Poirrier, Anne-Lise; Pire, Sylvie; Raskin, Sylviane; Limme, Michel; Poirrier, Robert
Lateral cephalometry has been widely used to characterize facial and maxillary morphology in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. It is a useful tool to assess orthodontic and maxillofacial procedures, but transverse dimensions of the airway (e.g., nasal framework) have not been well described yet by cephalometry. We explored whether postero-anterior cephalometry could refine the analysis of the facial morphology, with a special attention paid to nasal morphology. We validated cephalometric measurements relevant to the diagnosis of OSA. Controlled study. We explored postero-anterior and lateral cephalometric bony structures in OSA patients and in control subjects to determine which were predictive of an association with OSA. Healthy volunteers paired for age and sex to OSA patients underwent polysomnography and cephalometry. Data were analyzed by Shapiro-Wilk, Fisher, Wilcoxon, and paired t tests where appropriate. Nasal fossae and maxillary bone proportions were positively and independently associated with the absence of OSA. Measurements of maxillary width, nasal fossae angle, and anterior skull base contributed to the characterization of OSA patients. Postero-anterior cephalometry is an easy, rapid, informative, and reliable technique, which is complementary to the lateral cephalometry in the assessment of OSA patients. Our study may also suggest the negative impact of the nasal resistance on the upper airway resistance in sleep disorders. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Arık, Sercan Ö; Ibragimov, Bulat; Xing, Lei
Quantitative cephalometry plays an essential role in clinical diagnosis, treatment, and surgery. Development of fully automated techniques for these procedures is important to enable consistently accurate computerized analyses. We study the application of deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for fully automated quantitative cephalometry for the first time. The proposed framework utilizes CNNs for detection of landmarks that describe the anatomy of the depicted patient and yield quantitative estimation of pathologies in the jaws and skull base regions. We use a publicly available cephalometric x-ray image dataset to train CNNs for recognition of landmark appearance patterns. CNNs are trained to output probabilistic estimations of different landmark locations, which are combined using a shape-based model. We evaluate the overall framework on the test set and compare with other proposed techniques. We use the estimated landmark locations to assess anatomically relevant measurements and classify them into different anatomical types. Overall, our results demonstrate high anatomical landmark detection accuracy ([Formula: see text] to 2% higher success detection rate for a 2-mm range compared with the top benchmarks in the literature) and high anatomical type classification accuracy ([Formula: see text] average classification accuracy for test set). We demonstrate that CNNs, which merely input raw image patches, are promising for accurate quantitative cephalometry.
Nicolson, M; Fleming, J E E
James Willocks (1928-2004), a Glasgow obstetrician, was an important pioneer of obstetric ultrasound and the originator of the first clinically useful technique of fetal cephalometry. He collaborated with Tom Duggan, an engineer, who designed and built an electronic cephalometer to be used in conjunction with a Kelvin Hughes industrial flaw detector. Working in the Royal Maternity Hospital, Willocks was able to measure the biparietal diameter to an accuracy of better than 2mm. This major innovation enabled fetal growth in the third trimester to be accurately charted and thus greatly improved the detection of placental insufficiency, as well as the management of antepartum haemorrhage, hypertension and other complications of late pregnancy.
George, Jonathan R; Chung, Sooyoun; Nielsen, Ib; Goldberg, Andrew N; Miller, Arthur; Kezirian, Eric J
To evaluate the association between findings from drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) and lateral cephalometry in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. This was a consecutive series of subjects with OSA who underwent DISE and lateral cephalometry. DISE findings were characterized according to the region/degree of obstruction as well as the VOTE classification (velum, oropharyngeal lateral walls, tongue, and epiglottis). The primary measurements from lateral cephalometry images were sella-nasion-point A angle, sella-nasion-point B angle, distance from the posterior nasal spine-tip of palate, posterior airway space, and mandibular plane to hyoid (MPH) distance, although additional airway measurements were taken. Descriptive statistics summarized DISE and lateral cephalometry findings, and χ(2) and t tests examined potential associations between their findings. Among the 55 subjects, most demonstrated velum-related obstruction, although obstruction related to other structures was also common. Lateral cephalometry findings were within population norms with the exception of an increased MPH and decreased airway 4 and airway 5 measurements. There was little association between DISE and lateral cephalometry findings, although significant associations were identified between tongue-related obstruction and airway measurements posterior to the tongue base. DISE and lateral cephalometry are largely distinct airway evaluation techniques in OSA. The use of these techniques remains complementary. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Swennen, Gwen R J; Schutyser, Filip
Three-dimensional (3D) craniofacial imaging techniques are becoming increasingly popular and have opened new possibilities for orthodontic assessment, treatment, and follow-up. Recently, a new 3D cephalometric method based on spiral multi-slice (MS) computed tomography (CT) was developed and validated by our research group. This innovative 3D virtual approach is a bridge between conventional cephalometry and modern craniofacial imaging techniques and provides high-quality, accurate, and reliable quantitative 3D data. The aim of this article was to describe the advantages and the disadvantages of spiral MS-CT 3D cephalometry and to discuss the potential of cone-beam CT 3D cephalometry.
Campbell, Stuart; Kurjak, Asim
Urinary oestrogen assay and serial ultrasonic cephalometry were performed on 284 patients who were considered on clinical grounds to be at risk of having a growth-retarded fetus. It was found that ultrasonic cephalometry was significantly better than oestrogens in diagnosing the small-for-dates baby, but that there was no significant difference between the two methods in predicting perinatal asphyxia. Of the 14 stillbirths, three were in the normal ultrasonic growth rate group and five had normal oestrogen excretion. Both methods were found to be of value in the diagnosis of fetal growth-retardation, although cephalometry would seem to have some advantages, especially in distinguishing between fetal growth-retardation and mistaken maturity. PMID:4673993
Ritzel, Rodrigo Agne; Berwig, Luana Cristina; da Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues; Serpa, Eliane Oliveira
Summary Introduction: Hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil is one of the main causes of mouth breathing, and accurate diagnosis of this alteration is important for proper therapeutic planning. Therefore, studies have been conducted in order to provide information regarding the procedures that can be used for the diagnosis of pharyngeal obstruction. Objective: To verify the correlation between nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometric examinations in the diagnosis of pharyngeal tonsil hyperplasia. Method: This was a cross-sectional, clinical, experimental, and quantitative study. Fifty-five children took part in this study, 30 girls and 25 boys, aged between 7 and 11 years. The children underwent nasofibropharyngoscopic and cephalometric evaluation to determine the grade of nasopharyngeal obstruction. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient at the 5% significance level was used to verify the correlation between these exams. Results: In the nasopharyngoscopy evaluation, most children showed grade 2 and 3 hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil, which was followed by grade 1. In the cephalometry assessment, most children showed grade 1 hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil, which was followed by grade 2. A statistically significant regular positive correlation was observed between the exams. Conclusion: It was concluded that the evaluation of the pharyngeal tonsil hyperplasia could be carried out by fiber optic nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometry, as these examinations were regularly correlated. However, it was found that cephalometry tended to underestimate the size of the pharyngeal tonsil relative to nasopharyngoscopy. PMID:25991937
Magalhaes, A E; Stella, J P; Epker, B N
The purpose of this study was to determine statistically the relative importance of facial anthropometrics and cephalometry in diagnosing the specific jaw deformity in patients with Class III relationships, ie, the contribution that maxillary deficiency and/or mandibular prognathism made to the Class III deformity. Frontal and right profile photographic views and pretreatment lateral cephalometric radiographs of 20 randomly selected Class III patients were analyzed. Correlation and multiple-regression analyses were utilized to determine the relative importance of clinical diagnosis and cephalometric diagnosis in determining the actual surgery performed. In addition, these analyses determined the relative importance of the various facial anthropometrics and cephalometric parameters critical to making the specific diagnosis of maxillary deficiency and/ or mandibular prognathism. It was concluded that a jaw-specific diagnosis of the Class III population studied was best made with facial anthropometrics rather than cephalometry, and the most important predictive facial features on which to based this diagnosis were paranasal configuration and chin projection. Although the overall cephalometric diagnosis had no statistically significant correlation to the actual surgery preformed, two individual cephalometric parameters, maxillary first molar to pterygoid vertical and mandibular plane angle, were found to statistically correlate to the actual surgery performed. These cephalometric parameters should be scrutinized along with the facial anthropometric data when the jaw-specific surgery is selected.
Ludwig, B; Bister, D; Schott, T C; Lisson, J A; Hourfar, J
Cephalometry is important for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning and is part of the core curriculum for training dentists. Training involves identifying anatomical landmarks. The aim of this investigation was to assess whether e-learning improves learning efficiency; a programme specifically designed for this purpose was compared to commercially available software. Thirty undergraduate students underwent traditional training of cephalometry consisting of lectures and tutorials. Tracing skills were tested immediately afterwards (T0). The students were then randomly allocated to three groups: 10 students served as control (CF); they were asked to improve their skills using the material provided so far. Ten students were given a program specifically designed for this study that was based on a power point presentation (PPT). The last group was given a commercially available program that included teaching elements (SW). The groups were tested at the end the six week training (T1). The test consisted of tracing 30 points on two radiographs and a point score improvement was calculated. The students were interviewed after the second test. Both e-learning groups improved more than the traditional group. Improvement scores were four for CF; 8.6 for PPT and 2.8 for SW. For PPT all participants improved and the student feedback was the best compared to the other groups. For the other groups some candidates worsened. Blended learning produced better learning outcomes compared to using a traditional teaching method alone. The easy to use Power Point based custom software produced better results than the commercially available software. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Perez, Ivan; Chavez, Allison K; Ponce, Dario
The Ricketts' posteroanterior (PA) cephalometry seems to be the most widely used and it has not been tested by multivariate statistics for sex determination. The objective was to determine the applicability of Ricketts' PA cephalometry for sex determination using the logistic regression analysis. The logistic models were estimated at distinct age cutoffs (all ages, 11 years, 13 years, and 15 years) in a database from 1,296 Hispano American Peruvians between 5 years and 44 years of age. The logistic models were composed by six cephalometric measurements; the accuracy achieved by resubstitution varied between 60% and 70% and all the variables, with one exception, exhibited a direct relationship with the probability of being classified as male; the nasal width exhibited an indirect relationship. The maxillary and facial widths were present in all models and may represent a sexual dimorphism indicator. The accuracy found was lower than the literature and the Ricketts' PA cephalometry may not be adequate for sex determination. The indirect relationship of the nasal width in models with data from patients of 12 years of age or less may be a trait related to age or a characteristic in the studied population, which could be better studied and confirmed.
Perez, Ivan; Chavez, Allison K.; Ponce, Dario
Background: The Ricketts' posteroanterior (PA) cephalometry seems to be the most widely used and it has not been tested by multivariate statistics for sex determination. Objective: The objective was to determine the applicability of Ricketts' PA cephalometry for sex determination using the logistic regression analysis. Materials and Methods: The logistic models were estimated at distinct age cutoffs (all ages, 11 years, 13 years, and 15 years) in a database from 1,296 Hispano American Peruvians between 5 years and 44 years of age. Results: The logistic models were composed by six cephalometric measurements; the accuracy achieved by resubstitution varied between 60% and 70% and all the variables, with one exception, exhibited a direct relationship with the probability of being classified as male; the nasal width exhibited an indirect relationship. Conclusion: The maxillary and facial widths were present in all models and may represent a sexual dimorphism indicator. The accuracy found was lower than the literature and the Ricketts' PA cephalometry may not be adequate for sex determination. The indirect relationship of the nasal width in models with data from patients of 12 years of age or less may be a trait related to age or a characteristic in the studied population, which could be better studied and confirmed. PMID:27555732
Li, Na; Hu, Bo; Mi, Fanglin; Song, Jinlin
The present study was conducted to evaluate the three-dimensional (3D) cephalometry accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A total of 40 newly diagnosed orthodontic patients (including 18 males and 22 females; age range, 12–18 years) were subjected to CBCT scanning and X-ray imaging in order to obtain lateral cephalograms. The 3D CBCT cephalograms were reconstructed and measured with in vivo 5.1 software, and compared with the results from the conventional 2D lateral cephalograms. Measurements in the two images were performed twice using the Steiner and Tweed standards and a single analyzer paired t-test was used to analyze the differences between the two cephalometric methods. The results indicated that the two methods showed significant differences in all 12 angle and 5 linear measurements (P<0.05). These findings indicated that CBCT is a more accurate technique compared with the conventional 2D method. In conclusion, CBCT may provide diagnostic and treatment information for maxillofacial deformities by using fast computer-aided analysis platform. PMID:28565862
Bharadwaj, Rekha; Ravikumar, A; Krishnaswamy, N R
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a potentially life-threatening disorder, characterized by repeated collapse of the upper airway during sleep with cessation of breathing. The altered mouth breathing produces morphological changes in craniofacial region. This study was designed to compare and validate the craniofacial morphological characteristics in patients with OSA using lateral cephalometry and to investigate the dentofacial characteristics of patients with OSA with respect to the obstructive sites determined by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to more accurately clarify the pathophysiological features. 10 patients with OSA were divided into two groups of five each according to their obstructive site determined by dynamic MRI. (1) Obstruction at the retropalatal and retroglossal region (Rp + Rg group) and (2) obstruction at the retropalatal region (Rp group). Lateral cephalogram both in upright and supine position was taken for all the subjects. In addition, dynamic MRI was performed to identify the sites of obstruction of the upper airway. Independent t-test was performed to evaluate the significant difference in the upright cephalometric variables between the study and control group and between the two groups. The changes in skeletal and soft tissue parameters with change in posture was assessed within the study and control group by paired t test. P value of ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The study indicated that the first group of patients with both retropalatal and retroglossal obstruction showed signs of skeletal discrepancy that predisposed to obstruction at the retroglossal level and the soft tissue components like the soft palate and tongue that contributed to retropalatal obstruction. However, the second group of patients with only retropalatal obstruction had primarily soft tissue components associated with increased BMI that contributed to retropalatal obstruction. Evaluation of craniofacial morphology in OSA patients is
Lateral cephalometric radiography is commonly used as a standard tool in orthodontic assessment and treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available scientific literature and existing evidence for the validation of using lateral cephalometric imaging for orthodontic treatment planning. The secondary objective was to determine the accuracy and reliability of this technique. We did not attempt to evaluate the value of this radiographic technique for other purposes. A literature search was performed using specific keywords on electronic databases: Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science. Two reviewers selected relevant articles, corresponding to predetermined inclusion criteria. The electronic search was followed by a hand search of the reference lists of relevant papers. Two reviewers assessed the level of evidence of relevant publications as high, moderate or low. Based on this, the evidence grade for diagnostic efficacy was rated as strong, moderately strong, limited or insufficient. The initial search revealed 784 articles listed in MEDLINE (Ovid), 1,034 in Scopus and 264 articles in the Web of Science. Only 17 articles met the inclusion criteria and were selected for qualitative synthesis. Results showed seven studies on the role of cephalometry in orthodontic treatment planning, eight concerning cephalometric measurements and landmark identification and two on cephalometric analysis. It is surprising that, notwithstanding the 968 articles published in peer-reviewed journals, scientific evidence on the usefulness of this radiographic technique in orthodontics is still lacking, with contradictory results. More rigorous research on a larger study population should be performed to achieve full evidence on this topic. PMID:24325757
Durão, Ana R; Pittayapat, Pisha; Rockenbach, Maria Ivete B; Olszewski, Raphael; Ng, Suk; Ferreira, Afonso P; Jacobs, Reinhilde
Lateral cephalometric radiography is commonly used as a standard tool in orthodontic assessment and treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available scientific literature and existing evidence for the validation of using lateral cephalometric imaging for orthodontic treatment planning. The secondary objective was to determine the accuracy and reliability of this technique. We did not attempt to evaluate the value of this radiographic technique for other purposes. A literature search was performed using specific keywords on electronic databases: Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science. Two reviewers selected relevant articles, corresponding to predetermined inclusion criteria. The electronic search was followed by a hand search of the reference lists of relevant papers. Two reviewers assessed the level of evidence of relevant publications as high, moderate or low. Based on this, the evidence grade for diagnostic efficacy was rated as strong, moderately strong, limited or insufficient. The initial search revealed 784 articles listed in MEDLINE (Ovid), 1,034 in Scopus and 264 articles in the Web of Science. Only 17 articles met the inclusion criteria and were selected for qualitative synthesis. Results showed seven studies on the role of cephalometry in orthodontic treatment planning, eight concerning cephalometric measurements and landmark identification and two on cephalometric analysis. It is surprising that, notwithstanding the 968 articles published in peer-reviewed journals, scientific evidence on the usefulness of this radiographic technique in orthodontics is still lacking, with contradictory results. More rigorous research on a larger study population should be performed to achieve full evidence on this topic.
Denolf, Petra L; Vanderveken, Olivier M; Marklund, Marie E; Braem, Marc J
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is the most common sleep disordered breathing disorder (SDB) in adults and is characterized by a recurrent partial or complete collapse of the upper airway during sleep. This can be caused by many factors, sometimes interacting, such as skeletal malformations, soft tissue crowding, respiratory instability and the various effects of aging, obesity and gender that dictate craniofacial and upper airway anatomy. Research has demonstrated that the majority of patients exhibit at least one anatomical component such as retrognathia or a narrow posterior airway space that predisposes to the development of OSAS. Within the predisposing elements for OSAS many seem to point to anatomical characteristics. A standardized and relatively simple radiologic technique to evaluate anatomical craniofacial relationships is cephalometry. This has been used already for a long time in orthodontics, but is now gradually being introduced in OSAS treatment to envisage optimal treatment selection as well as to predict treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present review is to evaluate the contribution of cephalometry in the prediction of outcomes from OSAS treatments that depend on the upper airway morphology in their mechanisms of action such as oral appliances that advance the mandible as well as various surgical methods. In addition, an overview of imaging modalities and methods that currently are being used in cephalometric analysis in OSAS patients is provided. The findings indicate that isolated cephalometric parameters cannot be used to reliably predict treatment outcomes from mandibular advancement devices and surgical methods for OSAS. Extreme or outlying values of cephalometric parameters may rather be used as contra-indicators or 'red flags' instead of predictors.
Optimizing Hybrid Occlusion in Face-Jaw-Teeth Transplantation: A Preliminary Assessment of Real-Time Cephalometry as Part of the Computer-Assisted Planning and Execution Workstation for Craniomaxillofacial Surgery.
Murphy, Ryan J; Basafa, Ehsan; Hashemi, Sepehr; Grant, Gerald T; Liacouras, Peter; Susarla, Srinivas M; Otake, Yoshito; Santiago, Gabriel; Armand, Mehran; Gordon, Chad R
The aesthetic and functional outcomes surrounding Le Fort-based, face-jaw-teeth transplantation have been suboptimal, often leading to posttransplant class II/III skeletal profiles, palatal defects, and "hybrid malocclusion." Therefore, a novel technology-real-time cephalometry-was developed to provide the surgical team instantaneous, intraoperative knowledge of three-dimensional dentoskeletal parameters. Mock face-jaw-teeth transplantation operations were performed on plastic and cadaveric human donor/recipient pairs (n = 2). Preoperatively, cephalometric landmarks were identified on donor/recipient skeletons using segmented computed tomographic scans. The computer-assisted planning and execution workstation tracked the position of the donor face-jaw-teeth segment in real time during the placement/inset onto recipient, reporting pertinent hybrid cephalometric parameters from any movement of donor tissue. The intraoperative data measured through real-time cephalometry were compared to posttransplant measurements for accuracy assessment. In addition, posttransplant cephalometric relationships were compared to planned outcomes to determine face-jaw-teeth transplantation success. Compared with postoperative data, the real-time cephalometry-calculated intraoperative measurement errors were 1.37 ± 1.11 mm and 0.45 ± 0.28 degrees for the plastic skull and 2.99 ± 2.24 mm and 2.63 ± 1.33 degrees for the human cadaver experiments. These results were comparable to the posttransplant relations to planned outcome (human cadaver experiment, 1.39 ± 1.81 mm and 2.18 ± 1.88 degrees; plastic skull experiment, 1.06 ± 0.63 mm and 0.53 ± 0.39 degrees). Based on this preliminary testing, real-time cephalometry may be a valuable adjunct for adjusting and measuring "hybrid occlusion" in face-jaw-teeth transplantation and other orthognathic surgical procedures.
Cung, Winnie; Friedman, Laura; Khan, Nicholas E.; Romberg, Elaine E.; Gardner, Pamela J.; Bassim, Carol W.; Baldwin, Andrea M.; Widemann, Brigitte C.; Stewart, Douglas R.
Background Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common, autosomal dominant tumor-predisposition disorder that arises secondary to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene NF1. Cephalometry is an inexpensive, readily available and non-invasive technique that is under-utilized in studying the NF1 craniofacial phenotype. An analysis of NF1 cephalometry was first published by Heervä et al. in 2011. We expand here on that first investigation with a larger cohort of adult and pediatric patients affected with NF1 and sought objective insight into the NF1 facies, said to feature hypertelorism and a broad nasal base, from cephalometric analysis. Methods We obtained cephalograms from 101 patients with NF1 (78 adults and 23 children) from two NF1 protocols at the National Institutes of Health. Each subject had an age-, gender- and ethnicity-matched control. We used Dolphin software to make the cephalometric measurements. We assessed the normality of differences between paired samples using the Shapiro-Wilk test and evaluated the significance of mean differences using paired t-tests and adjusted for multiple testing. We explored the relationship between the cephalometric measurements and height, head circumference and interpupillary distance. Results In this dataset of American whites with NF1, we confirmed in a modestly larger sample many of the findings found by Heerva et al. in an NF1 Finnish cohort. We found a shorter maxilla, mandible, cranial base, (especially anteriorly, p = 0.0001) and diminished facial height in adults, but not children, with NF1. Only one adult exhibited hypertelorism. Conclusions The cephalometric differences in adults arise in part from cranial base shortening and thus result in a shorter face, mid-face hypoplasia, reduced facial projection, smaller jaw, and increased braincase globularity. In addition, we suggest that NF1 sphenoid bone shortening, a common event, is consistent with an intrinsic NF1 bone cell defect, which renders the bone more
Cung, Winnie; Freedman, Laura A; Khan, Nicholas E; Romberg, Elaine; Gardner, Pamela J; Bassim, Carol W; Baldwin, Andrea M; Widemann, Brigitte C; Stewart, Douglas R
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common, autosomal dominant tumor-predisposition disorder that arises secondary to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene NF1. Cephalometry is an inexpensive, readily available and non-invasive technique that is under-utilized in studying the NF1 craniofacial phenotype. An analysis of NF1 cephalometry was first published by Heervä et al. in 2011. We expand here on that first investigation with a larger cohort of adult and pediatric patients affected with NF1 and sought objective insight into the NF1 facies, said to feature hypertelorism and a broad nasal base, from cephalometric analysis. We obtained cephalograms from 101 patients with NF1 (78 adults and 23 children) from two NF1 protocols at the National Institutes of Health. Each subject had an age-, gender- and ethnicity-matched control. We used Dolphin software to make the cephalometric measurements. We assessed the normality of differences between paired samples using the Shapiro-Wilk test and evaluated the significance of mean differences using paired t-tests and adjusted for multiple testing. We explored the relationship between the cephalometric measurements and height, head circumference and interpupillary distance. In this dataset of American whites with NF1, we confirmed in a modestly larger sample many of the findings found by Heerva et al. in an NF1 Finnish cohort. We found a shorter maxilla, mandible, cranial base, (especially anteriorly, p = 0.0001) and diminished facial height in adults, but not children, with NF1. Only one adult exhibited hypertelorism. The cephalometric differences in adults arise in part from cranial base shortening and thus result in a shorter face, mid-face hypoplasia, reduced facial projection, smaller jaw, and increased braincase globularity. In addition, we suggest that NF1 sphenoid bone shortening, a common event, is consistent with an intrinsic NF1 bone cell defect, which renders the bone more vulnerable to a random "second hit" in
Optimizing Hybrid Occlusion in Face-Jaw-Teeth Transplantation: A Preliminary Assessment of Real-Time Cephalometry as Part of the Computer-Assisted Planning and Execution Workstation for Craniomaxillofacial Surgery
Murphy, Ryan J.; Basafa, Ehsan; Hashemi, Sepehr; Grant, Gerald T.; Liacouras, Peter; Susarla, Srinivas M.; Otake, Yoshito; Santiago, Gabriel; Armand, Mehran; Gordon, Chad R.
Background The aesthetic and functional outcomes surrounding Le Fort–based, face-jaw-teeth transplantation have been suboptimal, often leading to posttransplant class II/III skeletal profiles, palatal defects, and “hybrid malocclusion.” Therefore, a novel technology—real-time cephalometry—was developed to provide the surgical team instantaneous, intraoperative knowledge of three-dimensional dentoskeletal parameters. Methods Mock face-jaw-teeth transplantation operations were performed on plastic and cadaveric human donor/recipient pairs (n = 2). Preoperatively, cephalometric landmarks were identified on donor/recipient skeletons using segmented computed tomographic scans. The computer-assisted planning and execution workstation tracked the position of the donor face-jaw-teeth segment in real time during the placement/inset onto recipient, reporting pertinent hybrid cephalometric parameters from any movement of donor tissue. The intraoperative data measured through real-time cephalometry were compared to posttransplant measurements for accuracy assessment. In addition, posttransplant cephalometric relationships were compared to planned outcomes to determine face-jaw-teeth transplantation success. Results Compared with postoperative data, the real-time cephalometry–calculated intraoperative measurement errors were 1.37 ± 1.11 mm and 0.45 ± 0.28 degrees for the plastic skull and 2.99 ± 2.24 mm and 2.63 ± 1.33 degrees for the human cadaver experiments. These results were comparable to the posttransplant relations to planned outcome (human cadaver experiment, 1.39 ± 1.81 mm and 2.18 ± 1.88 degrees; plastic skull experiment, 1.06 ± 0.63 mm and 0.53 ± 0.39 degrees). Conclusion Based on this preliminary testing, real-time cephalometry may be a valuable adjunct for adjusting and measuring “hybrid occlusion” in face-jaw-teeth transplantation and other orthognathic surgical procedures. PMID:26218382
Faure, Jacques; Oueiss, Arlette; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Braga, José; Treil, Jacques
A 3D cephalometric analysis method from scanner acquisition has been developed thanks to a long collaboration between Dr Treil and the Department of Orthodontics in Toulouse III University. It allows a perfect knowledge of maxillo-facial architecture using fourteen landmarks related to the neuromatricial axis of facial growth. These landmarks can be identified without ambiguity. The marking of each tooth relative to dental arches (gravity centre coordinates and torque and tipping of each tooth), and the location of arches relative to maxillo-facial frame are given by the analysis. Description and reconstruction of dental and maxillo-facial anatomy are possible with three levels: maxillo-facial frame, maxillar and mandibular bases and dentoalveolar level. The method not only gives more precise information than conventional cephalometrics in anteroposterior and vertical directions, but it allows transversal analysis and asymmetry measurement. Applications are numerous in research as well as in clinical medicine: analyses of cases border line surgery, surgical set-up, facial asymmetry, analysis of dentoalveolar compensations, definition of therapeutic aims, occlusal analysis and set-up, study of evolution in anthropology-primatology, study of growth etc. This method of description using a pattern of landmarks is perfectly adapted to the last developments of modern research techniques: morphometric geometry with Procustes superimpositions, EDMA, TPS, FEM.
Qamruddin, Irfan; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Shahid, Fazal; Tanveer, Sadaf; Mukhtiar, Marvi; Asim, Zainab
To determine and compare the cephalometric values among Pakistani males and females using commonly used sagittal skeletal measurements (ANB, Wits appraisal, Beta-angle) and newly developed cephalometric analyses (Yen-angle and W-angle). Observational, cross-sectional study. Orthodontic Department of Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan, from August to October 2013. Atotal of 209 pre-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs of orthodontic patients were selected from departmental records, comprised of 92 males and 117 females. Radiographs were traced for measurements of ANB, Wits appraisal, Beta-angle, W-angle and Yen-angle. Patients were categorized into skeletal classes I, II, and III on the basis of performed measurements, incisor classification, and profile recorded from their records. Descriptive analysis was used to obtain median interquartile range in both the genders and Mann-Whitney U-test was used to observe gender dimorphism. Skeletal class II was the most prevalent type of malocclusion. There were no difference in the obtained measurements between males and females except the Wits appraisal and Beta-angle in class II patients, which showed significant difference in values (p < 0.05). Pakistani population has no significant different difference in the craniofacial morphology of males and females, with the exception of Wits-appraisal and Beta-angle in class II cases.
Ritzel, Rodrigo Agne; Berwig, Luana Cristina; da Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues; Serpa, Eliane Oliveira
Introdução: A hiperplasia de tonsila faríngea é uma das principais causas da respiração oral. O diagnóstico preciso desta alteração é importante para o correto planejamento terapêutico. Em vista disso, estudos têm sido desenvolvidos a fim de fornecer subsídios quanto aos procedimentos que podem ser utilizados para o diagnóstico de obstrução faríngea.Objetivo: Verificar a correlação entre os exames de nasofibrofaringoscopia e cefalometria no diagnóstico de hiperplasia de tonsila faríngea.Método: Estudo transversal, clínico e experimental. Participaram deste estudo 55 crianças, 30 meninas e 25 meninos, com idades entre 7 e 11 anos. As crianças foram submetidas à avaliação nasofibrofaringoscópica e cefalométrica para a determinação do grau de obstrução da nasofaringe. Para verificar a correlação entre esses exames foi utilizado o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman ao nível de significância de 5%.Resultados: Na nasofibrofaringoscopia a maioria das crianças apresentou hiperplasia de tonsila faríngea graus 2 e 3, seguidas de grau 1. Na cefalometria a maior parte das crianças apresentou hiperplasia de tonsilas faríngeas grau 1, seguida de grau 2. Na correlação entre os exames, evidenciou-se correlação regular e positiva.Conclusão: A avaliação da hiperplasia de tonsilas faríngeas pode ser realizada pela nasofibrofaringoscopia e pela cefalometria, pois estes exames apresentam uma relação regular e positiva. No entanto, verificou-se que a cefalometria tende a subestimar o tamanho da tonsila faríngea em relação à nasofibrofaringoscopia.
Wenger, N A; Tewson, D H T K; McDonald, F
This study used an aluminium test object to assess the effect of the Joint Photographics Expert Group (JPEG) compression algorithm, on direct digital cephalometric image quality. The aluminium block of 15 steps, with 20 holes in each step was radiographed in a Planmeca Proline 2002 digital cephalometric machine with Dimaxis2 software. Six different JPEG compression ratios were used to capture the cephalometric images. These ratios were 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, TOP QUALITY JPEG (TQJPEG 98%) and TIFF (uncompressed). The images were taken at 68 kV and 12 mA with a 7 s exposure. Six experienced observers viewed the monitor displayed images, which were presented randomly. This was repeated one month later. The number of holes detected by each observer was plotted against each compression ratio. Intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility was calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Differences between the compression ratios were assessed using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. When comparing intra-observer reproducibility, it was found that there were only four of 36 comparisons that showed a statistically significant difference (Observer 1: 60% (P=0.004), TQJPEG (P=0.019); Observer 2: TIFF (P=0.005); Observer 3: 90% (P=0.007)). Statistically, there was no significant difference with inter-observer reproducibility. There was no statistically significant difference between the image quality obtained from each compression ratio. The results showed that JPEG compression does not have any effect on the perceptibility of landmarks in the aluminium test object used in this study.
Oshagh, M; Shahidi, S H; Danaei, S H Momeni
Although digital cephalometric radiography is gaining popularity in orthodontic practice, the most important source of error in its tracing is uncertainty in landmark identification. Therefore, efforts to improve accuracy in landmark identification were directed primarily toward the improvement in image quality. One of the more useful techniques of this process involves digital image enhancement which can increase overall visual quality of image, but this does not necessarily mean a better identification of landmarks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of digital image enhancements on reliability of landmark identification. Fifteen common landmarks including 10 skeletal and 5 soft tissues were selected on the cephalograms of 20 randomly selected patients, prepared in Natural Head Position (NHP). Two observers (orthodontists) identified landmarks on the 20 original photostimulable phosphor (PSP) digital cephalogram images and 20 enhanced digital images twice with an intervening time interval of at least 4 weeks. The x and y coordinates were further analyzed to evaluate the pattern of recording differences in horizontal and vertical directions. Reliability of landmarks identification was analyzed by paired t test. There was a significant difference between original and enhanced digital images in terms of reliability of points Ar and N in vertical and horizontal dimensions, and enhanced images were significantly more reliable than original images. Identification of A point, Pogonion and Pronasal points, in vertical dimension of enhanced images was significantly more reliable than original ones. Reliability of Menton point identification in horizontal dimension was significantly more in enhanced images than original ones. Direct digital image enhancement by altering brightness and contrast can increase reliability of some landmark identification and this may lead to more accurate cephalometric analysis.
Grewal, Navneet; Godhane, Alkesh V
Nasopharyngeal obstruction by adenoid enlargement is one of the main causes of mouth breathing. Cephalometric radiographs and rhinomanometric tests to evaluate nasal obstruction have been available for several decades. Various lines and areas have been interpreted by number of investigators to implicate the enlarged adenoid in a casual relationship with mouth breathing and the subsequent effect on vertical facial growth. The aim of this paper is to review lateral cephalometric tracing methods combined with newer Auto-cad surface area measurement program so that assessment of the nasopharyngeal free airway space can be done based on it, before more rigorous ear-nose-throat follow up is needed for the patient.
Grewal, Navneet; Godhane, Alkesh V.
Nasopharyngeal obstruction by adenoid enlargement is one of the main causes of mouth breathing. Cephalometric radiographs and rhinomanometric tests to evaluate nasal obstruction have been available for several decades. Various lines and areas have been interpreted by number of investigators to implicate the enlarged adenoid in a casual relationship with mouth breathing and the subsequent effect on vertical facial growth. The aim of this paper is to review lateral cephalometric tracing methods combined with newer Auto-cad surface area measurement program so that assessment of the nasopharyngeal free airway space can be done based on it, before more rigorous ear-nose-throat follow up is needed for the patient. PMID:22114385
Taub DI, Jacobs JMS, Jacobs JS. Anthropometry, cephalometry, and orthognathic surgery. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 16. Whyte MP. Hereditary ...
Zielak, João César; Gulin Neto, David; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda; Giovanini, Allan Fernando
The occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) refers to the length of the face as determined by the amount of separation of the jaws. Its determination is important for the manufacture of restorations. However, defining the correct occlusal vertical dimension for edentulous patients is one of the most important steps for function and esthetics rehabilitation. Cephalometry is a standardized method of assessing dental and facial proportions and their interrelation. Additionally, cephalometric analysis of the facial vertical dimension can establish an individual pattern for each patient. This analysis should become a permanent part of each patient's record. Hence, this study presented a case report with the use of cephalometry as an auxiliary tool in the rehabilitation of OVD. Clinical relevance showed that cephalometric analysis can be an accurate and convenient instrument to treatment planning and prognostic of oral rehabilitation. The reader should understand the clinical implications of using cephalometry as a tool in the rehabilitation of OVD.
Harris, J E; Wente, E F; Cox, C F; Nawaway, I E; Kowalski, C J; Storey, A T; Russell, W R; Ponitz, P V; Walker, G F
An unidentified female mummy found in a cache of great kings and queens in 1898 in the Valley of the Kings was examined from the viewpoint of Egyptology, x-ray cephalometry, biostatistics, and biochemistry. The result was the identification of Queen Tiye, of the Eighteenth Dynasty, wife of Amenhotep III and mother of Akhenaton.
Gateno, Jaime; Xia, James J.; Teichgraeber, John F.
Two basic problems are associated with traditional 2-dimensional ((2D) cephalometry First, many important parameters cannot be measured on plain cephalograms; and second, most 2D cephalometric measurements are distorted in the presence of facial asymmetry. Three-dimensional (3D) cephalometry, which has been facilitated by the introduction of cone beam computed tomography scans, can be solved these problems. However, before this can be realized, fundamental problems must be solved. They are the unreliability of internal reference systems and some 3D measurements, and the lack of tools to assess and measure symmetry. In this manuscript, the authors present a new 3D cephalometric analysis that uses different geometric approaches to solve the fundamental problems previously mentioned. This analysis allows the accurate measurement of the size, shape, position and orientation of the different facial units and incorporates a novel method to measure asymmetry. PMID:21257250
Riley, R; Guilleminault, C; Powell, N; Simmons, F B
Nine patients with obstructive sleep apnea who underwent unsuccessful palatopharyngoplasty (PPP) as documented by polygraphic monitoring had abnormal cephalometric roentgenogram measurements. Findings indicated a small posterior airway space and inferiorly placed hyoid bone. Cephalometry performed with appropriate techniques to investigate soft tissue location should be obtained systematically in obstructive sleep apneic patients before any surgery is performed. The roentgenogram finding is a helpful guide in deciding whether PPP alone or PPP in combination with other surgical procedures would be more efficacious.
Mariën, S; Schmelzer, B
Velopharyngeal structures play an important role in the pathogenesis of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Hence they form a tempting target for surgical interventions in the treatment of these sleep-related breathing disorders. The assessment of the patient with snoring should therefore include a thorough evaluation of the velopharynx. The clinical evaluation of the velopharynx is discussed in normals and patients who snore (with or without OSA), as well as the features obtained using cephalometry and CT and MR imaging.
Faria, A C; Xavier, S P; Silva, S N; Trawitzki, L V Voi; de Mello-Filho, F V
Cephalometry has been used to measure hard and soft facial tissues, as well as the pharyngeal air space for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The changes occurring in the pharynx due to maxillo-mandibular advancement (MMA) have not been established or quantified. The objective of this study was to identify the anatomical changes of the pharynx and of hard tissues that occur in patients with OSA after MMA. 19 patients with a polysomnographic diagnosis of OSA were submitted to cephalometric analysis before and 6 months after surgery in order to evaluate the changes produced by MMA in the pharynx and soft tissues. Cephalometry was standardized in order to obtain descriptive measurements of the dimensions of the airways, the position of the hyoid bone, and maxilla-mandibular relations. The modifications of the pharynx due to MMA showed a significant relation obtained by cephalometry. For each millimeter of maxillary and mandibular bone advancement there was a 0.76mm increase in the retropalatal region and a 1.2mm increase in the pharynx in the retrolingual region. In addition, MMA promoted a significant repositioning of the hyoid bone in the cranial direction. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hönn, Mirjam; Göz, Gernot
This review article addresses the question as to what methods can be used to investigate cranial structure and growth development in children 4 to 6 years old, and what the relevant reference values are for this age group. We screened the literature for epidemiological, longitudinal and cross-sectional studies investigating healthy children 4 to 6 years old without abnormalities and orthodontic therapy. Radiographic cephalometry is a practical, valid tool for analyzing craniofacial structure and growth processes. But it has several disadvantages, including the use of ionizing radiation, measuring points that are difficult to locate, no means of radiographic enlargement without distorting reference values, and the data's two-dimensionality. Anthropometry is another procedure for creating reference values for the craniofacial structure in children. Its advantages over radiographic cephalometry include three-dimensional results and no radiation exposure. Moreover, it yields precise and valid results for a wide variety of potential applications. In addition to these procedures, there are other techniques with which cranial structure and growth development in children 4 to 6 years old can be investigated. Those reported in the literature in this connection include standardized photographs, the creation of computerized and magnetic resonance images, and investigations performed on dry skulls. In short, there is great demand nowadays for investigations aimed at developing reference values for Caucasian children 4 to 6 years old. Radiographic cephalometry and anthropometry are two very common methods. Anthropometry is expected to become increasingly important because it involves no exposure to radiation.
Olszewski, R; Frison, L; Schoenarts, N; Khonsari, R H; Odri, G A; Zech, F; Reychler, H
One of the key aspects of three-dimensional (3D) craniofacial cephalometry is the measurement of posterior cranial base angle as this area is deeply involved in craniofacial development. The purpose of our retrospective study was to define the best reproducible 3D posterior cranial base angles among five 3D angles transposed from 2D cephalometry (Cousin, BL1 of Ross and Ravosa, Bjork, Delaire, CBA4 of Liberman) and seven 3D angles based on physical anthropology studies and on new concepts (R1 to R7). The null hypothesis was that all 3D posterior cranial base angles were equally reproducible. We used a preoperative low-dose computed tomography (CT) data from 20 adult patients undergoing orthognathic surgery after approval by local ethical committee. Two independent observers performed two series of 23 3D landmark identifications on 3D CT surface rendering of each patient using Maxilim software. Then, the same observers performed twice 3D cephalometric analyses (23 landmarks, 4 midpoints, 19 planes) that provided the automatic measurement of 12 posterior cranial base angles. Inter-observer correlation coefficient varied from 0.545 (Cousin) to 0.695 (CBA4 of Liberman) and from -0.177 (R2) to 0.827 (R4). The null hypothesis was rejected. The most reproducible angle was 3D angle R4 based on "basion," "superior optic" (right, left), and "crista galli inferior" landmarks. R4 angle might be used as reference 3D posterior cranial base angle in further clinical studies involving 3D cephalometry as a diagnostic tool for orthodontics and for orthognathic surgery.
Fancourt, R; Campbell, S; Harvey, D; Norman, A P
A group of small-for-dates full-term babies whose intra-uterine growth was followed by serial ultrasonic cephalometry were examined at a mean age of 4 years. Those children whose skull growth had begun to slow in utero before 34 weeks' menstrual age were more likely to have a height and weight less than the 10th centile. When the onset of growth failure had occurred before 26 weeks there was a lower developmental quotient at follow-up using the Griffiths extended scales. Prolonged slow growth in utero therefore seems to be followed by slow growth and development after birth.
Jackson, P H; Dickson, G C; Birnie, D J
The principles of image capture, image storage and image processing in digital radiology are described. The enhancement of radiographic images using digital image processing techniques and its application to cephalometry is discussed. The results of a pilot study which compared some common cephalometric measurements made from manual point identification with those made by direct digitization of digital radiographic images from video monitors are presented. Although in an early stage of development, the results from the image processing system were comparable with those obtained by traditional methods.
Laxmi, Nimma Vijaya; Talla, Harshavardhan; Meesala, Deepika; Soujanya, Shakuntala; Naomi, Nithya; Poosa, Manasa
Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is considered to be a potentially life threatening disorder, which is characterized by repeated collapse of the upper airway during sleep with cessation of breathing. The cephalometric method despite being a static, two-dimensional evaluation of dynamic three-dimensional structures of the head and neck is useful in diagnosing patients with OSA, as they have shown that significant differences exist between asymptomatic controls and patients with OSA. Aims and Objectives: This study is designed to compare and validate the craniofacial morphology in patients with OSA using lateral cephalometry in both upright and supine position. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects participated in the study of which 30 were patients with OSA diagnosed by questionnaire and 30 were healthy control group with age range of 25–45 years. Results: The study group demonstrated an increased ANB, mandibular plane angles (GoGn-SN), lower anterior facial height which are statistically significant with a significant P < 0.05. Significant decrease in posterior airway space, increased soft palate length, tongue length, and thickness suggesting reduced airway space in supine posture. Conclusion: Evaluation of craniofacial morphology in OSA patients using lateral cephalometry helps in recognizing the morphological changes induced by altered sleep pattern and for appropriate treatment planning. PMID:26604577
Laxmi, Nimma Vijaya; Talla, Harshavardhan; Meesala, Deepika; Soujanya, Shakuntala; Naomi, Nithya; Poosa, Manasa
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is considered to be a potentially life threatening disorder, which is characterized by repeated collapse of the upper airway during sleep with cessation of breathing. The cephalometric method despite being a static, two-dimensional evaluation of dynamic three-dimensional structures of the head and neck is useful in diagnosing patients with OSA, as they have shown that significant differences exist between asymptomatic controls and patients with OSA. This study is designed to compare and validate the craniofacial morphology in patients with OSA using lateral cephalometry in both upright and supine position. Sixty subjects participated in the study of which 30 were patients with OSA diagnosed by questionnaire and 30 were healthy control group with age range of 25-45 years. The study group demonstrated an increased ANB, mandibular plane angles (GoGn-SN), lower anterior facial height which are statistically significant with a significant P < 0.05. Significant decrease in posterior airway space, increased soft palate length, tongue length, and thickness suggesting reduced airway space in supine posture. Evaluation of craniofacial morphology in OSA patients using lateral cephalometry helps in recognizing the morphological changes induced by altered sleep pattern and for appropriate treatment planning.
Lee, S-H; Kil, T-J; Park, K-R; Kim, B C; Kim, J-G; Piao, Z; Corre, P
The aim of this study was to present a systematic sequence for three-dimensional (3D) measurement and cephalometry, provide the norm data for computed tomography-based 3D architectural and structural cephalometric analysis, and validate the 3D data through comparison with Delaire's two-dimensional (2D) lateral cephalometric data for the same Korean adults. 2D and 3D cephalometric analyses were performed for 27 healthy subjects and the measurements of both analyses were then individually and comparatively analyzed. Essential diagnostic tools for 3D cephalometry with modified definitions of the points, planes, and measurements were set up based on a review of the conceptual differences between two and three dimensions. Some 2D and 3D analysis results were similar, though significant differences were found with regard to craniofacial angle (C1-F1), incisal axis angles, cranial base length (C2), and cranial height (C3). The discrepancy in C2 and C3 appeared to be directly related to the magnification of 2D cephalometric images. Considering measurement discrepancies between 2D and 3D Delaire's analyses due to differences in concept and design, 3D architectural and structural analysis needs to be conducted based on norms and a sound 3D basis for the sake of its accurate application and widespread adoption. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oberoi, Snehlata; Vargervik, Karin
Three siblings and their mother are reported who all had cytogenetically proven velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). One boy had normal dental and craniofacial findings, except for an increased cranial base angle. His sister had only one central incisor in the maxilla. One central incisor had also been missing in the primary dentition. She had no labial frenulum present. Cephalometry showed a small maxillary unit length indicating mild maxillary hypoplasia, an increased anterior face height, steep mandibular plane angle, retruded chin, and a large cranial base angle. Dental measurements showed retroclined lower incisors and increased interincisal angle. A second sister had a cleft of the secondary palate. All permanent teeth were present with the exception of a missing central incisor in the lower jaw: the single lower central incisor was situated in the midline. Her cephalometry showed similar findings as in her sister. All three siblings required palate surgery for speech. Mother was not available for detailed dental and other oral investigations. A single maxillary central incisor has previously been reported in VCFS, but to our knowledge a single central incisor in the mandible has not been reported previously in this entity.
Santos, Rodrigo Mologni Gonçalves Dos; De Martino, José Mario; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Passeri, Luis Augusto
The Frankfort horizontal (FH) is a plane that intersects both porions and the left orbitale. However, other combinations of points have also been used to define this plane in 3-dimensional cephalometry. These variations are based on the hypothesis that they do not affect the cephalometric analysis. We investigated the validity of this hypothesis. The material included cone-beam computed tomography data sets of 82 adult subjects with Class I molar relationship. A third-party method of cone-beam computed tomography-based 3-dimensional cephalometry was performed using 7 setups of the FH plane. Six lateral cephalometric hard tissue measurements relative to the FH plane were carried out for each setup. Measurement differences were calculated for each pair of setups of the FH plane. The number of occurrences of differences greater than the limits of agreement was counted for each of the 6 measurements. Only 3 of 21 pairs of setups had no occurrences for the 6 measurements. No measurement had no occurrences for the 21 pairs of setups. Setups based on left or right porion and both orbitales had the greatest number of occurrences for the 6 measurements. This investigation showed that significant and undesirable measurement differences can be produced by varying the definition of the FH plane. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Narayanan, Anila; Faizal, Bini
Objective. To study the correlation between lateral cephalogram, flexible laryngoscopy, and sleep study in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Background. Screening tools should be devised for predicting OSA which could be performed on an outpatient basis. With this aim we studied the skeletal and soft tissue characteristics of proven OSA patients. Methods. A prospective study was performed in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea by sleep study. They were evaluated clinically and subjected to lateral cephalometry and nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. The findings were matched to see if they corresponded to AHI of sleep study in severity. An attempt was made to see whether the data predicted the patients who would benefit from oral appliance or surgery as the definitive treatment in indicated cases. Results. A retropalatal collapse seen on endoscopy could be equated to the distance from mandibular plane to hyoid (MP-H) of lateral cephalometry and both corresponded to severity of AHI. At the retroglossal region, there was a significant correlation with MP-H, length of the soft palate, and AHI. Conclusion. There is significant correlation of lateral cephalogram and awake flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy with AHI in OSA. In unison they form an excellent screening tool for snorers. PMID:26689652
Ayesha Thabusum, Dharmavaram; Bhavana, Sujana Mulk
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic insidious disease affecting mucosa and submucosa of oral cavity and soft palate. The present study aimed to evaluate the morphology of soft palate in normal individuals and OSMF patients using lateral cephalometry and to compare and correlate these variants of soft palate with different stages of OSMF. 100 subjects were included in the study, who were divided into two groups. Group I included 50 subjects with clinical diagnosis of OSMF and Group II included 50 normal subjects (control group). Using digital lateral cephalometry, velar length and width were measured and soft palatal patterns were categorized based on You et al.'s classification. Leaf and rat-tail patterns of soft palate were predominant in control group, whereas butt and crook shaped variants were more in study group. Anteroposterior (A-P) length of soft palate was significantly greater in stage I OSMF, while superoinferior (S-I) width was greater in stage III OSMF. Interestingly, a negative correlation was observed in staging of OSMF and A-P dimensions. As the staging of OSMF advances, the A-P length of soft palate decreases, but S-I width increases. PMID:27034975
Chang, Ting-So; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying
The objective of this study is the total evaluation of most common clinical factors influencing the successful rate of adenotonsillectomy for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Retrospectively, 63 pediatric patients ranged from 2 to 16 years old were included. Syndromics and patients who had received orthodontic treatment or orthognathic surgery were excluded. All patients received pre-operative and postoperative polysomnography and cephalometry. Each patient received adenotonsillectomy by single surgeon. Surgical success was defined as apneahypopnea index (AHI) decreased ≧50 % or post-operative AHI <5. Total evaluated clinical factors related to success of adenotonsillectomy for pediatric OSAS include age, gender, body mass index (BMI), tonsil size, adenoid/nasopharynx ratio (A/N Ratio), pre-operative data of polysomnography, including AHI, apnea index (AI), hypopnea index (HI), mean O2 saturation and nadir O2 saturation, and 18 cephalometry parameters. Mean age of the total 63 patients was 7.78 years old. Mean BMI of the patients was 19.02. The proportion of obese patients was 25.4% (16/63). Surgical success was achieved in 42 out of 63 patients (66.7%). The surgical success was not statistically significant related to all pre-operative cephalometric parameters, age, gender, BMI and adenoid size by multiple logistic regression model. However, the surgical success was significantly related to pre-operative AHI and tonsil size. In addition, all patients who received adenotonsillectomy showed improved polysomnography parameters, including AHI, AI, HI, mean O2 saturation and nadir O2 saturation which all reached statistically significant improvement. Although adenotonsillectomy cannot cure pediatric OSAS in our research, all patients showed significant improvement of polysomnography parameters after this procedure. Pre-operative cephalometry parameters, BMI and age did not show significant correlation with surgical success, however, pre-op AHI and
Poirrier, Anne-Lise; Fanielle, Julien; Bruwier, Annick; Chakar, Bassam; Poirrier, Robert
Our understanding of sleep-disordered breathing has evolved considerably over the past three decades, and clinical techniques of evaluation have progressed tremendously. Myriad imaging techniques are now available for the physician to approach the dynamic features resulting in turbulent airflow, upper airway narrowing or collapse at different levels. Controversy exists in the choice of investigations, probably because the best evaluation should be a combination of different techniques. Physical, radiographic, endoscopic and acoustic evaluations could be integrated to understand the degree and the levels of airway reduction and/or obstruction in a given patient. This review focuses on cost-effective and easily implemented techniques in daily practice, allowing quality assessment of the dynamic anatomy of sleep-disordered breathing: cephalometry, (sleep-)endoscopy and acoustic reflectometry of the upper airway.
Krogman, W M
The rise of two sub-specialties in Physical Antrhopology traces back to the Anatomy Departments of Schools of Medicine in Germany and France during the nineteenth century. The study of human diversity in bones and bodies was largely by medically-trained anatomists. There developed Medical Antropology and Dental Anthropology, employing osteometry and craniometry on the skeleton, somatometry and cephalometry on the living body. As a result cross-sectional studies gave way to longitudinal studies and X-ray techniques were added to purely mensurational procedures. In Medical Anthropology the specialties most directly concerned are pediatrics, plastic surgery, endocrinology, and orthopaedics. In Dental Anthropology the specialties most directly concerned are pedodontics, orthodontics, oral surgery, and prosthodontics. The contributions of Physical Anthropology to each is discussed.
Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Gautam, Sanjay N; Prabhat, Kc; Kumar, Shailendra
The Frankfort horizontal is a useful compromise for studying skulls but not for orienting the natural head position (NHP) in the living because it is normally distributed around a true extracranial horizontal. Nonetheless, orthodontists dealing with living subjects, rather than inert crania, have used this Frankfort horizontal faithfully in cephalometry. Because the cant or inclination of all intracranial reference lines is subjected to biologic variation, they are unsuitable for meaningful cephalometric analysis. Registration of head posture in its natural position has the advantage that an extracranial vertical or a horizontal perpendicular to that vertical can be used as reference line for cephalometric analysis. Purpose of this paper is to provide an updated review of various methods to reproduce and record the NHP.
Mars, M; Houston, W J
This paper investigates the effects of surgery on facial growth and morphology in Sri Lankan males with unilateral cleft lip and palate who were over 13 years of age at the time of study with cephalometry and dental study models. Three separate subgroups were analyzed: those who had totally unrepaired cleft lip and palate, those who received lip repair in infancy but not palatal repair, and those who had lip and palate repair in infancy. Twenty-three healthy noncleft Sri Lankan males over 13 years formed a control group from the same racial background. The results show that subjects who had no surgery had a potential for normal maxillary growth. Subjects who have had lip repair in early infancy show relatively normal maxillary growth, but maxillary hypoplasia is common when the palate has also been repaired early.
Mølsted, K; Asher-McDade, C; Brattström, V; Dahl, E; Mars, M; McWilliam, J; Plint, D A; Prahl-Andersen, B; Semb, G; Shaw, W C
The craniofacial morphology and the soft tissue profile were evaluated in this part of the intercenter study of the European Cleft Lip and Palate Research Group. The sample was comprised of cephalometric x-rays of the full cohort of 151 cases from the six European cleft palate centers. The facial morphology in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients was evaluated by means of roentgen cephalometry. Approximately 25 consecutive cases from each of six European cleft palate centers were compared. Only one center showed notable and consistent differences from the others. A contributing factor for these differences may be an inconsistent treatment regimen with many surgeons involved. Analysis of the soft tissue profile between the centers showed more pronounced differences than analysis of the skeletal profile. The treatment outcome in centers with more complex or expensive programs was no better than those centers using simpler management approaches.
Palacios, J; Rodriguez, J I
Long-bone morphometry and cephalometry were performed in 13 newborns with oligohydramnios sequence (OS) in order to establish whether or not skeletal changes existed in extrinsic fetal akinesia similar to those observed in the fetal akinesia deformative sequence (FADS) (i.e., hypoplastic long bones and micrognathia). Oligohydramnios sequence was caused by bilateral renal agenesis in five cases and obstructive uropathy in eight cases. Twenty-one stillborns and newborns who had died from conditions other than renal anomalies or congenital malformations were used as controls. Normal longitudinal and periosteal long-bone growth and absence of micrognathia were found in OS patients. Skeletal differences between FADS and OS may be explained not only by timing, duration, and degree of reduced motility but also, and more importantly, by the normal muscular stress in OS patients.
de Vega Gómez, A; Corrales Zarauza, M; Payo Losa, F; Cobo Plana, J
The cephalometric indexes of 16 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were compared with those of 12 controls in order to determine if fundamental anatomical changes were present in the patients and to identify a pattern of facial features that might be characteristic of individuals with OSAS. Our results point to micrognathia of the upper maxilla in OSAS patients (indicated by significantly lower indexes for convexity, Mx 1, and the angles SNA and ANB). We also found a longer soft palate and a functionally shallower pharynx. Together theses features reduce the permeability of the posterior pharyngeal air space. Additionally, we observed a dolichocephalic facial pattern in OSAS patients, along with a tendency to morbid anterior opening. We analyze the limitations of conventional cephalometry. While recognizing its usefulness in establishing baseline indexes before treatment and in postsurgical assessment, we nevertheless point out that it cannot be relied upon as the only test for evaluating surgical correction in OSAS patients.
McDonagh, S; Moss, J P; Goodwin, P; Lee, R T
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different functional appliances on the soft tissues as assessed by cephalometry and optical surface scanning. Forty-two patients were randomly allocated to Bass, Twin Block (TB), and Twin Block + Headgear (TB + Hg) groups. Lateral cephalograms and optical surface scans were recorded before and after the 10-month study period. ANOVA was used to test the cephalometric variables for differences at the 5 per cent level. The optical surface scanning and cephalometric results were consistent in the sagittal dimension. In the vertical dimension, however, the optical surface scans consistently recorded a greater increase compared with cephalometric values. No differences were detected with regard to cephalometric values at the 5 per cent level. However, the Bass appliance produced greater forward positioning of soft tissue pogonion as assessed by optical surface scanning.
Stewart, Randall F; Edgar, Heather; Tatlock, Charles; Kroth, Philip J
The science of cephalometry has been invaluable for guiding orthodontic diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcomes tracking. Though software packages easily calculate most cephalometric measurements, the ability to exchange cephalometric data between software packages is poorly developed. Hindering this effort is the lack of an agreed-upon standard for electronic exchange of cephalometric measurements. Unlike more technological issues, the problem of creating such a standard is one of formalizing decisions already established through historical precedent. Solving this problem will require education, cooperation, and consensus in order to reap the potential improvements to patient care, dental education, and research. The first step in overcoming these remaining issues is awareness. This article reviews those factors that place cephalometric measurements in an excellent position for standardization, outlines those decisions that must be made in order to realize the goal of electronic exchange of cephalometric information, and describes some of the options for these decisions as well as some advantages and disadvantages of each.
Baumrind, S; Moffitt, F H; Curry, S
More than fifty years ago, Broadbent reported the development of a three-dimensional cephalometric method which complexed information from pairs of x-ray images oriented in two planes at right angles to each other. Empirical problems have prevented the routine clinical use of this "biplanar" method, notwithstanding its obvious conceptual brilliance. The present article reports on recent work toward the development of an alternative method of three-dimensional cephalometry in which the two images of each x-ray pair are positioned in the same plane rather than being at right angles to each other. It is believed that this "coplanar" method avoids many of the technical problems that have limited the use of the Broadbent method.
Cibrián, Rosa; Gandia, Jose L.; Paredes, Vanessa
Objectives: To analyse the ANB and Wits values and to study correlations between those two measurements and other measurements in diagnosing the anteroposterior maxilo-mandibular relationship with CBCT. Study Design: Ninety patients who had previously a CBCT (i-CAT®) as a diagnostic register were selected. A 3D cephalometry was designed using one software package, InVivo5®. This cephalometry included 3 planes of reference, 3 angle measurements and 1 linear measurement. The means and standard deviations of the mean of each measurement were assessed. After that, a Pearson´s correlation coefficient has been performed to analyse the significance of each relationship. Results: When classifying the sample according to the anteroposterior relationship, the values obtained of ANB (Class I: 53%; Class II: 37%; Class III: 10%) and Wits (Class I: 35%; Class II: 56%; Class III: 9%) did not coincide, except for the Class III group. However, of the patients classified differently (Class I and Class II patients) by ANB and Wits, a high percentage of individuals (n=22; 49%), had a mesofacial pattern with a mandibular plane angle within normal values. A correlation has been found between ANB and Wits (r=0,262), occlusal plane angle and ANB (r=0,426), and mandibular plane angle and Wits (r=0,242). No correlation was found between either Wits or ANB in relation with the age of the individuals. Conclusions: ANB and Wits must be included in 3D cephalometric analyses as both are necessary to undertake a more accurate diagnosis of the maxillo-mandibular relationship of the patients. Key words:Cone beam computed tomography, ANB, Wits, cephalometrics. PMID:23722136
Kim, So Young; Lee, Woo-Hyun; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Lee, Chul Hee; Kim, Jeong-Whun
To analyze the prevalence of adenoid regrowth at 1 year after coblation adenoidectomy using cephalometric radiography. Retrospective analysis. One hundred eighty-eight children who underwent adenoidectomy from June 2006 through September 2010 were included. Demographic data, preoperative size of palatine tonsils, presence of allergic rhinitis, concurrent operation of recurrent middle ear effusion, and preoperative and postoperative Korean version of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-18 (KOSA-18) scores were analyzed. The size of the adenoids was measured three times in all the children by lateral cephalometry; preoperatively, at 1 month after adenoidectomy to observe adenoid residual; and at 1 year after surgery to observe adenoid regrowth. The adenoid regrowth at 1 year after adenoidectomy was observed in 25 children (13.3%), and the adenoid residual at 1 month after surgery was observed in 11 children (5.9%) in the cephalometry. Seven of the 11 children with residual disease (63.6%) had adenoid regrowth at 1 year. The regrowth group was significantly younger than no regrowth group, and the preoperative adenoids were larger in regrowth group than in no regrowth group. The symptoms of sleep disordered breathing recurred in two patients and they had revision adenoidectomy. The regrowth rate of the adenoids at 1 year was not low. However, most of the patients were asymptomatic. The adenoid residual at 1 month contributed to regrowth at 1 year, and the risk factors of the adenoid regrowth were younger age and larger initial size of the adenoids. 2b. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Bucca, Caterina; Cicolin, Alessandro; Brussino, Luisa; Arienti, Andrea; Graziano, Alessandra; Erovigni, Francesco; Pera, Paolo; Gai, Valerio; Mutani, Roberto; Preti, Giulio; Rolla, Giovanni; Carossa, Stefano
Background Complete tooth loss (edentulism) produces anatomical changes that may impair upper airway size and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether edentulism favours the occurrence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Methods Polysomnography was performed in 48 edentulous subjects on two consecutive nights, one slept with and the other without dentures. Upper airway size was assessed by cephalometry and by recording forced mid-inspiratory airflow rate (FIF50). Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and oral NO (oNO), were measured as markers of airway and oropharyngeal inflammation. Results The apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) without dentures was significantly higher than with dentures (17·4 ± 3·6 versus 11·0 ± 2·3. p = 0·002), and was inversely related to FIF50 (p = 0·017) and directly related to eNO (p = 0·042). Sleeping with dentures, 23 subjects (48%) had an AHI over 5, consistent with OSA, but sleeping without dentures the number of subjects with abnormal AHI rose to 34 (71%). At cephalometry, removing dentures produced a significant decrease in retropharyngeal space (from 1·522 ± 0·33 cm to 1·27 ± 0·42 cm, p = 0·006). Both morning eNO and oNO were higher after the night slept without dentures (eNO 46·1 ± 8·2 ppb versus 33·7 ± 6·3 ppb, p = 0·035, oNO 84·6 ± 13·7 ppb versus 59·2 ± 17·4 ppb, p = 0·001). Conclusion These findings suggest that complete tooth loss favours upper airway obstruction during sleep. This untoward effect seems to be due to decrease in retropharyngeal space and is associated with increased oral and exhaled NO concentration. PMID:16417639
Connecting the new with the old: modifying the combined application of Procrustes superimposition and principal component analysis, to allow for comparison with traditional lateral cephalometric variables.
Wellens, Hans L L; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M
The combination of generalized Procrustes superimposition (GPS) and principal component analysis (PCA) has been hypothesized to solve some of the problems plaguing traditional cephalometry. This study demonstrates how to establish the currently unclear relationship between the shape space defined by the first two principal components to the ANB angle, Wits appraisal, and GoGnSN angle, and to elucidate possible clinical applications thereof. Digitized landmarks of 200 lateral cephalograms were subjected to GPS and PCA, after which the sample mean shape was deformed along/parallel to principal components (PC) 1 and 2, recording the ANB, Wits, and GoGnSN value at each location. Trajectories were then calculated through the PC1-PC2 space connecting locations with the same values. These were finally utilized to renormalize the PC1-PC2 space. The trajectories for the Wits appraisal were almost straight and parallel to PC1.Those for the ANB angle were angled approximately 20degrees downward relative to PC1, with a more accentuated curvature. The GoGnSN curves were mildly angled relative to the PC2 axis, their curvature increasing slightly with increasing PC1 scores. By combining the aforementioned trajectories, it was possible to delineate the region of the PC1-PC2 shape space which would be regarded as normodivergent and skeletal Class I in traditional cephalometry. Geometric distortion could be avoided by assigning patients the ANB, Wits, or GoGnSN value of the sample mean shape, deformed to the patient's position within the PC1-PC2 plot. The methodology successfully relates the shape space resulting from the GPS-PCA results with traditional cephalometric variables. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Zamora, Natalia; Cibrián, Rosa; Gandia, Jose-Luis; Paredes, Vanessa
To analyse the ANB and Wits values and to study correlations between those two measurements and other measurements in diagnosing the anteroposterior maxilo-mandibular relationship with CBCT. Ninety patients who had previously a CBCT (i-CAT®) as a diagnostic register were selected. A 3D cephalometry was designed using one software package, InVivo5®. This cephalometry included 3 planes of reference, 3 angle measurements and 1 linear measurement. The means and standard deviations of the mean of each measurement were assessed. After that, a Pearson's correlation coefficient has been performed to analyse the significance of each relationship. When classifying the sample according to the anteroposterior relationship, the values obtained of ANB (Class I: 53%; Class II: 37%; Class III: 10%) and Wits (Class I: 35%; Class II: 56%; Class III: 9%) did not coincide, except for the Class III group. However, of the patients classified differently (Class I and Class II patients) by ANB and Wits, a high percentage of individuals (n=22; 49%), had a mesofacial pattern with a mandibular plane angle within normal values. A correlation has been found between ANB and Wits (r=0,262), occlusal plane angle and ANB (r=0,426), and mandibular plane angle and Wits (r=0,242). No correlation was found between either Wits or ANB in relation with the age of the individuals. ANB and Wits must be included in 3D cephalometric analyses as both are necessary to undertake a more accurate diagnosis of the maxillo-mandibular relationship of the patients.
Guilleminault, Christian; Huang, Yu-Shu; Quo, Stacey; Monteyrol, Pierre-Jean; Lin, Cheng-Hui
The study aims to better understand the reappearance of sleep apnoea in adolescents considered cured of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) following adenotonsillectomy and orthodontic treatment. The study employs a retrospective analysis of 29 adolescents (nine girls and 20 boys) with OSA previously treated with adenotonsillectomy and orthodontia at a mean age of 7.5years. During follow-up at 11 and 14years of age, patients were clinically evaluated, filled the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) and had systematic cephalometric X-rays performed by orthodontists. Polysomnographic (PSG) data were compared at the time of OSA diagnosis, following surgical and orthodontic treatment and during pubertal follow-up evaluation. Following the diagnosis of OSA and treatment with adenotonsillectomy and rapid maxillary expansion (Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) 0.4±0.4), children were re-evaluated at a mean age of 11years. During follow-up at 14years, all children had normal body mass indices (BMIs). Teenagers were subdivided into two groups based on complaints: Nine asymptomatic subjects (seven girls and two boys) and 20 subjects with decline in school performance, presence of fatigue, indicators of sleep-phase delays and, less frequently, specific symptoms of daytime sleepiness and snoring. Presence of mouth breathing, abnormal AHI and RDI and significant reduction of posterior airway space (PAS) was demonstrated during repeat polysomnography and cephalometry. Compared to cephalometry obtained at a mean of 11years of age, there was a significant reduction of PAS of 2.3±0.4mm at a mean age of 14years. Previously suggested recurrence of OSA during teenage years has again been demonstrated in this small group of subjects. Prospective investigations are needed to establish frequency of risk, especially in non-orthodontically treated children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Llamas, José M.; Cibrián, Rosa; Gandia, José L.; Paredes, Vanessa
Objectives: Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) allows the possibility of modifying some of the diagnostic tools used in orthodontics, such as cephalometry. The first step must be to study the characteristics of these devices in terms of accuracy and reliability of the most commonly used landmarks. The aims were 1- To assess intra and inter-observer reliability in the location of anatomical landmarks belonging to hard tissues of the skull in images taken with a CBCT device, 2- To determine which of those landmarks are more vs. less reliable and 3- To introduce planes of reference so as to create cephalometric analyses appropriated to the 3D reality. Study design: Fifteen patients who had a CBCT (i-CAT®) as a diagnostic register were selected. To assess the reproducibility on landmark location and the differences in the measurements of two observers at different times, 41 landmarks were defined on the three spatial axes (X,Y,Z) and located. 3.690 measurements were taken and, as each determination has 3 coordinates, 11.070 data were processed with SPSS® statistical package. To discover the reproducibility of the method on landmark location, an ANOVA was undertaken using two variation factors: time (t1, t2 and t3) and observer (Ob1 and Ob2) for each axis (X, Y and Z) and landmark. The order of the CBCT scans submitted to the observers (Ob1, Ob2) at t1, t2, and t3, were different and randomly allocated. Multiple comparisons were undertaken using the Bonferroni test. The intra- and inter-examiner ICC´s were calculated. Results: Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was high, both being ICC ≥ 0.99, with the best frequency on axis Z. Conclusions: The most reliable landmarks were: Nasion, Sella, Basion, left Porion, point A, anterior nasal spine, Pogonion, Gnathion, Menton, frontozygomatic sutures, first lower molars and upper and lower incisors. Those with less reliability were the supraorbitals, right zygion and posterior nasal spine. Key words:Cone Beam
Huang, Tsung-Wei; Young, Tai-Horng
Habitual open-mouth breathing (OMB) during sleep can cause snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study used a porous oral patch (POP) to treat patients with mild OSA and OMB during sleep. The subjective and objective outcomes were evaluated. Prospective study. Tertiary referral center. Patients with ≥5 events hourly but <15 hourly on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) were enrolled. All patients slept with their mouths closed by using the POP, which is a porous skin pad consisting of 3 layers: silicone sheet, polyurethane foam, and polyurethane film. Before treatment and during treatment, subjective outcomes were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and visual analog scale (VAS) of snoring. Objective outcomes were assessed using polysomnography and cephalometry. Thirty patients were enrolled in this study. All patients slept with their mouths closed while using a POP. The ESS and VAS of snoring scores were 8.1 ± 1.5 and 7.5 ± 2.0 before the POP, respectively, in contrast to 5.2 ± 1.6 and 2.4 ± 1.4 while using a POP, respectively (P < .05). The median AHI score was significantly decreased by using a POP from 12.0 per hour before treatment to 7.8 per hour during treatment (P < .01). The snoring intensity and median snoring index were 49.1 ± 10.8 dB and 146.7 per hour before the POP, respectively, which decreased to 41.1 ± 7.8 dB and 40.0 per hour while using a POP, respectively (P < .01). Cephalometry revealed that the retropalatal space and retrolingual space were 7.4 ± 1.6 mm and 6.8 ± 2.5 mm before the POP, respectively, compared with 8.6 ± 1.2 mm and 10.2 ± 1.8 mm during treatment, respectively (P < .01). The POP is a useful device to treat patients with mild OSA and habitual OMB. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.
Tripathi, Arvind; Bagchi, Soumyojeet; Singh, Juhi; Tripathi, Suryakant; Gupta, Narendra Kumar; Arora, Varun
To estimate the incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in elderly edentulous patients (aged 60-65 years) and investigate a correlation of serum serotonin levels with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), respiratory effort-related arousal (RERA), and respiratory disturbance index (RDI). 381 elderly completely edentulous patients (307 male, 74 female) aged 60 to 65 years with a history of edentulism of 12 to 15 months, seeking oral rehabilitation at the prosthodontic clinic at Saraswati Dental College & Hospital, Lucknow, India, between January 2014 and January 2016 were enrolled for the present study. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria of this study, 183 patients (162 male, 21 female) who were found susceptible, were subjected to the BERLIN questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) to assess sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and then put through all-night polysomnography (PSG). On the basis of AHI, RERA, and RDI scores, 156 patients (143 male, 13 female) who tested positive for OSA were classified according to its intensity. All 156 patients underwent body-mass index (BMI) estimation, cephalometry, and intraoral examination for skeletal and soft tissue profile record. Serum serotonin was estimated from whole blood samples for the 156 OSA and the 27 normal patients. The 156 (147 nonobese, 9 obese) OSA-positive patients were provided with complete dentures and were trained to use the same as a modified mandibular advancement device (MAD) during sleep at night. These patients were kept on a quarterly follow-up for 9 months. Data collected was subjected to statistical analysis, and inferences drawn. The incidence of OSA in elderly edentulous subjects was found to be 32.03% in males and 8.91% in females. A mere 9 out of 156 (5.76%) elderly edentulous OSA patients were found to be obese (Class I) on the basis of BMI estimation. Cephalometry of the patients showed that they had a skeletal class I maxillomandibular relationship. AHI scores of
Chi, Luqi; Comyn, Francois-Louis; Keenan, Brendan T.; Cater, Jacqueline; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Allan I.; Schwab, Richard J.
Objectives: Accumulating evidence has shown that there is a genetic contribution to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).The objectives were to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cephalometry to (1) confirm heritability of craniofacial risk factors for OSA previously shown by cephalometrics; and (2) examine the heritability of new craniofacial structures that are measurable with MRI. Design: A sib pair “quad” design examining apneics, apneic siblings, controls, and control siblings. The study design used exact matching on ethnicity and sex, frequency matching on age, and statistical control for differences in age, sex, ethnicity, height, and weight. Setting: Academic medical center. Patients: We examined 55 apneic probands (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]: 46.8 ± 33.5 events/h), 55 proband siblings (AHI: 11.1 ± 15.9 events/h), 55 controls (AHI: 2.2 ± 1.7 events/h), and 55 control siblings (AHI: 4.1 ± 4.0 events/h). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Five independent domains reflecting different aspects of the craniofacial structure were examined. We confirmed heritability of sella–nasion–subspinale (38%, P = 0.002), saddle angle (55%, P < 0.0001), mandibular length (24%, P = 0.02) and lower facial height (33%, P = 0.006) previously measured by cephalometry. In addition, the current study added new insights by demonstrating significant heritability of mandibular width (30%, P = 0.005), maxillary width (47%, P < 0.0001), distance from the hyoid bone to the retropogonion (36%, P = 0.0018) and size of the oropharyngeal space (31%, P = 0.004). Finally, our data indicate that heritability of the craniofacial structures is similar in normal patients and those with apnea. Conclusions: The data support our a priori hypothesis that the craniofacial structures that have been associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are heritable. We have demonstrated heritability for several intermediate craniofacial phenotypes for OSA. Thus, we believe that future studies
Liu, S-r; Yi, H-l; Guan, J; Chen, B; Wu, H-m; Yin, S-k
This study evaluates the outcome and change in facial appearance after maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) in Chinese adults with severe obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). Twelve patients underwent MMA with adjunctive procedures for severe OSAHS. All underwent physical examination, Epworth Sleepiness Scale evaluation, cephalometry, polysomnography, and facial photographic assessment before and 6 months after MMA. The aesthetic plane (relationship of nose, lips, and chin) was used to judge soft tissue facial profile change after MMA. Postoperative cephalometric data were compared with normal occlusive standards and aesthetic norms. Pre- and postoperative aesthetic appearance was evaluated by 100 lay people using a 10-point visual analogue scale. The maxillomandibular complex (MMC) was advanced 5-10 mm (mean 7.4 mm). The success rate was 83%. All patients were satisfied with the functional and aesthetic results. Postoperative SNA, SNB, and posterior airway space increased and mandibular plane-to-hyoid distance decreased significantly in all patients. The lower lip was closer to EP than the preoperative and normal occlusive standard. In 11 of 12 patients, the lay aesthetic scores were significantly higher postoperatively. MMA is effective for Chinese adults with severe OSAHS. In most patients, facial appearance was more attractive after MMC advancement of 5-10 mm. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Giarda, M; Brucoli, M; Arcuri, F; Benech, R; Braghiroli, A; Benech, A
To assess the effectiveness of maxillomandibular adavancement for treatment of adults with obstructive sleep apnoea, we report the results obtained after maxillomandibular advancement. A group of 16 patients were studied before surgery, at 6 months after surgery and at followup. The analysis included: upper airway endoscopy during Mueller's manoeuvre, lateral cephalometry, polysomnography and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The results of surgical treatment were divided into "surgical success" and "surgical cure". The former was defined as an AHI < 20 events/hour and a > 50% reduction in AHI after surgical procedure, while the latter was defined as an AHI < 5 events/hour after surgical procedure. At follow-up, all patients had AHI < 20 events/hour with a surgical success rate of 100%. The surgical cure rate was 37.5%, with 6 patients having an AHI < 5 events/hour. Surgical success and long term stability of outcomes confirm the efficacy and safety of MMA for treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. However, a continuous follow-up of these patients is necessary to control their lifestyle and to detect possible relapse.
Scarano, E; Della Marca, G; De Corso, E; Dittoni, S; Di Nardo, W; Meucci, D; Bastanza, G; Gallus, R; Losurdo, A; Testani, E; Paludetti, G
The aim of this study was to verify if hyoid myotomy without hyoid suspension is effective in surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). We recruited six patients with OSAS, aged between 34 to 60 years, with retropalatal and retrolingual upper airway obstruction, non-obese (BMI < 27) and non-compliant to continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Pre-surgical clinical and instrumental evaluations included clinical examination, cephalometry, polysomnography (PSG) and sleep endoscopy. Surgical treatment included nasal surgery, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, tonsillectomy and hyoid myotomy without hyoid suspension. Follow-up evaluations were performed with serial PSGs, performed early (one week after surgery), and at 1, 6 and 18 months after surgery. We observed that surgery was followed by immediate normalisation of breathing parameters evaluated by PSG that persisted after 18 months. Thus, hyoid myotomy without suspension combined with nasal and palatal surgery may be considered a valid treatment of non-obese OSAS patients with retrolingual and retropalatal collapse. Furthermore, we suggest that hyoid bone suspension, binding it to mandibular or to thyroid cartilage, might be unnecessary in selected cases.
Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Kudo, Motonori; Yamamoto, Yuko
For patients with a cleft palate, the push-back procedure which accompanies posterior shifting of palatal flap is thought to be most effective way of. achieving adequate velopharyngeal function. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influences of the push-back procedure on the craniofacial morphology and its growth. Using cephalometry we compared the craniofacial morphology and growth of three groups of Japanese children, living in the same region (Hokkaido, Japan). 1) 28 children (13 girls and 15 boys) with operated submucous cleft palates at the ages of 9 and 14 respectively. 2) 12 age-matched children (7 girls and 5 boys) with unoperated submucous cleft palates. 3) 60 age-matched non-cleft children (30 girls and 30 boys) with normal occlusion. None of them received dentofacial orthopaedic treatment. While the patients who had been operated on had significant differences in posterior upper facial height and inclination of the palatal plane when compared with non-cleft children or unoperated cleft children, they showed no statistically significant difference in anteroposterior positioning of anterior part of the maxilla, compared with the unoperated. The influences of palatoplasty by the push-back procedure with posterior positioning of the palatal flaps on craniofacial morphology are additional to the cleft palate, and of minor concern. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, Yunqiang; Wu, Yeke; Gu, Yifei; Yang, Qijian; Shi, Bing; Zheng, Qian; Wang, Yan
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cleft palate itself on the growth of maxilla and mandible. Fifty-two adult female patients with unoperated isolated cleft palate and 52 adult female individuals with normal occlusion were included in our study. Computer software was used for lateral cephalometry measurement. Manual measurement was performed for dental cast measurements, and sample t test analysis was applied to analyze the differences between the 2 groups using SPSS 17.0. The sella-nasion-subspinale point angle, subspinale-nasion-supramentale point angle, and maxillary arch length of the cleft group were significantly smaller than those of the control group (P < 0.01). Both maxillary and mandibular posterior dental arch widths of the cleft group were significantly larger compared with the control group (P < 0.01), whereas the sella-nasion-supramentale point angle, mandible arch length, palate height, and palate shelf inclination did not differ between the 2 groups. The measurements did not differ between the submucosal cleft and the overt cleft patients. Cleft palate itself has adverse effects on the maxilla growth with shorter maxillary arch length and wider posterior dental arch width.
Chiu, Yu-Ting; Liao, Yu-Fang
To study the relationship of cleft severity and maxillary growth in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. A systematic literature review. A literature survey from the PubMed database from January 1966 to December 2008 used the Medical Subject Headings terms facial growth, unilateral cleft lip palate, cephalometry, and cleft severity or cleft width. The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal from 1964 to November 2008 was hand searched. Studies published as full-length articles reporting quantitative data on the relationship of cleft severity and written in English were selected. Two reviewers selected and extracted the data independently and also assessed the quality of the studies. Four studies met the selection criteria and were included in the review. All were retrospective and longitudinal. Quality analysis revealed medium to low level of the included studies. Heterogeneity of the studies prevented major conclusions about the relationship of a severe cleft and unfavorable maxillary forward growth. The review has highlighted the importance of further research. Further well-designed controlled studies and long-term studies are needed, and researchers have to consider combined assessment of cleft size and palate size. Further studies should also focus on the cleft severity at birth and at the time of palate repair.
Alió-Sanz, Juan; Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Pernía, José-Lorenzo; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Solano-Reina, Enrique
This study has been designed to evaluate the vertical and sagittal changes in the maxilla due to growth. A sample group was chosen of 38 individuals with normal occlusion, composed of 16 females and 22 males between the ages of 8 and 18. The total sample was divided into three groups: prepubescent (8-11 years), pubescent (12-14 years) and post-pubescent (15-18 years). A series of cephalometric angle parameters (SNA, maxillary height, slope of the palatal plane and maxillary depth) and lineal parameters (effective maxillary length, palatal plane length, middle third of the face height and convexity) were traced. Superimpositions of the initial and final cephalometries in the Ba-N plane and in the Nasion fixed point were carried out to measure growth. An analytic statistical analysis was applied using a Student t test for independent samples in order to evaluate the differences found according to sex. An analysis of variance followed by Duncan's multiple range test was done to study the evolution of each variable throughout the duration of the experiment. In light of the results obtained, we have come to the following conclusions: sagittal growth of the maxilla is constant from the age of 8 to 18 years with an average increase of 0.2 mm/year. Vertical growth, as well as general maxillary growth, is greater in the prepubescent group.
Alió-Sanz, Juan J.; Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Lorenzo-Pernía, Jose; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Solano-Reina, Enrique
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess cranial base and maxillary growth in patients with Class II-type I malocclusions when treated with Frankel’s functional regulator (FR-1b). Study Design: The treatment group was made up of 43 patients that were divided into two groups: prepubescent (n: 28), and pubescent (n: 15). The control group included 40 patients who did not receive any kind of treatment and were likewise divided into a prepubescent group (n: 19), and a pubescent group (n: 21). A computerized cephalometric study was carried out and superimpositions were done in order to assess the antero-posterior, vertical and rotational movement of the maxilla. Results: The results indicate that anterior cranial length is not affected by the regulator but the cranial deflection of the treatment group was diminished. Although a slight counterclockwise rotation effect on the upper jaw was observed due to treatment, no growth restriction of the maxilla in a vertical or antero-posterior direction was observed compared to other non-treated Class II-type I malocclusion patients. Conclusion: The functional regulator does not have any effect on anterior cranial length, but it does affect the angulation of the cranial base. According to our results, the appliance has demonstrated a flattening effect of the cranial base (p<0.05) in the treated sample. The functional regulator induces counterclockwise rotation rather than vertical or sagittal changes in the maxilla. Key words:Orthodontics, frankel regulator, class II treatment, cephalometry, superimposition. PMID:22322486
Verschueren, D S; Gassner, R; Mitchell, R; Mooney, M P
Osteogenesis following surgery depends on the osteoblasts at the wound site. Fibrous nonunions may be the result of differential and rapid migration of fibroblasts compared to osteoblasts into the wound. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis through the use of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) in a rabbit model. Bilateral, Le Fort I osteotomies (n=20) were produced in the maxillae of 10 New Zealand White rabbits. The segments were advanced 6mm and rigidly fixed using microplates and screws. One side was covered with a resorbable collagen membrane or left uncovered. Rabbits were followed for four weeks with radiographs and the maxillae were harvested for histology. Cephalometry revealed that membrane-covered defects had significantly (P<0.01) reduced defect area (by approximately 70%) compared to uncovered defects. Histologically, membrane-covered defects showed more organized osteogenesis and less fibrous tissue than uncovered defects. Histomorphometry revealed that membrane covered defects had significantly (P<0.05) reduced defect areas (by approximately 20%) compared to uncovered defects. While findings suggest that GTR can facilitate osseous wound healing in Le Fort I osteotomies, results also caution against relying exclusively on two-dimensional radiography to assess bony wound healing in lieu of three-dimensional imaging and evaluations.
Zinser, Max J; Mischkowski, Robert A; Dreiseidler, Timo; Thamm, Oliver C; Rothamel, Daniel; Zöller, Joachim E
There may well be a shift towards 3-dimensional orthognathic surgery when virtual surgical planning can be applied clinically. We present a computer-assisted protocol that uses surgical navigation supplemented by an interactive image-guided visualisation display (IGVD) to transfer virtual maxillary planning precisely. The aim of this study was to analyse its accuracy and versatility in vivo. The protocol consists of maxillofacial imaging, diagnosis, planning of virtual treatment, and intraoperative surgical transfer using an IGV display. The advantage of the interactive IGV display is that the virtually planned maxilla and its real position can be completely superimposed during operation through a video graphics array (VGA) camera, thereby augmenting the surgeon's 3-dimensional perception. Sixteen adult class III patients were treated with by bimaxillary osteotomy. Seven hard tissue variables were chosen to compare (ΔT1-T0) the virtual maxillary planning (T0) with the postoperative result (T1) using 3-dimensional cephalometry. Clinically acceptable precision for the surgical planning transfer of the maxilla (<0.35 mm) was seen in the anteroposterior and mediolateral angles, and in relation to the skull base (<0.35°), and marginal precision was seen in the orthogonal dimension (<0.64 mm). An interactive IGV display complemented surgical navigation, augmented virtual and real-time reality, and provided a precise technique of waferless stereotactic maxillary positioning, which may offer an alternative approach to the use of arbitrary splints and 2-dimensional orthognathic planning.
Vieira, Bruno B; Itikawa, Carla E; de Almeida, Leila A; Sander, Heidi H; Aragon, Davi C; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma T; Matsumoto, Mirian; Valera, Fabiana C P
The aim of the study was to evaluate facial features and hyoid bone position in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) by cephalometric radiography. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital. Twenty-nine children in the 3-6 year age bracket were evaluated: 14 children with OSAS and 15 nasal-breathing children. All children underwent otorhinolaryngologic examination, and those with OSAS also underwent in-laboratory polysomnography for diagnostic confirmation. The children were then submitted to orthodontic evaluation and cephalometry. Lateral cephalometric radiographs from children with OSAS were compared to those of nasal-breathing children. We found no differences between the two groups regarding the linear and angular measurements of the face. However, the children with OSAS presented, already at the preschool age, with an inferiorly positioned hyoid bone, thus increasing the pharyngeal area. In children with OSAS, the hyoid bone appears to be in a significantly inferior position at an early age. Our findings provide evidence that there is a relationship between the position of the hyoid bone and OSAS in children, which could contribute to the persistence of OSAS into adulthood.
Khonsari, Roman H; Way, Benjamin; Nysjö, Johan; Odri, Guillaume A; Olszewski, Raphaël; Evans, Robert D; Dunaway, David J; Nyström, Ingela; Britto, Jonathan A
A major concern in FGFR2 craniofaciosynostosis is oculo-orbital disproportion, such that orbital malformation provides poor accommodation and support for the orbital contents and peri-orbita, leading to insufficient eyelid closure, corneal exposure and eventually to functional visual impairment. Fronto-facial monobloc osteotomy followed by distraction osteogenesis aims to correct midfacial growth deficiencies in Crouzon-Pfeiffer syndrome patients. Fronto-facial bipartition osteotomy followed by distraction is a procedure of choice in Apert syndrome patients. These procedures modify the shape and volume of the orbit and tend to correct oculo-orbital disproportion. Little is known about the detailed 3D shape of the orbital phenotype in CPS and AS, and about how this is modified by fronto-facial surgery. Twenty-eight patients with CMS, 13 patients with AS and 40 control patients were included. CT scans were performed before and after fronto-facial surgery. Late post-operative scans were available for the Crouzon-Pfeiffer syndrome group. Orbital morphology was investigated using conventional three-dimensional cephalometry and shape analysis after mesh-based segmentation of the orbital contents. We characterized the 3D morphology of CPS and AS orbits and showed how orbital shape is modified by surgery. We showed that monobloc-distraction in CPS and bipartition-distraction in AS specifically address the morphological characteristics of the two syndromes.
Papagrigorakis, Manolis J; Karamesinis, Kostas G; Daliouris, Kostas P; Kousoulis, Antonis A; Synodinos, Philippos N; Hatziantoniou, Michail D
The skull, when portrayed radiologically, can be a useful tool in detecting signs of systemic diseases and results of pathological growth mechanisms. The aim of this study was therefore to examine, compare, and classify findings in cranial configuration of pathological origin, in modern and ancient skulls. The material consists of 240 modern and 141 ancient dry skulls. Three radiographs for each skull (lateral, anteroposterior, basilar) provide enough evidence for differential diagnoses. Cases of osteoporosis are among the interesting pathological findings. A prevalence of female modern skulls in those determined as osteoporotic skulls is noted. Special interest is placed on the area of the sella turcica and many variations, regarding the shape and texture, are recognized both in ancient and modern skulls. Malignancies and important causes of cranial destruction are identified in both skull collections. Diploid thickening and osteolytic areas appear commonly among ancient remains. Moreover, from the ancient skull collection, one case possibly recognizable as fibrous dysplasia is noted while another case with an unusual exostosis gives rise to many questions. Interpreted with caution, the results of the present study, which can serve as an approach of paleopathology and paleoradiology, indicate similarity trends in cranial configuration of pathologic origin in modern and ancient people. Radiography and cephalometry were the main diagnostic tools used to gather evidence and are evaluated as a quite appropriate method to examine anthropological material and assess the internal structure of skeletal remains since they are non-destructive techniques.
Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Lorenzo-Pernía, José; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Solano-Reina, Enrique
Objectives: The aim of this study is to test the possible orthopedic effects of cervical headgear on the cranial base and maxilla. Study design: a sample consisting of 79 subjects with skeletal class II malocclusion was divided into two groups. The experimental group was made up of 41 patients all treated with cervical headgear. The control group included a total of 38 non-treated patients. Each one of these groups was then subdivided according to age into one of three groups: prepubescent, pubescent or post-pubescent. Cephalometric parameters were compared in both groups in order to measure the cranial base angle and the vertical and sagittal position of the maxilla. Additionally, cephalometric superimpositions taken at the beginning and end of the study were compared. Results: results revealed significant differences in the cranial base angle and in the SNA angle (p<0.05). However, no differences were observed in the variables that measure the maxillomandibular relationship. While no changes were noted in the palatal plane slope, a flattening of the cranial base was found caused by the cervical headgear, in addition to a retrusion of point A that does not mean there was a reduction in the maxillomandibular relationship. Conclusions: cervical headgear treatment induces cephalometric flattening of the cranial base and a decrease of the SNA angle. Key words:Orthodontics, cervical headgear, class II treatment, cephalometry, superimposition. PMID:22322499
Kawashima, Shigeto; Ueda, Koichiro; Shinohara, Mitsuyo; Mano, Mikiko; Kanegae, Haruhide; Namaki, Shunsuke
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between facial morphology using cephalometry and chronologic age in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). From a group of lateral cephalometric radiographs taken of 35 children with OSA for diagnostic purposes, 15 were selected for the present investigation based on head position. The subjects consisted of preschool children with both OSA and primary dentition, all of them with a lowest documented SpO(2) <90% and a lowest 0
Jeong, Jong In; Kim, Hyo Yeol; Hong, Sang Duk; Ryu, Gwanghui; Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Kyung Eun; Dhong, Hun-Jong; Chung, Seung-Kyu
Objectives Compliance with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment remains a primary concern for improving treatment outcomes of obstructive sleep apnea. There are few studies that have considered the role of upper airway anatomy on the compliance with CPAP. We hypothesized that upper airway anatomy would influence the compliance with CPAP. Methods One hundred out of 161 consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. The following possible determinants were tested against CPAP use: demographic and anthropometric data, minimal cross-sectional area on acoustic rhinometry, cephalometric and polysomnographic data, questionnaires of Epworth sleepiness scale and Beck depression index, and histories of previous upper airway surgery, degree of nasal obstruction, daily cigarette consumption, and weekly frequency of alcohol intake. Results Univariate analysis showed that histories of previous upper airway surgery and less frequent alcohol consumption, and longer mandibular plane-hyoid length (MP-H) on cephalometry were associated with longer average daily CPAP use. After adjustment for the confounding factors with multiple linear regression analysis, alcohol consumption and MP-H were still associated with the compliance with CPAP significantly. Conclusion To improve compliance with CPAP, careful evaluations of upper airway problems and life style are important before initiating CPAP. PMID:27334512
Indriksone, Iveta; Jakobsone, Gundega
OBJECTIVE. Upper airway changes caused by orthognathic surgery operations have been a topic of a concern in the orthodontic literature because of a possible development of obstructive sleep apnea. Diverse response of the airway patency could be expected if the dimensions of the airway differ among various malocclusions already before orthognathic treatment. However the associations between facial morphology and the upper airway dimensions have not been clarified. The purpose of this systematic review was to elucidate whether the upper airway dimensions differ among various sagittal craniofacial patterns. MATERIAL AND METHODS. MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library were searched up to November 2012. Reference lists of relevant articles were checked for further possible studies. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied when considering the studies to be included. Screening of eligible studies and data extraction were conducted independently by two reviewers. RESULTS. 758 studies were identified and 11 of these were recognized as suitable for further analysis. 75% of studies did not find differences in the nasopharyngeal dimensions among craniofacial patterns. The findings for the oropharyngeal dimensions were controversial as 5 of 11 investigations found these to be smaller in Class II subjects, and 6 of 11 concluded that oropharynx size is larger in Class III pattern. The vertical growth type of the subjects was not considered in five investigations, and 45% of the included studies used lateral cephalometry as only tool for airway assessment. CONCLUSIONS. Currently there is insufficient evidence that the upper airway dimensions differ in various sagittal skeletal patterns.
Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh
Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958
Uesugi, Shunsuke; Yonemitsu, Ikuo; Kokai, Satoshi; Takei, Maki; Omura, Susumu; Ono, Takashi
The frontal occlusal plane of the maxilla generally inclines toward the ipsilateral side of the mandibular deviation in subjects with facial asymmetry; however, a few patients with facial asymmetry have their frontal occlusal planes inclined toward the contralateral side. We aimed to investigate the morphologic and functional features of such patients. The subjects were 40 patients with facial asymmetry divided into 2 groups based on the inclination of the frontal occlusal plane toward the ipsilateral or the contralateral side. We analyzed lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric radiographs and occlusal variables and evaluated temporomandibular joint symptoms. Statistical comparisons were performed between the 2 groups (P <0.05). The posteroanterior cephalometry significantly differed between the ipsilateral and contralateral groups. Occlusal force and occlusal contact area were significantly larger, and temporomandibular joint symptoms were more frequently found on the side of the upward-inclined frontal occlusal plane than on the opposite side in both groups. The features in the contralateral group in terms of occlusal force and temporomandibular disorders were clinically significant. Clinicians should note that the conditions associated with the contralateral group require less presurgical decompensation. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gebhardt, Alexander; Pancherz, Hans
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nandrolone (Deca-Durabolin, AKZO Nobel, Cambridge, United Kingdom) on mandibular growth in juvenile and adult rats with radiographic cephalometry and immunoradiology. Juvenile (n = 16) and adult (n = 16) inbred female Wistar-Kyoto rats were compared. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups with 8 experimental (E) and 8 control (C) animals in each subgroup. Lateral headfilms taken before and after the 70-day study period were analyzed. Body weight and blood serum IGF-I levels were monitored weekly. The results showed marked mandibular growth changes in both the juvenile and the adult E rats. Body weight increase was larger in the E than in the C animals. The IGF-I blood serum levels were similar in the juvenile E and C rats but higher in the adult E animals than in the adult C animals. It was found that the anabolic steroid (Deca-Durabolin) had a significant effect on mandibular growth in both juvenile and adult rats.
Liu, Y; Lowe, A A
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether any physiological or cephalometric parameters could be used to predict the efficacy of the Klearway oral appliance (OA) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Forty-two male and 5 female patients with OSA were recruited on the basis of baseline polysomnography with a documented Apnea and Hypopnea Index (AHI) > 15 per hour. Repeat polysomnography was performed with the appliance in place. Baseline cephalometry was performed for each patient. Subjects were divided into 3 groups on the basis of the degree of change in AHI with OA therapy: good response (> 75% decrease in AHI), moderate response (25% to 75% decrease range in AHI), and poor response (< 25% decrease in AHI). Patients with a good response were younger and had smaller upper airways. A stepwise regression analysis revealed that a better treatment response with the Klearway appliance was obtained in patients who were younger and had a lower body mass index, a longer maxilla, a smaller oropharynx, a smaller overjet, less erupted maxillary molars, and larger ratio of vertical airway length to the cross-sectional area of the soft palate.
Tsuiki, Satoru; Almeida, Fernanda R; Lowe, Alan A; Su, Jiaping; Fleetham, John A
The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between upright mandibular position change and supine upper airway size in men with obstructive sleep apnea fitted with titratable oral appliances. Baseline supine cephalometry before placement of the oral appliance and after titration with the oral appliance in place were undertaken in 14 patients, and upright mandibular position change was evaluated with and without the titrated oral appliance in place with a DigiGraph workstation (Dolphin Imaging Systems, Valencia, Calif). The apnea-hypopnea index was significantly reduced after titration of the oral appliance (P < .01). Upright mandibular position change was associated with significant vertical (P < .01) and horizontal (P < .01) mandibular repositioning. The size of the supine velopharynx (P < .05), but not the supine oropharynx, was significantly enlarged at the titrated mandibular position. The supine oropharyngeal size change was correlated with the upright horizontal repositioning of the mandible (r = 0.69, P < .01). Evaluation of upright mandibular position changes with the DigiGraph workstation enables one to predict supine oropharyngeal enlargement with oral appliance therapy. Dose-dependent effects of the horizontal component of upright mandibular protrusion on supine oropharyngeal size in addition to velopharyngeal enlargement might contribute to oral appliance effectiveness in obstructive sleep apnea patients.
Naikmasur, Venkatesh G; Shrivastava, Rahul; Mutalik, Sunil
Skeletal components play significant role in sex determination in forensic and anthropological fields. Skull is considered second best, after pelvis, in determination of sex. Methods based on morphological characteristics and morphometry are already in use with reasonable accuracy. Standardized radiographic techniques like cephalometry have advantages of being more precise and objective when compared to morphologic methods. The present study aimed at obtaining and comparing the reliability of cranio-mandibular parameters in South Indian and Indian immigrant of Tibetan populations using lateral and postero-anterior (PA) cephalograms. A total of 11 cephalometric parameters were traced on lateral and PA cephalograms manually. Functions to aid in the sex determination were developed by subjecting the cephalometric parameters to discriminant analysis. Among the chosen parameters bizygomatic width, ramus height, depth of face contributed most for sexual dimorphism in both the populations. Upper facial height was the additional parameter for sexual dimorphism in immigrant Tibetan population. The discrimination accuracy in South Indian population was 81.5% while that of immigrant Tibetan population was 88.2%. With the current study it can be concluded that cephalometric cranio-mandibular parameters can be used to discriminate the sex using discriminant function analysis and similar cranio-mandibular parameters contribute to sex prediction across populations.
Nakawaki, Takatoshi; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Tomita, Daisuke; Hikita, Yu; Adel, Mohamed; Katayama, Koshu; Maki, Koutaro
To investigate the relationship between anteroposterior and vertical differences in maxillofacial morphology and mandibular volume. Subjects comprised 213 Japanese adults (84 males and 129 females) who were divided into three groups based on mandibular basal arch (ANB) and Wits, measured in a cephalometric analysis: Class I (-1° ≤ ANB < 4°,-1 mm ≤ Wits < 0 mm), Class II (ANB ≥ 4°, Wits ≥ 0), and Class III (ANB <-1°, Wits <-1 mm). Subjects were also divided into three groups based on the mandibular plane angle (Mp), as follows: hypodivergent (Mp < 23°), normodivergent (Mp = 23-30°), and hyperdivergent (Mp > 30°) groups. Mandibular volume was measured from cone-beam computed tomographic images that were analyzed using Analyze™ image processing software and compared among the three groups in each classification. No significant differences were noted in mandibular volume among Classes I, II, and III. An inverse relationship was found between mandibular volume and Mp, and a significant difference was noted in mandibular volume between the hypodivergent and hyperdivergent groups. In addition to two-dimensional analysis, such as lateral cephalometry, three-dimensional information such as volume, provided by cone-beam computed tomography, contributes to a more detailed assessment of maxillofacial morphology.
Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael
This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308
Mattar, Sara E M; Valera, Fabiana C P; Faria, Gisele; Matsumoto, Miriam A N; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma T
Morphological and dentofacial alterations have been attributed to impaired respiratory function. To examine the influence of mouth breathing (MB) on children facial morphology before and after adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy. Thirty-three MB children who restored nasal breathing (NB) after surgery and 22 NB children were evaluated. Both groups were submitted to lateral cephalometry, at time 1 (T1) before and at time 2 (T2) 28 months on average postoperatively. Comparison between the MB and NB groups at T1 showed that mouth breathers had higher inclination of the mandibular plane; more obtuse gonial angle; dolichofacial morphology; and a decrease in the total and inferior posterior facial heights. Twenty-eight months after the MB surgical intervention, they still presented a dolichofacial morphologic pattern. During this period, MB altered the face growth direction and decreased their mandible plane inclination, with reduction in the SN.GoGn, PP.MP, SNGn, and ArGo.GoMe parameters as well as an increase in BaN.PtGn. After the MB rehabilitation, children between 3 and 6 years old presented significant normalization in the mandibular growth direction, a decrease in the mandible inclination, and an increase in the posterior facial height. Instead, they still persisted with a dolichofacial pattern when compared with nasal breathers. 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Tomita, Daisuke; Nakawaki, Takatoshi; Kim, Yong-Il; Hikita, Yu; Haga, Shugo; Takahashi, Masahiro; Nadim, Mohamed A.; Kawaguchi, Akira; Isa, Mutsumi; El-Kenany, Walid H.; El-Kadi, Abbadi A.; Park, Soo-Byung; Ishida, Hajime; Maki, Koutaro; Kimura, Ryosuke
FGFR1 plays an important role in the development of the nervous system as well as the regulation of the skeletal development and bone homeostasis. Mutations in FGFR1 genes affect skull development, specifically suture and synchondrosis, resulting in craniosynostosis and facial abnormalities. We examined subjects with normal skull morphology for genetic polymorphisms that might be associated with normal craniofacial variations. Genomic DNA was obtained from 216 Japanese and 227 Korean subjects. Four FGFR1 SNPs, namely, rs881301, rs6996321, rs4647905, and rs13317, were genotyped. These SNPs were tested for association with craniofacial measurements obtained from lateral and posteroanterior cephalometries, in which principle component analysis was performed to compress the data of the craniofacial measurements. We observed that SNPs rs13317 and rs6996321 were correlated with the overall head size and midfacial development, indicating that FGFR1 SNPs played crucial roles in the normal variation of human craniofacial morphology. Subjects with the derived alleles of SNPs rs13317 and rs6996321 had a small face and a facial pattern associated with a retruded midface and relatively wide-set eyes. These facial features were similar to but were milder than those of individuals with Pfeiffer syndrome, which is caused by a dysfunctional mutation in FGFR1. PMID:28129408
Swennen, Gwen R J; Grimaldi, Hannes; Berten, Johannes-Ludwig; Kramer, Franz-Josef; Dempf, Rupert; Schwestka-Polly, Rainer; Hausamen, Jarg-Erich
In previous intercenter studies on craniofacial morphology in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate, probable surgical-induced changes in mandibular morphology and spatial position related to posterior vertical maxillary morphology were identified by our group. These changes could not be detected in other cephalometric cleft studies because posterior vertical maxillary height and vertical mandibular ramus length were not measured simultaneously. This study presents a modified digital lateral cephalometric hard and soft tissue analysis (Onyx Ceph software, version 2.5.6.; Image Instruments GmbH, Chemnitz, Germany) to evaluate craniofacial morphology and growth patterns in patients with clefts. Forty controls without clefts were used to evaluate the accuracy, reliability, and validity of this analysis for future cleft research. Measurement error according to the method of Bland and Altman was less than 1.00 degrees and 1.00 mm, whereas squared correlation coefficients (r) according to the method of Sackett et al showed a high reliability. Method comparison tests according to the method of Bland and Altman clearly showed that the modified digital cephalometric analysis ("test") was valid for future cleft research compared with the "gold standard" (conventional cephalometry).
Dostálová, S; Smahel, Z; Sonka, K
One hundred and four men with the suspected diagnosis of sleep apnoea syndrome (SAS) not suffering from neuromuscular diseases or acromegaly were examined by X-ray cephalometry. Subjects suffering from bronchial obstruction, laryngeal carcinoma, suspected Treacher Collins syndrome as well as subjects in whom SAS was not verified were excluded. The remaining 81 men were divided into two groups depending upon disease severity as expressed by the mean index of oxygen desaturations per hour (less than 30-group A; more than 30-group B). In group B, the following parameters were significantly altered as compared with group A: dorsocaudal rotation of the mandible, elongation of the soft palate, and an increase of the saddle angle, increase of the angle of the cranial base, the lower gonion angle and the angle of the inclination of the mandible. Differences in the size of the soft palate, the rotation of the mandible and the size of the lower gonion angle can be found not only between healthy and subjects with SAS but also between subjects with mild and severe apnoea.
Kim, Dong-Kyu; Rhee, Chae Seo; Yun, Pil-Young; Kim, Jeong-Whun
No studies for the role of adenotonsillar hypertrophy in development of dentofacial abnormalities have been performed in Asian pediatric population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between adenotonsillar hypertrophy and dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children. The present study included consecutive children who visited a pediatric clinic for sleep-disordered breathing due to habitual mouth breathing, snoring or sleep apnea. Their palatine tonsils and adenoids were graded by oropharyngeal endoscopy and lateral cephalometry. Anterior open bite, posterior crossbite, and Angle's class malocclusions were evaluated for dentofacial abnormality. The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify age cutoffs to predict dentofacial abnormality. A total of 1,083 children were included. The presence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy was significantly correlated with the prevalence of dentofacial abnormality [adjusted odds ratio = 4.587, 95% CI (2.747-7.658)] after adjusting age, sex, body mass index, allergy, and Korean version of obstructive sleep apnea-18 score. The cutoff age associated with dentofacial abnormality was 5.5 years (sensitivity = 75.5%, specificity = 67%) in the children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and 6.5 years (sensitivity = 70.6%, specificity = 57%) in those without adenotonsillar hypertrophy. In conclusion, adenotonsillar hypertrophy may be a risk factor for dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children and early surgical intervention could be considered with regards to dentofacial abnormality.
Hönn, Mirjam; Göz, Gernot
In this review article we examine the question as to which parameters of facial attraction are amenable to measurement and which tools are available to perform these measurements. The evaluation of facial images, artistic standards, cephalometry, and anthropometry are discussed. Furthermore, we consider how the attractiveness of a face is influenced by symmetry, averageness and distinguishing features such as dental esthetics or gender specific characteristics. There is a shared concept of what constitutes an "ideal" face. Anthropometric methods are preferable to cephalometric methods in determining the "ideal" face's dimensions, since anthropometric methods are valid, three-dimensional, non-invasive, suitable for a great variety of purposes, and easy to implement. Symmetry and averageness play important roles in determining the attractiveness of a face; although distinguishing features make it extraordinarily beautiful. Such features make a female face appear both child like and mature as well as expressive. Women's preferences as to what constitutes a particularly attractive male face are controversial, since female observers are greatly influenced by their menstrual cycles or their environment when responding to male faces. Finally, allowance has to be made for the fact that the ideal of beauty is subject to certain fluctuations in fashion.
Slaats, Monique A; Van Hoorenbeeck, Kim; Van Eyck, Annelies; Vos, Wim G; De Backer, Jan W; Boudewyns, An; De Backer, Wilfried; Verhulst, Stijn L
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children is a manifestation of sleep-disordered breathing and associated with a number of complications. Structural narrowing of the upper airway in combination with inadequate compensation for a decrease in neuromuscular tone is an important factor in the pathogenesis. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most important predisposing factor. However, many other causes of craniofacial defects may coexist. Additionally, the pathogenesis of narrowing is more complex in certain subgroups such as children with obesity, craniofacial malformations, Down syndrome or neuromuscular disorders. The diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea is based on an overnight polysomnography. This investigation is expensive, time consuming and not widely available. In view of the major role of structural narrowing, upper airway imaging could be a useful tool for investigating obstructive sleep apnea and in establishing the site(s) of obstruction. Several radiological techniques (lateral neck radiography, cephalometry, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and post-processing of these images using computational fluid dynamics) have been used to investigate the role of structural alterations in the pathogenesis. We reviewed the literature to examine if upper airway imaging could replace polysomnography in making the diagnosis and if imaging could predict the effect of treatment with a focus on adenotonsillectomy. There is a limited number of high quality studies of imaging predicting the effect of treatment. To avoid unnecessary risks and ineffective surgeries, it seems crucial to couple the exact individual anatomical risk factor with the most appropriate treatment. We conclude that imaging could be a non-invasive tool that could assist in selection of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liao, Yu-Fang; Yang, I-Ying; Wang, Ruby; Yun, Claudia; Huang, Chiung-Shing
Two-stage palate repair with delayed hard palate closure is generally advocated because it allows the best possible postoperative maxillary growth. Nevertheless, in the literature, it has been questioned whether maxillary growth is better following use of this protocol. The authors therefore aimed to investigate whether stage of palate repair, one-stage versus two-stage, had a significant effect on facial growth in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Seventy-two patients with nonsyndromic complete unilateral cleft lip and palate operated on by two different protocols for palate repair, one-stage versus two-stage with delayed hard palate closure, and their 223 cephalometric radiographs were available in the retrospective longitudinal study. Clinical notes were reviewed to record treatment histories. Cephalometry was used to determine facial morphology and growth rate. Generalized estimating equations analysis was performed to assess the relationship between (1) facial morphology at age 20 and (2) facial growth rate, and the stage of palate repair. Stage of palate repair had a significant effect on the length and protrusion of the maxilla and the anteroposterior jaw relation at age 20, but not on their growth rates. The data suggest that in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate, two-stage palate repair has a smaller adverse effect than one-stage palate repair on the growth of the maxilla. This stage effect is on the anteroposterior development of the maxilla and is attributable to the development being undisturbed before closure of the hard palate (i.e., hard palate repair timing specific).
Hsieh, Cindy Hsin-Yi; Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Huang, Chiung-Shing
Gingivoperiosteoplasty performed at the time of lip repair of cleft patients is one kind of alveolar repair. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of gingivoperiosteoplasty on facial growth of patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Retrospective study. Sixty-two consecutive patients with nonsyndromic complete unilateral cleft lip/palate with 5-year-olds' record were included in this retrospective study. All the patients had received nasoalveolar molding treatment before cheiloplasty at the age of 3 to 6 months. Twenty-six patients had gingivoperiosteoplasty performed at the time of cheiloplasty and function as the GPP group. Thirty-six patients did not have gingivoperiosteoplasty at the time of cheiloplasty and function as the non-GPP group. Cephalometry was used to evaluate the facial growth at 5 years of age in the two groups of patients. Gingivoperiosteoplasty had significant effects on the maxillary position (SNA), intermaxillary position (ANB), maxillary length (PMP-ANS), and maxillary alveolar length (PMP-A) at the age of 5 years. The SNA and ANB angles were larger in non-GPP group than in the GPP group by 3.0 degrees and 2.6 degrees , respectively. The maxillary length (PMP-ANS) and maxillary alveolar length (PMP-A) were larger in the non-GPP group than in the GPP group by 2.1 and 2.9 mm, respectively. In patients with UCLP, the sagittal growth of the maxilla would be affected more adversely in the GPP group than in the non-GPP group at the age of 5 years.
Borges, Paulo de Tarso M; Filho, Edson Santos Ferreira; Araujo, Telma Maria Evangelista de; Neto, Jose Machado Moita; Borges, Nubia Evangelista de Sa; Neto, Baltasar Melo; Campelo, Viriato; Paschoal, Jorge Rizzato; Li, Li M
Summary Introduction: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) often have associated changes in craniofacial morphology and distribution of body fat, either alone or in combination. Aim: To correlate cephalometric and anthropometric measures with OSAHS severity by using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Method: A retrospective cephalometry study of 93 patients with OSAHS was conducted from July 2010 to July 2012. The following measurements were evaluated: body mass index (BMI), neck circumference (NC), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), the angles formed by the cranial base and the maxilla (SNA) and the mandible (SNB), the difference between SNA and SNB (ANB), the distance from the mandibular plane to the hyoid bone (MP-H), the space between the base of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall (PAS), and the distance between the posterior nasal spine and the tip of the uvula (PNS-P). Means, standard deviations, and Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated and analyzed. Results: AHI correlated significantly with BMI (r = 0.207, p = 0.047), NC (r = 0.365, p = 0.000), WC (r = 0.337, p = 0.001), PNS-P (r = 0.282, p = 0.006), and MP-H (r = 0.235, p = 0.023). Conclusion: Anthropometric measurements (BMI, NC, and WC) and cephalometric measurements (MP-H and PNS-P) can be used as predictors of OSAHS severity. PMID:25992029
Piccin, Chaiane Facco; Pozzebon, Daniela; Scapini, Fabricio; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues
Introduction Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. Objective The objective of this study is to verify the craniofacial characteristics and craniocervical posture of OSA and healthy subjects, determining possible relationships with the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI). Methods This case-control study evaluated 21 subjects with OSA, who comprised the OSA group (OSAG), and 21 healthy subjects, who constituted the control group (CG). Cephalometry analyzed head posture measurements, craniofacial measurements, and air space. Head posture was also assessed by means of photogrammetry. Results The groups were homogeneous regarding gender (12 men and 9 women in each group), age (OSAG = 41.86 ± 11.26 years; GC = 41.19 ± 11.20 years), and body mass index (OSAG = 25.65 ± 2.46 kg/m2; CG = 24.72 ± 3.01 kg/m2). We found significant differences between the groups, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance between the hyoid bone and the mandibular plane in OSAG, when compared with CG. A positive correlation was found between higher head hyperextension and head anteriorization, with greater severity of OSA as assessed by AHI. Conclusion OSAG subjects showed changes in craniofacial morphology, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance from the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane, as compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, in OSA subjects, the greater the severity of OSA, the greater the head hyperextension and anteriorization. PMID:27413397
Lee, Dong Won; Ham, Ki Weon; Kwon, Soon Man; Lew, Dae Hyun; Cho, Eul Je
Rigid external distraction osteogenesis is regarded as a standard treatment for congenital midfacial hypoplasia. However, external distraction for the upper portion of the midface is not as effective and tends to rotate the midfacial segment in a counterclockwise direction. Moreover, patients poorly tolerate it because of the device's bulkiness. To prevent such drawbacks of an external distractor, both external and internal distractors were synchronously applied to patients with Crouzon syndrome. In 6 patients with Crouzon syndrome in whom a dual-distraction technique was applied, distraction of the midfacial region was performed for up to a mean length of 15.3 mm. The external distractor was removed after a 1-month consolidation period, but the internal distractor was maintained for more than 6 months. The degree of advancement of the midface and ossification was measured with lateral cephalometry and 3-dimensional computed tomography imaging, respectively. At long-term follow-up (mean, 4.6 years), the facial contours retained the initial distraction geometry with almost no relapse, showing that the ideal facial contour and occlusion could be obtained. Bone deposition was found to be continually progressing even 6 months postoperatively, and more than 6 months of consolidation was required for complete ossification that mainly occurred in the pterygomaxillary junction and lateral orbital wall. The dual-distraction technique can induce balanced growth without the recurrence of hypoplasia, and it may eventually yield satisfactory outcomes in Crouzon syndrome. Copyright Â© 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cossellu, Gianguido; Biagi, Roberto; Sarcina, Michele; Mortellaro, Carmen; Farronato, Giampietro
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) represents a frequent and common respiratory disease characterized by repeated episodes of complete and/or partial obstruction of upper airways during sleep, normally associated with reduction of oxygen saturation in blood. The oral appliances (OAs) are considered to be an effective treatment modality thanks to the upper airway enlargement. Lateral cephalometry has been used for the 2-dimensional evaluation of upper airway form with several limits. We obtained an accurate 3-dimensional (3D) volume analyses with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans to confirm the effects of OA on the upper airway in patients with OSAS. Ten Italian patients with moderate or severe OSA (3 males and 7 females, 53.4 ± 11.3 years of age, and BMI 24.5 ± 2.7), who cannot tolerate continuous positive air pressure therapy and rejected a surgical approach, were treated with non-adjustable customized OAs and evaluated with CBCT and polysomnography. Upper airway form was examined in the presence and absence of OA and the volume was measured and compared in 2 different areas. Specific planes have been considered to match the data and calculate the benefit obtained with therapy. Nine out of ten patients showed an improvement of total upper airway volume and an improvement in apnea-hypopnea index. Volume increased both in the posterior soft palate region and in the posterior tongue region. In the inferior area, we observed greater differences. 3D image reconstruction accurately confirmed morphological changes in the upper airway during OA therapy. The use of this 3D evaluation is expected to improve the results of OA therapy in the future.
Xi, Tong; Schreurs, Ruud; van Loon, Bram; de Koning, Martien; Bergé, Stefaan; Hoppenreijs, Theo; Maal, Thomas
A major concern in mandibular advancement surgery using bilateral sagittal split osteotomies (BSSO) is potential postoperative relapse. Although the role of postoperative changes in condylar morphology on skeletal relapse was reported in previous studies, no study so far has objectified the precise changes of the condylar volume. The aim of the present study was to quantify the postoperative volume changes of condyles and its role on skeletal stability following BSSO mandibular advancement surgery. A total of 56 patients with mandibular hypoplasia who underwent BSSO advancement surgery were prospectively enrolled into the study. A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan was acquired preoperatively, at 1 week postoperatively and at 1 year postoperatively. After the segmentation of the facial skeleton and condyles, three-dimensional cephalometry and condylar volume analysis were performed. The mean mandibular advancement was 4.6 mm, and the mean postoperative relapse was 0.71 mm. Of 112 condyles, 55% showed a postoperative decrease in condylar volume, with a mean reduction of 105 mm(3) (6.1% of the original condylar volume). The magnitude of condylar remodelling (CR) was significantly correlated with skeletal relapse (p = 0.003). Patients with a CR greater than 17% of the original condylar volume exhibited relapse as seen in progressive condylar resorption. Female patients with a high mandibular angle who exhibited postoperative CR were particularly at risk for postoperative relapse. Gender, preoperative condylar volume, and downward displacement of pogonion at surgery were prognostic factors for CR (r(2) = 21%). It could be concluded that the condylar volume can be applied as a useful 3D radiographic parameter for the diagnosis and follow-up of postoperative skeletal relapse and progressive condylar resorption.
Liao, Yu-Fang; Lee, Ying-Hsin; Wang, Ruby; Huang, Chiung-Shing; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Lo, Lun-Jou; Chen, Yu-Ray
Vomer flap repair is assumed to improve maxillary growth because of reduced scarring in growth-sensitive areas of the palate. Our aim was to evaluate whether facial growth in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate was significantly affected by the technique of hard palate repair (vomer flap versus two-flap). For this retrospective longitudinal study, we analyzed 334 cephalometric radiographs from 95 patients with nonsyndromic complete unilateral cleft lip and palate who underwent hard palate repair by two different techniques (vomer flap versus two-flap). Clinical notes were reviewed to record treatment histories. Cephalometry was used to determine facial morphology and growth rate. The associations among facial morphology at age 20, facial growth rate, and technique of hard palate repair were assessed using generalized estimating equation analysis. The hard palate repair technique significantly influenced protrusion of the maxilla (SNA: β = -3.5°, 95 % CI = -5.2-1.7; p = 0.001) and the anteroposterior jaw relation (ANB: β = -4.2°, 95 % CI = -6.4-1.9; p = 0.001; Wits: β = -5.7 mm, 95 % CI = -9.6-1.2; p = 0.01) at age 20, and their growth rates (SNA p = 0.001, ANB p < 0.01, and Wits p = 0.02). The results suggest that in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate, vomer flap repair has a smaller adverse effect than two-flap on growth of the maxilla. This effect on maxillary growth is on the anteroposterior development of the alveolar maxilla and is progressive with age. We now perform hard palate closure with vomer flap followed by soft palate closure using Furlow palatoplasty. These findings may improve treatment outcome by modifying the treatment protocol for patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate.
Hosseinzadeh Nik, Tahereh; Janbaz Aciyabar, Pejman
For determining the cervical column curvature, the curve fitting method is the most precise method, but using this method in clinic seems to be difficult if not possible. In this study, we used a modification of cervical column inclination angle that has been already mentioned The aim of this study was to evaluate the posture and curvature of the cervical column introducing a modified constructed angle in order to evaluate the cervical column curvature in a relax position in relation to the jaws sagittal position. The lateral cephalometries of patients with no anomaly were taken in the natural head position. The mean age of the patients was 13.49 years including 56 female and 44 male. Steiner and Wits analysis was used to evaluate the sagittal position of the jaws. Modified constructed CVT/HOR and OPT/HOR angles were used to evaluate the cervical column posture and curvature. Patients were classified into three groups according to the angle's classification. The results showed a significant positive correlation between modified constructed angles and sagittal jaw relationships (P < 0.05). Besides, in class II patients, there was a significant correlation between OPT/HOR and parameters ANB and Wits (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Age could not affect the curvature and posture of the cervical column. According to the result of this study using modified constructed angles may be a simple method for evaluation of the relation between cervical column curvature and sagittal position of the jaws. There is significant correlation between cervical column posture angles and parameters ANB and Wits in Cl. II patients.
van Vlijmen, Olivier J C; Kuijpers, Mette A R; Bergé, Stefaan J; Schols, Jan G J H; Maal, Thomas J J; Breuning, Hero; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie
The authors conducted a systematic review of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) applications in orthodontics and evaluated the level of evidence to determine whether the use of CBCT is justified in orthodontics. The authors identified articles by searching the Cochrane Library, PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases. They searched the articles' reference lists manually for additional articles and had no language limitations. They did not search the gray literature. Inclusion criteria were CBCT use in orthodontics and that the participants be human. The lowest level of evidence accepted for inclusion was a case series with five or more participants. The authors evaluated the studies' methodological quality according to 13 criteria related to study design, measurements and statistical analysis. The authors identified 550 articles, and 50 met the inclusion criteria. Study topics included temporary anchorage devices, cephalometry, combined orthodontic and surgical treatment, airway measurements, root resorption and tooth impactions, and cleft lip and palate. The methodological quality averaged 53 percent (range, 15-77 percent) of the maximum score. The authors found no high-quality evidence regarding the benefits of CBCT use in orthodontics. Limited evidence shows that CBCT offers better diagnostic potential, leads to better treatment planning or results in better treatment outcome than do conventional imaging modalities. Only the results of studies on airway diagnostics provided sound scientific data suggesting that CBCT use has added value. The additional radiation exposure should be weighed against possible benefits of CBCT, which have not been supported in the literature. In future studies, investigators should evaluate the effects of CBCT on treatment procedures, progression and outcome quantitatively.
Bondemark, Lars; Lilja-Karlander, Eva
The aims of this systematic review were to identify the study designs and topics of Swedish orthodontic articles, to elucidate their international position, and to verify in which scientific journals the articles had been published in the past decade. A search of the Medline database for papers published between 1992 and 2002 was made using the Medical Search Heading terms 'orthodontics', 'malocclusion', 'cephalometry', and 'facial bones and growth'. Two independent reviewers selected the articles of Swedish origin and categorized each article according to research design and principal topic. Overall, 15,571 articles in orthodontic research were found, and the Swedish contribution was 1.9% with the majority of these (71.5%) being submitted by universities. Most of the Swedish articles (84.5%) had been published in 10 journals and many high-quality studies with orthodontic interest were published in non-orthodontic journals with higher impact factor scores than the orthodontic journals. Every second study was prospective, and of these, 15 (5.2% of all Swedish articles) were randomized clinical trials (RCTs). It was found that nearly every third study, prospective as well as retrospective, was uncontrolled. The main classification was treatment studies (51.9%), followed by development (18.6%) and diagnostic information (10.7%) studies. Thus, the majority of the articles evaluated therapeutic interventions; however, although the RCT is the preferred study design in evaluation studies, few used this method. In an era focused on evidence-based medicine, studies with an RCT design will be the future challenge for research in the field of orthodontics.
Miller, Nicola A; Gregory, Jennifer S; Semple, Scott I K; Aspden, Richard M; Stollery, Peter J; Gilbert, Fiona J
Traditional voice research focuses on the vocal tract, articulators, and larynx. By ignoring their direct/indirect attachments (skull, cervical spine, and sternum) important information may be missed. We aim to investigate vocal structures within this wider context and assess the validity of this approach for subsequent voice production studies. Using a cross-sectional study design, we obtained midsagittal MR images from 10 healthy adults (five males and five females) while at rest and breathing quietly. With reference points based on cephalometry, 17 craniocervical, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior variables were chosen to describe craniofacial morphology, craniocervical posture, and airway dimensions. Relationships between variables were sought using Pearson's correlation coefficient. We found widespread correlations relating vocal structures to the craniofacial skeleton and cervical spine (r>0.6). Increasing airway size (hyocervical distance) was associated with greater distances from the cranial base of the hyoid, larynx, epiglottis tip and uvula tip, and of C3 from the menton. A wider velopharyngeal opening was associated with a shorter and higher soft palate, and a greater (lower) craniocervical angle was associated with a wider laryngeal tube opening, narrower airway at the uvula tip and shorter distances of the hyoid and uvula tip from the cranial base. Finding widespread correlations relating vocal structures to the craniofacial skeleton and cervical spine confirms the potential of this approach to uncover functional activity during voice production and demonstrates the importance of considering vocal structures and the airway within this wider context if important information is not to be missed. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Jacquet, W; Nyssen, E; Bottenberg, P; de Groen, P; Vande Vannet, B
Objectives The aim was to introduce a novel alignment criterion, focus mutual information (FMI), for the superimposition of lateral cephalometric radiographs and three dimensional (3D) cone beam computed images as well as the assessment of the alignment characteristics of the new method and comparison of the novel methodology with the region of interest (ROI) approach. Methods Implementation of a FMI criterion-based methodology that only requires the approximate indication of stable structures in one single image. The robustness of the method was first addressed in a phantom experiment comparing the new technique with a ROI approach. Two consecutive cephalometric radiographs were then obtained, one before and one after functional twin block application. These images were then superimposed using alignment by FMI where the following were focused on, in several ways: (1) cranial base and acoustic meatus, (2) palatal plane and (3) mandibular symphysis. The superimposed images were subtracted and coloured. The applicability to cone beam CT (CBCT) is illustrated by the alignment of CBCT images acquired before and after craniofacial surgery. Results The phantom experiment clearly shows superior alignment when compared to the ROI approach (Wilcoxon n = 17, Z = −3.290, and P = 0.001), and robustness with respect to the choice of parameters (one-sample t-test n = 50, t = −12.355, and P = 0.000). The treatment effects are revealed clearly in the subtraction image of well-aligned cephalometric radiographs. The colouring scheme of the subtraction image emphasises the areas of change and visualizes the remodelling of the soft tissue. Conclusions FMI allows for cephalometry without tracing, it avoids the error inherent to the use of landmarks and the interaction of the practitioner is kept to a minimum. The robustness to focal distribution variations limits the influence of possible examiner inaccuracy. PMID:20395459
Kwon, Dong Rak
-The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in skull shape on sonography after cranial molding helmet therapy in infants with deformational plagiocephaly. -Twenty-six infants who were treated with cranial molding helmet therapy were recruited. Caliper and sonographic measurements were performed. The lateral length of the affected and unaffected sides of the skull and cranial vault asymmetry index were measured with calipers. The occipital angle, defined as the angle between lines projected along the lambdoid sutures of the skull, was calculated by sonography. The occipital angle difference and occipital angle ratio were also measured. All caliper and sonographic measurements were performed in each infant twice before and twice after treatment. -The study group included 12 male and 14 female infants with a mean age ± SD of 6.2 ± 3.5 months. The mean treatment duration was 6.0 ± 2.5 months. The difference in lateral length before and after helmet therapy was significantly greater on the affected skull than the unaffected skull (16.7 ± 12.7 versus 9.0 ± 13.4 mm; P < .01). The difference in the occipital angle before and after helmet therapy was significantly greater on the affected skull than the unaffected skull (-5.7° ± 7.3° versus 4.2° ± 7.9°; P < .01). The cranial vault asymmetry index and occipital angle ratio were significantly reduced after helmet therapy (cranial vault asymmetry index, 9.3% ± 2.3% versus 3.5% ± 3.0%; occipital angle ratio, 1.07 ± 0.05 versus 1.01 ± 0.01; P < .05). -These results suggest that occipital angle measurements using sonography, combined with cephalometry, could provide a better understanding of the therapeutic effects of cranial molding helmet therapy in infants with deformational plagiocephaly. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Menezes, John M; Stutman, Ross L; Murphy, Patrick S; Stephenson, Linda L; Zamboni, William A
Although most cleft palates can be closed with conventional mucoperiosteal flap techniques, the occasional wide cleft or difficult fistula has few options for an early 1-stage reconstruction. Distraction osteogenesis (DO) has the potential to close the palate with both hard and soft tissues as well as mitigating the possibility of future oronasal fistula. A right unilateral 5-mm cleft was surgically created in 15 New Zealand white rabbits. In group 1 (N = 5), no further repair was performed (NR); in group 2 (N = 5), mucoperiosteal flaps were used to close the cleft for a soft-tissue-only repair (STR); in group 3 (N = 5), a unilateral osteotomy in the palate on the noncleft side allowed distraction of the palatal shelf across the cleft until closed (DO). Clinical examination, Micro-computed tomography bone density, direct cephalometry, and histology were evaluated at 8 weeks after the completion of distraction. Bone mineral density (BMD; mg/mL) data were obtained from micro-computed tomography scans of both the cleft and noncleft sides for each rabbit, and a ratio was obtained [(BMDc/BMDnc) x100]; NR = 1.38, STR = 44.27, DO = 88.36, P = 0.007. Facial measurements revealed no growth disturbances as a result of DO. Histologic evaluation revealed increased organization of new bone in DO group compared with NR and STR. Clinically, DO group rabbits did not show any increase in feeding disturbances, infection, or wound healing. The success of membranous facial bone distraction has been applied to a new model for palatal repair with the potential to ameliorate the problems associated with soft-tissue-only repair.
Goto, Shota; Fujita, Yuko; Hotta, Maika; Sugiyama, Ayako; Maki, Kenshi
To examine the effects of a soft diet and a low-calcium diet on the craniofacial growth and bone architectures of the maxilla and mandible. Male rats (n = 20, 3 weeks old) were divided into four groups. Ten rats were given a normal-calcium diet, and the other rats were given a low-calcium diet. Each group was then divided into two subgroups, which were fed a hard or a soft diet. After 4 weeks, craniofacial growth and architecture in maxillary and mandibular bone were analyzed using cephalometry, micro-computed tomography, and histopathology. The low-calcium diet had no effect on serum calcium levels. The low-calcium diet had the greatest effect on craniofacial bone growth, while the soft diet affected the growth of several bone sites that are attached to the masseter muscle. A low-calcium diet resulted in the deterioration of the connectivity of the trabeculae in the furcation region of the maxillary and mandibular first molar, while a soft diet resulted in the diffuse disappearance of trabeculae in the central part of the furcation regions. In the midpalatal suture, a low-calcium diet resulted in inhibition of cartilaginous ossification, although the midpalatal suture had a normal cartilaginous structure. A soft diet resulted in narrower cartilage cell layers in the midpalatal suture. We demonstrated that a low-calcium diet and a soft diet resulted in a deterioration of bone structures in both the maxilla and in the mandible; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects differed between diets.
Koh, Kyung S; Han, Woo Yeon; Jeong, Woo Shik; Oh, Tae Suk; Kwon, Sun Man; Choi, Jong Woo
Severe forms of bilateral cleft lip and palate remain a challenging issue. Although nasoalveolar molding dramatically improves overall treatment success, the position of the premaxilla often remains dislocated. The authors attempted to relocate the malpositioned premaxilla into the correct position to obtain the correct three-dimensional (3D) maxillary arch structure and growth. Eight patients with severe bilateral cleft lip and palate were treated with premaxillary osteotomy for premaxilla repositioning. The position of the premaxilla was measured directly using cephalometry. Two raters including orthodontists evaluated the 3D (anteroposterior, transverse, and sagittal) outcomes. Regarding the long-term effects of premaxillary repositioning on midfacial growth, 3D computed tomography scan data were used, including the measurement of the SNA, SNB, and ANB angles according to the time period (T0: preoperative; T1: immediate postoperative; T2: long-term postoperative). All bilateral cleft lips and palates were satisfactorily repaired without any complications, including any premaxillary vascular compromise, nonunion, and occlusal instability. The average visual analog scale scores (0-5) of the anteroposterior, vertical, and transverse dimensions were 3.9, 3.7, and 3.2, respectively. Regarding the effect of premaxillary repositioning on midfacial hypoplasia, the change in the ANB between T1 and T2 was not significant, implying that premaxillary repositioning did not affect the long-term harmony between the maxilla and mandible (ANB of T2-T1: P = 0.1016) based on interim growth data at the time of follow-up and study completion. Premaxillary repositioning effectively corrected the malpositioned premaxilla and repaired the accompanying wide alveolar cleft, achieving successful restoration of maxillary arch coordination. In addition, premaxillary osteotomy after 8 years of age does not seem to cause significant maxillary retrusion.
Sun, Wei; Zhou, Li; Bai, Ding; Zhao, Mei-Ying
To study the incisal jaw morphology of subjects with normal occlusion and to discuss the relationship between different vertical facial skeletal types and different incisal jaw cluster types. After studied by radiographic cephalometry, the incisal jaw morphology of 169 subjects with normal occlusion in early permanent dentition were analyzed by K-mean cluster analysis. Morphology of maxillary or mandibular incisal jaws could be divided into four types separately, including division I, division II, division III and division N. In maxilla or in mandible, the incisal jaw morphology of division I was characterized by wideness and shortness. In contrast, division II was characterized by thinness and length. As for division III and division IV, both of two were intermediate types between division I and division II . In maxilla, it was found that division II was the majority (86.49%) in the high-angle subjects, division III was the majority (47.67%) in the average-angle subjects, and division I and III were the majority (82.61%) in the low-angle subjects. In mandible, it was found that division II was the majority (51.35%) in the high-angle subjects, division IV was the majority (48.84%) in the average-angle subjects, and division III and IV were the majority (69.57%) in the low-angle subjects. Owing to the obvious characteristics of morphology in each cluster types and in each vertical facial skeletal types, different clinic considerations must be put forward when we want to move the incisor.
Pelttari, L; Polo, O; Rauhala, E; Vuoriluoto, J; Aitasalo, K; Hyyppä, M T; Kronholm, E; Irjala, K; Viikari, J
The incidence of sleep apnoea is increased in acromegaly. The aim of the study was to determine the occurrence of nocturnal breathing abnormalities and upper airway morphology in acromegalic patients some years after adenomectomy. A case-control study. Eleven patients with treated acromegaly and two control groups: (1) sleep studies: 197 subjects randomly selected from the population, (2) cephalometry: 27 healthy subjects and 17 patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Nocturnal breathing was monitored with a static charge-sensitive bed. The upper airway soft tissues and bone morphology were assessed by cephalometric X-ray photography. The upper airway collapsibility was investigated with dynamic nasopharyngoscopy. Endocrinological investigations were also performed. Nocturnal breathing abnormalities were present in all but one acromegalic patient (91%), which was far more frequent than in the general population (29.4%, P < 0.0001). Treated acromegaly was the most powerful predictor of breathing abnormalities, independent of the other significant predictors, age and body mass index. The predominant breathing abnormality was periodic breathing with symmetrically waxing and waning respiratory effort without a major body movement component. Episodes of complete obstruction with repetitive arousals were rare. Except for the longer soft palate, the cephalometric findings were similar to normal. In comparison to obstructive sleep apnoea, the treated acromegalic patients had rather prognathic than retrognathic mandibles. Fibreoptic endoscopy in the acromegalic patients revealed collapsible upper airways at the level of the soft palate, whereas at the base of the tongue little, if any, dynamic narrowing was observed. Our study confirms that nocturnal breathing abnormalities are common in treated acromegaly, and may persist years after the removal of the GH secreting tumour. The breathing abnormalities and the upper airway morphology in acromegalic patients after
Lee, Ui Lyong; Oh, Hoon; Min, Sang Ki; Shin, Ji Ho; Kang, Yong Seok; Lee, Won Wook; Han, Young Eun; Choi, Young Jun; Kim, Hyun Jik
Abstract Bimaxillary surgery is the traditional treatment of choice for correcting class III malocclusion which is reported to cause an alteration of oropharyngeal structures and upper airway narrowing that might be a predisposing factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to analyze sleep parameters in class III malocclusion subjects and ascertain the prevalence of snoring or OSA following bimaxillary surgery. A total of 22 patients with Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback for class III malocclusion were prospectively enrolled. All patients received endoscopic examination, cephalometry, 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT), and sleep study twice at 1 month before and 3 months after surgery. The patient population consisted of 5 males and 17 females with a mean body mass index of 22.5 kg/m2 and mean age of 22.1 years. No patients complained of sleep-related symptoms, and the results of sleep study showed normal values before surgery. Three patients (13%) were newly diagnosed with mild or moderate OSA and 6 patients (27%) showed increased loudness of snoring (over 40 dB) after bimaxillary surgery. According to cephalometric analysis and 3D-CT results, the retropalatal and retroglossal areas were significantly narrowed in class III malocclusion patients, showing snoring and sleep apnea after surgery. In addition, the total volume of the upper airway was considerably reduced following surgery in the same patients. Postoperative narrowing of the upper airway and a reduction of total upper airway volume can be induced, and causes snoring and OSA in class III malocclusion subjects following bimaxillary surgery. PMID:28562535
Wang, Guomin; Wang, Ke; Chen, Yang; Yang, Yusheng; Wu, Yilai; Jiang, Liping; Xu, Haiosng; Salyer, Kenneth E
Speech disorders are the most common presentations of patients with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and are difficult to be treated with very good treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical diagnosis and outcomes of sequential treatment of therapy for VCFS. A retrospective study of 120 patients (ages ranged from 4.3 to 38 years old, with a mean age of 10.2 years) was conducted and thoroughly reviewed retrospectively oral speech evaluation, oral examinations, and lateral cephalometry of 33 patients. Comparison was made in 33 patients (age range, 4-17 years; mean age, 7.24 years); patients were compared with and age-matched controls, using IQ scores and speech intelligibility tests. A Chinese speech intelligibility test and blowing test were also used to evaluate the outcomes of modified pharyngeal flap surgery, behavioral therapy, and speech therapy. The average age of the primary diagnosis for VCFS was 13.9 years. No cleft palate and reduced mobility in pharyngeal function were found by oral examination. Speech intelligibility in the 33 patients with VCFS was 33%, with an average IQ test score of 67. Chinese speech intelligibility of 33 patients who underwent pharyngoplasty and speech therapy was improved from 47% to 98%, and the duration of blowing test increased from 17 to 38 seconds. The average length of therapy period was estimated to be 8 months. Hypernasality and reduced mobility in palate and pharyngeal structures of VCFS patients could be measured with Chinese speech intelligibility test and blowing tests. The pharyngeal flap surgery and the behavioral therapy are proved to be an effective protocol for VCFS.
Andlin Sobocki, Anna; Tehrani, David; Skoog, Valdemar
This retrospective, long-term study evaluated the influence of two different treatment protocols, one including infant periosteoplasty, on facial growth and occlusion in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP). Thirty-five patients with records of 5-, 8- and 16-19-year-olds were included. Sixteen of these received infant periosteoplasty (BCLP-pp) to the cleft alveolus in conjunction with lip repair and a one-stage closure of the palate. The remaining 19 patients with a two-stage closure of the palate did not have an infant periosteoplasty (BCLP-np). The bone formation induced by periosteoplasty in the BCLP-np group was insufficient and both groups had secondary bone grafting to the alveolar clefts before the eruption of the lateral incisor or the canine. Facial growth was evaluated with cephalometry at the recorded ages and dental arch relationships with the Huddart and Bodenham crossbite scores at the age of 16-19 years. Until 19 years a significant retrusion of the maxillary position (SNA) was observed in both groups. At 16-19 years of age there was no significant difference of maxillary protrusion (SNA), intermaxillary position (ANB), maxillary length (ss-pm) or vertical skeletal relationships (ML/NSL, Ml/NL) between the two groups. However, a significant difference of the crossbite scores was found. The BCLP-pp group did not show more facial growth problems but more malocclusion and the insufficient bone formation of the alveolar clefts after infant periosteoplasty required a secondary bone grafting.
Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Manfredini, Daniele; Mion, Marta; Heir, Gary; Marchese-Ragona, Rosario
Aims: The aim of this review is to summarize data from the literature on the predictive value of anatomy-based parameters, as identified by cephalometry, for the efficacy of mandibular advancement devices (MAD) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Articles were initially selected based on their titles or abstracts. Full articles were then retrieved and further scrutinized according to predetermined criteria. Reference lists of selected articles were searched for any missed publications. The selected articles were methodologically evaluated. Results: Of an initial 311 references, 13 were selected that assessed correlations between polysomnographic and cephalometric variables. The majority of studies demonstrated a correlation between treatment effectiveness and features as determined by cephalometric analysis, such as the mandibular plane angle, hyoid bone distance to mandible, antero-posterior diameter of the maxilla, tongue area, cranial base, and soft palate. Conclusions: The mandibular plane angle and the distance between hyoid bone and mandibular plane was found to have a predictive value for MAD effectiveness in OSA patients. However, the relative weak and somewhat inconsistent cephalometric data suggest that decisions based solely on these factors cannot be recommended, especially because an integrated analysis of other risk factors (e.g., age, sex, BMI) should also be taken into account. Citation: Guarda-Nardini L, Manfredini D, Mion M, Heir G, Marchese-Ragona R. Anatomically based outcome predictors of treatment for obstructive sleep apnea with intraoral splint devices: a systematic review of cephalometric studies. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1327–1334. PMID:25979102
Naughton, Matthew T.; Monteith, Brian D.; Manton, David J.; Dever, Paul; Schachter, Linda M.; O'Brien, Paul E.; Dixon, John B.
Rationale: Obesity is a major risk factor towards the development of obstructive sleep apnea, while significant weight loss (both conservatively managed and surgically assisted) has a variable effect upon its severity. Differences in the effect of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea may be due to underlying craniofacial characteristics. Objectives: To determine whether craniofacial characteristics can predict OSA treatment response to significant weight loss. Methods: We analyzed craniofacial measurements from lateral cephalograms performed at baseline on 57 patients enrolled in a previously reported 2-year randomized clinical weight loss trial (laparoscopic adjustable gastric band surgery versus conservatively [dietician and very low calorie diet] treated). Group mean weight loss was ∼ 13% (mean weight loss 131 to 114 kg), with corresponding reduction in mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) from 61 to 41 events/h. Computer assisted lateral cephalogram analysis was undertaken by three trained staff blinded to treatment. We analyzed lateral cephalogram and demographic data at baseline (cross-sectional) and change over two years (interventional) in 54 patients. Measurements and Main Results: Baseline cross-sectional analysis indicated no cephalometric measurement correlated significantly with baseline AHI when corrected for neck circumference. The percentage change in AHI over 2 years correlated with a shorter menton-gonion distance (i.e., mandibular body length). The % change in AHI correlated with the % weight change (R2 = 0.25, p < 0.001) and mandibular body length (R2 = 0.19, p = 0.002). The % change in AHI correlated with combined weight change and mandibular body length (combined R2 = 0.31, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Weight loss as a therapeutic option for severe OSA with severe obesity may be predicted by shorter mandibular body length as measured by lateral cephalometry. Citation: Naughton MT, Monteith BD, Manton DJ, Dever P, Schachter LM, O'Brien PE, Dixon JB
Cibrián, Rosa; Gandia, Jose L.; Paredes, Vanessa
Objectives: CBCT systems, with their high precision 3D reconstructions, 1:1 images and accuracy in locating cephalometric landmarks, allows us to evaluate measurements from craniofacial structures, so enabling us to replace the anthropometric methods or bidimensional methods used until now. The aims are to analyse cranio-facial relationships in a sample of patients who had previously undergone a CBCT and create a new 3D cephalometric method for assessing and measuring patients. Study Design: 90 patients who had a CBCT (i-Cat®) as a diagnostic register were selected. 12 cephalometric landmarks on the three spatial planes (X,Y,Z) were defined and 21 linear measurements were established. Using these measurements, 7 triangles were described and analysed. With the sides of the triangles: (CdR-Me-CdL); (FzR-Me-FzL); (GoR-N-GoL); and the Gl-Me distance, the ratios between them were analysed. In addition, 4 triangles in the mandible were measured (body: GoR-DB-Me and GoL-DB-Me and ramus: KrR-CdR-GoR and KrL-CdL-GoL). Results: When analyzing the sides of the CdR-Me-CdL triangle, it was found that the 69.33% of the patients could be considered symmetric. Regarding the ratios between the sides of the following triangles: CdR-Me-CdL, FzR-Me-FzL, GoR-N-GoL and the Gl-Me distance, it was found that almost all ratios were close to 1:1 except between the CdR-CdL side with respect the rest of the sides. With regard to the ratios of the 4 triangles of the mandible, it was found that the most symmetrical relationships were those corresponding to the sides of the body of the mandible and the most asymmetrical ones were those corresponding to the base of such triangles. Conclusions: A new method for assessing cranio-facial relationshps using CBCT has been established. It could be used for diverse purposes including diagnosis and treatment planning. Key words:Craniofacial relationship, CBCT, 3D cephalometry. PMID:23524427
Sorrenti, G; Piccin, O; Latini, G; Scaramuzzino, G; Mondini, S; Rinaldi Ceroni, A
Tongue suspension with Kit Repose is a surgical mini-invasive end-oral technique used in treatment of rear tongue obstruction. The base of the tongue is anchored with a non-reabsorbable suture, held in place with a titanium screw, to the mandible in correspondence to the geni apophysis of the mandible: this loop should prevent the tongue, during sleep, from dropping backwards, favoured also by gravity and hypotonicity of the genioglossus muscle. Aim of this report is to focus on the results of our experience in 15 patients presenting obstructive sleep apnea submitted to uvulopalatopharyngoplasty associated with tongue suspension, using the Kit Response bone screw system (Influent Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA). Mean age of patients was 50.5 years (range 36-66), with mean RDI (apnoea/hypopnea index) of 44.47 (range 23-63) and mean body mass index of 28.27 (range 22.6-34.4). Scrupulous clinical evaluation, including endoscopy and cephalometry, revealed a pharyngeal obstruction both retro palatal and retro lingual. Clinical and polysonnographic examinations were carried out 4-6 months after surgery. Patients were considered responders if the RDI had decreased by 50% and below 20, with disappearance of subjective symptoms (snoring, daytime sleepiness). Polysonnographic examination showed, overall, good results with mean reduction of RDI from 44.5 to 24.2 (45% reduction); albeit, only 6 cases could be considered surgically successful; 4 cases (26.6%) showed improvement whereas the remaining 5 (33.4%) failed to present any significant change in RDI. Even if the technique was, indeed, mini-invasive, rapidly performed and lacked significant complications, the results were not, in our opinion, encouraging, bearing in mind the high cost of the kit and limited stability of the results over time. Better results can be obtained by advancement of the genioglossus associated with hyoid suspension, whereas, of the mini-invasive techniques, promising outcomes would appear feasible
Kuster, R; Ingervall, B
The treatment of anterior skeletal open bite was studied in two groups of children. The children of one group wore a removable spring-loaded bite-block in the lower jaw for one year. The bite-block exerted an intrusive force on the upper and lower posterior teeth. The children of the other group were treated for 3 months with bite-blocks with repelling magnets. These bite-blocks were cemented on the posterior teeth of both jaws. The effects of treatment were monitored by measurement of the bite-force (group with spring bite-blocks only), by electromyographic recording of the activity of the temporal and masseter muscles, and by X-ray cephalometry. Recordings were made before, during, and at the end of the treatment, and at a follow-up observation. The bite-force increased during the first months of treatment, but was then unchanged. The activity of the masseter muscle during maximal bite also increased in the first part of the period of treatment with a spring bite-block. In the group treated with magnetic bite-blocks, there was an increase in the resting activity of the masseter muscle and in the chewing activity of the anterior temporal muscle. The effects of the treatment on bite and facial morphology were less marked in the group with spring bite-blocks than in the group with magnetic bite-blocks, with an average improvement of the overbite of 1.3 mm with the spring bite-block therapy. In the group with magnetic bite-blocks, the average improvement in overbite was 3 mm. This was thought to be due to anterior rotation of the mandible and increased eruption of the incisors. The mandibular rotation was a result of intrusion of the upper and lower posterior teeth and possibly also increased mandibular growth. A follow-up of the cases treated with magnetic bite-blocks revealed a tendency for the beneficial effects of the treatment to relapse which possibly could be counteracted by a long phase of active retention.
Mehta, Pooja; Sagarkar, Roshan M; Mathew, Silju
Cephalometry has many limitations of which radiation exposure is most important. Hence, there is a need to resort to other safer methods which could give equal if not better results. The purpose of this study was to compare and correlate the craniofacial measurements obtained from cephalometric radiographs and analogous measurements from standardized facial profile photographs in skeletal class II cases. A total of 30 lateral cephalograms and profile photographs of patients exhibiting skeletal class II malocclusion, in the age group of 19-25 years of age, were examined in this study using Dolphin software (version 11.8). A standardized protocol was followed for all the lateral cephalograms and photographs. A total of 15 parameters were studied in this study out of which seven were angular and eight were linear parameters. Angular parameters included Frankfort Mandibular Plane Angle (FMA), Mandibular Plane-Occlusal Plane (MP-OP) angle, Occlusal Plane (OP) angle, gonial angle, ANB angle, facial angle and convexity whereas linear parameters included Anterior Facial Height (AFH), Ramal height, Posterior Facial Height: Anterior Facial Height (PFH/ AFH), convexity (in mm), Nasion perpendicular- Point A, Nasion perpendicular- Pogonion, Witts and Mandibular body length. All these parameters were digitised on both the cephalogram and photographs and were compared using one sample-2 tailed t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman Plot was considered to find comparison between the measurements from photographs and cephalograms in skeletal class II patients. On comparing the angular cephalometric and photographic variables for the skeletal class II subjects we found the cephalometric parameters like FMA, MP-OP angle, OP, gonial angle, convexity (in degrees) to have an insignificant difference compared to the analogous photographic measurements. On comparing the linear cephalometric and photographic variables, it was found that all the cephalometric parameters like
Choi, Jong Woo; Lee, Jang Yeol; Oh, Tae-Suk; Kwon, Soon Man; Yang, Sung Joon; Koh, Kyung Suk
Although two dimensional cephalometry is the standard method for analyzing the results of orthognathic surgery, it has potential limits in frontal soft tissue analysis. We have utilized a 3 dimensional camera to examine changes in soft tissue landmarks in patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformity who underwent two-jaw rotational setback surgery. We assessed 25 consecutive Asian patients (mean age, 22 years; range, 17-32 years) with skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent two-jaw rotational surgery without maxillary advancement. Using a 3D camera, we analyzed changes in facial proportions, including vertical and horizontal dimensions, facial surface areas, nose profile, lip contour, and soft tissue cheek convexity, as well as landmarks related to facial symmetry. The average mandibular setback was 10.7 mm (range: 5-17 mm). The average SNA changed from 77.4° to 77.8°, the average SNB from 89.2° to 81.1°, and the average occlusal plane from 8.7° to 11.4°. The mid third vertical dimension changed from 58.8 mm to 57.8 mm (p = 0.059), and the lower third vertical dimension changed from 70.4 mm to 68.2 mm (p = 0.0006). The average bigonial width decreased from 113.5 mm to 109.2 mm (p = 0.0028), the alar width increased from 34.7 mm to 36.1 mm (p-value = 0.0002), and lip length was unchanged. Mean mid and lower facial surface areas decreased significantly, from 171.8 cm(2) to 166.2 cm(2) (p = 0.026) and from 71.23 cm(2) to 61.9 cm(2) (p < 0.0001), respectively. Cheek convexity increased significantly, from 171.8° to 155.9° (p = 0.0007). The 3D camera was effective in frontal soft tissue analysis for orthognathic surgery, and enabled quantitative analysis of changes in frontal soft tissue landmarks and facial proportions that were not possible with conventional 2D cephalometric analysis.
Gandedkar, Narayan H; Chng, Chai Kiat; Por, Yong Chen; Yeow, Vincent Kok Leng; Ow, Andrew Tjin Chiew; Seah, Tian Ee
To evaluate pharyngeal airway space (PAS; nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and total airway) volume and the correlation of an obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hypopnea syndrome screening questionnaire (STOP-BANG) with various mandibular setbacks during bimaxillary surgery and compare these findings with an age- and gender-matched skeletal Class I control group. This retrospective cohort study was composed of patients with skeletal Class III discrepancy who underwent bimaxillary jaw surgery and were assessed with STOP-BANG score, cephalometry, and cone-beam computed tomography (of the PAS). The predictor variable was bimaxillary jaw surgery and included 4-, 6-, and 8-mm setbacks. The primary outcome variables were PAS volume, body mass index, and STOP-BANG score evaluated at 1 week before surgery and after comprehensive orthodontic treatment (11.25 ± 1.95 months). Other variables were grouped into the following categories: demographic and cephalometric parameters. Statistical intragroup and intergroup differences were assessed by paired t and independent t tests (P < .05), respectively. The study sample was composed of 48 patients (18 to 25 yr old); group I received 4-mm setback (n = 16), group II received 6-mm setback (n = 16), and group III received 8-mm setback (n = 16) mandibular surgery, and all test groups received 4-mm maxillary advancement. The entire study group was compared with a skeletal Class I control group (n = 16). The total PAS volume after orthodontic treatment in groups I and II showed a significant decrease compared with the presurgical PAS (P < .001), but the decrease was not less than that in the control group (P > .05). In contrast, the total PAS volume in group III after orthodontic treatment (23,574 ± 1,394 mm(3)) was less than that in the control group (23,884 ± 1,543 mm(3)). After surgery, patients with Class III discrepancy exhibited a decrease in oropharynx volume; however, the STOP-BANG score showed no change
Valizadeh, Solmaz; Shahbeig, Shahrzad; Mohseni, Sudeh; Azimi, Fateme; Bakhshandeh, Hooman
Background: In orthodontic science, diagnosis of facial skeletal type (class I, II, and III) is essential to make the correct treatment plan that is usually expensive and complicated. Sometimes results from analysis of lateral cephalometry radiographies are not enough to discriminate facial skeletal types. In this situation, knowledge about the relationship between the shape and size of the sella turcica and the type of facial skeletal class can help to make a more definitive decision for treatment plan. Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate this relationship in patients referred to a dental school in Iran. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, cephalometric radiographies of 90 candidates for orthodontic treatment (44 females and 46 males) with an age range of 14 - 26 years and equal distribution in terms of class I, class II, and class III facial skeletal classification were selected. The shape, length, diameter, and depth of the sella turcica were determined on the radiographs. Linear dimensions were assessed by one-way analysis of variance while the correlation between the dimensions and age was investigated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: Sella turcica had normal morphology in 24.4% of the patients while irregularity (notching) in the posterior part of the dorsum sella was observed in 15.6%, double contour of sellar floor in 5.6%, sella turcica bridge in 23.3%, oblique anterior wall in 20% and pyramidal shape of the dorsum sella in 11.1% of the subjects. In total, 46.7% of class I patients had a normal shape of sella turcica, 23.3% of class II patients had an oblique anterior wall and a pyramidal shape of the dorsum sella, and 43.3% of class III individuals had sella turcica bridge (the greatest values). Sella turcica length was significantly greater in class III patients compared to class II and class I (P < 0.0001). However, depth and diameter of sella turcica were similar in class I, class II, and