhance oxidative stress tolerance in fission yeast. During oxidative stress, the amount of mRNA does not change, but protein fusions to GFP relocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The same pattern is observed with the Arabidopsis homologue-GFP fusion protein. This behavior suggests a signaling role in oxidative stress tolerance and these conserved proteins may be targets for engineering stress tolerant plants for phytoremediation.

  19. Regulation of Nucleocytoplasmic Transport in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Monica N.; Corbett, Anita H.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    Proper skeletal muscle function is dependent on spatial and temporal control of gene expression in multinucleated myofibers. In addition, satellite cells, which are tissue-specific stem cells that contribute critically to repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle, are also required for normal muscle physiology. Gene expression in both myofibers and satellite cells is dependent upon nuclear proteins that require facilitated nuclear transport. A unique challenge for myofibers is controlling the transcriptional activity of hundreds of nuclei in a common cytoplasm yet achieving nuclear selectivity in transcription at specific locations such as neuromuscular synapses and myotendinous junctions. Nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecular cargoes is regulated by a complex interplay among various components of the nuclear transport machinery, namely nuclear pore complexes, nuclear envelope proteins, and various soluble transport receptors. The focus of this review is to highlight what is known about the nuclear transport machinery and its regulation in skeletal muscle and to consider the unique challenges that multinucleated muscle cells as well as satellite cells encounter in regulating nucleocytoplasmic transport during cell differentiation and tissue adaptation. Understanding how regulated nucleocytoplasmic transport controls gene expression in skeletal muscle may lead to further insights into the mechanisms contributing to muscle growth and maintenance throughout the lifespan of an individual. PMID:21621074

  20. Dual mechanisms regulate the nucleocytoplasmic localization of human DDX6.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jo-Hsi; Ku, Wei-Chi; Chen, Yen-Chun; Chang, Yi-Ling; Chu, Chia-Ying

    2017-02-20

    DDX6 is a conserved DEAD-box protein (DBP) that plays central roles in cytoplasmic RNA regulation, including processing body (P-body) assembly, mRNA decapping, and translational repression. Beyond its cytoplasmic functions, DDX6 may also have nuclear functions because its orthologues are known to localize to nuclei in several biological contexts. However, it is unclear whether DDX6 is generally present in human cell nuclei, and the molecular mechanism underlying DDX6 subcellular distribution remains elusive. In this study, we showed that DDX6 is commonly present in the nuclei of human-derived cells. Our structural and molecular analyses deviate from the current model that the shuttling of DDX6 is directly mediated by the canonical nuclear localization signal (NLS) and nuclear export signal (NES), which are recognized and transported by Importin-α/β and CRM1, respectively. Instead, we show that DDX6 can be transported by 4E-T in a piggyback manner. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a novel nuclear targeting mechanism in which DDX6 enters the newly formed nuclei by "hitch-hiking" on mitotic chromosomes with its C-terminal domain during M phase progression. Together, our results indicate that the nucleocytoplasmic localization of DDX6 is regulated by these dual mechanisms.

  1. Dual mechanisms regulate the nucleocytoplasmic localization of human DDX6

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jo-Hsi; Ku, Wei-Chi; Chen, Yen-Chun; Chang, Yi-Ling; Chu, Chia-Ying

    2017-01-01

    DDX6 is a conserved DEAD-box protein (DBP) that plays central roles in cytoplasmic RNA regulation, including processing body (P-body) assembly, mRNA decapping, and translational repression. Beyond its cytoplasmic functions, DDX6 may also have nuclear functions because its orthologues are known to localize to nuclei in several biological contexts. However, it is unclear whether DDX6 is generally present in human cell nuclei, and the molecular mechanism underlying DDX6 subcellular distribution remains elusive. In this study, we showed that DDX6 is commonly present in the nuclei of human-derived cells. Our structural and molecular analyses deviate from the current model that the shuttling of DDX6 is directly mediated by the canonical nuclear localization signal (NLS) and nuclear export signal (NES), which are recognized and transported by Importin-α/β and CRM1, respectively. Instead, we show that DDX6 can be transported by 4E-T in a piggyback manner. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a novel nuclear targeting mechanism in which DDX6 enters the newly formed nuclei by “hitch-hiking” on mitotic chromosomes with its C-terminal domain during M phase progression. Together, our results indicate that the nucleocytoplasmic localization of DDX6 is regulated by these dual mechanisms. PMID:28216671

  2. Targeting nucleocytoplasmic transport in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular location and regulation of proteins within each cell is critically important and is typically deregulated in disease especially cancer. The clinical hypothesis for inhibiting the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport is based on the dependence of certain key proteins within malignant cells. This includes a host of well-characterized tumor suppressor and oncoproteins that require specifc localization for their function. This aberrant localization of tumour suppressors and oncoproteins results in their their respective inactivation or over-activation. This incorrect localization occurs actively via the nuclear pore complex that spans the nuclear envelope and is mediated by transport receptors. Accordingly, given the signifcant need for novel, specifc disease treatments, the nuclear envelope and the nuclear transport machinery have emerged as a rational therapeutic target in oncology to restore physiological nucleus/cytoplasmic homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that this approach might be of substantial therapeutic use. This review summarizes the mechanisms of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, its role in cancer biology and the therapeutic potential of targeting this critical cellular process PMID:24429466

  3. The Effects of Modeled Microgravity on Nucleocytoplasmic Localization of Human Apurinic/Apyrimidinic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve; Jackson, E.B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to space radiation and microgravity occurs to humans during space flight. In order to have accurate risk estimations, answering questions to whether increased DNA damage seen during space flight in modified by microgravity are important. Several studies have examined whether intercellular repair of radiation-induced DNA lesions are modified by microgravity. Results from these studies show no modification of the repair processes due to microgravity. However, it is known that in studies not involving radiation that microgravity interferes with normal development. Interestingly, there is no data that attempts to analyze the possible effects of microgravity on the trafficking of DNA repair proteins. In this study, we analyze the effects of modeled microgravity on nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the human DNA repair enzyme apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1/Ref1) which is involved in base excision repair. We examined nuclear translocation of APE1 using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused to APE1 as a reporter. While APE1 under normal gravity showed normal nuclear localization, APE1 nuclear localization under modeled microgravity was decreased. These results suggest that nucleocytoplasmic translocation of APE1 is modified under modeled microgravity.

  4. Nucleocytoplasmic distribution and dynamics of the autophagosome marker EGFP-LC3.

    PubMed

    Drake, Kimberly R; Kang, Minchul; Kenworthy, Anne K

    2010-03-23

    The process of autophagy involves the formation of autophagosomes, double-membrane structures that encapsulate cytosol. Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) was the first protein shown to specifically label autophagosomal membranes in mammalian cells, and subsequently EGFP-LC3 has become one of the most widely utilized reporters of autophagy. Although LC3 is currently thought to function primarily in the cytosol, the site of autophagosome formation, EGFP-LC3 often appears to be enriched in the nucleoplasm relative to the cytoplasm in published fluorescence images. However, the nuclear pool of EGFP-LC3 has not been specifically studied in previous reports, and mechanisms by which LC3 shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm are currently unknown. In this study, we therefore investigated the regulation of the nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution of EGFP-LC3 in living cells. By quantitative fluorescence microscopy analysis, we demonstrate that soluble EGFP-LC3 is indeed enriched in the nucleus relative to the cytoplasm in two commonly studied cell lines, COS-7 and HeLa. Although LC3 contains a putative nuclear export signal (NES), inhibition of active nuclear export or mutation of the NES had no effect on the nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution of EGFP-LC3. Furthermore, FRAP analysis indicates that EGFP-LC3 undergoes limited passive nucleo-cytoplasmic transport under steady state conditions, and that the diffusional mobility of EGFP-LC3 was substantially slower in the nucleus and cytoplasm than predicted for a freely diffusing monomer. Induction of autophagy led to a visible decrease in levels of soluble EGFP-LC3 relative to autophagosome-bound protein, but had only modest effects on the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio or diffusional mobility of the remaining soluble pools of EGFP-LC3. We conclude that the enrichment of soluble EGFP-LC3 in the nucleus is maintained independently of active nuclear export or induction of autophagy. Instead, incorporation of soluble

  5. Efficiency, Selectivity, and Robustness of Nucleocytoplasmic Transport

    PubMed Central

    Zilman, Anton; Di Talia, Stefano; Chait, Brian T; Rout, Michael P; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2007-01-01

    All materials enter or exit the cell nucleus through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), efficient transport devices that combine high selectivity and throughput. NPC-associated proteins containing phenylalanine–glycine repeats (FG nups) have large, flexible, unstructured proteinaceous regions, and line the NPC. A central feature of NPC-mediated transport is the binding of cargo-carrying soluble transport factors to the unstructured regions of FG nups. Here, we model the dynamics of nucleocytoplasmic transport as diffusion in an effective potential resulting from the interaction of the transport factors with the flexible FG nups, using a minimal number of assumptions consistent with the most well-established structural and functional properties of NPC transport. We discuss how specific binding of transport factors to the FG nups facilitates transport, and how this binding and competition between transport factors and other macromolecules for binding sites and space inside the NPC accounts for the high selectivity of transport. We also account for why transport is relatively insensitive to changes in the number and distribution of FG nups in the NPC, providing an explanation for recent experiments where up to half the total mass of the FG nups has been deleted without abolishing transport. Our results suggest strategies for the creation of artificial nanomolecular sorting devices. PMID:17630825

  6. MAMMALIAN CELLS CONTAIN A SECOND NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC HEXOSAMINIDASE

    PubMed Central

    Gutternigg, Martin; Rendić, Dubravko; Voglauer, Regina; Iskratsch, Thomas; Wilson, Iain B. H.

    2010-01-01

    Some thirty years ago, work on mammalian tissues suggested the presence of two cytosolic hexosaminidases in mammalian cells; one of these has been more recently characterised in recombinant form and has an important role in cellular function due to its ability to cleave β-N-acetylglucosamine residues from a variety of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. However, the molecular nature of the second cytosolic hexosaminidase, named hexosaminidase D, has remained obscure. In the present study, we molecularly characterise for the first time the human and murine recombinant forms of enzymes, encoded by HEXDC genes, which appear to correspond to hexosaminidase D in terms of substrate specificity, pH dependency and temperature stability; furthermore, a myc-tagged form of this novel hexosaminidase displays a nucleocytoplasmic localisation. Transcripts of the corresponding gene are expressed in a number of murine tissues. Based on its sequence, this enzyme represents, along with the lysosomal hexosaminidase subunits encoded by the HEXA and HEXB genes, the third class 20 glycosidase to be found from mammalian sources. PMID:19040401

  7. Mechanism of Human Nucleocytoplasmic Hexosaminidase D

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian β-hexosaminidases have been shown to play essential roles in cellular physiology and health. These enzymes are responsible for the cleavage of the monosaccharides N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) from cellular substrates. One of these β-hexosaminidases, hexosaminidase D (HexD), encoded by the HEXDC gene, has received little attention. No mechanistic studies have focused on the role of this unusual nucleocytoplasmically localized β-hexosaminidase, and its cellular function remains unknown. Using a series of kinetic and mechanistic investigations into HexD, we define the precise catalytic mechanism of this enzyme and establish the identities of key enzymic residues. The preparation of synthetic aryl N-acetylgalactosaminide substrates for HexD in combination with measurements of kinetic parameters for wild-type and mutant enzymes, linear free energy analyses of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of these substrates, evaluation of the reaction by nuclear magnetic resonance, and inhibition studies collectively reveal the detailed mechanism of action employed by HexD. HexD is a retaining glycosidase that operates using a substrate-assisted catalytic mechanism, has a preference for galactosaminide over glucosaminide substrates, and shows a pH optimum in its second-order rate constant at pH 6.5–7.0. The catalytically important residues are Asp148 and Glu149, with Glu149 serving as the general acid/base residue and Asp148 as the polarizing residue. HexD is inhibited by Gal-NAG-thiazoline (Ki = 420 nM). The fundamental insights gained from this study will aid in the development of potent and selective probes for HexD, which will serve as useful tools to improve our understanding of the physiological role played by this unusual enzyme. PMID:27149221

  8. Osmotic stress alters chromatin condensation and nucleocytoplasmic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Finan, John D.; Leddy, Holly A.; Guilak, Farshid

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} The rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport increases under hyper-osmotic stress. {yields} The mechanism is a change in nuclear geometry, not a change in permeability of the nuclear envelope. {yields} Intracytoplasmic but not intranuclear diffusion is sensitive to osmotic stress. {yields} Pores in the chromatin of the nucleus enlarge under hyper-osmotic stress. -- Abstract: Osmotic stress is a potent regulator of biological function in many cell types, but its mechanism of action is only partially understood. In this study, we examined whether changes in extracellular osmolality can alter chromatin condensation and the rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport, as potential mechanisms by which osmotic stress can act. Transport of 10 kDa dextran was measured both within and between the nucleus and the cytoplasm using two different photobleaching methods. A mathematical model was developed to describe fluorescence recovery via nucleocytoplasmic transport. As osmolality increased, the diffusion coefficient of dextran decreased in the cytoplasm, but not the nucleus. Hyper-osmotic stress decreased nuclear size and increased nuclear lacunarity, indicating that while the nucleus was getting smaller, the pores and channels interdigitating the chromatin had expanded. The rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport was increased under hyper-osmotic stress but was insensitive to hypo-osmotic stress, consistent with the nonlinear osmotic properties of the nucleus. The mechanism of this osmotic sensitivity appears to be a change in the size and geometry of the nucleus, resulting in a shorter effective diffusion distance for the nucleus. These results may explain physical mechanisms by which osmotic stress can influence intracellular signaling pathways that rely on nucleocytoplasmic transport.

  9. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The plans for utilizing reusable space shuttles which could replace almost all present expendable launch vehicles are briefly described. Many illustrations are included showing the artists' concepts of various configurations proposed for space shuttles. (PR)

  10. The C9ORF72 repeat expansion disrupts nucleocytoplasmic transport

    PubMed Central

    Haeusler, Aaron R.; Grima, Jonathan C.; Machamer, James B.; Steinwald, Peter; Daley, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Sean J.; Cunningham, Kathleen M.; Vidensky, Svetlana; Gupta, Saksham; Thomas, Michael A.; Hong, Ingie; Chiu, Shu-Ling; Huganir, Richard L.; Ostrow, Lyle W.; Matunis, Michael J.; Wang, Jiou; Sattler, Rita

    2016-01-01

    A GGGGCC (G4C2) hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) in C9ORF72 is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Recent studies support an HRE RNA gain-of-function mechanism of neurotoxicity, and we previously identified protein interactors for the G4C2 RNA including RanGAP1. A candidate-based genetic screen in Drosophila expressing 30 G4C2 repeats identified RanGAP (Drosophila ortholog of human RanGAP1), a key regulator of nucleocytoplasmic transport, as a potent suppressor of neurodegeneration. Enhancing nuclear import or suppressing nuclear export of proteins also suppresses neurodegeneration. RanGAP physically interacts with HRE RNA and is mislocalized in HRE-expressing flies, neurons from C9ORF72 ALS patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSNs), and in C9ORF72 patient brain tissue. Nuclear import is impaired as a result of HRE expression in the fly model and in C9ORF72 iPSNs, and these deficits are rescued by small molecules and antisense oligonucleotides targeting the HRE G-quadruplexes. Nucleocytoplasmic transport defects may be a fundamental pathway for ALS and FTD amenable to pharmacotherapeutic intervention. PMID:26308891

  11. Characterization of Androgen Receptor Structure and Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of the Rice Field Eel*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fang; Zhao, Wei; Zuo, Zhixiang; Sheng, Yue; Zhou, Xiang; Hou, Yu; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2010-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in prostate cancer and male sexual differentiation. We have identified AR from a primitive vertebrate with a sex reversal characteristic, the rice field eel. AR of this species (eAR) is distinct from human AR, especially in the ligand binding domain (LBD), and its expression in gonads shows an increasing tendency during gonadal transformation from ovary via ovotestis to testis. eAR has a restricted androgen-dependent transactivation function after a nuclear translocation upon dihydrotestosterone exposure. A functional nuclear localization signal was further identified in the DNA binding domain and hinge region. Although nuclear export is CRM1-independent, eAR has a novel nuclear export signal, which is negatively charged, indicating that a nuclear export pathway may be mediated by electrostatic interaction. Further, our studies have identified critical sequences for ligand binding in the C terminus. A structure of three α-helices in the LBD has been conserved from eels to humans during vertebrate evolution, despite a distinct amino acid sequence. Mutation analysis confirmed that the LBD is essential for dihydrotestosterone-induced nuclear import of eAR and following transactivation function in the nucleus. In addition, eAR interacts with both Sox9a1 and Sox9a2, and their interaction regulates transactivation of eAR. Our data suggest that the primitive species conserves and especially acquires key novel domains, the nuclear export signal and LBD, for the eAR function in spite of a rapid sequence evolution. PMID:20841357

  12. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the HSV-2 serine/threonine kinase Us3

    SciTech Connect

    Finnen, Renee L.; Johnston, Susan M.; Neron, Casey E.; Banfield, Bruce W.

    2011-08-15

    The alphaherpesvirus serine/threonine kinase Us3 plays diverse roles in virus multiplication and modifies both nuclear and cytoplasmic substrates. We recently reported that treatment of HSV-2 Us3-transfected and HSV-2-infected cells with leptomycin B, an inhibitor of nuclear export mediated by interaction of chromosomal regional maintenance protein (CRM1) with leucine rich nuclear export signals (NESs), resulted in nuclear trapping of Us3. Here, we utilized fluorescence loss in photobleaching to monitor nuclear export of HSV-2 Us3 and confirm that this process proceeds solely via a CRM1-mediated mechanism. Analysis of deletion derivatives of HSV-2 Us3 fused to a nuclear export reporter protein implicated the involvement of NES-like sequences in nuclear export. However, nuclear trapping of HSV-2 Us3 proteins carrying mutations in these potential NESs was not observed, indicating that these sequences are not functional in the context of full-length protein. Our analyses also revealed previously unidentified regions of HSV-2 Us3 that contribute to its kinase activity.

  13. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of FTO Does Not Affect Starvation-Induced Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Aas, Aleksander; Isakson, Pauline; Bindesbøll, Christian; Alemu, Endalkachew A.; Klungland, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphic variants of the FTO (fat mass and obesity) gene associate with body mass index in humans, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been firmly determined. FTO is linked to energy homeostasis via amino acid sensing and is thought to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, a negative regulator of autophagy. FTO localises both to the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and in this study we identify a functional nuclear localisation signal (NLS) in the N-terminus of FTO, as well as nuclear localization information in its very C-terminus. Inhibition of FTO nuclear transport has no effect on autophagy and in contrast to a previously proposed role of FTO in autophagy, we find no difference in starvation-induced autophagy in control cells compared to a panel of cell types depleted of FTO. Future studies that further characterise the cellular functions of FTO will be important to understand why variants in FTO are associated with body weight. PMID:28288181

  14. Problem-Solving Test: Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Pre-mRNA Binding Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: transcription, pre-mRNA, RNA processing, RNA transport, RNA polymerase II, direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining, cell fractionation by centrifugation, oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography, washing and elution of the column, ribonuclease, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,…

  15. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of FTO Does Not Affect Starvation-Induced Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Aas, Aleksander; Isakson, Pauline; Bindesbøll, Christian; Alemu, Endalkachew A; Klungland, Arne; Simonsen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphic variants of the FTO (fat mass and obesity) gene associate with body mass index in humans, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been firmly determined. FTO is linked to energy homeostasis via amino acid sensing and is thought to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, a negative regulator of autophagy. FTO localises both to the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and in this study we identify a functional nuclear localisation signal (NLS) in the N-terminus of FTO, as well as nuclear localization information in its very C-terminus. Inhibition of FTO nuclear transport has no effect on autophagy and in contrast to a previously proposed role of FTO in autophagy, we find no difference in starvation-induced autophagy in control cells compared to a panel of cell types depleted of FTO. Future studies that further characterise the cellular functions of FTO will be important to understand why variants in FTO are associated with body weight.

  16. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A general description of the space shuttle program is presented, with emphasis on its application to the use of space for commercial, scientific, and defense needs. The following aspects of the program are discussed: description of the flight system (orbiter, external tank, solid rocket boosters) and mission profile, direct benefits related to life on earth (both present and expected), description of the space shuttle vehicle and its associated supporting systems, economic impacts (including indirect benefits such as lower inflation rates), listing of participating organizations.

  17. Lunar shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voyer, P.; Garcia, M.; Higham, D.; Spackman, D.; Garcia, J.; Chapman, T.; Cook, M.; Jelke, J.; Slingerland, G.; Anderson, K.

    1989-01-01

    Current plans for the extension of human presence into the solar system include the establishment of a permanently occupied base on the Moon for use as a source of raw materials, a transportation node, a facility for the fabrication and launch of elements of the space exploration infrastructure, and a base for scientific investigation and astronomical observatories. All of the aforementioned uses of a lunar base foresee the requirement for a lunar shuttle to operate from the lunar surface to one or more orbiting space stations located in low lunar orbits (LLO). The Utah State University lunar shuttle design is baslined for implementation after a mature lunar base has been established. The shuttle is designed to operate between the lunar base and a space station located in a 400-km-altitude orbit. This orbit was chosen with reference to Apollo experience, which has indicated that very low orbits, on the order of 100-km, may be unstable over periods of many months. After a thorough investigation of the anticipated needs and production capabilities of a lunar base, several design requirements were placed upon the shuttle. These requirements are (1) maximum use of lunar-derived propellant; (2) modularity and payload versatility; (3) two-way transport of 25-metric-ton cargo; (4) human transport capability; (5) satellite servicing; and (6) 3000-kg mass budget.

  18. Poliovirus 2A protease triggers a selective nucleo-cytoplasmic redistribution of splicing factors to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Enrique; Castelló, Alfredo; Carrasco, Luis; Izquierdo, José M

    2013-01-01

    Poliovirus protease 2A (2A(pro)) obstructs host gene expression by reprogramming transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory events during infection. Here we demonstrate that expression of 2A(pro) induces a selective nucleo-cytoplasm translocation of several important RNA binding proteins and splicing factors. Subcellular fractionation studies, together with immunofluorescence microscopy revealed an asymmetric distribution of HuR and TIA1/TIAR in 2A(pro) expressing cells, which modulates splicing of the human Fas exon 6. Consistent with this result, knockdown of HuR or overexpression of TIA1/TIAR, leads to Fas exon 6 inclusion in 2A(pro)-expressing cells. Therefore, poliovirus 2A(pro) can target alternative pre-mRNA splicing by regulating protein shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

  19. Shuttle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guodace, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation details shuttle processing flow which starts with wheel stop and ends with launching. The flow is from landing the orbiter is rolled into the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), where processing is performed, it is then rolled over to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where it is mated with the propellant tanks, and payloads are installed. A different flow is detailed if the weather at Kennedy Space Center requires a landing at Dryden.

  20. Developmental potential of embryonic cells in a nucleocytoplasmic hybrid formed using a goldfish haploid nucleus and loach egg cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Takafumi; Saito, Taiju; Sakao, Suzu; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

    2010-01-01

    In teleosts, viable nucleocytoplasmic hybrids, formed by combining a nucleus from one species with the egg cytoplasm of another, have been used as one of the methods for breed improvement in aquaculture, but have been little exploited for developmental biology studies. Here, we used an artificial androgenesis technique to form nucleocytoplasmic hybrids comprising a goldfish haploid nucleus and loach egg cytoplasm. These hybrids were used to investigate interactions between the nucleus and cytoplasm during embryonic development. Additionally, the developmental characteristics of embryonic cells of nucleocytoplasmic hybrids were examined in chimeras produced by transplantation of blastomeres into recipient loach or goldfish embryos. We found that the nucleocytoplasmic hybrids arrested at the dome stage of embryonic development and did not form any gastrula structures. The goosecoid (gsc) and no tail (ntl) genes were expressed normally before gastrulation in nucleocytoplasmic hybrids, similar to diploid loach. However, expression of the gsc and ntl genes was not maintained in nucleocytoplasmic hybrids. In chimeric embryos, blastomeres derived from nucleocytoplasmic hybrids were found to mix with the cells of recipient loach embryos at the gastrula stage. The transplanted blastomeres formed small clusters at the somitogenesis stage and, finally, small spots at the hatching stage. In contrast, when the blastomeres were transplanted into goldfish embryos, the transplanted blastomeres aggregated in the chimeric embryos. Thus, embryonic cells from nucleocytoplasmic hybrids that arrest before gastrulation could survive beyond the somitogenesis stage depending on the cytoplasmic environment in the recipient embryos.

  1. Nuclear Pore Complexes and Nucleocytoplasmic Transport: From Structure to Function to Disease.

    PubMed

    Dickmanns, Achim; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Fahrenkrog, Birthe

    2015-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic transport is an essential cellular activity and occurs via nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) that reside in the double membrane of the nuclear envelope. Significant progress has been made during the past few years in unravelling the ultrastructural organization of NPCs and their constituents, the nucleoporins, by cryo-electron tomography and X-ray crystallography. Mass spectrometry and genomic approaches have provided deeper insight into the specific regulation and fine tuning of individual nuclear transport pathways. Recent research has also focused on the roles nucleoporins play in health and disease, some of which go beyond nucleocytoplasmic transport. Here we review emerging results aimed at understanding NPC architecture and nucleocytoplasmic transport at the atomic level, elucidating the specific function individual nucleoporins play in nuclear trafficking, and finally lighting up the contribution of nucleoporins and nuclear transport receptors in human diseases, such as cancer and certain genetic disorders.

  2. Respiratory virus modulation of host nucleocytoplasmic transport; target for therapeutic intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Caly, Leon; Ghildyal, Reena; Jans, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The respiratory diseases caused by rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus represent a large social and financial burden on healthcare worldwide. Although all three viruses have distinctly unique properties in terms of infection and replication, they share the ability to exploit/manipulate the host-cell nucleocytoplasmic transport system in order to replicate effectively and efficiently. This review outlines the various ways in which infection by these viruses impacts on the host nucleocytoplasmic transport system, and examples where inhibition thereof in turn decreases viral replication. The highly conserved nature of the nucleocytoplasmic transport system and the viral proteins that interact with it make this virus–host interface a prime candidate for the development of specific antiviral therapeutics in the future. PMID:26322040

  3. Shuttle Era: Launch Directors

    NASA Video Gallery

    A space shuttle launch director is the leader of the complex choreography that goes into a shuttle liftoff. Ten people have served as shuttle launch directors, making the final decision whether the...

  4. Shuttle interaction study extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implications of using the Shuttle with the SOC were analyzed, including constraints that the Shuttle places upon the SOC design. All the considerations involved in the use of the shuttle as a part of the SOC concept were identified.

  5. HIV-1 Recruits UPF1 but Excludes UPF2 to Promote Nucleocytoplasmic Export of the Genomic RNA.

    PubMed

    Ajamian, Lara; Abel, Karen; Rao, Shringar; Vyboh, Kishanda; García-de-Gracia, Francisco; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Kulozik, Andreas E; Gehring, Niels H; Mouland, Andrew J

    2015-10-20

    Unspliced, genomic HIV-1 RNA (vRNA) is a component of several ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNP) during the viral replication cycle. In earlier work, we demonstrated that the host upframeshift protein 1 (UPF1), a key factor in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), colocalized and associated to the viral structural protein Gag during viral egress. In this work, we demonstrate a new function for UPF1 in the regulation of vRNA nuclear export. OPEN ACCESS Biomolecules 2015, 5 2809 We establish that the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of UPF1 is required for this function and demonstrate that UPF1 exists in two essential viral RNPs during the late phase of HIV-1 replication: the first, in a nuclear export RNP that contains Rev, CRM1, DDX3 and the nucleoporin p62, and the second, which excludes these nuclear export markers but contains Gag in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, we observed that both UPF2 and the long isoform of UPF3a, UPF3aL, but not the shorter isoforms UPF3aS and UPF3b, are excluded from the UPF1-Rev-CRM1-DDX3 complex as they are negative regulators of vRNA nuclear export. In silico protein-protein docking analyses suggest that Rev binds UPF1 in a region that overlaps the UPF2 binding site, thus explaining the exclusion of this negative regulatory factor by HIV-1 that is necessary for vRNA trafficking. This work uncovers a novel and unique regulatory circuit involving several UPF proteins that ultimately regulate vRNA nuclear export and trafficking.

  6. HIV-1 Recruits UPF1 but Excludes UPF2 to Promote Nucleocytoplasmic Export of the Genomic RNA

    PubMed Central

    Ajamian, Lara; Abel, Karen; Rao, Shringar; Vyboh, Kishanda; García-de-Gracia, Francisco; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Kulozik, Andreas E.; Gehring, Niels H.; Mouland, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Unspliced, genomic HIV-1 RNA (vRNA) is a component of several ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNP) during the viral replication cycle. In earlier work, we demonstrated that the host upframeshift protein 1 (UPF1), a key factor in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), colocalized and associated to the viral structural protein Gag during viral egress. In this work, we demonstrate a new function for UPF1 in the regulation of vRNA nuclear export. We establish that the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of UPF1 is required for this function and demonstrate that UPF1 exists in two essential viral RNPs during the late phase of HIV-1 replication: the first, in a nuclear export RNP that contains Rev, CRM1, DDX3 and the nucleoporin p62, and the second, which excludes these nuclear export markers but contains Gag in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, we observed that both UPF2 and the long isoform of UPF3a, UPF3aL, but not the shorter isoforms UPF3aS and UPF3b, are excluded from the UPF1-Rev-CRM1-DDX3 complex as they are negative regulators of vRNA nuclear export. In silico protein-protein docking analyses suggest that Rev binds UPF1 in a region that overlaps the UPF2 binding site, thus explaining the exclusion of this negative regulatory factor by HIV-1 that is necessary for vRNA trafficking. This work uncovers a novel and unique regulatory circuit involving several UPF proteins that ultimately regulate vRNA nuclear export and trafficking. PMID:26492277

  7. Shuttle Showcase: Firsts

    NASA Video Gallery

    The space shuttle has defined an era and broken boundaries both in space and on Earth. Among the hundreds of people who have flown on the shuttle, many have been firsts -- for their race, their cou...

  8. Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida marked the finish line for space shuttle missions since 1984. It is also staffed by a group of air traffic controllers who wor...

  9. Shuttle interaction study extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The following areas of Space Shuttle technology were discussed: variable altitude strategy, spacecraft servicing, propellant storage, orbiter plume impingement, space based design, mating (docking and berthing), shuttle fleet utilization, and mission/traffic model.

  10. Space Shuttle Debris Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Reynaldo J., III

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the assessment of debris damage to the Space Shuttle, and the use of computation to assist in the space shuttle applications. The presentation reviews the sources of debris, a mechanism for determining the probability of damaging debris impacting the shuttle, tools used, eliminating potential damaging debris sources, the use of computation to assess while inflight damage, and a chart showing the applications that have been used on increasingly powerful computers simulate the shuttle and the debris transport.

  11. Vesicular Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Transport—Herpesviruses as Pioneers in Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Herpesviruses use a vesicle-mediated transfer of intranuclearly assembled nucleocapsids through the nuclear envelope (NE) for final maturation in the cytoplasm. The molecular basis for this novel vesicular nucleo-cytoplasmic transport is beginning to be elucidated in detail. The heterodimeric viral nuclear egress complex (NEC), conserved within the classical herpesviruses, mediates vesicle formation from the inner nuclear membrane (INM) by polymerization into a hexagonal lattice followed by fusion of the vesicle membrane with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). Mechanisms of capsid inclusion as well as vesicle-membrane fusion, however, are largely unclear. Interestingly, a similar transport mechanism through the NE has been demonstrated in nuclear export of large ribonucleoprotein complexes during Drosophila neuromuscular junction formation, indicating a widespread presence of a novel concept of cellular nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. PMID:27690080

  12. NASA Facts, Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This newsletter from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contains a description of the purposes and potentials of the Space Shuttle craft. The illustrated document explains some of the uses for which the shuttle is designed; how the shuttle will be launched from earth, carry out its mission, and land again on earth; and what a…

  13. Nucleocytoplasmic transport of plasmid DNA: a perilous journey from the cytoplasm to the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lechardeur, Delphine; Lukacs, Gergely L

    2006-09-01

    Nonviral vectors represent a promising approach for the safe delivery of therapeutic DNA in genetic and acquired human diseases. Before synthetic vector systems can be used for clinical applications, their limited efficacy must be addressed. At the cellular level, successful gene transfer is dependent on several additional factors including DNA uptake, release from the DNA-vector complex, and nucleocytoplasmic transport. This paper reviews the major metabolic and physical impediments that plasmid DNA vectorized by synthetic vectors encounters between the cytosol and the nucleus. Plasmid DNA that escapes the endolysosomal compartment encounters the diffusional and metabolic barriers of the cytoplasm, reducing the number of intact plasmids that reach the nuclear envelope. Nuclear translocation of DNA requires either the disassembly of the nuclear envelope during cell division or active nuclear transport via the nuclear pore complex. In the nucleus, plasmid DNA is relatively stable, but its transcription and its fate during cell division are still debated. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of nonviral gene transfer during nucleocytoplasmic trafficking may provide strategies to overcome those obstacles that limit the efficiency of nonviral gene delivery. We review some of the current methods of gene transfer mediated by synthetic vectors, highlighting systems that exploit our actual knowledge of the nucleocytoplasmic transport of plasmid DNA.

  14. Polyglutamine-Expanded Huntingtin Exacerbates Age-Related Disruption of Nuclear Integrity and Nucleocytoplasmic Transport.

    PubMed

    Gasset-Rosa, Fatima; Chillon-Marinas, Carlos; Goginashvili, Alexander; Atwal, Ranjit Singh; Artates, Jonathan W; Tabet, Ricardos; Wheeler, Vanessa C; Bang, Anne G; Cleveland, Don W; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde

    2017-04-05

    Onset of neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease, is strongly influenced by aging. Hallmarks of aged cells include compromised nuclear envelope integrity, impaired nucleocytoplasmic transport, and accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks. We show that mutant huntingtin markedly accelerates all of these cellular phenotypes in a dose- and age-dependent manner in cortex and striatum of mice. Huntingtin-linked polyglutamine initially accumulates in nuclei, leading to disruption of nuclear envelope architecture, partial sequestration of factors essential for nucleocytoplasmic transport (Gle1 and RanGAP1), and intranuclear accumulation of mRNA. In aged mice, accumulation of RanGAP1 together with polyglutamine is shifted to perinuclear and cytoplasmic areas. Consistent with findings in mice, marked alterations in nuclear envelope morphology, abnormal localization of RanGAP1, and nuclear accumulation of mRNA were found in cortex of Huntington's disease patients. Overall, our findings identify polyglutamine-dependent inhibition of nucleocytoplasmic transport and alteration of nuclear integrity as a central component of Huntington's disease.

  15. The Importin β Binding Domain as a Master Regulator of Nucleocytoplasmic Transport

    PubMed Central

    Lott, Kaylen; Cingolani, Gino

    2010-01-01

    Specific and efficient recognition of import cargoes is essential to ensure nucleocytoplasmic transport. To this end, the prototypical karyopherin importin β associates with import cargoes directly or, more commonly, through import adaptors, such as importin α and snurportin. Adaptor proteins bind the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of import cargoes while recruiting importin β via an N-terminal importin β binding (IBB) domain. The use of adaptors greatly expands and amplifies the repertoire of cellular cargoes that importin β can efficiently import into the cell nucleus and allows for fine regulation of nuclear import. Accordingly, the IBB-domain is a dedicated NLS, unique to adaptor proteins that functions as a molecular liaison between importin β and import cargoes. This review provides an overview of the molecular role played by the IBB-domain in orchestrating nucleocytoplasmic transport. Recent work has determined that the IBB-domain has specialized functions at every step of the import and export pathway. Unexpectedly, this stretch of ∼40 amino acids plays an essential role in regulating processes such as formation of the import complex, docking and translocation through the nuclear pore complex (NPC), release of import cargoes into the cell nucleus and finally recycling of import adaptors and importin β into the cytoplasm. Thus, the IBB-domain is a master regulator of nucleocytoplasmic transport, whose complex molecular function is only recently beginning to emerge. PMID:21029753

  16. Shuttle plate braiding machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huey, Jr., Cecil O. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for moving yarn in a selected pattern to form a braided article. The apparatus includes a segmented grid of stationary support elements and a plurality of shuttles configured to carry yarn. The shuttles are supported for movement on the grid assembly and each shuttle includes a retractable plunger for engaging a reciprocating shuttle plate that moves below the grid assembly. Such engagement at selected times causes the shuttles to move about the grid assembly in a selected pattern to form a braided article of a particular geometry.

  17. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of STK16 (PKL12), a Golgi-resident serine/threonine kinase involved in VEGF expression regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Guinea, Barbara; Gonzalez de la Pena, Manuel . E-mail: abernad@cnb.uam.es

    2006-01-15

    PKL12/STK16 protein is the first identified mammalian member of a ser/thr kinase subfamily that is conserved across several kingdoms, with a broad expression pattern in murine tissues and cell types. Endogenous STK16 subcellular localization was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence in NIH/3T3 and NRK cells, demonstrating a Golgi-associated pattern that appears to be independent of signals provided by integrin pathways. When cells were treated with brefeldin A (BFA) or nocodazole, drugs that promote Golgi disorganization, we observed STK16 translocation to the nuclear compartment. Constitutive overexpression of this protein by retroviral vectors also promotes accumulation of STK16 in the nuclear compartment, as shown by subfractionation studies. A kinase-dead STK16 mutant (E202A) was used to demonstrate that both the Golgi association and the nuclear translocation capabilities seem to be independent of the STK16 kinase activity. In addition, we show that STK16 overexpression in several cell lines enhances their capacity to produce and secrete VEGF. To confirm these data in vivo, we injected tumor cells overexpressing STK16 into immunodeficient BALBc/SCID mice. HT1080-derived tumors overexpressing STK16 showed increased volume and number of blood vessels compared to controls. Altogether, these data concur with previous reports suggesting a potential role for STK16 as a transcriptional co-activator.

  18. Space-Shuttle applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, M. A.; Davis, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the performance potential of the Space Shuttle and the high-energy transportation system to be derived from it. It is shown that, in addition to its cost effectiveness in earth-orbital missions, the Shuttle promises to be of major significance for future solar-system exploration. Eventually, the Shuttle will make possible the use of large interplanetary payloads launched at high velocities to the far reaches of the solar system.

  19. Space Shuttle contamination overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.; Jacobs, S.; Ehlers, H. K. F.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to particle and gaseous contamination associated with Shuttle payload orbital delivery. An approach to control contamination is discussed which consists of analytical environment assessment, vehicle design optimization, and flight environment measurement. The analytical assessment of orbital contamination source characteristics and their effects on the Shuttle orbital environment has resulted in vehicle design changes and a detailed understanding of system operational flexibility. Verification of resulting Shuttle contamination performance will be made by the Induced Environment Contamination Monitor.

  20. Chemical Interorbital Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    In 1970, NASA initiated Phase A contracts to study alternate Space Shuttle designs in addition to the two-stage fully-reusable Space Shuttle system already under development. A number of alternate systems were developed to ensure the development of the optimum earth-to-orbit system, including the Stage-and-a-half Chemical Interorbital Shuttle, shown here. The concept would utilize a reusable marned spacecraft with an onboard propulsion system attached to an expendable fuel tank to provide supplementary propellants.

  1. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  2. Shuttle communications design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartier, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The design and development of a space shuttle communication system are discussed. The subjects considered include the following: (1) Ku-band satellite relay to shuttle, (2) phased arrays, (3) PN acquisition, (4) quadriplexing of direct link ranging and telemetry, (5) communications blackout on launch and reentry, (6) acquisition after blackout on reentry, (7) wideband communications interface with the Ku-Band rendezvous radar, (8) aeroflight capabilities of the space shuttle, (9) a triple multiplexing scheme equivalent to interplex, and (10) a study of staggered quadriphase for use on the space shuttle.

  3. Nuclear Shuttle Logistics Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  4. Autonomous Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siders, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    The continued assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is the cornerstone within NASA's overall Strategic P an. As indicated in NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), the International Space Station requires Shuttle to fly through at least the middle of the next decade to complete assembly of the Station, provide crew transport, and to provide heavy lift up and down mass capability. The ISTP reflects a tight coupling among the Station, Shuttle, and OSP programs to support our Nation's space goal . While the Shuttle is a critical component of this ISTP, there is a new emphasis for the need to achieve greater efficiency and safety in transporting crews to and from the Space Station. This need is being addressed through the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. However, the OSP is being designed to "complement" the Shuttle as the primary means for crew transfer, and will not replace all the Shuttle's capabilities. The unique heavy lift capabilities of the Space Shuttle is essential for both ISS, as well as other potential missions extending beyond low Earth orbit. One concept under discussion to better fulfill this role of a heavy lift carrier, is the transformation of the Shuttle to an "un-piloted" autonomous system. This concept would eliminate the loss of crew risk, while providing a substantial increase in payload to orbit capability. Using the guidelines reflected in the NASA ISTP, the autonomous Shuttle a simplified concept of operations can be described as; "a re-supply of cargo to the ISS through the use of an un-piloted Shuttle vehicle from launch through landing". Although this is the primary mission profile, the other major consideration in developing an autonomous Shuttle is maintaining a crew transportation capability to ISS as an assured human access to space capability.

  5. Three cardiovirus Leader proteins equivalently inhibit four different nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Ciomperlik, Jessica J.; Basta, Holly A.; Palmenberg, Ann C.

    2015-10-15

    Cardiovirus infections inhibit nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by Leader protein-induced phosphorylation of Phe/Gly-containing nucleoporins (Nups). Recombinant Leader from encephalomyocarditis virus, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus and Saffold virus target the same subset of Nups, including Nup62 and Nup98, but not Nup50. Reporter cell lines with fluorescence mCherry markers for M9, RS and classical SV40 import pathways, as well as the Crm1-mediated export pathway, all responded to transfection with the full panel of Leader proteins, showing consequent cessation of path-specific active import/export. For this to happen, the Nups had to be presented in the context of intact nuclear pores and exposed to cytoplasmic extracts. The Leader phosphorylation cascade was not effective against recombinant Nup proteins. The findings support a model of Leader-dependent Nup phosphorylation with the purpose of disrupting Nup-transportin interactions. - Highlights: • Nup98, but not Nup50 becomes phosphorylated by cardiovirus Leader protein-dependent mechanisms. • At least four independent nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathways are inhibited by this process. • Nups must be presented in a nuclear pore context for Leader-directed phosphorylation. • Leader, by itself, does not cause activation of cellular kinases.

  6. Tumor marker nucleoporin 88 kDa regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport of NF-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Nozomi Kilsdonk, Jeroen W.J. van; Ostendorf, Benedikt; Smeets, Ruben; Bruggeman, Sophia W.M.; Alonso, Angel; Loo, Fons van de; Schneider, Matthias; Berg, Wim B. van den; Swart, Guido W.M.

    2008-09-26

    Nucleoporin 88 kDa (Nup88) is a tumor marker, overexpressed in various types of cancer. In Drosophila Nup88 (mbo) was reported to selectively mediate the nucleocytoplasmic transport of NF-{kappa}B, an ubiquitous transcription factor involved in immune responses, apoptosis, and cancer. We addressed the function of Nup88 in mammalian cells. Selective depletion of Nup88 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited NF-{kappa}B-dependent reporter gene activation and the nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B without affecting the upstream activation pathway in NIH3T3 cells. In contrast, nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptor was not reduced by the depletion of Nup88. In metastatic melanoma cells overexpressing Nup88, constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B was found both in nucleus and cytoplasm. Nup88 depletion in these cells reduced TNF-induced nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B subunits. We conclude that Nup88 regulates the activity of NF-{kappa}B at the level of nucleocytoplasmic transport. Overexpression of Nup88 in tumor cells may, thus be involved in the constitutive NF-{kappa}B activation.

  7. Space shuttle requirements/configuration evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, E. P.

    1991-01-01

    Space Shuttle chronology; Space Shuttle comparison; Cost comparison; Performance; Program ground rules; Sizing criteria; Crew/passenger provisions; Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) characteristics; Space Shuttle program milestones; and Space Shuttle requirements are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  8. Space Shuttle Vehicle Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicle, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds. The SRB's provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  9. Space Shuttle-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicles, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds, that provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  10. Shuttle Safety Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has been flying for over 20 years and based on the Orbiter design life of 100 missions it should be capable of flying at least 20 years more if we take care of it. The Space Shuttle Development Office established in 1997 has identified those upgrades needed to keep the Shuttle flying safely and efficiently until a new reusable launch vehicle (RLV) is available to meet the agency commitments and goals for human access to space. The upgrade requirements shown in figure 1 are to meet the program goals, support HEDS and next generation space transportation goals while protecting the country 's investment in the Space Shuttle. A major review of the shuttle hardware and processes was conducted in 1999 which identified key shuttle safety improvement priorities, as well as other system upgrades needed to reliably continue to support the shuttle miss ions well into the second decade of this century. The high priority safety upgrades selected for development and study will be addressed in this paper.

  11. Space Shuttle redesign status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Vance D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA has conducted an extensive redesign effort for the Space Shutle in the aftermath of the STS 51-L Challenger accident, encompassing not only Shuttle vehicle and booster design but also such system-wide factors as organizational structure, management procedures, flight safety, flight operations, sustainable flight rate, and maintenance safeguards. Attention is presently given to Solid Rocket Booster redesign features, the Shuttle Main Engine's redesigned high pressure fuel and oxidizer turbopumps, the Shuttle Orbiter's braking and rollout (landing gear) system, the entry control mode of the flight control system, a 'split-S' abort maneuver for the Orbiter, and crew escape capsule proposals.

  12. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  13. Shuttle target measurements program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann, F. M.; Carpenter, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A Space Shuttle vehicle will provide the U.S. Army's Ballistic Missile Defense Advanced Technology Center with a cost effective platform with which to acquire comprehensive exoatmospheric optical sensor data. The data requiring minimum interface with the Shuttle, will be collected through experiments, recorded, and then analyzed upon return. The system will occupy a portion of a commercial pallet and is suitable for early flight consideration. Several block diagrams illustrate the selected hardware configuration designed to provide information on trajectories and vehicle dynamics, signature data from scaled targets, contamination data of the Space Shuttle environment, and other background data. The proposed sensor is a Mosaic Optical Sensor Technology Testbed.

  14. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, William L.

    2003-01-01

    As missions have become increasingly more challenging over the years, the most adaptable and capable element of space shuttle operations has proven time and again to be human beings. Human space flight provides unique aspects of observation. interaction and intervention that can reduce risk and improve mission success. No other launch vehicle - in development or in operation today - can match the space shuttle's human space flight capabilities. Preserving U.S. leadership in human space flight requires a strategy to meet those challenges. The ongoing development of next generation vehicles, along with upgrades to the space shuttle, is the most effective means for assuring our access to space.

  15. MSFC shuttle lightning research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The shuttle mesoscale lightning experiment (MLE), flown on earlier shuttle flights, and most recently flown on the following space transportation systems (STS's), STS-31, -32, -35, -37, -38, -40, -41, and -48, has continued to focus on obtaining additional quantitative measurements of lightning characteristics and to create a data base for use in demonstrating observation simulations for future spaceborne lightning mapping systems. These flights are also providing design criteria data for the design of a proposed shuttle MLE-type lightning research instrument called mesoscale lightning observational sensors (MELOS), which are currently under development here at MSFC.

  16. Space Shuttle: The Renewed Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleer, Neil

    This booklet describes the history of the space shuttle, especially after the Challenger accident. Topics include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Return to Flight: The Recovery"; (3) "Space Shuttle Chronology"; (4) "Examples of Other Modifications on Shuttle's Major Systems"; (5) "Space Shuttle Recovery…

  17. Shuttle Showcase: STS-125

    NASA Video Gallery

    After four previous trips to repair and upgrade the Hubble Space Telescope, it was time for the Shuttle to make one final service call to install new, advanced instruments, batteries, gyros and ins...

  18. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Design and configurations of the Space Shuttle are examined. Attention is given to such features as the Orbiter, the guidance systems, design avionics, system design, and the flight control system centered about a redundant set of general purpose computers.

  19. Shuttle car loading system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A system is described for loading newly mined material such as coal, into a shuttle car, at a location near the mine face where there is only a limited height available for a loading system. The system includes a storage bin having several telescoping bin sections and a shuttle car having a bottom wall that can move under the bin. With the bin in an extended position and filled with coal the bin sections can be telescoped to allow the coal to drop out of the bin sections and into the shuttle car, to quickly load the car. The bin sections can then be extended, so they can be slowly filled with more while waiting another shuttle car.

  20. Shuttle Showcase: STS-30

    NASA Video Gallery

    May 4, 1989... the five-person crew of Atlantis prepares for the first deployment of a planetary spacecraft from the shuttle. A little over six hours after launch, Magellan and its mammoth Inertial...

  1. Shuttle Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Inventory Management System (SIMS) consists of series of integrated support programs providing supply support for both Shuttle program and Kennedy Space Center base opeations SIMS controls all supply activities and requirements from single point. Programs written in COBOL.

  2. Shuttle Astronauts Play Chess

    NASA Video Gallery

    STS-134 astronauts Greg Johnson and Greg Chamitoff ponder their next move for the Earth vs. Space chess match. The shuttle crew members also discuss their activities aboard the International Space ...

  3. Habitability study shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Habitability design concepts for the Shuttle Orbiter Program are provided for MSC. A variety of creative solutions for the stated tasks are presented. Sketches, mock-ups, mechanicals and models are included for establishing a foundation for future development.

  4. Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Shuttle vectors.

    PubMed

    Gnügge, Robert; Rudolf, Fabian

    2017-01-10

    Yeast shuttle vectors are indispensable tools in yeast research. They enable cloning of defined DNA sequences in Escherichia coli and their direct transfer into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. There are three types of commonly used yeast shuttle vectors: centromeric plasmids, episomal plasmids and integrating plasmids. In this review, we discuss the different plasmid systems and their characteristic features. We focus on their segregational stability and copy number and indicate how to modify these properties. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Three cardiovirus Leader proteins equivalently inhibit four different nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathways.

    PubMed

    Ciomperlik, Jessica J; Basta, Holly A; Palmenberg, Ann C

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovirus infections inhibit nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by Leader protein-induced phosphorylation of Phe/Gly-containing nucleoporins (Nups). Recombinant Leader from encephalomyocarditis virus, Theiler׳s murine encephalomyelitis virus and Saffold virus target the same subset of Nups, including Nup62 and Nup98, but not Nup50. Reporter cell lines with fluorescence mCherry markers for M9, RS and classical SV40 import pathways, as well as the Crm1-mediated export pathway, all responded to transfection with the full panel of Leader proteins, showing consequent cessation of path-specific active import/export. For this to happen, the Nups had to be presented in the context of intact nuclear pores and exposed to cytoplasmic extracts. The Leader phosphorylation cascade was not effective against recombinant Nup proteins. The findings support a model of Leader-dependent Nup phosphorylation with the purpose of disrupting Nup-transportin interactions.

  7. Nucleocytoplasmic transport in the midzone membrane domain controls yeast mitotic spindle disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Rafael; Dephoure, Noah; Gygi, Steve P.; Kellogg, Douglas R.; Tallada, Victor A.

    2015-01-01

    During each cell cycle, the mitotic spindle is efficiently assembled to achieve chromosome segregation and then rapidly disassembled as cells enter cytokinesis. Although much has been learned about assembly, how spindles disassemble at the end of mitosis remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that nucleocytoplasmic transport at the membrane domain surrounding the mitotic spindle midzone, here named the midzone membrane domain (MMD), is essential for spindle disassembly in Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells. We show that, during anaphase B, Imp1-mediated transport of the AAA-ATPase Cdc48 protein at the MMD allows this disassembly factor to localize at the spindle midzone, thereby promoting spindle midzone dissolution. Our findings illustrate how a separate membrane compartment supports spindle disassembly in the closed mitosis of fission yeast. PMID:25963819

  8. Nucleocytoplasmic movement of fluorescent tracers microinjected into living salivary gland cells

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The permeability of the nuclear envelop of a somatic cell, the C. thummi larval salivary gland cell, was studied by intracellular microinjection of fluorescent molecular tracers. As shown previously in oocytes (4,5,15,16), the envelop is permeable to a wide variety of materials, including molecules which are large enough to possess condiderable biological specificities and to play important roles in regulation of cellular activities. The envelop exhibits transport selectivity on the basis of size in the range of naturally occurring intracellular materials and it may thus perform important controlling functions in nucleocytoplasmic exchange. The nucleus to cytoplasm movement of in vivo ribonucleoprotein particulates in these synthetically active cells probably requires conformational changes in the particulates and/or the envelope pore complexes; morphological evidence exists for such processess in these cells (20). PMID:1158974

  9. “Megavirales”, a proposed new order for eukaryotic nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Philippe; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Yutin, Natalya; Asgari, Sassan; Bigot, Yves; Bideshi, Dennis K.; Cheng, Xiao-Wen; Federici, Brian A.; Van Etten, James L.; Koonin, Eugene V.; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    The nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) comprise a monophyletic group of viruses that infect animals and diverse unicellular eukaryotes. The NCLDV group includes the families Poxviridae, Asfarviridae, Iridoviridae, Ascoviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Mimiviridae and the proposed family “Marseilleviridae”. The family Mimiviridae includes the largest known viruses, with genomes in excess of one megabase, whereas the genome size in the other NCLDV families varies from 100 to 400 kilobase pairs. Most of the NCLDVs replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells, within so-called virus factories. The NCLDVs share a common ancient origin, as demonstrated by evolutionary reconstructions that trace approximately 50 genes encoding key proteins involved in viral replication and virion formation to the last common ancestor of all these viruses. Taken together, these characteristics lead us to propose assigning an official taxonomic rank to the NCLDVs as the order “Megavirales”, in reference to the large size of the virions and genomes of these viruses. PMID:23812617

  10. Cytosolic disulfide bond formation in cells infected with large nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Motti; Fass, Deborah

    2010-10-01

    Proteins that have evolved to contain stabilizing disulfide bonds generally fold in a membrane-delimited compartment in the cell [i.e., the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS)]. These compartments contain sulfhydryl oxidase enzymes that catalyze the pairing and oxidation of cysteine residues. In contrast, most proteins in a healthy cytosol are maintained in reduced form through surveillance by NADPH-dependent reductases and the lack of sulfhydryl oxidases. Nevertheless, one of the core functionalities that unify the broad and diverse set of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) is the ability to catalyze disulfide formation in the cytosol. The substrates of this activity are proteins that contribute to the assembly, structure, and infectivity of the virions. If the last common ancestor of NCLDVs was present during eukaryogenesis as has been proposed, it is interesting to speculate that viral disulfide bond formation pathways may have predated oxidative protein folding in intracellular organelles.

  11. Higher Nucleoporin-Importinβ Affinity at the Nuclear Basket Increases Nucleocytoplasmic Import

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Mohammad; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    2013-01-01

    Several in vitro studies have shown the presence of an affinity gradient in nuclear pore complex proteins for the import receptor Importinβ, at least partially contributing to nucleocytoplasmic transport, while others have historically argued against the presence of such a gradient. Nonetheless, the existence of an affinity gradient has remained an uncharacterized contributing factor. To shed light on the affinity gradient theory and better characterize how the existence of such an affinity gradient between the nuclear pore and the import receptor may influence the nucleocytoplasmic traffic, we have developed a general-purpose agent based modeling (ABM) framework that features a new method for relating rate constants to molecular binding and unbinding probabilities, and used our ABM approach to quantify the effects of a wide range of forward and reverse nucleoporin-Importinβ affinity gradients. Our results indicate that transport through the nuclear pore complex is maximized with an effective macroscopic affinity gradient of 2000 µM, 200 µM and 10 µM in the cytoplasmic, central channel and nuclear basket respectively. The transport rate at this gradient is approximately 10% higher than the transport rate for a comparable pore lacking any affinity gradient, which has a peak transport rate when all nucleoporins have an affinity of 200 µM for Importinβ. Furthermore, this optimal ratio of affinity gradients is representative of the ratio of affinities reported for the yeast nuclear pore complex – suggesting that the affinity gradient seen in vitro is highly optimized. PMID:24282617

  12. The F-box protein ZEITLUPE controls stability and nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of GIGANTEA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongsik; Geng, Ruishuang; Gallenstein, Richard A; Somers, David E

    2013-10-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of core clock components is essential for the proper operation of the circadian system. Previous work has shown that the F-box protein ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and clock element GIGANTEA (GI) heterodimerize in the cytosol, thereby stabilizing ZTL. Here, we report that ZTL post-translationally and reciprocally regulates protein levels and nucleocytoplasmic distribution of GI in Arabidopsis. We use ectopic expression of the N-terminus of ZTL, which contains the novel, light-absorbing region of ZTL (the LOV domain), transient expression assays and ztl mutants to establish that the levels of ZTL, a cytosolic protein, help govern the abundance and distribution of GI in the cytosol and nucleus. Ectopic expression of the ZTL N-terminus lengthens period, delays flowering time and alters hypocotyl length. We demonstrate that these phenotypes can be explained by the competitive interference of the LOV domain with endogenous GI-ZTL interactions. A complex of the ZTL N-terminus polypeptide with endogenous GI (LOV-GI) blocks normal GI function, causing degradation of endogenous ZTL and inhibition of other GI-related phenotypes. Increased cytosolic retention of GI by the LOV-GI complex additionally inhibits nuclear roles of GI, thereby lengthening flowering time. Hence, we conclude that under endogenous conditions, GI stabilization and cytoplasmic retention occurs naturally through a LOV domain-mediated GI-ZTL interaction, and that ZTL indirectly regulates GI nuclear pools by sequestering GI to the cytosol. As the absence of either GI or ZTL compromises clock function and diminishes the protein abundance of the other, our results highlight how their reciprocal co-stabilization is essential for robust circadian oscillations.

  13. 7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS AND PARKING LOT AREA. LOOKING WNW. GIS: N-37 40 36.2 / W-119 44 45.0 - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  14. British super-shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-10-01

    British Aerospace, the nationalized aerospace manufacturer, confirmed that a space shuttle of new design is indeed being studied, and that a model of the craft will be displayed. The British television network ITN had announced that secret plans were being prepared for the construction of a reusable horizontal takeoff super-shuttle, which could breathe atmospheric oxygen to supply its propulsion system. Retracting a first denial according to which the project existed merely as scribbles on the back of an envelope, a British Aerospace spokesperson declared that it was in fact a very serious study. The super-shuttle, called HOTOL (horizontal takeoff and landing), would be placed in orbit as a platform for satellite launching. The spokesperson further indicated that with a certain resemblance to the Concorde, it would be pilotless, remote controlled, and would allow frequent operations at short time intervals.

  15. Shuttle: forever young?

    PubMed

    Sietzen, Frank

    2002-01-01

    NASA has started a 4-phase program of upgrades designed to increase safety and extend use of the space shuttles through the year 2020. Phase I is aimed at improving vehicle safety and supporting the space station. Phase II is aimed at combating obsolescence and includes a checkout launch and control system and protection from micrometeoroids and orbital debris. Phase III is designed to expand or enhance the capabilities of the shuttle and includes development of an auxiliary power unit, avionics, a channel-wall nozzle, extended nose landing gear, long-life fuel cells, a nontoxic orbital maneuvering system/reaction control system, and a water membrane evaporator. Phase IV is aimed at design of system changes that would alter the shuttle mold line and configuration; projects include a five-segment solid rocket booster, liquid flyback boosters, and a crew escape module.

  16. Space Shuttle Aging Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Cris E.

    2007-01-01

    The reusable Manned Space Shuttle has been flying into Space and returning to earth for more than 25 years. The Space Shuttle's uses various types of elastomers and they play a vital role in mission success. The Orbiter has been in service well past its design life of 10 years or 100 missions. As part of the aging vehicle assessment one question under evaluation is how the elastomers are performing. This paper will outline a strategic assessment plan, how identified problems were resolved and the integration activities between subsystems and Aging Orbiter Working Group.

  17. Nanoparticle shuttle memory

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alex Karlwalter [Kensington, CA

    2012-03-06

    A device for storing data using nanoparticle shuttle memory having a nanotube. The nanotube has a first end and a second end. A first electrode is electrically connected to the first end of the nanotube. A second electrode is electrically connected to the second end of the nanotube. The nanotube has an enclosed nanoparticle shuttle. A switched voltage source is electrically connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby a voltage may be controllably applied across the nanotube. A resistance meter is also connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby the electrical resistance across the nanotube can be determined.

  18. Space Shuttle Endeavour Heads West

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, a modified 747, flew retired shuttle Endeavour from Kennedy Space Center in Florida to Houston on Sept. 19, 2012, to complete the first leg of Endeavour's trip to L...

  19. Shuttle Atlantis: From the Inside

    NASA Video Gallery

    An unprecedented up close, inside look at space shuttle Atlantis as it was readied for "towback"" from Kennedy's Shuttle Landing Facility runway to Orbiter Processing Facility-1 following its May 2...

  20. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  1. Space Shuttle Flyout: Landing Convoy

    NASA Video Gallery

    A team of trained technicians and specialized trucks and equipment is vital for getting a space shuttle safed after landing, helping the astronauts off the spacecraft and returning the shuttle to i...

  2. Space Shuttle Era: Main Engines

    NASA Video Gallery

    Producing 500,000 pounds of thrust from a package weighing only 7,500 pounds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines are one of the shining accomplishments of the shuttle program. The success did not come ...

  3. Functional networks of nucleocytoplasmic transport-related genes differentiate ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathies. A new therapeutic opportunity.

    PubMed

    Molina-Navarro, María Micaela; Triviño, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Dolz, Luis; Lago, Francisca; González-Juanatey, Jose Ramón; Portolés, Manuel; Rivera, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure provokes alterations in the expression of nucleocytoplasmic transport-related genes. To elucidate the nucleocytoplasmic transport-linked functional network underlying the two major causes of heart failure, ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), we examined global transcriptome profiles of left ventricular myocardium tissue samples from 31 patients (ICM, n = 10; DCM, n = 13) undergoing heart transplantation and control donors (CNT, n = 8) using RNA-Sequencing and GeneMANIA. Comparative profiling of ICM versus control and DCM versus control showed 1081 and 2440 differentially expressed genes, respectively (>1.29-fold; P<0.05). GeneMANIA revealed differentially regulated functional networks specific to ICM and DCM. In comparison with CNT, differential expression was seen in 9 and 12 nucleocytoplasmic transport-related genes in ICM and DCM groups, respectively. DDX3X, KPNA2, and PTK2B were related to ICM, while SMURF2, NUP153, IPO5, RANBP3, NOXA1, and RHOJ were involved in DCM pathogenesis. Furthermore, the two pathologies shared 6 altered genes: XPO1, ARL4, NFKB2, FHL3, RANBP2, and RHOU showing an identical trend in expression in both ICM and DCM. Notably, the core of the derived functional networks composed of nucleocytoplasmic transport-related genes (XPO1, RANBP2, NUP153, IPO5, KPNA2, and RANBP3) branched into several pathways with downregulated genes. Moreover, we identified genes whose expression levels correlated with left ventricular mass index and left ventricular function parameters in HF patients. Collectively, our study provides a clear distinction between the two pathologies at the transcriptome level and opens up new possibilities to search for appropriate therapeutic targets for ICM and DCM.

  4. Modifiers of C9orf72 dipeptide repeat toxicity connect nucleocytoplasmic transport defects to FTD/ALS.

    PubMed

    Jovičić, Ana; Mertens, Jerome; Boeynaems, Steven; Bogaert, Elke; Chai, Noori; Yamada, Shizuka B; Paul, Joseph W; Sun, Shuying; Herdy, Joseph R; Bieri, Gregor; Kramer, Nicholas J; Gage, Fred H; Van Den Bosch, Ludo; Robberecht, Wim; Gitler, Aaron D

    2015-09-01

    C9orf72 mutations are the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) produced by unconventional translation of the C9orf72 repeat expansions cause neurodegeneration in cell culture and in animal models. We performed two unbiased screens in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified potent modifiers of DPR toxicity, including karyopherins and effectors of Ran-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport, providing insight into potential disease mechanisms and therapeutic targets.

  5. Space Shuttle news reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the space shuttle vehicle and associated subsystems is given. Space transportation system propulsion, power generation, environmental control and life support system and avionics are among the topics. Also, orbiter crew accommodations and equipment, mission operations and support, and flight crew complement and crew training are addressed.

  6. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of the Space Shuttle is traced. Aerodynamic loads and dynamic characteristics, structural design, ascent and entry heating profiles, and propulsion systems are discussed. Problems in the area of systems management and flight control during entry and in the design of an effective thermal control system are discussed in detail.

  7. Mobile Christian - shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Erin Whittle, 14, (seated) and Brianna Johnson, 14, look on as Louis Stork, 13, attempts a simulated landing of a space shuttle at StenniSphere. The young people were part of a group from Mobile Christian School in Mobile, Ala., that visited StenniSphere on April 21.

  8. Aboard the Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  9. Shuttle Blast-Off!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Marilyn Kay; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Two articles describe ideas for school library media centers interested in promoting space education. The first article explains how to construct an inexpensive simulation of a space shuttle and suggests associated activities. The second presents steps for identifying resources and organizing them into a resources file; relevant information…

  10. The Shuttle Environment Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmann, J.; Tanner, S. G. (Editor); Wilkerson, T. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Results of shuttle environmental measurement programs were presented. The implications for plasma, infrared and ultraviolet experiments were discussed. The prelaunch environmental conditions, results of key environmental measurements made during the flights of STS 1, 2, 3, 4, and postlanding environmental conditions were covered.

  11. Replacing NASA's Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Donald F.

    1990-02-01

    The latest NASA Shuttle II proposal for an Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) is reviewed. It could achieve total reusability, with a glide-back booster stage and no solid rockets. The propellant load would be divided between the booster and orbiter stages. The AMLS payload of just over nine tons will be limited to crew and 'high-value' cargo, carried in the dorsal pod. Bulky freight and satellites will rely on expendable launchers. AMLS will be a Space Station ferry only and would not be used for on-orbit experiments. The operational history of the Space Shuttle program is shown, as well as its programmed future undertakings. Beyond the proposed Shuttle II, some insight is offered on the conceptual vehicle named Shuttle Z that could be the mainstay of Lunar-Base or Mars expeditions. Needed technologies and key features of a proposed AMLS orbiter are also mentioned. In addition, NASA proposals for a rescue vehicle for Space Station Freedom that will serve to return stranded or injured astronauts to earth is presented. One such proposed crew rescue vehicle would carry four people plus 450 kg of supplies, for a gross mass of 7146 kg.

  12. Space shuttle SRM development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, I. C.; Call, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    The successful static testing of the fourth Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) is described. Transportation and support equipment concepts and component reusability are demonstrated. The evolution of the SRM transportation support equipment and special test equipment designs are reviewed, and development activities are discussed. Handling and processing aspects of large, heavy components are reviewed briefly.

  13. ITOS/space shuttle study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are reported of a study to explore the potential cost reductions in the operational ITOS weather satellite program as a consequence of shuttle/bug availability for satellite placement and retrieval, and satellite servicing and maintenance. The study program was divided into shuttle impact on equipment and testing costs, and shuttle impact on overall future ITOS operational program costs, and shuttle impact on configuration. It is concluded that savings in recurring spacecraft costs can be realized in the 1978 ITOS program, if a space shuttle is utilized.

  14. Evolution of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nease, Ardell

    1993-02-01

    This paper initially examines the Space Shuttle's past and future role in the exploration and exploitation of space and then discusses the evolution of the Space Shuttle as a cost effective design solution to the nation's and the world's space requirements. The argument for Shuttle evolution is presented and a cost effective approach to evolving the Space Shuttle into tomorrow's Space Transportation System is described. Near term upgrades can increase safety and reliability, avoid obsolescence, reduce operations costs, and increase performance; they can be followed by the long term block changes that incorporate new technologies and make the Space Shuttle dramatically more useful and cost effective to operate. The balance between continued Shuttle System life vs replacement system development and production is placed in the perspective of mission needs, technological leverage, and fiscal reality. The paper concludes that the evolution of the Space Shuttle is the most cost effective solution to the nation's space transportation needs for more than thirty years.

  15. Clustered nuclei maintain autonomy and nucleocytoplasmic ratio control in a syncytium.

    PubMed

    Dundon, Samantha E R; Chang, Shyr-Shea; Kumar, Abhishek; Occhipinti, Patricia; Shroff, Hari; Roper, Marcus; Gladfelter, Amy S

    2016-07-01

    Nuclei in syncytia found in fungi, muscles, and tumors can behave independently despite cytoplasmic translation and the homogenizing potential of diffusion. We use a dynactin mutant strain of the multinucleate fungus Ashbya gossypii with highly clustered nuclei to assess the relative contributions of nucleus and cytoplasm to nuclear autonomy. Remarkably, clustered nuclei maintain cell cycle and transcriptional autonomy; therefore some sources of nuclear independence function even with minimal cytosol insulating nuclei. In both nuclear clusters and among evenly spaced nuclei, a nucleus' transcriptional activity dictates local cytoplasmic contents, as assessed by the localization of several cyclin mRNAs. Thus nuclear activity is a central determinant of the local cytoplasm in syncytia. Of note, we found that the number of nuclei per unit cytoplasm was identical in the mutant to that in wild-type cells, despite clustered nuclei. This work demonstrates that nuclei maintain autonomy at a submicrometer scale and simultaneously maintain a normal nucleocytoplasmic ratio across a syncytium up to the centimeter scale.

  16. Hormone- and light-regulated nucleocytoplasmic transport in plants: current status.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yew; Lee, Hak-Soo; Lee, June-Seung; Kim, Seong-Ki; Kim, Soo-Hwan

    2008-01-01

    The gene regulation mechanisms underlying hormone- and light-induced signal transduction in plants rely not only on post-translational modification and protein degradation, but also on selective inclusion and exclusion of proteins from the nucleus. For example, plant cells treated with light or hormones actively transport many signalling regulatory proteins, transcription factors, and even photoreceptors and hormone receptors into the nucleus, while actively excluding other proteins. The nuclear envelope (NE) is the physical and functional barrier that mediates this selective partitioning, and nuclear transport regulators transduce hormone- or light-initiated signalling pathways across the membrane to mediate nuclear activities. Recent reports revealed that mutating the proteins regulating nuclear transport through the pores, such as nucleoporins, alters the plant's response to a stimulus. In this review, recent works are introduced that have revealed the importance of regulated nucleocytoplasmic partitioning. These important findings deepen our understanding about how co-ordinated plant hormone and light signal transduction pathways facilitate communication between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. The roles of nucleoporin components within the nuclear pore complex (NPC) are also emphasized, as well as nuclear transport cargo, such as Ran/TC4 and its binding proteins (RanBPs), in this process. Recent findings concerning these proteins may provide a possible direction by which to characterize the regulatory potential of hormone- or light-triggered nuclear transport.

  17. Cardiovirus Leader proteins bind exportins: Implications for virus replication and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Ciomperlik, Jessica J.; Basta, Holly A.; Palmenberg, Ann C.

    2016-01-15

    Cardiovirus Leader proteins (L{sub X}) inhibit cellular nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by directing host kinases to phosphorylate Phe/Gly-containing nuclear pore proteins (Nups). Resolution of the Mengovirus L{sub M} structure bound to Ran GTPase, suggested this complex would further recruit specific exportins (karyopherins), which in turn mediate kinase selection. Pull-down experiments and recombinant complex reconstitution now confirm that Crm1 and CAS exportins form stable dimeric complexes with encephalomyocarditis virus L{sub E}, and also larger complexes with L{sub E}:Ran. shRNA knockdown studies support this idea. Similar activities could be demonstrated for recombinant L{sub S} and L{sub T} from Theiloviruses. When mutations were introduced to alter the L{sub E} zinc finger domain, acidic domain, or dual phosphorylation sites, there was reduced exportin selection. These regions are not involved in Ran interactions, so the Ran and Crm1 binding sites on L{sub E} must be non-overlapping. The involvement of exportins in this mechanism is important to viral replication and the observation of trafficking inhibition by L{sub E}.

  18. A deep proteomics perspective on CRM1-mediated nuclear export and nucleocytoplasmic partitioning

    PubMed Central

    Kırlı, Koray; Karaca, Samir; Dehne, Heinz Jürgen; Samwer, Matthias; Pan, Kuan Ting; Lenz, Christof; Urlaub, Henning; Görlich, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    CRM1 is a highly conserved, RanGTPase-driven exportin that carries proteins and RNPs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. We now explored the cargo-spectrum of CRM1 in depth and identified surprisingly large numbers, namely >700 export substrates from the yeast S. cerevisiae, ≈1000 from Xenopus oocytes and >1050 from human cells. In addition, we quantified the partitioning of ≈5000 unique proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm of Xenopus oocytes. The data suggest new CRM1 functions in spatial control of vesicle coat-assembly, centrosomes, autophagy, peroxisome biogenesis, cytoskeleton, ribosome maturation, translation, mRNA degradation, and more generally in precluding a potentially detrimental action of cytoplasmic pathways within the nuclear interior. There are also numerous new instances where CRM1 appears to act in regulatory circuits. Altogether, our dataset allows unprecedented insights into the nucleocytoplasmic organisation of eukaryotic cells, into the contributions of an exceedingly promiscuous exportin and it provides a new basis for NES prediction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11466.001 PMID:26673895

  19. Flexible phenylalanine-glycine nucleoporins as entropic barriers to nucleocytoplasmic transport

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Roderick Y. H.; Huang, Ning-Ping; Köser, Joachim; Deng, Jie; Lau, K. H. Aaron; Schwarz-Herion, Kyrill; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Aebi, Ueli

    2006-01-01

    Natively unfolded phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat domains are alleged to form the physical constituents of the selective barrier-gate in nuclear pore complexes during nucleocytoplasmic transport. Presently, the biophysical mechanism behind the selective gate remains speculative because of a lack of information regarding the nanomechanical properties of the FG domains. In this work, we have applied the atomic force microscope to measure the mechanical response of individual and clusters of FG molecules. Single-molecule force spectroscopy reveals that FG molecules are unfolded and highly flexible. To provide insight into the selective gating mechanism, an experimental platform has been constructed to study the collective behavior of surface-tethered FG molecules at the nanoscale. Measurements indicate that the collective behavior of such FG molecules gives rise to an exponentially decaying long-range steric repulsive force. This finding indicates that the molecules are thermally mobile in an extended polymer brush-like conformation. This assertion is confirmed by observing that the brush-like conformation undergoes a reversible collapse transition in less polar solvent conditions. These findings reveal how FG-repeat domains may simultaneously function as an entropic barrier and a selective trap in the near-field interaction zone of nuclear pore complexes; i.e., selective gate. PMID:16769882

  20. Calpain-dependent disruption of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport in ALS motor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Takenari; Aizawa, Hitoshi; Teramoto, Sayaka; Akamatsu, Megumi; Kwak, Shin

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear dysfunction in motor neurons has been hypothesized to be a principal cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is disrupted in dying motor neurons in a mechanistic ALS mouse model (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) conditional knockout (AR2) mice) and in ALS patients. We showed that nucleoporins (Nups) that constituted the NPC were cleaved by activated calpain via a Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptor-mediated mechanism in dying motor neurons lacking ADAR2 expression in AR2 mice. In these neurons, nucleo-cytoplasmic transport was disrupted, and the level of the transcript elongation enzyme RNA polymerase II phosphorylated at Ser2 was significantly decreased. Analogous changes were observed in motor neurons lacking ADAR2 immunoreactivity in sporadic ALS patients. Therefore, calpain-dependent NPC disruption may participate in ALS pathogenesis, and inhibiting Ca2+-mediated cell death signals may be a therapeutic strategy for ALS. PMID:28045133

  1. The RanGTP Pathway: From Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Transport to Spindle Assembly and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cavazza, Tommaso; Vernos, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Ran regulates the interaction of transport receptors with a number of cellular cargo proteins. The high affinity binding of the GTP-bound form of Ran to import receptors promotes cargo release, whereas its binding to export receptors stabilizes their interaction with the cargo. This basic mechanism linked to the asymmetric distribution of the two nucleotide-bound forms of Ran between the nucleus and the cytoplasm generates a switch like mechanism controlling nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. Since 1999, we have known that after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) Ran and the above transport receptors also provide a local control over the activity of factors driving spindle assembly and regulating other aspects of cell division. The identification and functional characterization of RanGTP mitotic targets is providing novel insights into mechanisms essential for cell division. Here we review our current knowledge on the RanGTP system and its regulation and we focus on the recent advances made through the characterization of its mitotic targets. We then briefly review the novel functions of the pathway that were recently described. Altogether, the RanGTP system has moonlighting functions exerting a spatial control over protein interactions that drive specific functions depending on the cellular context. PMID:26793706

  2. Hidden evolutionary complexity of Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA viruses of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) constitute an apparently monophyletic group that consists of at least 6 families of viruses infecting a broad variety of eukaryotic hosts. A comprehensive genome comparison and maximum-likelihood reconstruction of the NCLDV evolution revealed a set of approximately 50 conserved, core genes that could be mapped to the genome of the common ancestor of this class of eukaryotic viruses. Results We performed a detailed phylogenetic analysis of these core NCLDV genes and applied the constrained tree approach to show that the majority of the core genes are unlikely to be monophyletic. Several of the core genes have been independently acquired from different sources by different NCLDV lineages whereas for the majority of these genes displacement by homologs from cellular organisms in one or more groups of the NCLDV was demonstrated. Conclusions A detailed study of the evolution of the genomic core of the NCLDV reveals substantial complexity and diversity of evolutionary scenarios that was largely unsuspected previously. The phylogenetic coherence between the core genes is sufficient to validate the hypothesis on the evolution of all NCLDV from a common ancestral virus although the set of ancestral genes might be smaller than previously inferred from patterns of gene presence-absence. PMID:22891861

  3. Exploring nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses in Tara Oceans microbial metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Hingamp, Pascal; Grimsley, Nigel; Acinas, Silvia G; Clerissi, Camille; Subirana, Lucie; Poulain, Julie; Ferrera, Isabel; Sarmento, Hugo; Villar, Emilie; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Faust, Karoline; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Moreau, Hervé; Desdevises, Yves; Bork, Peer; Raes, Jeroen; de Vargas, Colomban; Karsenti, Eric; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Jaillon, Olivier; Not, Fabrice; Pesant, Stéphane; Wincker, Patrick; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) constitute a group of eukaryotic viruses that can have crucial ecological roles in the sea by accelerating the turnover of their unicellular hosts or by causing diseases in animals. To better characterize the diversity, abundance and biogeography of marine NCLDVs, we analyzed 17 metagenomes derived from microbial samples (0.2–1.6 μm size range) collected during the Tara Oceans Expedition. The sample set includes ecosystems under-represented in previous studies, such as the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) and Indian Ocean lagoons. By combining computationally derived relative abundance and direct prokaryote cell counts, the abundance of NCLDVs was found to be in the order of 104–105 genomes ml−1 for the samples from the photic zone and 102–103 genomes ml−1 for the OMZ. The Megaviridae and Phycodnaviridae dominated the NCLDV populations in the metagenomes, although most of the reads classified in these families showed large divergence from known viral genomes. Our taxon co-occurrence analysis revealed a potential association between viruses of the Megaviridae family and eukaryotes related to oomycetes. In support of this predicted association, we identified six cases of lateral gene transfer between Megaviridae and oomycetes. Our results suggest that marine NCLDVs probably outnumber eukaryotic organisms in the photic layer (per given water mass) and that metagenomic sequence analyses promise to shed new light on the biodiversity of marine viruses and their interactions with potential hosts. PMID:23575371

  4. Origin and Evolution of Eukaryotic Large Nucleo-Cytoplasmic DNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Koonin, Eugene V.; Yutin, Natalya

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims The nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) constitute an apparently monophyletic group that consists of 6 families of viruses infecting a broad variety of eukaryotes. A comprehensive genome comparison and maximum-likelihood reconstruction of NCLDV evolution reveal a set of approximately 50 conserved genes that can be tentatively mapped to the genome of the common ancestor of this class of eukaryotic viruses. We address the origins and evolution of NCLDV. Results Phylogenetic analysis indicates that some of the major clades of NCLDV infect diverse animals and protists, suggestive of early radiation of the NCLDV, possibly concomitant with eukaryogenesis. The core NCLDV genes seem to have originated from different sources including homologous genes of bacteriophages, bacteria and eukaryotes. These observations are compatible with a scenario of the origin of the NCLDV at an early stage of the evolution of eukaryotes through extensive mixing of genes from widely different genomes. Conclusions The common ancestor of the NCLDV probably evolved from a bacteriophage as a result of recruitment of numerous eukaryotic and some bacterial genes, and concomitant loss of the majority of phage genes except for a small core of genes coding for proteins essential for virus genome replication and virion formation. PMID:20551680

  5. Phylogenetic evidence for extensive lateral acquisition of cellular genes by Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA viruses (NCLDV), a diverse group that infects a wide range of eukaryotic hosts, exhibit a large heterogeneity in genome size (between 100 kb and 1.2 Mb) but have been suggested to form a monophyletic group on the basis of a small subset of approximately 30 conserved genes. NCLDV were proposed to have evolved by simplification from cellular organism although some of the giant NCLDV have clearly grown by gene accretion from a bacterial origin. Results We demonstrate here that many NCLDV lineages appear to have undergone frequent gene exchange in two different ways. Viruses which infect protists directly (Mimivirus) or algae which exist as intracellular protists symbionts (Phycodnaviruses) acquire genes from a bacterial source. Metazoan viruses such as the Poxviruses show a predominant acquisition of host genes. In both cases, the laterally acquired genes show a strong tendency to be positioned at the tip of the genome. Surprisingly, several core genes believed to be ancestral in the family appear to have undergone lateral gene transfers, suggesting that the NCLDV ancestor might have had a smaller genome than previously believed. Moreover, our data show that the larger the genome, the higher is the number of laterally acquired genes. This pattern is incompatible with a genome reduction from a cellular ancestor. Conclusion We propose that the NCLDV viruses have evolved by significant growth of a simple DNA virus by gene acquisition from cellular sources. PMID:19036122

  6. Separate responses of karyopherins to glucose and amino acid availability regulate nucleocytoplasmic transport

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsiao-Yun; Hopper, Anita K.

    2014-01-01

    The importin-β family members (karyopherins) mediate the majority of nucleocytoplasmic transport. Msn5 and Los1, members of the importin-β family, function in tRNA nuclear export. tRNAs move bidirectionally between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Nuclear tRNA accumulation occurs upon amino acid (aa) or glucose deprivation. To understand the mechanisms regulating tRNA subcellular trafficking, we investigated whether Msn5 and Los1 are regulated in response to nutrient availability. We provide evidence that tRNA subcellular trafficking is regulated by distinct aa-sensitive and glucose-sensitive mechanisms. Subcellular distributions of Msn5 and Los1 are altered upon glucose deprivation but not aa deprivation. Redistribution of tRNA exportins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm likely provides one mechanism for tRNA nuclear distribution upon glucose deprivation. We extended our studies to other members of the importin-β family and found that all tested karyopherins invert their subcellular distributions upon glucose deprivation but not aa deprivation. Glucose availability regulates the subcellular distributions of karyopherins likely due to alteration of the RanGTP gradient since glucose deprivation causes redistribution of Ran. Thus nuclear–cytoplasmic distribution of macromolecules is likely generally altered upon glucose deprivation due to collapse of the RanGTP gradient and redistribution of karyopherins between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. PMID:25057022

  7. Biological significance of the importin-β family-dependent nucleocytoplasmic transport pathways.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Makoto; Imamoto, Naoko

    2014-07-01

    Importin-β family proteins (Imp-βs) are nucleocytoplasmic transport receptors (NTRs) that import and export proteins and RNAs through the nuclear pores. The family consists of 14-20 members depending on the biological species, and each member transports a specific group of cargoes. Thus, the Imp-βs mediate multiple, parallel transport pathways that can be regulated separately. In fact, the spatiotemporally differential expressions and the functional regulations of Imp-βs have been reported. Additionally, the biological significance of each pathway has been characterized by linking the function of a member of Imp-βs to a cellular consequence. Connecting these concepts, the regulation of the transport pathways conceivably induces alterations in the cellular physiological states. However, few studies have linked the regulation of an importin-β family NTR to an induced cellular response and the corresponding cargoes, despite the significance of this linkage in comprehending the biological relevance of the transport pathways. This review of recent reports on the regulation and biological functions of the Imp-βs highlights the significance of the transport pathways in physiological contexts and points out the possibility that the identification of yet unknown specific cargoes will reinforce the importance of transport regulation.

  8. On the cellular and developmental lethality of a Xenopus nucleocytoplasmic hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Narbonne, Patrick; Halley-Stott, Richard P.; Gurdon, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) embryos result from the combination of the nucleus of one species, and the egg cytoplasm of another species. Cybrid embryos can be obtained either in the haploid state by the cross-fertilization or intra-cytoplasmic injection of an enucleated egg with sperm from another species, or in the diploid state by the technique of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT). Cybrids that originate from the combination of the nucleus and the cytoplasm of distantly related species commonly expire during early embryonic development, and the cause of this arrest is currently under investigation. Here we show that cells isolated from a Xenopus cybrid (Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis haploid nucleus combined with Xenopus laevis egg cytoplasm) embryo are unable to proliferate and expand normally in vitro. We also provide evidence that the lack of nuclear donor species maternal poly(A)+ RNA-dependent factors in the recipient species egg may contribute to the developmental dead-end of distantly-related cybrid embryos. Overall, the data are consistent with the view that the development promoted by one species’ nucleus is dependent on the presence of maternally-derived, mRNA encoded, species-specific factors. These results also show that cybrid development can be improved without nuclear species mitochondria supplementation or replacement. PMID:23060954

  9. Clustered nuclei maintain autonomy and nucleocytoplasmic ratio control in a syncytium

    PubMed Central

    Dundon, Samantha E. R.; Chang, Shyr-Shea; Kumar, Abhishek; Occhipinti, Patricia; Shroff, Hari; Roper, Marcus; Gladfelter, Amy S.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclei in syncytia found in fungi, muscles, and tumors can behave independently despite cytoplasmic translation and the homogenizing potential of diffusion. We use a dynactin mutant strain of the multinucleate fungus Ashbya gossypii with highly clustered nuclei to assess the relative contributions of nucleus and cytoplasm to nuclear autonomy. Remarkably, clustered nuclei maintain cell cycle and transcriptional autonomy; therefore some sources of nuclear independence function even with minimal cytosol insulating nuclei. In both nuclear clusters and among evenly spaced nuclei, a nucleus’ transcriptional activity dictates local cytoplasmic contents, as assessed by the localization of several cyclin mRNAs. Thus nuclear activity is a central determinant of the local cytoplasm in syncytia. Of note, we found that the number of nuclei per unit cytoplasm was identical in the mutant to that in wild-type cells, despite clustered nuclei. This work demonstrates that nuclei maintain autonomy at a submicrometer scale and simultaneously maintain a normal nucleocytoplasmic ratio across a syncytium up to the centimeter scale. PMID:27193301

  10. Analysis of nucleocytoplasmic transport in digitonin-permeabilized cells under different cellular conditions.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Maiko; Kose, Shingo; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Imamoto, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of nucleocytoplasmic transport is crucial not only for basic cellular activities but also for physiological adaptation to specific situation during the cell cycle, development, or stress. Although a wide variety of transport pathways have been identified in eukaryotic cells, the functional significance of their multiplicity remains unclear. The best-characterized nuclear transport receptors (NTRs) are the members of the importin β family (karyopherin, transportin) whose association with specific cargoes is regulated by the GTPase Ran. In this chapter, we first provide an overview of the various expression vectors used to purify recombinant NTRs. We then describe two sets of recent examples of using well-established digitonin-permeabilized cell-free transport systems in mammalian cells to mimic different cellular conditions in living cells: normal/heat-shock conditions and interphase/mitosis. In the former case, physiological regulation impacts different transport pathways in opposite ways. In the latter case, the importin β-Ran system is used at different cell-cycle stages but with the same biochemical principle to specify the nuclear localization and chromatin loading of a specific protein, respectively. This in vitro transport assay, when adapted to specific cellular conditions or particular substrates, should help to uncover specific transport pathways or transport factors function under different cellular conditions.

  11. A Glimpse of Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Virus Biodiversity through the Eukaryotic Genomics Window

    PubMed Central

    Gallot-Lavallée, Lucie; Blanc, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    The nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) are a group of extremely complex double-stranded DNA viruses, which are major parasites of a variety of eukaryotes. Recent studies showed that certain eukaryotes contain fragments of NCLDV DNA integrated in their genome, when surprisingly many of these organisms were not previously shown to be infected by NCLDVs. We performed an update survey of NCLDV genes hidden in eukaryotic sequences to measure the incidence of this phenomenon in common public sequence databases. A total of 66 eukaryotic genomic or transcriptomic datasets—many of which are from algae and aquatic protists—contained at least one of the five most consistently conserved NCLDV core genes. Phylogenetic study of the eukaryotic NCLDV-like sequences identified putative new members of already recognized viral families, as well as members of as yet unknown viral clades. Genomic evidence suggested that most of these sequences resulted from viral DNA integrations rather than contaminating viruses. Furthermore, the nature of the inserted viral genes helped predicting original functional capacities of the donor viruses. These insights confirm that genomic insertions of NCLDV DNA are common in eukaryotes and can be exploited to delineate the contours of NCLDV biodiversity. PMID:28117696

  12. Cardiovirus Leader proteins bind exportins: Implications for virus replication and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ciomperlik, Jessica J; Basta, Holly A; Palmenberg, Ann C

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovirus Leader proteins (LX) inhibit cellular nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by directing host kinases to phosphorylate Phe/Gly-containing nuclear pore proteins (Nups). Resolution of the Mengovirus LM structure bound to Ran GTPase, suggested this complex would further recruit specific exportins (karyopherins), which in turn mediate kinase selection. Pull-down experiments and recombinant complex reconstitution now confirm that Crm1 and CAS exportins form stable dimeric complexes with encephalomyocarditis virus LE, and also larger complexes with LE:Ran. shRNA knockdown studies support this idea. Similar activities could be demonstrated for recombinant LS and LT from Theiloviruses. When mutations were introduced to alter the LE zinc finger domain, acidic domain, or dual phosphorylation sites, there was reduced exportin selection. These regions are not involved in Ran interactions, so the Ran and Crm1 binding sites on LE must be non-overlapping. The involvement of exportins in this mechanism is important to viral replication and the observation of trafficking inhibition by LE.

  13. Nucleocytoplasmic protein translocation during mitosis in the social amoebozoan Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Danton H; Budniak, Aldona

    2015-02-01

    Mitosis is a fundamental and essential life process. It underlies the duplication and survival of all cells and, as a result, all eukaryotic organisms. Since uncontrolled mitosis is a dreaded component of many cancers, a full understanding of the process is critical. Evolution has led to the existence of three types of mitosis: closed, open, and semi-open. The significance of these different mitotic species, how they can lead to a full understanding of the critical events that underlie the asexual duplication of all cells, and how they may generate new insights into controlling unregulated cell division remains to be determined. The eukaryotic microbe Dictyostelium discoideum has proved to be a valuable biomedical model organism. While it appears to utilize closed mitosis, a review of the literature suggests that it possesses a form of mitosis that lies in the middle between truly open and fully closed mitosis-it utilizes a form of semi-open mitosis. Here, the nucleocytoplasmic translocation patterns of the proteins that have been studied during mitosis in the social amoebozoan D. discoideum are detailed followed by a discussion of how some of them provide support for the hypothesis of semi-open mitosis.

  14. Exploring nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses in Tara Oceans microbial metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Hingamp, Pascal; Grimsley, Nigel; Acinas, Silvia G; Clerissi, Camille; Subirana, Lucie; Poulain, Julie; Ferrera, Isabel; Sarmento, Hugo; Villar, Emilie; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Faust, Karoline; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Moreau, Hervé; Desdevises, Yves; Bork, Peer; Raes, Jeroen; de Vargas, Colomban; Karsenti, Eric; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Jaillon, Olivier; Not, Fabrice; Pesant, Stéphane; Wincker, Patrick; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-01

    Nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) constitute a group of eukaryotic viruses that can have crucial ecological roles in the sea by accelerating the turnover of their unicellular hosts or by causing diseases in animals. To better characterize the diversity, abundance and biogeography of marine NCLDVs, we analyzed 17 metagenomes derived from microbial samples (0.2-1.6 μm size range) collected during the Tara Oceans Expedition. The sample set includes ecosystems under-represented in previous studies, such as the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) and Indian Ocean lagoons. By combining computationally derived relative abundance and direct prokaryote cell counts, the abundance of NCLDVs was found to be in the order of 10(4)-10(5) genomes ml(-1) for the samples from the photic zone and 10(2)-10(3) genomes ml(-1) for the OMZ. The Megaviridae and Phycodnaviridae dominated the NCLDV populations in the metagenomes, although most of the reads classified in these families showed large divergence from known viral genomes. Our taxon co-occurrence analysis revealed a potential association between viruses of the Megaviridae family and eukaryotes related to oomycetes. In support of this predicted association, we identified six cases of lateral gene transfer between Megaviridae and oomycetes. Our results suggest that marine NCLDVs probably outnumber eukaryotic organisms in the photic layer (per given water mass) and that metagenomic sequence analyses promise to shed new light on the biodiversity of marine viruses and their interactions with potential hosts.

  15. Cyclin/CDK Regulates the Nucleocytoplasmic Localization of the Human Papillomavirus E1 DNA Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wentao; Lin, Biing Yuan; Jin, Ge; Wheeler, Crystal G.; Ma, Tianlin; Harper, J. Wade; Broker, Thomas R.; Chow, Louise T.

    2004-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play key roles in eukaryotic DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Phosphorylation of components of the preinitiation complex activates replication and prevents reinitiation. One mechanism is mediated by nuclear export of critical proteins. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA replication requires cellular machinery in addition to the viral replicative DNA helicase E1 and origin recognition protein E2. E1 phosphorylation by cyclin/CDK is critical for efficient viral DNA replication. We now show that E1 is phosphorylated by CDKs in vivo and that phosphorylation regulates its nucleocytoplasmic localization. We identified a conserved regulatory region for localization which contains a dominant leucine-rich nuclear export sequence (NES), the previously defined cyclin binding motif, three serine residues that are CDK substrates, and a putative bipartite nuclear localization sequence. We show that E1 is exported from the nucleus by a CRM1-dependent mechanism unless the NES is inactivated by CDK phosphorylation. Replication activities of E1 phosphorylation site mutations are reduced and correlate inversely with their increased cytoplasmic localization. Nuclear localization and replication activities of most of these mutations are enhanced or restored by mutations in the NES. Collectively, our data demonstrate that CDK phosphorylation controls E1 nuclear localization to support viral DNA amplification. Thus, HPV adopts and adapts the cellular regulatory mechanism to complete its reproductive program. PMID:15564503

  16. Cardiovirus Leader proteins bind exportins: implications for virus replication and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ciomperlik, Jessica J.; Basta, Holly A.; Palmenberg, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovirus Leader proteins (LX) inhibit cellular nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by directing host kinases to phosphorylate Phe/Gly-containing nuclear pore proteins (Nups). Resolution of the Mengovirus LM structure bound to Ran GTPase, suggested this complex would further recruit specific exportins (karyopherins), which in turn mediate kinase selection. Pull-down experiments and recombinant complex reconstitution now confirm that Crm1 and CAS exportins form stable dimeric complexes with encephalomyocarditis virus LE, and also larger complexes with LE:Ran. shRNA knockdown studies support this idea. Similar activities could be demonstrated for recombinant LS and LT from Theiloviruses. When mutations were introduced to alter the LE zinc finger domain, acidic domain, or dual phosphorylation sites, there was reduced exportin selection. These regions are not involved in Ran interactions, so the Ran and Crm1 binding sites on LE must be non-overlapping. The involvement of exportins in this mechanism is important to viral replication and the observation of trafficking inhibition by LE. PMID:26492198

  17. The Shuttle inertial system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swingle, W. L.; Kang, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle inertial system is built around a sensor assembly called the inertial measurement unit (IMU). The system includes a redundant set of three structurally integrated IMU's that operate in conjunction with parallel strung data system computers to provide precise attitude and velocity information to user system functions. The inertial system is actually a separate subsystem function integrated into the overall avionics system. Software resident in the system computers is the final link in the inertial system. The inertial software is comprised of two major sets, including a subsystem operating program (SOP) called the IMU SOP and redundancy management. Attention is given to system applications, systems performance, attitude sensitivities, the IMU platform, IMU thermal management, aspects of IMU calibration, and Shuttle program experience.

  18. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragsdale, A.

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  19. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-08-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  20. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, A.

    1985-01-01

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  1. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  2. Aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Livability aboard the space shuttle orbiter makes it possible for men and women scientists and technicians in reasonably good health to join superbly healthy astronauts as space travelers and workers. Features of the flight deck, the mid-deck living quarters, and the subfloor life support and house-keeping equipment are illustrated as well as the provisions for food preparation, eating, sleeping, exercising, and medical care. Operation of the personal hygiene equipment and of the air revitalization system for maintaining sea level atmosphere in space is described. Capabilities of Spacelab, the purpose and use of the remote manipulator arm, and the design of a permanent space operations center assembled on-orbit by shuttle personnel are also depicted.

  3. Shuttle freezer conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A conceptual design for a kit freezer for operation onboard shuttle was developed. The freezer features a self-contained unit which can be mounted in the orbiter crew compartment and is capable of storing food at launch and returning with medical samples. Packaging schemes were investigated to provide the optimum storage capacity with a minimum weight and volume penalty. Several types of refrigeration systems were evaluated to select one which would offer the most efficient performance and lowest hazard of safety to the crew. Detailed performance data on the selected, Stirling cycle principled refrigeration unit were developed to validate the feasibility of its application to this freezer. Thermal analyses were performed to determine the adequacy of the thermal insulation to maintain the desired storage temperature with the design cooling capacity. Stress analyses were made to insure the design structure integrity could be maintained over the shuttle flight regime. A proposed prototype freezer development plan is presented.

  4. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  5. The Shuttle Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Shuttle Enterprise rolls out of the Palmdale manufacturing facilities with Star Trek television cast members. From left to right they are: Dr. James D. Fletcher, NASA Administrator, DeForest Kelley (Dr. 'Bones' McCoy), George Takei (Mr. Sulu), Nichelle Nichols (Lt. Uhura), Leonard Nimoy (the indefatigable Mr. Spock), Gene Rodenberry (The Great Bird of the Galaxy), and Walter Koenig (Ensign Pavel Checkov).

  6. Space Shuttle Familiarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation visualizes the NASA space center and research facility sites, as well as the geography, launching sites, launching pads, rocket launching, pre-flight activities, and space shuttle ground operations located at NASA Kennedy Space Center. Additionally, highlights the international involvement behind the International Space Station and the space station mobile servicing system. Extraterrestrial landings, surface habitats and habitation systems, outposts, extravehicular activity, and spacecraft rendezvous with the Earth return vehicle are also covered.

  7. Shuttle imaging radar experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elachi, C.; Brown, W.E.; Cimino, J.B.; Dixon, T.; Evans, D.L.; Ford, J.P.; Saunders, R.S.; Breed, C.; Masursky, H.; McCauley, J.F.; Schaber, G.; Dellwig, L.; England, A.; MacDonald, H.; Martin-Kaye, P.; Sabins, F.

    1982-01-01

    The shuttle imaging radar (SIR-A) acquired images of a variety of the earth's geologic areas covering about 10 million square kilometers. Structural and geomorphic features such as faults, folds, outcrops, and dunes are clearly visible in both tropical and arid regions. The combination of SIR-A and Seasat images provides additional information about the surface physical properties: topography and roughness. Ocean features were also observed, including large internal waves in the Andaman Sea. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  8. Mobile Christian - shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Louis Stork, 13, and Erin Whittle, 14, look on as Brianna Johnson, 14, conducts a 'test' of a space shuttle main engine in the Test Control Center exhibit in StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The young people were part of a group from Mobile Christian School in Mobile, Ala., that visited StenniSphere on April 21.

  9. INCO shuttle communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok K.; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    In a previous work we have defined a general architectural model for autonomous systems, which can be mapped easily to describe the functions of any automated system (SDAG-86-01). In this note, we use the model to describe the Shuttle communication system. First we briefly review the architecture, then we present the environment of our application, and finally we detail the specific function for each functional block of the architecture for that environment.

  10. The centrosome-associated Aurora/Ipl-like kinase family.

    PubMed

    Goepfert, T M; Brinkley, B R

    2000-01-01

    Because of the well-known role of the centrosome and mitotic apparatus in genome partitioning in normal cells, defects in pathways essential for mitotic regulation are likely implicated in the cascade of events leading to aneuploidy and neoplasia. Exogenous overexpression of AIM-1, for example, produces multinuclearity in human cells and increased ploidy as well as aneuploidy (Tatsuka et al., 1998). Overexpression in colorectal tumor cell lines is thought to have a causal relationship with multinuclearity and increased ploidy. Cytokinesis error caused by AIM-1 overexpression is a major factor in the predisposition to cancer. As previously mentioned, the involvement of BTAK/aur2/AIK in centrosome amplification and its oncogenic activity are compelling. Aur2 has also been implicated in oncogenesis, and defects in kinetochore function leading to chromosome instability in human tumors should not be minimized (Farruggio et al., 1999). Further studies are needed to provide a clearer definition of how these kinetic proteins are linked and regulated in normal mitosis and cancer. Thus, Boveri appears to have been correct in formulating his early hypothesis that a defective mitotic apparatus and centrosome number were central and causative in chromosome missegregation and cancer. One hundred years later, at the onset of a new millennium and with light-years of advanced technology in our favor, we are just now beginning to piece together the enzymes, substrates, and signaling pathways that support and explain his long-ignored but prophetic claim.

  11. LSRA with Shuttle main gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  12. Space Shuttle Wireless Crew Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, R. W.; Doe, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The design, development, and performance characteristics of the Space Shuttle's Wireless Crew Communications System are discussed. This system allows Space Shuttle crews to interface with the onboard audio distribution system without the need for communications umbilicals, and has been designed through the adaptation of commercially available hardware in order to minimize development time. Testing aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia has revealed no failures or design deficiencies.

  13. LSRA with Shuttle main gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance.

  14. Space Shuttle operational logistics plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botts, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center plan for logistics to support Space Shuttle Operations and to establish the related policies, requirements, and responsibilities are described. The Directorate of Shuttle Management and Operations logistics responsibilities required by the Kennedy Organizational Manual, and the self-sufficiency contracting concept are implemented. The Space Shuttle Program Level 1 and Level 2 logistics policies and requirements applicable to KSC that are presented in HQ NASA and Johnson Space Center directives are also implemented.

  15. Representative shuttle evaporative heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a representative shuttle evaporative heat sink (RSEHS) system which vaporizes an expendable fluid to provide cooling for the shuttle heat transport fluid loop is reported. The optimized RSEHS minimum weight design meets or exceeds the shuttle flash evaporator system requirements. A cold trap which cryo-pumps flash evaporator exhaust water from the CSD vacuum chamber test facility to prevent water contamination of the chamber pumping equipment is also described.

  16. Quantum shuttle in phase space.

    PubMed

    Novotný, Tomás; Donarini, Andrea; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2003-06-27

    We present a quantum theory of the shuttle instability in electronic transport through a nanostructure with a mechanical degree of freedom. A phase space formulation in terms of the Wigner function allows us to identify a crossover from the tunneling to the shuttling regime, thus extending the previously found classical results to the quantum domain. Further, a new dynamical regime is discovered, where the shuttling is driven exclusively by the quantum noise.

  17. Sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus phylogeny and PCR tests.

    PubMed

    Clouthier, Sharon C; VanWalleghem, Elissa; Anderson, Eric D

    2015-12-09

    Sturgeon epitheliotropic nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) can cause a lethal disease of the integumentary system. These viruses have not been assigned to any currently recognized family or genus. In this study, phylogenetic analyses using the major capsid protein (MCP) showed that the sturgeon NCLDVs formed a cohesive taxonomic group, could be identified to the species or possibly sub-species level and formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the Megavirales. The genetic relatedness of the sturgeon virus MCP allowed design of 3 PCR diagnostic tests with analytical specificity (ASp) inclusive of this group of viruses. The conventional PCR test, C1, had broader ASp than the 2 quantitative PCR tests, Q1 and Q2, and was inclusive of the sturgeon viruses as well as some viruses belonging to the families Mimi-, Phycodna-, or Iridoviridae. Q2 had broader specificity than Q1 but both tests recognized the sturgeon NCLDVs and did not cross-react with co-localizing sturgeon herpesviruses. Analytical test performance characteristics evaluated for Q1 and Q2 revealed sensitive assays with observed 50% limits of detection between 3 and 6.25 plasmid copies and high intra- and inter-assay repeatability. Q1 was used to test for sturgeon viruses in endangered populations of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens within the Winnipeg River or Nelson River drainage systems of Manitoba, Canada. Test results indicated that namao virus is endemic in the Nelson River water basin. These tests meet the analytical requirements for diagnostic testing in Canada and are useful tools for disease management in sturgeon conservation stocking programs in North America.

  18. GGGGCC repeat expansion in C9orf72 compromises nucleocytoplasmic transport.

    PubMed

    Freibaum, Brian D; Lu, Yubing; Lopez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Kim, Nam Chul; Almeida, Sandra; Lee, Kyung-Ha; Badders, Nisha; Valentine, Marc; Miller, Bruce L; Wong, Philip C; Petrucelli, Leonard; Kim, Hong Joo; Gao, Fen-Biao; Taylor, J Paul

    2015-09-03

    The GGGGCC (G4C2) repeat expansion in a noncoding region of C9orf72 is the most common cause of sporadic and familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. The basis for pathogenesis is unknown. To elucidate the consequences of G4C2 repeat expansion in a tractable genetic system, we generated transgenic fly lines expressing 8, 28 or 58 G4C2-repeat-containing transcripts that do not have a translation start site (AUG) but contain an open-reading frame for green fluorescent protein to detect repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation. We show that these transgenic animals display dosage-dependent, repeat-length-dependent degeneration in neuronal tissues and RAN translation of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins, as observed in patients with C9orf72-related disease. This model was used in a large-scale, unbiased genetic screen, ultimately leading to the identification of 18 genetic modifiers that encode components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), as well as the machinery that coordinates the export of nuclear RNA and the import of nuclear proteins. Consistent with these results, we found morphological abnormalities in the architecture of the nuclear envelope in cells expressing expanded G4C2 repeats in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we identified a substantial defect in RNA export resulting in retention of RNA in the nuclei of Drosophila cells expressing expanded G4C2 repeats and also in mammalian cells, including aged induced pluripotent stem-cell-derived neurons from patients with C9orf72-related disease. These studies show that a primary consequence of G4C2 repeat expansion is the compromise of nucleocytoplasmic transport through the nuclear pore, revealing a novel mechanism of neurodegeneration.

  19. Two distinct SSB protein families in nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Venclovas, Česlovas

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Eukaryote-infecting nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) feature some of the largest genomes in the viral world. These viruses typically do not strongly depend on the host DNA replication systems. In line with this observation, a number of essential DNA replication proteins, such as DNA polymerases, primases, helicases and ligases, have been identified in the NCLDVs. One other ubiquitous component of DNA replisomes is the single-stranded DNA-binding (SSB) protein. Intriguingly, no NCLDV homologs of canonical OB-fold-containing SSB proteins had previously been detected. Only in poxviruses, one of seven NCLDV families, I3 was identified as the SSB protein. However, whether I3 is related to any known protein structure has not yet been established. Results: Here, we addressed the case of ‘missing’ canonical SSB proteins in the NCLDVs and also probed evolutionary origins of the I3 family. Using advanced computational methods, in four NCLDV families, we detected homologs of the bacteriophage T7 SSB protein (gp2.5). We found the properties of these homologs to be consistent with the SSB function. Moreover, we implicated specific residues in single-stranded DNA binding. At the same time, we found no evolutionary link between the T7 gp2.5-like NCLDV SSB homologs and the poxviral SSB protein (I3). Instead, we identified a distant relationship between I3 and small protein B (SmpB), a bacterial RNA-binding protein. Thus, apparently, the NCLDVs have the two major distinct sets of SSB proteins having bacteriophage and bacterial origins, respectively. Contact: venclovas@ibt.lt Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23097418

  20. Overexpression of the Nucleoporin CAN/NUP214 Induces Growth Arrest, Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Defects, and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Boer, Judith; Bonten-Surtel, Jacqueline; Grosveld, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    The human CAN gene was first identified as a target of t(6;9)(p23;q34), associated with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome, which results in the expression of a DEK-CAN fusion gene. CAN, also called NUP214, is a nuclear pore complex (NPC) protein that contains multiple FG-peptide sequence motifs. It interacts at the NPC with at least two other proteins, the nucleoporin NUP88 and hCRM1 (exportin 1), which was recently shown to function as a nuclear export receptor. Depletion of CAN in knockout mouse embryonic cells results in cell cycle arrest in G2, followed by inhibition of nuclear protein import and a block of mRNA export. We overexpressed CAN and DEK-CAN in U937 myeloid precursor cells. DEK-CAN expression did not interfere with terminal myeloid differentiation of U937 cells, whereas CAN-overexpressing cells arrested in G0, accumulated mRNA in their nuclei, and died in an apoptotic manner. Interestingly, we found that hCRM1 and import factor p97/importin β colocalized with the ectopically expressed CAN protein, resulting in depletion of both factors from the NPC. Overexpression of the C-terminal FG-repeat region of CAN, which contains the binding site for hCRM1, caused sequestering of hCRM1 in the nucleoplasm and was sufficient to inhibit cell growth and to induce apoptosis. These results confirm that CAN plays a crucial role in nucleocytoplasmic transport and imply an essential role for hCRM1 in cell growth and survival. PMID:9488438

  1. Shuttle Risk Progression by Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri; Kahn, Joe; Thigpen, Eric; Zhu, Tony; Lo, Yohon

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the early mission risk and progression of risk as a vehicle gains insights through flight is important: . a) To the Shuttle Program to understand the impact of re-designs and operational changes on risk. . b) To new programs to understand reliability growth and first flight risk. . Estimation of Shuttle Risk Progression by flight: . a) Uses Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and current knowledge to calculate early vehicle risk. . b) Shows impact of major Shuttle upgrades. . c) Can be used to understand first flight risk for new programs.

  2. Stennis certifies final shuttle engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Steam blasts out of the A-2 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center on Oct. 22 as engineers begin a certification test on engine 2061, the last space shuttle main flight engine scheduled to be built. Since 1975, Stennis has tested every space shuttle main engine used in the program - about 50 engines in all. Those engines have powered more than 120 shuttle missions - and no mission has failed as a result of engine malfunction. For the remainder of 2008 and throughout 2009, Stennis will continue testing of various space shuttle main engine components.

  3. History of Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This technical history is intended to provide a technical audience with an introduction to the rendezvous and proximity operations history of the Space Shuttle Program. It details the programmatic constraints and technical challenges encountered during shuttle development in the 1970s and over thirty years of shuttle missions. An overview of rendezvous and proximity operations on many shuttle missions is provided, as well as how some shuttle rendezvous and proximity operations systems and flight techniques evolved to meet new programmatic objectives. This revised edition provides additional information on Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo/Soyuz. Some chapters on the Space Shuttle have been updated and expanded. Four special focus chapters have been added to provide more detailed information on shuttle rendezvous. A chapter on the STS-39 mission of April/May 1991 describes the most complex deploy/retrieve mission flown by the shuttle. Another chapter focuses on the Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions. A third chapter gives the reader a detailed look at the February 2010 STS-130 mission to the International Space Station. The fourth chapter answers the question why rendezvous was not completely automated on the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle vehicles.

  4. Space Shuttle Payload Information Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Payload Information Source Compact Disk (CD) is a joint NASA and USA project to introduce Space Shuttle capabilities, payload services and accommodations, and the payload integration process. The CD will be given to new payload customers or to organizations outside of NASA considering using the Space Shuttle as a launch vehicle. The information is high-level in a visually attractive format with a voice over. The format is in a presentation style plus 360 degree views, videos, and animation. Hyperlinks are provided to connect to the Internet for updates and more detailed information on how payloads are integrated into the Space Shuttle.

  5. NASA space shuttle lightweight seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

  6. Regulation of the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of viral and cellular proteins by ubiquitin and small ubiquitin-related modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao E.; Pernet, Olivier; Lee, Benhur

    2013-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of many cellular proteins is regulated by nuclear import/export signals as well as post-translational modifications such as covalent conjugation of ubiquitin and small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs). Ubiquitination and SUMOylation are rapid and reversible ways to modulate the intracellular localisation and function of substrate proteins. These pathways have been co-opted by some viruses, which depend on the host cell machinery to transport their proteins in and out of the nucleus. In this review, we will summarise our current knowledge on the ubiquitin/SUMO-regulated nuclear/subnuclear trafficking of cellular proteins and describe examples of viral exploitation of these pathways. PMID:22188262

  7. Space shuttle avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanaway, John F.; Moorehead, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle avionics system, which was conceived in the early 1970's and became operational in the 1980's represents a significant advancement of avionics system technology in the areas of systems and redundacy management, digital data base technology, flight software, flight control integration, digital fly-by-wire technology, crew display interface, and operational concepts. The origins and the evolution of the system are traced; the requirements, the constraints, and other factors which led to the final configuration are outlined; and the functional operation of the system is described. An overall system block diagram is included.

  8. Shuttle Lesson Learned - Toxicology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This is a script for a video about toxicology and the space shuttle. The first segment is deals with dust in the space vehicle. The next segment will be about archival samples. Then we'll look at real time on-board analyzers that give us a lot of capability in terms of monitoring for combustion products and the ability to monitor volatile organics on the station. Finally we will look at other issues that are about setting limits and dealing with ground based lessons that pertain to toxicology.

  9. Space Shuttle Missions Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Floyd V.; Legler, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This document has been produced and updated over a 21-year period. It is intended to be a handy reference document, basically one page per flight, and care has been exercised to make it as error-free as possible. This document is basically "as flown" data and has been compiled from many sources including flight logs, flight rules, flight anomaly logs, mod flight descent summary, post flight analysis of mps propellants, FDRD, FRD, SODB, and the MER shuttle flight data and inflight anomaly list. Orbit distance traveled is taken from the PAO mission statistics.

  10. Shuttle operational expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of orbital flight tests (OFT) of the Space Shuttle are reviewed, and modifications planned for upcoming operational flights are discussed. The performance of the solid rocket boosters, external tank, main engines, structural system, propulsion system, reaction control system, electric power system, heat rejection system, hydraulic system, avionics, and other systems is described and evaluated as generally highly satisfactory. Payload servicing and deployment were also successfully demonstrated by OFT. Additional facilities planned for the operational flights are briefly described, and improvements that will make the Challenger spacecraft lighter than Columbia, provide it with more thrust, and give it a larger payload are summarized. Some software modifications being introduced are also mentioned.

  11. Space Shuttle Cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. Stennisphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  12. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  13. Space shuttle navigation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Sciabarrasi, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analysis of space shuttle navigation for each of the major mission phases is presented. A covariance analysis program for prelaunch IMU calibration and alignment for the orbital flight tests (OFT) is described, and a partial error budget is presented. The ascent, orbital operations and deorbit maneuver study considered GPS-aided inertial navigation in the Phase III GPS (1984+) time frame. The entry and landing study evaluated navigation performance for the OFT baseline system. Detailed error budgets and sensitivity analyses are provided for both the ascent and entry studies.

  14. Planned development of the space shuttle vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Information pertaining to the planned development of the space shuttle vehicle is presented. The package contains: (1) President's statement; (2) Dr. Fletcher's statement; (3) space shuttle fact sheet; (4) important reasons for the space shuttle.

  15. Shuttle Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufton, Jack L.; Harding, David J.; Garvin, James B.

    1999-01-01

    The Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA) is a Hitchhiker experiment that has flown twice; first on STS-72 in January 1996 and then on STS-85 in August 1997. Both missions produced successful laser altimetry and surface lidar data products from approximately 80 hours per mission of SLA data operations. A total of four Shuttle missions are planned for the SLA series. This paper documents SLA mission results and explains SLA pathfinder accomplishments at the mid-point in this series of Hitchhiker missions. The overall objective of the SLA mission series is the transition of the Goddard Space Flight Center airborne laser altimeter and lidar technology to low Earth orbit as a pathfinder for NASA operational space-based laser remote sensing devices. Future laser altimeter sensors will utilize systems and approaches being tested with SLA, including the Multi-Beam Laser Altimeter (MBLA) and the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). MBLA is the land and vegetation laser sensor for the NASA Earth System Sciences Pathfinder Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) Mission, and GLAS is the Earth Observing System facility instrument on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). The Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter, now well into a multi-year mapping mission at the red planet, is also directly benefiting from SLA data analysis methods, just as SLA benefited from MOLA spare parts and instrument technology experience [5] during SLA construction in the early 1990s.

  16. 1999 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daelemans, Gerard (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS), Space Experiment Module (SEM), and Hitchhiker programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  17. Space Shuttle Glider. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Space Shuttle Glider is a scale model of the U.S. Space Shuttle orbiter. The airplane-like orbiter usually remains in Earth orbit for up to two weeks at a time. It normally carries a six- to seven-person crew which includes the mission commander, pilot, and several mission and/or payload specialists who have specialized training associated with…

  18. Senescence-related functional nuclear barrier by down-regulation of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Young; Ryu, Sung Jin; Ahn, Hong Ju; Choi, Hae Ri; Kang, Hyun Tae; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    One of the characteristic natures of senescent cells is the hypo- or irresponsiveness not only to growth factors but also to apoptotic stress. In the present study, we confirmed the inhibition of nuclear translocation of activated p-ERK1/2 and NF-kB p50 in response to growth stimuli or LPS in the senescent human diploid fibroblasts. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the senescence-associated hypo-responsiveness, we carried out the comparison study for gene expression profiles through microarray analysis. In consequence, we observed the vast reduction in expression of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking genes in senescent cells, when compared with those in young cells. Expression levels of several nucleoporins, karyopherin {alpha}, karyopherin {beta}, Ran, and Ran-regulating factors were confirmed to be down-regulated in senescent HDFs by using RT-PCR and Western blot methods. Taken together, these data suggest the operation of certain senescence-associated functional nuclear barriers by down-regulation of the nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking genes in the senescent cells.

  19. C9ORF72 poly(GA) aggregates sequester and impair HR23 and nucleocytoplasmic transport proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong-Jie; Gendron, Tania F; Grima, Jonathan C; Sasaguri, Hiroki; Jansen-West, Karen; Xu, Ya-Fei; Katzman, Rebecca B; Gass, Jennifer; Murray, Melissa E; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Lin, Wen-Lang; Garrett, Aliesha; Stankowski, Jeannette N; Daughrity, Lillian; Tong, Jimei; Perkerson, Emilie A; Yue, Mei; Chew, Jeannie; Castanedes-Casey, Monica; Kurti, Aishe; Wang, Zizhao S; Liesinger, Amanda M; Baker, Jeremy D; Jiang, Jie; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Edbauer, Dieter; Cleveland, Don W; Rademakers, Rosa; Boylan, Kevin B; Bu, Guojun; Link, Christopher D; Dickey, Chad A; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Dickson, Dennis W; Fryer, John D; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal inclusions of poly(GA), a protein unconventionally translated from G4C2 repeat expansions in C9ORF72, are abundant in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by this mutation. To investigate poly(GA) toxicity, we generated mice that exhibit poly(GA) pathology, neurodegeneration and behavioral abnormalities reminiscent of FTD and ALS. These phenotypes occurred in the absence of TDP-43 pathology and required poly(GA) aggregation. HR23 proteins involved in proteasomal degradation and proteins involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport were sequestered by poly(GA) in these mice. HR23A and HR23B similarly colocalized to poly(GA) inclusions in C9ORF72 expansion carriers. Sequestration was accompanied by an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and decreased xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) levels in mice, indicative of HR23A and HR23B dysfunction. Restoring HR23B levels attenuated poly(GA) aggregation and rescued poly(GA)-induced toxicity in neuronal cultures. These data demonstrate that sequestration and impairment of nuclear HR23 and nucleocytoplasmic transport proteins is an outcome of, and a contributor to, poly(GA) pathology. PMID:26998601

  20. The high risk HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein has multiple transport signals that mediate its nucleocytoplasmic traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Mamoor, Shahan; Onder, Zeynep; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Kwak, Kihyuck; Bordeaux, Jennifer; Crosby, Lauren; Roden, Richard B.S.; Moroianu, Junona

    2012-01-20

    In this study we examined the transport signals contributing to HPV16 L2 nucleocytoplasmic traffic using confocal microscopy analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein-L2 (EGFP-L2) fusions expressed in HeLa cells. We confirmed that both nuclear localization signals (NLSs), the nNLS (1MRHKRSAKRTKR12) and cNLS (456RKRRKR461), previously characterized in vitro (Darshan et al., 2004), function independently in vivo. We discovered that a middle region rich in arginine residues (296SRRTGIRYSRIGNKQTLRTRS316) functions as a nuclear retention sequence (NRS), as mutagenesis of critical arginine residues within this NRS reduced the fraction of L2 in the nucleus despite the presence of both NLSs. Significantly, the infectivity of HPV16 pseudoviruses containing either RR297AA or RR297EE within the L2 NRS was strongly reduced both in HaCaT cells and in a murine challenge model. Experiments using Ratjadone A nuclear export inhibitor and mutation-localization analysis lead to the discovery of a leucine-rich nuclear export signal ({sub 462}LPYFFSDVSL) mediating 16L2 nuclear export. These data indicate that HPV16 L2 nucleocytoplasmic traffic is dependent on multiple functional transport signals.

  1. C9ORF72 poly(GA) aggregates sequester and impair HR23 and nucleocytoplasmic transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Jie; Gendron, Tania F; Grima, Jonathan C; Sasaguri, Hiroki; Jansen-West, Karen; Xu, Ya-Fei; Katzman, Rebecca B; Gass, Jennifer; Murray, Melissa E; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Lin, Wen-Lang; Garrett, Aliesha; Stankowski, Jeannette N; Daughrity, Lillian; Tong, Jimei; Perkerson, Emilie A; Yue, Mei; Chew, Jeannie; Castanedes-Casey, Monica; Kurti, Aishe; Wang, Zizhao S; Liesinger, Amanda M; Baker, Jeremy D; Jiang, Jie; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Edbauer, Dieter; Cleveland, Don W; Rademakers, Rosa; Boylan, Kevin B; Bu, Guojun; Link, Christopher D; Dickey, Chad A; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Dickson, Dennis W; Fryer, John D; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Neuronal inclusions of poly(GA), a protein unconventionally translated from G4C2 repeat expansions in C9ORF72, are abundant in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by this mutation. To investigate poly(GA) toxicity, we generated mice that exhibit poly(GA) pathology, neurodegeneration and behavioral abnormalities reminiscent of FTD and ALS. These phenotypes occurred in the absence of TDP-43 pathology and required poly(GA) aggregation. HR23 proteins involved in proteasomal degradation and proteins involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport were sequestered by poly(GA) in these mice. HR23A and HR23B similarly colocalized to poly(GA) inclusions in C9ORF72 expansion carriers. Sequestration was accompanied by an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and decreased xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) levels in mice, indicative of HR23A and HR23B dysfunction. Restoring HR23B levels attenuated poly(GA) aggregation and rescued poly(GA)-induced toxicity in neuronal cultures. These data demonstrate that sequestration and impairment of nuclear HR23 and nucleocytoplasmic transport proteins is an outcome of, and a contributor to, poly(GA) pathology.

  2. Shuttle entry guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harpold, J. C.; Graves, C. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the entry guidance for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. This guidance provides the steering commands for trajectory control from initial penetration of the earth's atmosphere until the terminal area guidance is activated at an earth-relative speed of 2500 fps. At this point, the Orbiter is at a distance of about 50 nmi from the runway threshold, and at an altitude of about 80,000 ft. The entry guidance design is based on an analytic solution of the equations of motion defining the drag acceleration profile that meets the terminal criteria of the entry flight while maintaining the flight within systems and operational constraints. Guidance commands, which are based on a control law that ensures damping of oscillatory type trajectory motion, are computed to steer the Orbiter to this drag acceleration profile.

  3. Space Shuttle development update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, V.

    1984-01-01

    The development efforts, since the STS-4 flight, in the Space Shuttle (SS) program are presented. The SS improvements introduced in the last two years include lower-weight loads, communication through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, expanded extravehicular activity capability, a maneuvering backpack and the manipulator foot restraint, the improvements in thermal projection system, the 'optional terminal area management targeting' guidance software, a rendezvous system with radar and star tracker sensors, and improved on-orbit living conditions. The flight demonstrations include advanced launch techniques (e.g., night launch and direct insertion to orbit); the on-orbit demonstrations; and added entry and launching capabilities. The entry aerodynamic analysis and entry flight control fine tuning are described. Reusability, improved ascent performance, intact abort and landing flexibility, rollout control, and 'smart speedbrakes' are among the many improvements planned for the future.

  4. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the rabies virus P protein requires a nuclear localization signal and a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal

    SciTech Connect

    Pasdeloup, David; Poisson, Nicolas; Raux, Helene; Gaudin, Yves; Ruigrok, Rob W.H. . E-mail: danielle.blondel@vms.cnrs-gif.fr

    2005-04-10

    Rabies virus P protein is a co-factor of the viral RNA polymerase. It has been shown previously that P mRNA directs the synthesis of four N-terminally truncated P products P2, P3, P4, and P5 due to translational initiation by a leaky scanning mechanism at internal Met codons. Whereas P and P2 are located in the cytoplasm, P3, P4, and P5 are found in the nucleus. Here, we have analyzed the molecular basis of the subcellular localization of these proteins. Using deletion mutants fused to GFP protein, we show the presence of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the C-terminal part of P (172-297). This domain contains a short lysine-rich stretch ({sup 211}KKYK{sup 214}) located in close proximity with arginine 260 as revealed by the crystal structure of P. We demonstrate the critical role of lysine 214 and arginine 260 in NLS activity. In the presence of Leptomycin B, P is retained in the nucleus indicating that it contains a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES). The subcellular distribution of P deletion mutants indicates that the domain responsible for export is the amino-terminal part of the protein. The use of fusion proteins that have amino terminal fragments of P fused to {beta}-galactosidase containing the NLS of SV40 T antigen allows us to identify a NES between residues 49 and 58. The localization of NLS and NES determines the cellular distribution of the P gene products.

  5. Space Shuttle Strategic Planning Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbraten, Gordon L.; Henderson, Edward M.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program is aggressively flying the Space Shuttle manifest for assembling the International Space Station and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Completing this flight manifest while concurrently transitioning to the Exploration architecture creates formidable challenges; the most notable of which is retaining critical skills within the Shuttle Program workforce. The Program must define a strategy that will allow safe and efficient fly-out of the Shuttle, while smoothly transitioning Shuttle assets (both human and facility) to support early flight demonstrations required in the development of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) and Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicles (Ares I). The Program must accomplish all of this while maintaining the current level of resources. Therefore, it will be necessary to initiate major changes in operations and contracting. Overcoming these challenges will be essential for NASA to fly the Shuttle safely, accomplish the Vision for Space Exploration, and ultimately meet the national goal of maintaining a robust space program. This paper will address the Space Shuttle Program s strategy and its current status in meeting these challenges.

  6. Space Shuttle Strategic Planning Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Norbraten, Gordon L.

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program is aggressively planning the Space Shuttle manifest for assembling the International Space Station and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Implementing this flight manifest while concurrently transitioning to the Exploration architecture creates formidable challenges; the most notable of which is retaining critical skills within the Shuttle Program workforce. The Program must define a strategy that will allow safe and efficient fly-out of the Shuttle, while smoothly transitioning Shuttle assets (both human and facility) to support early flight demonstrations required in the development of NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicles (CLV). The Program must accomplish all of this while maintaining the current level of resources. Therefore, it will be necessary to initiate major changes in operations and contracting. Overcoming these challenges will be essential for NASA to fly the Shuttle safely, accomplish the President s "Vision for Space Exploration," and ultimately meet the national goal of maintaining a robust space program. This paper will address the Space Shuttle Program s strategy and its current status in meeting these challenges.

  7. Pharmacologic considerations for Shuttle astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Medication usage by crewmembers in the preflight and inflight mission periods is common in the Shuttle Program. The most common medical reports for which medication is used are: space motion sickness (SMS), sleeplessness, headache, and backache. A number of medications are available in the Shuttle Medical Kit to treat these problems. Currently, astronauts test all frequently used medications before mission assignment to identify potential side-effects, problems related to performance, personal likes/dislikes, and individual therapeutic effect. However, microgravity-induced changes in drug pharmacokinetics, in combination with multiple operational factors, may significantly alter crewmember responses inflight. This article discusses those factors that may impact pharmacologic efficacy during Shuttle missions.

  8. Space Shuttle critical function audit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacks, Ivan J.; Dipol, John; Su, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A large fault-tolerance model of the main propulsion system of the US space shuttle has been developed. This model is being used to identify single components and pairs of components that will cause loss of shuttle critical functions. In addition, this model is the basis for risk quantification of the shuttle. The process used to develop and analyze the model is digraph matrix analysis (DMA). The DMA modeling and analysis process is accessed via a graphics-based computer user interface. This interface provides coupled display of the integrated system schematics, the digraph models, the component database, and the results of the fault tolerance and risk analyses.

  9. Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A high-angle view of overall activity in the JSC Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory. In the foreground is the manipulator development facility (MDF), a high fidelity trainer designed to prepare mission specialists for the operation of the remote manipulator system (RMS) on Space Shuttle Orbiters. Here, a helium-filled balloon represents the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), in the grasp of the RMS end effector. Astronaut crewmembers for STS 41-C mission in the MDF's cabin control the arm while simulating LDEF deployment. Other Shuttle training hardware is visible as well; the full fuselage trainer (FFT) is in upper left and the crew compartment trainer (CCT) is at top center.

  10. Space shuttle performance capabilities, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babb, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle performance capabilities and proposed space shuttle missions are discussed. The performance requirements of the space shuttle are described in terms of three reference missions. Mission requirements are defined by spacecraft or net payload weight and by orbital specifications or space destination. The predicted performance of various space shuttle configurations are analyzed.

  11. Space Shuttle mission: STS-67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-03-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.

  12. Space Shuttle mission: STS-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.

  13. Spectral characteristics of Shuttle glow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viereck, R. A.; Mende, S. B.; Murad, E.; Swenson, G. R.; Pike, C. P.; Culbertson, F. L.; Springer, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    The glowing cloud near the ram surfaces of the Space Shuttle was observed with a hand-held, intensified spectrograph operated by the astronauts from the aft-flight-deck of the Space Shuttle. The spectral measurements were made between 400 and 800 nm with a resolution of 3 nm. Analysis of the spectral response of the instrument and the transmission of the Shuttle window was performed on orbit using earth-airglow OH Meinel bands. This analysis resulted in a correction of the Shuttle glow intensity in the spectral region between 700 and 800 nm. The data presented in this report is in better agreement with laboratory measurements of the NO2 continuum.

  14. NASA Now: Shuttle Engineering Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this installment of NASA Now, you’ll meet Guidance, Navigation and Flight Controls engineer George Hatcher, who talks about the complex system needed to fly the space shuttle at extreme speeds...

  15. Shuttle Imaging Radar - Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Bridges, L.; Waite, W.; Kaupp, V.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle, on its second flight (November 12, 1981), carried the first science and applications payload which provided an early demonstration of Shuttle's research capabilities. One of the experiments, the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A), had as a prime objective to evaluate the capability of spaceborne imaging radars as a tool for geologic exploration. The results of the experiment will help determine the value of using the combination of space radar and Landsat imagery for improved geologic analysis and mapping. Preliminary analysis of the Shuttle radar imagery with Seasat and Landsat imagery from similar areas provides evidence that spaceborne radars can significantly complement Landsat interpretation, and vastly improve geologic reconnaissance mapping in those areas of the world that are relatively unmapped because of perpetual cloud cover.

  16. Space Shuttle Program Legacy Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Share lessons learned on Space Shuttle Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) culture, processes, and products that can guide future enterprises to improve mission success and minimize the risk of catastrophic failures. Present the chronology of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) S&MA organization over the 40-year history of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and identify key factors and environments which contributed to positive and negative performance.

  17. Shuttle Fuel Feedliner Cracking Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tomas E.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of material covered during 'Space Shuttle Fuel Feedliner Cracking Investigation MSFC Fluids Workshop' held November 19-21, 2002. Topics covered include: cracks on fuel feed lines of Orbiter space shuttles, fluid driven cracking analysis, liner structural modes, structural motion in a fluid, fluid borne drivers, three dimensional computational fluid dynamics models, fluid borne drivers from pumps, amplification mechanisms, flow parameter mapping, and flight engine flow map.

  18. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three missions outstanding, the Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database has nearly 3000 entries. The data is divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. Details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics will be provided. Post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will also be discussed. Potential enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers will be addressed in the Future Work section. A related database of returned surfaces from the International Space Station will also be introduced.

  19. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James I.; Christiansen, Eric I.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three flights remaining on the manifest, the shuttle impact hypervelocity database has over 2800 entries. The data is currently divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. The paper will provide details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics using the impact data. A discussion of post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will be presented. Future work to be discussed will be possible enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers. A related database of ISS returned surfaces that are under development will also be introduced.

  20. Eukaryotic large nucleo-cytoplasmic DNA viruses: Clusters of orthologous genes and reconstruction of viral genome evolution

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) comprise an apparently monophyletic class of viruses that infect a broad variety of eukaryotic hosts. Recent progress in isolation of new viruses and genome sequencing resulted in a substantial expansion of the NCLDV diversity, resulting in additional opportunities for comparative genomic analysis, and a demand for a comprehensive classification of viral genes. Results A comprehensive comparison of the protein sequences encoded in the genomes of 45 NCLDV belonging to 6 families was performed in order to delineate cluster of orthologous viral genes. Using previously developed computational methods for orthology identification, 1445 Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Virus Orthologous Groups (NCVOGs) were identified of which 177 are represented in more than one NCLDV family. The NCVOGs were manually curated and annotated and can be used as a computational platform for functional annotation and evolutionary analysis of new NCLDV genomes. A maximum-likelihood reconstruction of the NCLDV evolution yielded a set of 47 conserved genes that were probably present in the genome of the common ancestor of this class of eukaryotic viruses. This reconstructed ancestral gene set is robust to the parameters of the reconstruction procedure and so is likely to accurately reflect the gene core of the ancestral NCLDV, indicating that this virus encoded a complex machinery of replication, expression and morphogenesis that made it relatively independent from host cell functions. Conclusions The NCVOGs are a flexible and expandable platform for genome analysis and functional annotation of newly characterized NCLDV. Evolutionary reconstructions employing NCVOGs point to complex ancestral viruses. PMID:20017929

  1. Shuttle Atlantis Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    NASA's Space Shuttle Atlantis touched down on the lakebed runway at Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert Tuesday, 3 December 1985 at 1:33:49 p.m. Pacific Standard Time, concluding the STS 61-B international mission. The eight-day mission successfully deployed three communications satellites including the Mexican Morelos B, the Australian Aussat 2 and an RCA Satcom K-2 satellite. In addition, two spacewalks were performed to experiment with construction of structures in space. Crew of the 61-B mission included Commander Brewster H. Shaw, Jr.; Pilot Bryan D. O'Connor; Mission Specialists Mary L. Cleave, Sherwood C. Spring and Jerry L. Ross; and Payload Specialists Rudolfo Neri Vela of Mexico and Charles Walker of McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories

  2. ]Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Shuttle program is one of the most complex engineering activities undertaken anywhere in the world at the present time. The Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) was chartered in September 1999 by NASA to provide an independent review of the Space Shuttle sub-systems and maintenance practices. During the period from October through December 1999, the team led by Dr. McDonald and comprised of NASA, contractor, and DOD experts reviewed NASA practices, Space Shuffle anomalies, as well as civilian and military aerospace experience. In performing the review, much of a very positive nature was observed by the SIAT, not the least of which was the skill and dedication of the workforce. It is in the unfortunate nature of this type of review that the very positive elements are either not mentioned or dwelt upon. This very complex program has undergone a massive change in structure in the last few years with the transition to a slimmed down, contractor-run operation, the Shuttle Flight Operations Contract (SFOC). This has been accomplished with significant cost savings and without a major incident. This report has identified significant problems that must be addressed to maintain an effective program. These problems are described in each of the Issues, Findings or Observations summarized, and unless noted, appear to be systemic in nature and not confined to any one Shuttle sub-system or element. Specifics are given in the body of the report, along with recommendations to improve the present systems.

  3. Shuttle operations, maintenance, and safety.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beddingfield, S. T.

    1971-01-01

    Review of a systematic search for practical solutions in the areas of space shuttle cryogenics, flight operations, ground operations, and safety. The insulation of the main-propulsion hydrogen tanks for both booster and orbiter to prevent water condensation is considered, as well as the insulation of the orbiter's orbital cryogen tanks for ground storage. Two approaches to the feeding of cryogens are outlined - namely, an approach depending on a periodic axial force to settle propellants and refill the basket, and a method of continuous feed through a capillary network adjacent to the walls throughout the tank, the latter method being independent of vehicle thrust. The development of reliable cryogen components is discussed, and the results of studies of launch-abort problems, shuttle approach and landing techniques, and the tolerance of ?deconditioned' crew and passengers to shuttle reentry g-loads are cited.

  4. Liquid lift for the Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeis, Richard

    1989-02-01

    After the operational failure of a Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) led to the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, NASA reexamined the use of liquid-fueled units in place of the SRBs in order to ascertain whether they could improve safety and payload. In view of favorable study results obtained, the posibility has arisen of employing a common liquid rocket booster for the Space Shuttle, its cargo version ('Shuttle-C'), and the next-generation Advanced Launch System. The system envisioned would involve two booster units, whose four engines/unit would be fed by integral LOX and kerosene tanks. Mission aborts with one-booster unit and two-unit failures would not be catastrophic, and would respectively allow LEO or an emergency landing in Africa.

  5. Life sciences payloads for Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Life Sciences Program for utilization of the Shuttle in the 1980's is presented. Requirements for life sciences research experiments in space flight are discussed along with study results of designs to meet these requirements. The span of life sciences interests in biomedicine, biology, man system integration, bioinstrumentation and life support/protective systems is described with a listing of the research areas encompassed in these descriptions. This is followed by a description of the approach used to derive from the life sciences disciplines, the research functions and instrumentation required for an orbital research program. Space Shuttle design options for life sciences experiments are identified and described. Details are presented for Spacelab laboratories for dedicated missions, mini-labs with carry on characteristics and carry on experiments for shared payload missions and free flying satellites to be deployed and retrieved by the Shuttle.

  6. Space shuttle and life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1980's, some 200 Spacelab missions will be flown on space shuttle in earth-orbit. Within these 200 missions, it is planned that at least 20 will be dedicated to life sciences research, projects which are yet to be outlined by the life sciences community. Objectives of the Life Sciences Shuttle/Spacelab Payloads Program are presented. Also discussed are major space life sciences programs including space medicine and physiology, clinical medicine, life support technology, and a variety of space biology topics. The shuttle, spacelab, and other life sciences payload carriers are described. Concepts for carry-on experiment packages, mini-labs, shared and dedicated spacelabs, as well as common operational research equipment (CORE) are reviewed. Current NASA planning and development includes Spacelab Mission Simulations, an Announcement of Planning Opportunity for Life Sciences, and a forthcoming Announcement of Opportunity for Flight Experiments which will together assist in forging a Life Science Program in space.

  7. STS-63 Space Shuttle report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-63 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities and provides detailed data on the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance during this sixty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-second since the return to flight, and twentieth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the OV-103 Orbiter vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-68; three SSME's that were designated 2035, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-070. The RSRM's that were an integral part of the SRB's were designated 360Q042A for the left SRB and 360L042B for the right SRB. The STS-63 mission was planned as an 8-day duration mission with two contingency days available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The primary objectives of the STS-63 mission were to perform the Mir rendezvous operations, accomplish the Spacehab-3 experiments, and deploy and retrieve the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy-204 (SPARTAN-204) payload. The secondary objectives were to perform the Cryogenic Systems Experiment (CSE)/Shuttle Glo-2 Experiment (GLO-2) Payload (CGP)/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS-2) (CGP/ODERACS-2) payload objectives, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), and the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Tests (AMOS). The objectives of the Mir rendezvous/flyby were to verify flight techniques, communication and navigation-aid sensor interfaces, and engineering analyses associated with Shuttle/Mir proximity operations in preparation for the STS-71 docking mission.

  8. Space Shuttle flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinar, W. J.; Kubiak, E. T.; Peters, W. H.; Saldana, R. L.; Smith, E. E., Jr.; Stegall, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is a control stabilized vehicle with control provided by an all digital, fly-by-wire flight control system. This paper gives a description of the several modes of flight control which correspond to the Shuttle mission phases. These modes are ascent flight control (including open loop first stage steering, the use of four computers operating in parallel and inertial guidance sensors), on-orbit flight control (with a discussion of reaction control, phase plane switching logic, jet selection logic, state estimator logic and OMS thrust vector control), entry flight control and TAEM (terminal area energy management to landing). Also discussed are redundancy management and backup flight control.

  9. The Space Shuttle in perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial aspects of the Space Shuttle are examined, with attention given to charges to users, schedule of launches and reimbursement, kinds of payload and their selection, NASA authority, space allocation, and risk, liability, and insurance. It is concluded that insurance to reduce the risk, incentives that NASA is willing to make available to U.S. industry, and the demonstrated willingness of industry and the financial community to invest their funds in space ventures indicate that the new Shuttle capabilities will exponentially increase commercial activities in space during the 1980s.

  10. Improving the breed - Shuttle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, V.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation is made of design improvements that have been made to the Space Shuttle System, and the performance gains obtained; the most important of these stem from efforts to refine procedures for rendezvous with stricken satellites, in order to repair them. Ascent performance has been improved through Space Shuttle Main Engine thrust improvements and external tank weight reductions. On-orbit living convenience has been enhanced by the addition of small sleeping compartments and a galley. Greater flexibility has been obtained for reentry and landing maneuvers. Attention is given to problems which continue to be posed by the thermal protection tiles.

  11. Continual Improvement in Shuttle Logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, Jean; Schafer, Loraine

    1995-01-01

    It has been said that Continual Improvement (CI) is difficult to apply to service oriented functions, especially in a government agency such as NASA. However, a constrained budget and increasing requirements are a way of life at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), making it a natural environment for the application of CI tools and techniques. This paper describes how KSC, and specifically the Space Shuttle Logistics Project, a key contributor to KSC's mission, has embraced the CI management approach as a means of achieving its strategic goals and objectives. An overview of how the KSC Space Shuttle Logistics Project has structured its CI effort and examples of some of the initiatives are provided.

  12. Space Shuttle orbiter separation bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Evolution of the space shuttle from previous spacecraft systems dictated growth and innovative design of previously standard ordnance devices. Initially, one bolt design was programmed for both 747 and external tank application. However, during development and subsequent analyses, two distinct designs evolved. The unique requirements of both bolts include: high combined loading, redundant initiation, flush separation plane, self-righting and shank attenuation. Of particular interest are the test methods, problem areas, and use of subscale models which demonstrated feasibility at an early phase in the program. The techniques incorporated in the shuttle orbiter bolts are applicable to other mechanisms.

  13. Shuttle Performance: Lessons Learned, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, J. P. (Compiler); Jones, J. J. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Several areas of Space Shuttle technology were addressed including aerothermal environment, thermal protection, measurement and analysis, Shuttle carrier aerodynamics, entry analysis of the STS-3, and an overview of each section.

  14. Shuttle/typical payload interface study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansfield, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Concept synthesis and preliminary design studies are summarized of support systems to implement the launch/refurbishment/retrieval with shuttle of a family of low cost earth observation satellites in low earth orbit. Shuttle constraints and issues are described.

  15. Shuttle Endeavour Flyover of Los Angeles Landmarks

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle Endeavour atop NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft flew over many Los Angeles area landmarks on its final ferry flight Sept. 21, 2012, including the Coliseum, the Hollywood Sign, Griffith...

  16. Space Shuttle Main Engine Flies High

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Main Engine is being lowered onto its handler before its journey to the test complex at Stennis Space Center. This building is where partially assembled Space Shuttle Main Engines are received and prepared for testing.

  17. Space Shuttle Projects Overview to Columbia Air Forces War College

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Jody; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, a general overview of space shuttle projects. Some of the topics include: 1) Space Shuttle Projects; 2) Marshall Space Flight Center Space Shuttle Projects Office; 3) Space Shuttle Propulsion systems; 4) Space Shuttle Program Major Sites; 5) NASA Office of Space flight (OSF) Center Roles in Space Shuttle Program; 6) Space Shuttle Hardware Flow; and 7) Shuttle Flights To Date.

  18. Transition to the space shuttle operations era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The tasks involved in the Space Shuttle Development Program are discussed. The ten major characteristics of an operational Shuttle are described, as well as the changes occurring in Shuttle processing, on-line operations, operations engineering, and support operations. A summary is given of tasks and goals that are being pursued in the effort to create a cost effective and efficient system.

  19. A decade on board America's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Spectacular moments from a decade (1981-1991) of Space Shuttle missions, captured on film by the astronauts who flew the missions, are presented. First hand accounts of astronauts' experiences aboard the Shuttle are given. A Space Shuttle mission chronology featuring flight number, vehicle name, crew, launch and landing dates, and mission highlights is given in tabular form.

  20. Earth Resources Survey and the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stow, W. K.; Andryczyk, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    The impact that the shuttle is expected to have on the Earth Resources Program and several concepts for exploiting the shuttle characteristics are discussed. The utilization of the space shuttle in its sortie mode for earth resources and the application of an earth observations standard package to earth resources missions were studied.

  1. PROTEINS IN NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC INTERACTIONS : II. Turnover and Changes in Nuclear Protein Distribution with Time and Growth.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, L; Prescott, D M

    1968-01-01

    In previous studies, we showed that essentially all the proteins of the Amoeba proteus nucleus could be classified either as Rapidly Migrating Proteins (RMP), which shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm continuously at a relatively rapid rate during interphase, or as Slow Turnover Proteins (STP), which seem to move hardly at all during interphase. In this paper, we report on the kinetics and direction of the movement of both classes of protein, as well as on aspects of their localization, with and without growth. The effects of growth were observed with and without cell division. These nuclear proteins have been studied in several ways: by transplantation of labeled nuclei into unlabeled cells and noting the rate of distribution to cytoplasm and host cell nuclei; by repeated amputation of cytoplasm from labeled cells-with and without initially labeled cytoplasm-each amputation being followed by refeeding on unlabeled food; by noting the redistribution of the various protein classes following growth and cell division. The data show (a) labeled RMP equilibrate between a grafted labeled nucleus and an unlabeled host nucleus in ca. 3 hr, but are detectable in the latter less than 30 min after the operation; (b) STP label does, indeed, leave the nucleus and does so at a rate of ca. 25% of the nuclear total per cell generation (ca. 36-40 hr at 23 degrees C); (c) the cytoplasm appears to have a reserve of material that is converted to RMP; (d) when labeled cells are amputated just before they would have divided and are refed unlabeled food after each amputation, there is a loss of 20-25% of the nuclear protein label with each amputation; (e) under the latter circumstances, an essentially complete turnover of all nuclear protein can be demonstrated.

  2. Space Shuttle Launch: STS-129

    NASA Video Gallery

    STS-129. Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member crew began an 11-day delivery flight to the International Space Station on Monday, Nov 16, 2009, with a 2:28 p.m. EST launch from NASA's Kennedy S...

  3. Space Shuttle Propulsion System Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzyn, Ken; VanHooser, Katherine; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David

    2011-01-01

    This session includes the following sessions: (1) External Tank (ET) System Reliability and Lessons, (2) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), Reliability Validated by a Million Seconds of Testing, (3) Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Reliability via Process Control, and (4) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Reliability via Acceptance and Testing.

  4. Living aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The crew habitat of the Space Shuttle is briefly characterized. Subjects discussed include the overall layout of the crew quarters; the air-purification and climate-control facilities; menus and food-preparation techniques; dishwashing, laundry, toilet, bathing, and shaving procedures; and recreation and sleeping accommodations. Drawings and a photograph are provided.

  5. The Space Shuttle At Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaway, Howard

    This report describes the Space Shuttle vehicles and is prepared by the Scientific and Technical Information Branch and Division of Public Affairs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The book is divided into nine chapters including information about the launching, flight, and orbit of the ships; the satellites and previous space…

  6. Space shuttle operations integration plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Operations Integration Plan is presented, which is to provide functional definition of the activities necessary to develop and integrate shuttle operating plans and facilities to support flight, flight control, and operations. It identifies the major tasks, the organizations responsible, their interrelationships, the sequence of activities and interfaces, and the resultant products related to operations integration.

  7. Transforming growth factor beta-independent shuttling of Smad4 between the cytoplasm and nucleus.

    PubMed

    Pierreux, C E; Nicolás, F J; Hill, C S

    2000-12-01

    Smad4 plays a pivotal role in all transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling pathways. Here we describe six widely expressed alternatively spliced variants of human Smad4 with deletions of different exons in the linker, the region of Smad4 that separates the two well-conserved MH1 and MH2 domains. All these Smad4 variants form complexes with activated Smad2 and Smad3 and are incorporated into DNA-binding complexes with the transcription factor Fast-1, regardless of the amount of linker they contain. However, sequences encoded by exons 5 to 7 in the linker are essential for transcriptional activation. Most importantly, our observation that different Smad4 isoforms have different subcellular localizations has led us to the identification of a functional CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal in the Smad4 linker and a constitutively active nuclear localization signal in the N-terminal MH1 domain. In the absence of TGF-beta signaling, we conclude that Smad4 is rapidly and continuously shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, the distribution of Smad4 between the nucleus and the cytoplasm being dictated by the relative strengths of the nuclear import and export signals. We demonstrate that inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export by treatment of cells with leptomycin B results in endogenous Smad4 accumulating very rapidly in the nucleus. Endogenous Smad2 and Smad3 are completely unaffected by leptomycin B treatment, indicating that the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is specific for Smad4. We propose that, upon TGF-beta signaling, complex formation between Smad4 and activated Smad2 or -3 leads to nuclear accumulation of Smad4 through inhibition of its nuclear export. We demonstrate that after prolonged TGF-beta signaling Smad2 becomes dephosphorylated and Smad2 and Smad4 accumulate back in the cytoplasm.

  8. shRNA library screening identifies nucleocytoplasmic transport as a mediator of BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent resistance

    PubMed Central

    Khorashad, Jamshid S.; Eiring, Anna M.; Mason, Clinton C.; Gantz, Kevin C.; Bowler, Amber D.; Redwine, Hannah M.; Yu, Fan; Kraft, Ira L.; Pomicter, Anthony D.; Reynolds, Kimberly R.; Iovino, Anthony J.; Zabriskie, Matthew S.; Heaton, William L.; Tantravahi, Srinivas K.; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Chenchik, Alex; Bonneau, Kyle; Ullman, Katharine S.; O’Hare, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients lacking explanatory BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations are incompletely understood. To identify mechanisms of TKI resistance that are independent of BCR-ABL1 kinase activity, we introduced a lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA) library targeting ∼5000 cell signaling genes into K562R, a CML cell line with BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent TKI resistance expressing exclusively native BCR-ABL1. A customized algorithm identified genes whose shRNA-mediated knockdown markedly impaired growth of K562R cells compared with TKI-sensitive controls. Among the top candidates were 2 components of the nucleocytoplasmic transport complex, RAN and XPO1 (CRM1). shRNA-mediated RAN inhibition or treatment of cells with the XPO1 inhibitor, KPT-330 (Selinexor), increased the imatinib sensitivity of CML cell lines with kinase-independent TKI resistance. Inhibition of either RAN or XPO1 impaired colony formation of CD34+ cells from newly diagnosed and TKI-resistant CML patients in the presence of imatinib, without effects on CD34+ cells from normal cord blood or from a patient harboring the BCR-ABL1T315I mutant. These data implicate RAN in BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent imatinib resistance and show that shRNA library screens are useful to identify alternative pathways critical to drug resistance in CML. PMID:25573989

  9. G2 arrest and impaired nucleocytoplasmic transport in mouse embryos lacking the proto-oncogene CAN/Nup214.

    PubMed Central

    van Deursen, J; Boer, J; Kasper, L; Grosveld, G

    1996-01-01

    The vertebrate nucleopore complex (NPC) is a 125 MDa multiprotein assembly that mediates nucleocytoplasmic transport. One of its components, CAN/Nup214, is an FXFG repeat-containing protein known to be involved in myeloid leukemia in humans. We have devised a powerful genetic approach, using maternally derived protein in murine null embryos, to show that CAN/ Nup214 is essential for NPC function in vivo. We demonstrate that CAN-/- mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are not viable and that CAN-/- embryos die in utero between 4.0 and 4.5 days postcoitum, following the depletion of their CAN from maternal sources. In 3.5-day-old mutant embryos, cultured in vitro, progressive depletion of CAN leads to cell cycle arrest in G2 phase, and eventually to blastocoel collapse, impaired NLS-mediated protein uptake and nuclear accumulation of polyadenylated RNA. Remarkably, these defective CAN-depleted embryos do not display any gross morphological abnormalities in their nuclear envelopes or NPCs. Our data suggest that CAN is critical to cell cycle progression and required for both nuclear protein import and mRNA export. Images PMID:8896451

  10. The effect of light color on the nucleocytoplasmic and chloroplast cycle of the green chlorococcal alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Cepák, V; Pribyl, P; Vítová, M

    2006-01-01

    The color of light (white, red, blue, and green) had a significant effect on the growth and reproductive processes (both in the nucleocytoplasmic and chloroplast compartment of the cells) in synchronous cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus. This effect decreased in the order red > white > blue > green. In the same order, the light phase of the cell cycle (time when first autospores started to be released) was prolonged. The length of dark phase (time when 100 % of daughters were allowed to release from mothers) was not influenced and was the same for all colors. Critical cell size for cell division in green light was shifted to a smaller size (compared with cells grown in other lights) and so was the size of released daughters. The nuclear cycle was slowed in blue and even in green light, contrary to cells grown in red and white light. At the beginning of the cell cycle, one-nucleus daughters possess approximately 10 nucleoids; during the cell cycle their number doubled in all variants before the division of nuclei. Both events were delayed in cultures grown more slowly most markedly in green light. Smaller daughters in the green variant possessed a lower number of nucleoids. Motile cells released in continuous green or blue lights but not in red one were rarely observed.

  11. Two isoforms of TALDO1 generated by alternative translational initiation show differential nucleocytoplasmic distribution to regulate the global metabolic network

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Tetsuji; Tanaka, Shu; Nakayama, Yasumune; Fukumoto, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Kenji; Yamada, Kohji; Bamba, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yoshihiro; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Oka, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Transaldolase 1 (TALDO1) is a rate-limiting enzyme involved in the pentose phosphate pathway, which is traditionally thought to occur in the cytoplasm. In this study, we found that the gene TALDO1 has two translational initiation sites, generating two isoforms that differ by the presence of the first 10 N-terminal amino acids. Notably, the long and short isoforms were differentially localised to the cell nucleus and cytoplasm, respectively. Pull-down and in vitro transport assays showed that the long isoform, unlike the short one, binds to importin α and is actively transported into the nucleus in an importin α/β-dependent manner, demonstrating that the 10 N-terminal amino acids are essential for its nuclear localisation. Additionally, we found that these two isoforms can form homo- and/or hetero-dimers with different localisation dynamics. A metabolite analysis revealed that the subcellular localisation of TALDO1 is not crucial for its activity in the pentose phosphate pathway. However, the expression of these two isoforms differentially affected the levels of various metabolites, including components of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, nucleotides, and sugars. These results demonstrate that the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of TALDO1, modulated via alternative translational initiation and dimer formation, plays an important role in a wide range of metabolic networks. PMID:27703206

  12. shRNA library screening identifies nucleocytoplasmic transport as a mediator of BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent resistance.

    PubMed

    Khorashad, Jamshid S; Eiring, Anna M; Mason, Clinton C; Gantz, Kevin C; Bowler, Amber D; Redwine, Hannah M; Yu, Fan; Kraft, Ira L; Pomicter, Anthony D; Reynolds, Kimberly R; Iovino, Anthony J; Zabriskie, Matthew S; Heaton, William L; Tantravahi, Srinivas K; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Chenchik, Alex; Bonneau, Kyle; Ullman, Katharine S; O'Hare, Thomas; Deininger, Michael W

    2015-03-12

    The mechanisms underlying tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients lacking explanatory BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations are incompletely understood. To identify mechanisms of TKI resistance that are independent of BCR-ABL1 kinase activity, we introduced a lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA) library targeting ∼5000 cell signaling genes into K562(R), a CML cell line with BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent TKI resistance expressing exclusively native BCR-ABL1. A customized algorithm identified genes whose shRNA-mediated knockdown markedly impaired growth of K562(R) cells compared with TKI-sensitive controls. Among the top candidates were 2 components of the nucleocytoplasmic transport complex, RAN and XPO1 (CRM1). shRNA-mediated RAN inhibition or treatment of cells with the XPO1 inhibitor, KPT-330 (Selinexor), increased the imatinib sensitivity of CML cell lines with kinase-independent TKI resistance. Inhibition of either RAN or XPO1 impaired colony formation of CD34(+) cells from newly diagnosed and TKI-resistant CML patients in the presence of imatinib, without effects on CD34(+) cells from normal cord blood or from a patient harboring the BCR-ABL1(T315I) mutant. These data implicate RAN in BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent imatinib resistance and show that shRNA library screens are useful to identify alternative pathways critical to drug resistance in CML.

  13. The shuttle development and its growth potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, William E.; Dean, Janet L.

    During the next two decades, we will establish the foundation for the 21st century's accomplishments in space. The Space Shuttle vehicle will become the cornerstone for that foundation by providing economical opportunities for space exploration and utilization. Reusability of the Shuttle vehicle is the key to its economy. The major developmental challenges encountered in the Shuttle program are typified by the complexities involved in designing the reusable propulsion and thermal protection subsystems. We successfully met such challenges and are nearing the launch of the first Shuttle orbital flight. Our immediate goal is to enter the Space Shuttle operational phase because only then will we fully understand the unique capabilities of the Shuttle. Concurrent with our effort to begin Shuttle operations are our initial efforts to expand Shuttle capabilities, extending them significantly beyond those of the current baseline system. Shuttle payload capacity and mission-duration capabilities are to increase considerably during the next decade. Just as present Shuttle performance specifications and development timetables were guided by the space program plans and forecasts of the 1960s, so will the development of long-range space programs be determined by our near-future achievements. We anticipate that the Space Shuttle will play a critical role in those achievements.

  14. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Options for the Future Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jue, Fred; Kuck, Fritz; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The main engines for the Future Shuttle will focus on improved safety and operability. Performance enhancements may also be required for vehicle safety purposes to achieve more desirable abort scenarios. This paper discusses the potential improvements that will be considered for implementation into the Future Shuttle. Integrated engine and vehicle health management systems will achieve additional system-level reliability improvements over those currently in development. Advanced instrumentation for detecting leaks, analyzing component wear and degradation, and providing sophisticated operational data will be used for reliable engine control and scheduling maintenance operations. A new nozzle and main combustion chamber (MCC) will reduce failure probability by 50% and allow for higher thrust capability without requiring the entire engine to be redesigned. Turbopump improvements may range from minor component improvements to using 3rd-generation pumps built on the advanced concepts demonstrated by the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) program and the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) prototype engines.The main engines for the Future Shuttle will focus on improved safety and operability. Performance enhancements may also be required for vehicle safety purposes to achieve more desirable abort scenarios. This paper discusses the potential improvements that will be considered for implementation into the Future Shuttle. Integrated engine and vehicle health management systems will achieve additional system-level reliability improvements over those currently in development. Advanced instrumentation for detecting leaks, analyzing component wear and degradation, and providing sophisticated operational data will be used for reliable engine control and scheduling maintenance operations. A new nozzle and main combustion chamber (MCC) will reduce failure probability by 50% and allow for higher thrust capability without requiring the entire engine to be redesigned. Turbopump

  15. Shuttle payload integration - Contamination aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, S.; Leger, L. J.; Ehlers, H. K. F.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the development of the Space Shuttle, a payload integration system has been established. This integration system or process encompasses several technical disciplines, one of which is concerned with the control of molecular and particulate contamination. Specific integration procedures and documentation have evolved that reflect the incorporation of payload/Space Transportation System contamination requirements and capabilities. Of the 38 payloads in the payload integration system currently, about 20% are considered sensitive to contamination in that special precautions must be taken to ensure that contamination from the Space Shuttle Orbiter does not impair payload function. Most of these payload requirements have been satisfied by the incorporation of controlled ground operations discipline and installation of a payload bay liner, which isolates the payload from the Orbiter systems. Some payloads, however, provide covers for sensitive payload instrumentation.

  16. Advanced Space Shuttle simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatom, F. B.; Smith, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A non-recursive model (based on von Karman spectra) for atmospheric turbulence along the flight path of the shuttle orbiter was developed. It provides for simulation of instantaneous vertical and horizontal gusts at the vehicle center-of-gravity, and also for simulation of instantaneous gusts gradients. Based on this model the time series for both gusts and gust gradients were generated and stored on a series of magnetic tapes, entitled Shuttle Simulation Turbulence Tapes (SSTT). The time series are designed to represent atmospheric turbulence from ground level to an altitude of 120,000 meters. A description of the turbulence generation procedure is provided. The results of validating the simulated turbulence are described. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. One-dimensional von Karman spectra are tabulated, while a discussion of the minimum frequency simulated is provided. The results of spectral and statistical analyses of the SSTT are presented.

  17. Biowaste monitoring system for shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Sauer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The acquisition of crew biomedical data has been an important task on all manned space missions from Project Mercury through the recently completed Skylab Missions. The monitoring of metabolic wastes from the crew is an important aspect of this activity. On early missions emphasis was placed on the collection and return of biowaste samples for post-mission analysis. On later missions such as Skylab, equipment for inflight measurement was also added. Life Science experiments are being proposed for Shuttle missions which will require the inflight measurement and sampling of metabolic wastes. In order to minimize the crew impact associated with these requirements, a high degree of automation of these processes will be required. This paper reviews the design and capabilities of urine biowaste monitoring equipment provided on past-manned space programs and defines and describes the urine volume measurement and sampling equipment planned for the Shuttle Orbiter program.

  18. Space Shuttle Corrosion Protection Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Cris E.

    2007-01-01

    The reusable Manned Space Shuttle has been flying into Space and returning to earth for more than 25 years. The launch pad environment can be corrosive to metallic substrates and the Space Shuttles are exposed to this environment when preparing for launch. The Orbiter has been in service well past its design life of 10 years or 100 missions. As part of the aging vehicle assessment one question under evaluation is how the thermal protection system and aging protective coatings are performing to insure structural integrity. The assessment of this cost resources and time. The information is invaluable when minimizing risk to the safety of Astronauts and Vehicle. This paper will outline a strategic sampling plan and some operational improvements made by the Orbiter Structures team and Corrosion Control Review Board.

  19. The space shuttle at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaway, H.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of the orbital flight of the space shuttle and the development of the space transportation system are addressed. How the system came to be, why it is designed the way it is, what is expected of it, and how it may grow are among the questions considered. Emphasis is placed on the effect of the space transportation system on U.S. space exploration in the next decade, including plans to make space an extension of life on the Earth's surface.

  20. Space Shuttle Propulsion Finishing Strong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W.; Singer, Jody

    2011-01-01

    Numerous lessons have been documented from the Space Shuttle Propulsion elements. Major events include loss of the SRB's on STS-4 and shutdown of an SSME during ascent on STS- 51F. On STS-112 only half the pyrotechnics fired to release the vehicle from the launch pad, a testament for redundancy. STS-91 exhibited freezing of a main combustion chamber pressure measurement and on STS-93 nozzle tube ruptures necessitated a low liquid level oxygen cut off of the main engines. A number of on pad aborts were experienced during the early program resulting in delays. And the two accidents, STS-51L and STS-107, had unique heritage in history from early Program decisions and vehicle configuration. Following STS-51L significant resources were invested in developing fundamental physical understanding of solid rocket motor environments and material system behavior. Human rating of solid rocket motors was truly achieved. And following STS-107, the risk of ascent debris was better characterized and controlled. Situational awareness during all mission phases improved, and the management team instituted effective risk assessment practices. These major events and lessons for the future are discussed. The last 22 flights of the Space Shuttle, following the Columbia accident, were characterized by remarkable improvement in safety and reliability. Numerous problems were solved in addition to reduction of the ascent debris hazard. The propulsion system elements evolved to high reliability and heavy lift capability. The Shuttle system, though not a operable as envisioned in the 1970's, successfully assembled the International Space Station (ISS) and provided significant logistics and down mass for ISS operations. By the end of the Program, the remarkable Space Shuttle Propulsion system achieved very high performance, was largely reusable, exhibited high reliability, and is a heavy lift earth to orbit propulsion system. The story of this amazing system is discussed in detail in the paper.

  1. Formalizing Space Shuttle Software Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Judith; DiVito, Ben L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies in which requirements for new flight-software subsystems on NASA's Space Shuttle were analyzed, one using standard formal specification techniques, the other using state exploration. These applications serve to illustrate three main theses: (1) formal methods can complement conventional requirements analysis processes effectively, (2) formal methods confer benefits regardless of how extensively they are adopted and applied, and (3) formal methods are most effective when they are judiciously tailored to the application.

  2. Space Shuttle Star Tracker Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    The space shuttle fleet of avionics was originally designed in the 1970's. Many of the subsystems have been upgraded and replaced, however some original hardware continues to fly. Not only fly, but has proven to be the best design available to perform its designated task. The shuttle star tracker system is currently flying as a mixture of old and new designs, each with a unique purpose to fill for the mission. Orbiter missions have tackled many varied missions in space over the years. As the orbiters began flying to the International Space Station (ISS), new challenges were discovered and overcome as new trusses and modules were added. For the star tracker subsystem, the growing ISS posed an unusual problem, bright light. With two star trackers on board, the 1970's vintage image dissector tube (IDT) star trackers track the ISS, while the new solid state design is used for dim star tracking. This presentation focuses on the challenges and solutions used to ensure star trackers can complete the shuttle missions successfully. Topics include KSC team and industry partner methods used to correct pressurized case failures and track system performance.

  3. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project of NASA and NGA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at an unprecedented level of detail. As part of space shuttle Endeavour's flight during February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface for most of the area between latitudes 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.

  4. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is now distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project between NASA and NIMA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at a level of detail unprecedented for such a large area. Flown aboard the NASA Space Shuttle Endeavour February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface, for most of the area between 60? N. and 56? S. latitude. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected specifically with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.

  5. Experiment definition phase shuttle laboratory (LDRL-10.6 experiment): Shuttle sortie to elliptical orbit satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, F. E.; Nussmeier, T. A.; Stokes, L. S.; Vourgourakis, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics were reviewed: (1) design options for shuttle terminal, (2) elliptical orbit satellite design options, (3) shuttle terminal details, (4) technology status and development requirements, (5) transmitter technology, and (6) carbon dioxide laser life studies.

  6. Shuttle being tested at Marshall Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Ground vibration tests of the space shuttle vehicle performed to evaluate the structural dynamics and their effect on the control system of the shuttle are described. Test results are used to verify the system design and mathematical models that predict how the shuttle's control system will react to the much more severe vibrations expected during launch and flight into orbit. The test configurations, the test facility, and the dynamic test suspension system are among the topics discussed.

  7. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  8. STS-80 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The STS-80 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the eightieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-fifth flight since the return-to-flight, and the twenty-first flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102).

  9. Evaluation philosophy for shuttle launched payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heuser, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Some approaches to space-shuttle payload evaluation are examined. Issues considered include subsystem replacement in low-cost modular spacecraft (LCMS), validation of spacelab payloads, the use of standard components in shuttle-era spacecraft, effects of shuttle-induced environments on payloads, and crew safety. The LCMS is described, and goals are discussed for its evaluation program. Concepts regarding how the evaluation should proceed are considered.

  10. Electromagnetic Compatibility for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Space Shuttle electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). It includes an overview of the design of the shuttle with the areas that are of concern for the electromagnetic compatibility. It includes discussion of classical electromagnetic interference (EMI) and the work performed to control the electromagnetic interference. Another area of interest is electrostatic charging and the threat of electrostatic discharge and the attempts to reduce damage to the Shuttle from these possible hazards. The issue of electrical bonding is als reviewed. Lastly the presentation reviews the work performed to protect the shuttle from lightning, both in flight and on the ground.

  11. Space Shuttle aerothermodynamic data report, phase C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Space shuttle aerothermodynamic data, collected from a continuing series of wind tunnel tests, are permanently stored with the Data Management Services (DMS) system. Information pertaining to current baseline configuration definition is also stored. Documentation of DMS processed data arranged sequentially and by space shuttle configuration are included. An up-to-date record of all applicable aerothermodynamic data collected, processed, or summarized during the space shuttle program is provided. Tables are designed to provide suvery information to the various space shuttle managerial and technical levels.

  12. Space Shuttle and Hypersonic Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years of human spaceflight have been characterized by the aerospace operations of the Soyuz, of the Space Shuttle and, more recently, of the Shenzhou. The lessons learned of this past half decade are important and very significant. Particularly interesting is the scenario that is downstream from the retiring of the Space Shuttle. A number of initiatives are, in fact, emerging from in the aftermath of the decision to terminate the Shuttle program. What is more and more evident is that a new era is approaching: the era of the commercial usage and of the commercial exploitation of space. It is probably fair to say, that this is the likely one of the new frontiers of expansion of the world economy. To make a comparison, in the last 30 years our economies have been characterized by the digital technologies, with examples ranging from computers, to cellular phones, to the satellites themselves. Similarly, the next 30 years are likely to be characterized by an exponential increase of usage of extra atmospheric resources, as a result of more economic and efficient way to access space, with aerospace transportation becoming accessible to commercial investments. We are witnessing the first steps of the transportation of future generation that will drastically decrease travel time on our Planet, and significantly enlarge travel envelope including at least the low Earth orbits. The Steve Jobs or the Bill Gates of the past few decades are being replaced by the aggressive and enthusiastic energy of new entrepreneurs. It is also interesting to note that we are now focusing on the aerospace band, that lies on top of the aeronautical shell, and below the low Earth orbits. It would be a mistake to consider this as a known envelope based on the evidences of the flights of Soyuz, Shuttle and Shenzhou. Actually, our comprehension of the possible hypersonic flight regimes is bounded within really limited envelopes. The achievement of a full understanding of the hypersonic flight

  13. Evaluation of shuttle turbopump bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrane, K. F.; Kannel, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Because the high pressure turbopumps used on the space shuttle main engine (SSME) are high speed machines and rotor dynamics analysis of these units is very complicated, it was considered necessary to verify calculated turbomachinery shaft bearing loads by analysis of ball bearing load tracks. This report presents the methods used and the results of load track analysis on one set of bearings removed from a high pressure liquid oxygen turbopump which had been subjected to SSME static firing tests. This type of analysis was found useful in determining bearing operating conditions and for verifying rotor dynamics computer models.

  14. Shuttle ascent guidance and control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovingood, J. A.; Blair, J. C.; Geissler, E. O.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements of a unified optimal guidance scheme are discussed, giving attention to a general formulation, aspects of self-targeting, problems of optimum guidance within the atmosphere, and a unified concept for all flight phases. Since no previous guidance scheme meets these requirements, the shuttle demands a fundamentally new approach. A new unified optimal guidance scheme, called Mascot, was developed. The capabilities of Mascot include the real-time solution of general trajectory-optimization problems and the unification of guidance for all flight phases.

  15. Space Shuttle mission extension capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, W. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Space Shuttle missions are currently limited to 11 days, primarily due to depletion of the power reactants (hydrogen and oxygen). A power system Mission Extension Kit (MEK) is described which could provide the capability to stay on orbit 10 additional days. These extra days would benefit Space Station construction and missions such as materials processing, earth and celestial observation, and life science studies (Spacelab). Other constraints to longer missions which may dictate minor Orbiter modifications will be discussed. The power system MEK is particularly desirable because of its existing flight qualified hardware which can be delivered within 3 to 4 years.

  16. Shuttle bioresearch laboratory breadboard simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taketa, S. T.

    1975-01-01

    Laboratory breadboard simulations (Tests I and II) were conducted to test concepts and assess problems associated with bioresearch support equipment, facilities, and operational integration for conducting manned earth orbital Shuttle missions. This paper describes Test I and discusses the major observations made in Test II. The tests emphasized candidate experiment protocols and requirements: Test I for biological research and Test II for crew members (simulated), subhuman primates, and radioisotope tracer studies on lower organisms. The procedures and approaches developed for these simulation activities could form the basis for Spacelab simulations and developing preflight integration, testing, and logistics of flight payloads.

  17. Seismic excitation by space shuttles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanamori, H.; Mori, J.; Sturtevant, B.; Anderson, D.L.; Heaton, T.

    1992-01-01

    Shock waves generated by the space shuttles Columbia (August 13, 1989), Atlantis (April 11, 1991) and Discovery (September 18, 1991) on their return to Edwards Air Force Base, California, were recorded by TERRAscope (Caltech's broadband seismic network), the Caltech-U.S.G.S Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), and the University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles Basin Seismic Network. The spatial pattern of the arrival times exhibits hyperbolic shock fronts from which the path, velocity and altitude of the space shuttle could be determined. The shock wave was acoustically coupled to the ground, converted to a seismic wave, and recorded clearly at the broadband TERRAscope stations. The acoustic coupling occurred very differently depending on the conditions of the Earth's surface surrounding the station. For a seismic station located on hard bedrock, the shock wave (N wave) was clearly recorded with little distortion. Aside from the N wave, very little acoustic coupling of the shock wave energy to the ground occurred at these sites. The observed N wave record was used to estimate the overpressure of the shock wave accurately; a pressure change of 0.5 to 2.2 mbars was obtained. For a seismic station located close to the ocean or soft sedimentary basins, a significant amount of shock wave energy was transferred to the ground through acoustic coupling of the shock wave and the oceanic Rayleigh wave. A distinct topography such as a mountain range was found effective to couple the shock wave energy to the ground. Shock wave energy was also coupled to the ground very effectively through large man made structures such as high rise buildings and offshore oil drilling platforms. For the space shuttle Columbia, in particular, a distinct pulse having a period of about 2 to 3 seconds was observed, 12.5 s before the shock wave, with a broadband seismograph in Pasadena. This pulse was probably excited by the high rise buildings in downtown Los Angeles which were

  18. Shuttle Orbital Applications and Requirements, supplementary tasks (SOAR-IIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Representative shuttle mission applications were studied. The interfaces analyses, and specific payloads are reported for the following types of missions: shuttle delivered automated spacecraft, shuttle/tug delivered spacecraft, man-tended automated spacecraft, and sortie missions.

  19. Space Shuttle Status News Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Richard Gilbech, External Tank "Tiger Team" Lead, begins this space shuttle news conference with detailing the two major objectives of the team. The objectives include: 1) Finding the root cause of the foam loss on STS-114; and 2) Near and long term improvements for the external tank. Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Program Manager, presents a chart to explain the external tank foam loss during STS-114. He gives a possible launch date for STS-121 after there has been a repair to the foam on the External Tank. He further discusses the changes that need to be made to the surrounding areas of the plant in New Orleans, due to Hurricane Katrina. Bill Gerstemaier, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Operations, elaborates on the testing of the external tank foam loss. The discussion ends with questions from the news media about a fix for the foam, replacement of the tiles, foam loss avoidance, the root cause of foam loss and a possible date for a new external tank to be shipped to NASA Kennedy Space Center.

  20. Shuttle propellant loading instrumenation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, J.

    1975-01-01

    A continuous capacitance sensor was developed and an analog signal conditioner was evaluated to demonstrate the acceptability of these items for use in the space shuttle propellant loading system. An existing basic sensor concept was redesigned to provide capability for cryogenic operation, to improve performance, and to minimize production costs. Sensor development verification consisted of evaluation of sensor linearity, cryogenic performance, and stability during vibration. The signal conditioner evaluation consisted mainly of establishing the effects of the variations in temperature and cable parameters and evaluating the stability. A sensor linearity of 0.04 in. was achieved over most of the sensor length. The sensor instability caused by vibration was 0.04 percent. The cryogenic performance data show a maximum instability of 0.19 percent at liquid hydrogen temperature; a theoretical calibration can be computed a within 1 percent. The signal conditioner evaluation showed that, with temperature compensation, all error sources typically contribute much less than 1 percent. An estimate of the accuracy achievable with the sensor and signal conditioner shows an rss estimate of 0.75 in. for liquid oxygen and 1.02 in. for liquid hydrogen. These are approximately four times better than the shuttle requirements. Comparison of continuous sensor and discrete sensor performance show the continuous sensor to be significantly better when there is surface activity due to sloshing, boiling, or other disturbances.

  1. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

  2. Report of the Shuttle Processing Review Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this report is to summarize the assessment of the shuttle processing operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) as requested by the NASA Administrator. He requested a team reaffirmation that safety is the number one priority and review operations to ensure confidence in the shuttle processing procedures at KSC.

  3. ATLAS Series of Shuttle Missions. Volume 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This technical paper contains selected papers from Geophysical Research Letters (Volume 23, Number 17) on ATLAS series of shuttle missions. The ATLAS space shuttle missions were conducted in March 1992, April 1993, and November 1994. This paper discusses solar irradiance, middle atmospheric temperatures, and trace gas concentrations measurements made by the ATLAS payload and companion instruments.

  4. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Dennis M.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Waters, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective is to characterize the performance capabilities of an inline, shuttle-derived launch vehicle using two design strategies: the first as an early program demonstrator utilizing high structural margins, maximum shuttle assets, and minimal pad impact, the later having undergone structural optimization, flying operational mission GR&A and serving as a baseline for evolutionary upgrades.

  5. The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a continuation of the Get Away Special Symposium convened from 1984 through 1988, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  6. The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, Frann (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS) and Hitchhiker programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  7. Liquid Hydrogen Consumption During Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issue of liquid hydrogen consumption and the points of its loss in prior to the shuttle launch. It traces the movement of the fuel from the purchase to the on-board quantity and the loss that results in 54.6 of the purchased quantity being on board the Shuttle.

  8. STS-55 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of the Space Shuttle Payloads, Orbiter, External Tank, Solid Rocket Booster, Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor, and the Main Engine subsystems performance during the 55th flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the 14th flight of Columbia is presented.

  9. Liftoff of STS-67 Space Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Carrying a crew of seven and a complement of astronomic experiments, the Space Shuttle Endeavour embarks on NASA's longest Shuttle flight to date. Endeavour's liftoff from Launch Pad 39A occurred at 1:38:13 a.m. (EST), March 2, 1995.

  10. Liftoff of STS-67 Space Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Carrying a crew of seven and a compliment of astronomic experiments, the Space Shuttle Endeavour embarks on NASA's longest Shuttle flight to date. Endeavour's liftoff from Launch Pad 39A occurred at 1:38:13 a.m. (EST), March 2, 1995.

  11. Launch of STS-67 Space Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Carrying a crew of seven and a complement of astronomic experiments, the Space Shuttle Endeavour embarks on NASA's longest shuttle flight to date. Endeavour's liftoff from Launch Pad 39A occurred at 1:38:13 a.m. (EST), March 2, 1995. In this view the fence line near the launch pad is evident in the foreground.

  12. Liftoff of STS-59 Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The liftoff of the Space Shuttle Endeavour is backdropped against clouds at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Liftoff occurred at 7:05 a.m., April 9, 1994. The air-to-air view was photographed from the Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) piloted by astronaut Robert L. Gibson.

  13. The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS), Hitchhiker, and Complex Autonomous Payloads (CAP) programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  14. Nucleocytoplasmic Distribution Is Required for Activation of Resistance by the Potato NB-LRR Receptor Rx1 and Is Balanced by Its Functional Domains[W

    PubMed Central

    Slootweg, Erik; Roosien, Jan; Spiridon, Laurentiu N.; Petrescu, Andrei-Jose; Tameling, Wladimir; Joosten, Matthieu; Pomp, Rikus; van Schaik, Casper; Dees, Robert; Borst, Jan Willem; Smant, Geert; Schots, Arjen; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska

    2010-01-01

    The Rx1 protein, as many resistance proteins of the nucleotide binding–leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) class, is predicted to be cytoplasmic because it lacks discernable nuclear targeting signals. Here, we demonstrate that Rx1, which confers extreme resistance to Potato virus X, is located both in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Manipulating the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of Rx1 or its elicitor revealed that Rx1 is activated in the cytoplasm and cannot be activated in the nucleus. The coiled coil (CC) domain was found to be required for accumulation of Rx1 in the nucleus, whereas the LRR domain promoted the localization in the cytoplasm. Analyses of structural subdomains of the CC domain revealed no autonomous signals responsible for active nuclear import. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and nuclear fractionation indicated that the CC domain binds transiently to large complexes in the nucleus. Disruption of the Rx1 resistance function and protein conformation by mutating the ATP binding phosphate binding loop in the NB domain, or by silencing the cochaperone SGT1, impaired the accumulation of Rx1 protein in the nucleus, while Rx1 versions lacking the LRR domain were not affected in this respect. Our results support a model in which interdomain interactions and folding states determine the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of Rx1. PMID:21177483

  15. Shuttle Entry Imaging Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas; Berry, Scott; Alter, Stephen; Blanchard, Robert; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Tack, Steve

    2007-01-01

    During the Columbia Accident Investigation, imaging teams supporting debris shedding analysis were hampered by poor entry image quality and the general lack of information on optical signatures associated with a nominal Shuttle entry. After the accident, recommendations were made to NASA management to develop and maintain a state-of-the-art imagery database for Shuttle engineering performance assessments and to improve entry imaging capability to support anomaly and contingency analysis during a mission. As a result, the Space Shuttle Program sponsored an observation campaign to qualitatively characterize a nominal Shuttle entry over the widest possible Mach number range. The initial objectives focused on an assessment of capability to identify/resolve debris liberated from the Shuttle during entry, characterization of potential anomalous events associated with RCS jet firings and unusual phenomenon associated with the plasma trail. The aeroheating technical community viewed the Space Shuttle Program sponsored activity as an opportunity to influence the observation objectives and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved temperature measurement capability over a series of flights. One long-term desire of the Shuttle engineering community is to calibrate boundary layer transition prediction methodologies that are presently part of the Shuttle damage assessment process using flight data provided by a controlled Shuttle flight experiment. Quantitative global imaging may offer a complementary method of data collection to more traditional methods such as surface thermocouples. This paper reviews the process used by the engineering community to influence data collection methods and analysis of global infrared images of the Shuttle obtained during hypersonic entry. Emphasis is placed upon airborne imaging assets sponsored by the Shuttle program during Return to Flight. Visual and IR entry imagery were obtained with available airborne

  16. Legal issues inherent in Space Shuttle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mossinghoff, G. J.; Sloup, G. P.

    1978-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (NASAct) is discussed with reference to its relevance to the operation of the Space Shuttle. The law is interpreted as giving NASA authority to regulate specific Shuttle missions, as well as authority to decide how much space aboard the Shuttle gets rented to whom. The Shuttle will not, however, be considered a 'common carrier' either in terms of NASAct or FAA regulations, because it will not be held available to the public-at-large, as are the flag carriers of various national airlines, e.g., Lufthansa, Air France, Aeroflot, etc. It is noted that the Launch Policy of 1972, which ensures satellite launch assistance to other countries or international organizations, shall not be interpreted as conferring common carrier status on the Space Shuttle.

  17. Space Shuttle wind tunnel testing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Hillje, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    A major phase of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) Development Program was the acquisition of data through the space shuttle wind tunnel testing program. It became obvious that the large number of configuration/environment combinations would necessitate an extremely large wind tunnel testing program. To make the most efficient use of available test facilities and to assist the prime contractor for orbiter design and space shuttle vehicle integration, a unique management plan was devised for the design and development phase. The space shuttle program is reviewed together with the evolutional development of the shuttle configuration. The wind tunnel testing rationale and the associated test program management plan and its overall results is reviewed. Information is given for the various facilities and models used within this program. A unique posttest documentation procedure and a summary of the types of test per disciplines, per facility, and per model are presented with detailed listing of the posttest documentation.

  18. STS-38 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-38 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-40/LWT-33), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2022, 2027), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-039. The STS-38 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as much, the classified portions of the mission are not presented in this report. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystem during the mission are summarized and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Space Shuttle Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  19. Evolution of DNA ligases of Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA viruses of eukaryotes: a case of hidden complexity

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) encode most if not all of the enzymes involved in their DNA replication. It has been inferred that genes for these enzymes were already present in the last common ancestor of the NCLDV. However, the details of the evolution of these genes that bear on the complexity of the putative ancestral NCLDV and on the evolutionary relationships between viruses and their hosts are not well understood. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-dependent and NAD-dependent DNA ligases encoded by the NCLDV reveals an unexpectedly complex evolutionary history. The NAD-dependent ligases are encoded only by a minority of NCLDV (including mimiviruses, some iridoviruses and entomopoxviruses) but phylogenetic analysis clearly indicated that all viral NAD-dependent ligases are monophyletic. Combined with the topology of the NCLDV tree derived by consensus of trees for universally conserved genes suggests that this enzyme was represented in the ancestral NCLDV. Phylogenetic analysis of ATP-dependent ligases that are encoded by chordopoxviruses, most of the phycodnaviruses and Marseillevirus failed to demonstrate monophyly and instead revealed an unexpectedly complex evolutionary trajectory. The ligases of the majority of phycodnaviruses and Marseillevirus seem to have evolved from bacteriophage or bacterial homologs; the ligase of one phycodnavirus, Emiliana huxlei virus, belongs to the eukaryotic DNA ligase I branch; and ligases of chordopoxviruses unequivocally cluster with eukaryotic DNA ligase III. Conclusions Examination of phyletic patterns and phylogenetic analysis of DNA ligases of the NCLDV suggest that the common ancestor of the extant NCLDV encoded an NAD-dependent ligase that most likely was acquired from a bacteriophage at the early stages of evolution of eukaryotes. By contrast, ATP-dependent ligases from different prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources displaced the ancestral NAD-dependent ligase at different

  20. Shuttle radar topography mapper (SRTM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Rolando L.; Caro, Edward R.; Kim, Yunjin; Kobrick, Michael; Shen, Yuhsyen; Stuhr, Frederick V.; Werner, Marian U.

    1996-12-01

    The use of interferometric SAR (IFSAR) to measure elevation is one of the most powerful and promising capabilities of radar. A properly equipped spaceborne IFSAR system can produce a highly accurate global digital elevation map, including cloud-covered areas, in significantly less time and at significantly lower cost than with other systems. For accurate topography, the interferometric measurements must be performed simultaneously in physically sperate receive system, since measurements made at different times with the same system suffer significant decorrelation. The US/German/Italian spaceborne imaging radar C/X-band SAR (SIR-C/X-SAR), successfully flown twice in 1994 aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor, offers a unique opportunity for global multifrequency elevation mapping by the year 2000. With appropriate augmentation, SIR-C/X-SAR is capable of producing an accurate elevation map covering 80 percent of the Earth's land surface in a single 10-day Shuttle flight. The existing US SIR-C SCANSAR mode provides a 225-km swath at C-band, which makes this coverage possible. Addition of a C-band receive antenna, extended from the Shuttle bay on a mast and operating in concert with the existing SIR-C antenna, produces an interferometric pair. Accuracy is enhanced by utilizing the SIR-C dual polarizations simultaneously to form separate SCANSAR beams. Due to the practical limitation of approximately 60 meters for the mast length, the longer SIR-C L-band wavelength does not produce useful elevation measurement accuracy. IFSAR measurements can also be obtained by the German/Italian X-SAR, simultaneously with SIR-C, by utilizing an added outboard antenna at X-band to produce a swath coverage of about 50 km. Accuracy can be enhanced at both frequencies by processing both ascending and descending data takes. It is estimated that the 90 percent linear absolute elevation error achievable is less that 16 meters for elevation postings of 30 meters. This will be the first use of

  1. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  2. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    Details of the design, operation, testing and recovery procedures of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB) are given. Using a composite PBAN propellant, they will provide the primary thrust (six million pounds maximum at 20 s after ignition) within a 3 g acceleration constraint, as well as thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle. The drogues were tested to a load of 305,000 pounds, and the main parachutes to 205,000. Insulation in the solid rocket motor (SRM) will be provided by asbestos-silica dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ('asbestos filled NBR') except in high erosion areas (principally in the aft dome), where a carbon-filled ethylene propylene diene monomer-neopreme rubber will be utilized. Furthermore, twenty uses for the SRM nozzle will be allowed by its ablative materials, which are principally carbon cloth and silica cloth phenolics.

  3. Shuttle onboard IMU alignment methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The current approach to the shuttle IMU alignment is based solely on the Apollo Deterministic Method. This method is simple, fast, reliable and provides an accurate estimate for the present cluster to mean of 1,950 transformation matrix. If four or more star sightings are available, the application of least squares analysis can be utilized. The least squares method offers the next level of sophistication to the IMU alignment solution. The least squares method studied shows that a more accurate estimate for the misalignment angles is computed, and the IMU drift rates are a free by-product of the analysis. Core storage requirements are considerably more; estimated 20 to 30 times the core required for the Apollo Deterministic Method. The least squares method offers an intermediate solution utilizing as much data that is available without a complete statistical analysis as in Kalman filtering.

  4. Reentry guidance for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Causey, W.; Sohoni, V.

    1973-01-01

    An explicit guidance scheme is outlined which provides the appropriate energy management in order for the shuttle orbiter to reach any location within the required footprint. Considering the orbiter as entering the earth's atmosphere, expressions for the downrange, crossrange, and the time of the termination of the entry phase as functions of the control variables are developed. Performing an order-of-magnitude analysis of the terms in these expressions, only dominant terms are retained. Analytical expressions for the elements of the sensitivity matrix which represents the partial derivatives of the desired range with respect to control variables are formulated. Using the Gauss-Jordan inversion technique, the required change in guidance commands as a function of the deviations in the downrange and crossrange are explicitly computed.

  5. Space shuttle wheels and brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsley, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter wheels were subjected to a combination of tests which are different than any previously conducted in the aerospace industry. The major testing difference is the computer generated dynamic landing profiles used during the certification process which subjected the wheels and tires to simulated landing loading conditions. The orbiter brakes use a unique combination of carbon composite linings and beryllium heat sink to minimize weight. The development of a new lining retention method was necessary in order to withstand the high temperature generated during the braking roll. As with many programs, the volume into which this hardware had to fit was established early in the program, with no provisions made for growth to offset the continuously increasing predicted orbiter landing weight.

  6. Space Shuttle power extension package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, J. P., Jr.; Craig, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A modification kit for the Space Transportation System (STS) Orbiter is proposed to provide more power and mission duration for payloads. The power extension package (PEP), a flexible-substrate solar array deployed on the Space Shuttle Orbiter remote manipulator system, can provide as much as 29 kW total power for durations of 10 to 48 days. The kit is installed only for those flights which require enhanced power or duration. The PEP is made possible by development of the flexible-substrate array technology and, in itself, contributes to the technology base for the use of large area solar cells. Modifications to the Orbiter thermal control and life support systems to improve heat balance and to reduce consumables are proposed. The changes consist of repositioning the Orbiter forward radiators and replacing the lithium hydroxide scrubber with a regenerable solid amine.

  7. Space shuttle main engine controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, R. M.; White, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    A technical description of the space shuttle main engine controller, which provides engine checkout prior to launch, engine control and monitoring during launch, and engine safety and monitoring in orbit, is presented. Each of the major controller subassemblies, the central processing unit, the computer interface electronics, the input electronics, the output electronics, and the power supplies are described and discussed in detail along with engine and orbiter interfaces and operational requirements. The controller represents a unique application of digital concepts, techniques, and technology in monitoring, managing, and controlling a high performance rocket engine propulsion system. The operational requirements placed on the controller, the extremely harsh operating environment to which it is exposed, and the reliability demanded, result in the most complex and rugged digital system ever designed, fabricated, and flown.

  8. Microbial Check Valve for Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.; Sauer, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The Microbial Check Valve (MCV) is a device developed for the Space Shuttle that prevents the transfer of viable microorganisms within water systems. The device is essentially a bed of resin material, impregnated with iodine, that kills microorganisms on contact. It prevents the cross-contamination of microorganisms from a nonpotable system into the potable water system when these systems are interconnected. In this regard, the function of the device is similar to that of the 'air gap' found in conventional one-gravity systems. Basic design data are presented including pressure drop, scaling factors, sizing criteria, and the results of challenging the device with suspensions of seven microorganisms including aerobes, anaerobes and spore formers.

  9. Shuttle Technology for Earth Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Pyran System represents a major advancement in control of pyrolysis, the technology of subjecting organic material to selected temperatures to break them down into their component parts, and that the system offers capabilities unavailable. Pyran System is designed for rapid automated analysis of the composition of organic matter. It is capable of heating samples to 1,130 degrees fahrenheit with infrared heat at a precisely controlled atmosphere. In order to do this with the degree of control and repeatability desired, the developers of the Pyran system decided they would need a special type of material to insulate the heating chambers. They adopted the shuttle tiles for the difficult insulating job. The tiles provide superior insulating characteristics needed, and they can be readily cut and formed to fit the heating chambers.

  10. Shuttle atmospheric lidar research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Shuttle atmospheric lidar program is discussed in relation to an understanding of the processes governing the Earth's atmosphere and in the capacity to evaluate the atmospheric susceptibility to manmade and natural perturbations. Applications of the lidar which are discussed are the determination of the global flow of water vapor and pollutants in the troposphere, improvement of chemical and transport models of the stratosphere and mesosphere, evaluation of radiative models of the atmosphere, investigation of chemistry and transport of thermospheric atomic species, and investigation of magnetospheric aspects of sun/weather relationships. The features of the lidar measurements discussed are the high spatial resolution, control of the source wavelength and intensity, and high measurement specificity.

  11. Space Shuttle Trace Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dencker, W.

    1975-01-01

    A Trace Gas Analyzer (TGA) with the ability to detect the presence of toxic contaminants in the Space Shuttle atmosphere within the subparts-per-million range is under development. The design is a modification of the miniaturized Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) developed for the Viking Mars Lander. An ambient air sample is injected onto the GC column from a constant volume sample loop and separated into individual compounds for identification by the MS. The GC-MS interface consists of an effluent divider and a silver-paladium separator, an electrochemical cell which removes more than 99.99% of the hydrogen carrier gas. The hydrogen is reclaimed and repressurized without affecting the separator efficiency, a feature which enables a considerable weight reduction in the carrier gas supply system.

  12. Thunderstorm observations from Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonnegut, B.; Vaughan, O. H., Jr.; Brook, M.

    1983-01-01

    Results of the Nighttime/Daytime Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiments done on the STS-2 and STS-4 flights are covered. During these two flights of the Space Shuttle Columbia, the astronaut teams of J. Engle and R. Truly, and K. Mattingly II and H. Hartsfield took motion pictures of thunderstorms with a 16 mm cine camera. Film taken during daylight showed interesting thunderstorm cloud formations, where individual frames taken tens of seconds apart, when viewed as stereo pairs, provided information on the three-dimensional structure of the cloud systems. Film taken at night showed clouds illuminated by lightning with discharges that propagated horizontally at speeds of up to 10 to the 5th m/sec and extended for distances on the order of 60 km or more.

  13. Space Shuttle Orbiter-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration is an orbiter cutaway view with callouts. The orbiter is both the brains and heart of the Space Transportation System (STS). About the same size and weight as a DC-9 aircraft, the orbiter contains the pressurized crew compartment (which can normally carry up to seven crew members), the huge cargo bay, and the three main engines mounted on its aft end. There are three levels to the crew cabin. Uppermost is the flight deck where the commander and the pilot control the mission. The middeck is where the gallery, toilet, sleep stations, and storage and experiment lockers are found for the basic needs of weightless daily living. Also located in the middeck is the airlock hatch into the cargo bay and space beyond. It is through this hatch and airlock that astronauts go to don their spacesuits and marned maneuvering units in preparation for extravehicular activities, more popularly known as spacewalks. The Space Shuttle's cargo bay is adaptable to hundreds of tasks. Large enough to accommodate a tour bus (60 x 15 feet or 18.3 x 4.6 meters), the cargo bay carries satellites, spacecraft, and spacelab scientific laboratories to and from Earth orbit. It is also a work station for astronauts to repair satellites, a foundation from which to erect space structures, and a hold for retrieved satellites to be returned to Earth. Thermal tile insulation and blankets (also known as the thermal protection system or TPS) cover the underbelly, bottom of the wings, and other heat-bearing surfaces of the orbiter to protect it during its fiery reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. The Shuttle's 24,000 individual tiles are made primarily of pure-sand silicate fibers, mixed with a ceramic binder. The solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are designed as an in-house Marshall Space Flight Center project, with United Space Boosters as the assembly and refurbishment contractor. The solid rocket motor (SRM) is provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  14. Space Shuttle RTOS Bayesian Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry; Beling, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    With shrinking budgets and the requirements to increase reliability and operational life of the existing orbiter fleet, NASA has proposed various upgrades for the Space Shuttle that are consistent with national space policy. The cockpit avionics upgrade (CAU), a high priority item, has been selected as the next major upgrade. The primary functions of cockpit avionics include flight control, guidance and navigation, communication, and orbiter landing support. Secondary functions include the provision of operational services for non-avionics systems such as data handling for the payloads and caution and warning alerts to the crew. Recently, a process to selection the optimal commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) real-time operating system (RTOS) for the CAU was conducted by United Space Alliance (USA) Corporation, which is a joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin, the prime contractor for space shuttle operations. In order to independently assess the RTOS selection, NASA has used the Bayesian network-based scoring methodology described in this paper. Our two-stage methodology addresses the issue of RTOS acceptability by incorporating functional, performance and non-functional software measures related to reliability, interoperability, certifiability, efficiency, correctness, business, legal, product history, cost and life cycle. The first stage of the methodology involves obtaining scores for the various measures using a Bayesian network. The Bayesian network incorporates the causal relationships between the various and often competing measures of interest while also assisting the inherently complex decision analysis process with its ability to reason under uncertainty. The structure and selection of prior probabilities for the network is extracted from experts in the field of real-time operating systems. Scores for the various measures are computed using Bayesian probability. In the second stage, multi-criteria trade-off analyses are performed between the scores

  15. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, T. G.; Kobrick, M.

    2001-12-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew successfully aboard Endeavour in February 2000, is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies. The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south latitude. The DEM will have 30 m horizontal resolution and better than 15 m vertical errors. Two ortho-rectified C-band image mosaics are also planned. Data processing will be completed by the end of 2002. SRTM used a modification of the radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Radar Laboratory that flew twice on the Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the interferometric data, a 60 m mast, additional C-band antenna, and improved tracking and navigation devices were added. A second X-band antenna was also added by the German Space Agency, and produced higher resolution topographic measurements in strips nested within the full, C-band coverage. First results indicate that the radars and ancillary instruments worked very well. Data played back to the ground during the flight were processed to DEMs and products released hours after acquisition. An extensive program for calibration and verification of the SRTM data is now underway. When complete later this year, systematic processing of the data will begin, with final products emerging a continent at a time. Products will be transferred to the US Geological Survey's EROS Data Center for civilian archive and distribution. NIMA will handle Department of Defense distribution. * Work performed under contract to NASA.

  16. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, T. G.; Kobrick, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew successfully aboard Endeavour in February 2000, is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA). The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south latitude. The DEM will have 30 m horizontal resolution and about 15 m vertical errors. Two ortho-rectified C-band image mosaics are also planned. SRTM used a modification of the radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Radar Laboratory that flew twice on the Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the interferometric data, a 60 m mast, additional C-band antenna, and improved tracking and navigation devices were added. A second X-band antenna was also added by the German Space Agency, and produced higher resolution topographic measurements in strips nested within the full, C-band coverage. First results indicate that the radars and ancillary instruments worked very well. Data played back to the ground during the flight were processed to DEMs and products released hours after acquisition. An extensive program for calibration and verification of the SRTM data is now underway. When complete later this year, systematic processing of the data will begin, with final products emerging a continent at a time. Data processing will be completed by the end of 2002. Products will be transferred to the US Geological Survey's EROS Data Center for civilian archive and distribution. NIMA will handle Department of Defense distribution. * Work performed under contract to NASA.

  17. Microbiology of the Space Shuttle water system.

    PubMed

    Koenig, D W; Pierson, D L

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has a once-through water system that is initially filled on the ground, partially drained before launch and then refilled with fuel-cell generated water on orbit. The microbiological standard for the Space Shuttle potable water system during this study period allowed only 1 microbe of any kind per l00mL and no detectable coliforms. Contamination episodes in more than 15 years of Shuttle operation have been rare; however, for the past 24 missions, bacterial contamination has been detected in 33% of the samples collected 3d before launch. These samples have had on average 55CFU/100mL of bacteria, with the median less than 1CFU/100mL. Burkholderia cepacia has been the primary contaminant of the Shuttle water supply system both before and after flight. Water samples assessed during the STS-70 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery were found to be contaminated (<20CFU/100mL) with B. cepacia and B. pickettii. In 1991, waste and water lines were removed from the Space Shuttle Columbia and the waste lines were found to harbor biofilms containing Bacillus spp. Nevertheless, the water systems of the four Space Shuttle vehicles provide extremely pure water.

  18. Quantum Mechanical Models Of The Fermi Shuttle

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, James

    2011-06-01

    The Fermi shuttle is a mechanism in which high energy electrons are produced in an atomic collision by multiple collisions with a target and a projectile atom. It is normally explained purely classically in terms of the electron's orbits prescribed in the collision. Common calculations to predict the Fermi shuttle use semi-classical methods, but these methods still rely on classical orbits. In reality such collisions belong to the realm of quantum mechanics, however. In this paper we discuss several purely quantum mechanical calculations which can produce the Fermi shuttle. Being quantum mechanical in nature, these calculations produce these features by wave interference, rather than by classical orbits.

  19. Analysis of sleep on Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Kapanka, Heidi; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Stewart, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    The sleep patterns of 58 Space Shuttle crew members are analyzed statistically on the basis of debriefing forms filled out within 3 days postflight. The data are compiled in a table, and photographs of typical sleep conditions on the Shuttle are provided. It is found that sleep disruption is relatively common on Shuttle missions, especially on the first and last days. Sleep medication was used by 19.4 percent of crew on single-shift flights and 50 percent of crew on dual-shift flights.

  20. Space shuttle thermal scale modeling application study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, K. N.; Foster, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    The critical thermal control problems and verification of thermal mathematical model results for the space shuttle concept are discussed. The use of a small scale thermal model of the space shuttle is proposed. It was determined that a one-third scale model of the space shuttle would serve as a useful tool throughout the entire thermal design and verification program. The major considerations in modeling the conduction-radiation-convection fields, the level of detail for modeling various systems, preliminary test requirements, and potential applications of the thermal scale model are summarized.

  1. Shuttle era waste management and biowaste monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Fogal, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    The acquisition of crew biomedical data has been an important task on manned space missions. The monitoring of biowastes from the crew to support water and mineral balance studies and endocrine studies has been a valuable part of this activity. This paper will present a review of waste management systems used in past programs. This past experience will be cited as to its influence on the Shuttle design. Finally, the Shuttle baseline waste management system and the proposed Shuttle biomedical measurement and sampling systems will be presented.

  2. Shuttle Ku-band signal design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Braun, W. R.; Mckenzie, T. M.

    1978-01-01

    Carrier synchronization and data demodulation of Unbalanced Quadriphase Shift Keyed (UQPSK) Shuttle communications' signals by optimum and suboptimum methods are discussed. The problem of analyzing carrier reconstruction techniques for unbalanced QPSK signal formats is addressed. An evaluation of the demodulation approach of the Ku-Band Shuttle return link for UQPSK when the I-Q channel power ratio is large is carried out. The effects that Shuttle rocket motor plumes have on the RF communications are determined also. The effect of data asymmetry on bit error probability is discussed.

  3. Space Shuttle booster thrust imbalance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, W. R.; Blackwell, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the Shuttle SRM thrust imbalance during the steady-state and tailoff portions of the boost phase of flight are presented. Results from flights STS-1 through STS-13 are included. A statistical analysis of the observed thrust imbalance data is presented. A 3 sigma thrust imbalance history versus time was generated from the observed data and is compared to the vehicle design requirements. The effect on Shuttle thrust imbalance from the use of replacement SRM segments is predicted. Comparisons of observed thrust imbalances with respect to predicted imbalances are presented for the two space shuttle flights which used replacement aft segments (STS-9 and STS-13).

  4. Simulated lightning test shuttle .03 scale model. [(space shuttle orbiter)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    Lightning Attach Point tests were conducted for the space shuttle launch configuration (Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters). A series of 250 long spark tests (15 to 20 foot sparks) determined that the orbiter may be struck on the nose, windshield brow, tail and wingtips during launch but not on the main engine nozzles which have been shown to be vulnerable to lightning damage. The orbiter main engine and SRB exhaust plumes were simulated electrically with physical models coated with graded resistance paints. The tests showed that the exhaust plumes from the SRB provide additional protection for the main engine nozzles. However, the tests showed that the Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS), which has also been shown to be vulnerable to lightning damage, may be struck during launch. Therefore further work is indicated in the areas of swept stroke studies on the model and on TPS panels. Further attach point testing is also indicated on the free-flying orbiter. Photographs of the test setup are shown.

  5. A Celebration of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    On September 23, 2011, NASA Langley hosted a Shuttle Celebration at the Virginia Air & Space Center in Hampton, Va. More than 650 guests attended, including STS-135 Commander Chris Ferguson and NAS...

  6. Behind the Scenes: Under the Shuttle

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of "NASA Behind the Scenes," astronaut Mike Massimino takes you up to - and under - the space shuttle as it waits on launch pad 39A at the Kennedy Space Center for the start of a re...

  7. A Lifeline Home: Goddard's Final Shuttle Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    Controllers at Goddard's Network Integration Center share their thoughts as the 30-year-old Shuttle Program comes to an end with the final flight of STS-135, which concluded with a textbook landing...

  8. Shuttle mission simulator software conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Software conceptual designs (SCD) are presented for meeting the simulator requirements for the shuttle missions. The major areas of the SCD discussed include: malfunction insertion, flight software, applications software, systems software, and computer complex.

  9. Composite reinforced propellant tanks. [space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. D.; Martin, M. J.; Aleck, B. J.; Landes, R.

    1975-01-01

    Design studies involving weight and cost were carried out for several structural concepts applicable to space shuttle disposable tankage. An effective design, a honeycomb stabilized pressure vessel, was chosen. A test model was designed and fabricated.

  10. Plasma waves associated with the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Water molecules outgassed from the Space Shuttle suffer collisional charge-exchange with ionospheric oxygen ions, thereby forming unstable distributions of pick-up water ions and leading to high levels of plasma waves near the Shuttle. Liouville's equation with a charge-exchange source term is solved for the water ion distribution function as a function of position relative to the Shuttle. The observational characteristics of the near zone Shuttle waves are summarized. A linear theory in which beam like distributions of water ions drive Doppler shifted lower hybrid waves via the modified two stream instability is developed. This theory explains many characteristics of the near zone waves. Further work on the effects of wave nonlinearities and spatial inhomogeneity is required to explain the detailed frequency spectrum of the waves. The observed wave levels apparently satisfy the threshold condition for modulational instability of lower hybrid waves.

  11. Student Experiments Fly with the Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Walter; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes various experiments which high school students are preparing, to be carried on NASA's 500 or more Space Shuttle flights in the 1980s. The project is intended to stimulate superior secondary school students. (SA)

  12. Astronauts Train for Final Shuttle Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    The crew of STS-135, the final space shuttle mission, rehearsed their launch day process at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida during a Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test that took place Jun...

  13. Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews many of the innovations from Kennedy Space Center engineering for ground operations that were made during the shuttle program. The innovations are in the areas of detection, image analysis, protective equipment, software development and communications.

  14. Space Shuttle Atlantis after RSS rollback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On Launch Pad 39A, the Rotating Service Structure has rolled back to reveal Space Shuttle Atlantis poised for launch. Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the International Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. Launch is targeted for 6:11 p.m. EST and the planned landing at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program.

  15. STS-43 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-43 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-47 (LWT-40); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-045. The primary objective of the STS-43 mission was to successfully deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-E/Inertial Upper Stage (TDRS-E/IUS) satellite and to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) payload and the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE-2).

  16. Shuttle Hitchhiker Experiment Launcher System (SHELS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daelemans, Gerry

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Shuttle Small Payloads Project (SSPP), in partnership with the United States Air Force and NASA's Explorer Program, is developing a Shuttle based launch system called SHELS (Shuttle Hitchhiker Experiment Launcher System), which shall be capable of launching up to a 400 pound spacecraft from the Shuttle cargo bay. SHELS consists of a Marman band clamp push-plate ejection system mounted to a launch structure; the launch structure is mounted to one Orbiter sidewall adapter beam. Avionics mounted to the adapter beam will interface with Orbiter electrical services and provide optional umbilical services and ejection circuitry. SHELS provides an array of manifesting possibilities to a wide range of satellites.

  17. The Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brose, H. F.; Greenwood, F. H.; Thompson, C. D.; Willis, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    The Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System (RSECS) program was conceived to provide NASA with a prototype system representative of the Shuttle Environmental Control System (ECS). Discussed are the RSECS program objectives, predicated on updating and adding to the early system as required to retain its usefulness during the Shuttle ECS development and qualification effort. Ultimately, RSECS will be replaced with a flight-designed system using either refurbished development or qualification equipment to provide NASA with a flight simulation capability during the Shuttle missions. The RSECS air revitalization subsystem and the waste management support subsystem are being tested. A water coolant subsystem and a freon coolant subsystem are in the development and planning phases.

  18. Space shuttle phase B study plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hello, B.

    1971-01-01

    Phase B emphasis was directed toward development of data which would facilitate selection of the booster concept, and main propulsion system for the orbiter. A shuttle system is also defined which will form the baseline for Phase C program activities.

  19. NASA's Original Shuttle Carrier Departs Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) No. 905, departed NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Oct. 24, 2012 for the final time, ending a 38-year association with the NASA field center at Ed...

  20. NASA focusing beyond space shuttle era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    Although the NASA space shuttle Atlantis is set to close out the space shuttle era in July with the STS-135 mission, this final shuttle mission will not mark the end of America's leadership in human spaceflight, NASA administrator Charles Bolden said in a 1 July speech at the National Press Club in Washington, D. C. “When I hear people say, or listen to media reports [that indicate], that the final shuttle flight marks the end of U.S. human spaceflight, I have to say, ‘these folks must be living on another planet.’ We are not ending human spaceflight; we are recommitting ourselves to it and taking the necessary and difficult steps today to ensure America's preeminence in human space exploration for years to come.”

  1. Space Shuttle Main Engine Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A cloud of extremely hot steam boils out of the flame deflector at the A-1 test stand during a test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) at the John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi.

  2. Launch of STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis returns to work after a refurbishing and a two-year layoff, as liftoff for NASA's STS-66 occurs at noon (EDT), November 3, 1994. A 'fish-eye' lens was used to record the image.

  3. Sturckow Recaps Last Shuttle Landing at Edwards

    NASA Video Gallery

    When Space Shuttle Discovery touched down at Edwards Air Force Base in Southern California on Sept. 11, 2009 to conclude mission STS-128, no one foresaw that it would be the last of 54 such landing...

  4. Space transportation system shuttle turnabout analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The progress made and the problems encountered by the various program elements of the shuttle program in achieving the 160 hour ground turnaround goal are presented and evaluated. Task assessment time is measured against the program allocation time.

  5. Particulate contaminant relocation during shuttle ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    The dislodgement, venting, and redeposition of particles on a surface in the shuttle bay by the vibroacoustic, gravitational, and aerodynamic forces present during shuttle ascent have been investigated. The particles of different sizes which are displaced, vented, and redistributed have been calculated; and an estimate of the increased number of particles on certain surfaces and the decrease on others has been indicated. The average sizes, velocities, and length of time for certain particles to leave the bay following initial shuttle doors opening and thermal tests have been calculated based on indirect data obtained during several shuttle flights. Suggestions for future measurements and observations to characterize the particulate environment and the techniques to limit the in-orbit particulate contamination of surfaces and environment have been offered.

  6. Space Shuttle Documentary (Narrated by William Shatner)

    NASA Video Gallery

    This feature-length documentary looks at the history of the most complex machine ever built. For 30 years, NASA's space shuttle carried humans to and from space, launched amazing observatories, and...

  7. Evaluation philosophy for shuttle launched payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heuser, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Potential benefits of factory-to-pad testing constitute major cost savings and increase test effectiveness. Overall flight performance will be improved. The factory-to-pad approach is compatible with space shuttle processing and the large space telescope program.

  8. Shuttle time and frequency transfer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, D. W.; Alley, C. O.; Decher, R.; Vessot, R. F. C.; Winkler, G. M. R.

    1980-01-01

    A proposed space shuttle experiment to demonstrate techniques for global high precision comparison of clocks and primary frequency standards is described. The experiment, using transmitted microwave and pulsed laser signals, compared a hydrogen maser clock onboard the space shuttle with a clock in a ground station in order to demonstrate time transfer with accuracies of 1 nsec or better and frequency comparison at the 10 to the -14th power accuracy level.

  9. The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.R.; Mosier, F.L.

    1993-10-01

    The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS), Hitchhiker, and Complex Autonomous Payloads (CAP) programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  10. The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.R.; Mosier, F.L.

    1992-10-01

    The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a continuation of the Get Away Special Symposium convened from 1984 through 1988, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report.

  11. The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, F.; Mosier, F.L.

    1995-09-01

    The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS) and Hitchhiker programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts. Separate abstracts have been submitted for contributions to this report.

  12. Probabilistic Approaches for Evaluating Space Shuttle Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesely, William

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the Space Shuttle PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) are to: (1) evaluate mission risks; (2) evaluate uncertainties and sensitivities; (3) prioritize contributors; (4) evaluate upgrades; (5) track risks; and (6) provide decision tools. This report discusses the significance of a Space Shuttle PRA and its participants. The elements and type of losses to be included are discussed. The program and probabilistic approaches are then discussed.

  13. The Shuttle Cost and Price model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leary, Katherine; Stone, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Cost and Price (SCP) model was developed as a tool to assist in evaluating major aspects of Shuttle operations that have direct and indirect economic consequences. It incorporates the major aspects of NASA Pricing Policy and corresponds to the NASA definition of STS operating costs. An overview of the SCP model is presented and the cost model portion of SCP is described in detail. Selected recent applications of the SCP model to NASA Pricing Policy issues are presented.

  14. Space Shuttle Program Tin Whisker Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimi, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of tin whiskers (TW) on space shuttle hardware led to a program to investigate and removal and mitigation of the source of the tin whiskers. A Flight Control System (FCS) avionics box failed during vehicle testing, and was routed to the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot for testing and disassembly. The internal inspection of the box revealed TW growth visible without magnification. The results of the Tiger Team that was assembled to investigate and develop recommendations are reviewed in this viewgraph presentation.

  15. TERSSE. Definition of the total earth resources system for the shuttle era. Volume 9: Earth resources shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alverado, U.

    1975-01-01

    The use of the space shuttle for the Earth Resources Program is discussed. Several problems with respect to payload selection, integration, and mission planning were studied. Each of four shuttle roles in the sortie mode were examined and projected into an integrated shuttle program. Several representative Earth Resources missions were designed which would use the shuttle sortie as a platform and collectively include the four shuttle roles. An integrated flight program based on these missions was then developed for the first two years of shuttle flights. A set of broad implications concerning the uses of the shuttle for Earth Resources studies resulted.

  16. Space shuttle flying qualities and criteria assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1987-01-01

    Work accomplished under a series of study tasks for the Flying Qualities and Flight Control Systems Design Criteria Experiment (OFQ) of the Shuttle Orbiter Experiments Program (OEX) is summarized. The tasks involved review of applicability of existing flying quality and flight control system specification and criteria for the Shuttle; identification of potentially crucial flying quality deficiencies; dynamic modeling of the Shuttle Orbiter pilot/vehicle system in the terminal flight phases; devising a nonintrusive experimental program for extraction and identification of vehicle dynamics, pilot control strategy, and approach and landing performance metrics, and preparation of an OEX approach to produce a data archive and optimize use of the data to develop flying qualities for future space shuttle craft in general. Analytic modeling of the Orbiter's unconventional closed-loop dynamics in landing, modeling pilot control strategies, verification of vehicle dynamics and pilot control strategy from flight data, review of various existent or proposed aircraft flying quality parameters and criteria in comparison with the unique dynamic characteristics and control aspects of the Shuttle in landing; and finally a summary of conclusions and recommendations for developing flying quality criteria and design guides for future Shuttle craft.

  17. Simulating Avionics Upgrades to the Space Shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deger, Daniel; Hill, Kenneth; Braaten, Karsten E.

    2008-01-01

    Cockpit Avionics Prototyping Environment (CAPE) is a computer program that simulates the functions of proposed upgraded avionics for a space shuttle. In CAPE, pre-existing space-shuttle-simulation programs are merged with a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) display-development program, yielding a package of software that enables high-fi46 NASA Tech Briefs, September 2008 delity simulation while making it possible to rapidly change avionic displays and the underlying model algorithms. The pre-existing simulation programs are Shuttle Engineering Simulation, Shuttle Engineering Simulation II, Interactive Control and Docking Simulation, and Shuttle Mission Simulator playback. The COTS program Virtual Application Prototyping System (VAPS) not only enables the development of displays but also makes it possible to move data about, capture and process events, and connect to a simulation. VAPS also enables the user to write code in the C or C++ programming language and compile that code into the end-product simulation software. As many as ten different avionic-upgrade ideas can be incorporated in a single compilation and, thus, tested in a single simulation run. CAPE can be run in conjunction with any or all of four simulations, each representing a different phase of a space-shuttle flight.

  18. Designing the Space Shuttle Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David; VanHooser, Kathrine; Wlzyn, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The major elements of the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System include two reusable solid rocket motors integrated into recoverable solid rocket boosters, an expendable external fuel and oxidizer tank, and three reusable Space Shuttle Main Engines. Both the solid rocket motors and space shuttle main engines ignite prior to liftoff, with the solid rocket boosters separating about two minutes into flight. The external tank separates after main engine shutdown and is safely expended in the ocean. The SSME's, integrated into the Space Shuttle Orbiter aft structure, are reused after post landing inspections. Both the solid rocket motors and the space shuttle main engine throttle during early ascent flight to limit aerodynamic loads on the structure. The configuration is called a stage and a half as all the propulsion elements are active during the boost phase, and the SSME's continue operation to achieve orbital velocity approximately eight and a half minutes after liftoff. Design and performance challenges were numerous, beginning with development work in the 1970 s. The solid rocket motors were large, and this technology had never been used for human space flight. The SSME s were both reusable and very high performance staged combustion cycle engines, also unique to the Space Shuttle. The multi body side mount configuration was unique and posed numerous integration and interface challenges across the elements. Operation of the system was complex and time consuming. This paper discusses a number of the system level technical challenges including development and operations.

  19. NESTA: NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Smith, Kevin E.; Boloni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed an agent based tool to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during ground processing of the Shuttle's subsystems. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream and automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation. Sandia National Labs' Java Expert System Shell is employed as the rule engine. The shell's predicate logic lends itself well to capturing the heuristics and specifying the engineering rules of this spaceport domain. The declarative paradigm of the rule-based agent yields a highly modular and scalable design spanning multiple subsystems of the Shuttle. Several hundred monitoring rules have been written thus far with corresponding notifications sent to Shuttle engineers. This paper discusses the rule-based telemetry agent used for Space Shuttle ground processing and explains the problem domain, development of the agent software, benefits of AT technology, and deployment and sustaining engineering of the product.

  20. Space Shuttle: The Renewed Promise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAleer, Neil

    1989-01-01

    NASA celebrated its 30th anniversary in 1988, two days after the Space Shuttle soared into space once more. When Congress approved the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in 1958, the United States had successfully launched only four small satellites and no American astronaut had yet flown in space. In the three decades since, four generations of manned spacecraft have been built and flown, twelve men have walked on the Moon, more than 100 Americans have flown and worked in space, and communications satellites and other Space-Age technologies have transformed life on planet Earth. When NASA's Golden Anniversary is celebrated in 2008, it is likely that men and women will be permanently living and working in space. There may be a base on the Moon, and a manned mission to Mars may only be years away. If a brief history of the first half-century of the Space Age is written for that event, it will show clearly how the exploration of space has altered the course of human history and allowed us to take a better hold of our destiny on and off planet Earth.

  1. Shuttle Upgrade Program: Tile TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Stewart, David A.; DiFiore, Robert; Irby, Ed; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the areas where the thermal protection system on the Space Shuttle Orbiter could be improved is the RSI (Reusable Surface Insulation) tile. The improvement would be in damage resistance that would reduce the resultant maintenance and inspection required. It has performed very well in every other aspect. Improving the system's damage resistance has been the subject of much research over the past several years. One of the results of that research was a new system developed for damage prone areas on the orbiter (i.e., base heat shield). That system, designated as TUFI, Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation, was successfully demonstrated as an experiment on the Orbiter and is now baselined for the base heat shield. This paper describes the results of a current research program to further improve the TUFI tile system, thus making it applicable to more areas on the orbiter. The way to remove the current limitations of the TUFI system (i.e., weight or thermal conductivity differences between it and the baseline tile (LI-900)) is to improve the characteristics of LI-900 or AETB-8. Specifically this paper describes the results of two efforts. The first shows performance data of an improved LI-900 system involving the application of TUFI and the second describes data that shows a reduced difference in thermal conductivity between the advanced TUFI substrate (AETB-8) now used on the orbiter and LI-900.

  2. Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program: Changes in Shuttle Post Challenger and Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrell, George

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the legacy of successes in the space shuttle program particularly with regards to the changes in the culture of NASA's organization after the Challenger and Columbia accidents and some of the changes to the shuttles that were made manifest as a result of the accidents..

  3. Revitalizing the hydrodynamic support for space shuttle. [adaptation of Saturn V hydrodynamic support to space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sholes, G.

    1975-01-01

    The condition of the equipment retained from the Saturn V hydrodynamic support (HDS) is described along with the work necessary to supplement, modify, and refurbish it for the space shuttle mated vehicle ground vibration test (MVGVT). The design changes necessary to adapt the Saturn V HDS design for the space shuttle are described and the results of the inventory and inspection are given.

  4. Infrared spectral measurement of space shuttle glow

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadijian, M.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared spectral measurements of the space shuttle glow were successfully conducted during the STS-39 space shuttle mission. Analysis indicates that NO, NO[sup +], OH, and CO are among the molecules associated with the infrared glow phenomenon. During orbiter thruster firings the glow intensities in the infrared are enhanced by factors of 10x to 100x with significant changes in spectral distribution. These measurements were obtained with the Spacecraft Kinetic Infrared Test (SKIRT) payload which included a cryogenic infrared circular variable filter (CVF) spectrometer (0.6 [mu]m to 5.4 [mu]) and a number of infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiometers (0.2 [mu]m to 5.4 [mu]m and 9.9 [mu]m to 10.4 [mu]m). In addition, glow measurements were unsuccessfully attempted with the Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS-1A) with its 2.5 [mu]m to 25 [mu]m Fourier transform interferometer. SKIRT CVF obtained over 14,000 spectra of quiescent shuttle glow, thruster enhanced shuttle glow, upper atmosphere airglow, aurora, orbiter environment, and deep space non-glow backgrounds during its eight day mission. The SKIRT radiometers operated almost continuously throughout the mission to provide a detailed history of the IR/VIS/UV optical environment associated with the operation of large spacecraft structures in low earth orbit. This dissertation will primarily address those measurements conducted by the SKIRT spectrometer as they relate to space shuttle glow in the infrared. The STS-39 Space Shuttle Discovery was launched from the NASA Kennedy Space Center on 28 April 1991 into a 57 degree inclination circular orbit at an altitude of 260 km.

  5. Shuttle Propulsion Overview - The Design Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The major elements of the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System include two reusable solid rocket motors integrated into recoverable solid rocket boosters, an expendable external fuel and oxidizer tank, and three reusable Space Shuttle Main Engines. Both the solid rocket motors and space shuttle main engines ignite prior to liftoff, with the solid rocket boosters separating about two minutes into flight. The external tank separates, about eight and a half minutes into the flight, after main engine shutdown and is safely expended in the ocean. The SSME's, integrated into the Space Shuttle Orbiter aft structure, are reused after post landing inspections. The configuration is called a stage and a half as all the propulsion elements are active during the boost phase, with only the SSME s continuing operation to achieve orbital velocity. Design and performance challenges were numerous, beginning with development work in the 1970's. The solid rocket motors were large, and this technology had never been used for human space flight. The SSME s were both reusable and very high performance staged combustion cycle engines, also unique to the Space Shuttle. The multi body side mount configuration was unique and posed numerous integration and interface challenges across the elements. Operation of the system was complex and time consuming. This paper describes the design challenges and key areas where the design evolved during the program.

  6. Space Shuttle Atlantis after RSS rollback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lights on the Fixed Service Structure give a holiday impression at Launch Pad 39A where Space Shuttle Atlantis is poised for launch. Above the yellow-orange external tank is the Gaseous Oxygen Vent Arm, with the '''beanie cap''' vent hood raised. Before cryogenic loading, the hood will be lowered into position over the external tank vent louvers to vent gaseous oxygen vapors away from the Shuttle. Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the International Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11- day mission. Launch is targeted for 6:11 p.m. EST and the planned landing at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program.

  7. STS-57 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fourth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-58); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-059. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L032A for the left SRB and 360W032B for the right SRB. The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement, as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document states that each major organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies.

  8. STS-64 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-64 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-66; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-068. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L041 A for the left SRB, and 360L041 B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), and to deploy the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) -201 payload. The secondary objectives were to perform the planned activities of the Robot Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment - 2 (SAREX-2), the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment, the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) payload, the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST) experiment, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS) payload.

  9. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Debris Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Kristin; Kanner, Howard; Yu, Weiping

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia Accident revealed a fundamental problem of the Space Shuttle Program regarding debris. Prior to the tragedy, the Space Shuttle requirement stated that no debris should be liberated that would jeopardize the flight crew and/or mission success. When the accident investigation determined that a large piece of foam debris was the primary cause of the loss of the shuttle and crew, it became apparent that the risk and scope of - damage that could be caused by certain types of debris, especially - ice and foam, were not fully understood. There was no clear understanding of the materials that could become debris, the path the debris might take during flight, the structures the debris might impact or the damage the impact might cause. In addition to supporting the primary NASA and USA goal of returning the Space Shuttle to flight by understanding the SRB debris environment and capability to withstand that environment, the SRB debris assessment project was divided into four primary tasks that were required to be completed to support the RTF goal. These tasks were (1) debris environment definition, (2) impact testing, (3) model correlation and (4) hardware evaluation. Additionally, the project aligned with USA's corporate goals of safety, customer satisfaction, professional development and fiscal accountability.

  10. STS-31 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-31 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-34/LWT-27), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) (designated as BI-037). The primary objective of the mission was to place the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) into a 330 nmi. circular orbit having an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), IMAX Crew Compartment Camera, and Ion Arc payloads. In addition, 12 development test objectives (DTO's) and 10 detailed supplementary objectives (DSO's) were assigned to the flight. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystems during the mission are summarized, and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Space Shuttle Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  11. Space shuttle molecular and wake vacuum measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Carignan, G. R.; Miller, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    The wake environment of the space shuttle is analyzed to determine whether it is feasible to perform ultrahigh vacuum experiments in or near the payload bay with the shuttle oriented such that the payload bay faces the antivelocity direction. Several mechanisms were considered by which molecules could approach the payload bay from this direction and their relative contributions to the wake environment are estimated. These mechanisms include ambient atmospheric molecules that have velocities in excess of the orbital velocity which can overtake the shuttle, ambient atmospheric molecules that are backscattered by collisions with the shuttle induced atmosphere, and self scattering from the induced atmosphere. These estimates are compared with the measurements made with the collimated mass spectrometer which was part of the Induced Environment Contamination Monitor flown on several of the early shuttle flights. Although the collimated mass spectrometer was not designed for this purpose and the instrument background for the species for which the collimator is effective is above the expected levels, upper limits can be established for these species in the wake environment which are consistent with the analysis. There was considerably more helium and argon observed in the wake direction than was predicted, however. Possible origins of these gases are discussed.

  12. Space Shuttle Navigation in the GPS Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle navigation architecture was originally designed in the 1970s. A variety of on-board and ground based navigation sensors and computers are used during the ascent, orbit coast, rendezvous, (including proximity operations and docking) and entry flight phases. With the advent of GPS navigation and tightly coupled GPS/INS Units employing strapdown sensors, opportunities to improve and streamline the Shuttle navigation process are being pursued. These improvements can potentially result in increased safety, reliability, and cost savings in maintenance through the replacement of older technologies and elimination of ground support systems (such as Tactical Air Control and Navigation (TACAN), Microwave Landing System (MLS) and ground radar). Selection and missionization of "off the shelf" GPS and GPS/INS units pose a unique challenge since the units in question were not originally designed for the Space Shuttle application. Various options for integrating GPS and GPS/INS units with the existing orbiter avionics system were considered in light of budget constraints, software quality concerns, and schedule limitations. An overview of Shuttle navigation methodology from 1981 to the present is given, along with how GPS and GPS/INS technology will change, or not change, the way Space Shuttle navigation is performed in the 21 5 century.

  13. Space Shuttle Main Engine Debris Testing Methodology and Impact Tolerances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R.; Stephens, Walter

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster every effort is being made to determine the susceptibility of Space Shuttle elements to debris impacts. Ice and frost debris is formed around the aft heat shield closure of the orbiter and liquid hydrogen feedlines. This debris has been observed to liberate upon lift-off of the shuttle and presents potentially dangerous conditions to the Space Shuttle Main Engine. This paper describes the testing done to determine the impact tolerance of the Space Shuttle Main Engine nozzle coolant tubes to ice strikes originating from the launch pad or other parts of the shuttle.

  14. Environmental protection requirements for scout/shuttle auxiliary stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qualls, G. L.; Kress, S. S.; Storey, W. W.; Ransdell, P. N.

    1980-01-01

    The requirements for enabling the Scout upper stages to endure the expected temperature, mechanical shock, acoustical and mechanical vibration environments during a specified shuttle mission were determined. The study consisted of: determining a shuttle mission trajectory for a 545 kilogram (1200 pound) Scout payload; compilation of shuttle environmental conditions; determining of Scout upper stages environments in shuttle missions; compilation of Scout upper stages environmental qualification criteria and comparison to shuttle mission expected environments; and recommendations for enabling Scout upper stages to endure the exptected shuttle mission environments.

  15. Shuttle Liquid Fly Back Booster Configuration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, Thomas J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper surveys the basic configuration options available to a Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB), integrated with the Space Shuttle system. The background of the development of the LFBB concept is given. The influence of the main booster engine (BME) installations and the fly back engine (FBE) installation on the aerodynamic configurations are also discussed. Limits on the LFBB configuration design space imposed by the existing Shuttle flight and ground elements are also described. The objective of the paper is to put the constrains and design space for an LFBB in perspective. The object of the work is to define LFBB configurations that significantly improve safety, operability, reliability and performance of the Shuttle system and dramatically lower operations costs.

  16. Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Launched February 11, 2000, the STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) was the most ambitious Earth mapping mission to date. This illustration shows the Space Shuttle Endeavour orbiting some 145 miles (233 kilometers) above Earth. With C-band and X-band outboard anternae at work, one located in the Shuttle bay and the other located on the end of a 60-meter deployable mast, the SRTM radar was able to penetrate clouds as well as provide its own illumination, independent of daylight, obtaining 3-dimentional topographic images of the world's surface up to the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. The mission completed 222 hours of around the clock radar mapping, gathering enough information to fill more than 20,000 CDs.

  17. A high resolution ultraviolet Shuttle glow spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, George R.

    1993-01-01

    The High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectrograph-B (HRSGS-B) is a small payload being developed by the Naval Research Laboratory. It is intended for study of shuttle surface glow in the 180-400 nm near- and middle-ultraviolet wavelength range, with a spectral resolution of 0.2 nm. It will search for, among other possible features, the band systems of excited NO which result from surface-catalyzed combination of N and O. It may also detect O2 Hertzberg bands and N2 Vegard-Kaplan bands resulting from surface recombination. This wavelength range also includes possible N2+ and OH emissions. The HRSGS-B will be housed in a Get Away Special canister, mounted in the shuttle orbiter payload bay, and will observe the glow on the tail of the orbiter.

  18. Shuttle inspection team recognized for 'eagle eyes.'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin (left) applauds the Space Shuttle ice and debris inspection team who were recognized for their keen safety observations prior to the launch of Space Shuttle Discovery. Standing next to Goldin are (left to right) D. Scott Otto, with Lockheed Martin Space Services Company; John B. Blue, Thomas F. Ford and Michael Barber, with United Space Alliance; Gregory N. Katnik and Jorge E. Rivera, with NASA. Katnick and Rivera received the agency's Exceptional Achievement Medal; Barber, Blue, Ford and Otto received the NASA Public Service Medal. While scanning the launch pad before launch, the team found a stray 4-inch pin near the Shuttle's external fuel tank that could have caused damage during launch. Discovery was safely launched the next day, on Oct. 11.

  19. Shuttle unified navigation filter, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, E. S., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Equations designed to meet the navigation requirements of the separate shuttle mission phases are presented in a series of reports entitled, Space Shuttle GN and C Equation Document. The development of these equations is based on performance studies carried out for each particular mission phase. Although navigation equations have been documented separately for each mission phase, a single unified navigation filter design is embodied in these separate designs. The purpose of this document is to present the shuttle navigation equations in a form in which they would most likely be coded-as the single unified navigation filter used in each mission phase. This document will then serve as a single general reference for the navigation equations replacing each of the individual mission phase navigation documents (which may still be used as a description of a particular navigation phase).

  20. STS-36 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mechelay, Joseph E.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-36 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle and the sixth flight of the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle, Atlantis. In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-33/LWT-26), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2029), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) (designated as BI-036). The STS-36 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as such, the classified portions of the mission are not discussed. The unclassified sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  1. STS-49: Space shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-49 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the first flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavor vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-43 (LWT-36); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's designated as BI-050. The lightweight RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated as 360L022A for the left RSRM and 360L022B for the right RSRM.

  2. Space Shuttle Pinhole Formation Mechanism Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1998-01-01

    Pinholes have been observed to form on the wing leading edge of the space shuttle after about 10-15 flights. In this report we expand upon previous observations by Christensen (1) that these pinholes often form along cracks and are associated with a locally zinc-rich area. The zinc appears to come from weathering and peeling paint on the launch structure. Three types of experimental examinations are performed to understand this issue further: (A) Detailed microstructural examination of actual shuttle pinholes (B) Mass spectrometric studies of coupons containing, actual shuttle pinholes and (C) Laboratory furnace studies of ZnO/SiC reactions and ZnO/SiC protected carbon/carbon reaction. On basis of these observations we present a detailed mechanism of pinhole formation due to formation of a corrosive ZnO-Na-2-O-SiO2 ternary glass, which flows into existing cracks and enlarges them.

  3. STS-48 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-48 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-42 (LUT-35); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2107 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-046. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L018A for the left SRB and 360L018B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the flight was to successfully deploy the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) payload.

  4. Post-Shuttle EVA Operations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Bill; Witt, Vincent; Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    The EVA hardware used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed with the assumption that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for ground processing, refurbishment, or failure investigation (if necessary). With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (EMU, Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support equipment and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2016 and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, NASA and the One EVA contractor team jointly initiated the EVA 2010 Project. Challenges were addressed to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, and protect EMU hardware operability on orbit for long durations.

  5. STS-51 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-51 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the payloads as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB), redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-seventh flight of the space shuttle program and seventeenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-59; three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2034, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-060. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W033A for the left SRB and 360L033B for the right SRB.

  6. STS-56 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-56 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-54); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-058. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L031A for the left SRB and 360L031B for the right SRB.

  7. Shuttle Case Study Collection Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    As a continuation from summer 2012, the Shuttle Case Study Collection has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. Decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle is gathered into a single database to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes. The goal is to provide additional engineering materials that enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. During this second phase of the project, the Shuttle Case Study Collection website was developed. Extensive HTML coding to link downloadable documents, videos, and images was required, as was training to learn NASA's Content Management System (CMS) for website design. As the final stage of the collection development, the website is designed to allow for distribution of information to the public as well as for case study report submissions from other educators online.

  8. STS-40 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-40 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-first flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-41 (LWT-34), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2022, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-044. The primary objective of the STS-40 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Getaway Special (GAS) payloads and the Middeck O-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) payload.

  9. Shuttle Orbiter Uplink Text and Graphics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, A. A.; Land, C. K.; Lipoma, P. C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents the definition of requirements for and current design of the Shuttle Orbiter Uplink Text and Graphics System (UT&GS). Beginning in early 1981, the UT&GS will support Shuttle flights by providing the capability of transmitting single-frame imagery from the ground to the orbiting Shuttle vehicle. Such imagery is in the form of maps, text, diagrams, or photographs, and is outputted on the Orbiter as a paper hard copy. Four modes of operation will be provided to minimize the time required to transmit less than full-resolution imagery. This paper discusses the considerations and complications leading to the four modes and associated resolution requirements. The paper also presents the design of the CCD array ground scanner and airborne CRT hardcopier.

  10. STS-58 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-58 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the payload activities as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB) and redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-eighth mission of the space shuttle program and fifteenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-57); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2109, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-061. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L034A for the left SRB and 360W034B for the right SRB.

  11. STS-39 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-39 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the fortieth flight of the Space Shuttle and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-46 (LWT-39); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2026, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-043. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS), Air Force Payload (AFP)-675, Space Test Payload (STP)-1, and the Multipurpose Experiment Canister (MPEC) payloads.

  12. STS-59 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-63; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-065. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W037A (welterweight) for the left SRB, and 360H037B (heavyweight) for the right SRB. This STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-59 mission was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-1 (SRL-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Space Tissue Loss-A (STL-A) and STL-B payloads, the Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4) payload, the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2) experiment, the Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-4 (CONCAP-4), and the three Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  13. STS-60 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixtieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and eighteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated at ET-61 (Block 10); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-062. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L035A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360Q035B (quarterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VIII, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-60 mission were to deploy and retrieve the Wake Shield Facility-1 (WSF-1), and to activate the Spacehab-2 payload and perform on-orbit experiments. Secondary objectives of this flight were to activate and command the Capillary Pumped Loop/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres/Breman Satellite Experiment/Getaway Special (GAS) Bridge Assembly (CAPL/ODERACS/BREMSAT/GBA) payload, the Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-II (SAREX-II).

  14. Scintillation Effects on Space Shuttle GPS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.; Kramer, Leonard

    2001-01-01

    Irregularities in ionospheric electron density result in variation in amplitude and phase of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals, or scintillation. GPS receivers tracking scintillated signals may lose carrier phase or frequency lock in the case of phase sc intillation. Amplitude scintillation can cause "enhancement" or "fading" of GPS signals and result in loss of lock. Scintillation can occur over the equatorial and polar regions and is a function of location, time of day, season, and solar and geomagnetic activity. Mid latitude regions are affected only very rarely, resulting from highly disturbed auroral events. In the spring of 1998, due to increasing concern about scintillation of GPS signals during the upcoming solar maximum, the Space Shuttle Program began to assess the impact of scintillation on Collins Miniaturized Airborne GPS Receiver (MAGR) units that are to replace Tactical Air Control and Navigation (TACAN) units on the Space Shuttle orbiters. The Shuttle Program must determine if scintillation effects pose a threat to safety of flight and mission success or require procedural and flight rule changes. Flight controllers in Mission Control must understand scintillation effects on GPS to properly diagnose "off nominal" GPS receiver performance. GPS data from recent Space Shuttle missions indicate that the signals tracked by the Shuttle MAGR manifest scintillation. Scintillation is observed as anomalous noise in velocity measurements lasting for up to 20 minutes on Shuttle orbit passes and are not accounted for in the error budget of the MAGR accuracy parameters. These events are typically coincident with latitude and local time occurrence of previously identified equatorial spread F within about 20 degrees of the magnetic equator. The geographic and seasonal history of these events from ground-based observations and a simple theoretical model, which have potential for predicting events for operational purposes, are reviewed.

  15. STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  16. An Analysis of Shuttle Crew Scheduling Violations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristol, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    From the early years of the Space Shuttle program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle crews have had a timeline of activities to guide them through their time on-orbit. Planners used scheduling constraints to build timelines that ensured the health and safety of the crews. If a constraint could not be met it resulted in a violation. Other agencies of the federal government also have scheduling constraints to ensure the safety of personnel and the public. This project examined the history of Space Shuttle scheduling constraints, constraints from Federal agencies and branches of the military and how these constraints may be used as a guide for future NASA and private spacecraft. This was conducted by reviewing rules and violations with regard to human aerospace scheduling constraints, environmental, political, social and technological factors, operating environment and relevant human factors. This study includes a statistical analysis of Shuttle Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) related violations to determine if these were a significant producer of constraint violations. It was hypothesized that the number of SCSC violations caused by EVA activities were a significant contributor to the total number of violations for Shuttle/ISS missions. Data was taken from NASA data archives at the Johnson Space Center from Space Shuttle/ISS missions prior to the STS-107 accident. The results of the analysis rejected the null hypothesis and found that EVA violations were a significant contributor to the total number of violations. This analysis could help NASA and commercial space companies understand the main source of constraint violations and allow them to create constraint rules that ensure the safe operation of future human private and exploration missions. Additional studies could be performed to evaluate other variables that could have influenced the scheduling violations that were analyzed.

  17. Turbulence indicators for Space Shuttle launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susko, Michael

    1992-01-01

    A report on the research and analysis for identifying turbulent regions from the surface to 16 km for Space Shuttle launches is presented. The research demonstrates that the results from the FPS-16 radar/jimsphere balloon system in measuring winds can indicate the presence of or conditions ripe for turbulence in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. It is shown that atmospheric data obtained during the Shuttle launches by the rawinsonde in conjunction with the jimsphere provide the necessary meteorological data to compute aerodynamic parameters to identify turbulence.

  18. Shuttle/TDRSS communications system performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the performance analysis performed on the Shuttle/Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) communications system are presented. The existing Shuttle/TDRSS link simulation program were modified and refined to model the post-radio frequency interference TDRS hardware and to evaluate the performance degradation due to RFI effects. The refined link models were then used to determine, evaluate and assess expected S-band and Ku-band link performance. Parameterization results are presented for the ground station carrier and timing recovery circuits

  19. Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour STS-47 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke on September 12, 1992. The primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was the Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  20. A Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brose, H. F.; Stanley, M. D.; Leblanc, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System (RSECS) provides a ground test bed to be used in the early accumulation of component and system operating data, the evaluation of potential system improvements, and possibly the analysis of Shuttle Orbiter test and flight anomalies. Selected components are being subjected to long term tests to determine endurance and corrosion resistance capability prior to Orbiter vehicle experience. Component and system level tests in several cases are being used to support flight certification of Orbiter hardware. These activities are conducted as a development program to allow for timeliness, flexibility, and cost effectiveness not possible in a program burdened by flight documentation and monitoring constraints.

  1. Scientific uses of the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the possible missions which could be accomplished by the space shuttle. The areas of scientific endeavor which were considered are as follows: (1) atmospheric and space physics, (2) high energy astrophysics, (3) infrared astronomy, (4) optical and ultraviolet astronomy, (5) solar physics, (6) life sciences, and (7) planetary exploration. Specific projects to be conducted in these broader areas are defined. The modes of operation of the space shuttle are analyzed. Instruments and equipment required for conducting the experiments are identified.

  2. Shuttle Student Involvement Project for Secondary Schools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. P.; Ladwig, A.

    1981-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated the Shuttle Student Involvement Project for Secondary Schools (SSIP-S), an annual nationwide competition to select student proposals for experiments suitable for flight aboard the Space Shuttle. The objective of the project is to stimulate the study of science and technology in grades 9 through 12 by directly relating students to a space research program. This paper will analyze the first year of the project from a standpoint of how the competition was administered; the number and types of proposals that were submitted; and will discuss the process involved in preparing the winning experiments for eventual flight.

  3. Space Shuttle Orbital Drag Parachute Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerson, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    The drag parachute system was added to the Space Shuttle Orbiter's landing deceleration subsystem beginning with flight STS-49 in May 1992. The addition of this subsystem to an existing space vehicle required a detailed set of ground tests and analyses. The aerodynamic design and performance testing of the system consisted of wind tunnel tests, numerical simulations, pilot-in-the-loop simulations, and full-scale testing. This analysis and design resulted in a fully qualified system that is deployed on every flight of the Space Shuttle.

  4. Study of alternate space shuttle concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A study of alternate space shuttle concepts was conducted to examine the stage-and-one-half concept and its potential for later conversion and use in the two stage reusable shuttle system. A study of external hydrogen tank concepts was conducted to determine the issues involved in the design and production of a low-cost expendable tank system. The major objectives of the study were to determine: (1) realistic drop tank program cost estimates, (2) estimated drop tank program cost for selected specific designs, and (3) change in program cost due to variations in design and manufacturing concepts and changes in program assumptions.

  5. Post-Shuttle EVA Operations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William; Witt, Vincent; Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    The expected retirement of the NASA Space Transportation System (also known as the Space Shuttle ) by 2011 will pose a significant challenge to Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The EVA hardware currently used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed assuming that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for refurbishment, or if necessary for failure investigation. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support hardware and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2015, and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, the EVA 2010 Project was jointly initiated by NASA and the One EVA contractor team. The challenges addressed were to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, to secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, to protect for EMU hardware operability on-orbit, and to determine the source of high water purity to support recharge of PLSSs (no longer available via Shuttle). EVA 2010 Project includes the following tasks: the development of a launch fixture that would allow the EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to be launched on-board alternate vehicles; extension of the EMU hardware maintenance interval from 3 years (current certification) to a minimum of 6 years (to extend to 2015); testing of recycled ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) water for use in the EMU cooling system in lieu of water resupplied by International Partner (IP) vehicles; development of techniques to remove & replace critical components in the PLSS on-orbit (not routine); extension of on-orbit certification of EVA tools; and development of an EVA hardware logistical plan to support the ISS without the Space Shuttle. Assumptions for the EVA 2010 Project included no more

  6. Toward a history of the space shuttle. An annotated bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launius, Roger D.; Gillette, Aaron K.

    1992-12-01

    This selective, annotated bibliography discusses those works judged to be most essential for researchers writing scholarly studies on the Space Shuttle's history. A thematic arrangement of material concerning the Space Shuttle will hopefully bring clarity and simplicity to such a complex subject. Subjects include the precursors of the Space Shuttle, its design and development, testing and evaluation, and operations. Other topics revolve around the Challenger accident and its aftermath, promotion of the Space Shuttle, science on the Space Shuttle, commercial uses, the Space Shuttle's military implications, its astronaut crew, the Space Shuttle and international relations, the management of the Space Shuttle Program, and juvenile literature. Along with a summary of the contents of each item, judgments have been made on the quality, originality, or importance of some of these publications. An index concludes this work.

  7. Macro Level Simulation Model Of Space Shuttle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Space Shuttle Processing Simulation Model; 2) Knowledge Acquisition; 3) Simulation Input Analysis; 4) Model Applications in Current Shuttle Environment; and 5) Model Applications for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV's). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  8. Aerodynamic and base heating studies on space shuttle configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Heating rate and pressure measurements were obtained on a 25-O space shuttle model in a vacuum chamber. Correlation data on windward laminar and turbulent boundary layers and leeside surfaces of the space shuttle orbiter are included.

  9. Toward a history of the space shuttle. An annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D. (Compiler); Gillette, Aaron K. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This selective, annotated bibliography discusses those works judged to be most essential for researchers writing scholarly studies on the Space Shuttle's history. A thematic arrangement of material concerning the Space Shuttle will hopefully bring clarity and simplicity to such a complex subject. Subjects include the precursors of the Space Shuttle, its design and development, testing and evaluation, and operations. Other topics revolve around the Challenger accident and its aftermath, promotion of the Space Shuttle, science on the Space Shuttle, commercial uses, the Space Shuttle's military implications, its astronaut crew, the Space Shuttle and international relations, the management of the Space Shuttle Program, and juvenile literature. Along with a summary of the contents of each item, judgments have been made on the quality, originality, or importance of some of these publications. An index concludes this work.

  10. On the Wings of a Dream: The Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Air And Space Museum.

    This booklet describes the development, training, and flight of the space shuttle. Topics are: (1) "National Aeronautics and Space Administration"; (2) "The Space Transportation System"; (3) "The 'Enterprise'"; (4) "The Shuttle Orbiter"; (5) "Solid Rocket Boosters"; (6) "The External…

  11. STS-1: the first space shuttle mission, April 12, 1981

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle Columbia launched on the first space shuttle mission on April 12, 1981, a two-day demonstration of the first reusable, piloted spacecraft's ability to go into orbit and return safely ...

  12. Space Operations Center, shuttle interaction study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implication of using the Shuttle with the SOC, including constraints that the Shuttle places upon the SOC design is studied. The considerations involved in the use of the Shuttle as a part of the SOC concept, and the constraints to the SOC imposed by the Shuttle in its interactions with the SOC, and on the design or technical solutions which allow satisfactory accomplishment of the interactions are identified.

  13. Phase C aerothermodynamic data base. [for space shuttle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Summary listings of published documentation of SADSAC processed data arranged chronologically and by shuttle configuration are presented to provide an up-to-date record of all applicable aerothermodynamic data collected, processed, or summarized in the course of the space shuttle program. The various tables or listings are designed to provide survey information to the various space shuttle managerial and technical levels. The various listings of the shuttle test data information, the list contents, and the purpose are described.

  14. Economic analysis of the space shuttle system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of the space shuttle system is presented. The analysis is based on economic benefits, recurring costs, non-recurring costs, and ecomomic tradeoff functions. The most economic space shuttle configuration is determined on the basis of: (1) objectives of reusable space transportation system, (2) various space transportation systems considered and (3) alternative space shuttle systems.

  15. Landing Profile Development During the Early Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobko, Karol Joseph

    2012-01-01

    I was asked to speak about my experiences as an astronaut during the early Shuttle program. There were many challenging and exciting things that I participated in during the Shuttle program but the item I believe is most appropriate for this audience is the development of the landing trajectory for both manual and automatic landings of the Space Shuttle.

  16. Astronaut Curtis Brown works with SAMS on Shuttle Atlantis middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Atlantis' mid-deck, astronaut Curtis L. Brown, pilot, works with the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), which is making its eleventh Shuttle flight. This system supports the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiments onboard by collecting and recording data characterizing the microgravity environment in the Shuttle mid-deck.

  17. Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) - Shuttle Enterprise landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This video is an edited approach and landing of the Enterprise on Rogers Dry Lake. The air-to-air shot of the Space Shuttle at a few thousand feet above the lakebed, gives some idea of the steepness required for a Shuttle approach; also note the long pitot tube (an appendage used only for flight testing) extending from the Space Shuttle nose.

  18. STS-37 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-37 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eighth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-37/LWT-30); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2107 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-042. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) payload. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) Block 2 version, Radiation Monitoring Experiment-3 (RME-3), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), Bioserve Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA), and the Crew and Equipment Transfer Aids (CETA) payloads.

  19. STS-67 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-67 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides the results of the orbiter vehicle performance evaluation during this sixty-eighth flight of the Shuttle Program, the forty-third flight since the return to flight, and the eighth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition, the report summarizes the payload activities and the performance of the External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME). The serial numbers of the other elements of the flight vehicle were ET-69 for the ET; 2012, 2033, and 2031 for SSME's 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and Bl-071 for the SRB's. The left-hand RSRM was designated 360W043A, and the right-hand RSRM was designated 360L043B. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the ultraviolet astronomy (ASTRO-2) payload. Secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Protein Crystal Growth - Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES), the Protein Crystal Growth - Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus ITA Experiments (CMIX), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), and two Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  20. Space Shuttle Mission Sequence-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This diagram illustrates the Space Shuttle mission sequence. The Space Shuttle was approved as a national program in 1972 and developed through the 1970s. Part spacecraft and part aircraft, the Space Shuttle orbiter, the brain and the heart of the Space Transportation System (STS), required several technological advances, including thousands of insulating tiles able to stand the heat of reentry over the course of many missions, as well as sophisticated engines that could be used again and again without being thrown away. The airplane-like orbiter has three main engines, that burn liquid hydrogen and oxygen stored in the large external tank, the single largest structure in the Shuttle. Attached to the tank are two solid rocket boosters that provide the vehecile with most of the thrust needed for liftoff. Two minutes into the flight, the spent solids drop into the ocean to be recovered and refurbished for reuse, while the orbiter engines continue burning until approximately 8 minutes into the flight. After the mission is completed, the orbiter lands on a runway like an airplane.

  1. Space Shuttle Light Weight External Tank Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a cutaway illustration of the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) with callouts. The giant cylinder, higher than a 15-story building, with a length of 154-feet (47-meters) and a diameter of 27.5-feet (8.4-meters), is the largest single piece of the Space Shuttle. During launch, the ET also acts as a backbone for the orbiter and solid rocket boosters. Separate pressurized tank sections within the external tank hold the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer for the Shuttle's three main engines. During launch, the ET feeds the fuel under pressure through 17-inch (43.2-centimeter) ducts that branch off into smaller lines that feed directly into the main engines. The main engines consume 64,000 gallons (242,260 liters) of fuel each minute. Machined from aluminum alloys, the Space Shuttle's external tank is currently the only part of the launch vehicle that is not reused. After its 526,000-gallons (1,991,071 liters) of propellants are consumed during the first 8.5-minutes of flight, it is jettisoned from the orbiter and breaks up in the upper atmosphere, its pieces falling into remote ocean waters. The Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for developing the ET.

  2. Shuttle orbiter storage locker system: A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, D. R.; Schowalter, D. T.; Weil, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    Study has been made to assure maximum utility of storage space and crew member facilities in planned space shuttle orbiter. Techniques discussed in this study should be of interest to designers of storage facilities in which space is at premium and vibration is severe. Manufacturers of boats, campers, house trailers, and aircraft could benefit from it.

  3. Astronomical observatory for shuttle. Phase A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthals, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The design, development, and configuration of the astronomical observatory for shuttle are discussed. The characteristics of the one meter telescope in the spaceborne observatory are described. A variety of basic spectroscopic and image recording instruments and detectors which will permit a large variety of astronomical observations are reported. The stDC 37485elines which defined the components of the observatory are outlined.

  4. Space Shuttle ascent guidance, navigation, and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchenry, R. L.; Long, A. D.; Cockrell, B. F.; Thibodeau, J. R., III; Brand, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The factors leading to the particular design of the Shuttle guidance, navigation and control software are discussed. The derivation of explicit guidance equations satisfying a wide range of different maneuver constraints and steering equations that create attitude steering errors from the guidance solutions is presented, as are navigation equations, and equations for identifying faulty instruments from sets of redundant instrument measurements.

  5. Shuttle orbter fuel cell power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This is one of the three fuel cells that make up the generating system which provides electrical power to the space shuttle orbiter. Each unit measures 14 inches (35 centimeters) high, 15 inches (38 centimeters) wide, 40 inches (101 centimeters) long and weighs 200 pounds.

  6. Shuttle-Car System for Continuous Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Buffer storage catches coal production between loadings. Telescoping reservoir filled continuously. With tailgate down, shuttle car slides into place along sides and bottom of reservoir. Reservoir retracts along inside of car and out through tailgate, leaving coal behind in car. System not restricted to coal mining and may prove economical for hauling other solid materials.

  7. Space shuttle visual simulation system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The current and near-future state-of-the-art in visual simulation equipment technology is related to the requirements of the space shuttle visual system. Image source, image sensing, and displays are analyzed on a subsystem basis, and the principal conclusions are used in the formulation of a recommended baseline visual system. Perceptibility and visibility are also analyzed.

  8. Space shuttle program: Lightning protection criteria document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The lightning environment for space shuttle design is defined and requirements that the design must satisfy to insure protection of the vehicle system from direct and indirect effects of lightning are imposed. Specifications, criteria, and guidelines included provide a practical and logical approach to protection problems.

  9. Space Shuttle Technical Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaffee, N. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Articles providing a retrospective presentation and documentation of the key scientific and engineering achievements of the Space Shuttle Program are compiled. Topics areas include: (1) integrated avionics; (2) guidance, navigation, and control; (3) aerodynamics; (4) structures; (5) life support; environmental control; and crew station; and (6) ground operations.

  10. Space Shuttle Atlantis after RSS rollback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This closeup reveals Space Shuttle Atlantis after rollback of the Rotating Service Structure. Extended to the side of Atlantis is the orbiter access arm, with the White Room at its end. The White Room provides entry for the crew into Atlantis's cockpit. Below Atlantis, on either side of the tail are the tail service masts. They support the fluid, gas and electrical requirements of the orbiter's liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen aft T-0 umbilicals. Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the International Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. Launch is targeted for 6:11 p.m. EST and the planned landing at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program.

  11. Microbiology studies in the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    Past space microbiology studies have evaluated three general areas: microbe detection in extraterrestrial materials; monitoring of autoflora and medically important species on crewmembers, equipment, and cabin air; and in vitro evaluations of isolated terrestrial species carried on manned and unmanned spaceflights. These areas are briefly reviewed to establish a basis for presenting probable experiment subjects applicable to the Space Shuttle era. Most extraterrestrial life detection studies involve visitations to other heavenly bodies. Although this is not applicable to the first series of Shuttle flights, attempts to capture meteors and spores in space could be important. Human pathogen and autoflora monitoring will become more important with increased variety among crewmembers. Inclusion of contaminated animal and plant specimens in the space lab will necessitate inflight evaluation of cross-contamination and infection potentials. The majority of Shuttle microbiology studies will doubtless fall into the third study area. Presence of a space lab will permit a whole range of experimentation under conditions similar to these experienced in earth-based laboratories. The recommendations of various study groups are analyzed, and probable inflight microbiological experiment areas are identified for the Life Sciences Shuttle Laboratory.

  12. STS-50 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-50 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-50 (LUT-43); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2011 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-051. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated 360L024A for the left RSRM and 360M024B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of the STS-50 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) payloads. An additional secondary objective was to meet the requirements of the Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI), which was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  13. STS-41 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-41 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle, Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-39/LWT-32), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-040. The primary objective of the STS-41 mission was to successfully deploy the Ulysses/inertial upper stage (IUS)/payload assist module (PAM-S) spacecraft. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Spectrometer, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Space Life Sciences Training Program Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Voice Command System (VCS), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Radiation Monitoring Experiment - 3 (RME-3), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Air Force Maui Optical Calibration Test (AMOS), and Intelsat Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) payloads. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  14. Probabilistic Modeling of Space Shuttle Debris Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huyse, Luc J.; Asce, M.; Waldhart, Chris J.; Riha, David S.; Larsen, Curtis E.; Gomez, Reynaldo J.; Stuart, Phillip C.

    2007-01-01

    On Feb 1, 2003, the Shuttle Columbia was lost during its return to Earth. As a result of the conclusion that debris impact caused the damage to the left wing of the Columbia Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) during ascent, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommended that an assessment be performed of the debris environment experienced by the SSV during ascent. A flight rationale based on probabilistic assessment is used for the SSV return-to-flight. The assessment entails identifying all potential debris sources, their probable geometric and aerodynamic characteristics, and their potential for impacting and damaging critical Shuttle components. A probabilistic analysis tool, based on the SwRI-developed NESSUS probabilistic analysis software, predicts the probability of impact and damage to the space shuttle wing leading edge and thermal protection system components. Among other parameters, the likelihood of unacceptable damage depends on the time of release (Mach number of the orbiter) and the divot mass as well as the impact velocity and impact angle. A typical result is visualized in the figures below. Probability of impact and damage, as well as the sensitivities thereof with respect to the distribution assumptions, can be computed and visualized at each point on the orbiter or summarized per wing panel or tile zone.

  15. STS-65 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-09-01

    The STS-65 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventeenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbits the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-64; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-066. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360P039A for the left SRB, and 360W039 for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to complete the operation of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II payloads. Additional secondary objectives were to meet the requirements of the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) and the Military Application Ship Tracks (MAST) payloads, which were manifested as payloads of opportunity.

  16. Using Space Shuttle Data in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Allan P.

    1984-01-01

    Describes how to use data from television broadcasts of shuttle launches along with data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) "Educational Briefs for the Classroom" to establish relevant connections of high school physics with the real world. Includes graphs of range/altitude, speed/time, and three tables with launch…

  17. Reliability of a Shuttle reaction timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Russell D.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Rashid, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Reaction, movement, and task times refer to the times needed to initially respond to a stimulus, make the specific movement, and complete the entire task. This study evaluated the reliability of a simple reaction timer designed to mimic a Space Shuttle task (turning on an overhead switch).

  18. Microbial survival in space shuttle crash.

    PubMed

    McLean, Robert J C; Welsh, Allana K; Casasanto, Valerie A

    2006-03-01

    A slow growing, heat resistant bacterium, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Microbispora sp., was recovered from the wreckage of the ill-fated space shuttle Columbia (STS-107). As this organism survived disintegration of the space craft, heat of reentry, and impact, it supports the possibility of a natural mechanism for the interplanetary spread of life by meteorites.

  19. Space Shuttle. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Della

    The teacher's guide and student materials provide elementary and junior high school students with an understanding of the space shuttle as a new kind of transportation for conveying goods and performing services in space. The unit is appropriate for a learning center approach, individual instruction, or use with the entire class. It is organized…

  20. Rockwell Fails in Response to Shuttle Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the contingent media relations policy employed by Rockwell International, the prime contractor for the United States space shuttle program, following the January 28, 1986, destruction of the Challenger. Analyzes Rockwell's response through a theoretical model of crisis perception and Rockwell's policy in relation to the mass media. (MS)

  1. Shuttle applications in tropospheric air quality observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.; Gupta, J.; Carmichael, J.

    1978-01-01

    The role which might be played by the space shuttle in obtaining data which describes the air quality of the north-eastern United States was investigated. The data requirements of users, a model for statistical interpretation of the observations, the influence of orbit parameters on the spatial and temporal sampling and an example of application of the the model were considered.

  2. STS-44 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-44 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-53 (LWT-46); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-047. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L019A for the left SRB and 360W019B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the STS-44 mission was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense (DOD) Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite/inertial upper stage (IUS) into a 195 nmi. earth orbit at an inclination of 28.45 deg. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: Terra Scout, Military Man in Space (M88-1), Air Force Maui Optical System Calibration Test (AMOS), Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM), Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3), Visual Function Tester-1 (VFT-1), and the Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (IOCM) secondary payloads/experiments.

  3. Laser contouring of Space Shuttle tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, P. J.; Minardi, A.; He, Mingli; Shelton, Bret

    Straight through and partial cuts were made in fibrous silicon-based ceramic insulation materials (used on the Space Shuttle) to determine the feasibility of laser machining. Experimental results were accumulated from over 800 exposures to determine the belt conditions for cutting. Laser intensity, feedrate, and other parameters were varied to determine conditions for cutting and are discussed in the paper.

  4. Liftoff of STS-59 Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The liftoff of the Space Shuttle Endeavour is backdropped against a dawn sky at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Trees and water from a nearby marsh outline the lower portion of the view. Liftoff occurred at 7:05 a.m., April 9, 1994.

  5. Launch of STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis returns to work after a refurbishing and a two-year layoff, as liftoff for NASA's STS-66 occurs at noon (EDT), November 3, 1994. A 35mm camera was used to record the image, which includes much of the base of the launch site as well as the launch itself.

  6. Launch of STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis returns to work after a refurbishing and a two-year layoff, as liftoff for NASA's STS-66 occurs at noon (EDT), November 3, 1994. A 70mm camera was used to record the image. Note the vegetation and the reflection of the launch in the water across from the launch pad.

  7. Liftoff of STS-59 Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The liftoff of the Space Shuttle Endeavour is backdropped against a dawn sky at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The morning sky allows for a contrasting backdrop for the diamond shock effect of the thrust from Endeavour's main engines. Trees outline the lower portion of the view. Liftoff occurred at 7:05 a.m., April 9, 1994.

  8. Identification of space shuttle main engine dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duyar, Ahmet; Guo, Ten-Huei; Merrill, Walter C.

    1989-01-01

    System identification techniques are used to represent the dynamic behavior of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The transfer function matrices of the linearized models of both the closed loop and the open loop system are obtained by using the recursive maximum likelihood method.

  9. STS-65 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-65 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventeenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbits the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-64; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-066. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360P039A for the left SRB, and 360W039 for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to complete the operation of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II payloads. Additional secondary objectives were to meet the requirements of the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) and the Military Application Ship Tracks (MAST) payloads, which were manifested as payloads of opportunity.

  10. A Simplified Shuttle Irradiation Facility for ATR

    SciTech Connect

    A. J. Palmer; S. T. Laflin

    1999-08-01

    During the past fifteen years there has been a steady increase in the demand for radioisotopes in nuclear medicine and a corresponding decline in the number of reactors within the U.S. capable of producing them. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is the largest operating test reactor in the U.S., but its isotope production capabilities have been limited by the lack of an installed isotope shuttle irradiation system. A concept for a simple "low cost" shuttle irradiation facility for ATR has been developed. Cost were reduced (in comparison to previous ATR designs) by using a shielded trough of water installed in an occupiable cubicle as a shielding and contamination control barrier for the send and receive station. This shielding concept also allows all control valves to be operated by hand and thus the need for an automatic control system was eliminated. It was determined that 4-5 ft of water would be adequate to shield the isotopes of interest while shuttles are transferred to a small carrier. An additional feature of the current design is a non-isolatable by-pass line, which provides a minimum coolant flow to the test region regardless of which control valves are opened or closed. This by-pass line allows the shuttle facility to be operated without bringing reactor coolant water into the cubicle except for send and receive operations.

  11. STS-52 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-52 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fifty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET (designated as ET-55/LWT-48); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2034 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-054. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L027A for the left SRB and 360Q027B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully deploy the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS-2) and to perform operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-1 (USMP-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Attitude Sensor Package (ASP), the Canadian Experiments-2 (CANEX-2), the Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE), the Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPP), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX), the Physiological System Experiment (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG-Block 2), the Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (SPIE), and the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) payloads.

  12. Shuttle mission simulator hardware conceptual design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The detailed shuttle mission simulator hardware requirements are discussed. The conceptual design methods, or existing technology, whereby those requirements will be fulfilled are described. Information of a general nature on the total design problem plus specific details on how these requirements are to be satisfied are reported. The configuration of the simulator is described and the capabilities for various types of training are identified.

  13. Shuttle Transportation System Case-Study Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Khadijah

    2012-01-01

    A case-study collection was developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Using lessons learned and documented by NASA KSC engineers, analysts, and contractors, decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle was gathered into a single database. The goal was to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes and to enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. Suggested formats were created to assist both external educators and internal NASA employees to develop and contribute their own case-study reports to share with other educators and students. Via group project, class discussion, or open-ended research format, students will be introduced to the unique decision making process related to Shuttle missions and development. Teaching notes, images, and related documents will be made accessible to the public for presentation of Space Shuttle reports. Lessons investigated included the engine cutoff (ECO) sensor anomaly which occurred during mission STS-114. Students will be presented with general mission infom1ation as well as an explanation of ECO sensors. The project will conclude with the design of a website that allows for distribution of information to the public as well as case-study report submissions from other educators online.

  14. STS-47 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-47 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fiftieth Space Shuttle Program flight and the second flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavour vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-45 (LWT-38); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2029 and were located in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-053. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM that was installed in the left SRB was designated 360L026A, and the RSRM that was installed in the right SRB was 360W026B. The primary objective of the STS-47 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab-J (SL-J) payload (containing 43 experiments--of which 34 were provided by the Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA)). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Israeli Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH) payload, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  15. STS-47 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-10-01

    The STS-47 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fiftieth Space Shuttle Program flight and the second flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavour vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-45 (LWT-38); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2029 and were located in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-053. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM that was installed in the left SRB was designated 360L026A, and the RSRM that was installed in the right SRB was 360W026B. The primary objective of the STS-47 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab-J (SL-J) payload (containing 43 experiments--of which 34 were provided by the Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA)). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Israeli Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH) payload, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  16. Launch of STS-60 Shuttle Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Palm trees are silhouetted in the foreground in this 70mm image as the Space Shuttle Discovery heads toward an eight-day mission in Earth orbit. Liftoff occurred as scheduled at 7:10 a.m., February 3, 1994.

  17. Shuttle Repair Tools Automate Vehicle Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Successfully building, flying, and maintaining the space shuttles was an immensely complex job that required a high level of detailed, precise engineering. After each shuttle landed, it entered a maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) phase. Each system was thoroughly checked and tested, and worn or damaged parts replaced, before the shuttle was rolled out for its next mission. During the MRO period, workers needed to record exactly what needed replacing and why, as well as follow precise guidelines and procedures in making their repairs. That meant traceability, and with it lots of paperwork. In 2007, the number of reports generated during electrical system repairs was getting out of hand-placing among the top three systems in terms of paperwork volume. Repair specialists at Kennedy Space Center were unhappy spending so much time at a desk and so little time actually working on the shuttle. "Engineers weren't spending their time doing technical work," says Joseph Schuh, an electrical engineer at Kennedy. "Instead, they were busy with repetitive, time-consuming processes that, while important in their own right, provided a low return on time invested." The strain of such inefficiency was bad enough that slow electrical repairs jeopardized rollout on several occasions. Knowing there had to be a way to streamline operations, Kennedy asked Martin Belson, a project manager with 30 years experience as an aerospace contractor, to co-lead a team in developing software that would reduce the effort required to document shuttle repairs. The result was System Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART) software. SMART is a tool for aggregating and applying information on every aspect of repairs, from procedures and instructions to a vehicle s troubleshooting history. Drawing on that data, SMART largely automates the processes of generating repair instructions and post-repair paperwork. In the case of the space shuttle, this meant that SMART had 30 years worth of operations

  18. STS-78 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-third flight since the return-to-flight, and the twentieth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-79; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2041, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-081. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-55, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360L055A for the left SRB, and 360L055B for the right SRB. The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 7, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab experiments. The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Biological Research in Canister Unit-Block II (BRIC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II-Configuration C (SAREX-II). The STS-78 mission was planned as a 16-day, plus one day flight plus two contingency days, which were available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The sequence of events for the STS-78 mission is shown in Table 1, and the Space Shuttle Vehicle Management Office Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 2. The Government Furnished Equipment/Flight Crew Equipment

  19. Space shuttle: Structural integrity and assessment study. [development of nondestructive test procedures for space shuttle vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, W. M.; Lewis, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    A study program was conducted to determine the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) requirements and to develop a preliminary nondestructive evaluation manual for the entire space shuttle vehicle. The rationale and guidelines for structural analysis and NDE requirements development are discussed. Recommendations for development of NDE technology for the orbiter thermal protection system and certain structural components are included. Recommendations to accomplish additional goals toward space shuttle inspection are presented.

  20. Excitotoxicity by kainate-induced seizure causes diacylglycerol kinase ζ to shuttle from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Saino-Saito, Sachiko; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Goto, Kaoru

    2011-05-02

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), which consists of several isozymes, plays a pivotal role in lipid second-messenger diacylglycerol metabolism. A nuclear isozyme, DGKζ, which is translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in hippocampal neurons under transient ischemic stress, is implicated in nuclear events of delayed neuronal death. Kainate (KA)-induced seizure is another model used to study excitotoxic stress. Therefore, we examined whether DGKζ is implicated in a different type of degenerative excitotoxicity in hippocampal neurons. We conducted immunohistochemical analysis of rat hippocampi after KA-induced seizures. DGKζ in hippocampal neurons shuttles from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. It never relocates to the nucleus during KA-induced seizures. Marked change in the immunoreactivity is first observed in CA1 pyramidal neurons 2h after injection during stage 3 seizures. Immunoreactivity for DGKι remains unchanged in the cytoplasm. That for NeuN remains mostly unchanged in the nucleus. Results show that nucleocytoplasmic translocation of DGKζ also occurs in a different model of excitotoxicity that results in apoptotic neuronal death. Cytoplasmic translocation of DGKζ might be involved in early events of the apoptotic cell death pathway in hippocampal neurons under stressed conditions.

  1. STS-45 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-45 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-44 (LWT-37); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-049. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each of the SRB's were designated as 360L021A for the left SRM and 360W021B for the right SRM. The primary objective of this mission was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-1 (ATLAS-1) and the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV) payloads. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: the Space Tissue Loss-01 (STL-01) experiment; the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) experiment; the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2) experiment; the Cloud Logic to Optimize use of Defense System (CLOUDS-1A) experiment; the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) Configuration B; the Investigation into Polymer Membranes Processing experiment; and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payload G-229. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was a payload of opportunity that required no special maneuvers. In addition to the primary and secondary objectives, the crew was tasked to perform as many as 10 Development Test Objectives (DTO'S) and 14 Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSO's).

  2. Space Shuttle Hot Cabin Emergency Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniak, P.; Effenhauser, R. K.; McCluskey, R.; Gillis, D. B.; Hamilton, D.; Kuznetz, L. H.

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Human thermal tolerance, countermeasures, and thermal model data were reviewed and compared to existing shuttle ECS failure temperature and humidity profiles for each failure mode. Increases in core temperature associated with cognitive impairment was identified, as was metabolic heat generation of crewmembers, temperature monitoring, and communication capabilities after partial power-down and other limiting factors. Orbiter landing strategies and a hydration and salt replacement protocol were developed to put wheels on deck in each failure mode prior to development of significant cognitive impairment or collapse of crewmembers. Thermal tradeoffs for use of the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), Liquid Cooling Garment, integrated G-suit and Quick Don Mask were examined. candidate solutions involved trade-offs or conflicts with cabin oxygen partial pressure limits, system power-downs to limit heat generation, risks of alternate and emergency landing sites or compromise of Mode V-VIII scenarios. Results: Rehydration and minimized cabin workloads are required in all failure modes. Temperature/humidity profiles increase rapidly in two failure modes, and deorbit is recommended without the ACES, ICU and g-suit. This latter configuration limits several shuttle approach and landing escape modes and requires communication modifications. Additional data requirements were identified and engineering simulations were recommended to develop more current shuttle temperature and humidity profiles. Discussion: After failure of the shuttle ECS, there is insufficient cooling capacity of the ACES to protect crewmembers from rising cabin temperature and humidity. The LCG is inadequate for cabin temperatures above 76 F. Current shuttle future life policy makes it unlikely that major engineering upgrades necessary to address this problem will occur.

  3. STS-72 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-72 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-ninth flight since the return-to-flight, and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-75; three Block I SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-077. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-52, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OW052A for the left SRB, and 36OW052B for the right SRB. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. The primary objectives of this flight were to retrieve the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (JSFU) and deploy and retrieve the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-Flyer (OAST-Flyer). Secondary objectives were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV/A) experiment, Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA)/get-Away Special (GAS) payload, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment, Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES) experiment, Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) payload and perform two extravehicular activities (EVA's) to demonstrate International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) assembly techniques). Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  4. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Dennis M.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Philips, Alan D.; Waters, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center undertook a study to define candidate early heavy lift demonstration launch vehicle concepts derived from existing space shuttle assets. The objective was to determine the performance capabilities of these vehicles and characterize potential early demonstration test flights. Given the anticipated budgetary constraints that may affect America's civil space program, and a lapse in U.S. heavy launch capability with the retirement of the space shuttle, an early heavy lift launch vehicle demonstration flight would not only demonstrate capabilities that could be utilized for future space exploration missions, but also serve as a building block for the development of our nation s next heavy lift launch system. An early heavy lift demonstration could be utilized as a test platform, demonstrating capabilities of future space exploration systems such as the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle. By using existing shuttle assets, including the RS-25D engine inventory, the shuttle equipment manufacturing and tooling base, and the segmented solid rocket booster industry, a demonstrator concept could expedite the design-to-flight schedule while retaining critical human skills and capital. In this study two types of vehicle designs are examined. The first utilizes a high margin/safety factor battleship structural design in order to minimize development time as well as monetary investment. Structural design optimization is performed on the second, as if an operational vehicle. Results indicate low earth orbit payload capability is more than sufficient to support various vehicle and vehicle systems test programs including Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle articles. Furthermore, a shuttle-derived, hydrogen core vehicle configuration offers performance benefits when trading evolutionary paths to maximum capability.

  5. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  6. Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer B.; Scott, Tracy A.; Hyde, Crystal M.

    2011-01-01

    Planning products and procedures that allow the mission flight control teams and the astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission have been developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. As the Space Shuttle Program ends, lessons learned have been collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines will be discussed, as well as techniques and methods used to solve complex spacecraft and instrument orientation problems. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in the improving the control teams effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from Mission Control to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons have been vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning that have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed as how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

  7. AtGRP2, a cold-induced nucleo-cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein, has a role in flower and seed development.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Adriana Flores; Bocca, Silvia Nora; Ramos, Rose Lucia Braz; Barrôco, Rosa Maria; Magioli, Claudia; Jorge, Vanessa Cardeal; Coutinho, Tatiana Cardoso; Rangel-Lima, Camila Martins; De Rycke, Riet; Inzé, Dirk; Engler, Gilbert; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto

    2007-05-01

    The glycine-rich protein AtGRP2 is one of the four members of the cold-shock domain (CSD) protein family in Arabidopsis. It is characterized by the presence of a nucleic acid-binding CSD domain, two glycine-rich domains and two CCHC zinc-fingers present in nucleic acid-binding proteins. In an attempt to further understand the role of CSD/GRP proteins in plants, we have proceeded to the functional characterization of the AtGRP2 gene. Here, we demonstrate that AtGRP2 is a nucleo-cytoplasmic protein involved in Arabidopsis development with a possible function in cold-response. Expression analysis revealed that the AtGRP2 gene is active in meristematic tissues, being modulated during flower development. Down-regulation of AtGRP2 gene, using gene-silencing techniques resulted in early flowering, altered stamen number and affected seed development. A possible role of AtGRP2 as an RNA chaperone is discussed.

  8. The defective nuclear lamina in Hutchinson-gilford progeria syndrome disrupts the nucleocytoplasmic Ran gradient and inhibits nuclear localization of Ubc9.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Joshua B; Datta, Sutirtha; Snow, Chelsi J; Chatterjee, Mandovi; Ni, Li; Spencer, Adam; Yang, Chun-Song; Cubeñas-Potts, Caelin; Matunis, Michael J; Paschal, Bryce M

    2011-08-01

    The mutant form of lamin A responsible for the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (termed progerin) acts as a dominant negative protein that changes the structure of the nuclear lamina. How the perturbation of the nuclear lamina in progeria is transduced into cellular changes is undefined. Using patient fibroblasts and a variety of cell-based assays, we determined that progerin expression in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome inhibits the nucleocytoplasmic transport of several factors with key roles in nuclear function. We found that progerin reduces the nuclear/cytoplasmic concentration of the Ran GTPase and inhibits the nuclear localization of Ubc9, the sole E2 for SUMOylation, and of TPR, the nucleoporin that forms the basket on the nuclear side of the nuclear pore complex. Forcing the nuclear localization of Ubc9 in progerin-expressing cells rescues the Ran gradient and TPR import, indicating that these pathways are linked. Reducing nuclear SUMOylation decreases the nuclear mobility of the Ran nucleotide exchange factor RCC1 in vivo, and the addition of SUMO E1 and E2 promotes the dissociation of RCC1 and Ran from chromatin in vitro. Our data suggest that the cellular effects of progerin are transduced, at least in part, through reduced function of the Ran GTPase and SUMOylation pathways.

  9. Tank binding kinase 1 is a centrosome-associated kinase necessary for microtubule dynamics and mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Smitha; Nguyen, Jonathan; Johnson, Joseph; Haura, Eric; Coppola, Domenico; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2015-01-01

    TANK Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) is a non-canonical IκB kinase that contributes to KRAS-driven lung cancer. Here we report that TBK1 plays essential roles in mammalian cell division. Specifically, levels of active phospho-TBK1 increase during mitosis and localize to centrosomes, mitotic spindles and midbody, and selective inhibition or silencing of TBK1 triggers defects in spindle assembly and prevents mitotic progression. TBK1 binds to the centrosomal protein CEP170 and to the mitotic apparatus protein NuMA, and both CEP170 and NuMA are TBK1 substrates. Further, TBK1 is necessary for CEP170 centrosomal localization and binding to the microtubule depolymerase Kif2b, and for NuMA binding to dynein. Finally, selective disruption of the TBK1–CEP170 complex augments microtubule stability and triggers defects in mitosis, suggesting that TBK1 functions as a mitotic kinase necessary for microtubule dynamics and mitosis. PMID:26656453

  10. Tank binding kinase 1 is a centrosome-associated kinase necessary for microtubule dynamics and mitosis.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Smitha; Nguyen, Jonathan; Johnson, Joseph; Haura, Eric; Coppola, Domenico; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2015-12-10

    TANK Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) is a non-canonical IκB kinase that contributes to KRAS-driven lung cancer. Here we report that TBK1 plays essential roles in mammalian cell division. Specifically, levels of active phospho-TBK1 increase during mitosis and localize to centrosomes, mitotic spindles and midbody, and selective inhibition or silencing of TBK1 triggers defects in spindle assembly and prevents mitotic progression. TBK1 binds to the centrosomal protein CEP170 and to the mitotic apparatus protein NuMA, and both CEP170 and NuMA are TBK1 substrates. Further, TBK1 is necessary for CEP170 centrosomal localization and binding to the microtubule depolymerase Kif2b, and for NuMA binding to dynein. Finally, selective disruption of the TBK1-CEP170 complex augments microtubule stability and triggers defects in mitosis, suggesting that TBK1 functions as a mitotic kinase necessary for microtubule dynamics and mitosis.

  11. STS 63 Flight Day 4 Highlights/MIR-Shuttle Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS 63 Flight, day 4, the MIR-Shuttle rendezvous is highlighted in this video. The six-member team in the Shuttle are introduced and discuss their functions and tests for this day of the flight. There is actual footage of earth from space, of the MIR Space Station, a tour of the Shuttle cockpit, some footage from the MIR of the Space Shuttle, and footage from inside the MIR with the cosmonauts. Mission control communications with the Shuttle, communication between the Shuttle and MIR, and an historic communication between the Shuttle's astronauts and President Bill Clinton are included. President Clinton interviews each of the six-member team and discusses the upcoming space walk by Dr. Bernard Harris, the first black astronaut to walk in space. This video was recorded on February 6, 1995.

  12. STS 63 flight day 4 highlights/MIR-Shuttle rendezvous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    STS 63 Flight, day 4, the MIR-Shuttle rendezvous is highlighted in this video. The six-member team in the Shuttle are introduced and discuss their functions and tests for this day of the flight. There is actual footage of earth from space, of the MIR Space Station, a tour of the Shuttle cockpit, some footage from the MIR of the Space Shuttle, and footage from inside the MIR with the cosmonauts. Mission control communications with the Shuttle, communication between the Shuttle and MIR, and an historic communication between the Shuttle's astronauts and President Bill Clinton are included. President Clinton interviews each of the six-member team and discusses the upcoming space walk by Dr. Bernard Harris, the first black astronaut to walk in space. This video was recorded on February 6, 1995.

  13. NASA Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Adrien

    2010-01-01

    The genesis of the space shuttle began in the 1930's when Eugene Sanger came up with the idea of a recyclable rocket plane that could carry a crew of people. The very first Shuttle to enter space was the Shuttle "Columbia" which launched on April 12 of 1981. Not only was "Columbia" the first Shuttle to be launched, but was also the first to utilize solid fuel rockets for U.S. manned flight. The primary objectives given to "Columbia" were to check out the overall Shuttle system, accomplish a safe ascent into orbit, and to return back to earth for a safe landing. Subsequent to its first flight Columbia flew 27 more missions but on February 1st, 2003 after a highly successful 16 day mission, the Columbia, STS-107 mission, ended in tragedy. With all Shuttle flight successes come failures such as the fatal in-flight accident of STS 107. As a result of the STS 107 accident, and other close-calls, the NASA Space Shuttle Program developed contingency procedures for a rescue mission by another Shuttle if an on-orbit repair was not possible. A rescue mission would be considered for a situation where a Shuttle and the crew were not in immediate danger, but, was unable to return to Earth or land safely. For Shuttle missions to the International Space Station (ISS), plans were developed so the Shuttle crew would remain on board ISS for an extended period of time until rescued by a "rescue" Shuttle. The damaged Shuttle would subsequently be de-orbited unmanned. During the period when the ISS Crew and Shuttle crew are on board simultaneously multiple issues would need to be worked including, but not limited to: crew diet, exercise, psychological support, workload, and ground contingency support

  14. STS-79 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 was the fourth of nine planned missions to the Russian Mir Space Station. This report summarizes the activities such as rendezvous and docking and spaceborne experiment operations. The report also discusses the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the flight. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and exchange a Mir Astronaut. A double Spacehab module carried science experiments and hardware, risk mitigation experiments (RME's) and Russian logistics in support of program requirements. Additionally, phase 1 program science experiments were carried in the middeck. Spacehab-05 operations were performed. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary for the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Also, as a payload of opportunity, the requirements of Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) were completed.

  15. Understanding the Columbia Space Shuttle Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Osheroff, Doug

    2004-06-16

    On February 1, 2003, the NASA space shuttle Columbia broke apart during re-entry over East Texas at an altitude of 200,000 feet and a velocity of approximately 12,000 mph. All aboard perished. Prof. Osheroff was a member of the board that investigated the origins of this accident, both physical and organizational. In his talk he will describe how the board was able to determine with almost absolute certainty the physical cause of the accident. In addition, Prof. Osherhoff will discuss its organizational and cultural causes, which are rooted deep in the culture of the human spaceflight program. Why did NASA continue to fly the shuttle system despite the persistent failure of a vital sub-system that it should have known did indeed pose a safety risk on every flight? Finally, Prof. Osherhoff will touch on the future role humans are likely to play in the exploration of space.

  16. Space Shuttle security policies and programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle vehicle consists of the orbiter, external tank, and two solid rocket boosters. In dealing with security two major protective categories are considered, taking into account resource protection and information protection. A review is provided of four basic programs which have to be satisfied. Aspects of science and technology transfer are discussed. The restrictions for the transfer of science and technology information are covered under various NASA Management Instructions (NMI's). There were two major events which influenced the protection of sensitive and private information on the Space Shuttle program. The first event was a manned space flight accident, while the second was the enactment of a congressional bill to establish the rights of privacy. Attention is also given to national resource protection and national defense classified operations.

  17. Increasing the usefulness of Shuttle with SPACEHAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Rossi, David A.

    1992-08-01

    SPACEHAB is a pressurized laboratory, approximately 10 feet long and 13 feet in diameter, which fits in the forward position of the Shuttle payload bay and connects to the crew compartment through the Orbiter airlock. SPACEHAB modules may contain up to 61 standard middeck lockers, providing 1100 cubic feet of pressurized work space. SPACEHAB'S capacity offers crew-tended access to the microgravity environment for experimentation, technology development, and small-scale production. The modules are designed to facilitate the user's ability to quickly and inexpensively develop and integrate a microgravity payload. Payloads are typically integrated into the SPACEHAB module in standard SPACEHAB lockers or SPACEHAB racks. Lockers are designed to offer identical user interfaces as standard Space Shuttle middeck lockers. SPACEHAB racks are interchangeable with Space Station Freedom racks, allowing hardware to be qualified for early station use.

  18. Space shuttle digital flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, G. M.; Peller, J. B.; Cox, K. J.

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle digital, fly by wire, flight control system presents an interesting challenge in avionics system design. In residence in each of four redundant general purpose computers at lift off are the guidance, navigation, and control algorithms for the entire flight. The mission is divided into several flight segments: first stage ascent, second stage ascent; abort to launch site, abort once around; on orbit operations, entry, terminal area energy management; and approach and landing. The FCS is complicated in that it must perform the functions to fly the shuttle as a boost vehicle, as a spacecraft, as a reentry vehicle, and as a conventional aircraft. The crew is provided with both manual and automatic modes of operations in all flight phases including touchdown and rollout.

  19. Evaluation of beryllium for space shuttle components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trapp, A. E.

    1972-01-01

    Application of beryllium to specific full-scale space shuttle structural components and assemblies was studied. Material evaluations were conducted to check the mechanical properties of as-received material to gain design information on characteristics needed for the material in the space shuttle environment, and to obtain data needed for evaluating component and panel tests. Four beryllium structural assemblies were analyzed and designed. Selected components of these assemblies, representing areas of critical loading or design/process uncertainty, were designed and tested, and two panel assemblies were fabricated. Trends in cost and weight factors were determined by progressive estimation at key points of preliminary design, final design, and fabrication to aid in a cost/weight evaluation of the use of beryllium.

  20. Shuttle Kit Freezer Refrigeration Unit Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The refrigerated food/medical sample storage compartment as a kit to the space shuttle orbiter is examined. To maintain the -10 F in the freezer kit, an active refrigeration unit is required, and an air cooled Stirling Cycle refrigerator was selected. The freezer kit contains two subsystems, the refrigeration unit, and the storage volume. The freezer must provide two basic capabilities in one unit. One requirement is to store 215 lbs of food which is consumed in a 30-day period by 7 people. The other requirement is to store 128.3 lbs of medical samples consisting of both urine and feces. The unit can be mounted on the lower deck of the shuttle cabin, and will occupy four standard payload module compartments on the forward bulkhead. The freezer contains four storage compartments.

  1. Noise Control in Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic limits in habitable space enclosures are required to ensure crew safety, comfort, and habitability. Noise control is implemented to ensure compliance with the acoustic requirements. The purpose of this paper is to describe problems with establishing acoustic requirements and noise control efforts, and present examples of noise control treatments and design applications used in the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Included is the need to implement the design discipline of acoustics early in the design process, and noise control throughout a program to ensure that limits are met. The use of dedicated personnel to provide expertise and oversight of acoustic requirements and noise control implementation has shown to be of value in the Space Shuttle Orbiter program. It is concluded that to achieve acceptable and safe noise levels in the crew habitable space, early resolution of acoustic requirements and implementation of effective noise control efforts are needed. Management support of established acoustic requirements and noise control efforts is essential.

  2. Orbiter ECLSS support of Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaax, J. R.; Morris, D. W.; Prince, R. N.

    1974-01-01

    The orbiter ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) provides the functions of atmosphere revitalization, crew life support, and active thermal control. This paper describes these functions as they relate to the support of Shuttle payloads, including automated spacecraft, Spacelab and Department of Defense missions. Functional and performance requirements for the orbiter ECLSS which affect payload support are presented for the atmosphere revitalization subsystem, the food, water and waste subsystem, and the active thermal control subsystem. Schematics for these subsystems are also described. Finally, based on the selected orbiter configuration, preliminary design and off-design thermodynamic data are presented to quantify the baseline orbiter capability; to quantify the payload chargeable penalties for increasing this support; and to identify the significant limits of orbiter ECLSS support available to Shuttle payloads.

  3. Preliminary design study. Shuttle modular scanning spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on which to base a detailed design for a Shuttle Modular Scanning Spectroradiometer were developed, and a preliminary design is presented. The recommended design features modularity and flexibility. It includes a 75-cm f/1.7-telescope assembly in an all-reflective Schmidt configuration, a solid state scan system (pushbroom) with high resolution over a 15 deg field of view, and ten detector channels covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers. It uses charge transfer device techniques to accommodate a large number of detector elements for earth observation measurements. Methods for in-flight radiometric calibration, for image motion compensation, and for data processing are described. Recommendations for ground support equipment are included, and interfaces with the shuttle orbiter vehicle are illustrated.

  4. Occupant safety in the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, N. R.; Prichard, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of Space Shuttle missions, i.e., the inclusion of non-pilot payload specialists in addition to military test pilots, necessitates a greater attention to built in safety features than on previous spacecraft. Basic systems such as fire protection, anti-depressurization, toxicity control, and protection from radiation are handled in a manner similar to that of past missions, but some important deviations are noted, most importantly those pertaining to the provisions for on-orbit rescue. A Personnel Rescue System (PRS) is outlined, describing EVA operations whereby the pilots are able to don pressure suits and the crew can be transferred to another vehicle in balloon-like enclosures, which provide one hour's worth of life support and protection from the space environment. Also mentioned are provisions for the quick abort and reentry of the Shuttle Orbiter, as well as passive safety provisions for the Spacelab module.

  5. The Shuttle imaging microwave system experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, J. W.; Barath, F. T.; Chow, E. Y.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Johnston, E. J.; Stacey, J. M.; Staelin, D. H.; Kong, J. A.; Njoku, E. G.; Gustincic, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the Shuttle microwave system experiment (SIMS) is to utilize the capabilities of the Space Shuttle to perform passive microwave measurements of thermal emission from the earth's atmosphere and surface, which can be interpreted in terms of meaningful atmospheric and geophysical parameters. The paper is a status report of an ongoing definition phase study of SIMS. The wavelengths and observable parameters for the SIMS channels are identified. The SIMS instrument is discussed with particular reference to the antenna system. A system consisting of a parabolic torus reflector offset fed by a number of feeds and radiometers on a rotating wheel is determined to be the best antenna configuration for SIMS. A tentative data flow diagram for SIMS is also provided.

  6. Infrared Imagery of Shuttle (IRIS). Task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chocol, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Assessment of available IR sensor technology showed that the four aerothermodynamic conditions of interest during the entry trajectory of space shuttle can be accommodated by an aircraft flying parallel to the orbiter reentry ground track. Thermal information from the sides of the vehicle can be obtained with degraded performance (temperatures below 800 K) by flying the C-141 aircraft on the opposite side of the shuttle ground track and in the direction opposite that which is optimum for lower surface viewing. An acquisition system using a 6.25-cm aperture telescope and a single indium antimonide detector were designed to meet the acquisition requirements and interface with the 91.5-cm telescope with minimum modification. An image plane system using 600 indium antimonide detectors in two arrays which requires no modification to the existing telescope was also designed. Currently available components were used in a data handling system with interfaces with the experimentors station and the HP2100 computer.

  7. Space shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlin, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    The system is described which is used to separate the solid rocket boosters from the space shuttle after they have expended most of their propellant and their thrust is near burnout. The dynamics of the separation are simulated in a computer program so that the separation system can be analyzed. The assumptions and ground rules used in analyzing this system are explained and the method of analysis is delineated. The capability of the separation system is presented together with data which may be used to aid in the design of the external tank and solid rocket booster interface. The results of a parameter study to determine the sensitivity of the separation to the initial state of the space shuttle are also presented.

  8. Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical motion of photonic devices driven by optical forces provides a profound means of coupling between optical fields. The current focus of these optomechanical effects has been on cavity optomechanics systems in which co-localized optical and mechanical modes interact strongly to enable wave mixing between photons and phonons, and backaction cooling of mechanical modes. Alternatively, extended mechanical modes can also induce strong non-local effects on propagating optical fields or multiple localized optical modes at distances. Here, we demonstrate a multicavity optomechanical device in which torsional optomechanical motion can shuttle photons between two photonic crystal nanocavities. The resonance frequencies of the two cavities, one on each side of this 'photon see-saw', are modulated antisymmetrically by the device's rotation. Pumping photons into one cavity excites optomechanical self-oscillation, which strongly modulates the inter-cavity coupling and shuttles photons to the other empty cavity during every oscillation cycle in a well-regulated fashion.

  9. Space Shuttle security policies and programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, E. L.

    The Space Shuttle vehicle consists of the orbiter, external tank, and two solid rocket boosters. In dealing with security two major protective categories are considered, taking into account resource protection and information protection. A review is provided of four basic programs which have to be satisfied. Aspects of science and technology transfer are discussed. The restrictions for the transfer of science and technology information are covered under various NASA Management Instructions (NMI's). There were two major events which influenced the protection of sensitive and private information on the Space Shuttle program. The first event was a manned space flight accident, while the second was the enactment of a congressional bill to establish the rights of privacy. Attention is also given to national resource protection and national defense classified operations.

  10. Space shuttle configuration accounting functional design specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the requirements for an on-line automated system which must be capable of tracking the status of requirements and engineering changes and of providing accurate and timely records. The functional design specification provides the definition, description, and character length of the required data elements and the interrelationship of data elements to adequately track, display, and report the status of active configuration changes. As changes to the space shuttle program levels II and III configuration are proposed, evaluated, and dispositioned, it is the function of the configuration management office to maintain records regarding changes to the baseline and to track and report the status of those changes. The configuration accounting system will consist of a combination of computers, computer terminals, software, and procedures, all of which are designed to store, retrieve, display, and process information required to track proposed and proved engineering changes to maintain baseline documentation of the space shuttle program levels II and III.

  11. Cell-cell and intracellular lactate shuttles.

    PubMed

    Brooks, George A

    2009-12-01

    Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilized continuously in diverse cells under fully aerobic conditions. 'Cell-cell' and 'intracellular lactate shuttle' concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signalling. Examples of the cell-cell shuttles include lactate exchanges between between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed, and between working skeletal muscle and heart, brain, liver and kidneys. Examples of intracellular lactate shuttles include lactate uptake by mitochondria and pyruvate for lactate exchange in peroxisomes. Lactate for pyruvate exchanges affect cell redox state, and by itself lactate is a ROS generator. In vivo, lactate is a preferred substrate and high blood lactate levels down-regulate the use of glucose and free fatty acids (FFA). As well, lactate binding may affect metabolic regulation, for instance binding to G-protein receptors in adipocytes inhibiting lipolysis, and thus decreasing plasma FFA availability. In vitro lactate accumulation upregulates expression of MCT1 and genes coding for other components of the mitochondrial reticulum in skeletal muscle. The mitochondrial reticulum in muscle and mitochondrial networks in other aerobic tissues function to establish concentration and proton gradients necessary for cells with high mitochondrial densities to oxidize lactate. The presence of lactate shuttles gives rise to the realization that glycolytic and oxidative pathways should be viewed as linked, as opposed to alternative, processes, because lactate, the product of one pathway, is the substrate for the other.

  12. STS-71, Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frike, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-71 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities and provides detailed data on the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance. STS-71 is the 100th United States manned space flight, the sixty-ninth Space Shuttle flight, the forty-fourth flight since the return-to-flight, the fourteenth flight of the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle Atlantis, and the first joint United States (U.S.)-Russian docking mission since 1975. In addition to the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-70; three SSMEs that were designated 2028, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated Bl-072. The RSRMs that were an integral part of the SRBs were designated 360L045A for the left SRB and 360W045B for the right SRB. The STS-71 mission was planned as a 1 0-day plus 1-day-extension mission plus 2 additional days for contingency operations and weather avoidance. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform on-orbit joint U.S.-Russian life sciences investigations, logistical resupply of the Mir Space Station, return of the United States astronaut flying on the Mir, the replacement of the Mir-18 crew with the two-cosmonaut Mir-19 crew, and the return of the Mir-18 crew to Earth. The secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Camera and the Shuttle Amateur Radio experiment-2 (SAREX-2).

  13. Space shuttle L-tube radiator testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to support the development of the Orbiter Heat Rejection System. The details of the baseline radiator were defined by designing, fabricating, and testing representative hardware. The tests were performed in the Space Environmental Simulation Laboratory Chamber A. An IR source was used to simulate total solar and infrared environmental loads on the flowing shuttle radiators panel. The thermal and mechanical performance of L tube space radiators and their thermal coating were established.

  14. Space shuttle holddown post blast shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larracas, F. B.

    1991-01-01

    The original and subsequent designs of the Solid Rocket Booster/Holddown Post blast shield assemblies and their associated hardware are described. It presents the major problems encountered during their early use in the Space Shuttle Program, during the Return-to-Flight Modification Phase, and during their fabrication and validation testing phases. The actions taken to correct the problems are discussed, along with the various concepts now being considered to increase the useful life of the blast shield.

  15. Space shuttle/food system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This document establishes the Functional, physical and performance interface requirements are studied between the space shuttle orbiter and the galley water system, the orbiter and the galley electrical system, and the orbiter and the galley structural system. Control of the configuration and design of the applicable interfacing items is intended to maintain compatibility between co-functioning and physically mating items and to assure those performance criteria that are dependent upon the interfacing items.

  16. Shuttle Performance: Lessons Learned, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, J. P. (Compiler); Jones, J. J. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Beginning with the first orbital flight of the Space Shuttle, a great wealth of flight data became available to the aerospace community. These data were immediately subjected to analyses by several different groups with different viewpoints and motivations. The results were collected and presented in several papers in the subject areas of ascent and entry aerodynaics; guidance, navigation, and control; aerothermal environment prediction; thermal protection systems; and measurement techniques.

  17. Hydrazine Gas Generator Program. [space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusak, L.; Marcy, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a flight gas generator for the space shuttle were investigated. Critical performance parameters and stability criteria were evaluated as well as a scaling laws that could be applied in designing the flight gas generator. A test program to provide the necessary design information was included. A structural design, including thermal and stress analysis, and two gas generators were fabricated based on the results. Conclusions are presented.

  18. Environmental effects of Shuttle launch and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.

    1983-01-01

    The areas of concern were the toxic exhaust cloud produced by Shuttle launch, the effect of launch operations on the total ecology, and the sonic boom produced by Orbiter re-entry. Wet acidic dust fell from the exhaust cloud for about ten minutes after launch. The fallout was not entirely unexpected, but the intensity and duration was larger than anticipated. The fallout material is not considered a significant health hazard. Previously announced in STAR as N82-15729

  19. Space shuttle entry terminal area energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A historical account of the development for Shuttle's Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) is presented. A derivation and explanation of logic and equations are provided as a supplement to the well documented guidance computation requirements contained within the official Functional Subsystem Software Requirements (FSSR) published by Rockwell for NASA. The FSSR contains the full set of equations and logic, whereas this document addresses just certain areas for amplification.

  20. Coordinate systems for the space shuttle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    A minimal set of well defined coordinate systems necessary for the interchange of data within the space shuttle program is presented. The document format consists of four parts: (1) a list of the subscripts identifying the coordinate systems, (2) a glossary explaning the terms used within the coordinate system definitions, (3) figures defining, both graphically and verbally, each coordinate system, and (4) an appendix (published separately) showing the relationships (transformations) between similar systems.