Science.gov

Sample records for century international relations

  1. [Development of international health in 20th century].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Dantés, O; Khoshnood, B

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the historical evolution of the concept and activities that have come under the rubric of international health during its modern "formative" years in the 20th century. The analysis seeks to illuminate the changing objectives and key players, the achievements and failures, and the challenges that lie ahead. The emphasis is placed on its institutional component, particularly as it relates to the countries of the American continents.

  2. International Relations Program, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert P.

    This brochure describes the following 1991 international relations programs of the American Library Association (ALA): (1) the Books for Romania Program, which resulted in donations of books, journals, microfilm products, and microfilm readers valued at approximately $5 million to Rumanian libraries; (2) the Colloquium on Library Science, a…

  3. American Internal Medicine in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Huddle, Thomas S; Centor, Robert; Heudebert, Gustavo R

    2003-01-01

    American internal medicine suffers a confusion of identity as we enter the 21st century. The subspecialties prosper, although unevenly, and retain varying degrees of connection to their internal medicine roots. General internal medicine, identified with primary care since the 1970s, retains an affinity for its traditional consultant-generalist ideal even as primary care further displaces that ideal. We discuss the origins and importance of the consultant-generalist ideal of internal medicine as exemplified by Osler, and its continued appeal in spite of the predominant role played by clinical science and accompanying subspecialism in determining the academic leadership of American internal medicine since the 1920s. Organizing departmental clinical work along subspecialty lines diminished the importance of the consultant-generalist ideal in academic departments of medicine after 1950. General internists, when they joined the divisions of general internal medicine that appeared in departments of medicine in the 1970s, could sometimes emulate Osler in practicing a general medicine of complexity, but often found themselves in a more limited role doing primary care. As we enter the 21st century, managed care threatens what remains of the Oslerian ideal, both in departments of medicine and in clinical practice. Twenty-first century American internists will have to adjust their conditions of work should they continue to aspire to practice Oslerian internal medicine. PMID:12950486

  4. Higher Education in International Perspective - Toward the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G.

    This book presents a collection of essays dealing with key issues and trends facing the future of higher education on the international level as the world moves into the 21st century. Essays and their authors are as follows: "The Idea of the University: Changing Roles, Current Crisis and Future Challenges" (Torsten Husen); "Patterns…

  5. "Relating in a Global Community." Proceedings of the International Conference on Counseling in the 21st Century (7th, Sydney, Australia, December 29-31, 1998.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The papers presented at this conference consider the many roles counselors play in people's lives throughout their lifespan. The age of technology has aided the practice of counseling in becoming international in scope, although there are different functional frameworks that exist in various political, economic, social, and value systems in world…

  6. International dimensions of higher education in nursing in Canada: tapping the wisdom of the 20th century while embracing possibilities for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Linda D; Paul, Pauline; Burgess-Pinto, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    New focus on the internationalization of universities occurred in the late 20th century and higher education in nursing has been quick to embrace the opportunities. In this manuscript, writers provide a brief overview of the nursing and more general literature from the late 20th century relating to key dimensions of internationalization, as well as present data from a survey conducted in 1995-96 of the international activities and dimensions at Canadian faculties/schools of nursing. While it is clear that nurses in Canadian universities were engaged in significant international endeavours in the 20th century, the literature and our experience suggest that the extent of such activity has increased substantially in recent years. Discussion centres on examination of how knowledge generated in the 20th century can inform current internationalization initiatives and on identification of key questions that merit consideration as we move forward in the 21st century.

  7. International Curriculum of White Education through Teacher's Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to white education for international curriculum through teacher's education for 21st century. The theory of "White Education" will be a message for development of globalization, information technology, based on knowledge, human rights education, environmental education,…

  8. The International "Trial of the 20th Century": Nuremberg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemerinsky, Erwin

    1999-01-01

    Considers the Nuremberg trials to be the "Trial of the Century." Highlights the series of 13 trials in which Nazi leaders, officials, judges, and others were tried, and most convicted, for war crimes. Relates that these trials had far-reaching effects in that they showed that moral obligations transcend national boundaries. (CMK)

  9. Teaching International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, James M.

    The accelerated pace of society suggests that social education be clearly formulated from a conceptual golobal framework, recognizing the oneness of earth and man's sharing of a common fate, and that the curriculum be designed from a point of view toward improving international understanding. Effective approaches in international relations…

  10. Simulation in International Relations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Brigid A.; Blake, Elizabeth L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the educational implications of simulations in international relations. Highlights include the development of international relations simulations; the role of technology; the International Communication and Negotiation Simulations (ICONS) project at the University of Maryland; evolving information technology; and simulating real-world…

  11. Constraints, Dangers, and Challenges of the Twenty-First Century. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondel, Daniele

    This document groups together the ideas about the difficulties, dangers, and challenges of the 21st century expressed by the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century. In discussing constraints created by contemporary world history, the paper suggests that the development of the world economy and society is at present…

  12. International migration, international relations and foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C

    1989-01-01

    Recent literature on migration, international relations, and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking mid-range generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state. Especially through the use of comparative perspectives available from domestic policy making studies and from the field of international comparative public policy, this approach offers the opportunity to fix empirically the political roles of transnational social forces, which often present themselves as participants in domestic policy contests. Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy.

  13. [More than a century of international immigration into Argentina].

    PubMed

    Celton, D E

    1995-01-01

    "From the second half of the 19th century, Argentina was, along with the United States and Brazil, one of the main destinations that attracted European emigration to America.... The arrival of more that six million people between 1869 and 1930 resulted in radical changes in the socioeconomic structure of the country. After the crisis of the 1930s the impact of a development plan based on the export of agricultural products waned and the economic growth accompanied with political instability generated a slowing decline of migratory flows, despite a new wave between 1945 and 1952. The decrease of international migration comes along with an important change in the composition by places of origin.... The article analyses the successive migratory policies of Argentina's government as well as the migrants' spatial distribution and their incorporation in the labor market." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  14. Paradox, Natural Mathematics, Relativity and Twentieth-Century Ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryskamp, John

    2008-03-01

    We are enjoying a renaissance in the historiography of set theory which allows us to pinpoint the effect of Poincare's writing on the development of Einstein as an advocate of natural mathematics (what he called practical geometry). I will briefly describe the importance of Garciadiego's landmark work on Russell (1992), and Grattan-Guinness' epic recounting of the history of set theory (2000). I will present something for which historians of physics have searched but have not previously identified: the precise step at which Einstein incorporated practical geometry into his formulation of the relativitity of simultaneity. This leads to a troubling conclusion, at least for those who look to relativity for internal consistency. However, the trouble is not restricted to physics. We suggest that natural mathematics finds its way into the major twentieth-century ideas.

  15. Chaos Theory and International Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    benefit decision makers, who can avoid mistakes by testing their decisions with the help of mathematical models . This thesis provides an overview of Chaos...international relations domain, Chaos Theory is modeled in two specific international relations puzzles, bipolarity and democratic peace, to show the...utility of the theory in this social science field. The results of the model are compared with the conventional international theories of Liberalism and

  16. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  17. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  18. International Conference on Human Relations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Festinger , Sherif, Ex, Rohrer, Pinto, Singh, and Mailhiot. One outcome of the Conference was the formation of a working committee to establish an International Documentation and Information Center for the field of Human Relations.

  19. International Relations: Library Instruction Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathie

    In support of the United States Naval Academy's program in international relations, library reference staff developed an instruction unit featuring appropriate research guides and a videotape produced at the Naval Academy Educational Resource Center. The videotape illustrates a sample search strategy and then highlights the use of four basic…

  20. Blog Consumption and International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    International relations professors have sought to incorporate current events into their curriculum through various mechanisms. A traditional way to incorporate the news into the classroom is to have students either subscribe and read a particular newspaper or watch the nightly news and hold them responsible for that information. However, with the…

  1. Blog Consumption and International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    International relations professors have sought to incorporate current events into their curriculum through various mechanisms. A traditional way to incorporate the news into the classroom is to have students either subscribe and read a particular newspaper or watch the nightly news and hold them responsible for that information. However, with the…

  2. INTERNATIONAL DATA ARCHIVE AND ANALYSIS CENTER. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS ARCHIVE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The International Relations Archive undertakes as its primary goal the acquisition, management and dissemination of international affairs data. This...goal necessitates direct interaction between the International Relations Archive staff and the academic community to ensure more adequate standards...contains two documents. The first document is the latest version of the memorandum, ’Data Holdings and Servicing Policies, International Relations Archive

  3. International traffic in coca through the early 20th century.

    PubMed

    Musto, D F

    1998-01-01

    This paper compiles records of coca exported by the major producing sites, Peru, Bolivia, Java and Formosa, from the late 19th century through the first third of the 20th century. During most of this era coca was legally produced and responsive to market demands. World coca exports did not peak [corrected] until around 1920, followed by a steady decline over the next decade. This export pattern (if not the exact figures) suggests a period of rising cocaine consumption, peaking regionally first in North America, then in Europe and other parts of the world, followed [corrected] by a marked decrease in the drug's popularity and acceptance.

  4. Educational Sciences, Morality and Politics: International Educational Congresses in the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Eckhardt

    2004-01-01

    Internationalism became one of the keywords in the international intellectual and political debates at the end of the nineteenth century. As a political, cultural and social movement it also included science and education. The desire for international cooperation and global understanding was caused by the growing economic interdependence in the…

  5. Educational Sciences, Morality and Politics: International Educational Congresses in the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Eckhardt

    2004-01-01

    Internationalism became one of the keywords in the international intellectual and political debates at the end of the nineteenth century. As a political, cultural and social movement it also included science and education. The desire for international cooperation and global understanding was caused by the growing economic interdependence in the…

  6. Permafrost: An International Approach to 21th Century Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J.

    2003-12-01

    Whereas glaciers are easily discernible to the human eye and satellites, permafrost terrains and their physical components are not easily detected from the surface without supplemental knowledge and measurements. In the Northern Hemisphere, approximately 17 million km2 of exposed land contains some extent of permafrost or ground that remains frozen for more than two years. The vast majority, or 11 million km2, of permafrost terrain has temperatures of 5° C or below, with perennially frozen ground underlying essentially all ground surfaces to considerable depths. Permafrost in the remaining regions, including mid-latitude mountains, is both warmer and is spatially variable (discontinuous). As climate warms the uppermost permafrost is subjected to increase thaw with resulting ground subsidence, accelerated erosion, and related biogeochemical modifications. The challenging questions to geocryologists, modelers and the public relate to the rate of change and the spatial variability of the projected thaw, particularly in the warmer zones where actual areal and subareal distribution of permafrost is poorly known. An international network of active layer measurements and borehole sites now exists under the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), but requires additional sites for representative coverage. This Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) is coordinated by the 24-member, International Permafrost Association. At the Eighth International Conference on Permafrost (ICOP) in Zurich in July 2003, the IPA Council agreed on the scope of new activities for the next five years, many of which will be undertaken in cooperation with other international organizations (e.g. WCRP/CliC; ICSI, IASC, SCAR, IGU, IUGS). Examples of the activities of the IPA Working Groups are: 1. Antarctic Permafrost and Periglacial Environments (active layer processes, maps, database). 2. Coastal and Offshore Permafrost (sediment and organic transfers, subsea permafrost dynamics). 3

  7. Height convergence and internal migration in mid-twentieth-century Italy.

    PubMed

    Lanari, Donatella; Bussini, Odoardo

    2014-01-01

    Height convergence across Italian regions during the second half of the twentieth century is a widely recognized fact. However, it has been suggested that this process was partly affected by the massive migratory flow of people from southern to northern Italy in the 1950s and 1960s, which greatly slowed the height growth rate in the receiving regions, since immigrants were on average shorter than the receiving northern population. The main aims of this study were to estimate the speed of height convergence of Italian military conscripts in the second half of the twentieth century, and to estimate the contribution of internal migration from the south to the north of Italy to height convergence. We hypothesized that migrants from southern Italy reduced height levels among northerners relative to what they would have been without considering migration. We used cohort data on Italian conscripts born in 1951 and 1980. Results indicate that internal migration may explain from 24 to 32.7 percent of height convergence, meaning that ignoring migration flows yields an overestimation of the height changes for conscripts living in the south of Italy.

  8. The Environment in International Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Oran R.

    2009-11-01

    In this lucid and well-organized text, Kate O'Neill provides a survey of current thinking in the field of international environmental politics. To make her effort manageable, she approaches this task as an analysis of the “politics of global environmental governance” (p. 1). This approach has the effect of orienting the survey toward research on efforts to develop cooperative and lasting solutions to a variety of environmental problems. The downside of this approach is a relative lack of emphasis on various forms of environmental conflict that lead to outcomes such as growth in the number of environmental refugees and the destruction of important ecosystems. But the virtue of the decision to focus on environmental governance is that it provides a coherent and easily understandable framework for the chapters that follow.

  9. International Wildfire Emergencies: Management in the 21st Century

    Treesearch

    Julia V. Taft; Robert W. Mutch

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Government, through the U.S. Agency for International Development's Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), responds to a wide variety of disasters throughout the world every year. These disasters range from "slow-moving" events like prolonged drought or plagues of grasshoppers and locusts to "fast-moving" threats to human...

  10. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  11. Internal atmospheric noise characteristics in twentieth century coupled atmosphere-ocean model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colfescu, Ioana; Schneider, Edwin K.

    2017-09-01

    The statistical characteristics of the atmospheric internal variability (hereafter internal atmospheric noise) for surface pressure (PS) in twentieth century simulations of a coupled general circulation model are documented. The atmospheric noise is determined from daily post-industrial (1871-1998) Community Climate System Model 3 simulations by removing the SST and externally forced responses from the total fields. The forced responses are found from atmosphere-only simulations forced by the SST and external forcing of the coupled runs. However, we do not address the influence of the SST variability on the synoptic scale high frequency weather noise.The spatial patterns of the main seasonal modes of atmospheric noise variability are found for boreal winter and summer from empirical orthogonal function analyses performed globally and for various regions, including the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, and the equatorial Pacific. The temporal characteristics of the modes are illustrated by power spectra and probability density functions (PDF) of the principal components (PC). Our findings show that, for two different realizations of noise, the variability is dominated by large scale spatial structures of the atmospheric noise that resemble observed patterns, and that their relative amplitudes in the CGCM and AGCM simulations are very similar. The regional expression of the dominant global mode, a seasonally dependent AO-like or AAO-like pattern is also found in the regional analyses, with similar time dependence. The PCs in the CGCM and the corresponding SST forced AGCM simulations are uncorrelated, but the spectra and PDFs of the CGCM and AGCM PCs are similar.The temporal structures of the noise PCs are white at timescales larger than few months, so that these modes can be thought of as stochastic forcings (in time) for the climate system. The PDFs of the noise PCs are not statistically distinguishable from Gaussian distributions with the same standard deviation

  12. Internal atmospheric noise characteristics in twentieth century coupled atmosphere-ocean model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colfescu, Ioana; Schneider, Edwin K.

    2016-11-01

    The statistical characteristics of the atmospheric internal variability (hereafter internal atmospheric noise) for surface pressure (PS) in twentieth century simulations of a coupled general circulation model are documented. The atmospheric noise is determined from daily post-industrial (1871-1998) Community Climate System Model 3 simulations by removing the SST and externally forced responses from the total fields. The forced responses are found from atmosphere-only simulations forced by the SST and external forcing of the coupled runs. However, we do not address the influence of the SST variability on the synoptic scale high frequency weather noise.The spatial patterns of the main seasonal modes of atmospheric noise variability are found for boreal winter and summer from empirical orthogonal function analyses performed globally and for various regions, including the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, and the equatorial Pacific. The temporal characteristics of the modes are illustrated by power spectra and probability density functions (PDF) of the principal components (PC). Our findings show that, for two different realizations of noise, the variability is dominated by large scale spatial structures of the atmospheric noise that resemble observed patterns, and that their relative amplitudes in the CGCM and AGCM simulations are very similar. The regional expression of the dominant global mode, a seasonally dependent AO-like or AAO-like pattern is also found in the regional analyses, with similar time dependence. The PCs in the CGCM and the corresponding SST forced AGCM simulations are uncorrelated, but the spectra and PDFs of the CGCM and AGCM PCs are similar.The temporal structures of the noise PCs are white at timescales larger than few months, so that these modes can be thought of as stochastic forcings (in time) for the climate system. The PDFs of the noise PCs are not statistically distinguishable from Gaussian distributions with the same standard deviation

  13. A century of general relativity: astrophysics and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Blandford, R D

    2015-03-06

    One hundred years after its birth, general relativity has become a highly successful physical theory in the sense that it has passed a large number of experimental and observational tests and finds extensive application to a wide variety of cosmic phenomena. It remains an active area of research as new tests are on the way, epitomized by the exciting prospect of detecting gravitational waves from merging black holes. General relativity is the essential foundation of the standard model of cosmology and underlies our description of the black holes and neutron stars that are ultimately responsible for the most powerful and dramatic cosmic sources. Its interface with physics on the smallest and largest scales will continue to provide fertile areas of investigation in its next century. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Gonorrhoea in 21st century--international and Polish situation.

    PubMed

    Serwin, Agnieszka Beata; Koper, Marta; Unemo, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Gonorrhoea, according to the latest World Health Organization (WHO) estimates in 2008, is the most frequent bacterial sexually transmitted infection globally, accounting for 106.1 million new cases among adults. Of those cases, 3.4 (3.2%) million were in the WHO European Region. In the European Union and European Economic Area, the incidence of reported cases was 12.6 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2011. The highest incidences were noted in the United Kingdom (37.1), Latvia (24.4) and Ireland (18.6). However, in Poland from 2000 to 2011 the reported incidence declined and was only 0.8-0.9 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2011, that might indicate a suboptimal diagnostics and incomplete case reporting and epidemiological surveillance. A study surveying the diagnostics for gonorrhoea and the case reporting system, including the local and national epidemiological surveillance, in Poland is recommended. The high resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae to nearly all antimicrobials introduced for treatment of gonorrhoea is an exceedingly serious problem globally. A few years ago the first extensively-drug resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains with high-level resistance to ceftriaxone, the last remaining option for first-line empirical monotherapy, were reported. Due to this emergent situation, in 2012 the WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) launched a global action plan and regional response plan, respectively, to combat the spread of multidrug resistant N. gonorrhoeae. Additionally, an updated European guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhoea, recommending treatment with ceftriaxone together with azithromycin, was published in 2012. Worryingly, no antimicrobial susceptibility data for N. gonorrhoeae strains circulating in Poland have been internationally reported in several decades. It is imperative to implement some regular and quality assured antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance for N. gonorrhoeae in Poland and the official Polish

  15. Motivation related to work: A century of progress.

    PubMed

    Kanfer, Ruth; Frese, Michael; Johnson, Russell E

    2017-03-01

    Work motivation is a topic of crucial importance to the success of organizations and societies and the well-being of individuals. We organize the work motivation literature over the last century using a meta-framework that clusters theories, findings, and advances in the field according to their primary focus on (a) motives, traits, and motivation orientations (content); (b) features of the job, work role, and broader environment (context); or (c) the mechanisms and processes involved in choice and striving (process). Our integrative review reveals major achievements in the field, including more precise mapping of the psychological inputs and operations involved in motivation and broadened conceptions of the work environment. Cross-cutting trends over the last century include the primacy of goals, the importance of goal striving processes, and a more nuanced conceptualization of work motivation as a dynamic, goal-directed, resource allocation process that unfolds over the related variables of time, experience, and place. Across the field, advances in methodology and measurement have improved the match between theory and research. Ten promising directions for future research are described and field experiments are suggested as a useful means of bridging the research-practice gap. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Modeling international cooperation in human space exploration for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, E; Lester, J P; Sadeh, W Z

    1998-10-01

    The policy process of international cooperation in space exploration. including optimistic and pessimistic scenarios for the twenty-first century, is modeled and examined in this study. In the optimistic scenario, international cooperation involves a balanced and interdependent distribution of capabilities between states, their respective national space agencies and communities of space scientists and space engineers. Cooperation is characterized by interstate participation in critical path components and joint research and development. In the pessimistic scenario, international cooperation is structured and dominated politically and economically by powerful states vis-a-vis weaker states. Cooperation is limited to coordination of separate nationally approved projects and augmentation of capabilities in noncritical path components. On the basis of these two scenarios, policy predictions and implications relevant to exploration missions in the twenty-first century, such as a human-tended lunar base and human missions to Mars, are presented and discussed.

  17. International Relations. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This is the third volume of International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, a series which aims to feature something of the variety of research being undertaken into higher education systems and issues outside of North America. The theme of this volume is International Relations, or how students, academics, universities and higher…

  18. International Relations. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This is the third volume of International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, a series which aims to feature something of the variety of research being undertaken into higher education systems and issues outside of North America. The theme of this volume is International Relations, or how students, academics, universities and higher…

  19. LATIN AS A LANGUAGE OF INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATIVE STATUS: MEDICINE OF THE 16TH-17TH CENTURIES.

    PubMed

    Bieliaieva, O; Lysanets, Yu; Melaschenko, M

    2017-01-01

    The research paper is of interdisciplinary nature, written at the crossroads of the history of medicine, functional stylistics and terminology science. The choice of the 16th century as a starting point of the study is due to the fact that quality changes in book and manuscript writing that took place during this period led to unprecedented development and dissemination of scientific knowledge, including biomedical. The 16th century embraces the life and work of such prominent figures in the history of medicine, as Andreas Vesalius, Gabriele Fallopian, Bartolomeo Eustachi, and Girolamo Fracastoro. The 17th century, which is called the century of "scientific revolution", left not less honourable names in the history of medicine - William Harvey, Marcello Malpighi, Thomas Willis, Jean Pecquet, Francis Glisson, Thomas Sydenham. In the context of this study, these prominent figures are interesting due to the fact that their works were written in Latin and constitute the prototypes of modern scientific style, in particular of such genres as thesis, monograph, scientific article, scientific report, polemic presentation, textbook. On the basis of extensive factual material, it has been demonstrated that during 16th-17th centuries, Latin acted as a fully developed language with a clearly oriented international status. As one of basic tools in scientific knowledge, Latin not only performed the epistemological function which was the priority for the development of medicine, but also served as a means of accumulation, reception, transmission and popularization of achievements in various areas of medical science.

  20. [Interface between bioethics and international relations].

    PubMed

    Manchola-Castillo, Camilo; Garrafa, Volnei

    2016-08-01

    Recently, bioethics and international relations have gotten closer to one an other, probably as a result of the motivation of bioethics to intervene in global affairs. However, this relationship has only been on the practical level.This study's objective, through a literature review, is to highlight the huge potential that the epistemologies of both areas have to build a more fruitful dialogue. 18 articles relating both areas were retrieved from databases Scopus, Web of Science, Bireme and PubMed. The articles were then grouped in three categories of analysis: bioethics and global health; international organizations and bioethics; and international relations and bioethics. This study concludes that an epistemological approaching between these areas is desirable and proposes the establishment of two new areas of study: international relations in health and international relations from the South, drawing upon the conceptual basis developed by Latin-American bioethics.

  1. Cascading climate effects and related ecological consequences during past centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naef-Daenzer, B.; Luterbacher, J.; Nuber, M.; Rutishauser, T.; Winkel, W.

    2012-06-01

    The interface between climate and ecosystem structure and function is incompletely understood, partly because few ecological records start before the recent warming phase. Here, we analyse an exceptional 100-yr long record of the great tit (Parus major) population in Switzerland in relation to climate and habitat phenology. Using path analysis, we demonstrate an uninterrupted cascade of significant influences of the large-scale atmospheric circulation (North-Atlantic Oscillation, NAO, and North-sea - Caspian Pattern, NCP) on habitat and breeding phenology, and further on fitness-relevant life history traits within animal populations. We then apply the relationships of this analysis to reconstruct the circulation-driven component of fluctuations in great tit breeding phenology and population dynamics on the basis of new seasonal NAO and NCP indices back to 1500 AD. According to the path model, the multi-decadal oscillation of the atmospheric circulation likely led to substantial variation in habitat phenology, and consequently, tit population minima during the "Maunder Minimum" (1650-1720) and the Little Ice Age Type Event I (1810-1850). The warming since 1975 was not only related with a quick shift towards earlier breeding, but also with the highest productivity since 1500, and thus, an unprecedented increase of the population. A verification of the structural equation model against two independent data series corroborates that the retrospective model reliably depicts the major long-term NAO/NCP impact on ecosystem parameters. The results suggest a complex cascade of climate effects beginning at a global scale and ending at the level of individual life histories. This sheds light on how large scale climate conditions substantially affect major life-history parameters within a population, and thus influence key ecosystem parameters at the scale of centuries.

  2. Cascading climate effects and related ecological consequences during past centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naef-Daenzer, B.; Luterbacher, J.; Nuber, M.; Rutishauser, T.; Winkel, W.

    2012-10-01

    The interface between climate and ecosystem structure and function is incompletely understood, partly because few ecological records start before the recent warming phase. Here, we analyse an exceptional 100-yr long record of the great tit (Parus major) population in Switzerland in relation to climate and habitat phenology. Using structural equation analysis, we demonstrate an uninterrupted cascade of significant influences of the large-scale atmospheric circulation (North-Atlantic Oscillation, NAO, and North-sea - Caspian Pattern, NCP) on habitat and breeding phenology, and further on fitness-relevant life history traits within great tit populations. We then apply the relationships of this analysis to reconstruct the circulation-driven component of fluctuations in great tit breeding phenology and productivity on the basis of new seasonal NAO and NCP indices back to 1500 AD. According to the structural equation model, the multi-decadal oscillation of the atmospheric circulation likely led to substantial variation in habitat phenology, productivity and consequently, tit population fluctuations with minima during the "Maunder Minimum" (∼ 1650-1720) and the Little Ice Age Type Event I (1810-1850). The warming since 1975 was not only related with a quick shift towards earlier breeding, but also with the highest productivity since 1500, and thus, the impact of the NAO and NCP has contributed to an unprecedented increase of the population. A verification of the structural equation model against two independent data series (1970-2000 and 1750-1900) corroborates that the retrospective model reliably depicts the major long-term NAO/NCP impact on ecosystem parameters. The results suggest a complex cascade of climate effects beginning at a global scale and ending at the level of individual life histories. This sheds light on how large-scale climate conditions substantially affect major life history parameters within a population, and thus influence key ecosystem

  3. The Environmental Factor in International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Joan Martin

    1985-01-01

    U.S.-Canadian and Mexican water-related issues testify to the role that natural resources/ environmental issues play in foreign policy and demonstrate how environmental problems can affect the public and private sectors of a nation internally. How people affect the environment is an irreducible bottom line for stable international trade and market…

  4. International relations: challenge of the future.

    PubMed

    Osborn, R R

    1989-01-01

    The AHRA has made considerable progress in the past few years in expanding its liaison activities to an international level. Mr. Osborn, the association's Coordinator for International Relations, traces the development of this effort and looks at goals and objectives for the future.

  5. Australia's international health relations in 2003.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Simon

    2005-02-21

    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages.

  6. International Relations, Social Studies: 6448.20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Rose Marie

    The forces affecting relations among nations as well as the effectiveness of decision making processes in international politics are examined and analyzed by 10th through 12th grade students in the elective quinmester course clustering around political studies. Goals emphasize helping students to understand state interaction and the variables…

  7. Teaching International Relations to a Multicultural Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Julia Lau; Lee, Ji-Young

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that instructors should adopt a more multicultural perspective when designing syllabi for and teaching undergraduate courses in International Relations (IR). The examination of teaching practices in IR draws on the personal experiences of the authors as foreign natives and instructors of IR at two American universities. The…

  8. Reflections on Dead Theory in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakur, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    In this short autobiographical essay, I trace my journey in the discipline of International Relations. While entering the discipline, I, along with a host of my classmates, were enamoured by the exciting possibilities of thinking theoretically. Almost a decade later, those promises look bleak. From the perspective of a student in the discipline, I…

  9. International Relations: Understanding the Behavior of Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zack, David R.; And Others

    In today's world, no nation acts in isolation; the interdependence of nations makes international relations complex and ever-changing. This book is designed to help students understand why nations compete, why they cooperate, and why they sometimes go to war. Chapter 1 examines the behavior of nations and how national interest dictates the…

  10. Reflections on Dead Theory in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakur, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    In this short autobiographical essay, I trace my journey in the discipline of International Relations. While entering the discipline, I, along with a host of my classmates, were enamoured by the exciting possibilities of thinking theoretically. Almost a decade later, those promises look bleak. From the perspective of a student in the discipline, I…

  11. The International Language Esperanto 1887-1987: Towards the Second Century. Esperanto Documents 39A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonkin, Humphrey

    A discussion of Esperanto in the modern world outlines the rationale for the use of an international language, the role of Esperanto in promoting international communication, Esperanto-related organizations and services, and the characteristics of the language that make it useful and easy to teach. Also included are a fact sheet describing the…

  12. Twentieth century ENSO-related precipitation mean states in twentieth century reanalysis, reconstructed precipitation and CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ni; Arkin, Phillip A.

    2016-07-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related precipitation during the entire twentieth century is compared among the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR), a statistically reconstructed precipitation dataset (REC) and 30 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Empirical orthogonal functions, ENSO-related precipitation composites based on sea surface temperature (SST)-constructed ENSO index and singular value decomposition (SVD) are employed to extract ENSO-related precipitation/SST signals in each dataset. With the background trend being removed in all of the data, our results show that the REC and the 20CR resemble both in their precipitation climatology and ENSO-related precipitation results. The biases in the CMIP5 models precipitation climatology such as dry equator over the Pacific Ocean, "double-intertropical convergence zones (ITCZs)" and overly zonal Southern Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) are major reasons for lowering spatial correlations with the REC and the 20CR precipitation climatology. Two groups of CMIP5 models are built based on severity of these biases in their precipitation background and the spatial correlations of ENSO-related precipitation with the observations. Compared with the group with more severe biases in its precipitation climatology, the group with smaller biases tends to produce more ENSO-like precipitation patterns, simulate more realistic mean magnitude and seasonal variability of ENSO precipitation signals, as well as generating better ENSO-related SST/precipitation correlation patterns produced in its SVD analysis. The ENSO-related precipitation biases in the CMIP5 models over the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, as well as the equatorial Pacific, are strongly related with their precipitation climatology biases over these regions. The ENSO-related precipitation biases over the off-equator eastern Pacific Ocean are associated with both the "double-ITCZs" biases in the precipitation climatology and the ENSO-related

  13. China-Russia. Relations in the Early 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Sf. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERORMIN•G ORGANIZATION REWR NUIMBER Center for Naval Analyses D069. 4825...simultaneously push the two nations together yet also pull them apart. The forces that unite the two nations are numerous, vocally heralded by each, and...usually garner the most attention abroad. Among them are: " A shared wariness of the United States as an international actor and suspicions about

  14. Women, work and health between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries from a national and international perspective.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Silvana

    2014-11-16

    A few years after a series of meetings of Italian scientists were convened prior to the unification of Italy, the first women qualified in medicine and other dedicated women participated in founding a movement for the improvement of living and working conditions of women and children in Italy. analysis of Italian women's contributions in the proceedings of the International Council of Women Congresses and their impact on increasing the number of women's occupational health studies presented at the fourth National Congress on Occupational Diseases held in Rome in 1914. Analysis of the proceedings of the International Council of Women Congresses (Washington, Chicago, London), and of the Women's National Council and other documents so as to obtain a picture of Italian women's working conditions at that time. Women and children worked an excessive number of hours per day, were underpaid, and had a legal status of inferiority. The main work sectors were sewing, embroidery, lace making, ironing, cooking, washing, dressmaking, millinery, fashion design, typing, weaving, artificial flowers, etc. The same sort of work was available to Italian women who emigrated to the United States of America. The success achieved by the women's movement is shown in the paper presented by Irene de Bonis "Occupational diseases among women" and published in the proceedings of the fourth National Congress on Occupational Diseases held in Rome, 9-14 June 1914. The article outlines the main features of the women's movement at the turn of the twentieth century, focussing on their publications describing Italian women's working conditions, considered in an international context. The movement's engagement in the promotion of women's occupational health at international and national level was successful but the First World War was to transform this achievement into the women's peace movement.

  15. International Lunar Observatory Association Advancing 21st Century Astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, Steve

    2015-08-01

    Long considered a prime location to conduct astronomical observations, the Moon is beginning to prove its value in 21st Century astronomy through the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope aboard China’s Chang’e-3 Moon lander and through the developing missions of the International Lunar Observatory Association (ILOA). With 24 hours / Earth day of potential operability facilitating long-duration observations, the stable platform of the lunar surface and extremely thin exosphere guaranteeing superior observation conditions, zones of radio-quiet for radio astronomy, and the resources and thermal stability at the lunar South Pole, the Moon provides several pioneering advantages for astronomy. ILOA, through MOUs with NAOC and CNSA, has been collaborating with China to make historic Galaxy observations with the Chang’e-3 LUT, including imaging Galaxy M101 in December 2014. LUT has an aperture of 150mm, covers a wavelength range of 245 to 340 nanometers and is capable of detecting objects at a brightness down to 14 mag. The success of China’s mission has provided support and momentum for ILOA’s mission to place a 2-meter dish, multifunctional observatory at the South Pole of the Moon NET 2017. ILOA also has plans to send a precursor observatory instrument (ILO-X) on the inaugural mission of GLXP contestant Moon Express. Advancing astronomy and astrophysics from the Moon through public-private and International partnerships will provide many valuable research opportunities while also helping to secure humanity’s position as multi world species.

  16. The International Relations of the Struves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, W. R.

    At least 10 astronomers in 5 generations belonged to the Struve dynasty, a family having its origin in Holstein and living in Germany, Russia, the USA and other countries. The best known astronomers among them were Wilhelm (1793-1864), Otto Wilhelm (1819-1905), Hermann (1854-1920), Ludwig (1858-1920), Georg (1886-1933) and Otto Ludwig Struve (1897-1963). After a short account of the family's history, its international relations will be regarded, with emphasis on the following aspects: Nationality/citizenship, places of living and work, personal relations to other astronomers including correspondence and cooperation, travels, languages of publications. Although a comparison of the different members of the family is possible only to a certain degree due to their different role and importance in astronomy, some changes which developed over 150 years can be traced: E.g., Wilhelm Struve published in German, Latin, French, Russian and English, whereas his grandsons and great-grandsons wrote their papers mainly in one language -- German or English. Wilhelm had relatively close relations with French astronomers, whereas his great-grandson Georg was the author of verbal assaults on French scientists. Georg published also heavy criticism of the International Astronomical Union, whereas his cousin Otto Luwig later became IAU's President.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of International Frameworks for 21st Century Competences: Implications for National Curriculum Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, Joke; Roblin, Natalie Pareja

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites of the selected frameworks, resulting in 32…

  18. A Comparative Analysis of International Frameworks for 21st Century Competences: Implications for National Curriculum Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, Joke; Roblin, Natalie Pareja

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites of the selected frameworks, resulting in 32…

  19. Building Baluchitherium and Indricotherium: imperial and international networks in early-twentieth century paleontology.

    PubMed

    Manias, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Over the first decades of the twentieth century, the fragmentary remains of a huge prehistoric ungulate were unearthed in scientific expeditions in India, Turkestan and Mongolia. Following channels of formal and informal empire, these were transported to collections in Britain, Russia and the United States. While striking and of immense size, the bones proved extremely difficult to interpret. Alternately naming the creature Paraceratherium, Baluchitherium and Indricotherium, paleontologists Clive Forster-Cooper, Alexei Borissiak and Henry Fairfield Osborn struggled over the reconstruction of this gigantic fossil mammal. However, despite these problems, shared work on the creature served as a focus for collaboration and exchange rather than rivalry between these three scientific communities. Not only did the initial interpretation and analysis depend on pre-existing connections between British and American paleontological institutions, but the need for comparative material, recognition and contacts brought British and American scholars into communication and exchange with their counterparts in the Soviet Union. This article examines these processes. It first uses these excavations as a comparative case-study of different manifestations of colonial science in this period, examining how scholars in the Britain, the Russian Empire and the United States used formal and informal colonial links to Asia to pursue new research. It then moves to examine how the common problem of reconstructing this giant animal drew metropolitan scientific communities together, at least for a time. The construction of the Baluchitherium and Indricotherium illustrates the drives to expand research both imperially and internationally in the early-twentieth century, but also the continual problems in resources, institutionalization, transport and communication that could run up against scientific work.

  20. From surnames to linguistic and genetic diversity: five centuries of internal migrations in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Roberto; Blanco-Villegas, María José; Manni, Franz

    2017-09-01

    In a previous study concerning 33,753 single Spanish surnames (considered as tokens) occurring 51,419,788 times we have shown that the present-day geography of contemporary surname variability in Spain still corresponds to the political geography of the country at the end of the Middle Ages. Here we reprocess the same database, by clustering surnames with Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) according to their geographic distribution, to identify the monophyletic surnames showing a geo-historical origin in one of the 47 provinces of continental Spain. They are 25,714, and they occur 12,348,109 times, meaning that about 75% of the Spanish population bears a surname that had a polyphyletic origin. From monophyletic surnames we compute migration matrices accounting for the internal migrations that took place since five centuries ago, when Spanish surnames started to be patrilineally inherited. The mono/ polyphyletic classification we obtain fits ancient census data and is compatible with published molecular diversity of the Y-chromosomes associated to selected Spanish surnames. Monophyletic surnames indicate that i) the provinces exhibiting a higher percentage of autochthonous surnames are also ii) those from which emigration corresponds to a local isolation-by-distance model of diffusion and iii) those that attracted a lower number of immigrants. These are also the provinces where languages other than Castilian are spoken. We suggest that demographic stability explains linguistic resilience, as people prefer to move to areas in which the linguistic variety is more similar to their own. So far the reciprocal influence of migration and language has been investigated at local scales, here we outline how to investigate it at national scales and for time-depths of centuries.

  1. Dealing with femtorisks in international relations

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Aaron Benjamin; Collins, Margaret Goud; Levin, Simon A.; Lo, Andrew W.; Ramo, Joshua; Dieckmann, Ulf; Kremenyuk, Victor; Kryazhimskiy, Arkady; Linnerooth-Bayer, JoAnne; Ramalingam, Ben; Roy, J. Stapleton; Saari, Donald G.; Thurner, Stefan; von Winterfeldt, Detlof

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary global community is increasingly interdependent and confronted with systemic risks posed by the actions and interactions of actors existing beneath the level of formal institutions, often operating outside effective governance structures. Frequently, these actors are human agents, such as rogue traders or aggressive financial innovators, terrorists, groups of dissidents, or unauthorized sources of sensitive or secret information about government or private sector activities. In other instances, influential “actors” take the form of climate change, communications technologies, or socioeconomic globalization. Although these individual forces may be small relative to state governments or international institutions, or may operate on long time scales, the changes they catalyze can pose significant challenges to the analysis and practice of international relations through the operation of complex feedbacks and interactions of individual agents and interconnected systems. We call these challenges “femtorisks,” and emphasize their importance for two reasons. First, in isolation, they may be inconsequential and semiautonomous; but when embedded in complex adaptive systems, characterized by individual agents able to change, learn from experience, and pursue their own agendas, the strategic interaction between actors can propel systems down paths of increasing, even global, instability. Second, because their influence stems from complex interactions at interfaces of multiple systems (e.g., social, financial, political, technological, ecological, etc.), femtorisks challenge standard approaches to risk assessment, as higher-order consequences cascade across the boundaries of socially constructed complex systems. We argue that new approaches to assessing and managing systemic risk in international relations are required, inspired by principles of evolutionary theory and development of resilient ecological systems. PMID:25404317

  2. Dealing with femtorisks in international relations.

    PubMed

    Frank, Aaron Benjamin; Collins, Margaret Goud; Levin, Simon A; Lo, Andrew W; Ramo, Joshua; Dieckmann, Ulf; Kremenyuk, Victor; Kryazhimskiy, Arkady; Linnerooth-Bayer, JoAnne; Ramalingam, Ben; Roy, J Stapleton; Saari, Donald G; Thurner, Stefan; von Winterfeldt, Detlof

    2014-12-09

    The contemporary global community is increasingly interdependent and confronted with systemic risks posed by the actions and interactions of actors existing beneath the level of formal institutions, often operating outside effective governance structures. Frequently, these actors are human agents, such as rogue traders or aggressive financial innovators, terrorists, groups of dissidents, or unauthorized sources of sensitive or secret information about government or private sector activities. In other instances, influential "actors" take the form of climate change, communications technologies, or socioeconomic globalization. Although these individual forces may be small relative to state governments or international institutions, or may operate on long time scales, the changes they catalyze can pose significant challenges to the analysis and practice of international relations through the operation of complex feedbacks and interactions of individual agents and interconnected systems. We call these challenges "femtorisks," and emphasize their importance for two reasons. First, in isolation, they may be inconsequential and semiautonomous; but when embedded in complex adaptive systems, characterized by individual agents able to change, learn from experience, and pursue their own agendas, the strategic interaction between actors can propel systems down paths of increasing, even global, instability. Second, because their influence stems from complex interactions at interfaces of multiple systems (e.g., social, financial, political, technological, ecological, etc.), femtorisks challenge standard approaches to risk assessment, as higher-order consequences cascade across the boundaries of socially constructed complex systems. We argue that new approaches to assessing and managing systemic risk in international relations are required, inspired by principles of evolutionary theory and development of resilient ecological systems.

  3. Democratisation and its impact on international relations.

    PubMed

    Akhmedov, K

    2000-06-01

    Democracy has spread globally, with 65 countries having undergone the democratization process at the end of 1990. This global trend toward democracy is gratifying to peoples everywhere who value freedom; however, it is also shadowed, fragile, and in need of support. A scholarly debate on the future of democratization process contains widely diverging views. One school of thought expects profoundly positive consequences from the spread of democracy; another completely rejects the importance of democracy for international relations. In terms of the advantages of democracy, it is noted that such a regime can modernize economies, improve social conditions, and integrate into the international community. In addition, it does not sponsor terrorism and war, and could be reliable and good partners in international trade and business. Several studies have rejected the idea that democracies are more peaceful than other regimes. Authoritarian regimes and their apologists claim that democracy is economically inefficient, and that in impoverished nations enlightened authoritarianism is a more effective means of generating economic growth. Overall, it could be said that democracy is a vague notion and is subject to wide interpretation. Making a distinction between the two arguments would require a more detailed analysis of regions of the world and some countries with specific peculiarities.

  4. International Reports. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; A Canadian-American Librarianship or an American-Canadian Librarianship in the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabb, Winston; Birdsall, William F.

    2002-01-01

    Includes two reports: one from the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that discusses digital libraries, standards, collaboration, and membership and structure of IFLA; and one that considers Canadian-American librarianship in the 21st century, including federal government policy, copyright reform, and…

  5. International Reports. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; A Canadian-American Librarianship or an American-Canadian Librarianship in the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabb, Winston; Birdsall, William F.

    2002-01-01

    Includes two reports: one from the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that discusses digital libraries, standards, collaboration, and membership and structure of IFLA; and one that considers Canadian-American librarianship in the 21st century, including federal government policy, copyright reform, and…

  6. [Classifications of mental disorders: from Bertillon to ICD-10, the century of international collaboration].

    PubMed

    Bertolote, J M; Sartorius, N

    1993-01-01

    The first International Classification of Diseases (ICD) was approved during the Congress of the Statistical International Institute, in Chicago, in Paris, in 1893. It was based on a list of diseases prepared by Jacques Bertillon. Minor changes were introduced in this classification during decennial revisions made at international meetings and it remained in use until 1948, when the World Health Organization's Provisional Committee was charged with the task producing ICD-6. ICD-6 represented a major shift from the previous internal conceptualization, particularity in what concerns the Chapter V., dealing with mental disorders. From 1955 on Who produced with approximately a 10-year interval ICD-7, 8 and 9. Few modifications in relation to ICD-6 were introduced by these revisions, except for the introduction of a glossary of terms in the chapter on mental disorders. This glossary had a major impact towards the development of a common language in psychiatry. Based on epidemiological findings, and based also on an intensive and extensive international network of clinicians and investigators, ICD-10 was published in 1992. It represented a substantial improvement regarding the conceptualization of the classification of mental disorders, in relation to previous revisions of the ICD. Future tasks relating to ICD-10 include training of health personnel for its proper utilization, in addition to finalizing further ICD-10 versions, e.g. for research purposes and for primary health care use.

  7. [Classification of mental diseases. From Bertillon to CID-10: a century of international collaboration].

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, J M; Sartorius, N

    1994-01-01

    The first International Classification of Diseases (ICD) was approved during the Congress of the Statistical International Institute, in Chicago, in Paris, in 1893. It was based on a list of diseases prepared by Jacques Bertillon. Minor changes were introduced in this classification during decennial revisions made at international meetings and it remained in use until 1948, when the World Health Organization's Provisional Committee was charged with the task of producing ICD-6. ICD-6 represented a major shift from the previous internal conceptualization, particularly in what concerns the Chapter V., dealing with mental disorders. From 1955 on WHO produced with approximately a 10-year interval ICV-7, 8, and 9. Few modifications in relation to ICD-6 were introduced by these revisions, except for the introduction of a glossary of terms in the chapter on mental disorders. This glossary had a major impact towards the development of a common language in psychiatry. Based on epidemiological findings, and based also on an intensive and extensive international network of clinicians and investigators, ICD-10 was published in 1992. It represented a substantial improvement regarding the conceptualization of the classification of mental disorders, in relation to previous revisions of the ICD. Future tasks relating to ICD-10 include training of health personnel for its proper utilization, in addition to finalizing further ICD-10 versions, e.g. for research purposes and for primary health care use.

  8. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  9. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  10. Defining a Communications Satellite Policy System for the 21st Century: A Model for a International Legal Framework and A New _Code of Conduct_

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1996-02-01

    This paper addresses the changing international communications environment and explores the key elements of a new policy framework for the 21st Century. It addresses the issues related to changing markets, trade considerations, standards, regulatory changes and international institutions and law. The most important aspects will related to new international policy and regulatory frameworks and in particular to a new international code of ethics and behavior in the field of satellite communications. A new communications satellite policy framework requires systematically addressing the following points: • Multi-lateral agreements at the nation state and the operating entity level • Systematic means to access both private and public capital • Meshing ITU regulations with regional and national policy guidelines including • landing rights" and national allocation procedures. • Systematic approach to local partnerships • Resolving the issue of the relative standing of various satellite systems (i.e. GEO, MEO, and LEO systems) • Resolving the rights, duties, and priorities of satellite facility providers versus types of service prviders. Beyond this policy framework and generalized legal infrastructure there is also another need. This is a need that arises from both increased globalism and competitive international markets. This is what might quite simply be called a "code of reasonable conduct:" To provide global and international communications services effectively and well in the 21st Century will require more than meeting minimum international legal requirements. A new "code of conduct" for global satellite communications will thus likely need to address: • Privacy and surveillance • Ethics of transborder data flow • Censorship and moral values • Cultural and linguistic sensitivity • Freedom of the press and respect for journalistic standards As expanding global information and telecommunications systems grow and impact every aspect of modern

  11. Learning for the Twenty-First Century. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, George S.

    In any international discussion about the future of education, a first requirement is to reach consensus on the general principles and objectives that should guide future educational policy thinking and practice. The starting point must be recognition of the universality of human needs and aspirations to which education everywhere should be…

  12. Public Relations and Its Education: 21st Century Challenges in Definition, Role and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    This paper asserts that the greatest challenge for 21st century public relations practitioners will be the identification of organizational values and their reconciliation with societal values within the context of a quickly and seemingly chaotic syncretizing popular culture. This function of public relations requires considerable practitioner…

  13. Globalization and international trade in the twenty-first century: opportunities for and threats to the health sector in the south.

    PubMed

    Baris, E; McLeod, K

    2000-01-01

    Globalization and international trade are important forces at the turn of the century. This article explores how freer international trade will affect developing countries that are net importers of health care goods and services. Four commodities are used as special cases for discussion: pharmaceuticals, health care technologies, pesticides, and tobacco and its related products. The authors discuss the role of international specialized agencies, such as the World Trade Organization, World Health Organization, and World Bank, that are concerned with international trade and its health and health care consequences, and argue that closer collaboration is required among these agencies if the negative effects of trade liberalization on developing countries are to be mitigated. The authors pose a number of research questions that could help in developing proactive policies for the South on the trade of goods and services with harmful effects on health as well as those with potential health and economic benefits.

  14. Century/millennium internal climate oscillations in an ocean-atmosphere-continental ice sheet model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchfield, Edward G.; Wang, Huaxiao; Rich, Jonathan J.

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrate in a simple climate model that there exist nonlinear feedbacks between the atmosphere, ocean, and ice sheets capable of producing century/millennium timescale internal oscillations resembling those seen in the paleoclimate record. Feedbacks involve meridional heat and salt transports in the North Atlantic, surface ocean freshwater fluxes associated with melting and growing continental ice sheets in the northen hemisphere and with Atlantic to Pacific water vapor transport. The positive feedback between the production of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and the meridional salt transport by the Atlantic thermohaline circulation tends to destabilize the climate system, while the negative feedback between the freshwater flux, either to or from the continental ice sheets, and meridional heat flux to the high-latitude North Atlantic, accomplished by the thermohaline circulation, stabilizes the system. The thermohaline circulation plays a central role in both positive and negative feedbacks because of its transport of both heat and salt. Because of asymmetries between the growth and melt phases the oscillations are, in general, accompanied by a growing or decreasing ice volume over each cycle, which in the model is reflected by increasing or decreasing mean salinity.

  15. Century/millennium internal climate oscillations in an ocean-atmosphere-continental ice sheet model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchfield, Edward G.; Wang, Huaxiao; Rich, Jonathan J.

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrate in a simple climate model that there exist nonlinear feedbacks between the atmosphere, ocean, and ice sheets capable of producing century/millennium timescale internal oscillations resembling those seen in the paleoclimate record. Feedbacks involve meridional heat and salt transports in the North Atlantic, surface ocean freshwater fluxes associated with melting and growing continental ice sheets in the northen hemisphere and with Atlantic to Pacific water vapor transport. The positive feedback between the production of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and the meridional salt transport by the Atlantic thermohaline circulation tends to destabilize the climate system, while the negative feedback between the freshwater flux, either to or from the continental ice sheets, and meridional heat flux to the high-latitude North Atlantic, accomplished by the thermohaline circulation, stabilizes the system. The thermohaline circulation plays a central role in both positive and negative feedbacks because of its transport of both heat and salt. Because of asymmetries between the growth and melt phases the oscillations are, in general, accompanied by a growing or decreasing ice volume over each cycle, which in the model is reflected by increasing or decreasing mean salinity.

  16. Disseminating General Relativity for 21st century astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Mariateresa

    2015-08-01

    The talk aims to present two outreach projects - initially developed for the ESA Gaia satellite, a multidisciplinary mission launched on December 19, 2013 - available to the OAD community: NeST and "The Meaning of Light".NeST is an interactive educational tool, that displays how the theory of GR rules the Universe, it creates a performance physically "belonging" to the exhibition space and moving through it, materializing what J.A. Wheeler said "mass tells space-time how to curve, and space-time tells mass how to move"."The Meaning of Light" is a short motion comics, part of an extensive outreach program called "The History of Photons" whose main theme is the story of a beam of stellar photons that, after leaving the progenitor star, propagates through the Universe and, once intercepted come into contact with a team of scientists: here begins their adventure to be taken "back" home and in doing so the scientists, and the spectators, are driven to discover the wonders of which the light are the bearers.The description of the journey of the photons becomes, therefore, an opportunity to easily tell the fascinating topics of Astrophysics and General Relativity, i.e. the complexity and the infinite beauty of the Universe in which we live.For this movie a new theme song was produced, "Singing the Stars", whose refrain (Oh Be A Fine Girl / Guy Kiss Me Little Thing, Yeah) adds to the famous mnemonic for stellar classification (OBAFGKM) the new stellar types LTY discovered in recent years.

  17. A half century perspective on the International Geophysical Year (IGY) - A Template for the International Polar Year 2007 (IPY 2007)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    In 1956 I sailed for Antarctica to spend 18 months as a graduate student participating in geophysical-glaciological investigations, as part of the 18-month IGY. This led to a career in geophysics, which has taken me to all of the continents and oceans. As we approach the IPY 2007, the changes in technology and our understanding of the earth over the past half century are breathtaking to contemplate. Although 70 countries participated in IGY, the disciplines were restricted to geophysics. Originally the Third Polar Year, the name was changed to IGY in 1952, at the suggestion of Sydney Chapman. The geographical area comprised the entire earth. The highest priority was given to "problems requiring concurrent synoptic observations at many points involving cooperative observations by many stations." One category was reserved for research on topics such as ocean levels, weather patterns, and the distribution of glacier ice "to establish basic information for subsequent comparison at later epochs." IPY 2007 seems such an epoch. A major international efforts was concentrated in Antarctica, although only 12 counties participated. Glaciology, seismology, auroral studies, ionospheric soundings, magnetic field measurements, and other solar-terrestrial, and meteorological observations comprised the scientific station activities. The only major field activities away from the stations were the oversnow geophysical-glaciological traverses, which made seismic measurements of ice thickness and other ice properties; gravity and magnetic anomaly profiles; and determination of snow accumulation and mean annual temperature. The most intensive of the oversnow traverse programs were those of the U.S. and USSR. Geology and topographic mapping were excluded from the Antarctica because of potential complications due to territorial claims and the possibility of mineral resource discoveries. Despite this, significant geologic findings, such as the discovery of the Dufek intrusion, were made by

  18. International Conflict and U.S. National Security Policy into the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Journal of Conflict Resolution X (Spring 1966), pp . 314-327. 40 ~03 Doubts that a shift to multipolarity would result ...action throughout the worldY Policies were evaluated in ways that tended to reduce every problem of international relations to the common denominator of...smaller nations, even in the absence of an immediate or direct threat to the United States. s6 The results created an expectation, which remained

  19. State humanitarian verticalism versus universal health coverage: a century of French international health assistance revisited.

    PubMed

    Atlani-Duault, Laëtitia; Dozon, Jean-Pierre; Wilson, Andrew; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-28

    The French contribution to global public health over the past two centuries has been marked by a fundamental tension between two approaches: State-provided universal free health care and what we propose to call State humanitarian verticalism. Both approaches have historical roots in French colonialism and have led to successes and failures that continue until the present day. In this paper, the second in The Lancet's Series on France, we look at how this tension has evolved. During the French colonial period (1890s to 1950s), the Indigenous Medical Assistance structure was supposed to bring metropolitan France's model of universal and free public health care to the colonies, and French State imperial humanitarianism crystallised in vertical programmes inspired by Louis Pasteur, while vying with early private humanitarian activism in health represented by Albert Schweitzer. From decolonisation to the end of the Cold War (1960-99), French assistance to newly independent states was affected by sans frontièrisme, Health for All, and the AIDS pandemic. Since 2000, France has had an active role in development of global health initiatives and favoured multilateral action for health assistance. Today, with adoption of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and the challenges of non-communicable diseases, economic inequality, and climate change, French international health assistance needs new direction. In the context of current debate over global health as a universal goal, understanding and acknowledging France's history could help strengthen advocacy in favour of universal health coverage and contribute to advancing global equity through income redistribution, from healthy populations to people who are sick and from wealthy individuals to those who are poor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Large Marine Ecosystem Approach for 21st Century Ocean Health and International Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honey, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The global coastal ocean and watersheds are divided into 66 Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), which encompass regions from river basins, estuaries, and coasts to the seaward boundaries of continental shelves and margins of major currents. Approximately 80% of global fisheries catch comes from LME waters. Ecosystem goods and services from LMEs contribute an estimated US 18-25 trillion dollars annually to the global economy in market and non-market value. The critical importance of these large-scale systems, however, is threatened by human populations and pressures, including climate change. Fortunately, there is pragmatic reason for optimism. Interdisciplinary frameworks exist, such as the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) approach for adaptive management that can integrate both nature-centric and human-centric views into ecosystem monitoring, assessment, and adaptive management practices for long-term sustainability. Originally proposed almost 30 years ago, the LME approach rests on five modules are: (i) productivity, (ii) fish and fisheries, (iii) pollution and ecosystem health, (iv) socioeconomics, and (v) governance for iterative adaptive management at a large, international scale of 200,000 km2 or greater. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), World Bank, and United Nations agencies recognize and support the LME approach—as evidenced by over 3.15 billion in financial assistance to date for LME projects. This year of 2014 is an exciting milestone in LME history, after 20 years of the United Nations and GEF organizations adopting LMEs as a unit for ecosystem-based approaches to management. The LME approach, however, is not perfect. Nor is it immutable. Similar to the adaptive management framework it propones, the LME approach itself must adapt to new and emerging 21st Century technologies, science, and realities. The LME approach must further consider socioeconomics and governance. Within the socioeconomics module alone, several trillion-dollar opportunities exist

  1. 20 Million Observations: The AAVSO International Database and Its First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, E. O.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) The American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) turns 100 in 2011 - a century of service to the astronomical community! Another milestone was reached in 2011: the AAVSO International Database (AID) received its 20 millionth variable star observation! The AID contains observations of over 14,750 objects contributed by over 7,500 amateur and professional astronomers worldwide. Data on hundreds of objects extend from the AAVSO's founding in 1911 or earlier (mid-1800s) to present. Some objects' data are of shorter duration but of intense, high-precision coverage. Historical datasets come from published/unpublished professional/amateur observations, astronomical plate collections, and contributed archives of other variable star observing organizations. Hundreds of observations are added to the AID daily as observers upload their data in near real-time. Approximately 69% (~13.9M) of AID observations are visual, 30.4% (~6.2M) CCD (BVRI, unfiltered, Sloan colors, others), 0.5% (~75K) PEP (BVJH), and 0.1% (~17K) photographic/photovisual. Many objects have exclusively visual data, some PEP or CCD data only, and many a combination of types and bands. Objects range from young stellar objects through highly evolved stars. Included are intrinsic variables - pulsating (SX Phe stars through Miras and semiregulars) and eruptive (cataclysmic variables of all types) - and extrinsic variables - eclipsing binaries, rotating (RS CVns) - and exoplanets and suspected variables. Blazars, polars, quasars, HMXBs - today's AID is a thriving, exciting resource! The AID is maintained in a dynamic MySQL database, easily accessible to contributors and users alike through the AAVSO website (http://www.aavso.org). The Light Curve Generator, Quick Look page (recent observations), and Data Download form offer different ways to view/investigate your targets. Quality control performed from submission through validation ensures reliable data for your research. Visit the AAVSO

  2. The Particle ye and Related Constructions in the Guodian Manuscripts of IV Century BCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caboara, Marco

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the particle "ye" in the IV century BCE Chinese Guodian manuscripts by providing a synchronic analysis of its functions and a diachronic hypothesis relating all functions to focus marking. I have subdivided the around 600 occurrences of "ye" into four main functions: focus marker, topic marker, clause connection…

  3. The Particle ye and Related Constructions in the Guodian Manuscripts of IV Century BCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caboara, Marco

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the particle "ye" in the IV century BCE Chinese Guodian manuscripts by providing a synchronic analysis of its functions and a diachronic hypothesis relating all functions to focus marking. I have subdivided the around 600 occurrences of "ye" into four main functions: focus marker, topic marker, clause connection…

  4. Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; El'Tsov, M. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2012-02-01

    Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200-1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30-50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100-200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

  5. Adapting the International System of Units to the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Mills, Ian M; Mohr, Peter J; Quinn, Terry J; Taylor, Barry N; Williams, Edwin R

    2011-10-28

    We review the proposal of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (Comité International des Poids et Mesures, CIPM), currently being considered by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (Conférences Générales des Poids et Mesures, CGPM), to revise the International System of Units (Le Système International d'Unitès, SI). The proposal includes new definitions for four of the seven base units of the SI, and a new form of words to present the definitions of all the units. The objective of the proposed changes is to adopt definitions referenced to constants of nature, taken in the widest sense, so that the definitions may be based on what are believed to be true invariants. In particular, whereas in the current SI the kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole are linked to exact numerical values of the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram, the magnetic constant (permeability of vacuum), the triple-point temperature of water and the molar mass of carbon-12, respectively, in the new SI these units are linked to exact numerical values of the Planck constant, the elementary charge, the Boltzmann constant and the Avogadro constant, respectively. The new wording used expresses the definitions in a simple and unambiguous manner without the need for the distinction between base and derived units. The importance of relations among the fundamental constants to the definitions, and the importance of establishing a mise en pratique for the realization of each definition, are also discussed.

  6. Developing skills for youth in the 21st century: The role of elite International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme schools in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing body of research suggesting that schools need to respond to changing social and economic dynamics by prioritising "21st-century skills". Proponents of this view, who have been termed "the 21st century skills movement", have called for greater emphasis on cognitive and non-cognitive skills development, alongside the learning of subject content and technical skills. This paper explores the potential of International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) schools to respond to this mandate in China, one of the fastest-growing markets for International Baccalaureate® (IB) schools globally. The authors' research team undertook a multi-site case study of five elite IBDP schools in China. Their findings revealed confidence among interviewees that the IB educational philosophy was conducive to 21st-century skills development, especially through the provision of the three IBDP "Core Requirements", which are Creativity, Action, Service (CAS), Extended Essay (EE) and Theory of Knowledge (TOK). Despite this confidence, concerns remain about the implementation of the IB educational philosophy in the context of IBDP schools in China.

  7. Address Given by Jacques Delors, Chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, to the 140th Session of the Executive Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delors, Jacques

    In this speech, the chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century describes education as a pathway into the 21st Century. He suggests that if education is to become central in contributing to human progress, policymakers must learn from the experiences of the past 20 years, take the variety of situations into…

  8. Address by Jacques Delors, Chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, General Conference of UNESCO (27th, Paris, France, November 2, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delors, Jacques

    In this speech to the members of the general conference of UNESCO, the chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century describes the progress of the Commission's work. The chairman discusses education and the challenges of the world as it enters the 21st century. Changes mentioned include the rapid pace of…

  9. Report by Jacques Delors, Chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, First Session (Paris, France, March 2-4, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delors, Jacques

    In this paper the chairman of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century reviewed commission discussions on education in the 21st century. The growing interdependence of the modern world is discussed including the results of the U.S. economic ideology of the Ronald Reagan era on the world economy, and the collapse of…

  10. Teaching International Public Relations: An Update Report among Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Angela Ka Ying

    2017-01-01

    Involvement in international and multicultural career-related practices is ever on the rise in a global economic and political society, especially in public relations. This article reported an update of examining the attributes of public relations educators and their institutions in teaching of international public relations (IPR) through an…

  11. International Relations: A Student's Guide to Reference Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvester, Elizabeth

    Intended for students, this annotated bibliography describes reference materials in International Relations that may be found in either the McLennan or Law Library of McGill University. Scope includes political science, international law, and related areas in the social and behavioral sciences, but titles which relate to the foreign relations of a…

  12. International Relations: A Student's Guide to Reference Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvester, Elizabeth

    Intended for students, this annotated bibliography describes reference materials in International Relations that may be found in either the McLennan or Law Library of McGill University. Scope includes political science, international law, and related areas in the social and behavioral sciences, but titles which relate to the foreign relations of a…

  13. Family planning in the 21st century: perspective of the International Planned Parenthood Federation.

    PubMed

    Brueggemann, I

    1997-07-01

    Many women still die as a result of pregnancy or childbirth and yet there are an increasing number of women who wish to regulate their fertility and space or limit their child-bearing. This paper, outlining some success stories, elucidates the family planning challenges and identifies key messages to indicate the role that IPPF can play in the 21st century. Issues such as advocacy for sexual and reproductive health and rights, increased male participation, serving the interests of marginalized groups, appropriate technology, quality of care and cooperation between various partners, all need to be addressed to improve sexual and reproductive health including family planning in the 21st century.

  14. Internal Correlation: The Relational Statistic of Choice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozeboom, William W.

    1989-01-01

    Use of internal correlation for statistical analysis--proposed by G. W. Joe and J. L. Mendoza (1989)--is discussed. Focus is on the "content" question (what this application can do with the information that statistics contain) and the "eloquence" question (the advantages of this means of encoding information over other means). (TJH)

  15. USSR Report, International Economic Relations, No. 56.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-18

    and wine and vodka products and non-alcoholic beverages . A large amount of work to expand and deepen the international production spe- cialization...session of the US-USSR Trade and Economic Council. N.A. Tikhonov on behalf of the Soviet leadership cordially welcomed all participants in the session

  16. Information and Communications Technologies Support for 21st-Century Teaching: An International Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie; Sparks, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in the 1990s, national educational policies around the world have mandated massive investments in information and communications technologies (ICT) to transform teaching and learning in ways appropriate for developing "21st-century skills." Recent research indicates significant success in bringing teachers and students into contact with…

  17. The Transformation of Medical Education in Eighteenth-Century England: International Developments and the West Midlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinarz, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with transformations in eighteenth-century medical education. Its focus is the work of an individual surgeon, Thomas Tomlinson, who delivered one of the earliest anatomical courses in provincial England. It examines methods of medical education between 1760 and 1825, when apprenticeship was being transformed into a more learned…

  18. Non-International Armed Conflict in the Twenty-first Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    fundamental purpose of the Charter is the maintenance of international peace and security. Id., art. 1 , para. 1 . See RUTH B. RUSSELL , A History of...International Law Studies). VOL 51 Brunson MacChesney, Situation, Documents and Commentary on Recent Developments in the International Law of the Sea

  19. Internal Evaluation a Quarter-Century Later: A Conversation with Arnold J. Love

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkov, Boris B.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter features a recent conversation with Dr. Arnold J. Love, a long-time proponent of internal evaluation and one of the most cited internal evaluation authors. In 1983, Love edited the first issue of "New Directions for Program Evaluation" on the topic of internal evaluation. He is the author of the book "Internal…

  20. Internal Evaluation a Quarter-Century Later: A Conversation with Arnold J. Love

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkov, Boris B.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter features a recent conversation with Dr. Arnold J. Love, a long-time proponent of internal evaluation and one of the most cited internal evaluation authors. In 1983, Love edited the first issue of "New Directions for Program Evaluation" on the topic of internal evaluation. He is the author of the book "Internal…

  1. The return of the phoenix: the 1963 International Congress of Zoology and American zoologists in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the International Congress of Zoology held in Washington D.C. in 1963 as a portrait of American zoologists' search for effective and rewarding relationships with both each other and the public. Organizers of the congress envisioned the congress as a last ditch effort to unify the disparate subdisciplines of zoology, overcome the barriers of specialization, and ward off the heady claims of more reductionist biologists. The problems zoologists faced as they worked to fulfill these ambitious goals illuminate some of the challenges faced by members of the naturalist tradition as they worked to establish disciplinary unity while seeking public support in the competitive world of twentieth century science.

  2. A Hierarchy of Needs in International Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Chechen   War Imposition of  Central  Government  Authority /  Armistice with  Chechnya Challenge to  NATO and  Competition for  Near Abroad Putin’s...Crisis First  Chechen   War Ti er s  of  H ie ra rc hy August Coup Loss of Eastern  European Satellites Internal Political  Rift Withdrawal  from...Yeltsin became the president of the independent state known as the Russian 175 Tracey C. German, Russia’s Chechen War (London; New York

  3. Metamorphoses of the interpretation of dreams. Freud's conflicted relations with his book of the century.

    PubMed

    Grubrich-Simitis, I

    2000-12-01

    The author takes the centenary of 'The Interpretation of Dreams' at the turn of the twenty-first century as the occasion for a reconstruction of the metamorphoses of Freud's magnum opus, as revealed in his changing and conflicted relations with the book in the course of his life. She tracks the vicissitudes of this relationship from the period of the work's gestation at the end of the nineteenth century through the editions published in Freud's lifetime, distinguishing various phases of revision and demonstrating connections with some of his other key writings and the development of psychoanalytic theory. Attention is drawn to the changes in the structure and style of the work in the successive editions, to the varying distance adopted by Freud between himself and his 'book of the century', and to the role assigned to his colleagues in its evolution. It is pointed out that Freud himself considered psychoanalysis to have originated with the publication of 'The Interpretation of Dreams', and that he felt, in his last years, that his colleagues' interest in dreams and their interpretation was flagging. The author concludes with a brief consideration of the significance of dream interpretation in present-day psychoanalytic theory and practice.

  4. Prospects for cooperative management of international migration in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Martin, P M

    1996-01-01

    "This essay attempts, first, to identify patterns and trends from an overview of the modern history of international migration. It examines, then, aspects of human agency and macro-systematic factors to sift for clues as to the future role of international migration and prospects for cooperation management of it. Finally, specific features of the regional migration system in Asia are identified, which will contribute to shape the future course of international migration."

  5. Teaching Culture: The Challenges and Opportunities of International Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Amiso M.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the challenges and opportunities for international public relations practice. Looks at current United States-Arab relations issues in international crisis communication. Discusses those issues, especially the role of culture and media. Proposes strategies including a case study that teachers can use to help students become effective…

  6. Relations between Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kuijpers, Rowella C. W. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood internalizing and externalizing problems are closely related and often co-occur. Directional models have been employed to test how these problems are related, while few studies have tested a third variables model. Objective: This study investigates whether internalizing and externalizing problems are reciprocally or…

  7. Relations between Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kuijpers, Rowella C. W. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood internalizing and externalizing problems are closely related and often co-occur. Directional models have been employed to test how these problems are related, while few studies have tested a third variables model. Objective: This study investigates whether internalizing and externalizing problems are reciprocally or…

  8. A Program for High School Social Studies: International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomington Public Schools, MN.

    GRADES OR AGES: High school. SUBJECT MATTER: Social studies, International relations. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The introductory material covers the school district philosophy, a description of the program, major concepts for international relations, and techniques for evaluating objectives. Material is provided for six units…

  9. Teaching the Scientific Study of International Relations to Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, D. Scott

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how theory and science are integrated into "Introduction to International Relations" and "International Relations Theory", two undergraduate courses at Pennsylvania State University (University Park). Highlights five issues that are used in the author's approach to teaching theory and science. (CMK)

  10. Teaching Culture: The Challenges and Opportunities of International Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Amiso M.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the challenges and opportunities for international public relations practice. Looks at current United States-Arab relations issues in international crisis communication. Discusses those issues, especially the role of culture and media. Proposes strategies including a case study that teachers can use to help students become effective…

  11. Teaching the Scientific Study of International Relations to Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, D. Scott

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how theory and science are integrated into "Introduction to International Relations" and "International Relations Theory", two undergraduate courses at Pennsylvania State University (University Park). Highlights five issues that are used in the author's approach to teaching theory and science. (CMK)

  12. [Constant or break? On the relations between human genetics and eugenics in the Twentieth Century].

    PubMed

    Germann, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The history of human genetics has been a neglected topic in history of science and medicine for a long time. Only recently, have medical historians begun to pay more attention to the history of human heredity. An important research question deals with the interconnections between human genetics and eugenics. This paper addresses this question: By focusing on a Swiss case study, the investigation of the heredity of goiter, I will argue that there existed close but also ambiguous relations between heredity research and eugenics in the twentieth century. Studies on human heredity often produced evidence that challenged eugenic aims and ideas. Concurrently, however, these studies fostered visions of genetic improvement of human populations.

  13. USSR Report, International Economic Relations, No. 57.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ECONOMIC RELATIONS No. 57 CONTENTS USSR WORLD TRADE Soviet Aid in Building Projects in CEMA , Less Developed Countries (I. Kapranov; EKONOMICHESKAYA...GAZETA, No 18, Apr 83) . 1 USSR- CEMA TRADE Coordinating CEMA Statistical Data (L. Antsiferovaj VESTNIK STATISTIKI, Jan 83) 9 USSR-EAST EUROPE...Meets (S. Nikolayevj EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, No 11, Mar 83) UU b - USSR WORLD TRADE SOVIET AID IN BUILDING PROJECTS IN CEMA , LESS DEVELOPED

  14. International teachers negotiating 21st century science classrooms: a question of hybridized identities and pedagogical imaginaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippins, Deborah J.; Hammond, Lorie; Hutchison, Charles B.

    2006-12-01

    International high school science teachers are crossing international and cultural borders to teach, raising important issues in education. In this article, we describe the cross-cultural assessment challenges that four international science teachers encountered when they migrated to teach in the United States. These included differences in grade expectations for a given quality of work, the weight given to final examinations, the assessment process, and cutoff scores for letter grades. To become proficient in their new teaching contexts, the participating teachers had to modify (or hybridize) their assessment philosophies and practices in order to conform to the expectations of their new schools. This hybridization process ushered them into what is proposed as the Pedagogical imaginary; a transitional space between the ``purity'' of their native educational conventions and that of their American schools. The implications of these findings are discussed in hopes of improving high school science teaching experiences for international science teachers.

  15. Global Health Cooperation: International Relations' New Frontier.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    This issue of MEDICC Review appears in the wake of a media splash on the reopening of the Cuban and US embassies in Washington and Havana, signaling the renewal of full diplomatic relations between the two governments. Although the US embargo is still law and one of the thorniest bilateral issues remaining, the Obama administration's bold opening towards Cuba is being echoed in the chambers of Senate committees, calling for an end to the policy in place since 1962. Meanwhile, people from the United States have begun to travel to Cuba in droves, and for the first time in many years, we perceive real hope that cooperation may replace hostility-at least in the sectors that most matter to ordinary people in both nations.

  16. Toward a Social Psychology of Race and Race Relations for the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Richeson, Jennifer A; Sommers, Samuel R

    2016-01-01

    The United States, like many nations, continues to experience rapid growth in its racial minority population and is projected to attain so-called majority-minority status by 2050. Along with these demographic changes, staggering racial disparities persist in health, wealth, and overall well-being. In this article, we review the social psychological literature on race and race relations, beginning with the seemingly simple question: What is race? Drawing on research from different fields, we forward a model of race as dynamic, malleable, and socially constructed, shifting across time, place, perceiver, and target. We then use classic theoretical perspectives on intergroup relations to frame and then consider new questions regarding contemporary racial dynamics. We next consider research on racial diversity, focusing on its effects during interpersonal encounters and for groups. We close by highlighting emerging topics that should top the research agenda for the social psychology of race and race relations in the twenty-first century.

  17. The Internal Medicine of the 21st century: Organizational and operational standards.

    PubMed

    Casariego-Vales, E; Zapatero-Gaviria, A; Elola-Somoza, F J

    2017-07-19

    The Spanish Society of Internal Medicine has developed a consensus document on the standards and recommendations that they consider essential to the organisation of internal medicine units for conducting their activities efficiently and with high quality. We defined 3 groups of key processes: the care of acutely ill adult patients, the comprehensive care of complex chronic patients and the examination of a patient with a difficult diagnosis and no organ-specific disease. As support processes, we identified the structure and operation of the Internal Medicine units. As strategic processes, we identified training and research. The main subprocesses are structured below, and we established the standards and recommendations for each of them. Lastly, we proposed resulting workloads. The prepared standards must be reviewed within a maximum of 4 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  18. Personal and Contextual Factors Related to Internalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Alfredo; Parra, Águeda; Reina, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past decades, ample empirical evidence has been collected about the factors linked to internalizing problems during adolescence. However, there is a lack of research that use holistic approaches to study the joint analysis of a series of contextual and personal variables considered to be related to internalizing problems.…

  19. POS 591: International Relations Seminar "The Modern World-System."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Patrick J.

    The syllabus outlines a college level international relations seminar with a neo-Marxist theoretical orientation. The objective of the seminar is to present an historical and comparative approach to a study of the evolution of the international political economy. Following an introduction explaining seminar objectives, grading, and course…

  20. A New Direction for Educational Reforms in the 21st Century: Hong Kong and International Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    Many educational reforms that have focused on fragmentary improvement and remedial treatment did not lead to long-term effectiveness. This paper examines a new direction for educational reforms in Hong Kong and other international contexts. The new direction should include the following 10 tendencies: (1) toward multiple school functions from…

  1. Professional Schools of International Affairs on the Eve of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Louis W.; And Others

    This report offers a descriptive and prescriptive discussion of changes under way at member schools of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs (APSIA). It analyzes data provided by a 1994 survey of all 15 member schools on the manner and extent to which they are adapting their programs to better prepare their students to…

  2. The Challenges for New Principals in the 21st Century. International Research on School Leadership Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoho, Alan R., Ed.; Barnett, Bruce, Ed.; Tooms, Autumn K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book series, "International Research on School Leadership," focuses on how present-day issues affect the theory and practice of school leadership. For this inaugural book, the editors focused on the challenges facing new principals and headteachers. Because the professional lives of school leaders have increasingly impinged on their…

  3. International Study Tours: A Key to 21st Century Academic and Industry Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hol, Ana; Simiana, Danielle; Lieu, Gilbert; Ong, Ivan; Feder, Josh; Dawre, Nimat; Almazi, Wakil

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the retrospective reviews of the Information Systems study group who went on the international study tour to India to learn, network and collaborate with academics, students and industry professionals overseas. The paper addresses concerns of local Australian Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics recruiters and…

  4. The Challenges for New Principals in the 21st Century. International Research on School Leadership Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoho, Alan R., Ed.; Barnett, Bruce, Ed.; Tooms, Autumn K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book series, "International Research on School Leadership," focuses on how present-day issues affect the theory and practice of school leadership. For this inaugural book, the editors focused on the challenges facing new principals and headteachers. Because the professional lives of school leaders have increasingly impinged on their…

  5. THE INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE AGAINST EPILEPSY AT THE THRESHOLD OF ITS SECOND CENTURY: YEAR 1

    PubMed Central

    MOSHÉ, Solomon L.; PERUCCA, EMILIO; WIEBE, SAMUEL; MATHERN, GARY W.

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, the International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) developed its four-year strategic plan in collaboration with past, current, and future leaders (www.ilae-epilepsy.org). This is the first yearly progress report, prepared by the management committee and the chair of the Strategic Task Force, to highlight progress toward achieving the plan’s goals. PMID:21219305

  6. [Sanitary risks related to importation of workers to Reunion Island during the XIXth century].

    PubMed

    Law-Hang, S

    2012-03-01

    The XIXth century is the period of the sugar industrialization in Réunion. In spite of the abolition of the slaves trade in 1817 and the English abolition of the slavery of 1833, the sugar industry imported large numbers of African and Asian workers which exceeded in number the white population and that of the slaves. As the public health and the health controls came under the governor, the prevention was insufficient in the XIXth century. There were several establishments of "decontamination", sanitary observation in Saint-Denis under the authority of the colonial doctor. However, in the absence of a lazaret, the ship which transported imported workers had to be suspected to be contaminated not to be granted access. The lazaret of La grande chaloupe opened lately around 1850. Under the pressure of the industry, traders and captains, not all immigrants passed by the lazaret before entering the island. Therefore, the public health relative to the massive immigration in Réunion depended more on the private domain than on the public domain because the immigration was linked with major economic interests.

  7. Deterioration of the seventeenth-century warship Vasa by internal formation of sulphuric acid.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Magnus; Jalilehvand, Farideh; Persson, Ingmar; Gelius, Ulrik; Frank, Patrick; Hall-Roth, Ingrid

    2002-02-21

    The seventeenth-century Swedish warship, Vasa, was recovered in good condition after 333 years in the cold brackish water of Stockholm harbour. After extensive treatment to stabilize and dry the ship's timbers, the ship has been on display in the Vasa Museum since 1990. However, high acidity and a rapid spread of sulphate salts were recently observed on many wooden surfaces, which threaten the continued preservation of the Vasa. Here we show that, in addition to concentrations of sulphate mostly on the surface of oak beams, elemental sulphur has accumulated within the beams (0.2-4 per cent by mass), and also sulphur compounds of intermediate oxidation states exist. The overall quantity of elemental sulphur could produce up to 5,000 kg of sulphuric acid when fully oxidized. We suggest that the oxidation of the reduced sulphur--which probably originated from the penetration of hydrogen sulphide into the timbers as they were exposed to the anoxic water--is being catalysed by iron species released from the completely corroded original iron bolts, as well as from those inserted after salvage. Treatments to arrest acid wood hydrolysis of the Vasa and other wooden marine-archaeological artefacts should therefore focus on the removal of sulphur and iron compounds.

  8. The prospect for international regulatory interventions in embryo transfer and reproductive technologies in the next century.

    PubMed

    Evans, B R

    1999-01-01

    Historically, international regulatory interventions in the area of animal reproductive technologies have focused on the need for mitigation against the dissemination of diseases with the movement of genetics and germplasm across international borders. The continued globalization of agriculture under the Sanitary/Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) ensures that disease considerations arising from third and fourth generation reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilized embryos, transgenics and xenotransplantation will continue to give rise to animal health regulatory measures. Furthermore, in the aftermath of the raising of the public consciousness and the ensuing consumer confidence crisis concerning animal husbandry and livestock production practices following the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy outbreak, evolving societal values are expected to expand regulatory considerations to address veterinary public health and ethical concerns. Consequently, it is expected that the role of the International Embryo Transfer Society in fostering meaningful dialogue and profiling of the research necessary to provide for appropriate science based regulation development will increase in importance.

  9. Half the human race: the international women's movement at the end of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Cloud, K

    1996-01-01

    This overview of the current status of the international women's movement traces the growth of the movement from a "trickle to a torrent" during the past 150 years and credits the UN with providing the framework necessary for expanding the international policy dialogue about women's rights. The next section asks why this great burst of women's energy in public settings is occurring now and proposes that the answer can be found in the fact that a major transformation is creating a smaller, more interdependent world marked by rising productivity and environmental pressures. This transformation has also led to increased life expectancy and reduced fertility, thus giving women more productive time to be applied to education, to outside employment, to political organizing and community work, and to the support of nongovernmental organizations. The article continues by reviewing the diverse strategies used by women's groups, including "boring from within," applying political pressure, and demonstrating alternatives. After noting the existence of international networks that exchange successful strategies, the article concludes with an analysis of the processes and achievements of the 1995 Fourth Conference on Women and its Non-Governmental Forum.

  10. International collaboration: The cornerstone of satellite land remote sensing in the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, G.B.; Lauer, D.T.; Carneggie, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    Satellite land remotely sensed data are used by scientists and resource managers world-wide to study similar multidisciplinary earth science problems. Most of their information requirements can be met by a small number of satellite sensor types. Moderate-resolution resource satellites and low-resolution environmental satellites are the most prominent of these, and they are the focus of this paper. Building, launching, and operating satellite systems are very expensive endeavors. Consequently, nations should change the current pattern of independently launching and operating similar, largely redundant resource and environmental satellite systems in favor of true and full collaboration in developing, launching, operating, and sharing the data from such systems of the future. The past decade has seen encouraging signs of increasing international collaboration in earth remote sensing, but full collaboration has not yet been attempted. A general strategy to achieve such international collaboration is presented here, including discussion of potential obstacles, ideas for organizing and overseeing the long-term process toward collaboration, and short-term objectives whereby early successes critical to accomplishing long-term goals can be achieved.

  11. Magic Bullets, Dead Horses, and Flying Ostriches: International Development in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, F. Henry

    2002-03-01

    Over the past fifty years, countless billions of dollars and innumerable person-years of effort have been expended on international development. Sadly, what the development industry has to show for its labors is a present-day situation that is by many standards worse off in terms of total human misery than when they began. The shortcomings of international development are well documented. This is not to say that successes have not been achieved. They have; some have been quite significant. Rather, it is to say that development is much easier said than done. For science to have an impact on the wretched conditions evidenced throughout much of today’s developing and transition world, scientific organizations interested in making such a contribution must understand the realities of development. Biotechnology, fuel cells, the Internet, etc., hold much promise for pulling vast numbers of people out of the expansive morass of poverty. However, the development landscape is replete with botched “good ideas”. This session will, then, present the ways in which development has been and continues to be approached, the lessons learned from these experiences, and a framework for development assistance that can be used to guide the scientific community’s efforts to impact positively on the developing and transition world.

  12. On the unstable ENSO-Western North Pacific Monsoon relation during the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega Martín, Inmaculada; Gallego Puyol, David; Ribera Rodriguez, Pedro; Gómez Delgado, Francisco de Paula; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The concept of the Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon (WNPSM) appeared for the first time in 1987. Unlike the Indian Summer Monsoon and the East Asian summer monsoon, the WNPSM is an oceanic monsoon driven essentially by the meridional gradient of sea surface temperature. Its circulation is characterized by a northwest-southeast oriented monsoon trough with intense precipitation and low-level southwesterlies and upper-tropospheric easterlies in the region [100°-130° E, 5°-15°N]. Although this monsoon is mainly oceanic, it modulates the precipitation of densely populated areas such as the Philippines. To date, the WNPSM has been quantified by the so-called Western North Pacific Monsoon Index (WNPMI), an index based on wind anomalies over large domains of the Western Pacific. The requirement of continuous observed wind over remote oceanic areas to compute the WNPMI has limited its availability to the 1949-2014 period. In this work we have extended the index by almost 100 years by using historical observations of wind direction taken aboard ships. Our Western North Pacific Directional Index (WNPDI), is defined as the sum of the persistence of the low-level westerly winds in [5°-15°N, 100°-130°E] and easterly winds in [20°-30°N, 110°-140°E]. The new WNPDI index is highly correlated to the existent WNPMI for the concurrent period (1948-2014). (r=+0.88, p<0.01), indicating that the new approach based in the use of wind direction alone (a variable that can be considered instrumental even before the 20th Century), captures most of the monsoonal signal. Previous studies found that, during the second part of the 20th Century the WNPSM exhibited two basic characteristics: first a large interannual variability and second, a significant relation between the WNPSM and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in a way in which a strong (weak) WNPSM tends to occur during the El Niño (La Niña) developing year or/and La Niña (El Niño) decaying year. The analysis of

  13. Endoscopic investigation of the internal organs of a 15th-century child mummy from Yangju, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok Bae; Shin, Jeong Eun; Park, Sung Sil; Bok, Gi Dae; Chang, Young Pyo; Kim, Jaehyup; Chung, Yoon Hee; Yi, Yang Su; Shin, Myung Ho; Chang, Byung Soo; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Myeung Ju

    2006-01-01

    Our previous reports on medieval mummies in Korea have provided information on their preservation status. Because invasive techniques cannot easily be applied when investigating such mummies, the need for non-invasive techniques incurring minimal damage has increased among researchers. Therefore, we wished to confirm whether endoscopy, which has been used in non-invasive and minimally invasive studies of mummies around the world, is an effective tool for study of Korean mummies as well. In conducting an endoscopic investigation on a 15th-century child mummy, we found that well-preserved internal organs remained within the thoracic, abdominal and cranial cavities. The internal organs – including the brain, spinal cord, lung, muscles, liver, heart, intestine, diaphragm and mesentery – were easily investigated by endoscopy. Even the stool of the mummy, which accidentally leaked into the abdominal cavity during an endoscopic biopsy, was clearly observed. In addition, unusual nodules were found on the surface of the intestines and liver. Our current study therefore showed that endoscopic observation could provide an invaluable tool for the palaeo-pathological study of Korean mummies. This technique will continue to be used in the study of medieval mummy cases in the future. PMID:17062024

  14. Marine Language Exchange Program: A 21st Century International and Interdisciplinary Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robigou, V.; Nichols-Pecceu, M.

    2001-12-01

    The ability of scientists to communicate across cultural and linguistic barriers is crucial for the global economic sustainability and protection of the world\\'{}s oceans. Yet students with majors in the sciences and engineering constitute less than 2% of those who study abroad each year. And even rarer are students who study in countries where English is not the first language. The Marine Language Exchange program is a case study of an international and interdisciplinary collaboration between faculties in the languages and the sciences who address this gap. A consortium of U.S. and European institutions including Eckerd College (Florida), University of Washington (Washington), University of Hilo (Hawaii), Université de la Rochelle (France), Université de Liège (Belgium), and Universidad de Las Palmas (Spain) is developing a multilingual, marine sciences exchange program in an effort to internationalize their Marine Sciences departments. The program includes a three-week, intensive "bridge" course designed to reinforce second language skills in the context of marine sciences, and prepare undergraduate students for the cultural and educational differences of their host country. Following this immersion experience students from each institution enroll in courses abroad including marine sciences specialization for full academic credit. This session will review the Marine Language Exchange program activities since 2000 and will discuss the ideological and practical aspects of the program. The program successes, difficulties and future directions will also be presented. Different disciplinary approaches -Second Language Acquisition, English as a Second Language and Marine Science- prepare science students to contribute to the study and the management of the world\\'{}s oceans with an awareness of the cultural issues reflected by national marine policies. Based on this case study, other universities could initiate their own international and interdisciplinary

  15. Arctic Sovereignty Disputes: International Relations Theory in the High North

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Change IR International Relations NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NORAD North American...leader in international affairs of the region while strengthening cooperation with Russia.48 Since Norway relies on oil and petroleum as a primary...are present in the region ranging from oil and gas to fisheries. Finally, implementation of continental shelf extension claims under UNCLOS will be

  16. 21st Century Learning: Law-Related Education in South Tucson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golston, Syd

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. This Arizona high school magnet law program offers the ideal 21st century education--one that teaches skills through core subjects and interdisciplinary themes, uses innovative learning methods, and emphasizes higher order thinking skills. Students agree that the program has helped…

  17. 21st Century Learning: Law-Related Education in South Tucson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golston, Syd

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. This Arizona high school magnet law program offers the ideal 21st century education--one that teaches skills through core subjects and interdisciplinary themes, uses innovative learning methods, and emphasizes higher order thinking skills. Students agree that the program has helped…

  18. Proceedings of the International Conference on Counseling in the 21st Century (4th, Vancouver, Canada, July 21-23, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evraiff, Bill, Comp.; Evraiff, Lois, Comp.

    The fourth international conference focused on two issues for counseling in the 21st century. The first issue concerned physical and mental health. Presentations covered such topics as: counseling college students concerning their attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS; United States health care reform and how it affects people with disabilities;…

  19. High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and Twenty-First Century Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in…

  20. High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and Twenty-First Century Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in…

  1. Report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Second Session (Dakar, Senegal, September 18-21, 1993). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (UNESCO), Paris (France).

    The second session of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, held in Dakar, Senegal, was preceded by a 2-day working group on education in Africa, at which some 15 African educators, decision-makers, and intellectuals debated problems, approaches, and options in education. Several African educators at the highest…

  2. Report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, First Session (Paris, France, March 2-4, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (UNESCO), Paris (France).

    This report of the first session of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century describes its agenda of the working methods, the approach, the scope of its work, and the main lines of inquiry to be followed. The initial debate revealed a central theme to be sustained throughout the work of the Commission: the role of…

  3. Report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Fourth Session (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, April 13-15, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (UNESCO), Paris (France).

    This session of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century was preceded by a 2-day working group on the processes of education. The Commission also held an afternoon of hearings that included an in-depth exchange between Canadian educational leaders and the Commission members on a wide range of topics that included…

  4. Qualities Required of Education Today To Meet Foreseeable Demands in the Twenty-first Century. International Symposium and Round Table Proceedings (Beijing, China, November 27-December 2, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This report contains proceedings of a United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) international symposium and round table. The main objective of the meeting was to debate long-term goals of education and its role in preparing young people to face the demands of the 21st century. Papers presented include: (1) "Young…

  5. Turkey and its international relations in the history of medicine.

    PubMed

    Sari, N

    2001-12-01

    My discussions with ISHM members have disclosed considerable interest in the history of the relations that Turkey and its medicine have had with other countries. Dr Lellouch, the secretary of ISHM, originally suggested that I address the subject of Turkish-French relations by means of an essay in Vesalius. This led me to consider a wider ranging paper on Ottoman-European relations. For completeness, I have briefly covered the Turkish peoples' relations with the Eastern, as well as the Western World. The overall aim of this article is to act as a stimulus for further discussion on the international relations in health sciences between Turks and other peoples.

  6. Assessing the risk of work-related international travel.

    PubMed

    Druckman, Myles; Harber, Philip; Liu, Yihang; Quigley, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting the likelihood of requiring medical services during international business trips. Data from more than 800,000 international trips and medical assistance cases provided to 48 multinational corporations in 2009. Travel destination countries were grouped into four a priori risk-related categories. Travel to "low" medical risk countries in aggregate accounted for more hospitalizations and medical evacuations than travel to "high" medical risk countries. Nevertheless, the risk per trip was much higher for travel to higher medical risk countries. Corporations with employees on international travel should allocate sufficient resources to manage and ideally prevent medical issues during business travel. Travel medicine must focus on more than infectious diseases, and programs are necessary for both high- and low-risk regions. Improved understanding of travel-related needs determines resource allocation and risk mitigation efforts.

  7. "In-Awareness" Approach to International Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharna, R. S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a three-tiered framework intended to expose hidden cultural assumptions and expectations that plague international public relations. Notes the country profile outlines what may be feasible within a particular country; the cultural profile speaks to what may be effective in that country; and the communication profile delineates…

  8. Notes on Political Philosophy and Contemporary International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Describes the post World War II development of the discipline of international relations, stating that it helped reinvigorate interest in the tradition of political philosophy. Examines shortcomings, such as its division into realist and idealist camps, and discusses the works and ideologies of people such as Morgenthau, Aron, and Beitz. (GEA)

  9. Fifth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D. (Editor); Janszky, J. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Man'ko, V. I. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Fifth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Balatonfured, Hungary, on 27-31 May 1997. This series was initiated in 1991 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland as the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations. The scientific purpose of this series was to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics including quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic. As the meeting attracted more participants and started covering more diversified subjects, the fourth meeting was called an international conference. The Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held in 1995 was hosted by Shanxi University in Taiyuan, China. The fifth meeting of this series, which was held at Balatonfured, Hungary, was also supported by the IUPAP. In 1999, the Sixth International Conference will be hosted by the University of Naples in 1999. The meeting will take place in Ravello near Naples.

  10. Investigating the relative importance of nitrogen deposition on the 21st century terrestrial carbon sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Michael; Buermann, Wolfgang; Spracklen, Dominick; Arnold, Steve; Gloor, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    The global terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the start of this century at a time of rapidly growing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning. Here we test the hypothesis that increases in nitrogen deposition from fossil fuel burning and linked carbon-nitrogen interactions fertilized terrestrial ecosystems, increasing carbon uptake and storage. Using the dynamic global vegetation model CLM4.5-BGC, we perform factorial analyses, separating the effects of individual drivers to changes in carbon fluxes and sinks. Globally, we find that increases in nitrogen deposition from 1960 to 2010 increased carbon uptake by 1PgC/yr. One third of this increase can be attributed to East Asia alone, with Europe also having a significant contribution. The global, post-2000 anthropogenic nitrogen deposition effect on terrestrial carbon uptake is entirely accounted for from East Asia (increase of 0.05 PgC/yr). We will also quantify the relative effects of various other drivers on carbon exchanges such as CO2 fertilization, climate change, and land-use and land-cover change. This increased nitrogen deposition has served to fertilize the biosphere in recent years, but its influence on carbon sink processes may be rather short-lived due to the short lifetime of atmospheric reactive nitrogen while the influence of increased CO2 emissions (and the CO2 fertilization effect) will last multiple decades, a 'Faustian Bargain'.

  11. Recent enhancement of central Pacific El Niño variability relative to last eight centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Cobb, Kim M.; Song, Huiming; Li, Qiang; Li, Ching-Yao; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; An, Zhisheng; Zhou, Weijian; Cai, Qiufang; Li, Jinbao; Leavitt, Steven W.; Sun, Changfeng; Mei, Ruochen; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Chan, Ming-Hsun; Sun, Junyan; Yan, Libin; Lei, Ying; Ma, Yongyong; Li, Xuxiang; Chen, Deliang; Linderholm, Hans W.

    2017-05-01

    The far-reaching impacts of central Pacific El Niño events on global climate differ appreciably from those associated with eastern Pacific El Niño events. Central Pacific El Niño events may become more frequent in coming decades as atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations rise, but the instrumental record of central Pacific sea-surface temperatures is too short to detect potential trends. Here we present an annually resolved reconstruction of NIÑO4 sea-surface temperature, located in the central equatorial Pacific, based on oxygen isotopic time series from Taiwan tree cellulose that span from 1190 AD to 2007 AD. Our reconstruction indicates that relatively warm Niño4 sea-surface temperature values over the late twentieth century are accompanied by higher levels of interannual variability than observed in other intervals of the 818-year-long reconstruction. Our results imply that anthropogenic greenhouse forcing may be driving an increase in central Pacific El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability and/or its hydrological impacts, consistent with recent modelling studies.

  12. Recent enhancement of central Pacific El Niño variability relative to last eight centuries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Cobb, Kim M; Song, Huiming; Li, Qiang; Li, Ching-Yao; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; An, Zhisheng; Zhou, Weijian; Cai, Qiufang; Li, Jinbao; Leavitt, Steven W; Sun, Changfeng; Mei, Ruochen; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Chan, Ming-Hsun; Sun, Junyan; Yan, Libin; Lei, Ying; Ma, Yongyong; Li, Xuxiang; Chen, Deliang; Linderholm, Hans W

    2017-05-30

    The far-reaching impacts of central Pacific El Niño events on global climate differ appreciably from those associated with eastern Pacific El Niño events. Central Pacific El Niño events may become more frequent in coming decades as atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations rise, but the instrumental record of central Pacific sea-surface temperatures is too short to detect potential trends. Here we present an annually resolved reconstruction of NIÑO4 sea-surface temperature, located in the central equatorial Pacific, based on oxygen isotopic time series from Taiwan tree cellulose that span from 1190 AD to 2007 AD. Our reconstruction indicates that relatively warm Niño4 sea-surface temperature values over the late twentieth century are accompanied by higher levels of interannual variability than observed in other intervals of the 818-year-long reconstruction. Our results imply that anthropogenic greenhouse forcing may be driving an increase in central Pacific El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability and/or its hydrological impacts, consistent with recent modelling studies.

  13. Changes of mean relative sea level around Canada in the 20th and 21st centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guoqi; Ma, Zhimin; Chen, Nancy; Thomson, Rick; Slangen, Aimee

    2015-04-01

    Trends in regional mean sea levels can be substantially different from the global mean trend. Here, we first use tide-gauge data and satellite altimetry measurements to examine trends in the mean relative sea level (MRSL) for the coasts of Canada in the past century. We then combine model output and satellite observations to provide sea level projections in the 21st century. The MRSL trend based on historical tide-gauge data shows large regional variations, from 3 mm/yr (above the global mean MRSL rise rate 0f 1.7 mm/yr) along the southeast Atlantic coast, close to or below the global mean along the Pacific coast and Arctic, to -9 mm/yr in the northeast centred near Hudson Bay. This significant spatial contrast can largely be attributed to the vertical land motion. The combination of altimeter-measured sea level change with Global Positioning System (GPS) data can approximately account for tide-gauge measurements at most stations over 1993-2011. When the GPS data are used the projected MRSL change between 1980-1999 and 2090-2099 under a medium high climate change emission scenario (A2) ranges from -50 cm in the northeast to 75 cm in the southeast. Along the Beaufort Sea, the MRSL rise is up to 70 cm. The MRSL change in the Pacific coast varies from -15 to 50 cm. The ocean steric and dynamical effect contributes to the MRSL rise along the Canadian coasts, and is dominant in the southeast. The land-ice (glaciers and ice sheets) melt contributes 10-20 cm to the MRSL rise, except in the northeast. The effect of the vertical land uplift is large in the northeast centered near Hudson Bay, significantly reducing the MRSL rise. The land-ice melt also causes the MRSL to fall in the northeast. The projected MRSL change under a high emission scenario (RCP 8.5) has a spatial pattern similar overall to that under A2, with a slightly bigger rise of 7 cm on average and some notable differences at specific sites.

  14. Internal ice - Sheet variability as source for the multi-century and millennial-scale iceberg events during the Holocene? A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bügelmayer-Blaschek, Marianne; Roche, Didier M.; Renssen, Hans; Andrews, John T.

    2016-04-01

    The climate of the Holocene, the current interglacial covering the past 11,700 years, has been relatively stable compared to previous periods. Nevertheless, repeating occurrence of rapid natural climate changes that challenged human society are seen in proxy reconstructions. Ocean sediment cores for example display prominent peaks of enhanced ice rafted debris (IRD) during the Holocene with a multi-decadal to millennial scale periodicity. Different mechanisms were proposed that caused these enhanced IRD events, for example variations in the incoming total solar irradiance (TSI), volcanic eruptions and the combination of internal climate variability and external forcings. We investigate the probable mechanisms causing the occurrence of IRD-events over the past 6000 years using a fully coupled climate - ice-sheet - iceberg model (iLOVECLIM). We performed 19 experiments that differ in the applied forcings (TSI, volcanic) and the initial atmospheric conditions. To explore internal ice sheet variability one further experiment was done with fixed climate conditions. All the model runs displayed prominent peaks of enhanced iceberg melt flux (IMF), independent of the chosen experimental set-up. The spectral analysis of the experiments with the ice-sheet - climate model coupled displays significant peaks at 2000, 1000 years in all the experiments and at 500 years in most runs. The experiment with fixed climate conditions displays one significant peak of about 1500 years related to internal ice sheet variability. This frequency is modulated to 2000 and 1000 years in all the experiments with a coupled climate - ice sheet due to interactions between the climate components. We further investigate the impact of minimum TSI events on the timing and occurrence of enhanced IMF. In the experimental set-up that was forced with idealized sinusoidal TSI variations (±4 Wm-2), we find a significant occurrence of an increased iceberg melt flux about 60 years after the minimum TSI value

  15. Developing Skills for Youth in the 21st Century: The Role of Elite International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme Schools in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research suggesting that schools need to respond to changing social and economic dynamics by prioritising "21st-century skills". Proponents of this view, who have been termed "the 21st century skills movement", have called for greater emphasis on cognitive and non-cognitive skills development,…

  16. Developing Skills for Youth in the 21st Century: The Role of Elite International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme Schools in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research suggesting that schools need to respond to changing social and economic dynamics by prioritising "21st-century skills". Proponents of this view, who have been termed "the 21st century skills movement", have called for greater emphasis on cognitive and non-cognitive skills development,…

  17. Communicable disease-related sudden death in the 21st century in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinwusi, Patience Olayinka; Komolafe, Akinwumi Oluwole; Olayemi, Olanrewaju Olayinka; Adeomi, Adeleye Abiodun

    2013-01-01

    Background Some cases of sudden death (SD) have been attributed to communicable diseases (CD) in middle- and low-income countries of the world even in this 21st century. CDs produce clinical symptoms and signs over several days before culminating in death. They are also amenable to treatment with antimicrobials if affected persons present early. We sought to find out the incidence of CD-related SD at the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital (Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria) – a tertiary health facility in southwest Nigeria – and the prevailing associated factors. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of CD-related SD in adult patients aged 18 years and older that occurred from January 2003 to December 2011. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 was used for analysis of the generated data. Percentages and frequencies were calculated. Results There were 17 (39.6%) CD-related SDs out of the 48 cases of SD studied. CD-related SD also accounted for 2.4% of all adult medical admissions. The mean age of the patients was 37.6 ± 11.6 years, age range of 25–62 years, mode of 25 years, and median 34 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.8:1. Typhoid sepsis was responsible for SD in 47.1% of patients, pulmonary tuberculosis in 17.7% of patients, and lobar pneumonia in 17.7% of patients. The most affected age group was the 20–29-year-old group (41.2%), while the unskilled occupational group was the most affected occupational group with 35.3% of them having SD. Most of the patients with acute bacterial infection died of multiple organ failure. Conclusion There is an urgent need to step up public health strategies to curtail infections in this environment, encourage better use of the existing health facilities by the people, and the government should strive hard to make health a top priority. PMID:24124382

  18. 21st Century Science as a Relational Process: From Eureka! to Team Science and a Place for Community Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D.; Matlin, Samantha L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we maintain that 21st century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of 21st century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: 1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; 2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; 3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, 21st century transformation in science; 4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; 5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance 21st century science; and 6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the 21st century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are extraordinarily well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer 21st century science. PMID:24496718

  19. Twenty-first century science as a relational process: from eureka! to team science and a place for community psychology.

    PubMed

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D; Matlin, Samantha L

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we maintain that twenty-first century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of twenty-first century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: (1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; (2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; (3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, twenty-first century transformation in science; (4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; (5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance twenty-first century science; and (6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the twenty-first century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer twenty-first century science.

  20. Internal epitope tagging informed by relative lack of sequence conservation

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Leonard; Zhang, Karen; Bonawitz, Tristan; Grajevskaja, Viktorija; Bellipanni, Gianfranco; Waring, Richard; Balciunas, Darius

    2016-01-01

    Many experimental techniques rely on specific recognition and stringent binding of proteins by antibodies. This can readily be achieved by introducing an epitope tag. We employed an approach that uses a relative lack of evolutionary conservation to inform epitope tag site selection, followed by integration of the tag-coding sequence into the endogenous locus in zebrafish. We demonstrate that an internal epitope tag is accessible for antibody binding, and that tagged proteins retain wild type function. PMID:27892520

  1. Relations over Time among Children's Shyness, Emotionality, and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggum, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Sallquist, Julie; Michalik, Nicole M.; Liew, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Data regarding children's shyness and emotionality were collected at three time points, two years apart (T1: N = 214, M = 6.12 years; T2: N = 185, M = 7.67 years; T3: N = 185, M = 9.70 years), and internalizing data were collected at T1 and T3. Relations among parent-rated shyness, emotionality [parent- and teacher-rated anger, sadness, and…

  2. Cultural Diplomacy and its Presentation in International Affairs Textbooks, 1945-1971. A Study of the Treatment Accorded International Education and Cultural Relations in 171 Textbooks on International Relations, Foreign Policy, and International Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flack, Michael J.; And Others

    International education and cultural relations (IEC) are surveyed in the content of books from three areas of political science--international relations, foreign policy, and international organizations. One hundred seventy one texts published in the U.S. from 1945-mid 1971 are statistically analyzed in terms of amount of consideration of IEC;…

  3. The Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S.; Manko, V. I.

    1993-01-01

    This conference publication contains the proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations held in Moscow, Russia, on 25-29 May 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to study possible applications of squeezed states of light. The Workshop brought together many active researchers in squeezed states of light and those who may find the concept of squeezed states useful in their research, particularly in understanding the uncertainty relations. It was found at this workshop that the squeezed state has a much broader implication than the two-photon coherent states in quantum optics, since the squeeze transformation is one of the most fundamental transformations in physics.

  4. The Ep - Eiso relation and the internal shock model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochkovitch, R.; Nava, L.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The validity of the Ep - Eiso correlation in gamma-ray bursts and the possibility of explaining the prompt emission with internal shocks are highly debated questions. Aims: We study whether the Ep - Eiso correlation can be reproduced if internal shocks are indeed responsible for the prompt emission, or conversely, if the correlation can be used to constrain the internal shock scenario. Methods: We developed a toy model where internal shocks are limited to the collision of only two shells. Synthetic burst populations were constructed for various distributions of the model parameters, such as the injected power in the relativistic outflow, the average Lorentz factor, and its typical contrast between the shells. These parameters can be independent or linked by various relations. Results: Synthetic Ep - Eiso diagrams are obtained in the different cases and compared with the observed correlation. The reference observed correlation is the one defined by the BAT6 sample, a sample of Swift bursts almost complete in redshift and affected by well-known and reproducible instrumental selection effects. The comparison is then performed with a subsample of synthetic bursts that satisfy the same selection criteria as were imposed on the BAT6 sample. A satisfactory agreement between model and data can often be achieved, but only if several strong constraints are satisfied on both the dynamics of the flow and the microphysics that governs the redistribution of the shock-dissipated energy.

  5. Relative sea-level changes during the last century recorded by coral microatolls in Belloc, Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil-Accardo, J.; Feuillet, N.; Jacques, E.; Deschamps, P.; Saurel, J.-M.; Thirumalai, K.; Demeza, S.; Anglade, D.

    2016-04-01

    record of B8, the diversity in shape of the S. siderea microatolls and the position of fossil D. strigosa corals overall indicate stable to slightly increasing relative sea-level (about 1 mm/yr). This is on the same order of magnitude, although slightly lower, as the rate we determined over the last 74 years by using eight tide gauge records around Hispaniola (1.63 ± 0.20 mm/yr) and the mean rate of sea-level rise previously published (2.0 ± 0.5 mm/yr) in the area. This study demonstrates that coral microatolls can be used to infer relative sea-level changes over the last decades or centuries in the Caribbean, where tide gauge records are often sparse, incomplete or nonexistent. This is of prime importance for the numerous small and flat Caribbean islands, highly vulnerable to the threat of global sea-level rise.

  6. Content Literacy for the 21st Century: Excavation, Elevation, and Relational Cosmopolitanism in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damico, James S.; Baildon, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article makes the a case for conceptualizing content literacy, especially in social studies, as inquiry-based social practices for understanding and addressing complex, multifaceted problems. Two core practices especially needed for a Web-dominated 21st century are then described--excavation and elevation. Next, these two practices are…

  7. Towards Reducing the Burden of Global Environmental Related Health Problems in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olanipekun, Johnson Adetunji; Babatunde, Joseph Ojo

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health issues are major risk factors in the global burden of disease. This paper therefore focuses on the most important link between health and environment. It discusses the most important environmental threats to health in the 21st Century especially in the low and middle income countries. It reviews the burden of disease from…

  8. Content Literacy for the 21st Century: Excavation, Elevation, and Relational Cosmopolitanism in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damico, James S.; Baildon, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article makes the a case for conceptualizing content literacy, especially in social studies, as inquiry-based social practices for understanding and addressing complex, multifaceted problems. Two core practices especially needed for a Web-dominated 21st century are then described--excavation and elevation. Next, these two practices are…

  9. Basic Education in the Twenty-First Century. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, April 13-15, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, Victor M.

    This paper discusses major changes in the coverage, structure, and conception of what constitutes basic education. Many of these changes have been brought about by a growing international focus on basic education. This evidences a gradual but fundamental change in the manner in which education is perceived in relationship to economic development.…

  10. Cyborg pantocrator: international relations theory from decisionism to rational choice.

    PubMed

    Guilhot, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    International relations theory took shape in the 1950s in reaction to the behavioral social science movement, emphasizing the limits of rationality in a context of high uncertainty, weak rules, and the possibility of lethal conflict. Yet the same discipline rapidly developed "rational choice" models applied to foreign policy decision making or nuclear strategy. This paper argues that this transformation took place almost seamlessly around the concept of "decision." Initially associated with an antirationalist or "decisionist" approach to politics, the sovereign decision became the epitome of political rationality when it was redescribed as "rational choice," thus easing the cultural acceptance of political realism in the postwar years. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The delicate balance: Gazprom and Russia's competing and complementary roles in 21st century international relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, David

    Since the fall of the Soviet Union, many have accused Russia of using its energy monopoly Gazprom as a foreign policy tool in Europe. Those who believe this point to three gas disputes between Russia and Ukraine, which they see as punishment for Ukraine's democratic reforms. However, this argument fails to consider Gazprom's actions in terms of its goals of a corporation. This paper shows, through qualitative research and interviews, that Gazprom has goals independent of Russian foreign policy objectives, and that the company has embraced corporate values at a time when Russia is moving away from western liberal ideals.

  12. Belgian health-related data in three international databases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aims of the study This study wants to examine the availability of Belgian healthcare data in the three main international health databases: the World Health Organization European Health for All Database (WHO-HFA), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Health Data 2009 and EUROSTAT. Methods For the indicators present in the three databases, the availability of Belgian data and the source of these data were checked. Main findings The most important problem concerning the availability of Belgian health-related data in the three major international databases is the lack of recent data. Recent data are available for 27% of the indicators of the WHO-HFA database, 73% of the OECD Health Data, and for half of the Eurostat indicators. Especially recent data about health status (including mortality-based indicators) are lacking. Discussion Only the availability of the health-related data is studied in this article. The quality of the Belgian data is however also important to examine. The main problem concerning the availability of health data is the timeliness. One of the causes of this lack of (especially mortality) data is the reform of the Belgian State. Nowadays mortality data are provided by the communities. This results in a delay in the delivery of national mortality data. However several efforts are made to catch up. PMID:22958554

  13. ["Catching falcons, training and keeping healthy". A hunting related reference of the late 16th century].

    PubMed

    Giese, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The "Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek" in Vienna houses a copy of Jacques Du Fouilloux, La vénerie avec plusieurs receptes pour guerir les chiens, Poitiers 1564 (signature: *44. Q. 13), a classic of early modern hunting literature, containing handwritten german notes on the catching, training and healing of birds of prey, mostly falcons, written by the anonymous passionate falconer who owned the print in the late 16th century. These handwritten notes are an interesting document for the history of falconry and likewise for the special terminology of this field of hunting "Fachprosa". In the appendix of the article the handwritten notes are edited and commented.

  14. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health-related

  15. [Physical restraint of patients: historical notes relating to the nineteenth and twentieth century].

    PubMed

    Fariña-López, Emilio; Estévez-Guerra, Gabriel J

    2011-03-01

    Physical restraint has been historically considered a necessary procedure to control the behaviour of the mentally ill. In the late eighteenth century moral treatment would pave the way for new initiatives against restraint, such as those instituted by British psychiatrists. They stressed the importance of training and supervision, as well as a minimum staff ratio, as being determining factors in reducing the use of restraint. This philosophy of treatment, despite its benefits, was introduced later and to a lesser extent in the rest of Europe, although, in other countries care was also made more humane through new therapeutic procedures. By contrast, in the United States most psychiatrists disagreed with those who advocated non-restraint, and continued using controversial methods to control the behaviour of patients. In Spain many difficulties hindered the improvement of conditions in institutions, many of which were in a sorry state. The initiatives of a few professionals and some cautious legal advances tried to alleviate the harshness of the treatment methods used. In the early twentieth century professional manuals were already available, which included the care to be given during the application of physical restraints. However it was not until the 1950, when the emergence of new psychotropic drugs and the distribution of important guidelines on the protection of the rights of patients that the widespread use of this procedure would be successfully reduced.

  16. The Emerging Significance of Biotechnology for the Study of International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegele, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    Considers biotechnology's influence on international relations, focusing on agriculture, environmental issues, law, commerce, and biological warfare. Claims that, because biotechnology cuts across international boundaries and affects public and private interests, it necessitates the rethinking of international systems theory. Urges international…

  17. The Emerging Significance of Biotechnology for the Study of International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegele, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    Considers biotechnology's influence on international relations, focusing on agriculture, environmental issues, law, commerce, and biological warfare. Claims that, because biotechnology cuts across international boundaries and affects public and private interests, it necessitates the rethinking of international systems theory. Urges international…

  18. Computerized training and proficiency testing. International Academy of Cytology Task Force summary. Diagnostic Cytology Towards the 21st Century: An International Expert Conference and Tutorial.

    PubMed

    Vooijs, G P; Davey, D D; Somrak, T M; Goodell, R M; Grohs, D H; Knesel, E A; Mango, L J; Mui, K K; Nielsen, M L; Wilbur, D C

    1998-01-01

    Computerized technologies probably will revolutionize the field of gynecologic cytology in the next century. Such technologies will be useful in both training and evaluating proficiency. However, manual screening/review of gynecologic cytology preparations is the current "gold standard" for both training and assessment of proficiency. Training programs for cytotechnologists and pathologists should provide instruction and experience in new technologies, but their introduction may depend on the availability of equipment and staff. Advantages of digital images for training include standardization of teaching sets and interactive capabilities, allowing educational feedback. Computerized support/assistance devices aid in complete screening of the slide during training and provide feedback to cytologists on screening techniques. Liquid-based cytopreparatory instruments facilitate multiple glass slides for teaching or testing. Proficiency testing (PT) in cytology has similar quality assurance goals as in other areas of the laboratory, but the subjective nature of cytologic analysis poses many challenges for implementation. There is consensus that all cytology practitioners would like to know the proficiency of the laboratory. However, the majority question the value and validity of any large-scale formal testing programs. Locator and diagnostic skills are both critical in cytology, but assessment of each skill may occur in different ways using computerized technologies. Any type of assessment should provide educational feedback to participants. Psychometric issues in PT include the consideration of different types of validity, including face, content, construct and criterion related. The reliability or consistency of the testing event is also critical. A valid and reliable correlation between work performance and performance on a PT needs to be established. The goal is to ensure that PT will identify submarginal practitioners and that persons successful on PT are in fact

  19. Elite International Schools in the Global South: Transnational Space, Class Relationalities and the "Middling" International Schoolteacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarc, Paul; Mishra Tarc, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    The elite international school is a rich site for sociological inquiry in global times. In this paper, we conceptualize the international school as a transnational space of agonist social class-making given the dynamic positioning of the complement of international school actors. We position international schoolteachers in the middle of these…

  20. Elite International Schools in the Global South: Transnational Space, Class Relationalities and the "Middling" International Schoolteacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarc, Paul; Mishra Tarc, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    The elite international school is a rich site for sociological inquiry in global times. In this paper, we conceptualize the international school as a transnational space of agonist social class-making given the dynamic positioning of the complement of international school actors. We position international schoolteachers in the middle of these…

  1. Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D. (Editor); Peng, Kunchi (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Manko, V. I. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China, on June 5 - 9, 1995. This conference was jointly organized by Shanxi University, the University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Lebedev Physical Institute (Russia). The first meeting of this series was called the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, and was held in 1991 at College Park, Maryland. The second and third meetings in this series were hosted in 1992 by the Lebedev Institute in Moscow, and in 1993 by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, respectively. The scientific purpose of this series was initially to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years, the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics, including, of course, quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic transformation. This transition took place at the fourth meeting of this series held at Shanxi University in 1995. The fifth meeting in this series will be held in Budapest (Hungary) in 1997, and the principal organizer will be Jozsef Janszky of the Laboratory of Crystal Physics, P.O. Box 132, H-1052. Budapest, Hungary.

  2. Sixth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Solimento, S. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings contain contributions from about 200 participants to the 6th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR'99) held in Naples May 24-29, 1999, and organized jointly by the University of Naples "Federico II," the University of Maryland at College Park, and the Lebedev Institute, Moscow. This was the sixth of a series of very successful meetings started in 1990 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland. The other meetings in the series were held in Moscow (1992), Baltimore (1993), Taiyuan P.R.C. (1995) and Balatonfuered, Hungary (1997). The present one was held at the campus Monte Sant'Angelo of the University "Federico II" of Naples. The meeting sought to provide a forum for updating and reviewing a wide range of quantum optics disciplines, including device developments and applications, and related areas of quantum measurements and quantum noise. Over the years, the ICSSUR Conference evolved from a meeting on quantum measurement sector of quantum optics, to a wide range of quantum optics themes, including multifacet aspects of generation, measurement, and applications of nonclassical light (squeezed and Schrodinger cat radiation fields, etc.), and encompassing several related areas, ranging from quantum measurement to quantum noise. ICSSUR'99 brought together about 250 people active in the field of quantum optics, with special emphasis on nonclassical light sources and related areas. The Conference was organized in 8 Sections: Squeezed states and uncertainty relations; Harmonic oscillators and squeeze transformations; Methods of quantum interference and correlations; Quantum measurements; Generation and characterisation of non-classical light; Quantum noise; Quantum communication and information; and Quantum-like systems.

  3. Robust twenty-first-century projections of El Niño and related precipitation variability.

    PubMed

    Power, Scott; Delage, François; Chung, Christine; Kociuba, Greg; Keay, Kevin

    2013-10-24

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives substantial variability in rainfall, severe weather, agricultural production, ecosystems and disease in many parts of the world. Given that further human-forced changes in the Earth's climate system seem inevitable, the possibility exists that the character of ENSO and its impacts might change over the coming century. Although this issue has been investigated many times during the past 20 years, there is very little consensus on future changes in ENSO, apart from an expectation that ENSO will continue to be a dominant source of year-to-year variability. Here we show that there are in fact robust projected changes in the spatial patterns of year-to-year ENSO-driven variability in both surface temperature and precipitation. These changes are evident in the two most recent generations of climate models, using four different scenarios for CO2 and other radiatively active gases. By the mid- to late twenty-first century, the projections include an intensification of both El-Niño-driven drying in the western Pacific Ocean and rainfall increases in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Experiments with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model reveal that robust projected changes in precipitation anomalies during El Niño years are primarily determined by a nonlinear response to surface global warming. Uncertain projected changes in the amplitude of ENSO-driven surface temperature variability have only a secondary role. Projected changes in key characteristics of ENSO are consequently much clearer than previously realized.

  4. Robust twenty-first-century projections of ElNiño and related precipitation variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Scott; Delage, François; Chung, Christine; Kociuba, Greg; Keay, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    The ElNiño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives substantial variability in rainfall, severe weather, agricultural production, ecosystems and disease in many parts of the world. Given that further human-forced changes in the Earth's climate system seem inevitable, the possibility exists that the character of ENSO and its impacts might change over the coming century. Although this issue has been investigated many times during the past 20years, there is very little consensus on future changes in ENSO, apart from an expectation that ENSO will continue to be a dominant source of year-to-year variability. Here we show that there are in fact robust projected changes in the spatial patterns of year-to-year ENSO-driven variability in both surface temperature and precipitation. These changes are evident in the two most recent generations of climate models, using four different scenarios for CO2 and other radiatively active gases. By the mid- to late twenty-first century, the projections include an intensification of both El-Niño-driven drying in the western Pacific Ocean and rainfall increases in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Experiments with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model reveal that robust projected changes in precipitation anomalies during ElNiño years are primarily determined by a nonlinear response to surface global warming. Uncertain projected changes in the amplitude of ENSO-driven surface temperature variability have only a secondary role. Projected changes in key characteristics of ENSO are consequently much clearer than previously realized.

  5. ["The mind-body problem". The relation of psychical to physical in 19th century German psychology].

    PubMed

    Romand, David

    2010-01-01

    During the 19th century, the question of the relation between the soul and the body was deeply renewed by German psychological studies. The new elaborated conception of the relationship between the psychical and the physical coincides with the appearance of a cognitivist paradigm, in which mental phenomena are considered as entities that may be individualised, isolated, and then correlated with the activity of specific neural substrates. German psychologists were confronted with the problem of the correlation between psychical life and the nervous system (localisation of mental phenomena and nature of this correlative relationship), and propose an extensive analysis on the neural conditions and the emergence of psychical processes.

  6. International Leaders Summit: using dialogue to Center the Conversation on the Education of Deaf Children and Youth in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John L

    2011-01-01

    Om July 18, 2010, the eve of the 21st International Congress on the Education of the Deaf (ICED 2010), the International Leaders Summit was held at the Center for Dialogue at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada. A total of 120 world leaders from 32 countries participated. Presenters, including students, led the conversation on current perspectives, teacher preparation, worldwide resources, and major issues affecting the education of d/Deaf and hard of hearing infants, children, and youth. Summit participants recognized that advances in detection, early intervention, and technology present challenges in meeting the needs of a student population more diverse than at any other stage in history. While it was acknowledged that needs differ in various parts of the world, there was a consensus that change is required to prepare students to handle challenges in the 21st century.

  7. Policies and Pedagogies for Lifelong Literacy: International Perspectives for the 21st Century. Project No. 2, 2000 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suda, Liz

    This report presents findings from a review of international trends in adult literacy and numeracy to identify innovative programs of interest to Australia. Section 1 offers definitions of literacy. Section 2 outlines the international context. Section 3 has case studies of innovative approaches in four Organization for Economic Cooperation and…

  8. Teacher Education in the 21st Century: Lessons from Intern Attrition in an Urban Professional Development School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiffer-Barone, Susan; Hendricks-Lee, Martha; Soled, Suzanne Wegener

    This study examined intern attrition within one urban secondary Professional Development School (PDS). The secondary school was 80 percent minority. Data were collected over 2 years using participant observation, semi-structured interviews, PDS questionnaires, intern personal journals, and document analysis of resignation letters. Informants…

  9. Developing Degrees: An Exploratory Analysis of Laureate International Universities' 21st Century Entry into Mexico and Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Beau Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Laureate International Universities (LIU) embodies an emerging international phenomenon in which a multinational corporation (MNC) functions as a holding company that acquires and operates brick-and-mortar higher education institutions in a for-profit model; each individual portfolio institution granting degrees under its own name with any…

  10. Developing Degrees: An Exploratory Analysis of Laureate International Universities' 21st Century Entry into Mexico and Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Beau Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Laureate International Universities (LIU) embodies an emerging international phenomenon in which a multinational corporation (MNC) functions as a holding company that acquires and operates brick-and-mortar higher education institutions in a for-profit model; each individual portfolio institution granting degrees under its own name with any…

  11. Rudbeck's complaint: a 17th-century Latin letter relating to basic immunology.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, C T

    2007-10-01

    Basic immunology can be said to have its origin in the mid-17th-century with the discovery of the peripheral lymphatics. They completed the gross anatomical picture of the lymphatic system, which is the basis for much of the immune response. Their recognition almost simultaneously by two Scandinavian anatomists led to a protracted war of words over priority of discovery, pitting a young Swedish medical student (Olof Rudbeck) against an honored Danish anatomy professor (Thomas Bartholin). In a 752-word letter in Latin, Rudbeck charged Bartholin with pre-dating a key observation, thereby giving priority of discovery to the latter. The purpose of this paper is to provide an English translation of this accusatory letter. It is a notable document in basic immunology, for it cites much of the knowledge then current in the field. And by raising the issue of priority, the letter indirectly piqued the interest of the scientific community in the lymphatic system and hastened its study. Examining the system's various functions in health and disease led to this new discipline.

  12. 21st Century Military-Media Relationships: Improving Relations and the Narrative Through Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    news crew arrived on-scene to report the situation. This example also alludes to the powerful influence of information and the internal ethical ...Similar to the military over the last decade of war, the media writ large struggles to redefine its role, professional ethics and values, and...Contemporary Media Ethics , a Practical Guide for Students, Scholars, and Professionals, eds. Mitchell Land and Bill Hornaday (Spokane, Washington

  13. Monitoring the WFC3/UVIS Relative Gain with Internal Flatfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, J.; Baggett, S.

    2017-03-01

    The WFC3/UVIS gain stability has been monitored twice yearly. This project provides a new examination of gain stability, making use of the existing internal flatfield observations taken every three days (for the Bowtie monitor) for a regular look at relative gain stability. Amplifiers are examined for consistency both in comparison to each other and over time, by normalizing the B, C, and D amplifiers to A, and then plotting statistics for each of the three normalized amplifiers with time. We find minimal trends in these statistics, with a 0.02 - 0.2% change in mean amplifier ratio over 7.5 years. The trends in the amplifiers are well-behaved with the exception of the B/A ratio, which shows increased scatter in mean, median, and standard deviation. The cause of the scatter remains unclear though we find it is not dependent upon detector defects, filter features, or shutter effects, and is only observable after pixel flagging (both from the data quality arrays and outlier values) has been applied.

  14. Improving International Relations: Is There a Role for Community Colleges?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Carlos F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Presents essays by five prominent public servants/educators discussing the role of community colleges in enhancing international/intercultural understanding and global cooperation. Authors are Carlos Diaz, political science instructor; Gerhard Hess, international studies director; Daniel Inouye, U.S. Senator; Stephen Nicholson, college president;…

  15. Australian Public Relations: Status at the Turn of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raveena; Smyth, Rosaleen

    2000-01-01

    Notes how over the last two decades the Public Relations Institute of Australia together with its strategic alliances have made many changes, structurally, strategically, and academically towards the professional growth of public relations. Discusses the views of the Public Relations Institute of Australia and offers a snapshot of two surveys on…

  16. Proceedings of the International Conference on New Trends of Development and Models of Reform in the Field of Vocational Education and Training in the 21st Century (Shanghai, China, October 26-29, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Inst. of Vocational and Technical Education, Shanghai (China).

    This book contains an introduction and 10 papers from the International Conference on New Trends of Development and Models of Reform in the Field of Vocational Education and Training in the 21st Century. The following papers are included: "Introduction to the Reports Held on the International Conference"; "The Development and Reform…

  17. Internalized stigma and intimate relations in bipolar and schizophrenic patients: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sarısoy, Gökhan; Kaçar, Ömer Faruk; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan; Korkmaz, Işıl Zabun; Öztürk, Arif; Akkaya, Derya; Yılmaz, Sercan; Böke, Ömer; Sahin, Ahmet Rifat

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of internalized stigma and intimate relations in bipolar and schizophrenia patients and to compare characteristics of intimate relations in bipolar and schizophrenia patients with or without internalized stigma. A total of 228 volunteers were included, 119 patients with bipolar disorder and 109 with schizophrenia. Schizophrenic and bipolar disorder patients were compared in terms of internalized stigma and intimate relations characteristics. Bipolar and schizophrenia patients with and without internalized stigma were compared in terms of characteristics of intimate relations. Internalized stigma was determined in one in three schizophrenia and one in five bipolar patients. Stigma resistance and relational esteem in intimate relations scores were higher in bipolar patients. Relational anxiety/fear of relationship, relational monitoring and external relational control scores were higher in schizophrenia patients with internalized stigma compared to those without, while their relational satisfaction, relational esteem and relational assertiveness scores were lower. Relational anxiety/fear of relationship and relational monitoring scores were higher in bipolar patients with internalized stigma compared to those without, while their relational satisfaction scores were lower. Internalized stigma in schizophrenia patients is a well-known subject that has been investigated previously. The results of our study are significant in terms of showing that internalized stigma is also frequent in bipolar disorder patients, and not solely in schizophrenia patients. Stigma resistance is higher in bipolar disorder patients. Internalized stigma is correlated with intimate relations in both bipolar and schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relational learning and interprofessional practice: transforming health education for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Shelley Cohen; Browning, David M

    2012-01-01

    Theories and traditions emphasizing the centrality of caring have guided the evolution of the healthcare professions. In contemporary practice, creating a therapeutic context in which healing can occur relies not just on the caring dispositions of individual clinicians, but also on the collective relational capacities of interprofessional healthcare teams. This article describes the intersection and complementarity of relational and interprofessional learning approaches to health education, provides exemplars of shared learning models and discusses the benefits and obstacles to integrating relational and interprofessional philosophies into real world practice.

  19. 47 CFR 1.790 - Reports relating to traffic by international carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reports relating to traffic by international... Reports and Requests § 1.790 Reports relating to traffic by international carriers. Carriers shall file periodic reports regarding international point-to-point traffic as required by part 43 of this chapter....

  20. 47 CFR 1.790 - Reports relating to traffic by international carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reports relating to traffic by international... Reports and Requests § 1.790 Reports relating to traffic by international carriers. Carriers shall file periodic reports regarding international point-to-point traffic as required by part 43 of this chapter....

  1. 47 CFR 1.790 - Reports relating to traffic by international carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports relating to traffic by international... Reports and Requests § 1.790 Reports relating to traffic by international carriers. Carriers shall file periodic reports regarding international point-to-point traffic as required by part 43 of this chapter....

  2. 47 CFR 1.790 - Reports relating to traffic by international carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reports relating to traffic by international... Reports and Requests § 1.790 Reports relating to traffic by international carriers. Carriers shall file periodic reports regarding international point-to-point traffic as required by part 43 of this chapter....

  3. 47 CFR 1.790 - Reports relating to traffic by international carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reports relating to traffic by international... Reports and Requests § 1.790 Reports relating to traffic by international carriers. Carriers shall file periodic reports regarding international point-to-point traffic as required by part 43 of this chapter. ...

  4. Drug related hospital admissions in subspecialities of internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Hallas, J

    1996-04-01

    It is well established in the literature that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and drug non-compliance contribute substantially to the admissions at medical wards. Some important questions, however, remain unanswered. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise the drug-related hospital admissions (DRH) and to assess the magnitude of the problem seen in relation to the demographic parameters and drug use of the background population. In addition, an attempt was made to reduce the DRH incidence by an intervention program. The scope of the study program was adverse drug reactions, intended self-poisoning, non-compliance, underdosing and interactions. The material included 1999 admissions to six departments of internal medicine at Odense University Hospital. The patients were reviewed prospectively, while they were still in the wards, but use of standardised criteria fOR assessment of drug-ADR causality. With inclusion of a definite, probable and possible causal relationship, ADRs and toxic reactions were found as an important factor in 8.4% of all admissions. The incidense of ADR related admissions was 400 per 100,000 per year for the background population as a whole, but showing a strong increase with age. The drug-specific ADR incidences were generally small compared to the drug sales figures. Non-compliance contributed to 2.0% of admissions with diuretics and anti-asthmatics as the drugs most frequently involved. Two departments were re-investigated after an intervention program, primarily targetting general practitioners. The over-all incidence of DRHs was unaffected by the intervention, but the subset classified as avoidable DRHs showed a significant decline. The case material was subject to a blinded evaluation by an external peer group using the same criteria as the investigators. There was no indication that the observed decline in avoidable DRHs should be explained by a shift in the investigators' assessment of cases. It was concluded that the intervention

  5. The visiting friends or relatives traveler in the 21st century: time for a new definition.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Elizabeth D; MacPherson, Douglas W; Stauffer, William M; Loutan, Louis; Hatz, Christoph F; Matteelli, Alberto; Behrens, Ron H

    2010-01-01

    Travelers visiting friends or relatives (VFR travelers) are a group identified with an increased risk of travel-related illness. Changes in global mobility, travel patterns, and inter-regional travel led to reappraisal of the classic definition of the term VFR. The peer-reviewed literature was accessed through electronic searchable sites (PubMed/Medline, ProMED, GeoSentinel, TropNetEurop, Eurosurveillance) using standard search strategies for the literature related to visiting friends/relatives, determinants of health, and travel. We reviewed the historic and current use of the definition of VFR traveler in the context of changes in population dynamics and mobility. The term "VFR" is used in different ways in the literature making it difficult to assess and compare clinical and research findings. The classic definition of VFR is no longer adequate in light of an increasingly dynamic and mobile world population. We propose broadening the definition of VFR travelers to include those whose primary purpose of travel is to visit friends or relatives and for whom there is a gradient of epidemiologic risk between home and destination, regardless of race, ethnicity, or administrative/legal status (eg, immigrant). The evolution and application of this proposed definition and an approach to risk assessment for VFR travelers are discussed.

  6. Designing and Delivering an e-Presessional Course in EAP for the 21st First Century International Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Julie; White, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Summer pre-sessional courses in English for academic purposes (EAP), which prepare growing numbers of international students for degree programmes at UK universities, are facing greater challenges in how to provide the physical space and human resources for their effective and efficient delivery. The affordances of the internet now make other…

  7. What Have You Packed in Your Suitcase? Going International Now and in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Timothy

    Teachers and students need to "repack their suitcases" by revising, or re-envisioning, their metaphors of business, models of communication, conceptual frameworks of interculturalism and internationalism, and molds of professional identity. Popular business communication metaphors, most of which focus on the idea of competition, need to…

  8. Changing Academic Mobility Patterns and International Migration: What Will Academic Mobility Mean in the 21St Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Several scholars have underlined connections between academic mobility and international migration. This qualitative study explores a spectrum of academic mobility articulated by Teichler that empirically contributes to consideration of these connections. This analysis of e-mail excerpts from 20 migrant academics, living in seven countries,…

  9. Schools for 21st-Century Learners: Strong Leaders, Confident Teachers, Innovative Approaches. International Summit on the Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Successful education systems are those that promote leadership at all levels, thereby encouraging teachers and principals, regardless of the formal positions they occupy, to lead innovation in the classroom, the school and the system as a whole. This report summarises evidence from the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey and the OECD…

  10. High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and Twenty-First Century Skill Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol

    2015-12-01

    Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in students' choice of competition category were studied. Mixed methods analysis of survey returns from 172 Olympiad participants from 31 countries showed that students' career aspirations were affected most by their teachers, personal interests, and parents, respectively. Students also indicated that they believed that their participation in the Olympiad reinforced their plan to choose a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major at college and assisted them in developing and improving their twenty-first century skills. Furthermore, female students' responses indicated that their project choices were less likely to be in the engineering category and more likely to be in the environment or energy categories. Findings are discussed in the light of increasing the awareness of the role and importance of Science Olympiads in STEM career choice and finding ways to attract more female students into engineering careers.

  11. International Academy of Astronautics 5th cosmic study--preparing for a 21st century program of integrated, Lunar and Martian exploration and development (executive summary).

    PubMed

    Koelle, H H; Stephenson, D G

    2003-04-01

    This report is an initial review of plans for a extensive program to survey and develop the Moon and to explore the planet Mars during the 21st century. It presents current typical plans for separate, associated and fully integrated programs of Lunar and Martian research, exploration and development, and concludes that detailed integrated plans must be prepared and be subject to formal criticism. Before responsible politicians approve a new thrust into space they will demand attractive, defensible, and detailed proposals that explain the WHEN, HOW and WHY of each stage of an expanded program of 21st century space research, development and exploration. In particular, the claims of daring, innovative, but untried systems must be compared with the known performance of existing technologies. The time has come to supersede the present haphazard approach to strategic space studies with a formal international structure to plan for future advanced space missions under the aegis of the world's national space agencies, and supported by governments and the corporate sector. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. International Academy of Astronautics 5th cosmic study—preparing for a 21st century program of integrated, Lunar and Martian exploration and development (executive summary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, H. H.; Stephenson, D. G.

    2003-04-01

    This report is an initial review of plans for a extensive program to survey and develop the Moon and to explore the planet Mars during the 21st century. It presents current typical plans for separate, associated and fully integrated programs of Lunar and Martian research, exploration and development, and concludes that detailed integrated plans must be prepared and be subject to formal criticism. Before responsible politicians approve a new thrust into space they will demand attractive, defensible, and detailed proposals that explain the WHEN, HOW and WHY of each stage of an expanded program of 21st century space research, development and exploration. In particular, the claims of daring, innovative, but untried systems must be compared with the known performance of existing technologies. The time has come to supersede the present haphazard approach to strategic space studies with a formal international structure to plan for future advanced space missions under the aegis of the world's national space agencies, and supported by governments and the corporate sector.

  13. Hypothesis: the reversal of the relation between economic growth and health progress in Sweden in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was caused by electrification.

    PubMed

    Milham, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The expected decline of health indicators with economic recessions and improvement with economic growth in the nineteenth century Sweden was reversed in the twentieth century, giving the counterintuitive pattern of higher mortality and lower life expectancy in economic expansions and improvement of these indices in recessions. The change or "tipping point" occurred at the end of the nineteenth century or early in the twentieth century when electrification was introduced into Sweden. All 5 of the reversals of annual industrial electric energy use in the US between 1912 and 1970 were accompanied by recessions with lowered GDP, increased unemployment, decreased mortality and increased life expectancy. The health indices were not related to residential electricity use. The mortality improvement between 1931 and 1932 by state in the US strongly favored urban areas over rural areas. Rural unemployment by state in 1930 was significantly positively correlated with residential electrification percentage by state in 1930. The health effects of economic change are mediated by electrical exposure.

  14. The International System in the 21st Century: Considering the U.S. Role. Third Edition. Teacher Resource Book [and Student Text]. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sarah Cleveland

    Although the attacks of September 11, 2001, present new challenges and priorities for U.S. policy, it is uncertain what direction international relations will take. China's growth and power, Russia's political and economic problems, resentment and corruption in Russia, and global warming effect policymaking. While the war on terrorism may be a…

  15. The International System in the 21st Century: Considering the U.S. Role. Third Edition. Teacher Resource Book [and Student Text]. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sarah Cleveland

    Although the attacks of September 11, 2001, present new challenges and priorities for U.S. policy, it is uncertain what direction international relations will take. China's growth and power, Russia's political and economic problems, resentment and corruption in Russia, and global warming effect policymaking. While the war on terrorism may be a…

  16. The Future of International Education Hearings before the Subcommittee on International Operations of the Committee on International Relations. House of Representatives. Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on International Relations.

    The purpose of the five-day hearings was to provide a forum for examination by members of the House Committee on International Relations of public and private involvement in international education programs in the United States. The proceedings contain testimony and prepared statements by educators, foundation officials, federal government agency…

  17. The Future of International Education Hearings before the Subcommittee on International Operations of the Committee on International Relations. House of Representatives. Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on International Relations.

    The purpose of the five-day hearings was to provide a forum for examination by members of the House Committee on International Relations of public and private involvement in international education programs in the United States. The proceedings contain testimony and prepared statements by educators, foundation officials, federal government agency…

  18. Toward a 21st-Century Understanding of Humans' Relation to Nature: Two Hats?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Scott

    2008-01-01

    From its inception, environmental education (EE) has shouldered the imposition of impartiality on its methods and practices. Considering the reality of global climate change, the author urges the adoption of the more accurate theory of humans' relation to the natural world. This theory necessitates partiality toward healthy, functioning natural…

  19. Toward a 21st-Century Understanding of Humans' Relation to Nature: Two Hats?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Scott

    2008-01-01

    From its inception, environmental education (EE) has shouldered the imposition of impartiality on its methods and practices. Considering the reality of global climate change, the author urges the adoption of the more accurate theory of humans' relation to the natural world. This theory necessitates partiality toward healthy, functioning natural…

  20. Literacy in the 21st Century: Towards a Dynamic Nexus of Social Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Literacy is an essential means of communication. It enables individuals, communities and institutions to interact, over time and across space, as they develop a web of social relations via language. Effective literacy policies, programmes and practices expand the scale of social communication and interaction. Thus, literacy thrives when a state of…

  1. Linguistic Relativity and Linguistic Determinism: Idiom in 20th Century Cornish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jon

    2000-01-01

    It has been understood for decades that language and thought are closely related. If one accepts that the thoughts that we construct are based upon the language that we speak and the words that we use, then it follows that the language that we speak influences the way that we think. It is necessary that we possess the words to describe objects,…

  2. Special Education Related Services and Distance Education in the 21st Century Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantazis, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study addresses special education related services and the requirements when a school-aged student with a disability attends school using synchronous distance education tools to access the least restrictive environment. The researcher examines these placements to explore the implications virtual schooling has on students receiving…

  3. Literacy in the 21st Century: Towards a Dynamic Nexus of Social Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Literacy is an essential means of communication. It enables individuals, communities and institutions to interact, over time and across space, as they develop a web of social relations via language. Effective literacy policies, programmes and practices expand the scale of social communication and interaction. Thus, literacy thrives when a state of…

  4. Preparing Public Relations and Advertising Students for the 21st Century: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Robert A.

    In 1993, the Task Force on Integrated Communications reported that public relations and advertising students would better be prepared to enter a changing communications industry through an "integrated" curriculum. This paper is a case study of how one university has attempted to meet that challenge. The work has resulted in the development of an…

  5. From Decent Work to Decent Lives: Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM) in the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to empirically test the theoretical model, Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM), for a sample of 184 Italian university students. The PS&RM model specifies the development of individuals' strengths, potentials, and talents across the lifespan and with regard to the dialect of self in relationship. PS&RM is defined theoretically by three constructs: Positive Lifelong Life Management, Positive Lifelong Self-Management, Positive Lifelong Relational Management. The three constructs are operationalized as follows: Positive Lifelong Life Management is measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM), and the Authenticity Scale (AS); Positive Lifelong Self-Management is measured by the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital Scale (ISC), the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS), and the Life Project Reflexivity Scale (LPRS); and Positive Lifelong Relational Management is measured by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Positive Relational Management Scale (PRMS). Confirmatory factor analysis of the PS&RM model was completed using structural equation modeling. The theoretical PS&RM model was empirically tested as defined by the three hypothesized constructs. Empirical support for this model offers a framework for further research and the design of preventive interventions to promote decent work and decent lives in the twenty-first century.

  6. From Decent Work to Decent Lives: Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM) in the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to empirically test the theoretical model, Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM), for a sample of 184 Italian university students. The PS&RM model specifies the development of individuals' strengths, potentials, and talents across the lifespan and with regard to the dialect of self in relationship. PS&RM is defined theoretically by three constructs: Positive Lifelong Life Management, Positive Lifelong Self-Management, Positive Lifelong Relational Management. The three constructs are operationalized as follows: Positive Lifelong Life Management is measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM), and the Authenticity Scale (AS); Positive Lifelong Self-Management is measured by the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital Scale (ISC), the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS), and the Life Project Reflexivity Scale (LPRS); and Positive Lifelong Relational Management is measured by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Positive Relational Management Scale (PRMS). Confirmatory factor analysis of the PS&RM model was completed using structural equation modeling. The theoretical PS&RM model was empirically tested as defined by the three hypothesized constructs. Empirical support for this model offers a framework for further research and the design of preventive interventions to promote decent work and decent lives in the twenty-first century. PMID:27047406

  7. Literacy in the 21st century: Towards a dynamic nexus of social relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavot, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    Literacy is an essential means of communication. It enables individuals, communities and institutions to interact, over time and across space, as they develop a web of social relations via language. Effective literacy policies, programmes and practices expand the scale of social communication and interaction. Thus, literacy thrives when a state of connectedness - or social nexus of relations - is forged and sustained among individuals, households, communities and social institutions. This paper provides an overview of recent literacy trends and challenges as well as core aspects of the policy strategies which seek to address them. It reviews the main barriers or complicating factors which limit the effective implementation of literacy policies. The paper describes how the notion of non-formal education, which frames many scholarly and policy accounts of adult literacy work today, is under-conceptualised. One result of this is a relatively undifferentiated view of literacy programmes and their specific non-formal components. The author argues that the concept of the social nexus of literacy is implicit in many analyses of literacy policies and strategies. Thus, well-defined, context-specific and sharply conceived literacy policies, which enhance the social nexus of literacy, are crucial for improving the effectiveness of literacy work.

  8. 'A Berlin psychiatrist with an American passport': Lothar Kalinowsky, electroconvulsive therapy and international exchange in the mid-twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Rzesnitzek, Lara

    2015-12-01

    The emigration of Lothar Kalinowsky (1899-1992) might, at first glance, seem to be a history of coincidence and twists of fate, but it is shown to be a truly entangled and intertwined history and story. The international introduction of electroconvulsive therapy was not only closely involved with the political, scientific and economic conditions during World War II, but the story of Kalinowsky's relevance to it emerges from competing stories, told differently in Europe and the USA - and by Kalinowsky himself. Tracing these stories up to the end of the 1960s reveals Kalinowsky as an influential inheritor and patron of Berlin Biological Psychiatry, rather than telling the history of an émigré innovator of international neuropsychiatric research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. The Politics of Confusion in International Relations Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Bradely C. S.

    1996-01-01

    Critiques Kenneth N. Waltz's "Theory of International Politics," a seminal work of political theory. Waltz argues for the necessity of constructing a system or theory for explaining the actions of nation-states. Watson counters that emphasis on a constructed theory often obscures a realistic examination of events. (MJP)

  10. Internalization of Filmic Schematic Operations in Relation to Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Gavrial

    Two major hypotheses were tested in three experiments. The first hypothesis proposed that students can imitate and internalize filmic codes, to be used subsequently as covert schematized mediators. The second hypothesis was that subjects with low relevant aptitude scores would profit more than better able subjects from films which model for them…

  11. Bridging the Culture Gap: Diversity and International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenard, Susan

    1999-01-01

    An international educator believes that the commonly shared, fundamental source of tension and negative social interaction is ignorance and the consequent lack of appreciation of cultural diversity. Educators' moral duty is to instill knowledge of cultural diversity and model tolerance of all religious and ethnic backgrounds. (MLH)

  12. Current Events and the International Relations Curriculum: Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernotsky, Harry I.

    One of the most significant challenges confronting college instructors who teach international politics survey courses is the coverage of current events issues and how to stimulate student interest about the issues. This paper describes two techniques, a current events sweepstakes and a Great Decisions roundtable, designed to infuse current events…

  13. [Ottoman juridical court cases related with medicine at the end of the 15th century].

    PubMed

    Sahillioğlu, Halil

    2002-01-01

    This is a study of the Ottoman archive documents on juridical court cases related with medicine. The main source is the qadi registers in Bursa, Turkey. The documents comprise the malpractice cases by physicians, the diagnosis of the leprous and the insane; and the decisions of qadis about several cases, for example, about a pharmacist, the personnel of the hospital etc. Thus, the article gives an idea about the tendency of the Ottoman officials on some medical-social problems, as well as the medical jurisprudence of the time.

  14. The impact of international service on the development of volunteers' intercultural relations.

    PubMed

    Lough, Benjamin J; Sherraden, Margaret Sherrard; McBride, Amanda Moore; Xiang, Xiaoling

    2014-07-01

    Approximately one million people from the United States perform international volunteer service each year, representing a significant flow of ideas, people, resources, and aid across international borders. This quasi-experimental study assesses the longitudinal impact of international volunteer service on volunteers' intercultural relations, international social capital, and concern about international affairs. Using linear mixed regression models that control for a counterfactual comparison group of individuals that did not travel abroad, international volunteers are more likely to report significant increases in international social capital and international concern two to three years after returning from service. Results indicate that intercultural relations may also continue to increase years after returning from service. International service may be a useful approach to helping people gain skills and networks that are needed in an increasingly global society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Projected hydrological changes in the 21st century and related uncertainties obtained from a multi-model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, S.

    2012-04-01

    21st century climate change is likely to have a significant impact on the hydrological cycle and thus has the potential to impose additional water stress in several regions. Thus, this study focuses on the assessment of the implications of climate change for global hydrological regimes and related water resources states for the 21st century. Different climate and hydrological models show quite different projected changes with a large variation of uncertainty within the climate - hydrology modelling chain. Therefore, multiple climate and hydrological models were used within the European project "Water and Global Change" (WATCH) to assess the hydrological response to climate change and to project the future state of global and large scale water resources. Climate model data were taken from projections of three coupled atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Models (GCMs) (ECHAM5/MPIOM, CNRM-CM3, LMDZ-4) following the A2 and B1 emission scenarios. Due to the systematic errors of climate models, their output has been corrected with a statistical bias correction method and then the output was used directly to force global hydrological models (GHMs) (MPI-HM, LPJmL, WaterGAP, VIC, MacPDM, H08, GWAVA, JULES) to calculate the corresponding changes in hydrological fluxes. The analyses focus on the changes in the hydrological characteristics for twelve large, continental river basins without taking into account direct anthropogenic influences in the hydrological simulations. The hydrological cycle was evaluated and multiple-model based projections were analysed for the terrestrial components of the hydrological cycle focusing on the time period of 2071-2100. Global maps are constructed to identify regions where the water cycle and associated water resources are significantly impacted by climate change, and which regions are vulnerable to these changes in terms of e.g. water availability. The uncertainties due to the choice of GCM and GHM are also assessed.

  16. The Need for an Enlarged Vision and Additional Perspectives of Public Relations in the 21st Century: A Challenge to Existing Paradigms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    This paper asserts that an enlarged vision and additional perspectives of public relations will be needed in the 21st century: vision and perspectives that will not only complement but challenge existing paradigms. Future communication technological phenomena will require dramatic changes in public relations practitioners' efforts in relationship-…

  17. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    an instrument of interference with internal affairs of the above mentioned countries and regions. The author emphasizes that France provides the so...appeals for the ruinous "security through armament" hypnosis to be shaken off. "The growing economic outlays on the pro- duction of modern arms systems...least a useful working instrument . The "underdevelop- ment barrier" which you mentioned, a concept circulat- ed, it would seem to me, by the radical

  18. Third International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Rubin, Morton H. (Editor); Shih, Yan-Hua (Editor); Zachary, Woodford W. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of these workshops is to bring together an international selection of scientists to discuss the latest developments in Squeezed States in various branches of physics, and in the understanding of the foundations of quantum mechanics. At the third workshop, special attention was given to the influence that quantum optics is having on our understanding of quantum measurement theory. The fourth meeting in this series will be held in the People's Republic of China.

  19. Scientists, Teachers and the "Scientific" Textbook: Interprofessional Relations and the Modernisation of Elementary Science Textbooks in Nineteenth-Century Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultén, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    In research on the development of a nineteenth-century "science for the people", initiatives by scientists or people well-trained in science has been emphasised, while the writings, roles and initiatives of elementary teachers are normally just mentioned in passing. In this study the development of nineteenth-century elementary science…

  20. Scientists, Teachers and the "Scientific" Textbook: Interprofessional Relations and the Modernisation of Elementary Science Textbooks in Nineteenth-Century Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultén, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    In research on the development of a nineteenth-century "science for the people", initiatives by scientists or people well-trained in science has been emphasised, while the writings, roles and initiatives of elementary teachers are normally just mentioned in passing. In this study the development of nineteenth-century elementary science…

  1. International Symposium for Improvement of Education and International Relations through Cooperative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Arthur L.; Berlin, Donna F.

    A Center for the Study of Learning has been proposed by the National Institute of Education. This center is to examine a broad spectrum of higher order cognitive skills including the nature, acquisition, and instruction of these skills. The International Consortium for Learning Research and its coordinating institute, The Ohio State University,…

  2. Toward More Emphasis in International Public Relations Research and Education: A USA Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    International public relations continues to be a rare experience in most public relations curriculums, but courses are found in journalism and business. The emphasis, however, is slightly different. Business departments emphasize international economic principles to be supported by public relations, whereas journalism stresses issues management…

  3. The American Library Association and International Relations: Accomplishments, Current Activities, Observations, Strategies, and Plan of Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert P.

    This report on the international relations activities of the American Library Association (ALA) briefly reviews ALA's policies and accomplishments in the international arena; describes ALA's current international activities and interests; outlines principles and values, which when correlated with current developments and past experience, provide…

  4. Improving Hospital Care and Collaborative Communications for the 21st Century: Key Recommendations for General Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Vivian; Rossos, Peter; Kuziemsky, Craig; O’Leary, Kevin J; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Reeves, Scott; Wong, Brian M; Morra, Dante

    2012-01-01

    Background Communication and collaboration failures can have negative impacts on the efficiency of both individual clinicians and health care system delivery as well as on the quality of patient care. Recognizing the problems associated with clinical and collaboration communication, health care professionals and organizations alike have begun to look at alternative communication technologies to address some of these inefficiencies and to improve interprofessional collaboration. Objective To develop recommendations that assist health care organizations in improving communication and collaboration in order to develop effective methods for evaluation. Methods An interprofessional meeting was held in a large urban city in Canada with 19 nationally and internationally renowned experts to discuss suitable recommendations for an ideal communication and collaboration system as well as a research framework for general internal medicine (GIM) environments. Results In designing an ideal GIM communication and collaboration system, attendees believed that the new system should possess attributes that aim to: a) improve workflow through prioritization of information and detection of individuals’ contextual situations; b) promote stronger interprofessional relationships with adequate exchange of information; c) enhance patient-centered care by allowing greater patient autonomy over their health care information; d) enable interoperability and scalability between and within institutions; and e) function across different platforms. In terms of evaluating the effects of technology in GIM settings, participants championed the use of rigorous scientific methods that span multiple perspectives and disciplines. Specifically, participants recommended that consistent measures and definitions need to be established so that these impacts can be examined across individual, group, and organizational levels. Conclusions Discussions from our meeting demonstrated the complexities of

  5. Improving hospital care and collaborative communications for the 21st century: key recommendations for general internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Robert C; Lo, Vivian; Rossos, Peter; Kuziemsky, Craig; O'Leary, Kevin J; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Reeves, Scott; Wong, Brian M; Morra, Dante

    2012-09-24

    Communication and collaboration failures can have negative impacts on the efficiency of both individual clinicians and health care system delivery as well as on the quality of patient care. Recognizing the problems associated with clinical and collaboration communication, health care professionals and organizations alike have begun to look at alternative communication technologies to address some of these inefficiencies and to improve interprofessional collaboration. To develop recommendations that assist health care organizations in improving communication and collaboration in order to develop effective methods for evaluation. An interprofessional meeting was held in a large urban city in Canada with 19 nationally and internationally renowned experts to discuss suitable recommendations for an ideal communication and collaboration system as well as a research framework for general internal medicine (GIM) environments. In designing an ideal GIM communication and collaboration system, attendees believed that the new system should possess attributes that aim to: a) improve workflow through prioritization of information and detection of individuals' contextual situations; b) promote stronger interprofessional relationships with adequate exchange of information; c) enhance patient-centered care by allowing greater patient autonomy over their health care information; d) enable interoperability and scalability between and within institutions; and e) function across different platforms. In terms of evaluating the effects of technology in GIM settings, participants championed the use of rigorous scientific methods that span multiple perspectives and disciplines. Specifically, participants recommended that consistent measures and definitions need to be established so that these impacts can be examined across individual, group, and organizational levels. Discussions from our meeting demonstrated the complexities of technological implementations in GIM settings

  6. The Role of International Juridical Process in International Security and Civil-Military Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    victors justice” under retrospective legislation, or the defiance of the principle nullum crimen , nulla poena sinne lege,66 the International Military...Tribunal stated that, In the first place, it is to be observed that the maxim nullum crimen sine lege is not a limitation of sovereignty, but is in...incorporates the basic principles of legality nullum crimen , nulla poena sine lege. Moreover, the ICC shall have jurisdiction only over natural persons

  7. Characterizing multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation via internal symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Caballar, Roland Cristopher F.; Ocampo, Leonard R.; Galapon, Eric A.

    2010-06-15

    Internal symmetries can be used to classify multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation (TE-CCR). The dynamical behavior of solutions to the TE-CCR possessing particular internal symmetries involving time reversal differ significantly from solutions to the TE-CCR without those particular symmetries, implying a connection between the internal symmetries of a quantum system, its internal unitary dynamics, and the TE-CCR.

  8. Migration and international relations: cooperation and control in the European Community.

    PubMed

    Hollifield, J F

    1992-01-01

    "In this article I have developed a political-economic framework for understanding international migration in postwar Europe and the United States." The author begins by reviewing four theories of international relations and gives a short critique of their main assumptions. He "finds that international migration reveals a contradiction between the main economic purpose of the postwar international order--to promote exchange--and the national perquisites of sovereignty and citizenship." excerpt

  9. Gender and relational differences in sensitivity to internal and external cues at 12 months.

    PubMed

    Watson, John S; Futo, Judit; Fonagy, Peter; Gergely, Gyorgy

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences favoring women in relation to awareness of the subjective (internal) world are well demonstrated but their origins are poorly understood. We trained 173 12-month-olds to visually fixate a video image in response to an internal cue (opening own mouth), external cue (seeing a face open its mouth), or both cues. Female infants showed significantly greater sensitivity than males to the internal cues suggesting that prioritization of internally accessible experience is already evident at one year of age.

  10. Colposcopy, cervicography, speculoscopy and endoscopy. International Academy of Cytology Task Force summary. Diagnostic Cytology Towards the 21st Century: An International Expert Conference and Tutorial.

    PubMed

    van Niekerk, W A; Dunton, C J; Richart, R M; Hilgarth, M; Kato, H; Kaufman, R H; Mango, L J; Nozawa, S; Robinowitz, M

    1998-01-01

    The colposcope was developed in 1925 and is well established in clinical gynecologic practice for defining and delineating cytologically detected lesions mainly of the cervix but also the vagina and vulva. Additionally, various endoscopic procedures in gastroenterology, pulmonary and urologic lesions enhance the cytologic detection and histologic verification of precancerous and cancerous lesions. The cost-effectiveness of all these devices and their applicability, particularly in countries with a limited health budget, is a major issue. This task force considered aspects of the present state of the art and the challenges in the 21st century. Automated cytology can interface with colposcopic examination in a number of significant ways. Automated cytologic analysis of conventional cervical smears can potentially direct colposcopic examination by predicting the nature of a lesion, assist in determining which patients should receive colposcopy and, in some settings, thereby reduce the number of colposcopies. Potentially, various combinations of automated cytology and colposcopy may be used to generate screening protocols that might result in more effective and inexpensive screening. The role of cervicography, or high-resolution cervical photography, as a screening device remains to be defined. Sensitivity for high grade lesions is generally no greater than that in cytology, and specificity appears lower. The interpretation of cervical photographs in triage of mildly abnormal cytology may prove to be useful in countries with established cytology programs. In areas of the world where cytology screening programs are not in place, the interpretation of cervical photographs may have its most dramatic effect. Cost-effectiveness analyses are needed. There are, at present, insufficient data for the evaluation of speculoscopy, a procedure using chemiluminescent illumination of the cervix for visualization of acetowhite areas. Basic training in colposcopy should be integrated

  11. Internal pH regulation facilitates in situ long-term acclimation of massive corals to end-of-century carbon dioxide conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, M.; Fietzke, J.; Schmidt, G. M.; Fink, A.; Hofmann, L. C.; de Beer, D.; Fabricius, K. E.

    2016-08-01

    The resilience of tropical corals to ocean acidification depends on their ability to regulate the pH within their calcifying fluid (pHcf). Recent work suggests pHcf homeostasis under short-term exposure to pCO2 conditions predicted for 2100, but it is still unclear if pHcf homeostasis can be maintained throughout a corals lifetime. At CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea, massive Porites corals have grown along a natural seawater pH gradient for decades. This natural gradient, ranging from pH 8.1-7.4, provides an ideal platform to determine corals’ pHcf (using boron isotopes). Porites maintained a similar pHcf (~8.24) at both a control (pH 8.1) and seep-influenced site (pH 7.9). Internal pHcf was slightly reduced (8.12) at seawater pH 7.6, and decreased to 7.94 at a site with a seawater pH of 7.4. A growth response model based on pHcf mirrors the observed distribution patterns of this species in the field. We suggest Porites has the capacity to acclimate after long-time exposure to end-of-century reduced seawater pH conditions and that strong control over pHcf represents a key mechanism to persist in future oceans. Only beyond end-of-century pCO2 conditions do they face their current physiological limit of pH homeostasis and pHcf begins to decrease.

  12. Internal pH regulation facilitates in situ long-term acclimation of massive corals to end-of-century carbon dioxide conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wall, M.; Fietzke, J.; Schmidt, G. M.; Fink, A; Hofmann, L. C.; de Beer, D.; Fabricius, K. E.

    2016-01-01

    The resilience of tropical corals to ocean acidification depends on their ability to regulate the pH within their calcifying fluid (pHcf). Recent work suggests pHcf homeostasis under short-term exposure to pCO2 conditions predicted for 2100, but it is still unclear if pHcf homeostasis can be maintained throughout a corals lifetime. At CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea, massive Porites corals have grown along a natural seawater pH gradient for decades. This natural gradient, ranging from pH 8.1–7.4, provides an ideal platform to determine corals’ pHcf (using boron isotopes). Porites maintained a similar pHcf (~8.24) at both a control (pH 8.1) and seep-influenced site (pH 7.9). Internal pHcf was slightly reduced (8.12) at seawater pH 7.6, and decreased to 7.94 at a site with a seawater pH of 7.4. A growth response model based on pHcf mirrors the observed distribution patterns of this species in the field. We suggest Porites has the capacity to acclimate after long-time exposure to end-of-century reduced seawater pH conditions and that strong control over pHcf represents a key mechanism to persist in future oceans. Only beyond end-of-century pCO2 conditions do they face their current physiological limit of pH homeostasis and pHcf begins to decrease. PMID:27477963

  13. Integrating Multicultural/International Experiences into the Public Relations Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    Predictions for a "third wave" in which power and productivity will be based on developing and distributing information should interest public relations practitioners and educators since public relations will be a critically needed professional specialization. A future of communication technology barely fathomable today, together with a…

  14. CrossFit-related cervical internal carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Albert; Shen, Peter; Lee, Paul; Dahlin, Brian; Waldau, Ben; Nidecker, Anna E; Nundkumar, Anoop; Bobinski, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    CrossFit is a high-intensity strength and conditioning program that has gained popularity over the past decade. Potential injuries associated with CrossFit training have been suggested in past reports. We report three cases of cervical carotid dissection that are associated with CrossFit workouts. Patient 1 suffered a distal cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection near the skull base and a small infarct in Wernicke's area. He was placed on anticoagulation and on follow-up has near complete recovery. Patient 2 suffered a proximal cervical ICA dissection that led to arterial occlusion and recurrent middle cerebral artery territory infarcts and significant neurological sequelae. Patient 3 had a skull base ICA dissection that led to a partial Horner's syndrome but no cerebral infarct. While direct causality cannot be proven, intense CrossFit workouts may have led to the ICA dissections in these patients.

  15. The Challenge To Be Relevant in the 21st Century: Abstracts and Full Text Documents of Papers and Demos Given at the [International Association of Technological University Libraries] IATUL Conference (Pretoria, South Africa, June 1-5, 1998), Volume 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Technological Univ. Libraries, Gothenburg (Sweden).

    This proceedings of the 1998 conference of the International Association of Technological University Libraries (IATUL) contains the full text of the following papers: "A Library Ready for 21st Century Services: The Case of the University of Science and Technology (UST) Library, Kumasi, Ghana" (Helena Rebecca Asamoah-Hassan);…

  16. Report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Third Session (Paris, France, January 12-15, 1994). Report on the Study: Education and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (UNESCO), Paris (France).

    This report of the third session of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century describes the two main items on its agenda: the teaching of the sciences, and the production of knowledge, mentioning in this connection the particular role of the universities. From these debates and deliberations arose a number of central…

  17. Preparing for a New Century of Learning: Technology, Education, and the Internet. ICTE Tampa 1999: International Conference on Technology and Education Proceedings (17th, Tampa, Florida, October 10-13, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The overarching focus of the International Conference on Technology and Education (ICTE) Tampa 1999 conference was "Preparing for a New Century of Learning: Technology, Education, and the Internet." Twelve themes supported this focus: "Implementation in the Classroom"; "Educational Tools"; "Information Technology…

  18. Cultural Citizenship in the 21st Century: Adult Learning and Indigenous Peoples. Adult Learning and the Challenges of the 21st Century. A Series of 29 Booklets Documenting Workshops Held at the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education. (Hamburg, Germany, July 14-18, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. for Education.

    This booklet, which was produced as a follow-up to the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education, examines cultural citizenship in the 21st century: adult learning, and indigenous peoples. The booklet begins with an introduction and overview of the current situation of indigenous peoples throughout the world, including recent changes in…

  19. [Veterinary relations between Germany and Turkey on the military level at the beginning of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Doğanay-Feldhaus, S

    1991-09-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the veterinary relations between Turkey and Germany intensified at the military level. After the Balkan Wars there were urgent attempts to reorganize the army, which lead to the visit of a German military mission under General L. von Sanders, who was appointed to review the army. Along with other members of the German military mission A. Thieme (1881-1949) belonged to the staff of the Turkish Army's Supreme Command as orderly officer and as advisory army veterinarian. During the First World War (1914-1918) there were 44 German veterinary officers, 23 in Turkish and 21 in German uniform. The veterinary officers in Turkish formations were assigned to the military mission, where the veterinary major Dr. K. Dreyer served as official adviser. Moreover mixed German-Turkish special units were formed under German leadership in Turkey, which included German veterinary officers in German uniform. The higher salaries were paid to the German veterinary officers than their Turkish colleagues by the Turkish government. As far as can gathered three German officers perished in Turkey.

  20. Catholic Church and State Relations in French Education in the Nineteenth Century: The Struggle between "Laïcité" and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Ann Margaret

    2017-01-01

    This article traces the conflicts and compromises between the Catholic Church and the French state and the struggle for dominance in education between these two forces during the nineteenth century. It explores their varying relations up to the law of separation in 1905. It also poses the question as to why a country traditionally wedded to…

  1. Early Childhood Education and Care in the 21st Century: Global Guidelines and Papers from an International Symposium Hosted by the World Organization for Early Childhood Education (Organisation Mondiale pour L'Education Prescolaire) and the Association for Childhood Education International (Ruschlikon, Switzerland, July 5-8, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Childhood Education International, Olney, MD.

    The International Symposium on Early Childhood Education and Care for the 21st Century was held in Ruschlikon, Switzerland in 1999. Attending were 83 early childhood education professionals from 28 nations to develop international guidelines for the education and care of young children. This document contains shortened versions of the guidelines…

  2. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Patterns of Cooperation: Distance Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their ability to analyze international relations, this monograph presents data on the application of distance theory to patterns of cooperation among nations. Distance theory implies that international relations systems (nations, organizations, individuals, etc.) can be…

  3. Between Theory and History: "The Remains of the Day" in the International Relations Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Anthony F., Jr.; Lang, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Recommends using Kazuo Ishiguro's "The Remains of the Day" to teach international relations by focusing on the normative elements of international relations, the importance of history, and the relationship between theory and history. Explores the use of one theory, feminism, in the novel and provides suggestions for other novels. (CMK)

  4. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  5. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  6. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  7. Economic losses related to internal diseases in Japanese black cattle.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Keiichi; Honda, Takeshi; Oyama, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the direct economic losses due to the condemnation of the liver and large intestine because of internal diseases (multifocal necrosis in the liver (MNL) and inflammation of the large intestine (ILI)), and the indirect losses because of reductions in carcass performance from MNL, bovine abdominal fat necrosis (BFN) and ILI using data from 5383 Japanese Black cattle. Direct losses were estimated by multiplying the price of the condemned part by the frequency of its occurrence owing to the disease. Similarly, indirect losses were estimated as the product of unit carcass price and reduction in carcass weight (CW) due to the disease. The direct impact on the beef cattle industry from MNL and ILI was estimated at around $1.29 million (US$1 = ¥120) per year. A least-squares analysis showed that MNL had no influence on any carcass trait, whereas BFN and ILI significantly reduced CW, rib eye area and darkened the beef. ILI also reduced rib thickness. The indirect losses from BFN and ILI were estimated as a maximum of $131.7 and $256.4 per animal and around $6.26 million and $4.03 million for the industry, respectively, mostly because of the reduction in CW.

  8. Perspectives on Public Relations Training in International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnell, Tristan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence from the UK shows that public relations (PR) in schools initially met with resistance but has since entered a second phase, that of "post marketisation". But, it is still believed that unqualified and untrained administrators practise it in schools. Little formal research has been undertaken into this, especially among the…

  9. International Inventory of Current Mexico-Related Research. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Ricardo Anzaldua, Ed.; And Others

    The fourth annual research inventory describes 728 Mexican-related research projects being conducted in 1984 or to begin in 1985 in 14 countries. Data come from questionnaires sent during 1984 to more than 1,800 individual researchers and 650 institutions around the world. Each project description provides names and addresses of principal and…

  10. Australian Applied Linguistics in Relation to International Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.; Kaplan, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Applied Linguistics is a diverse field, comprising a substantial number of sub-fields, sub-specialisations and related fields. To see that this is the case one need only examine the various handbooks and encyclopaedic references that have been published in the last ten years to see the wide range of topics that have been covered. As with many…

  11. A Relational Approach to International Education through Homestay Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Junko; Viswat, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies and analyzes intercultural problems through surveys of homestay programs with Japanese students and American host mothers. Given that participants need to go beyond their cognitive knowledge to interact effectively with people from other cultures, a relational approach may be more effective than traditional intercultural…

  12. International Inventory of Current Mexico-Related Research. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Ricardo Anzaldua, Ed.; And Others

    The fourth annual research inventory describes 728 Mexican-related research projects being conducted in 1984 or to begin in 1985 in 14 countries. Data come from questionnaires sent during 1984 to more than 1,800 individual researchers and 650 institutions around the world. Each project description provides names and addresses of principal and…

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  14. Albanian-NATO Relations in the Fight Against International Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Communication Zone West CRO Crises Response Operations CRS Congressional Research Service DOD Department of Defense EAPC Euro-Atlantic Partnership...Plan against Terrorism, “ sharing intelligence and analysis with NATO, enhancing national counter-terrorist capabilities and improving border...and partners in 2002 “improved intelligence- sharing and cooperation in areas such as border security, terrorism-related training and exercises, and

  15. Selected pioneering works on humus in soils and sediments during the 20th century: A retrospective look from the International Humic Substances Society view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, Christian; Brossard, Michel; Chen, Yona; Landa, Edward R.; Trichet, Jean

    Organic matter in general, and humic substances (HS) in particular, are involved in many processes in soils, sediments, rocks and natural waters. These include rock weathering, plant nutrition, pH buffering, trace metal mobility and toxicity, bioavailability, degradation and transport of hydrophobic organic chemicals, formation of disinfection by-products during water treatment, heterotrophic production in blackwater ecosystems and, more generally, the global carbon cycle. Before the 1970s, natural organic matter of different ecosystem pools ( i.e., soils, sediments, and natural waters) was often studied in isolation, although many similarities exist between them. This is particularly so for HS. In this historical context, a need appeared at the international level for bringing together environmental chemists, soil scientists, hydrologists, and geologists who were interested in HS to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas, to standardize analytical procedures and agree on definitions of HS. The International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) was founded in Denver, Colorado (USA) in 1981 with several objectives among them “to bring together scientists in the coal, soil, and water sciences with interests in humic substances” (home page of the IHSS web site: http://ihss.gatech.edu/ihss2/index.html). This paper presents selected pioneering works on humus in soils and sediments during the 20th century with a special focus on the links between the studies of soil HS and the formation, during early diagenesis, of the precursors of kerogens. Temporal coverage includes key contributions preceding the founding of the IHSS, and a brief history of the organization is presented.

  16. Digital imagery/telecytology. International Academy of Cytology Task Force summary. Diagnostic Cytology Towards the 21st Century: An International Expert Conference and Tutorial.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, M J; Takahashi, M; Brugal, G; Christen, H; Gahm, T; Goodell, R M; Karakitsos, P; Knesel, E A; Kobler, T; Kyrkou, K A; Labbe, S; Long, E L; Mango, L J; McGoogan, E; Oberholzer, M; Reith, A; Winkler, C

    1998-01-01

    Optical digital imaging and its related technologies have applications in cytopathology that encompass training and education, image analysis, diagnosis, report documentation and archiving, and telecommunications. Telecytology involves the use of telecommunications to transmit cytology images for the purposes of diagnosis, consultation or education. This working paper provides a mainly informational overview of optical digital imaging and summarizes current technologic resources and applications and some of the ethical and legal implications of the use of these new technologies in cytopathology. Computer hardware standards for optical digital imagery will continue to be driven mainly by commercial interests and nonmedical imperatives, but professional organizations can play a valuable role in developing recommendations or standards for digital image sampling, documentation, archiving, authenticity safeguards and teleconsultation protocols; in addressing patient confidentiality and ethical, legal and informed consent issues; and in providing support for quality assurance and standardization of digital image-based testing. There is some evidence that high levels of accuracy for telepathology diagnosis can be achieved using existing dynamic systems, which may also be applicable to telecytology consultation. Static systems for both telepathology and telecytology, which have the advantage of considerably lower cost, appear to have lower levels of accuracy. Laboratories that maintain digital image databases should adopt practices and protocols that ensure patient confidentiality. Individuals participating in telecommunication of digital images for diagnosis should be properly qualified, meet licensing requirements and use procedures that protect patient confidentiality. Such individuals should be cognizant of the limitations of the technology and employ quality assurance practices that ensure the validity and accuracy of each consultation. Even in an informal

  17. The relation between attachment, personality, internalizing, and externalizing dimensions in adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vera; Canta, Guilherme; de Castro, Filipa; Leal, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The relation between attachment and personality features is an important field to explore in adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD), and previous research has shown that personality features may be conceptualized within latent internalizing and externalizing dimensions. This cross-sectional study used a structural equation model to examine the association between the BPD participants' perception of attachment and personality features, mediated by the underlying internalizing/externalizing personality dimensions. Data were analyzed for 60 adolescents, ages 15 to 18 years, diagnosed with BPD who completed attachment and personality self-report measures. The authors' results showed a good fit of the model, suggesting a significant association between attachment and the internalizing/externalizing dimensions, which simultaneously congregate and influence personality traits. The perception of attachment anxiety was positively related to the internalizing dimension and at the same time negatively related to the externalizing dimension. However, the perception of attachment avoidance was not related to internalizing or externalizing personality dimensions.

  18. Blast-related injuries from terrorism: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Lerner, E Brooke; O'Connor, Robert E; Schwartz, Richard; Brinsfield, Kathryn; Ashkenazi, Isaac; Degutis, Linda C; Dionne, Jean-Philippe; Hines, Stephen; Hunter, Simon; O'Reilly, Gerard; Sattin, Richard W

    2007-01-01

    Terrorism using conventional weapons and explosive devices is a likely scenario and occurs almost daily somewhere in the world. Caring for those injured from explosive devices is a major concern for acute injury care providers. Learning from nations that have experienced conventional weapon attacks on their civilian population is critical to improving preparedness worldwide. In September 2005, a multidisciplinary meeting of blast-related injury experts was convened including representatives from eight countries with experience responding to terrorist bombings (Australia, Colombia, Iraq, Israel, United Kingdom, Spain, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey). This article describes these experiences and provides a summary of common findings that can be used by others in preparing for and responding to civilian casualties resulting from the detonation of explosive devices.

  19. century drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  20. Impacts of one century of wastewater discharge on soil transformation through ferrolysis and related metal pollutant distributions.

    PubMed

    van Oort, Folkert; Thiry, Médard; Foy, Eddy; Fujisaki, Kenji; Delarue, Ghislaine; Dairon, Romain; Jongmans, Toine

    2017-07-15

    Discharge of wastewater leading to notable soil surface contamination is widely reported. But few works highlight the fast dynamics of soils and their morphological transformations that may result from such anthropogenic activities. Near Paris (France), sandy Luvisols were irrigated with urban wastewater since the 1890s. Within and outside the discharge area, the soil cover presents decameter-sized cryogenic structures. We studied macro morphological soil characteristics, soil chemistry and clay mineralogy on selected bulk samples, as well as contemporary pedofeatures and related metal pollutant distribution patterns in soil thin sections from subsurface horizons. Annual repetitive waterlogging and drying cycles initiated a hydromorphic soil forming process: ferrolysis, based on iron reduction producing alkalinity under anaerobic conditions, and iron oxidation producing acidity in aerobic conditions. Its intensity was enhanced at the top of thick clay-rich B-horizons in the center of cryogenic structures. The polygonal soil structure favored the evacuating of soil water and alkalinity. Within one century, such recurrent alternating redox conditions have led to clay destruction, removal of iron, strong bleaching of the E horizon and formation of abiotic Fe-rich pedofeatures at depth. In addition, between anaerobic clay-rich B and aerated E or C horizons, the contrasting hydrodynamic conditions enhanced manganese (Mn) oxidizing fungal activity and the formation of biotic Mn-rich pedofeatures. Both types of pedofeatures trapped metal pollutants in deep soil horizons. In our work, the impacts of centenary anthropogenic activity were amplified by millenary cryogenic structures, acting together to promote fast soil dynamics, within a few decades.

  1. Differences in the size-internal velocity relation of galactic and extragalactic HII regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the size-internal velocity relation in extragalactic HII regions is examined in order to improve their use as distance determinants. The relation between the linear size and the internal velocity was compared for HII regions in the Galaxy and in external galaxies. Data for the former are from the researcher's own studies at high spatial resolution, while the latter have been the subject of spectroscopy that includes almost the entire objects. The Galactic HII regions are corrected to values of the internal velocity that would be observed if they were at extragalactic distances. A very different size-internal velocity relation was found for the two types of objects in the sense that the extragalactic objects are some ten times larger at the same internal velocity. This is interpreted to mean that the extragalactic HII regions are actually complexes of small HII regions comparable in size to their Galactic counterparts.

  2. The Current Situation and Future Prospects of International Relations in Japanese Higher Education Related Engineering Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Shigenori

    With ongoing globalization, the role of higher education in developing excellent human resources who can play an active role in international society, among other things is becoming increasingly important. Recently, the international competition among higher education institutions to recruit the best and brightest students has been heating up increasingly. In this section, we present the outline of recent trend of internationalization in higher education with reference to policy of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) .

  3. African American Career Aspirations: Examining the Relative Influence of Internalized Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danice L.; Segrist, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relative influence of aspects of internalized racism on the career aspirations of a sample of African American adults. Participants (N = 315), ranging in age from 18 to 62 years, completed measures of internalized racism and career aspirations online. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to…

  4. Are Externalizing and Internalizing Difficulties of Young Children with Spelling Impairment Related to Their ADHD Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rietz, Chantal Sabrina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Labuhn, Andju Sara

    2012-01-01

    Children with literacy difficulties often suffer from a variety of co-occurring externalizing and internalizing difficulties, as well as comorbid ADHD. Therefore, these externalizing and internalizing problems might be more related to comorbid ADHD, rather than being a correlate of literacy difficulties per se. In the present study, we…

  5. African American Career Aspirations: Examining the Relative Influence of Internalized Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danice L.; Segrist, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relative influence of aspects of internalized racism on the career aspirations of a sample of African American adults. Participants (N = 315), ranging in age from 18 to 62 years, completed measures of internalized racism and career aspirations online. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to…

  6. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  7. Mathematics Achievement and Anxiety and Their Relation to Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sarah S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of…

  8. German National Proficiency Scales in Biology: Internal Structure, Relations to General Cognitive Abilities and Verbal Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampa, Nele; Köller, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    National and international large-scale assessments (LSA) have a major impact on educational systems, which raises fundamental questions about the validity of the measures regarding their internal structure and their relations to relevant covariates. Given its importance, research on the validity of instruments specifically developed for LSA is…

  9. German National Proficiency Scales in Biology: Internal Structure, Relations to General Cognitive Abilities and Verbal Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampa, Nele; Köller, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    National and international large-scale assessments (LSA) have a major impact on educational systems, which raises fundamental questions about the validity of the measures regarding their internal structure and their relations to relevant covariates. Given its importance, research on the validity of instruments specifically developed for LSA is…

  10. Mathematics Achievement and Anxiety and Their Relation to Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sarah S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of…

  11. Understanding Social Learning Relations of International Students in a Large Classroom Using Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienties, Bart; Héliot, YingFei; Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in higher education is that international students find it difficult to develop learning and friendship relations with host students. When students are placed in a student-centred environment, international students from different cultural backgrounds are "forced" to work together with other students, which allows…

  12. Peer Victimization as a Mediator of the Relation between Facial Attractiveness and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relations among facial attractiveness, peer victimization, and internalizing problems in early adolescence. We hypothesized that experiences of peer victimization would partially mediate the relationship between attractiveness and internalizing problems. Ratings of attractiveness were obtained from standardized photographs…

  13. Gendered aspects of perceived and internalized HIV-related stigma in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping

    2016-09-14

    Although studies have demonstrated that females experience more HIV-related stigma than males do, questions remain regarding the different dimensions of the stigma (i.e., perceived versus internalized) in China. The present study investigated gender differences in perceived and internalized HIV-related stigma, taking into account the potential influence of education. The study was conducted between October 2011 and March 2013. A total of 522 people living with HIV (PLH) were recruited from Anhui Province, China. The PLH participated in a survey using the Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) method. The gender differences in perceived and internalized HIV-related stigma were calculated with and without stratifying by education level. Female participants had significantly less education than the male participants. No significant difference was observed between females and males with respect to perceived stigma. However, females reported significantly higher internalized stigma than males did (p < .001). When socio-demographic characteristics were controlled, the gender difference in internalized stigma remained significant among educated participants (p = .038). The findings suggested that gender differences in HIV-related stigma were primarily found for internalized stigma. Heightened intervention efforts are encouraged to reduce internalized HIV-related stigma, particularly among female PLH in China and other regions with similar gender dynamics.

  14. Migration, international relations and the new Europe: theoretical perspectives from institutional political sociology.

    PubMed

    Heisler, M O

    1992-01-01

    The author examines the sociopolitical effects of recent political transformations in Eastern and Central Europe and the formation of the European Community on migration and international relations. Some policy implications are discussed.

  15. International relations and epidemics: a short expedition to places inhabited by states and mad cows.

    PubMed

    Aaltola, M

    1999-01-01

    The complex process of co-evolution between humans, their social structures and biological disease agents have from time to time established relationships between the three. Recently, one such set of paths has opened up faster and closer global connections. As new and more inclusive approaches emerge from the shadow of strict intra-disciplinary containment, it is tempting to formulate the relationship between epidemics and international relations in new terms deriving from new metaphors. The argument that components central to international relations (state, sovereignty, power) do not associate with disease can be viewed sceptically. Throughout history, epidemics have had a direct impact on political interaction by vindicating, weakening, testing, and moulding international relations. This paper examines the past relationships between epidemics and international relations, and illustrates these interactions with the example of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (mad cow disease) and its link with human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  16. Peer Victimization as a Mediator of the Relation between Facial Attractiveness and Internalizing Problems

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relations between facial attractiveness, peer victimization, and internalizing problems in early adolescence. We hypothesized that experiences of peer victimization would partially mediate the relationship between attractiveness and internalizing problems. Ratings of attractiveness were obtained from standardized photographs of participants (93 girls, 82 boys). Teachers provided information regarding peer victimization experiences in sixth grade, and seventh grade teachers assessed internalizing problems. Attractiveness was negatively correlated with victimization and internalizing problems. Experiences of peer victimization were positively correlated with internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling provided support for the hypothesized model of peer victimization partially mediating the relationship between attractiveness and internalizing problems. Implications for intervention programs and future research directions are discussed. PMID:21984861

  17. The relational underpinnings of quality internal auditing in medical clinics in Israel.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Abraham; Zisu, Malka

    2009-03-01

    Internal auditing is a key mechanism in enhancing organizational reliability. However, research on the ways quality internal auditing is enabled through learning, deterrence, motivation and process improvement is scant. In particular, the relational underpinnings of internal auditing have been understudied. This study attempts to address this need by examining how organizational trust, perceived organizational support and psychological safety enable internal auditing. Data collected from employees in medical clinics of one of the largest healthcare organizations in Israel at two points in time six months apart. Our results show that organizational trust and perceived organizational support are positively related to psychological safety (measured at time 1), which, in turn, is associated with internal auditing (measured at time 2).

  18. Catheter-related bacteremia from femoral and central internal jugular venous access.

    PubMed

    Lorente, L; Jiménez, A; García, C; Galván, R; Castedo, J; Martín, M M; Mora, M L

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this prospective observational study was to determine the influence of femoral and central internal jugular venous catheters on the incidence of catheter-related bacteremia (CRB). We included patients admitted to a 12-bed polyvalent medico-surgical intensive care unit over 4 years who received one or more femoral or central internal jugular venous catheters. We diagnosed 16 cases of CRB in 208 femoral catheters and 22 in 515 central internal jugular venous catheters. We found a higher incidence of CRB with femoral (9.52 per 1,000 catheter days) than with central internal jugular venous access (4.83 per 1,000 catheter days; risk ratio = 1.93; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-3.73; P = 0.04). Central internal jugular venous access could be considered a safer route of venous access than femoral access in minimizing the risk of central venous catheter-related bacteremia.

  19. International standards related to the classification and deregulation of radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Linsley, Gordon

    2006-11-01

    Although solid radioactive waste management is mainly a national concern, there are some aspects that have international implications. One important example is the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, which results in the release of materials that could be reused and recycled. It is possible that these materials could enter international trade, especially if the material is a metal. It is clearly desirable, therefore, to have appropriate international standards to help regulate trade. This paper describes recent international developments relating to the establishment of radiological criteria for the release of materials from regulatory control (clearance). There have already been some experiences of clearance and the transfer of recycled materials within Europe, and this paper reviews that experience. It also discusses recent developments in relation to the international classification of radioactive waste.

  20. U.S. Public Relations from an International Perspective: Curricular Issues and Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Cornelius B.; Ogbondah, Chris W.

    This paper establishes a rationale for international public relations courses in the curricula of university public relations education in the U.S. and outlines the content of such courses. Disagreements between practitioners and educators on a blueprint for public relations education are documented. Developments pointing to a crucial need for…

  1. International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1979-01-01

    The International Geological Correlation Project has attained scientific maturity and broad support and participation by geologists world wide. Its purpose is to provide a mechanism for international cooperation and information exchange about geological problems that transcend national boundaries. (Author/BB)

  2. [Immigrations to Anatolia, related public health problems and healthcare services in the beginning of the Twentieth Century].

    PubMed

    Sarikaya, Ozlem; Civaner, Murat

    Anatolia, one of the most important crossroads between two continents, has witnessed so many immigrations throughout the history. It is a place where different civilizations and cultures met and transformed each other by interaction. History of important immigrations to Anatolia during the reign of the Ottoman Empire goes back to 1683. Also, the period between the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century was the time of wars, immigrations, and death and birth of nations. The Ottoman Empire had joined the several wars as well, and the new Republic of Turkey was established after it collapsed. In this study, we investigated the two large scale immigrations to Anatolia between Balkan Wars and the first years of Republic, and tried to compile our knowledge about the public health problems and the healthcare services provided.

  3. Bridging international relations and disaster studies: the case of disaster-conflict scholarship.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Simon

    2017-04-28

    International relations and disaster studies have much to gain by thinking critically about their respective theoretical and epistemological assumptions. Yet, few studies to date have sought to assess the potential value of linking these two disciplines. This paper begins to address this shortfall by examining the relationship between disasters and conflict as a research sphere that intersects international relations and disaster studies. Through an analysis of whether or not disasters contribute to intra-national and international conflict, this paper not only provides a review of the state of the art, but also serves to invite scholars to reflect on related concepts from other fields to strengthen their own approaches to the study of disasters in an international setting. An evaluation of the conceptual and theoretical contributions of each subject area provides useful heuristics for the development of disaster-conflict scholarship and encourages alternative modes of knowledge production through interdisciplinarity. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  4. The Concert of Europe and Great Power Governance Today: What Can the Order of 19th-Century Europe Teach Policymakers About International Order in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    KYLE LASCURETTES The Concert of Europe and Great-Power Governance Today What Can the Order of 19th-Century Europe Teach Policymakers About...whatever notes, minutes, or declarations individual delegations decided to write down—codified virtually nothing about its procedures, processes...had during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. In reality , the first was merely the latest manifestation of an old and recurring fear of a single

  5. Scientific Meetings Database: A New Tool for CTBT-Related International Cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Knapik, Jerzy F.; Girven, Mary L.

    1999-08-20

    The mission of international cooperation is defined in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Ways and means of implementation were the subject of discussion during the International Cooperation Workshop held in Vienna in November 1998, and during the Regional Workshop for CTBTO International Cooperation held in Cairo, Egypt in June 1999. In particular, a database of ''Scientific and Technical Meetings Directly or Indirectly Related to CTBT Verification-Related Technologies'' was developed by the CTBTO PrepCom/PTS/International Cooperation section and integrated into the organization's various web sites in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy CTBT Research and Development Program. This database, the structure and use of which is described in this paper/presentation is meant to assist the CTBT-related scientific community in identifying worldwide expertise in the CTBT verification-related technologies and should help experts, particularly those of less technologically advanced States Signatories, to strengthen contacts and to pursue international cooperation under the Tredy regime. Specific opportunities for international cooperation, in particular those provided by active participation in the use and further development of this database, are presented in this paper and/or presentation.

  6. Comparing Cognitive, Relational and Stress Mechanisms Underlying Gender Differences in Recovery from Bereavement-Related Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Michelle; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.

    2009-01-01

    Four putative mediators underlying gender differences in youths' recovery from bereavement-related internalizing problems were examined in a sample (N = 109; age range = 8-16 years at the initial assessment) of parentally bereaved youth: intrusive thoughts about grief, postdeath stressors, negative appraisals of postdeath stressors, and fear of…

  7. Comparing Cognitive, Relational and Stress Mechanisms Underlying Gender Differences in Recovery from Bereavement-Related Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Michelle; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.

    2009-01-01

    Four putative mediators underlying gender differences in youths' recovery from bereavement-related internalizing problems were examined in a sample (N = 109; age range = 8-16 years at the initial assessment) of parentally bereaved youth: intrusive thoughts about grief, postdeath stressors, negative appraisals of postdeath stressors, and fear of…

  8. International research collaboration as social relation: an Ethiopian-Canadian example.

    PubMed

    Bender, Amy; Guruge, Sepali; Aga, Fekadu; Hailemariam, Damen; Hyman, Ilene; Tamiru, Melesse

    2011-06-01

    International collaboration in nursing and other health disciplines is vital for addressing global health issues. While the results and processes of such collaborations have been reported, few publications have addressed their philosophical or theoretical underpinnings, particularly with respect to collaboration between those in low- and high-income countries. Piaget's notion of social relations of cooperation and constraint and Habermas's notion of "lifeworld" provide a theoretical lens through which to examine international collaboration as a construction of knowledge. This article is an exploration of these ideas as seen in the collective experience of Canadians and Ethiopians organizing an interdisciplinary forum on intimate partner violence in Ethiopia. The project is presented as a case study for reflecting on international collaboration as a manifestation of social relations. Such re-visioning of international collaboration may be useful for improving collaborative processes and their outcomes.

  9. The Redesign of Teacher Education for the Twenty-First Century. International Perspectives on the Preparation of Educational Personnel. Selected Papers from the Thirtieth Anniversary World Assembly of the International Council of Education for Teaching (Washington, DC, July 11-15, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yff, Joost, Ed.

    This volume is organized according to themes chosen for the 30th Annual World Assembly of the International Council on Education for Teaching (ICET). A keynote speech by Anne Flowers discussed "Teacher Education for the Twenty-First Century." The first theme, "The Redesign of Teacher Education," was discussed through presentations by Anne Flowers,…

  10. The Redesign of Teacher Education for the Twenty-First Century. International Perspectives on the Preparation of Educational Personnel. Selected Papers from the Thirtieth Anniversary World Assembly of the International Council of Education for Teaching (Washington, DC, July 11-15, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yff, Joost, Ed.

    This volume is organized according to themes chosen for the 30th Annual World Assembly of the International Council on Education for Teaching (ICET). A keynote speech by Anne Flowers discussed "Teacher Education for the Twenty-First Century." The first theme, "The Redesign of Teacher Education," was discussed through presentations by Anne Flowers,…

  11. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  12. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  13. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang

    2012-01-01

    Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…

  14. Ethnic Differences in Relations between Family Process and Child Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendlinski, Matthew; Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lane, Tonya J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Family process variables have been linked to child problem behavior, but recent research suggests that child ethnicity may moderate relations between family process and child outcomes. The current study examined how ethnicity moderates relations between parent conflict, parent-child relationship quality, and internalizing problems.…

  15. 31 CFR 585.213 - Exemption of activities related to certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of activities related to certain international organizations. 585.213 Section 585.213 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  16. Relations Among Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms and Drinking Frequency During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyun-Jin; Sacco, Paul; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Camlin, Elizabeth A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background In adolescence, internalizing (e.g., anxious, depressive, and withdrawn) and externalizing (e.g., aggressive, oppositional, delinquent, and hyper-active) symptoms are related with alcohol use. However, the directionality among internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and alcohol use during adolescence is equivocal. Moreover, gender differences and similarities among these behaviors are not definitive in existing literature. Objectives This study examined longitudinal relationships between internalizing and externalizing symptoms and past-month alcohol use among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Using longitudinal survey data from a study of community-dwelling adolescents (n = 724), we estimated cross-lagged structural equation models to test relations between internalizing and externalizing symptoms (as measured by the Youth Self Report, YSR [Achenbach, 1991]) and self-report alcohol use in the past month among adolescents. Gender differences were tested in a multiple group structural equation model. Results Alcohol use at age 12 was a predictor of internalizing and externalizing symptoms at age 15 for both boys and girls. With regard to gender differences, girls demonstrated an association between internalizing symptoms and drinking at age 12, whereas boys showed a stronger association between externalizing symptoms and drinking at age 18. Conclusions/Importance Early alcohol use is problematic for youth, and results of this study lend support to prevention programs for youth. Preventing or curbing early drinking may offset later externalizing and internalizing symptoms, as well as ongoing alcohol use, regardless of gender. PMID:26646723

  17. PREFACE: The 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takaho

    2009-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains invited and contributed peer-reviewed papers that were presented at the 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008), which was held on 7-12 September 2008, at Kunibiki Messe, Matsue, Japan. This triennial symposium has a half-century long history starting from the 1st meeting in 1959 at Asbury Park, New Jersey. We were very pleased to organize ISBB 2008, which gathered chemists, physicists, materials scientists as well as diamond and high-pressure researchers. This meeting had a strong background in the boron-related Japanese research history, which includes the discovery of superconductivity in MgB2 and development of Nd-Fe-B hard magnets and of YB66 soft X-ray monochromator. The scope of ISBB 2008 spans both basic and applied interdisciplinary research that is centered on boron, borides and related materials, and the collection of articles defines the state of the art in research on these materials. The topics are centered on: 1. Preparation of new materials (single crystals, thin films, nanostructures, ceramics, etc) under normal or extreme conditions. 2. Crystal structure and chemical bonding (new crystal structures, nonstoichiometry, defects, clusters, quantum-chemical calculations). 3. Physical and chemical properties (band structure, phonon spectra, superconductivity; optical, electrical, magnetic, emissive, mechanical properties; phase diagrams, thermodynamics, catalytic activity, etc) in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. 4. Applications and prospects (thermoelectric converters, composites, ceramics, coatings, etc) There were a few discoveries of new materials, such as nanomaterials, and developments in applications. Many contributions were related to 4f heavy Fermion systems of rare-earth borides. Exotic mechanisms of magnetism and Kondo effects have been discussed, which may indicate another direction of development of boride. Two special sessions

  18. Enhanced relative biological effectiveness of proton radiotherapy in tumor cells with internalized gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polf, Jerimy C.; Bronk, Lawrence F.; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata; Gillin, Michael

    2011-05-01

    The development and use of sensitizing agents to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy have long been sought to improve our ability to treat cancer. In this letter, we have studied the relative biological effectiveness of proton beam radiotherapy on prostate tumor cells with and without internalized gold nanoparticles. The effectiveness of proton radiotherapy for the killing of prostate tumor cells was increased by approximately 15%-20% for those cells containing internalized gold nanoparticles.

  19. Enhanced relative biological effectiveness of proton radiotherapy in tumor cells with internalized gold nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Polf, Jerimy C.; Gillin, Michael; Bronk, Lawrence F.; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2011-05-09

    The development and use of sensitizing agents to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy have long been sought to improve our ability to treat cancer. In this letter, we have studied the relative biological effectiveness of proton beam radiotherapy on prostate tumor cells with and without internalized gold nanoparticles. The effectiveness of proton radiotherapy for the killing of prostate tumor cells was increased by approximately 15%-20% for those cells containing internalized gold nanoparticles.

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union. World Economy & International Relations, No. 12, December 1988.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-18

    the Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Refer to the table of contents for a...Institute for World Economy and International Rela- tions). The article gives a clear-cut review of the role played by the European Community in the ...present-day world , and specific emphasis is laid on the analysis of economic, political and other factors which

  1. A Longitudinal Examination of the Relation Between Internalizing Problem Behaviors and Early Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    PubMed

    Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Zaleski, Adam C; Swaim, Randall C

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the longitudinal relation between internalizing problem behaviors (measured with the anxious/depressed and somatic complaints subscales of the Achenbach Teacher's Report Form) and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intentions during early adolescence. In addition, a possible mediating role of perceived harm was investigated. Sixth graders and their teachers were surveyed in the sixth grade and students were surveyed again in the seventh grade. Smoking behavior and intentions were assessed with five items including lifetime use, 30-day use, tobacco user status (nonsmoker to heavy smoker), and two intentions/behavioral expectations items. In addition to perceived harm from smoking, reasons for smoking and reasons for not smoking were included on the survey. As hypothesized, teacher reports of sixth-grade internalizing problem behaviors were negatively related to seventh-grade smoking behavior and intentions. Moreover, perceived harm from smoking was negatively related to smoking and intentions. The hypothesized mediating role of perceived harm in the internalizing to smoking relationship was not supported. Potential differences in the relation between internalizing and smoking across adolescence are discussed. Specifically, the results of the present study and an examination of prior literature suggest that in early adolescence internalizing problems are negatively related to cigarette smoking, whereas in middle and late adolescence the opposite is true.

  2. Workforce 2000: Work and Workers for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William B.; And Others

    Four key trends will shape the American labor force in the final years of the 20th century. The American economy should grow at a relatively healthy pace. Despite its international comeback, however, U.S. manufacturing constitutes a much smaller share of the economy in the year 2000 than it does today. The work force will grow slowly, becoming…

  3. Global health diplomacy in Iraq: international relations outcomes of multilateral tuberculosis programmes.

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian; Jaf, Payman; Workneh, Nibretie Gobezie; Abu Dalod, Mohammad; Tabena, Mohammed; Rashid, Sara; Al Hilfi, Thamer Kadum Yousif

    2014-01-01

    International development programmes, including global health interventions, have the capacity to make important implicit and explicit benefits to diplomatic and international relations outcomes. Conversely, in the absence of awareness of these implications, such programmes may generate associated threats. Due to heightened international tensions in conflict and post-conflict settings, greater attention to diplomatic outcomes may therefore be necessary. We examine related 'collateral' effects of Global Fund-supported tuberculosis programmes in Iraq. During site visits to Iraq conducted during 2012 and 2013 on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, on-site service delivery evaluations, unstructured interviews with clinical and operational staff, and programme documentary review of Global Fund-supported tuberculosis treatment and care programmes were conducted. During this process, a range of possible external or collateral international relations and diplomatic effects of global health programmes were assessed according to predetermined criteria. A range of positive diplomatic and international relations effects of Global Fund-supported programmes were observed in the Iraq setting. These included (1) geo-strategic accessibility and coverage; (2) provisions for programme sustainability and alignment; (3) contributions to nation-building and peace-keeping initiatives; (4) consistent observation of social, cultural and religious norms in intervention selection; and (5) selection of the most effective and cost-effective tuberculosis treatment and care interventions. Investments in global health programmes have valuable diplomatic, as well as health-related, outcomes, associated with their potential to prevent, mitigate or reverse international tension and hostility in conflict and post-conflict settings, provided that they adhere to appropriate criteria. The associated international presence in such regions may also contribute to peace

  4. Relative impacts of mitigation, temperature, and precipitation on 21st-century megadrought risk in the American Southwest.

    PubMed

    Ault, Toby R; Mankin, Justin S; Cook, Benjamin I; Smerdon, Jason E

    2016-10-01

    Megadroughts are comparable in severity to the worst droughts of the 20th century but are of much longer duration. A megadrought in the American Southwest would impose unprecedented stress on the limited water resources of the area, making it critical to evaluate future risks not only under different climate change mitigation scenarios but also for different aspects of regional hydroclimate. We find that changes in the mean hydroclimate state, rather than its variability, determine megadrought risk in the American Southwest. Estimates of megadrought probabilities based on precipitation alone tend to underestimate risk. Furthermore, business-as-usual emissions of greenhouse gases will drive regional warming and drying, regardless of large precipitation uncertainties. We find that regional temperature increases alone push megadrought risk above 70, 90, or 99% by the end of the century, even if precipitation increases moderately, does not change, or decreases, respectively. Although each possibility is supported by some climate model simulations, the latter is the most common outcome for the American Southwest in Coupled Model Intercomparison 5 generation models. An aggressive reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions cuts megadrought risks nearly in half.

  5. Relative Impacts of Mitigation, Temperature, and Precipitation on 21st-Century Megadrought Risk in the American Southwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ault, Toby R.; Mankin, Justin S.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    Megadroughts are comparable in severity to the worst droughts of the 20th century but are of much longer duration. A megadrought in the American Southwest would impose unprecedented stress on the limited water resources of the area, making it critical to evaluate future risks not only under different climate change mitigation scenarios but also for different aspects of regional hydroclimate. We find that changes in the mean hydroclimate state, rather than its variability, determine megadrought risk in the American Southwest. Estimates of megadrought probabilities based on precipitation alone tend to underestimate risk. Furthermore, business-as-usual emissions of greenhouse gases will drive regional warming and drying, regardless of large precipitation uncertainties. We find that regional temperature increases alone push megadrought risk above 70, 90, or 99% by the end of the century, even if precipitation increases moderately, does not change, or decreases, respectively. Although each possibility is supported by some climate model simulations, the latter is the most common outcome for the American Southwest in Coupled Model Intercomparison 5 generation models. An aggressive reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions cuts megadrought risks nearly in half.

  6. Relative Impacts of Mitigation, Temperature, and Precipitation on 21st-Century Megadrought Risk in the American Southwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ault, Toby R.; Mankin, Justin S.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    Megadroughts are comparable in severity to the worst droughts of the 20th century but are of much longer duration. A megadrought in the American Southwest would impose unprecedented stress on the limited water resources of the area, making it critical to evaluate future risks not only under different climate change mitigation scenarios but also for different aspects of regional hydroclimate. We find that changes in the mean hydroclimate state, rather than its variability, determine megadrought risk in the American Southwest. Estimates of megadrought probabilities based on precipitation alone tend to underestimate risk. Furthermore, business-as-usual emissions of greenhouse gases will drive regional warming and drying, regardless of large precipitation uncertainties. We find that regional temperature increases alone push megadrought risk above 70, 90, or 99% by the end of the century, even if precipitation increases moderately, does not change, or decreases, respectively. Although each possibility is supported by some climate model simulations, the latter is the most common outcome for the American Southwest in Coupled Model Intercomparison 5 generation models. An aggressive reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions cuts megadrought risks nearly in half.

  7. Relative impacts of mitigation, temperature, and precipitation on 21st-century megadrought risk in the American Southwest

    PubMed Central

    Ault, Toby R.; Mankin, Justin S.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2016-01-01

    Megadroughts are comparable in severity to the worst droughts of the 20th century but are of much longer duration. A megadrought in the American Southwest would impose unprecedented stress on the limited water resources of the area, making it critical to evaluate future risks not only under different climate change mitigation scenarios but also for different aspects of regional hydroclimate. We find that changes in the mean hydroclimate state, rather than its variability, determine megadrought risk in the American Southwest. Estimates of megadrought probabilities based on precipitation alone tend to underestimate risk. Furthermore, business-as-usual emissions of greenhouse gases will drive regional warming and drying, regardless of large precipitation uncertainties. We find that regional temperature increases alone push megadrought risk above 70, 90, or 99% by the end of the century, even if precipitation increases moderately, does not change, or decreases, respectively. Although each possibility is supported by some climate model simulations, the latter is the most common outcome for the American Southwest in Coupled Model Intercomparison 5 generation models. An aggressive reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions cuts megadrought risks nearly in half. PMID:27713927

  8. Is the onset of the 6th century 'dark age' in Maya history related to explosive volcanism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooren, Kees; Hoek, Wim Z.; Van der Plicht, Hans; Sigl, Michael; Galop, Didier; Torrescano-Valle, Nuria; Islebe, Gerald; Huizinga, Annika; Winkels, Tim; Middelkoop, Hans; Van Bergen, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Maya societies in Southern Mexico, Guatemala and Belize experienced a 'dark age' during the second half of the 6th century. This period, also known as the 'Maya Hiatus', is characterized by cultural downturn, political instability and abandonment of many sites in the Central Maya Lowlands. Many theories have been postulated to explain the occurrence of this 'dark age' in Maya history. A possible key role of a large volcanic eruption in the onset of this 'dark age' will be discussed. Volcanic deposits recovered from the sedimentary archive of lake Tuspán and the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta were studied in detail and the combination of multiple dating techniques allowed the reconstruction of the timing of a large 6th century eruption. Volcanic glass shards were fingerprinted to indicate the source volcano and high resolution pollen records were constructed to indicate the environmental impact of the eruption. Results are compared with available archaeological data and causality with the disruption of Maya civilization will be evaluated.

  9. Clinical presentation, etiology, and outcome of infective endocarditis in the 21st century: the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, David R; Corey, G Ralph; Hoen, Bruno; Miró, José M; Fowler, Vance G; Bayer, Arnold S; Karchmer, Adolf W; Olaison, Lars; Pappas, Paul A; Moreillon, Philippe; Chambers, Stephen T; Chu, Vivian H; Falcó, Vicenç; Holland, David J; Jones, Philip; Klein, John L; Raymond, Nigel J; Read, Kerry M; Tripodi, Marie Francoise; Utili, Riccardo; Wang, Andrew; Woods, Christopher W; Cabell, Christopher H

    2009-03-09

    We sought to provide a contemporary picture of the presentation, etiology, and outcome of infective endocarditis (IE) in a large patient cohort from multiple locations worldwide. Prospective cohort study of 2781 adults with definite IE who were admitted to 58 hospitals in 25 countries from June 1, 2000, through September 1, 2005. The median age of the cohort was 57.9 (interquartile range, 43.2-71.8) years, and 72.1% had native valve IE. Most patients (77.0%) presented early in the disease (<30 days) with few of the classic clinical hallmarks of IE. Recent health care exposure was found in one-quarter of patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (31.2%). The mitral (41.1%) and aortic (37.6%) valves were infected most commonly. The following complications were common: stroke (16.9%), embolization other than stroke (22.6%), heart failure (32.3%), and intracardiac abscess (14.4%). Surgical therapy was common (48.2%), and in-hospital mortality remained high (17.7%). Prosthetic valve involvement (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.90), increasing age (1.30; 1.17-1.46 per 10-year interval), pulmonary edema (1.79; 1.39-2.30), S aureus infection (1.54; 1.14-2.08), coagulase-negative staphylococcal infection (1.50; 1.07-2.10), mitral valve vegetation (1.34; 1.06-1.68), and paravalvular complications (2.25; 1.64-3.09) were associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death, whereas viridans streptococcal infection (0.52; 0.33-0.81) and surgery (0.61; 0.44-0.83) were associated with a decreased risk. In the early 21st century, IE is more often an acute disease, characterized by a high rate of S aureus infection. Mortality remains relatively high.

  10. Computerized screening devices and performance assessment: development of a policy towards automation. International Academy of Cytology Task Force summary. Diagnostic Cytology Towards the 21st Century: An International Expert Conference and Tutorial.

    PubMed

    Bartels, P H; Bibbo, M; Hutchinson, M L; Gahm, T; Grohs, H K; Gwi-Mak, E; Kaufman, E A; Kaufman, R H; Knight, B K; Koss, L G; Magruder, L E; Mango, L J; McCallum, S M; Melamed, M R; Peebles, A; Richart, R M; Robinowitz, M; Rosenthal, D L; Sauer, T; Schenck, U; Tanaka, N; Topalidis, T; Verhest, A P; Wertlake, P T; Wilbur, D C

    1998-01-01

    The extension of automation to the diagnostic assessment of clinical materials raises issues of professional responsibility, on the part of both the medical professional and designer of the device. The International Academy of Cytology (IAC) and other professional cytology societies should develop a policy towards automation in the diagnostic assessment of clinical cytologic materials. The following summarizes the discussion of the initial position statement at the International Expert Conference on Diagnostic Cytology Towards the 21st Century, Hawaii, June 1997. 1. The professional in charge of a clinical cytopathology laboratory continues to bear the ultimate medical responsibility for diagnostic decisions made at the facility, whether automated devices are involved or not. 2. The introduction of automated procedures into clinical cytology should under no circumstances lead to a lowering of standards of performance. A prime objective of any guidelines should be to ensure that an automated procedure, in principle, does not expose any patient to new risks, nor should it increase already-existing, inherent risks. 3. Automated devices should provide capabilities for the medical professional to conduct periodic tests of the appropriate performance of the device. 4. Supervisory personnel should continue visual quality control screening of a certain percentage of slides dismissed at primary screening as within normal limits (WNL), even when automated procedures are employed in the laboratory. 5. Specifications for the design of primary screening devices for the detection of cervical cancer issued by the IAC in 1984 were reaffirmed. 6. The setting of numeric performance criteria is the proper charge of regulatory agencies, which also have the power of enforcement. 7. Human expert verification of results represents the "gold standard" at this time. Performance characteristics of computerized cytology devices should be determined by adherence to defined and well

  11. 78 FR 17901 - Awards for Information Relating to Detecting Underpayments of Tax or Violations of the Internal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BL08 Awards for Information Relating to Detecting Underpayments of Tax or Violations of the Internal Revenue Laws AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... comprehensive guidance for the award program authorized under Internal Revenue Code section 7623, as amended...

  12. 78 FR 8062 - Awards for Information Relating To Detecting Underpayments of Tax or Violations of the Internal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BL08 Awards for Information Relating To Detecting Underpayments of Tax or Violations of the Internal Revenue Laws; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... award program authorized under the ] Internal Revenue Code section 7623, as amended. The regulations...

  13. Relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in school for preadolescent children from economically disadvantaged families.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Brian P; Izard, Carroll E; Kobak, Roger; Brown, Eleanor D; Smith, Clare

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 105 economically disadvantaged children examined the relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in 3rd- and 5th-grade assessments (8- to 12-year olds). The variable-centered results showed that reading problems predicted change in internalizing behavior in the context of child and family predictors. The person-centered results showed that children with reading problems in both grades had higher internalizing scores in 5th grade but not in 3rd grade than children with reading problems in 3rd grade or no problems. Child-reported negative emotion experiences varied similarly across grade. The results tie reading problems to emotional distress in school and support conclusions about the direction of effects and the internalization of academic difficulty for disadvantaged children.

  14. Relations of Parenting to Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Distress Moderated by Perception of Neighborhood Danger.

    PubMed

    Goldner, Jonathan S; Quimby, Dakari; Richards, Maryse H; Zakaryan, Arie; Miller, Steve; Dickson, Daniel; Chilson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Parental monitoring and warmth have traditionally been studied in the context of White, middle-class families. This article explores optimal levels of these parenting behaviors in preventing adolescent psychopathology in impoverished, urban high-crime areas while accounting for child perceptions of neighborhood danger. In this study, data were collected longitudinally at 2 time points 1 year apart from a sample of 254 African American young adolescents (T1: M age = 12.6 years, 41% male) and their parents. Parental monitoring and warmth, child perception of neighborhood danger, and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured using questionnaires. Child internalizing behaviors were also measured using a time sampling technique capturing in vivo accounts of daily distress. Findings indicated associations between parental monitoring and children's externalizing behaviors along with linear and quadratic associations between parental monitoring and internalizing behaviors. Monitoring and warmth were differentially related to symptoms depending on neighborhood danger level. When children perceived less danger, more monitoring related to less externalizing. When children perceived more danger, more warmth related to less internalizing. In addition, adolescents' perceptions of neighborhood danger emerged as equally strong as monitoring and warmth in predicting symptoms. This study underscores the influence of carefully considering parenting approaches and which techniques optimally prevent adolescents' externalizing, as well as prevent internalizing difficulties. It also highlights how context affects mental health, specifically how perceptions of danger negatively influence adolescents' psychopathology, emphasizing the importance of initiatives to reduce violence in communities.

  15. Student nurse perceptions of risk in relation to international placements: a phenomenological research study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Debra A

    2012-11-01

    International nursing electives have been identified as a positive learning experience for students. However, whilst there are risks associated with international student placements in general, there is a scarcity of research specifically relating to student nurse's experiences of risk. This study aimed to investigate UK undergraduate student nurse experiences of risk during an international placement. A phenomenological methodology was applied and semi-structured interviews were conducted with student nurses who had recently returned from an international clinical placement abroad. Ten, second year student nurses, studying on a pre-registration diploma/BSc (Hons) Nursing Studies/Registered Nurse programme from one UK University participated in the study. Findings from the study highlighted that students felt that three types of risk existed; physical risk, clinical-professional risk and socio-cultural risk. Perceptions of risk were influenced by sociological theory relating to the concept of 'the other' and students attempted to reduce risk by employing strategies to reduce 'Otherness'. They also applied psychological theory relating to heuristics such as 'safety in numbers.' It also emerged from the study that exposure to perceived risk enhanced learning as students reported that it encouraged personal and professional development in particular and so assisted students in their move toward self-actualisation. It is suggested, and intended, that findings from this study can be applied to the preparation of students to further enhance their safety and learning experience during international placements abroad. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Twentieth century dune migration at the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado, relation to drought variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín, L.; Forman, S. L.; Valdez, A.; Bunch, F.

    2005-08-01

    The Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve in southern Colorado contains a large dune mass banked against the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. The dune mass is bounded for hundreds of kilometers by a vegetated low-relief sand sheet with abundant active parabolic and barchanoid dunes. The clear morphology of these dunes, formed by winds mostly from the southwest, and the unambiguous identification of these forms in remotely sensed images provide straightforward targets to assess temporal changes in dune position. A digital database of georeferenced remote sensing images from 1936 to 1999 is used to quantify parabolic and barchan dune migration rates and surface reflectance, an indicator of vegetation cover, with evolving drought conditions in the twentieth century. The total net migration of 13 parabolic dunes in 63 years is 0.31 to 0.66 km, whereas 11 barchan dunes moved an average of 0.12 to 0.47 km. Compared to intervening wet year, there is at least a three-fold increase in average parabolic dune migration, during well-documented droughts in the 1930s, 1950s, and 1990s with a concomitant reduction in vegetation cover and surface water resources. The landscape response to the most recent drought in the late twentieth century is documented by an average parabolic dune migration rate of 30 m/year, which is a six-fold acceleration over prior wet years, and similar to dune response during the 1930s. A nonlinear threshold for parabolic dune migration is indicated with lower quartile Palmer Drought Severity Index values of < - 2, which corresponds to at least a 25% reduction in summer and autumn precipitation.

  17. The IAEA international conference on fast reactors and related fuel cycles: highlights and main outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Monti, S.; Toti, A.

    2013-07-01

    The 'International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles', which is regularly held every four years, represents the main international event dealing with fast reactors technology and related fuel cycles options. Main topics of the conference were new fast reactor concepts, design and simulation capabilities, safety of fast reactors, fast reactor fuels and innovative fuel cycles, analysis of past experience, fast reactor knowledge management. Particular emphasis was put on safety aspects, considering the current need of developing and harmonizing safety standards for fast reactors at the international level, taking also into account the lessons learned from the accident occurred at the Fukushima- Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. Main advances in the several key areas of technological development were presented through 208 oral presentations during 41 technical sessions which shows the importance taken by fast reactors in the future of nuclear energy.

  18. The Challenges of the 21st Century for Vocational Education and Training. International Conference on Vocational Education and Training Proceedings (Helsinki, Finland, August 24-28, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    The following are among the 52 papers included: "A Vision of Vocational Education and Training for the Approaching Millennium" (Mndebele); "Challenges for the 21st Century for Technical-Vocational Education and Training from Global, Regional and National Perspectives" (Basu); "A Customer-Oriented Approach for Curriculum…

  19. Music Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of German and American Music Education towards a New Concept of International Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Comparative Music Education is often considered to be an unnecessary subject because there seem to be more important issues for research than studying music education in various countries. Comparative music education is not a luxury, but rather a necessity in the twenty-first century. Scholars and music teachers in many countries are struggling…

  20. The Role, Organization and Financing of Higher Education. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Third Session Paris, France, January 12-15, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondel, Daniele

    This paper suggests that higher education will take on increasing importance in the development of economies and societies in the 21st century for three reasons: (1) cognitive resources are supplanting material resources as a development factor; (2) economies, swept along by innovations and technological advances, are becoming increasingly exigent…

  1. Perceptions and Experiences of International Trainees in Counseling and Related Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Kok-Mun; Smith, Shannon D.

    2009-01-01

    International counseling trainees (ICTs) can play a critical role in multicultural training and enrich the lives of domestic trainers and trainees. However, they face unique barriers. This inquiry examined 14 areas related to their training and stay in the US. Findings largely correspond with those already in the literature (e.g., Ng,…

  2. Theory and Text: How Textual Analysis Can Help Build International Relations Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Gavan

    This paper assesses the relative merits of numerical and textual approaches to the study of international events. While enjoying a much longer history, numerical approaches have certain representational drawbacks that do not apply to textual approaches. Textual models provide a more adequate descriptive foundation for the study of international…

  3. Curriculum Integration versus Educating for Global Citizenship: A (Disciplinary) View from the International Relations Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a view from the classroom and departmental chair's office, using the teaching of introductory "International Relations" and some basic theoretical foundations of the field, "Realism," "Cosmopolitanism," and "Constructivism," to explore how study abroad can balance calls to educate for…

  4. Conceptual Ideas of Masters' Professional Training in International Relations in Great Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tretko, Vitalii

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual positions of professional training of Masters in International Relations in Great Britain have been studied. On the basis of literary and documentary sources the basic concepts laid into contemporary theories of constructivism and cognitivism, theory of development and self-realisation of creative personality on the basis of…

  5. Labor Relations in Education: An International Perspective. Contributions to the Study of Education, Number 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Bruce S., Ed.

    This book analyzes the unionization of elementary and secondary school teachers in a variety of nations. Following the acknowledgments, foreword by Charles T. Kerchner, and introduction, 16 articles are presented from different countries on international labor relations in education. Each chapter contains an overview and exploration of the…

  6. International Students' Critical Thinking-Related Problem Areas: UK University Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaheen, Nisbah

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to understand the areas of international students' critical thinking-related initial difficulties, in order to facilitate their academic experiences in UK universities. Using a sample of 14 British teachers, the findings reveal that students from culturally and linguistically diverse traditions are very different in…

  7. International Thematic Probe: The Influence of Relative Age on Learner Attainment and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Caroline; George, Nalia; Sargent, Claire; O'Donnell, Sharon; Heron, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This rapid review of research evidence was commissioned by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) to investigate the issue of relative age in the international context. The review findings are drawn from 18 research studies published from 2000 to 2008 and carried out in Australia, Chile, the United Kingdom and the USA together with…

  8. Externalizing and Internalizing Problems in Relation to Autonomic Function: A Population-Based Study in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Andrea; Riese, Harriette; Sondeijker, Frouke E. P. L.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; van Roon, Arie M.; Ormel, Johan; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether externalizing and internalizing problems are related to lower and higher heart rate (HR), respectively, and to explore the relationship of these problems with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Moreover, to study whether problems present at both preschool and preadolescent age…

  9. Managing the Role Stress of Public Relations Practitioners in International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnell, Tristan

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the diverse role and work of public relations practitioners in the growing body of international schools. It examines evidence of "role stress" in the form of the subsets of role overload, role ambiguity, role conflict and role preparedness. Three particular aspects were identified. The role seems prone to change alongside…

  10. Reference States and Relative Values of Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Entropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses two reference states (pure chemical compounds and pure elements at specified condition of temperature and pressure) and the relation between these reference states for internal energy and enthalpy. Problem 5.11 from Modell and Reid's "Thermodynamics and its Applications" (p. 141) is used to apply the ideas discussed. (JN)

  11. The Relation between Dimensions of Attachment and Internalizing or Externalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnlund, Michael; Karlsson, Erika

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between dimensions of attachment and internalizing and externalizing problems in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents (n = 62) who completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ; J. Feeney, P. Noller, & M. Hanrahan, 1994) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR; T. M. Achenbach, 1991). In total, the ASQ dimensions…

  12. The Relations among Maternal Depression, Maternal Criticism, and Adolescents' Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Alice A.; Garber, Judy

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations between maternal criticism and externalizing and internalizing symptoms in adolescents who varied in their risk for psychopathology. Both maternal-effects and child-effects models were examined. The sample consisted of 194 adolescents (mean age = 11.8 years) and their mothers: 146 mothers had a history of…

  13. Managing the Role Stress of Public Relations Practitioners in International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnell, Tristan

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the diverse role and work of public relations practitioners in the growing body of international schools. It examines evidence of "role stress" in the form of the subsets of role overload, role ambiguity, role conflict and role preparedness. Three particular aspects were identified. The role seems prone to change alongside…

  14. Labor Relations in Education: An International Perspective. Contributions to the Study of Education, Number 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Bruce S., Ed.

    This book analyzes the unionization of elementary and secondary school teachers in a variety of nations. Following the acknowledgments, foreword by Charles T. Kerchner, and introduction, 16 articles are presented from different countries on international labor relations in education. Each chapter contains an overview and exploration of the…

  15. The Rise of International Relations Programs in the Brazilian Federal Universities: Curriculum Specificities and Current Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Marcos Alan S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this reflection is to study the new international relations (IR) programs introduced by Brazilian federal universities, looking comparatively at their curriculum specificities and current challenges. In recent years, Brazil has seen an increase of IR programs launched in several regions. Since 2003, the Ministry of Education is in the…

  16. Reference States and Relative Values of Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Entropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses two reference states (pure chemical compounds and pure elements at specified condition of temperature and pressure) and the relation between these reference states for internal energy and enthalpy. Problem 5.11 from Modell and Reid's "Thermodynamics and its Applications" (p. 141) is used to apply the ideas discussed. (JN)

  17. Constructing International Relations Simulations: Examining the Pedagogy of IR Simulations through a Constructivist Learning Theory Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asal, Victor; Kratoville, Jayson

    2013-01-01

    Simulations are being used more and more in political science generally and in international relations specifically. While there is a growing body of literature describing different simulations and a small amount of literature that empirically tests the impact of simulations, scholars have written very little linking the pedagogic theory behind…

  18. International Relations as a Field of Study in the Canadian System of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istomina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    The research presents an attempt to investigate the current state of international relations as a field of study in the context of higher education system in Canada. It contains a general overview of the field of study, focusing predominantly on the role and function of the given academic discipline. The scientific investigation covers the issue…

  19. International Students' Critical Thinking-Related Problem Areas: UK University Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaheen, Nisbah

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to understand the areas of international students' critical thinking-related initial difficulties, in order to facilitate their academic experiences in UK universities. Using a sample of 14 British teachers, the findings reveal that students from culturally and linguistically diverse traditions are very different in…

  20. The Rise of International Relations Programs in the Brazilian Federal Universities: Curriculum Specificities and Current Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Marcos Alan S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this reflection is to study the new international relations (IR) programs introduced by Brazilian federal universities, looking comparatively at their curriculum specificities and current challenges. In recent years, Brazil has seen an increase of IR programs launched in several regions. Since 2003, the Ministry of Education is in the…

  1. Constructing International Relations Simulations: Examining the Pedagogy of IR Simulations through a Constructivist Learning Theory Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asal, Victor; Kratoville, Jayson

    2013-01-01

    Simulations are being used more and more in political science generally and in international relations specifically. While there is a growing body of literature describing different simulations and a small amount of literature that empirically tests the impact of simulations, scholars have written very little linking the pedagogic theory behind…

  2. A Matter of Perspective: Teaching International Relations in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Sean

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author looks at several popular international relations textbooks in light of his experience teaching students in the Middle East. He finds that, for their many strengths, most of the books lack some key features that would make them more useful for students abroad.

  3. Conceptual Ideas of Masters' Professional Training in International Relations in Great Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tretko, Vitalii

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual positions of professional training of Masters in International Relations in Great Britain have been studied. On the basis of literary and documentary sources the basic concepts laid into contemporary theories of constructivism and cognitivism, theory of development and self-realisation of creative personality on the basis of…

  4. International Relations as a Field of Study in the Canadian System of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istomina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    The research presents an attempt to investigate the current state of international relations as a field of study in the context of higher education system in Canada. It contains a general overview of the field of study, focusing predominantly on the role and function of the given academic discipline. The scientific investigation covers the issue…

  5. Concurrent Relations between Perspective-Taking Skills, Desire Understanding, and Internal-State Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarella, Sabrina S.; Kristen, Susanne; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Sodian, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that there appears to be a similar developmental sequence in the understanding of mental states in both internal-state language and in standard theory-of-mind tasks. These findings suggest possible developmental relations between children's ability to talk and think about the mind. Two experiments investigated the concurrent…

  6. The Application of Grunig's Symmetry-Asymmetry Public Relations Models to Internal Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellweg, Susan A.

    Based on J. E. Grunig's four models of public relations practice (press agent/publicity, public information, and two-way asymmetric and two-way symmetric practice), this paper examines the potential applicability of these models to internal communication systems in organizations. Following an introduction, in which Grunig's models are briefly…

  7. International Policies on Sharing Genomic Research Results with Relatives: Approaches to Balancing Privacy with Access.

    PubMed

    Branum, Rebecca; Wolf, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Returning genetic research results to relatives raises complex issues. In order to inform the U.S. debate, this paper analyzes international law and policies governing the sharing of genetic research results with relatives and identifies key themes and lessons. The laws and policies from other countries demonstrate a range of approaches to balancing individual privacy and autonomy with family access for health benefit, offering important lessons for further development of approaches in the United States.

  8. Validation of internal reference genes for relative quantitation studies of gene expression in human laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; He, Jinting; Wang, Wei; Ren, Ming; Gao, Sujie; Zhao, Guanjie

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the expression stabilities of 12 common internal reference genes for the relative quantitation analysis of target gene expression performed by reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in human laryngeal cancer. Methods Hep-2 cells and 14 laryngeal cancer tissue samples were investigated. The expression characteristics of 12 internal reference gene candidates (18S rRNA, GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT1, RPL29, HMBS, PPIA, ALAS1, TBP, PUM1, GUSB, and B2M) were assessed by RT-qPCR. The data were analyzed by three commonly used software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Results The use of the combination of four internal reference genes was more appropriate than the use of a single internal reference gene. The optimal combination was PPIA + GUSB + RPL29 + HPRT1 for both the cell line and tissues; while the most appropriate combination was GUSB + RPL29 + HPRT1 + HMBS for the tissues. Conclusions Our recommended internal reference genes may improve the accuracy of relative quantitation analysis of target gene expression performed by the RT-qPCR method in further gene expression research on laryngeal tumors. PMID:27957397

  9. 22 CFR 9a.1 - Security of certain information and material related to the International Energy Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security of certain information and material related to the International Energy Program. 9a.1 Section 9a.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.1 Security of certain...

  10. 22 CFR 9a.1 - Security of certain information and material related to the International Energy Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security of certain information and material related to the International Energy Program. 9a.1 Section 9a.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.1 Security of certain...

  11. Clinical Presentation, Etiology and Outcome of Infective Endocarditis in the 21st Century: The International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, David R.; Corey, G. Ralph; Hoen, Bruno; Miró, José M.; Fowler, Vance G.; Bayer, Arnold S.; Karchmer, Adolf W.; Olaison, Lars; Pappas, Paul A.; Moreillon, Philippe; Chambers, Stephen T.; Chu, Vivian H.; Falcó, Vicenç; Holland, David J.; Jones, Philip; Klein, John L.; Raymond, Nigel J.; Read, Kerry M.; Tripodi, Marie Francoise; Utili, Riccardo; Wang, Andrew; Woods, Christopher W.; Cabell, Christopher H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a contemporary picture of the presentation, etiology and outcome of infective endocarditis (IE) in a large patient cohort from multiple locations worldwide. Methods Prospective cohort study of 2781 adults with definite IE admitted to 58 hospitals in 25 countries between June 2000 and September 2005. Results The median age of the cohort was 57.9 (IQR 43.2–71.8) years and 72% had native valve IE. Most (77%) patients presented early in the disease (<30 days) with few of the classic clinical hallmarks of IE. Recent health-care exposure was found in one quarter of patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (31%). Mitral (41%) and aortic (38%) valves were infected most commonly. Complications were common: stroke (17%); embolization other than stroke (23%); heart failure (32%) and intracardiac abscess (14%). Surgical therapy was common (48%) and in-hospital mortality remained high (18%). Prosthetic valve involvement (OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.13–1.90), increasing age (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.17–1.46 per 10-year interval), pulmonary edema (OR 1.79, 95%CI 1.39–2.30), S. aureus infection (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.14–2.08), coagulase-negative staphylococcal infection (OR 1.50, 95%CI 1.07–2.10), mitral valve vegetation (OR 1.34, 95%CI 1.06–1.68), and paravalvular complications (OR 2.25, 95%CI 1.64–3.09) were associated with increased risk of in-hospital death, while viridans streptococcal infection (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.33–0.81) and surgery (OR 0.61, 95%CI 0.44–0.83) were associated with decreased risk. Conclusions In the early 21st century, IE is more often an acute disease, characterized by a high rate of S. aureus infection. Mortality remains relatively high. PMID:19273776

  12. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  13. Media internalization and conformity to traditional masculine norms in relation to body image concerns among men.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Arthur Y; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Frisén, Ann; Smolak, Linda; Yager, Zali; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Franko, Debra; Gattario, Kristina Holmqvist

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have separately examined conformity to masculine norms and internalization of body ideals in the media in relation to the drive for muscularity (DM). This study was designed to examine these factors together in relation to DM, and further examine how they may differ in relation to drive for thinness (DT) and drive for leanness (DL). Participants were 284 Australian males between ages 18 and 42. They completed validated measures that assessed DM, DT, DL, male gender role norms, and internalization of body ideals. The findings showed that internalization of body ideals mediated the relationship between masculine role norms and body image in the case of both DM and DL. However, masculine norms and internalization were independent predictors of DT. Our findings contribute to further understanding of the roles that the media and masculine norms have in shaping men's drive for muscularity, leanness, and thinness. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm the nature and direction of these relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In Quest of Knowledge: Adult Education in Sixteenth Century England and Its Relation to the Origins of the "Modern Era" of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsom, Ron

    If less formal, self-motivated learning is accepted as a definition, adult education can be traced back to sixteenth century England, not merely to nineteenth century England as Verner, Trevelyan, and others have contended. The two factors which gave the greatest impetus to adult education in the sixteenth century were the Protestant Reformation…

  15. Understanding Internalized HIV/AIDS-Related Stigmas in the Dominican Republic: A Short Report

    PubMed Central

    Hampanda, Karen

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS-related stigmas can become internalized, resulting in declines in physical and mental health. Pathways to internalized HIV-related stigma (IS), characterized by persistently negative, self-abasing thoughts, are not well established among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Identifying factors involved in self-directed shaming and blaming is important, given the high HIV prevalence in the DR’s most vulnerable populations. The present study sheds light on factors involved in negative and self-abasing thoughts in WLWHA in the DR by examining the relationship between depression, perceived HIV-related stigma from the community (PSC), perceived HIV-related stigma from family (PSF) and IS. The Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale (IA-RSS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10), and an instrument designed to measure perceived HIV-related stigma from the community and family was administered to 233 WLWHA in Puerto Plata, DR. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ordered multiple logistic regression. Results showed that depression (OR=1.60; p<0.05), PSC (OR=3.68; p<0.001), and PSF (OR=1.60; p<0.01) were positively associated with IS. These findings indicate that IS-reducing interventions should address HIV-related depression. Additionally, HIV-related treatment and care services should work with WLWHA to adopt healthier attitudes about how community members view people living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic. PMID:26466239

  16. Understanding internalized HIV/AIDS-related stigmas in the Dominican Republic: a short report.

    PubMed

    Rael, Christine Tagliaferri; Hampanda, Karen

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS-related stigmas can become internalized, resulting in declines in physical and mental health. Pathways to internalized HIV-related stigma (IS), characterized by persistently negative, self-abasing thoughts, are not well established among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Identifying factors involved in self-directed shaming and blaming is important, given the high HIV prevalence in the DR's most vulnerable populations. The present study sheds light on factors involved in negative and self-abasing thoughts in WLWHA in the DR by examining the relationship between depression, perceived HIV-related stigma from the community (PSC), perceived HIV-related stigma from family (PSF), and IS. The Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale (IA-RSS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10), and an instrument designed to measure perceived HIV-related stigma from the community and family was administered to 233 WLWHA in Puerto Plata, DR. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ordered multiple logistic regression. Results showed that depression (OR = 1.60; p < .05), PSC (OR = 3.68; p < .001), and PSF (OR = 1.60; p < .01) were positively associated with IS. These findings indicate that IS-reducing interventions should address HIV-related depression. Additionally, HIV-related treatment and care services should work with WLWHA to adopt healthier attitudes about how community members view people living with HIV/AIDS in the DR.

  17. Mathematics achievement and anxiety and their relation to internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sarah S; Willcutt, Erik G; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of 366 second and third graders. Math achievement was significantly correlated with attentional difficulties and social problems but not with internalizing symptoms. The relation between math achievement and externalizing behavioral problems was stronger in girls than in boys. Math achievement was not correlated with trait anxiety but was negatively correlated with math anxiety. Critically, math anxiety differed significantly between children classified as math learning disabled (MLD), low achieving (LA), and typically developing (TD), with math anxiety significantly higher in the MLD and LA groups compared to the TD group. Our findings suggest that, even in nonclinical samples, math difficulties at the earliest stages of formal math learning are associated with attentional difficulties and domain-specific anxiety. These findings underscore the need for further examination of the shared cognitive, neural, and genetic influences underlying problem solving and nonverbal learning difficulties and accompanying internalizing and externalizing behaviors. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  18. Are externalizing and internalizing difficulties of young children with spelling impairment related to their ADHD symptoms?

    PubMed

    Rietz, Chantal Sabrina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Labuhn, Andju Sara

    2012-08-01

    Children with literacy difficulties often suffer from a variety of co-occurring externalizing and internalizing difficulties, as well as comorbid ADHD. Therefore, these externalizing and internalizing problems might be more related to comorbid ADHD, rather than being a correlate of literacy difficulties per se. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of externalizing and internalizing difficulties in elementary school children (third grade) with and without spelling impairment. Taking the high rate of comorbidity between literacy difficulties and ADHD into account, we investigated whether co-occurring difficulties are associated with spelling impairment per se or with comorbid ADHD symptoms. Results indicated that these young children with spelling impairment showed more co-occurring difficulties compared with children without spelling impairment. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that occurrence of externalizing symptoms is more strongly related to comorbid ADHD symptoms than to spelling impairment per se. The pattern of results concerning internalizing problems was not as distinct but showed a similar trend. Preferably, carers and educators should be aware of co-occurring socio-emotional and behavioural problems in children with spelling impairment. Particularly children with spelling impairment and comorbid ADHD symptoms seem to have an increased risk of encountering further co-occurring difficulties.

  19. Mathematics Achievement and Anxiety and Their Relation to Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sarah S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of 366 second and third graders. Math achievement was significantly correlated with attentional difficulties and social problems but not with internalizing symptoms. The relation between math achievement and externalizing behavioral problems was stronger in girls than in boys. Math achievement was not correlated with trait anxiety but was negatively correlated with math anxiety. Critically, math anxiety differed significantly between children classified as math learning disabled (MLD), low achieving (LA), and typically developing (TD), with math anxiety significantly higher in the MLD and LA groups compared to the TD group. Our findings suggest that, even in nonclinical samples, math difficulties at the earliest stages of formal math learning are associated with attentional difficulties and domain-specific anxiety. These findings underscore the need for further examination of the shared cognitive, neural, and genetic influences underlying problem solving and nonverbal learning difficulties and accompanying internalizing and externalizing behaviors. PMID:23313869

  20. Forecasting International Relations: Some Views on the Relevancy of the Dimensionality of Nations Project to Policy Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Dimensionality of Nations Project (DON) is basic research on international relations attempting to determine the major patterns in the behavior...nature and direction of international relations . The paper gives a brief overview of the project itself, lists the problems associated with prediction in... international relations , and lays out the approaches to prediction and time series analysis employed on the Project. The final section discusses the relationship of DON to foreign and defense policies. (Author)

  1. [Asymmetry in international relations, industrial property rights and anti-HIV medication].

    PubMed

    Costa-Couto, Maria Helena; Nascimento, Alvaro César

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the asymmetry in the international relations as refers to the recognition of industrial property rights in the pharmaceutical industry. It focuses on the impact of such relations upon the access to ARV medication, an issue of worldwide interest due to its connection with the development of the nations. Clashing interests and the position taken by some countries in their patent laws point to a scenario less favorable for the access of peripheral countries to anti-HIV/AIDS medication. On the other hand, it seems that the success of the Brazilian STD/AIDS program in negotiating ARV prices will open new possibilities. The solution may be the internal strengthening of the National States and the active role played by the Agencies of the United Nations System in defense of the collective human interests.

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 7, July 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-29

    structure, the elements of which are general democratic norms of relations between states (non-ag- gression, equality, sovereignty and non...socialist internationalism with general democratic norms, the totality of which forms the real substance of peaceful co-existence. The author...national economics. The author believes that partially the difficulties can be overcome by correcting social and economic policies and by a general

  3. 39 CFR 320.5 - Suspension for certain international-ocean carrier-related documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension for certain international-ocean carrier...-ocean carrier-related documents. The operation of 39 U.S.C. 601(a) (1) through (6) and § 310.2(b) (1) through (6) of this chapter is suspended on all post routes for documents, sent by a shipper or an ocean...

  4. 39 CFR 320.5 - Suspension for certain international-ocean carrier-related documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suspension for certain international-ocean carrier...-ocean carrier-related documents. The operation of 39 U.S.C. 601(a) (1) through (6) and § 310.2(b) (1) through (6) of this chapter is suspended on all post routes for documents, sent by a shipper or an ocean...

  5. 39 CFR 320.5 - Suspension for certain international-ocean carrier-related documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suspension for certain international-ocean carrier...-ocean carrier-related documents. The operation of 39 U.S.C. 601(a) (1) through (6) and § 310.2(b) (1) through (6) of this chapter is suspended on all post routes for documents, sent by a shipper or an ocean...

  6. 39 CFR 320.5 - Suspension for certain international-ocean carrier-related documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension for certain international-ocean carrier...-ocean carrier-related documents. The operation of 39 U.S.C. 601(a) (1) through (6) and § 310.2(b) (1) through (6) of this chapter is suspended on all post routes for documents, sent by a shipper or an ocean...

  7. 39 CFR 320.5 - Suspension for certain international-ocean carrier-related documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suspension for certain international-ocean carrier...-ocean carrier-related documents. The operation of 39 U.S.C. 601(a) (1) through (6) and § 310.2(b) (1) through (6) of this chapter is suspended on all post routes for documents, sent by a shipper or an ocean...

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 10, October 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-10

    malicious dogmatism on the one hand and moldiness , stagnation, inefficiency and a complete unwillingness for change on the other? In order for...international relations. At the same time it provides a wealth of food for thought and clearly outlines the range of most complex problems of the political...policy of the preferential development of industry, particularly in connection with the pronounced deterioration there of the food situation. The

  9. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations, No. 6, June 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-23

    have been prepared by a working group of the PZPR and the SPD. A working group of the CPCz and the SPD on ecological issues is functioning actively...aggression is being heard increasingly strongly in international relations. The ecological , raw material, financial and energy crises are also a...nature and have different consequences. Finally, such problems as the ecological and energy problems are engendering social movements of a varying

  10. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  11. The International Relations Committee of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Aitken, H; O'Sullivan, E

    2007-12-01

    The International Relations Committee of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland was established over 30 years ago to assist anaesthetists working in developing countries. The committee has attempted to make an impact through distribution of educational materials, supporting training courses and investing in a number of small equipment projects. In 2005, the Overseas Anaesthesia Fund was set up to allow members to donate directly to support our work.

  12. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations, No. 7, July 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    comparative narrowness of the internal and external arms market and relatively not high level of military research and development. As a result the MIC in...European figures accomplished the most dizzying move. "The ABM Treaty makes special mention of the authorization of research in the sphere of...which it is impossible to verify. A large part of the activity performed in laboratories and research institutes pertains to this category. The

  13. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations, No. 4, April 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    for a stable work routine in credit relations between these groups, in the production and service sphere the picture is entirely different. If one...personnel); the manage- ment of the enterprise; the performance of surveying work ; the creation of extractive enterprises and the performance of geological...prospecting work on a "product sharing" basis; the right to use the trademark of a TNC; and finally "international subcontracts" on the delivery

  14. International Policies on Sharing Genomic Research Results with Relatives: Approaches to Balancing Privacy with Access

    PubMed Central

    Branum, Rebecca; Wolf, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Returning genetic research results to raises complex issues. In order to inform the U.S. debate, this paper analyzes international law and policies governing the sharing of genetic research results with relatives and identifies key themes and lessons. The laws and policies from other countries demonstrate a range of approaches to balancing individual privacy and autonomy with family access for health benefit, offering important lessons for further development of approaches in the United States. PMID:26479568

  15. Russian-English Glossary of International Maritime Law Terms (And Selected Terms in Related Disciplines).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    This glossary contains over 750 terms encountered in international maritime law texts. It includes terms of the art, fairly common abbreviations...recorded exactly as they appear in formal texts. The bulk of the terms were obtained through careful comparison of parallel English and Russian texts...remainder of the terms were culled from texts of related disciplines such as marine navigation, seamanship, shipboard terminology, fisheries, etc

  16. International Leaders Summit: Using Dialogue to Center the Conversation on the Education of Deaf Children and Youth in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John L.

    2011-01-01

    On July 18, 2010, the eve of the 21st International Congress on the Education of the Deaf (ICED 2010), the International Leaders Summit was held at the Center for Dialogue at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada. A total of 120 world leaders from 32 countries participated. Presenters, including students, led the conversation on current…

  17. International Leaders Summit: Using Dialogue to Center the Conversation on the Education of Deaf Children and Youth in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John L.

    2011-01-01

    On July 18, 2010, the eve of the 21st International Congress on the Education of the Deaf (ICED 2010), the International Leaders Summit was held at the Center for Dialogue at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada. A total of 120 world leaders from 32 countries participated. Presenters, including students, led the conversation on current…

  18. The Differential Relations Between Empathy and Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Inpatient Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gambin, Malgorzata; Sharp, Carla

    2016-12-01

    Impaired empathy is associated with a variety of psychiatric conditions; however, little is known about the differential relations between certain forms of psychopathology and cognitive and affective empathy in adolescent girls and boys. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between externalizing and internalizing disorders and cognitive and affective empathy, respectively, while controlling for covariance among different forms of psychopathology, separately in girls and boys. A total of 507 inpatient adolescents (319 girls and 188 boys) in the age range of 12-17 years completed the Basic Empathy Scale that measures affective and cognitive empathy. The Youth Self-Report Form and Child Behavior Checklist were used to assess the severity of psychopathological symptoms. Results demonstrated that affective and cognitive empathy were negatively associated with conduct problems only in girls, but not in boys. Affective empathy was positively related to internalizing problems observed by parents and youths and self-reported ADHD symptoms in girls and boys. The clinical implications of these differential relationships for externalizing versus internalizing symptoms and empathy are discussed.

  19. Predicted Effects of Relative Sea Level Change and Shoreline Erosion Over the Next Century on Tangier Island, located in the Chesapeake Bay USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, W. B.; Chung, C.

    2002-12-01

    For approximately 300 years, Tangier Island, located in the middle of the Chesapeake Bay, USA has been continuously populated by up to 700 residents. It is one of two islands in the Bay that continues to have a resident human population. The island is very flat, with the highest elevation at less than 2 meters above mean sea level. The residents live on three sandy "ridges" with elevations of about 1.0 to 1.5 meters above mean sea level. Over the past century of recorded data, the relative sea level there has risen about 31 cm. This is more than twice the global rate of sea level increase, in part due to the estimated subsidence of the island (in other parts of the Bay as well) at a rate of about 18 cm per century. As the level of the sea continues to rise in the 21st century, and as shoreline erosion continues, the very existence of the island is in jeopardy. In this study, projections are made out to the year 2100 in terms of how sea level rise and continued shoreline erosion will impact the island. Historical sea level changes were examined at locations up and down the Chesapeake Bay, where periods of record of up to 100 years were available. Over the periods of record examined, the relative sea level increases were remarkably consistent from station to station. Sea level rise projections were made to the year 2100 using a climate change model. Low, moderate, and high climate sensitivities were examined. These projections were generally within the envelope provided in IPCC (2001). Adjusting for island subsidence, the projected relative rates were calculated. To evaluate the impacts of these changes, several years of historical tidal levels (data were collected hourly over each year) were extrapolated to the year 2100, using the predicted sea level changes. The historical tidal levels were chosen from years when either hurricanes or Northeasters occurred in the Bay. These are two frequently occurring storm types that have a short term, but dramatic effect, on

  20. International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-09-01

    The International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015) took place in the Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Greece on June 18-20, 2015 and was organized by the Department of Biomedical Engineering. The scope of the conference was to provide a forum on the latest developments in Biomedical Instrumentation and related principles of Physical and Engineering sciences. Scientists and engineers from academic, industrial and health disciplines were invited to participate in the Conference and to contribute both in the promotion and dissemination of the scientific knowledge.

  1. Forced flow He II in relation to stability of internally cooled superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Sciver, S. W.

    1989-01-01

    Current understanding of forced flow He II as it is used to cool large superconducting devices is presented. Experimental measurements of pressure loss and heat transfer to He II at relatively high flow rates are compared with classical hydrodynamic relations and theoretical models based on two fluid hydrodynamics. The results of this analysis suggest that reliable design of large scale systems is achievable. Implications to forced flow He II cooling of superconducting magnets are discussed in the context of model stability experiments on internally cooled composite superconductors.

  2. Equilibrium relations and bipolar cognitive mapping for online analytical processing with applications in international relations and strategic decision support.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Ran

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar logic, bipolar sets, and equilibrium relations are proposed for bipolar cognitive mapping and visualization in online analytical processing (OLAP) and online analytical mining (OLAM). As cognitive models, cognitive maps (CMs) hold great potential for clustering and visualization. Due to the lack of a formal mathematical basis, however, CM-based OLAP and OLAM have not gained popularity. Compared with existing approaches, bipolar cognitive mapping has a number of advantages. First, bipolar CMs are formal logical models as well as cognitive models. Second, equilibrium relations (with polarized reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity), as bipolar generalizations and fusions of equivalence relations, provide a theoretical basis for bipolar visualization and coordination. Third, an equilibrium relation or CM induces bipolar partitions that distinguish disjoint coalition subsets not involved in any conflict, disjoint coalition subsets involved in a conflict, disjoint conflict subsets, and disjoint harmony subsets. Finally, equilibrium energy analysis leads to harmony and stability measures for strategic decision and multiagent coordination. Thus, this work bridges a gap for CM-based clustering and visualization in OLAP and OLAM. Basic ideas are illustrated with example CMs in international relations.

  3. 12th international conference on human retrovirology: HTLV and related retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lairmore, Michael D; Fujii, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    The 12th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses, was held at the Half Moon Hotel in Montego Bay, Jamaica, from June 22nd to June 25th 2005. The scientific conference, sponsored by the International Retrovirology Association, is held biennially at rotating international venues around the world. The meeting brings together basic scientists, epidemiologists and clinical researchers to discuss findings to prevent HTLV infection or develop new therapies against HTLV-mediated diseases. The Association fosters the education and training of young scientists to bring new approaches to the complex problems of HTLV research, such as translational research to bring findings from the laboratory into clinical trials that benefit HTLV-infected patients. The breadth and quality of research presentations and workshops at the 12th International Conference indicate that these goals are being accomplished. As HTLV research enters its third decade a new generation of scientists face many challenges. However, HTLV scientists and clinicians displayed exciting new approaches and discoveries during plenary talks and poster sessions. The conference encouraged research in HTLV infections and disease, fostered collaborations, and stimulated new partnerships between clinicians and scientists to encourage clinical trials and novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:16202161

  4. Policy issues related to educating the future Israeli medical workforce: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Schoenbaum, Stephen C; Crome, Peter; Curry, Raymond H; Gershon, Elliot S; Glick, Shimon M; Katz, David R; Paltiel, Ora; Shapiro, Jo

    2015-01-01

    A 2014 external review of medical schools in Israel identified several issues of importance to the nation's health. This paper focuses on three inter-related policy-relevant topics: planning the physician and healthcare workforce to meet the needs of Israel's population in the 21(st) century; enhancing the coordination and efficiency of medical education across the continuum of education and training; and the financing of medical education. All three involve both education and health care delivery. The physician workforce is aging and will need to be replenished. Several physician specialties have been in short supply, and some are being addressed through incentive programs. Israel's needs for primary care clinicians are increasing due to growth and aging of the population and to the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions at all ages. Attention to the structure and content of both undergraduate and graduate medical education and to aligning incentives will be required to address current and projected workforce shortage areas. Effective workforce planning depends upon data that can inform the development of appropriate policies and on recognition of the time lag between developing such policies and seeing the results of their implementation. The preclinical and clinical phases of Israeli undergraduate medical education (medical school), the mandatory rotating internship (stáge), and graduate medical education (residency) are conducted as separate "silos" and not well coordinated. The content of basic science education should be relevant to clinical medicine and research. It should stimulate inquiry, scholarship, and lifelong learning. Clinical exposures should begin early and be as hands-on as possible. Medical students and residents should acquire specific competencies. With an increasing shift of medical care from hospitals to ambulatory settings, development of ambulatory teachers and learning environments is increasingly important. Objectives such as these

  5. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Relative Status-Field Theory, Results for Conflict, UT Behavior, 1966-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents findings from an analysis of data on international conflict over a three-year period. Computer printout of the analysis is included. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their ability to analyze international relations, this monograph reports on the testing of relative status field…

  6. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Patterns of Cooperation: Relative Status-Field Theory, TT Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents findings from an analysis of data on international cooperation over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their power in analyzing international relations, this monograph reports on the testing of relative status field theory on WEIS conflict data for 1966-1969…

  7. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Relative Status-Field Theory, Results for Cooperation, TU Behavior, 1966-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents findings from an analysis of data on international cooperation over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their ability to analyze international relations, this monograph reports on the testing of relative status field theory on WEIS conflict data for 1966-1969…

  8. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Relative Status-Field Theory, Results for Cooperation, TT Behavior, 1966-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents findings from an analysis of data on international cooperation over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their ability to analyze international relations, this monograph reports on the testing of relative status field theory on WEIS conflict data for 1966-1969…

  9. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Relative Status-Field Theory, Results for Conflict, UU Behavior, 1966-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents findings from an analysis of data on international conflict over a three-year period. Computer printout of the analysis is included. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their ability to analyze international relations, this monograph reports on the testing of relative status field…

  10. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Relative Status-Field Theory, Results for Cooperation, UU Behavior, 1966-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents findings from an analysis of data on international cooperation over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their ability to analyze international relations, this monograph reports on the testing of relative status field theory on WEIS conflict data for 1966-1969…

  11. [Hygienic and sanitary issues related to funerals in Pula at the end of the eighteenth and in the first half of the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Marsetic, Raul

    2012-01-01

    In Pula, like in the rest of Europe since the beginning of the Early Middle Ages, cemeteries were situated in major churches for almost an entire millennium, with many sanitary hygienic consequences for the town, until the new cemetery moved outside the town walls. At the end of the eighteenth century, the question of urban hygiene, especially issues related to urban burial, came into the spotlight of scientific thinking. Churches were recognised as a true threat when it came to the spread of diseases, and the only solution to this intolerable situation was to move cemeteries away from the city and separate the world of the living from the world of the dead. With medieval burial practices ad sanctos abandoned, the enlightened thought set the ground for new solutions for healthcare, urban, and social issues. The relocation of the cemetery outside the city walls in 1846, relieved Pula of the great hygienic burden, rightly considered a threat for public health.

  12. Enterococcal endocarditis in the beginning of the 21st century: analysis from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chirouze, C; Athan, E; Alla, F; Chu, V H; Ralph Corey, G; Selton-Suty, C; Erpelding, M-L; Miro, J M; Olaison, L; Hoen, B

    2013-12-01

    Enterococci are reportedly the third most common group of endocarditis-causing pathogens but data on enterococcal infective endocarditis (IE) are limited. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics and prognostic factors of enterococcal IE within the International Collaboration on Endocarditis. In this multicentre, prospective observational cohort study of 4974 adults with definite IE recorded from June 2000 to September 2006, 500 patients had enterococcal IE. Their characteristics were described and compared with those of oral and group D streptococcal IE. Prognostic factors for enterococcal IE were analysed using multivariable Cox regression models. The patients' mean age was 65 years and 361/500 were male. Twenty-three per cent (117/500) of cases were healthcare related. Enterococcal IE were more frequent than oral and group D streptococcal IE in North America. The 1-year mortality rate was 28.9% (144/500). E. faecalis accounted for 90% (453/500) of enterococcal IE. Resistance to vancomycin was observed in 12 strains, eight of which were observed in North America, where they accounted for 10% (8/79) of enterococcal strains, and was more frequent in E. faecium than in E. faecalis (3/16 vs. 7/364 , p 0.01). Variables significantly associated with 1-year mortality were heart failure (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.7--3.5, p <0.0001), stroke (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3--2.8, p 0.001) and age (HR 1.02 per 1-year increment, 95% CI 1.01--1.04, p 0.002). Surgery was not associated with better outcome. Enterococci are an important cause of IE, with a high mortality rate. Healthcare association and vancomycin resistance are common in particular in North America. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  13. Relative deprivation and internal migration in the United States: A comparison of black and white men.

    PubMed

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2013-03-01

    While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative "gains" to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration.

  14. Relative deprivation and internal migration in the United States: A comparison of black and white men

    PubMed Central

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2013-01-01

    While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative “gains” to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration. PMID:24391221

  15. Health-Related Quality of Life of Australians with Parkinson Disease: A Comparison with International Studies

    PubMed Central

    McGinley, Jennifer L.; Watts, Jennifer J.; Iansek, Robert; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This study describes the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Australians living with Parkinson disease (PD) and compares the findings to international reports. Methods: The Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39) was used to measure HRQOL in 210 individuals with PD living in Australia. In parallel, a tailored literature search identified previous studies on HROQL in people with PD. A quantitative meta-analysis with a random-effects model was used to compare the HRQOL of individuals with PD living in Australia and other countries. Results: The mean PDQ-39 summary index (SI) score for this sample of Australians with PD was 20.9 (SD 12.7). Ratings for the dimension of social support and stigma were significantly lower than ratings for bodily discomfort, mobility, activities of daily living, cognition, and emotional well-being. Comparing the Australian and international PD samples revealed a significant heterogeneity in overall HRQOL (I2=97%). The mean PDQ-39 SI scores for Australians were lower, indicating better HRQOL relative to samples from other countries. Conclusions: This Australian sample with PD perceived their HRQOL as poor, although it was less severely compromised than that of international samples. While further research is required, these findings can inform the clinical decision-making processes of physiotherapists. PMID:23997388

  16. Internal consistency of the object relations and social cognition scales for the Thematic Apperception Test.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, S; Mitchell, D; Porcerelli, J

    2001-12-01

    We examined 8 data sets to determine whether it is possible to attain acceptable levels of internal consistency (coefficient alpha) reliability for the 4 Object Relations and Social Cognition scales (ORSC; Westen, Lohr, Silk, Kerber, & Goodrich, 1989) for the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) when cards are considered as items in a scale. Number of cards used in the data sets ranged from 4 to 10, and the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula was applied to estimate the number of cards that would be required to attain alpha levels of different magnitudes. The two more structural subscales (Complexity of Representations and Understanding of Social Causality) have somewhat higher consistencies than the two more affective ones (Affect Tone and Capacity for Emotional Investment and Moral Standards). The results suggest that the use of 10 to 12 cards provides internal consistencies of alpha > or = .70 across each of the 4 ORSC scales.

  17. The xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related retrovirus debate continues at first international workshop.

    PubMed

    Stoye, Jonathan P; Silverman, Robert H; Boucher, Charles A; Le Grice, Stuart F J

    2010-12-22

    The 1st International Workshop on Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Retrovirus (XMRV), co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, The Department of Health and Human Services and Abbott Diagnostics, was convened on September 7/8, 2010 on the NIH campus, Bethesda, MD. Attracting an international audience of over 200 participants, the 2-day event combined a series of plenary talks with updates on different aspects of XMRV research, addressing basic gammaretrovirus biology, host response, association of XMRV with chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer, assay development and epidemiology. The current status of XMRV research, concerns among the scientific community and suggestions for future actions are summarized in this meeting report.

  18. Differential relations between youth internalizing/externalizing problems and cortisol responses to performance vs. interpersonal stress.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Stroud, Laura R

    2016-09-01

    Efforts to define hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis profiles conferring risk for psychopathology have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps in part due to limited assessment of the stress response. In particular, research has typically focused on HPA responses to performance tasks, while neglecting the interpersonal stressors that become salient during adolescence. In this study we investigated links between psychosocial adjustment - youth internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as competence - and HPA responses to both performance and interpersonal stressors in a normative sample of children and adolescents. Participants (n = 59) completed a set of performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) and/or interpersonal (peer rejection) tasks and gave nine saliva samples, which were assayed for cortisol. Hierarchical linear models of cortisol response trajectories in relation to child behavior checklist (CBCL) scores revealed stressor- and sex-specific associations. Whereas internalizing problems related to earlier peaking, less dynamic cortisol responses to interpersonal stress (across males and females), externalizing problems related to lower, earlier peaking and less dynamic cortisol responses to performance stress for males only, and competence-related to later peaking cortisol responses to interpersonal stress for females only. Implications for understanding contextual stress profiles underlying different forms of psychopathology are discussed.

  19. A Century of Galaxy Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Vera C.

    1995-10-01

    The first successful spectrum of a galaxy, M31, was obtained in 1898 and published in a two-page paper in the young Astrophysical Journal (Scheiner 1899). Thus the first century of galaxy spectroscopy and the first century of the Astrophysical Journal are almost coincident; I celebrate both in this paper. I describe the very early history of the determination of internal kinematics in spiral galaxies, often by quoting the astronomers' own published words. By mid-century, observations with improved optical and radio telescopes offered evidence that much of the matter in a galaxy is dark. As the century ends, research interests have enlarged to include study of spheroidal and disk galaxies with complex nuclear (and other) kinematics. These complicated velocity patterns are understood as the result of interactions, acquisitions, and mergers, and offer clear evidence of the important role of gravitational effects in galaxy evolution.

  20. Revolution and Intervention: U.S.-Cuban Relations in the 20th Century. SSEC American History Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegnell, Geoffrey; Ladenburg, Thomas

    This unit for U.S. history courses examines a number of questions raised by U.S.-Cuban relations beginning with the Spanish-American War of 1898 and ending with the missile crisis 64 years later. These questions are on such topics as the appropriate U.S. stance toward a nationalistic reform movement, a social revolution, and a military build up in…

  1. Revolution and Intervention: U.S.-Cuban Relations in the 20th Century. SSEC American History Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegnell, Geoffrey; Ladenburg, Thomas

    This unit for U.S. history courses examines a number of questions raised by U.S.-Cuban relations beginning with the Spanish-American War of 1898 and ending with the missile crisis 64 years later. These questions are on such topics as the appropriate U.S. stance toward a nationalistic reform movement, a social revolution, and a military build up in…

  2. Long-term survival after use of internal thoracic artery in octogenarians is gender related.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arun K; Maslow, Andrew D; Machan, Jason T; Fingleton, James G; Feng, William C; Schwartz, Carl; Rotenberg, Fred A; Bert, Arthur A

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study is to assess the benefits of a left internal thoracic artery as a bypass conduit in octogenarians undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. We hypothesize that there is no survival advantage and that outcome may be gender related. In a retrospective analysis of 1141 octogenarians (aged >80 years) undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting from 1996 to 2012, patients were divided into 2 groups: Group I (coronary artery bypass grafting-left internal thoracic artery) included 870 patients (339 female/531 male), and group II (coronary artery bypass grafting-saphenous vein graft) included 271 patients (131 female/140 male). The overall 30-day mortality was 5.7%: 4.3% in group I and 7.0% in group II (P = .1). Group II had a lower trend of any postoperative complication (P = .05) and pneumonia (P = .05). When analyzed by gender, there were no discernable differences in long-term survival for male patients in group I (65% at 5 years and 29% at 10 years) versus male patients in group II (65% at 5 years and 31% at 10 years) (P = .2). However, survival was significantly greater for female patients in group I (70% at 5 years and 35% at 10 years) versus female patients in group II (63% at 5 years and 21% at 19 years) (P = .01). Multiple logistic and Cox regression analysis showed that left internal thoracic artery use is associated with improved survival in female patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.72; confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.93) but not in male patients (HR, 1.14; CI, 0.9-1.4). Advanced age was associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR, 1.08 per year; CI, 1.05-1.1). Both patient age (P = .01) and Society of Thoracic Surgeons-predicted 30-day mortality (P = .03) remain in the final model for 30-day mortality. The benefit of the left internal thoracic artery after coronary artery bypass grafting in octogenarians may be gender related. This study shows that the benefit of the left internal thoracic artery in the

  3. Water Polo Game-Related Statistics in Women’s International Championships: Differences and Discriminatory Power

    PubMed Central

    Escalante, Yolanda; Saavedra, Jose M.; Tella, Victor; Mansilla, Mirella; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Dominguez, Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to compare women’s water polo game-related statistics by match outcome (winning and losing teams) and phase (preliminary, classificatory, and semi-final/bronze medal/gold medal), and (ii) identify characteristics that discriminate performances for each phase. The game-related statistics of the 124 women’s matches played in five International Championships (World and European Championships) were analyzed. Differences between winning and losing teams in each phase were determined using the chi-squared. A discriminant analysis was then performed according to context in each of the three phases. It was found that the game-related statistics differentiate the winning from the losing teams in each phase of an international championship. The differentiating variables were both offensive (centre goals, power-play goals, counterattack goal, assists, offensive fouls, steals, blocked shots, and won sprints) and defensive (goalkeeper-blocked shots, goalkeeper-blocked inferiority shots, and goalkeeper-blocked 5-m shots). The discriminant analysis showed the game-related statistics to discriminate performance in all phases: preliminary, classificatory, and final phases (92%, 90%, and 83%, respectively). Two variables were discriminatory by match outcome (winning or losing teams) in all three phases: goals and goalkeeper-blocked shots. Key pointsThe preliminary phase that more than one variable was involved in this differentiation, including both offensive and defensive aspects of the game.The game-related statistics were found to have a high discriminatory power in predicting the result of matches with shots and goalkeeper-blocked shots being discriminatory variables in all three phases.Knowledge of the characteristics of women’s water polo game-related statistics of the winning teams and their power to predict match outcomes will allow coaches to take these characteristics into account when planning training and match preparation. PMID

  4. Derivation and application of the reciprocity relations for radiative transfer with internal illumination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogley, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    A Green's function formulation is used to derive basic reciprocity relations for planar radiative transfer in a general medium with internal illumination. Reciprocity (or functional symmetry) allows an explicit and generalized development of the equivalence between source and probability functions. Assuming similar symmetry in three-dimensional space, a general relationship is derived between planar-source intensity and point-source total directional energy. These quantities are expressed in terms of standard (universal) functions associated with the planar medium, while all results are derived from the differential equation of radiative transfer.

  5. Global partnering related to nuclear materials safeguards and security - A pragmatic approach to international safeguards work

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, Dennis

    2007-07-01

    This paper documents issues Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. has addressed in the performance of international work to safeguards and security work. It begins with a description of the package we put together for a sample proposal for the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, for which we were ranked number one for technical approach and cost, and concludes with a discussion of approaches that we have taken to performing this work, including issues related to performing the work as part of a team. The primary focus is on communication, workforce, equipment, and coordination issues. Finally, the paper documents the rules that we use to assure the work is performed safely and successfully. (author)

  6. Semantic modeling for theory clarification: The realist vs liberal international relations perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, O.H. |

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes a natural language based, semantic information modeling methodology and explores its use and value in clarifying and comparing political science theories and frameworks. As an example, the paper uses this methodology to clarify and compare some of the basic concepts and relationships in the realist (e.g. Waltz) and the liberal (e.g. Rosenau) paradigms for international relations. The methodology can provide three types of benefits: (1) it can clarify and make explicit exactly what is meant by a concept; (2) it can often identify unanticipated implications and consequence of concepts and relationships; and (3) it can help in identifying and operationalizing testable hypotheses.

  7. An International Consensus Definition of the Wish to Hasten Death and Its Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Porta-Sales, Josep; Alonso-Babarro, Alberto; Altisent, Rogelio; Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Bellido-Pérez, Mercedes; Breitbart, William; Centeno, Carlos; Cuervo, Miguel Angel; Deliens, Luc; Frerich, Gerrit; Gastmans, Chris; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Limonero, Joaquín T; Maier, Markus A; Materstvedt, Lars Johan; Nabal, María; Rodin, Gary; Rosenfeld, Barry; Schroepfer, Tracy; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Trelis, Jordi; Villavicencio-Chávez, Christian; Voltz, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Background The desire for hastened death or wish to hasten death (WTHD) that is experienced by some patients with advanced illness is a complex phenomenon for which no widely accepted definition exists. This lack of a common conceptualization hinders understanding and cooperation between clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to develop an internationally agreed definition of the WTHD. Methods Following an exhaustive literature review, a modified nominal group process and an international, modified Delphi process were carried out. The nominal group served to produce a preliminary definition that was then subjected to a Delphi process in which 24 experts from 19 institutions from Europe, Canada and the USA participated. Delphi responses and comments were analysed using a pre-established strategy. Findings All 24 experts completed the three rounds of the Delphi process, and all the proposed statements achieved at least 79% agreement. Key concepts in the final definition include the WTHD as a reaction to suffering, the fact that such a wish is not always expressed spontaneously, and the need to distinguish the WTHD from the acceptance of impending death or from a wish to die naturally, although preferably soon. The proposed definition also makes reference to possible factors related to the WTHD. Conclusions This international consensus definition of the WTHD should make it easier for clinicians and researchers to share their knowledge. This would foster an improved understanding of the phenomenon and help in developing strategies for early therapeutic intervention. PMID:26726801

  8. An International Consensus Definition of the Wish to Hasten Death and Its Related Factors.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, Albert; Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Porta-Sales, Josep; Alonso-Babarro, Alberto; Altisent, Rogelio; Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Bellido-Pérez, Mercedes; Breitbart, William; Centeno, Carlos; Cuervo, Miguel Angel; Deliens, Luc; Frerich, Gerrit; Gastmans, Chris; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Limonero, Joaquín T; Maier, Markus A; Materstvedt, Lars Johan; Nabal, María; Rodin, Gary; Rosenfeld, Barry; Schroepfer, Tracy; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Trelis, Jordi; Villavicencio-Chávez, Christian; Voltz, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    The desire for hastened death or wish to hasten death (WTHD) that is experienced by some patients with advanced illness is a complex phenomenon for which no widely accepted definition exists. This lack of a common conceptualization hinders understanding and cooperation between clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to develop an internationally agreed definition of the WTHD. Following an exhaustive literature review, a modified nominal group process and an international, modified Delphi process were carried out. The nominal group served to produce a preliminary definition that was then subjected to a Delphi process in which 24 experts from 19 institutions from Europe, Canada and the USA participated. Delphi responses and comments were analysed using a pre-established strategy. All 24 experts completed the three rounds of the Delphi process, and all the proposed statements achieved at least 79% agreement. Key concepts in the final definition include the WTHD as a reaction to suffering, the fact that such a wish is not always expressed spontaneously, and the need to distinguish the WTHD from the acceptance of impending death or from a wish to die naturally, although preferably soon. The proposed definition also makes reference to possible factors related to the WTHD. This international consensus definition of the WTHD should make it easier for clinicians and researchers to share their knowledge. This would foster an improved understanding of the phenomenon and help in developing strategies for early therapeutic intervention.

  9. Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems.

  10. Extreme Geophysical and Weather Related Disasters in the First Decade of the XXI Century - How do the Patterns of these Two Groups of Perils Differ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeppe, P.; Faust, E.; Bove, M.

    2011-12-01

    The first decade of the 21st century saw natural disasters with an unprecedent level of losses, such as the costliest natural disaster ever, the earthquake and tsunami disaster of March 2011 in Japan (US 210bn in direct economic losses), or Hurricane Katrina in 2005 (US 125bn in direct economic losses). In the first half year of 2011, a fierce tornado season occurred in the US with record-breaking thunderstorm-related losses (US$ 24bn in direct economic losses). Analysing drivers of increasing losses, the most prominent one is increasing and more than ever spatially concentrated destroyable wealth in course of urban sprawl, where loss amplifying factors such as increasingly interwoven streams of goods and services across regions or knock-on catastrophes contribute to recently observed very large losses. Looking at longer time series of annually aggregated numbers and losses of geophysical and weather-related disasters, we find regional indications for the hypothesis that besides socioeconomic changes in wealth and development patterns also natural variability and climate change are already involved in the specific time series patterns of the weather-related proportion. This has to be seen against the background of scientific studies demonstrating an interrelation of anthropogenic climate change and weather extremes.

  11. The anatomy of the carotico-clinoid foramen and its relation with the internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Ozdoğmuş, O; Saka, E; Tulay, C; Gürdal, E; Uzün, I; Cavdar, S

    2003-01-01

    The carotico-clinoid foramen is the result of ossification either of the carotico-clinoid ligament or of a dural fold extending between the anterior and middle clinoid processes of the sphenoid bone. It is anatomically important due to its relations with the cavernous sinus and its content, sphenoid sinus and pituitary gland. In this study the ossification state of the carotico-clinoid ligament, the diameter of the internal carotid artery and the carotico-clinoid foramen has been studied on 50 autopsy cases. Of the 100 carotico-clinoid foramina examined, in 27 sides (15 right, 12 left) the carotico-clinoid ligament was completely ossified, in 18 sides (9 right, 9 left) the carotico-clinoid ligament was incompletely ossified and in 55 sides (26 right, 29 left) it was a ligamentous structure. The correlation of the dimensions of the carotico-clinoid foramen and the internal carotid artery showed no statistical significance, except between the carotico-clinoid foramen with a fibrous carotico-clinoid ligament and the internal carotid artery on the right side (p=0.007, r=0.51). The existence of a bony carotico-clinoid foramen may cause compression, tightening or stretching of the internal carotid artery. Further, removing the anterior clinoid process is an important step in regional surgery; the presence of a bony carotico-clinoid foramen may have high risk. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the type of ossification between the anterior and middle clinoid processes can be necessary to increase the success of regional surgery.

  12. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  13. Survival for patients with chronic leukemias in the US and Britain: Age-related disparities and changes in the early 21st century.

    PubMed

    Pulte, Dianne; Redaniel, Maria Theresa; Bird, Jenny; Jeffreys, Mona

    2015-06-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are highly treatable conditions occurring primarily in older patients. Lower survival among older people has been reported in both conditions, but newer treatments may change both the overall survival rate and the relative risk associated with aging. Here, we examine survival for patients with CLL and CML in the United States (US) and England. Patients with CLL and CML were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (US) and National Cancer Registry (England). Five-year relative survival was calculated by major age group. Excess hazard ratios (EHR) by age were calculated for each condition, and multivariable analysis was performed to adjust for the following potential confounders: gender, race or ethnic group (US only), period of diagnosis, and a measure of socioeconomic deprivation (England only). Five-year relative survival increased for both CLL and CML in both England and the US between 1996-2000 and 2006-2010. However, relative age-related disparities persisted. For CLL, the EHR for death was 9.44 (7.84-11.36) in the US and 6.14 (5.65-6.68) in England for ages 85+ compared to ages 55-64. For CML, the EHR was 3.52 (3.17-3.90) in the US and 4.54 (4.13-4.98) in England for ages 75+ compared to ages 45-64. Survival improved for patients with chronic leukemias in the early 21st century. However, age-related disparities persist, despite clinical trial evidence that treatment in older adults with chronic leukemia can be safe and effective. Further research to determine the reasons for the lower survival in older patients and greater awareness of this problem may improve survival for older patients with chronic leukemia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Global Possible: Resources, Development, and the New Century. The Statement and Action Agenda of an International Conference (Washington, D.C., May 2-5, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Resources Inst., Washington, DC.

    The relationships between earth's resources and the human future and the challenges of maintaining a sustainable environment were probed at an international conference sponsored by the World Resources Institute. A synthesis of the conference's reports, perspectives, and plans for action are presented in this document. The position supported by the…

  15. The Collision Avoidance Regulations as a Regulator of International Navigation Rights: Underlying Principles and their Adequacy for the Twenty-first Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plant, Glen

    The high seas freedom of navigation, and the lesser rights of transit, archipelagic sea lane and innocent passage applicable in straits used for international navigation, archipelagic sea lanes and the territorial sea respectively, have been said to embrace two notions: the manner of operation of the right&

  16. Women's Networks towards the Twenty-first Century. Proceedings of the International Fourm on Women and Life-long Learning (Saitama, Japan, November 14-16, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    The role of women's centers and other facilities for women has become increasingly important in promoting a variety of opportunities for women's learning and participation in society. This conference, with the theme of women's networks for the future, was designed to promote the international exchange of information and cooperative development…

  17. The Global Possible: Resources, Development, and the New Century. The Statement and Action Agenda of an International Conference (Washington, D.C., May 2-5, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Resources Inst., Washington, DC.

    The relationships between earth's resources and the human future and the challenges of maintaining a sustainable environment were probed at an international conference sponsored by the World Resources Institute. A synthesis of the conference's reports, perspectives, and plans for action are presented in this document. The position supported by the…

  18. Women's Networks towards the Twenty-first Century. Proceedings of the International Fourm on Women and Life-long Learning (Saitama, Japan, November 14-16, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    The role of women's centers and other facilities for women has become increasingly important in promoting a variety of opportunities for women's learning and participation in society. This conference, with the theme of women's networks for the future, was designed to promote the international exchange of information and cooperative development…

  19. Current Trends in Educational Reform. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, First Session (Paris, France, March 2-4, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, Juan Carlos

    The purpose of this paper is to sum up the main lessons learned in the process of educational change over the last few decades. It consists of a series of reflections based on the information and experience acquired through international cooperation. These reflections have been inspired basically by the experience of the countries of Latin America…

  20. Morphological Changes in a Braided River of the Italian Alps During the Last Two Centuries and the Related Dynamics of Riparian Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiti, F.; da Canal, M.; Surian, N.; Mao, L.; Lenzi, M. A.

    2007-05-01

    This study aims to determine the timing and the extent of the morphological changes occurred in a 30-km long reach of a gravel bed river of the Eastern Italian Alps (the Piave river, in the Val Belluna synclinal), now covered with abundant riparian vegetation and forested islands that may represent important source of wood during floods. The Piave river (drainage area 3,300 km2 at the exit of the montane district) was once characterised by a wide, braided active channel confined by climatic terraces formed during the last glacial retreat (Holocene). It underwent a strong narrowing during the last century that led to a wandering/single-thread morphology, leaving large areas available to the establishment of riparian forests (genus Populus, Salix, Robinia). It is notable that some of these woodlands are now most valuable under an ecological perspective, in particular they represent important nesting sites for avifauna (EC BIRDS Directive). Nine sets of historical maps and aerial photos (from 1805 to 2003) were used to determine changes in the Piave river corridor (active channel width, vegetation cover, island areas and number), georeferencing and editing maps by a GIS software. Two series of cross-sections (1935-2003) allowed to get insights into the vertical evolution of the streambed. Discharge data (from 1926) permitted to assess the possible effect of flow regulation on formative discharge. Results indicate that average channel width (i.e. channel area/channel length) dropped from about 600 m during the XIX century to 200 m in the 1991, and increased thereafter up to 300 m in the 2003. The dynamics of riparian vegetation follows a clear complementary trend. Such a pattern reflects the different human impacts on the river system, particularly the gravel mining activity intensely carried out in the '70-'80. Large forested islands were already present at the early XIX century, but their extension relative to channel area was much smaller (3 times) than in 1991

  1. [Position of health at international relations. Part I. Structural dimensions of health].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    In the article, the health is perceived as complex, multidimensional concept and not as absence of disease. This is consistent with public health perspective, where public health is regarded as public as well as political activity. It aims to solve health and social problems, depends on analysis of phenomena, needs the negotiations and relies on making decision on feasible directions of changes--what, why, how, where, when and by whom should be done. Public health policy developed as a result of international relations, and UN family fora especially, is regarded as significant for creating of health position. The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of selected concepts and definitions related to structural dimensions of health, used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of health structure notions at worldwide agenda. The UN main bodies, programmes and funds working on the health field are mentioned and voting rules in UN General Assembly and World Health Assembly are reminded. The following structural dimensions were considered: (a) well-being, (b) human rights, (c) everyday resource, health potential, (4) equity. All were explored in WHO Constitution, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and numerous WHA and UN GA resolutions, decisions as well as other documents. Some remarkable differences in English and Polish language versions and meanings were pointed out. It was argued that present perception of structural dimension of health is strongly derived from the preamble of the WHO Constitution adopted and signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States. It is an evidence of the strength of this document and wisdom of its authors. The greater progress is associated. with concepts and notion of organizational dimensions of health perceived as action and processes leading to health. Long-term efforts to strengthen

  2. Radiation-related mortality among offspring of atomic bomb survivors: a half-century of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Shizue; Suyama, Akihiko; Koyama, Kojiro

    2003-11-01

    Our objective was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic bomb radiation has led to increased cancer and/or noncancer mortality rates among the offspring. We studied 41,010 subjects born from May 1946 through December 1984 (i.e., conceived between 1 month and 38 years after the bombings) and surviving for at least 1 year. One or both parents were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the time of the bombings and childbirth. We analyzed mortality data from 1946 to 1999 using the Japanese family registry system by Cox regression model and examined the effects of paternal and maternal irradiation with adjustment for city, sex, year of birth and parental age at childbirth. During follow-up, 314 cancer deaths and 1,125 noncancer disease deaths occurred. The mean age of living subjects was 45.7 years. Median doses were 143 mSv for 12,722 exposed fathers and 132 mSv for 7,726 exposed mothers. Cancer and noncancer mortality rates were no higher for subjects with exposed parents (5+ mSv or unknown dose) than for reference subjects (0-4 mSv), and mortality did not increase with increasing dose. For subjects with both parents exposed, the adjusted hazard ratios were 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.46] for noncancer and 0.96 (95% CI 0.59-1.55) for cancer. This was true of deaths occurring both before and after 20 years of age. However, because of uncertainty due to the small number of deaths and relatively young ages of subjects, we cannot rule out an increase in disease mortality at this time.

  3. Remission of Maternal Depression: Relations to Family Functioning and Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Cynthia Ewell; Webster, Melissa C.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Talati, Ardesheer; Rush, A. John; Hughes, Carroll W.; Garber, Judy; Malloy, Erin; Cerda, Gabrielle; Kornstein, Susan G.; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Fava, Maurizio; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Family functioning and parenting were hypothesized to mediate the relation between remission of maternal depression and children's psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 114 mother-child dyads participating in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression Child 3-month follow-up. All mothers had been diagnosed with major depressive disorder and were treated initially with citalopram; 33% of mothers experienced remission of depressive symptoms. Youth ranged in age from 7 to 17. Remission of maternal depression was associated with changes in children's reports of their mothers' warmth/acceptance, which in turn partially mediated the relation between maternal depression remission and youth internalizing symptoms, accounting for 22.9% of the variance. PMID:18991123

  4. Determination of relative rate constants for in vitro RNA processing reactions by internal competition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsuan-Chun; Yandek, Lindsay E; Gjermeni, Ino; Harris, Michael E

    2014-12-15

    Studies of RNA recognition and catalysis typically involve measurement of rate constants for reactions of individual RNA sequence variants by fitting changes in substrate or product concentration to exponential or linear functions. A complementary approach is determination of relative rate constants by internal competition, which involves quantifying the time-dependent changes in substrate or product ratios in reactions containing multiple substrates. Here, we review approaches for determining relative rate constants by analysis of both substrate and product ratios and illustrate their application using the in vitro processing of precursor transfer RNA (tRNA) by ribonuclease P as a model system. The presence of inactive substrate populations is a common complicating factor in analysis of reactions involving RNA substrates, and approaches for quantitative correction of observed rate constants for these effects are illustrated. These results, together with recent applications in the literature, indicate that internal competition offers an alternate method for analyzing RNA processing kinetics using standard molecular biology methods that directly quantifies substrate specificity and may be extended to a range of applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Protective factors promoting resilience in the relation between child sexual victimization and internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, Alba; Guilera, Georgina; Pereda, Noemí; Jarne, Adolfo

    2017-09-13

    Sexual victimization has been one of the most frequently studied forms of child victimization. Its effects are common and diverse; however, not all children and youth exposed to sexual victimization eventually develop adjustment problems. A total of 1105 children and youth (590 male and 515 female) aged between 12 and 17 from northeastern Spain were assessed regarding their experiences of sexual victimization, symptoms of psychopathology, and protective factors. The results showed that all forms of sexual victimization were associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral problems. However, the presence of a low Negative Cognition, high Social Skills and high Confidence seem to act buffering internalizing problems. Additionally, a significant interaction between Sexual Victimization and low Negative Cognition was observed (p<0.5), so that, low Negative Cognition was related to a lower risk of being in the clinical range for internalizing problems. Likewise, high scores on Empathy/Tolerance, Connectedness to School, Connectedness to Family and low Negative Cognition acted as promotive factors in relation to externalizing symptoms, in this case without any interaction effect. The strong relationship found with emotional and behavioral problems highlights the importance of continuing the research on the protective factors underlying resilience in the relationship between sexual victimization and psychopathological symptoms. The findings also support the multi-dimensional and specific nature of resilience and identify some of the protective factors that should be regarded as key intervention targets in adolescents with a history of sexual victimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Relative Status-Field Theory, Results for Cooperation, UT Actors, 1966-1969, An Inventory of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph is a computer printout which presents findings from an analysis of data on international cooperation over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their ability to analyze international relations, this monograph presents the computer printout of data on the application of…

  7. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Relative Status-Field Theory, Results for Cooperation, TU Actors, 1966-1969, An Inventory of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph is a computer printout which presents findings from an analysis of data on international cooperation over a three-year period. The document is part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their ability to analyze international relations. In this monograph, data are analyzed according to relative…

  8. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Relative Status-Field Theory, Results for Conflict, UT Actors, 1966-1969, An Inventory of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph is a computer printout which presents findings from an analysis of data on international conflict over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their ability to analyze international relations, this monograph presents the computer printout of data on the application of…

  9. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Relative Status-Field Theory, Results for Conflict, TT Actors, 1966-69, An Inventory of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents findings on international conflict over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their power in analyzing international relations, this monograph presents a computer printout of data regarding 'topdog' behavior among nations with regard to economic development and…

  10. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Relative Status-Field Theory, Results for Conflict, TU Actors, 1966-1969, An Inventory of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents findings from an analysis of data on international conflict over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their power in analyzing international relations, this monograph presents the computer printout of data on the application of discriminant function analysis of…

  11. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Patterns of Cooperation: Relative Status-Field Theory, TU Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents the computer printout of an analysis of data on international cooperation over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their power in analyzing international relations, this monograph presents data on the application of discriminant function analysis to combined…

  12. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Patterns of Cooperation: Relative Status-Field Theory, TU Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents the computer printout of an analysis of data on international cooperation over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their power in analyzing international relations, this monograph presents data on the application of discriminant function analysis to combined…

  13. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Patterns of Conflict: Relative Status-Field Theory, TU Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents the computer printout of an analysis of data on international conflict over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their power in analyzing international relations, this monograph presents data on the application of discriminant function analysis to combined…

  14. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Patterns of Conflict: Relative Status-Field Theory, TT Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents the computer printout of an analysis of data on international conflict over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their power in analyzing international relations, this monograph presents data on the application of discriminant function analysis to 'topdog'…

  15. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Patterns of Cooperation: Relative Status-Field Theory, UU Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents an analysis of data on international cooperation over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their power in analyzing international relations, this monograph presents the computer printout of data on the application of second stage factor analysis of 'underdog'…

  16. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Relative Status-Field Theory, Results for Cooperation, UU Actors, 1966-1969, An Inventory of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents findings from an analysis of data on international cooperation over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their power in analyzing international relations, this monograph presents the computer printout of data on the application of discriminant function analysis…

  17. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Relative Status-Field Theory, Results for Conflict, UU Actors, 1966-1969, An Inventory of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph is a computer printout which presents findings from an analysis of data on international conflict over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their ability to analyze international relations, this monograph presents the computer printout of data on the application of…

  18. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Patterns of Conflict: Relative Status-Field Theory, UU Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents the computer printout of an analysis of data on international conflict over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their power in analyzing international relations, this monograph presents data on the application of discriminant function analysis of 'underdog'…

  19. The development of personality extremity from childhood to adolescence: relations to internalizing and externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Van den Akker, Alithe L; Prinzie, Peter; Deković, Maja; De Haan, Amaranta D; Asscher, Jessica J; Widiger, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the development of personality extremity (deviation of an average midpoint of all 5 personality dimensions together) across childhood and adolescence, as well as relations between personality extremity and adjustment problems. For 598 children (mean age at Time 1 = 7.5 years), mothers and fathers reported the Big Five personality dimensions 4 times across 8 years. Children's vector length in a 5-dimensional configuration of the Big Five dimensions represented personality extremity. Mothers, fathers, and teachers reported children's internalizing and externalizing problems at the 1st and final measurement. In a cohort-sequential design, we modeled personality extremity in children and adolescents from ages 6 to 17 years. Growth mixture modeling revealed a similar solution for both mother and father reports: a large group with relatively short vectors that were stable over time (mother reports: 80.3%; father reports: 84.7%) and 2 smaller groups with relatively long vectors (i.e., extreme personality configuration). One group started out relatively extreme and decreased over time (mother reports: 13.2%; father reports: 10.4%), whereas the other group started out only slightly higher than the short vector group but increased across time (mother reports: 6.5%; father reports: 4.9%). Children who belonged to the increasingly extreme class experienced more internalizing and externalizing problems in late adolescence, controlling for previous levels of adjustment problems and the Big Five personality dimensions. Personality extremity may be important to consider when identifying children at risk for adjustment problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Performance Indicators Related to Points Scoring and Winning in International Rugby Sevens

    PubMed Central

    Higham, Dean G.; Hopkins, Will G.; Pyne, David B.; Anson, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of performance indicators related to scoring points and winning is needed to inform tactical approaches to international rugby sevens competition. The aim of this study was to characterize team performance indicators in international rugby sevens and quantify their relationship with a team’s points scored and probability of winning. Performance indicators of each team during 196 matches of the 2011/2012 International Rugby Board Sevens World Series were modeled for their linear relationships with points scored and likelihood of winning within (changes in team values from match to match) and between (differences between team values averaged over all matches) teams. Relationships were evaluated as the change and difference in points and probability of winning associated with a two within- and between-team standard deviations increase in performance indicator values. Inferences about relationships were assessed using a smallest meaningful difference of one point and a 10% probability of a team changing the outcome of a close match. All indicators exhibited high within-team match-to-match variability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.00 to 0.23). Excluding indicators representing points-scoring actions or events occurring on average less than once per match, 13 of 17 indicators had substantial clear within-team relationships with points scored and/or likelihood of victory. Relationships between teams were generally similar in magnitude but unclear. Tactics that increase points scoring and likelihood of winning should be based on greater ball possession, fewer rucks, mauls, turnovers, penalties and free kicks, and limited passing. Key points Successful international rugby sevens teams tend to maintain ball possession; more frequently avoid taking the ball into contact; concede fewer turnovers, penalties and free kicks; retain possession in scrums, rucks and mauls; and limit passing the ball. Selected performance indicators may be used

  1. Performance indicators related to points scoring and winning in international rugby sevens.

    PubMed

    Higham, Dean G; Hopkins, Will G; Pyne, David B; Anson, Judith M

    2014-05-01

    Identification of performance indicators related to scoring points and winning is needed to inform tactical approaches to international rugby sevens competition. The aim of this study was to characterize team performance indicators in international rugby sevens and quantify their relationship with a team's points scored and probability of winning. Performance indicators of each team during 196 matches of the 2011/2012 International Rugby Board Sevens World Series were modeled for their linear relationships with points scored and likelihood of winning within (changes in team values from match to match) and between (differences between team values averaged over all matches) teams. Relationships were evaluated as the change and difference in points and probability of winning associated with a two within- and between-team standard deviations increase in performance indicator values. Inferences about relationships were assessed using a smallest meaningful difference of one point and a 10% probability of a team changing the outcome of a close match. All indicators exhibited high within-team match-to-match variability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.00 to 0.23). Excluding indicators representing points-scoring actions or events occurring on average less than once per match, 13 of 17 indicators had substantial clear within-team relationships with points scored and/or likelihood of victory. Relationships between teams were generally similar in magnitude but unclear. Tactics that increase points scoring and likelihood of winning should be based on greater ball possession, fewer rucks, mauls, turnovers, penalties and free kicks, and limited passing. Key pointsSuccessful international rugby sevens teams tend to maintain ball possession; more frequently avoid taking the ball into contact; concede fewer turnovers, penalties and free kicks; retain possession in scrums, rucks and mauls; and limit passing the ball.Selected performance indicators may be used to

  2. The next century: Prospects for space - 42nd International Astronautical Congress of the IAF, Montreal, Canada, Oct. 7-11, 1991, Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harford, James

    The present conference discusses astrodynamics, robotics, the commercialization of space services, communications satellites, earth observation, international space planning and policymaking, interstellar exploration, life sciences, lunar and Martian exploration, and spacecraft materials and structures. Also discussed are microgravity sciences and processes, power systems, propulsion systems, safety and rescue equipment, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, solar system exploration, space-based astronomy, space law, space transportation, and space stations.

  3. Science diplomacy in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2009-01-09

    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  4. International Directory of Facilities for Education and Training in Basic Subjects Related to the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY.

    International facilities are described in the first section of this directory on the facilities for education and training in basic subjects related to the peaceful uses of outer space. Entries are organized into these categories: organizations of the United Nations system; intergovernmental agencies; international agencies; international…

  5. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exploration, exploitation, and use of outer space through the International Space Station (ISS). The IGA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics...

  6. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exploration, exploitation, and use of outer space through the International Space Station (ISS). The IGA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics...

  7. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exploration, exploitation, and use of outer space through the International Space Station (ISS). The IGA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics...

  8. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exploration, exploitation, and use of outer space through the International Space Station (ISS). The IGA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics and...

  9. Open boundary conditions for internal gravity wave modelling using polarization relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsaleix, Patrick; Ulses, Caroline; Pairaud, Ivane; Herrmann, Marine Julie; Floor, Jochem Willem; Estournel, Claude; Auclair, Francis

    This paper proposes an original approach of the open boundary condition problem, within the framework of internal hydrostatic wave theory. These boundary conditions are based on the relations of polarization of internal waves. The method is presented progressively, beginning with a simple case (non-rotating regime, propagation direction normal to the open boundary), ending with a more general situation (rotating regime, multimodal & multi-dimensional propagations and variable background field). In the non-rotating case and as far as we assume that the direction of propagation is locally normal to the open boundary, the so-called PRM (polarization relation method) scheme can be seen as a three-dimensional version of the barotropic Flather boundary conditions. The discrete form of the scheme is detailed. Numerical stability issues proper to leap-frog time stepping are in particular discussed. It is shown that errors on phase speed prescribed in the boundary conditions can notably deteriorate radiation properties. The normal mode approach is introduced to identify coherent structures of propagation and their corresponding phase speed. A simple and robust multi-dimensional propagation scheme can easily be derived from polarization relations. The rotating case is more difficult but it is possible, to some extent, to get around the dependency of phase speed on wave frequency and to keep the non-rotating formulation of the PRM conditions almost unchanged. The PRM scheme being applied to field anomalies, the question of the background reference state is addressed. The latter can be used to introduce incoming waves across the open boundaries or, alternatively, to represent the low-frequency variability of the model itself. The consistency of the pressure and tracer boundary conditions is finally discussed.

  10. Children's Internal Attributions of Anxiety-Related Physical Symptoms: Age-Related Patterns and the Role of Cognitive Development and Anxiety Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; Freher, Nancy Kramer; Duncan, Sylvana; van den Hout, Annemiek

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined age-related patterns in children's anxiety-related interpretations and internal attributions of physical symptoms. A large sample of 388 children aged between 4 and 13 years completed a vignette paradigm during which they had to explain the emotional response of the main character who experienced anxiety-related physical…

  11. [The "culture of survival" and international public health in Latin America: the Cold War and the eradication of diseases in the mid-twentieth century].

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the main campaigns run by international agencies and national health bodies to eradicate infectious diseases in rural Latin America in the 1940s and 1950s. The political dimensions of the period have been studied but there has been little attention as yet to the health dimensions. This article proposes the concept of a "culture of survival" to explain the official public health problems of states with limited social policies that did not allow the exercise of citizenship. Public health, as part of this culture of survival, sought a temporary solution without confronting the social problems that led to infections and left a public health legacy in the region.

  12. Subsurface geology of Kansai International Airport: sequence related to global glacial - interglacial cycles and island tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, K.; Kitada, N.; Furudoi, T.; Nakaseko, K.

    2007-12-01

    Tectonic sedimentary basins aligned in the central part of Japan during Quaternary . Thick sediments deposited in these basins provide useful records of climatic changes and tectonics throughout Quaternary. The Osaka sedimentary basin including Osaka Bay and area of Kansai International Airport is one of them. The Quaternary Osaka sedimentary basin has developed at an eastern contractional bend of a major transcurrent fault system named the Median Tectonic Line, which divides the southwest Japan arc. The thickness of Pliocene - Pleistocene sediments reaches to ca 3500m at the deepest part. These sequences are called the Osaka Group and are distributed in the Osaka Bay and exposed in the surrounding mountain areas. The Osaka Group is characterized by alternating sequences of marine and nonmarine strata. The subsurface sediments of Kansai International Airport (KIA) is composed mainly of Pliocene - Pleistocene sediments, which is characterized by alternating sequences of marine and nonmarine strata related to glacial - interglacial cycles. . The stratigraphy at KIA was established by micropaleontological, tephrochronological and magnetostratigraphical method. The sedimentary sequence at KIX is divided into two main units (Kukojima and Sennanoki Formations in ascending order) with the uncomformity within two units. Although thick marine clay units are mainly of the subsurface sequence, characteristics of coarser sediment units have an important role of moving of water during construction of the reclaimed land.

  13. German National Proficiency Scales in Biology: Internal Structure, Relations to General Cognitive Abilities and Verbal Skills

    PubMed Central

    KÖLLER, OLAF

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT National and international large‐scale assessments (LSA) have a major impact on educational systems, which raises fundamental questions about the validity of the measures regarding their internal structure and their relations to relevant covariates. Given its importance, research on the validity of instruments specifically developed for LSA is still sparse, especially in science and its subdomains biology, chemistry, and physics. However, policy decisions for the improvement of educational quality based on LSA can only be helpful if valid information on students’ achievement levels is provided. In the present study, the nature of the measurement instruments based on the German Educational Standards in Biology is examined. On the basis of data from 3,165 students in Grade 10, we present dimensional analyses and report the relationship between different subdimensions of biology literacy and cognitive covariates such as general cognitive abilities and verbal skills. A theory‐driven two‐dimensional model fitted the data best. Content knowledge and scientific inquiry, two subdimensions of biology literacy, are highly correlated and show differential correlational patterns to the covariates. We argue that the underlying structure of biology should be incorporated into curricula, teacher training and future assessments. PMID:27818532

  14. What contribution can international relations make to the evolving global health agenda?

    PubMed

    Davies, Sara E

    2010-01-01

    This article presents two approaches that have dominated International Relations in their approach to the international politics of health. The statist approach, which is primarily security-focused, seeks to link health initiatives to a foreign or defence policy remit. The globalist approach, in contrast, seeks to advance health not because of its intrinsic security value but because it advances the well-being and rights of individuals. This article charts the evolution of these approaches and demonstrates why both have the potential to shape our understanding of the evolving global health agenda. It examines how the statist and globalist perspectives have helped shape contemporary initiatives in global health governance and suggests that there is evidence of an emerging convergence between the two perspectives. This convergence is particularly clear in the articulation of a number of UN initiatives in this area - especially the One World, One Health Strategic Framework and the Oslo Ministerial Declaration (2007) which inspired the first UN General Assembly resolution on global health and foreign policy in 2009 and the UN Secretary-General's note "Global health and foreign policy: strategic opportunities and challenges". What remains to be seen is whether this convergence will deliver on securing states' interest long enough to promote the interests of the individuals who require global efforts to deliver local health improvements.

  15. German National Proficiency Scales in Biology: Internal Structure, Relations to General Cognitive Abilities and Verbal Skills.

    PubMed

    Kampa, Nele; Köller, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    National and international large-scale assessments (LSA) have a major impact on educational systems, which raises fundamental questions about the validity of the measures regarding their internal structure and their relations to relevant covariates. Given its importance, research on the validity of instruments specifically developed for LSA is still sparse, especially in science and its subdomains biology, chemistry, and physics. However, policy decisions for the improvement of educational quality based on LSA can only be helpful if valid information on students' achievement levels is provided. In the present study, the nature of the measurement instruments based on the German Educational Standards in Biology is examined. On the basis of data from 3,165 students in Grade 10, we present dimensional analyses and report the relationship between different subdimensions of biology literacy and cognitive covariates such as general cognitive abilities and verbal skills. A theory-driven two-dimensional model fitted the data best. Content knowledge and scientific inquiry, two subdimensions of biology literacy, are highly correlated and show differential correlational patterns to the covariates. We argue that the underlying structure of biology should be incorporated into curricula, teacher training and future assessments.

  16. Relation between diffuse axonal injury and internal head structures on blunt impact.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, T; Murakami, S

    1998-02-01

    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a severe head injury, which exhibits symptoms of consciousness disturbance and is thought to occur through rotational angular acceleration. This paper analyzes the occurrence of DAI when direct impacts with translational accelerations are applied to two-dimensional head models. We constructed a human model reproducing the human head structure, as well as modified human models with some internal head structures removed. Blunt direct impacts were applied from a lateral direction to the bottom of the third ventricle, considered to be the center of impact, using an impactor. The analysis was done by comparing the macroscopic manifestation of DAI with the shear stress as the engineering index. In the analytical data obtained from the human model, shear stresses were concentrated on the corpus callosum and the brain stem, in the deep area. This agrees with regions of the DAI indicated by small hemorrhages in the corpus callosum and the brain stem. The analytical data obtained by the modified human models show that the high shear stress on the corpus callosum is influenced by the falx cerebri, while the high shear stress on the brain stem is influenced by the tentorium cerebelli and the shape of the brain. These results indicate that DAI, generally considered to be influenced by angular acceleration, may also occur through direct impact with translational acceleration. We deduced that the injury mechanism of DAI is related to the concentration of shear stress on the core of the brain, since the internal head structures influence the impact stress concentration.

  17. Internal structure of magnetic porous glasses and the related ferroelectric nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naberezhnov, A. A.; Ryukhtin, V.; Sysoeva, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    The internal structure of empty porous micro- and macroporous magnetic glasses and the related nanocomposites containing NaNO2 and KNO3 embedded in pores of the glasses has been investigated using small-angle neutron scattering. The characteristic sizes of magnetite particles in matrices and the sizes of nanoparticles embedded in ferroelectric materials have been estimated. It has been shown that, for microporous glasses in the momentum transfer range 0.35 nm-1 < Q < 1.7 nm-1, the dependence of the small-angle neutron scattering intensity on the momentum transfer has two characteristic regions: the first region corresponds well to the Porod's law Q -4 (smooth surface), and the second region is consistent with the mass fractal reflecting the internal structure of channels in the microporous glass. For macroporous glasses over the entire momentum transfer range 0.35 nm-1 < Q < 1.7 nm-1, the scattering intensity is described by the dependence I( Q) Q - n with α = 3.96 ± 0.02; i.e., in these glasses, there is a system of channels with sufficiently smooth surfaces.

  18. ISHHC XIII International Symposium on the Relations betweenHomogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai , G.A.

    2007-06-11

    The International Symposium on Relations between Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis (ISHHC) has a long and distinguished history. Since 1974, in Brussels, this event has been held in Lyon, France (1977), Groeningen, The Netherlands (1981); Asilomar, California (1983); Novosibirsk, Russia (1986); Pisa, Italy (1989); Tokyo, Japan (1992); Balatonfuered, Hungary (1995); Southampton, United Kingdom (1999); Lyon, France (2001); Evanston, Illinois (2001) and Florence, Italy (2005). The aim of this international conference in Berkeley is to bring together practitioners in the three fields of catalysis, heterogeneous, homogeneous and enzyme, which utilize mostly nanosize particles. Recent advances in instrumentation, synthesis and reaction studies permit the nanoscale characterization of the catalyst systems, often for the same reaction, under similar experimental conditions. It is hoped that this circumstance will permit the development of correlations of these three different fields of catalysis on the molecular level. To further this goal we aim to uncover and focus on common concepts that emerge from nanoscale studies of structures and dynamics of the three types of catalysts. Another area of focus that will be addressed is the impact on and correlation of nanosciences with catalysis. There is information on the electronic and atomic structures of nanoparticles and their dynamics that should have importance in catalyst design and catalytic activity and selectivity.

  19. Movement related potentials and oscillatory activities in the human internal globus pallidus during voluntary movements.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Eric W; Hamani, Clement; Moro, Elena; Mazzella, Filomena; Lozano, Andres M; Hodaie, Mojgan; Yeh, I-Jin; Chen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To study internal globus pallidus (GPi) activities and the interactions among the bilateral GPi and motor cortical areas during voluntary movements. Five patients with cervical dystonia who underwent bilateral GPi deep brain stimulation (DBS) were studied. Local field potentials from the GPi DBS electrodes and EEG were recorded while the patients performed externally triggered and self-initiated right wrist movements. Movement related potentials were recorded at the GPi bilaterally before the onset of self-initiated but not externally triggered movements. In all movements studied, frequency analysis revealed a ≈ 10-24 Hz beta event related desynchronisation at bilateral GPi and with EEG recorded over the mid-frontal (Cz-Fz) and the bilateral sensorimotor cortical regions (C3/C4-Cz). A ≈ 64-68 Hz, gamma event related synchronisation was found with EEG recorded over the mid-frontal (Cz-Fz), the sensorimotor cortices (C3-Cz) and the GPi contralateral to movements. Both beta event related desynchronisation and gamma event related synchronisation occurred before the onset of self-initiated movements and at the onset of externally triggered movements. There was a resting ≈ 5-18 Hz coherence between the bilateral GPi, which attenuated for ≈ 1 s during movements. Gamma coherences were observed between EEG recorded over the mid-frontal (Cz-Fz), contralateral sensorimotor cortices (C3-Cz) and the GPi from 0 to 0.5 s after movement onset for externally triggered movements and from 0.5 s before to 0.5 s after movement onset for self-initiated movements. The beta and gamma frequency bands in the GPi are modulated by the preparation of self-initiated movements and the execution of self-initiated and externally triggered movements. The 5-18 Hz coherence at the bilateral GPi may be related to dystonia and its attenuation may facilitate voluntary movements.

  20. HIV-Related Stigma, Shame, and Avoidant Coping: Risk Factors for Internalizing Symptoms Among Youth Living with HIV?

    PubMed

    Bennett, David S; Hersh, Jill; Herres, Joanna; Foster, Jill

    2016-08-01

    Youth living with HIV (YLH) are at elevated risk of internalizing symptoms, although there is substantial individual variability in adjustment. We examined perceived HIV-related stigma, shame-proneness, and avoidant coping as risk factors of internalizing symptoms among YLH. Participants (N = 88; ages 12-24) completed self-report measures of these potential risk factors and three domains of internalizing symptoms (depressive, anxiety, and PTSD) during a regularly scheduled HIV clinic visit. Hierarchical regressions were conducted for each internalizing symptoms domain, examining the effects of age, gender, and maternal education (step 1), HIV-related stigma (step 2), shame- and guilt-proneness (step 3), and avoidant coping (step 4). HIV-related stigma, shame-proneness, and avoidant coping were each correlated with greater depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms. Specificity was observed in that shame-proneness, but not guilt-proneness, was associated with greater internalizing symptoms. In multivariable analyses, HIV-related stigma and shame-proneness were each related to greater depressive and PTSD symptoms. Controlling for the effects of HIV-related stigma and shame-proneness, avoidant coping was associated with PTSD symptoms. The current findings highlight the potential importance of HIV-related stigma, shame, and avoidant coping on the adjustment of YLH, as interventions addressing these risk factors could lead to decreased internalizing symptoms among YLH.

  1. Relative contributions of climate change, stomatal closure, and leaf area index changes to 20th and 21st century runoff change: A modelling approach using the Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkama, Ramdane; Kageyama, Masa; Ramstein, Gilles

    2010-09-01

    The recent evolution of continental runoff is still an open question. A related and controversial question is the attribution of this change and its consequences on our predictions of the behavior of future runoff. Here, the Land Surface Model Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems is used to perform a set of transient simulations of the runoff from 1900 to 2100. We first show that the model's simulated runoff increases for the 20th century from a global point of view as well as its geographical pattern changes are close to the observations made in this paper. Moreover this trend is simulated to increase further during the 21st century under the SRES A2 scenario. We have designed a set of simulations to test the impact on global runoff evolution of three factors: climate, stomatal conductance, and vegetation growth, all sensitive to CO2 increase. A complete factor-separation analysis of the influence of these three factors and of their interactions shows that climate change largely drives the 20th and 21st century runoff increase. The other two factors (stomatal conductance and vegetation growth) play a minor role in the 20th century runoff trend but we show that these contributions increase for the 21st century simulations. Although the interactions between the factors also plays a negligible role in the 20th century global runoff increase, our results show that they become significant during the 21st century, usually reducing the direct effect of each factor. However, our study does not reveal any important negative feedback to counteract the effect of climate warming on the hydrological cycle.

  2. PREFACE: X Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics: ''Reaching a Century: Classical and Modified General Relativity's Attempts to explain de evolution of the Universe''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárcenas, R. B.; Hernández, H. H. H.; Sabido, M.

    2015-11-01

    The collection of papers in this volume was presented during the X Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics, which was held in Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo, México, December 1-5, 2014. The Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics is a series of conferences sponsored by the Mexican Physical Society that started in 1994 with the purposes of discussing and exchanging current ideas in gravitational physics. Each Mexican School has been devoted to a particular subject, and these have included supergravity, branes, black holes, the early Universe, observational cosmology, quantum gravity and numerical relativity. In this ocasion the theme of the school was Reaching a Century: Classical and Modified General Relativity's Attempts to explain the evolution of the Universe, which focused on the discussion of classical and modified aspects of general relativity. Following our previous Schools, world leaders in the field were invited to give courses and plenary lectures. More specialized talks were also presented in parallel sessions, and some of them have been included in these proceedings. The contributions in this volume have been reviewed and represent some of the courses, plenary talks and contributed talks presented during our X School. We are indebted to the contributors of these proceedings as well as to the rest of the participants in our Mexican School all for making of it a complete success. As for financial support we should mention the Mexican National Science and Technology Council (CONACyT), the Royal Society of London (UK), the Mexican Physical Society (SMF), as well as several Institutions including: Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa (UAM-I), Universidad de Guanajuato (UG), and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM).

  3. Developmental cascades of peer relations and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing problems from kindergarten to fourth-grade elementary school.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M

    2010-08-01

    A developmental cascade model linking symptoms of externalizing and internalizing psychopathology through three indices of peer relational difficulty (peer rejection, peer victimization, friendedness) was tested in a general population sample of 653 children followed annually from kindergarten to fourth grade. Rejection and victimization linked kindergarten externalizing problems with fourth-grade internalizing problems. Transactional links between rejection and victimization were found. In addition, peer rejection added to the development of externalizing problems. Friendedness did not add to the development of externalizing or internalizing problems. Cascade paths were similar for boys and girls. Over the period of kindergarten to fourth grade, psychopathology and peer relations become entangled, and the dynamic interplay between multiple manifestations of poor peer relations ultimately adds to the development of both externalizing and internalizing problems and their cross-time relation. Implications for research and prevention are discussed.

  4. ‘Antarctic biology in the 21st century - Advances in, and beyond the international polar year 2007-2008’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddart, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) has provided an opportunity for biology to show itself as an important part of Antarctic science in a manner in which it was not seen during earlier Polar Years. Of the 15 endorsed biological projects in Antarctica, 7 included more than 20 scientists and could be deemed truly international. Four were conducted in the marine environment, and one each in the fields of biological invasions, microbial ecology, and terrestrial ecology, and one was SCAR’s over-arching ‘Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic’. The marine projects have left a robust legacy of data for future research into the consequences of environmental change, and into future decisions about marine protected areas. Studies on introductions of exotic organisms reveal an ever-present threat to the warmer parts of the high-latitude Southern Ocean, or parts which might become warmer with climate change. Studies on microbial ecology reveal great complexity of ecosystems with high numbers of unknown species. Terrestrial research has shown how vulnerable the Antarctic is to accidental introductions, and how productive the soils can be under changed climate conditions. Antarctic biology has come-of-age during IPY 2007-2008 and the campaign has set the scene for future research.

  5. Internationalism in Psychology: We Need It Now More Than Ever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A concern with international cooperation in psychology has been present since the beginnings of psychology as a science. In this article, the author traces the development of international cooperation from the late 19th century to the present day to document the interesting ways in which the forms of collaboration have always been related to the…

  6. Internationalism in Psychology: We Need It Now More Than Ever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A concern with international cooperation in psychology has been present since the beginnings of psychology as a science. In this article, the author traces the development of international cooperation from the late 19th century to the present day to document the interesting ways in which the forms of collaboration have always been related to the…

  7. Relating work, change in internal energy, and heat radiated for dispersion force situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes how Casimir-like forces can be calculated for quasistatic situations of macroscopic bodies composed of different materials. The framework of stochastic electrodynamics (SED) is used for much of this discussion in an attempt to provide a very clear physical picture when considering quantities like forces, work done, changes in internal energy, and heat flow. By relating these quantities, one can readily understand why the different methods of calculating dispersion forces agree, such as when obtaining forces via changes in electromagnetic zero-point energy versus computing the average of the Maxwell stress tensor. In addition, a number of physical subtleties involving dispersion forces are discussed, that were certainly not recognized in early work on blackbody radiation, and that still may not be fully appreciated. .

  8. Towards elimination of asbestos-related diseases: a theoretical basis for international cooperation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ken; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-12-01

    We develop a theoretical framework for international cooperation that can be used for the elimination of asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). The framework is based on the similarities in the temporal patterns of asbestos use and occurrence of ARDs in diverse countries. The status of each nation can be characterized by observing asbestos use and ARD frequency therein using a time window. Countries that supply technology for prevention of ARDs can be classified as donors and countries that receive these technologies as recipients. We suggest identification of three levels of core preventative technologies. Development of a common platform to gather and manage core preventative technologies will combine the strengths of donor countries and the needs of recipient countries.

  9. International ultraviolet explorer spectral atlas of planetary nebulae, central stars, and related objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feibelman, Walter A.; Oliversen, Nancy A.; Nicholsbohlin, Joy; Garhart, Matthew P.

    1988-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) archives contain a wealth of information on high quality ultraviolet spectra of approximately 180 planetary nebulae, their central stars, and related objects. Selected are representative low-dispersion IUE spectra in the range 1200 to 3200 A for 177 objects arranged by Right Ascension (RA) for this atlas. For most entries, the combined short wavelength (SWP) (1200to 1900) and long wavelength (LWR) (or LWP, 1900 to 3200 A) regions are shown on 30 cm by 10 cm Calcomp plots on a uniform scale to facilitate intercomparison of the spectra. Each calibrated spectrum is also shown on an expanded vertical scale to bring out some of the weaker features.

  10. Negative emotional reactivity moderates the relations between family cohesion and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Jill A; Osigwe, Ijeoma; Drabick, Deborah A G; Reynolds, Maureen D

    2016-12-01

    Lower family cohesion is associated with adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. However, there are likely individual differences in youth's responses to family processes. For example, adolescents higher in negative emotional reactivity, who often exhibit elevated physiological responsivity to context, may be differentially affected by family cohesion. We explored whether youth's negative emotional reactivity moderated the relation between family cohesion and youth's symptoms and tested whether findings were consistent with the diathesis-stress model or differential susceptibility hypothesis. Participants were 651 adolescents (M = 12.99 ± .95 years old; 72% male) assessed at two time points (Time 1, ages 12-14; Time 2, age 16) in Pittsburgh, PA. At Time 1, mothers reported on family cohesion and youth reported on their negative emotional reactivity. At Time 2, youth reported on their symptoms. Among youth higher in negative emotional reactivity, lower family cohesion predicted higher symptoms than higher family cohesion, consistent with the diathesis-stress model.

  11. A multi-proxy lake core record from Lago Lungo, Rieti Basin, Lazio, Italy and its relation to human activities in the catchment during the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Paula; Tunno, Irene; Mensing, Scott; Piovesan, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    The lakes of the Rieti Basin have experienced extensive human modification dating back to pre-Roman times, yet lake archives indicate that the most profound changes to the aquatic ecosystem have occurred during the last century. Analysis of the upper ˜120 cm segment of a sediment core from Lago Lungo, dating back to ˜1830 CE, show changes in water quality and hydrologic inflow largely attributed to 20th century reclamation and land use activities. Lago Lungo is a shallow, small, eutrophic, hard water lake situated in an intermontaine alluvial plain ˜90 km NE of Rome. It is one of several remnant lakes in a poorly drained wetland area fed by numerous springs. Reclamation activities over the last century have substantially altered the drainage network affecting water delivery to the lakes and their connectivity. There are 3 interesting signals in the core. First, small Stephanodiscus species, associated with hypereutrophic conditions, appear after 1950, peak ˜1990, and may be attributed to increased use of chemical fertilizers and intensification of local agriculture. Elemental proxies from scanning XRF data (abundances of Ti, Si/Ti, and Ca) are consistent with increased eutrophication starting ˜1950. A decline in Stephanodicsus after 1990 reflects some improvement to the water quality following the lake's incorporation into a nature preserve and creation of a narrow vegetation buffer. Intermittent water quality measurements from 1982 onward corroborate the changes in trophic status interpreted from the core record. Second, a large change in the core stratigraphy, elemental geochemistry, and diatom composition occurs ˜1940 and is associated with several major reclamation efforts, including the rerouting of the Santa Susanna channel, which redirected large volumes of artesian inflows away from the lakes and estuarine system. Upstream, dams on the Turano and Salto rivers were also constructed, further affecting hydrological inflows into the basin. From ˜1900

  12. Understanding China in the 21st Century: Political, Economic, and Security Issues in the Asia/Pacific Region. Part I, U.S. and Japanese Relations with China: Case Studies of Cooperation and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Moore, Carey; Young, Jocelyn; Cheng, Amy; Fairbrother, Greg

    This curriculum unit is part one of a three-part series. The unit introduces students to policy options for U.S. and Japanese relations with China at the beginning of the 21st century. By identifying and examining these options, students gain an awareness of U.S., Japanese, and Chinese perspectives on political, economic, and security issues.…

  13. Understanding China in the 21st Century: Political, Economic, and Security Issues in the Asia/Pacific Region. Part I, U.S. and Japanese Relations with China: Case Studies of Cooperation and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Moore, Carey; Young, Jocelyn; Cheng, Amy; Fairbrother, Greg

    This curriculum unit is part one of a three-part series. The unit introduces students to policy options for U.S. and Japanese relations with China at the beginning of the 21st century. By identifying and examining these options, students gain an awareness of U.S., Japanese, and Chinese perspectives on political, economic, and security issues.…

  14. Understanding Vietnam in the 21st Century: Political, Economic, and Security Issues in the Asia/Pacific Region. Part III, U.S. and Japanese Relations with Vietnam: Liberalization and Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Chenette, Sara; Cheng, Amy; Cheng, Yu Wen; Fairbrother, Greg; Midling, Michael; Nordquist, Silvy; Tan, Kwee Foon

    This curriculum unit is part three of a three-part series. Each of the three parts can be taught independently. The lessons include perspectives from each of the countries under study. This unit introduces students to policy options for U.S. and Japanese relations with Vietnam at the turn of the century. By identifying and examining these options…

  15. Understanding Vietnam in the 21st Century: Political, Economic, and Security Issues in the Asia/Pacific Region. Part III, U.S. and Japanese Relations with Vietnam: Liberalization and Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Chenette, Sara; Cheng, Amy; Cheng, Yu Wen; Fairbrother, Greg; Midling, Michael; Nordquist, Silvy; Tan, Kwee Foon

    This curriculum unit is part three of a three-part series. Each of the three parts can be taught independently. The lessons include perspectives from each of the countries under study. This unit introduces students to policy options for U.S. and Japanese relations with Vietnam at the turn of the century. By identifying and examining these options…

  16. PERSONALITY PREDISPOSITIONS IN CHINESE ADOLESCENTS: THE RELATION BETWEEN SELF-CRITICISM, DEPENDENCY, AND PROSPECTIVE INTERNALIZING SYMPTOMS.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joseph R; Young, Jami F; Hankin, Benjamin L; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiong Zhao; Abela, John R Z

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the prospective relation between two personality predispositions, self-criticism and dependency, and internalizing symptoms. Specifically, it was examined whether self-criticism and dependency predicted symptoms of depression and social anxiety, and if a moderation (e.g. diathesis-stress) or mediation model best explained the relation between the personality predispositions and emotional distress in Chinese adolescents. Participants included 1,150 adolescents (597 females and 553 males) from mainland China. Participants completed self-report measures of self-criticism, dependency, and neuroticism at baseline, and self-report measures of negative events, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety symptoms once a month for six months. Findings showed that self-criticism predicted depressive symptoms, while dependency predicted social anxiety symptoms. In addition, support was found for a mediation model, as opposed to a moderation model, with achievement stressors mediating the relation between self-criticism and depressive symptoms. Overall, these findings highlight new developmental pathways for the development of depression and social anxiety symptoms in mainland Chinese adolescents. Implications for cross-cultural developmental psychopathology research are discussed.

  17. Research conference summary from the 2014 International Task Force on ATP1A3-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rosewich, Hendrik; DeBrosse, Suzanne; Ess, Kevin; Ozelius, Laurie; Andermann, Eva; Andermann, Frederick; Andrasco, Gene; Belgrade, Alice; Brashear, Allison; Ciccodicola, Sharon; Egan, Lynn; George, Alfred L.; Lewelt, Aga; Magelby, Joshua; Merida, Mario; Newcomb, Tara; Platt, Vicky; Poncelin, Dominic; Reyna, Sandra; Sasaki, Masayuki; Sotero de Menezes, Marcio; Sweadner, Kathleen; Viollet, Louis; Zupanc, Mary; Silver, Kenneth; Swoboda, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Objective: ATP1A3-related neurologic disorders encompass a broad range of phenotypes that extend well beyond initial phenotypic criteria associated with alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. Methods: In 2014, the Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood Foundation hosted a multidisciplinary workshop intended to address fundamental challenges surrounding the diagnosis and management of individuals with ATP1A3-related disorders. Results: Workshop attendees were charged with the following: (1) to achieve consensus on expanded diagnostic criteria to facilitate the identification of additional patients, intended to supplement existing syndrome-specific diagnostic paradigms; (2) to standardize definitions for the broad range of paroxysmal manifestations associated with AHC to disseminate to families; (3) to create clinical recommendations for common recurrent issues facing families and medical care providers; (4) to review data related to the death of individuals in the Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood Foundation database to guide future efforts in identifying at-risk subjects and potential preventative measures; and (5) to identify critical gaps where we most need to focus national and international research efforts. Conclusions: This report summarizes recommendations of the workshop committee, highlighting the key phenotypic features to facilitate the diagnosis of possible ATP1A3 mutations, providing recommendations for genetic testing, and outlining initial acute management for common recurrent clinical conditions, including epilepsy. PMID:28293679

  18. Suspended solids in Missouri reservoirs in relation to catchment features and internal processes.

    PubMed

    Jones, John R; Knowlton, Matthew F

    2005-09-01

    Mean total suspended solids (TSS), in 135 Missouri reservoirs range from 1.2 to 47 mg/l. The volatile (VSS) and non-volatile (NVSS) fractions range from 0.6 to 9.6 mg/l and 0.5 to 37 mg/l, respectively. %NVSS is the larger fraction and declines through summer as %VSS increases. Suspended solids (particularly VSS) correlate with metrics of lake trophic state and are positively related with the proportion of cropland (%C, r = 0.69-0.74) in their catchments, negatively related with forest cover (r = -0.54 to -0.56), and weakly related with grassland (r < 0.31). Regressions including %C with dam height (representing morphometry) and flushing rate (representing hydrology), explain approximately 70% of cross-system variation in TSS and 67% in VSS. Dam height and %C explain 57% of variation in NVSS. Residual analysis shows statewide models under-predict suspended solids in urban reservoirs. Effects of catchment features on summer TSS largely reflect internal plankton growth mediated by influent nutrients (affecting VSS) over direct sediment input (affecting NVSS).

  19. Raven: An On-Orbit Relative Navigation Demonstration Using International Space Station Visiting Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strube, Matthew; Henry, Ross; Skeleton, Eugene; Eepoel, John Van; Gill, Nat; McKenna, Reed

    2015-01-01

    Since the last Hubble Servicing Mission five years ago, the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been focusing on maturing the technologies necessary to robotically service orbiting legacy assets-spacecraft not necessarily designed for in-flight service. Raven, SSCO's next orbital experiment to the International Space Station (ISS), is a real-time autonomous non-cooperative relative navigation system that will mature the estimation algorithms required for rendezvous and proximity operations for a satellite-servicing mission. Raven will fly as a hosted payload as part of the Space Test Program's STP-H5 mission, which will be mounted on an external ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC) and will image the many visiting vehicles arriving and departing from the ISS as targets for observation. Raven will host multiple sensors: a visible camera with a variable field of view lens, a long-wave infrared camera, and a short-wave flash lidar. This sensor suite can be pointed via a two-axis gimbal to provide a wide field of regard to track the visiting vehicles as they make their approach. Various real-time vision processing algorithms will produce range, bearing, and six degree of freedom pose measurements that will be processed in a relative navigation filter to produce an optimal relative state estimate. In this overview paper, we will cover top-level requirements, experimental concept of operations, system design, and the status of Raven integration and test activities.

  20. PERSONALITY PREDISPOSITIONS IN CHINESE ADOLESCENTS: THE RELATION BETWEEN SELF-CRITICISM, DEPENDENCY, AND PROSPECTIVE INTERNALIZING SYMPTOMS

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joseph R.; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiong Zhao; Abela, John R.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the prospective relation between two personality predispositions, self-criticism and dependency, and internalizing symptoms. Specifically, it was examined whether self-criticism and dependency predicted symptoms of depression and social anxiety, and if a moderation (e.g. diathesis-stress) or mediation model best explained the relation between the personality predispositions and emotional distress in Chinese adolescents. Participants included 1,150 adolescents (597 females and 553 males) from mainland China. Participants completed self-report measures of self-criticism, dependency, and neuroticism at baseline, and self-report measures of negative events, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety symptoms once a month for six months. Findings showed that self-criticism predicted depressive symptoms, while dependency predicted social anxiety symptoms. In addition, support was found for a mediation model, as opposed to a moderation model, with achievement stressors mediating the relation between self-criticism and depressive symptoms. Overall, these findings highlight new developmental pathways for the development of depression and social anxiety symptoms in mainland Chinese adolescents. Implications for cross-cultural developmental psychopathology research are discussed. PMID:25798026