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Sample records for ceramic channel electron

  1. Creep in electronic ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Routbort, J. L.; Goretta, K. C.; Arellano-Lopez, A. R.

    2000-04-27

    High-temperature creep measurements combined with microstructural investigations can be used to elucidate deformation mechanisms that can be related to the diffusion kinetics and defect chemistry of the minority species. This paper will review the theoretical basis for this correlation and illustrate it with examples from some important electronic ceramics having a perovskite structure. Recent results on BaTiO{sub 3}, (La{sub 1{minus}x}Sr){sub 1{minus}y}MnO{sub 3+{delta}}, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x}, (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} and Sr(Fe,Co){sub 1.5}O{sub x} will be presented.

  2. Novel forming of single and multiple ceramic micro-channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasinghe, S. N.; Edirisinghe, M. J.

    2005-02-01

    This paper reports a cost-effective processing route for forming micrometre-size channels containing multiple exits/entries. An alumina suspension was electrosprayed in the stable cone-jet mode and the fine ceramic droplets generated were deposited on an organic fibre, which was pre-shaped to the architecture of the micro-channel(s) required. The coated structure was heated to 1400 °C to pyrolyse the fibre and create the ceramic micro-channel(s).

  3. Fabrication of functionally gradient materials with internal channels in ceramics and ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyea-Weon

    Functionally Gradient Materials (FGMs) are inhomogeneous materials whose compositions vary from one phase to another. By tailoring the inhomogeneous properties, FGMs can be used to reduce the stresses that are caused by severe thermal gradients. Thermal gradient loading can further be compensated by heat transfer into a cooling fluid circulating in a network of channels and manifolds. In an envisioned application, heat from a localized source is transferred to the cooling fluid, easing sharp thermal loads while minimizing the unwanted spread of heat energy to the ambient surroundings. This study reports on the fabrication of functionally gradient ceramics and the embedding of simple internal channels within these ceramics. Functional gradiency (variation of composition) is built in via the layering of different components across the thickness of a plate sample. Traditional powder processing techniques are applied to fabricate the test pieces, and recently developed methods of joining are used to build assemblies from individually sintered plate layers. For a well-formed FGM to be made, materials parameters need to be selected based on mechanical, thermal and chemical properties. As a class, ceramics are hard, wear-resistant, refractory, electrically and thermally insulative, nonmagnetic, chemically stable, and oxidation-resistant. However, because of their brittleness, ceramics with minute channels are difficult to machine. Instead, for this study, a graphite fugitive phase is used as a spacer to support channel volumes within a ceramic powder compact; during pre-sintering, the graphite burns out to expose a network of channels. Full sintering fixes the final shape. At the operating temperatures of the ovens used in our fabrication study, sintering of alumina, partially stabilized zirconia, fully stabilized zirconia and hydroxyapatite have been successful, and these ceramic powders form the basis of the present fabrication studies. Inhomogeneities inherent in the

  4. Thermal response of ceramic components during electron beam brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Voth, T.E.; Gianoulakis, S.E.; Halbleib, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    Ceramics are being used increasingly in applications where high temperatures are encountered such as automobile and gas turbine engines. However, the use of ceramics is limited by a lack of methods capable of producing strong, high temperature joints. This is because most ceramic-ceramic joining techniques, such as brazing, require that the entire assembly be exposed to high temperatures in order to assure that the braze material melts. Alternatively, localized heating using high energy electron beams may be used to selectively heat the braze material. In this work, high energy electron beam brazing of a ceramic part is modeled numerically. The part considered consists of a ceramic cylinder and disk between which is sandwiched an annular washer of braze material. An electron beam impinges on the disk, melting the braze metal. The resulting coupled electron and thermal transport equations are solved using Monte Carlo and finite element techniques. Results indicate that increased electron beam current decreases time to melt as well as required cooling time. Vacuum furnace brazing was also simulated and predicted results indicate increased processing times relative to electron beam brazing.

  5. Metal particles in a ceramic matrix--scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy characterization.

    PubMed

    Konopka, K

    2006-09-01

    This paper is concerned with ceramic matrix (Al(2)O(3)) composites with introduced metal particles (Ni, Fe). The composites were obtained via sintering of powders under very high pressure (2.5 GPa). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were chosen as the tools for the identification and description of the shape, size and distribution of the metal particles. The Al(2)O(3)-Ni composite contained agglomerates of the Ni particles surrounded by ceramic grains and nanometre-size Ni particles located inside the ceramic grains and at the ceramic grain boundaries. In the Al(2)O(3)-Fe composite, the Fe particles were mostly surrounded by ceramic grains. Moreover, holes left by the Fe particles were found. The high pressure used in the fabrication of the composites changed the shape of the metal and ceramic powder grains via plastic deformation.

  6. Electron channeling radiation experiments at very high electron bunch charges

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Freudenberger, J.; Fritzler, S.; Genz, H.; Richter, A.; Ushakov, A.; Zilges, A.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    2003-12-01

    Plasmas offer the possibility of high acceleration gradients. An intriguing suggestion is to use the higher plasma densities possible in solids to get extremely high gradients. Although solid-state plasmas might produce high gradients they would pose daunting problems. Crystal channeling has been suggested as one mechanism to address these challenges. There is no experimental or theoretical guidance on channeling for intense electron beams. A high-density plasma in a crystal lattice could quench the channeling process. An experiment has been carried out at the Fermilab NICADD Photoinjector Laboratory to observe electron channeling radiation at high bunch charges. An electron beam with up to 8 nC per electron bunch was used to investigate the electron-crystal interaction. No evidence was found of quenching of channeling at charge densities two orders of magnitude larger than that in earlier experiments.

  7. Electron momentum distribution and electronic response of ceramic borides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heda, N. L.; Meena, B. S.; Mund, H. S.; Sahariya, Jagrati; Kumar, Kishor; Ahuja, B. L.

    2017-03-01

    Isotropic Compton profiles of transition metal based ceramics TaB and VB have been measured using 137Cs (661.65 keV) γ-ray Compton spectrometer. The experimental momentum densities are compared with those deduced using linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) with Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional theory (DFT) with Wu-Cohen generalized gradient approximation (WCGGA) and also the hybridization of HF and DFT (namely B3PW and PBE0) schemes. It is found that LCAO-DFT-WCGGA scheme based profiles give an overall better agreement with the experimental data, for both the borides. In addition, we have computed the Mulliken's population (MP) charge transfer data, energy bands, density of states and Fermi surface topology of both the borides using full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) and LCAO methods with DFT-WCGGA scheme. Cross-overs of Fermi level by the energy bands corresponding to B-2p and valence d-states of transition metals lead to metallic character in both the compounds. Equal-valence-electron-density profiles and MP analysis suggest more ionic character of VB than that of TaB.

  8. Electronically conductive ceramics for high temperature oxidizing environments

    DOEpatents

    Kucera, G.H.; Smith, J.L.; Sim, J.W.

    1983-11-10

    This invention pertains to a high temperature, ceramic composition having electronic conductivity as measured by resistivity below about 500 ohm-cm, chemical stability particularly with respect to cathode conditions in a molten carbonate fuel cell, and composed of an alkali metal, transition metal oxide containing a dopant metal in the crystalline structure to replace a portion of the alkali metal or transition metal.

  9. Electronically conductive ceramics for high temperature oxidizing environments

    DOEpatents

    Kucera, Gene H.; Smith, James L.; Sim, James W.

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, ceramic composition having electronic conductivity as measured by resistivity below about 500 ohm-cm, chemical stability particularly with respect to cathode conditions in a molten carbonate fuel cell, and composed of an alkali metal, transition metal oxide containing a dopant metal in the crystalline structure to replace a portion of the alkali metal or transition metal.

  10. Chemistry of electronic ceramic materials. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Chemistry of Electronic Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, P. K.; Roth, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    The conference was held at Jackson Hole, Wyoming from August 17 to 22, 1990, and in an attempt to maximize the development of this rapidly moving, multidisciplinary field, this conference brought together major national and international researchers to bridge the gap between those primarily interested in the pure chemistry of inorganic solids and those interested in the physical and electronic properties of ceramics. With the many major discoveries that have occurred over the last decade, one of the goals of this meeting was to evaluate the current understanding of the chemistry of electronic ceramic materials, and to assess the state of a field that has become one of the most important areas of advanced materials research. The topics covered include: crystal chemistry; dielectric ceramics; low temperature synthesis and characterization; solid state synthesis and characterization; surface chemistry; superconductors; theory and modeling.

  11. Emission of an intense electron beam from a ceramic honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, M.; Myers, M.; Hegeler, F.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Sethian, J. D.; Ludeking, L.

    2003-01-01

    Inserting a slab of honeycomb ceramic in front of the emitting surface of a large-area cathode improves the electron beam emission uniformity, decreases the beam current rise and fall times, and maintains a more constant diode impedance. Moreover, changing the cathode material from velvet to carbon fiber achieved a more robust cathode that starts to emit at a higher electric field without a degradation in beam uniformity. In addition, an 80% reduction in the postshot diode pressure was also observed when gamma alumina was deposited on the ceramic. A possible explanation is that reabsorption and recycling of adsorbed gases takes place.

  12. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Armstrong, B.L.

    1996-08-01

    Mixed oxygen ion and electron-conducting ceramics are unique materials that can passively separate high purity oxygen from air. Oxygen ions move through a fully dense ceramic in response to an oxygen concentration gradient, charge-compensated by an electron flux in the opposite direction. Compositions in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, perovskites where M=Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N=Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, have been prepared and their electrical, oxygen permeation, oxygen vacancy equilibria, and catalytic properties evaluated. Tubular forms, disks, and asymmetric membrane structures, a thin dense layer on a porous support of the same composition, have been fabricated for testing purposes. In an oxygen partial gradient, the passive oxygen flux through fully dense structures was highly dependent on composition. An increase in oxygen permeation with increased temperature is attributed to both enhanced oxygen vacancy mobility and higher vacancy populations. Highly acceptor-doped compositions resulted in oxygen ion mobilities more than an order of magnitude higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia. The mixed conducting ceramics have been utilized in a membrane reactor configuration to upgrade methane to ethane and ethylene. Conditions were established to balance selectivity and throughput in a catalytic membrane reactor constructed from mixed conducting ceramics.

  13. Radiative electron capture by channeled ions

    SciTech Connect

    Pitarke, J.M. . Zientzi Fakultatea); Ritchie, R.H. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-01-01

    Considerable experimental data have been accumulated relative to the emission of photons accompanying electron capture by swift, highly stripped atoms penetrating crystalline matter under channeling conditions. Recent data suggest that the photon energies may be less than that expected from simple considerations of transitions from the valence band of the solid to hydrogenic states on the moving ion. We have studied theoretically the impact parameter dependence of the radiative electron capture (REC) process, the effect of the ion's wake and the effect of capture from inner shells of the solid on the photon emission probability, using a statistical approach. Numerical comparisons of our results with experiment are made. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Laser-driven electron acceleration in an inhomogeneous plasma channel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rong; Cheng, Li-Hong; Xue, Ju-Kui

    2015-12-15

    We study the laser-driven electron acceleration in a transversely inhomogeneous plasma channel. We find that, in inhomogeneous plasma channel, the developing of instability for electron acceleration and the electron energy gain can be controlled by adjusting the laser polarization angle and inhomogeneity of plasma channel. That is, we can short the accelerating length and enhance the energy gain in inhomogeneous plasma channel by adjusting the laser polarization angle and inhomogeneity of the plasma channel.

  15. Secondary Electron Emission Properties of Plasma Facing Ceramic Materials at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Dourbal, Paul; Spektor, Rostislav

    2015-11-01

    The plasma-wall interaction in the presence of strong secondary electron emission (SEE) has been studied theoretically and experimentally both as a basic phenomenon and in relation to numerous plasma applications such as, for example, fusion devices and Hall thrusters. Herein, we report on SEE measurements for boron nitride (BN) ceramics, which are commonly used as channel wall materials for Hall thrusters. Measurements were conducted for BN ceramics of three different grades with different fractions (0, 1% and 40%) and phases of different binder additions (calcium borate, silicon oxide) and as a function of the sample temperature relevant to the thruster operation (about 600K). For all three grades, the energy at which the yield equals to 1 at room temperature was measured to be near 40 V. This result is in agreement with previous measurements. At the elevated temperature, the yield was slightly different for these ceramics, but lower than at the room temperature. This temperature effect was not as strong as measured in. Analysis of these results and their implication on plasma-surface interactions in Hall thrusters and other related devices are presented. This work was partially supported by the Aerospace Corporation and by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  16. Atom location by electron channeling analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, S.J.

    1984-07-01

    For many years the orientation dependence of the characteristic x-ray emission close to a Bragg reflection has been regarded as a hindrance to accurate microanalysis, and a random incident beam direction has always been recommended for accurate composition analysis. However, this orientation dependence can be put to use to extract information on the lattice location of foreign atoms within the crystalline matrix. Here a generalization of the technique is described which is applicable to any crystal structure including monatomic crystals, and can quantitatively determine substitutional fractions of impurities. The technique was referred to as electron channeling analysis, by analogy with the closely related and widely used bulk technique of ion channeling analysis, and was developed for lattice location studies of dopants in semiconductors at high spatial resolution. Only two spectra are required for each channeling analysis, one in each of the channeling conditions described above. If the matrix and dopant x-ray yields vary identically between the two orientations then the dopant necessarily lies within the reflecting matrix planes. If the dopant x-ray yield does not vary the dopant atoms are randomly located with respect to the matrix planes. 10 references, 2 figures.

  17. Electron Microdiffraction and Channeling: Theory and Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Ock

    1988-12-01

    on ALCHEMI (Atom Location by Channeling Enhanced Microanalysis) has been studied. The original ALCHEMI equations are shown to hold for certain conditions. Experimental and theoretical comparisons of electron channeling show that characteristic X-ray emission intensities in the axial orientation are more sensitive to variations in X-ray energy than are those in the planar geometry. The effects of variations in localization are elucidated in a two-beam analysis, and methods for extending ALCHEMI to low energy X-ray emission discussed.

  18. How an Electron Beam (Eventually) Penetrates Ceramic Cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Russell, C. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Fragomeni, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    In anticipation of the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE) the effect of an electron beam was investigated on Nextel AF-62 ceramic cloth designed to withstand temperatures up to 1427 C. It was anticipated that the cloth would take a static charge that would repel the beam and remain undamaged. It was found that after some seconds the impinging beam penetrated penetrated the cloth. Further, the penetration time went up significantly both at longer and at closer standoff distances. A tentative explanation appears to fit the observed facts. The electrons in the beam generate positive ions by collisions with the contaminant gas molecules in the vacuum chamber. The positive ions transfer a small but significant fraction of the beam power to the cloth. Under the impingement of the positive ions the cloth heats up until sufficient outgassing occurs to initiate arcing. Once arcing occurs the full beam power impinges on the cloth and, almost instantaneously, burns a hole.

  19. Mixed ionic and electronic conducting ceramic membranes for hydrocarbon processing

    DOEpatents

    Van Calcar, Pamela; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to mixed phase materials for the preparation of catalytic membranes which exhibit ionic and electronic conduction and which exhibit improved mechanical strength compared to single phase ionic and electronic conducting materials. The mixed phase materials are useful for forming gas impermeable membranes either as dense ceramic membranes or as dense thin films coated onto porous substrates. The membranes and materials of this invention are useful in catalytic membrane reactors in a variety of applications including synthesis gas production. One or more crystalline second phases are present in the mixed phase material at a level sufficient to enhance the mechanical strength of the mixture to provide membranes for practical application in CMRs.

  20. Ceramic phase shifters for electronically steerable antenna systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmi, F.; Ghodgaonkar, D. K.; Hughes, R.; Varadan, V. V.; Varadan, V. K.

    1991-10-01

    There is considerable interest in the development of microwave ceramic phase shifters because of limitations of currently available ferrite and PIN diode phase shifters regarding cost and reliability and complexity. Ceramic phase shifters may provide a cost breakthrough for the phase array antenna designer while maintaining low insertion loss and low drive power and high power handling capacity. This paper describes a ceramic phase shifter which utilizes a ferroelectric material for obtaining phase shifts from changes in dc biasing fields. Also, the dielectric properties were measured as a function of dc biasing fields, frequency, and temperature for a few compositions of barium-strontium titanate material.

  1. New High Voltage Ceramic Capacitors for Power Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laville, H.; Fabre, M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the characteristics and performances of a new range of high voltage ceramic capacitors manufactured using a new ceramic material. This dielectric allows to get under working voltage the same capacitance values than using an X7R material with the advantage compared to X7R of a very low dissipation factor (less than 5.10-4). What makes these capacitors to be ideally suited for power applications where heat dissipation may be detrimental for performances and reliability.

  2. Characterization of ion beam modified ceramic wear surfaces using Auger electron spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, W.; Lankford, J.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation of the surface chemistry and morphology of the wear surfaces of ceramic material surfaces modified by ion beam mixing has been conducted using Auger electron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Studies have been conducted on ceramic/ceramic friction and wear couples made up of TiC and NiMo-bonded TiC cermet pins run against Si3N4 and partially stabilized zirconia disc surfaces modified by the ion beam mixing of titanium and nickel, as well as ummodified ceramic/ceramic couples in order to determine the types of surface changes leading to the improved friction and wear behavior of the surface modified ceramics in simulated diesel environments. The results of the surface analyses indicate that the formation of a lubricating oxide layer of titanium and nickel, is responsible for the improvement in ceramic friction and wear behavior. The beneficial effect of this oxide layer depends on several factors, including the adherence of the surface modified layer or subsequently formed oxide layer to the disc substrate, the substrate materials, the conditions of ion beam mixing, and the environmental conditions.

  3. Effect of ceramic membrane channel diameter on limiting retentate protein concentration during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of retentate flow channel diameter (4 or 6mm) of nongraded permeability 100-nm pore size ceramic membranes operated in nonuniform transmembrane pressure mode on the limiting retentate protein concentration (LRPC) while microfiltering (MF) skim milk at a temperature of 50°C, a flux of 55 kg · m(-2) · h(-1), and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m · s(-1). At the above conditions, the retentate true protein concentration was incrementally increased from 7 to 11.5%. When temperature, flux, and average cross-flow velocity were controlled, ceramic membrane retentate flow channel diameter did not affect the LRPC. This indicates that LRPC is not a function of the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics data, which indicated that both membranes had similar radial velocity profiles within their retentate flow channels, supported this finding. Membranes with 6-mm flow channels can be operated at a lower pressure decrease from membrane inlet to membrane outlet (ΔP) or at a higher cross-flow velocity, depending on which is controlled, than membranes with 4-mm flow channels. This implies that 6-mm membranes could achieve a higher LRPC than 4-mm membranes at the same ΔP due to an increase in cross-flow velocity. In theory, the higher LRPC of the 6-mm membranes could facilitate 95% serum protein removal in 2 MF stages with diafiltration between stages if no serum protein were rejected by the membrane. At the same flux, retentate protein concentration, and average cross-flow velocity, 4-mm membranes require 21% more energy to remove a given amount of permeate than 6-mm membranes, despite the lower surface area of the 6-mm membranes. Equations to predict skim milk MF retentate viscosity as a function of protein concentration and temperature are provided. Retentate viscosity, retentate recirculation pump frequency required to maintain a given cross-flow velocity at a given retentate viscosity, and retentate protein

  4. Reprint of : Time dependent electronic transport in chiral edge channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fève, G.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.

    2016-08-01

    We study time dependent electronic transport along the chiral edge channels of the quantum Hall regime, focusing on the role of Coulomb interaction. In the low frequency regime, the a.c. conductance can be derived from a lumped element description of the circuit. At higher frequencies, the propagation equations of the Coulomb coupled edge channels need to be solved. As a consequence of the interchannel coupling, a charge pulse emitted in a given channel fractionalized in several pulses. In particular, Coulomb interaction between channels leads to the fractionalization of a charge pulse emitted in a given channel in several pulses. We finally study how the Coulomb interaction, and in particular the fractionalization process, affects the propagation of a single electron in the circuit. All the above-mentioned topics are illustrated by experimental realizations.

  5. Radiation from channeled electrons and positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.; Berman, B.L.; Pantell, R.H.; Kephart, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    Channeling radiation is generally described as arising from radiative transitions between bound states in a continuum potential. The concept of the continuum potential is used in connection with the channeling (directed motion) of heavy, positively charged particles penetrating crystals along a low-index axial or planar direction. If a positively charged particle is injected into a crystal at a small angle with respect to an atomic row (a crystal axis), it will undergo a set of small-angle correlated collisions which steer the particle away from the row. The potential experienced by such particles is described by that of a continuous charge distribution made up from the atomic potentials in the row. The various kinds of channeling radiation which have been observed are outlined and some examples of each type are given. The experiments discussed come from two institutions: the work from about 10-100 MeV was carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the work at 4 MeV was done at Aarhus University, Denmark. 17 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Process development for electron beam joining of ceramic and glass components

    SciTech Connect

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Yang, P.; Gerstle, F.P.; Halbleib, J.A.; Voth, T.E.; McKenzie, B.; Clifford, J.R.; Habiger, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and extend the electron beam joining process to applications related to Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} cermets for neutron tube fabrication, glass seals for flat panel displays, and ceramics for structural applications. The key issue is the identification of the allowable operating ranges that produce thermal conditions favorable to robust joining and sealing. High strength, hermetic braze joints between ceramic components have been produced using high energy electron beams. With a penetration depth into a typical ceramic of {approximately} 1 cm for a 10 MeV electron beam, this method provides the capability for rapid, transient brazing operations where temperature control of heat sensitive components is essential. The method deposits energy directly into a buried joint, allowing otherwise inaccessible interfaces to be brazed. The combination of transient heating, with higher thermal conductivity, lower heat capacity, and lower melting temperature of braze metals relative to the ceramic materials, enables a pulsed high power beam to melt a braze metal without producing excessive ceramic temperatures. The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of this process related to ceramic coupons a well as ceramic and glass tubes and cylindrical shapes. The transient thermal response was predicted, using as input the energy absorption predicted from the coupled electron-photon and thermal transport analysis. The joining experiments were conducted with an RF linear accelerator at 10--13 MV. Joining experiments have provided high strength joints between alumina and alumina and between alumina and cermet joints in cylindrical geometry. These joints provided good hermetic seals.

  7. Electron occupancy of micro-structured helium-filled channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takita, Maika; Bradbury, F. R.; Lyon, S. A.

    2010-03-01

    The spins of electrons floating on the surface of superfluid helium have been suggested to be promising qubits. High charge transfer efficiency of electrons in a narrow channel clocked with underlying gates, has been previously reported.footnotetextG. Sabouret, F.R. Bradbury, S. Shankar, J.A. Bert, S.A. Lyon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 082104 (2008). We have fabricated similar devices with an array of parallel channels and small gaps between the underlying gates. These channels are filled with superfluid helium by capillary action, onto which electrons are photoemitted. Electrons are initially trapped by a gate (``door''), so that they capacitively couple to a sense gate which is the input of a cold HEMT preamplifier. An oscillatory potential applied to a third gate moves electrons on and off the sense gate to allow lock-in detection. Electrons are allowed to escape the sensing region by slowly ramping down the door barrier. Features in the electron occupancy signal correlate with the oscillatory drive voltage and preamp gain, and show evidence of discrete occupancy as the channels depopulate.

  8. Detection of New Dissociative Electron Attachment Channels in NO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.

    1995-01-01

    Three dissociative electron attachment channels have been detected and identified in NO via measurement of the O minus (exp 2)P fragment energy. In addition to the known N((exp 2 D(exp 0)) + O minus (exp 2)P channel, two new channels N((exp 1 S(exp 0)) + 0 (2 P) and N(exp 2)P(exp 0) + O(exp 2)P were detected. Cross sections for each of the channels are reported by normalizing the scattering intensities to previously measured total cross sections. The experimental approach uses solenoidal magnetic confinement of the electrons and ions, and trochoidal energy analysis of the low-energy ions.

  9. Reduction of electron channeling in EDS using precession.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yifeng; Marks, Laurence D

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrated that EDS measurement can be significantly improved by precessing the electron beam, thereby reducing electron channeling effects. For a SrTiO3 specimen orientated along the [001] zone axis, the measured strontium to titanium atomic ratio was 0.74-0.80 using conventional EDS methods, and the ratio was improved to ~0.99 by precessing the electron beam for angles greater than 22.54 mRad. In ALCHEMI-like experiments in which the specimen was tilted to near two-beam condition, the strontium to titanium ratio was insensitive to the deviation from the Bragg condition using a precessed electron beam. Similar reduction of electron channeling effects was also observed in precession-assisted EDS measurements for an L21-ordered Fe2MnAl intermetallic alloy tilted to the [011] zone axis as well as near two-beam conditions.

  10. Direct Acceleration of Electrons in a Corrugated Plasma Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Palastro, J. P.; Antonsen, T. M.; Morshed, S.; York, A. G.; Layer, B.; Aubuchon, M.; Milchberg, H. M.; Froula, D. H.

    2009-01-22

    Direct laser acceleration of electrons provides a low power tabletop alternative to laser wakefield accelerators. Until recently, however, direct acceleration has been limited by diffraction, phase matching, and material damage thresholds. The development of the corrugated plasma channel [B. Layer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 035001 (2007)] has removed all of these limitations and promises to allow direct acceleration of electrons over many centimeters at high gradients using femtosecond lasers [A. G. York et al., Phys Rev. Lett 100, 195001 (2008), J. P. Palastro et al., Phys. Rev. E 77, 036405 (2008)]. We present a simple analytic model of laser propagation in a corrugated plasma channel and examine the laser-electron beam interaction. Simulations show accelerating gradients of several hundred MeV/cm for laser powers much lower than required by standard laser wakefield schemes. In addition, the laser provides a transverse force that confines the high energy electrons on axis, while expelling low energy electrons.

  11. Magnetic Field Generation and Electron Acceleration in Relativistic Laser Channel

    SciTech Connect

    I.Yu. Kostyukov; G. Shvets; N.J. Fisch; J.M. Rax

    2001-12-12

    The interaction between energetic electrons and a circularly polarized laser pulse inside an ion channel is studied. Laser radiation can be resonantly absorbed by electrons executing betatron oscillations in the ion channel and absorbing angular momentum from the laser. The absorbed angular momentum manifests itself as a strong axial magnetic field (inverse Faraday effect). The magnitude of this magnetic field is calculated and related to the amount of the absorbed energy. Absorbed energy and generated magnetic field are estimated for the small and large energy gain regimes. Qualitative comparisons with recent experiments are also made.

  12. Electronic properties and microstructures of amorphous silicon carbonitrides ceramics derived from polymer precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao

    2009-12-01

    Polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs) are a new class of high-temperature materials synthesized by thermal decomposition of polymeric precursors. These materials possess many unique features as compared with conventional ceramics synthesized by powder metallurgy based processing. For example, PDCs are neither amorphous nor crystalline. Instead, they possess nano-domain structures. Due to the direct chemical-to-ceramic processing, PDCs can be used for making components and devices with complex shapes. Thus, understanding the properties and structures of these materials are of both fundamental and practical interest. In this work, the structures and electronic behavior of polymer-derived amorphous silicon carbonitrides (SiCNs) were investigated. The materials were synthesized by pyrolysis of a commercially available liquid precursor. Ceramic materials with varied structures/properties were successfully synthesized by modifying the precursor and using different pyrolysis temperatures. The structures of the obtained materials were studied using XRD, solid state NMR, EPR, FTIR and Raman Spectroscope. The electronic behavior of the materials was investigated by measuring I-V curves, Hall effects, temperature dependent conductivity. The experiments were also performed to measure UV-Visible absorption and dielectric properties of the materials. This work leads to the following significant progresses: (i) developed quantitative technique for measuring free carbon concentration; (ii) achieved better understanding of the electronic conduction mechanisms and measured electronic structures of the materials for the first time; and (iii) demonstrated that these materials possess unusual dielectric behavior and provide qualitative explanations.

  13. Stability of trapped charges in sapphires and alumina ceramics: Evaluation by secondary electron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarbout, K.; Si Ahmed, A.; Moya, G.; Bernardini, J.; Goeuriot, D.; Kallel, A.

    2008-03-01

    The stability of trapped charges in sapphires and alumina ceramics is characterized via an experimental parameter expressing the variation of the secondary electron emission yield between two electron injections performed in a scanning electron microscope. Two types of sapphires and polycrystalline alumina, which differ mainly by their impurity content, are investigated in the temperature range 300-663K. The stable trapping behavior in sapphires is attributed to trapping in different defects, whose nature depends on the purity level. In alumina ceramics, the ability to trap charges in a stable way is stronger in samples of high impurity content. In the low impurity samples, stable trapping is promoted when the grain diameter decreases, whereas the reverse is observed in high impurity materials. These behaviors can stem from a gettering effect occurring during sintering. The strong dependence of the variation of the secondary electron emission yield on the grain diameter and impurities enables a scaling of the stable trapping ability of alumina materials.

  14. Manual modification and plasma exposure of boron nitride ceramic to study Hall effect thruster plasma channel material erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satonik, Alexander J.

    Worn Hall effect thrusters (HET) show a variety of unique microstructures and elemental compositions in the boron nitride thruster channel walls. Worn thruster channels are typically created by running test thrusters in vacuum chambers for hundreds of hours. Studies were undertaken to manually modify samples of boron nitride without the use of a hall effect thruster. Samples were manually abraded with an abrasive blaster and sandpaper, in addition to a vacuum heater. Some of these samples were further exposed to a xenon plasma in a magnetron sputter device. Sandpaper and abrasive blaster tests were used to modify surface roughness values of the samples from 10,000 A to 150,000 A, matching worn thruster values. Vacuum heat treatments were performed on samples. These treatments showed the ability to modify chemical compositions of boron nitride samples, but not in a manner matching changes seen in worn thruster channels. Plasma erosion rate was shown to depend on the grade of the BN ceramic and the preparation of the surface prior to plasma exposure. Abraded samples were shown to erode 43% more than their pristine counterparts. Unique surface features and elemental compositions on the worn thruster channel samples were overwritten by new surface features on the ceramic grains. The microscope images of the ceramic surface show that the magnetron plasma source rounded the edges of the ceramic grains to closely match the worn HET surface. This effect was not as pronounced in studies of ion beam bombardment of the surface and appears to be a result of the quasi-neutral plasma environment.

  15. Preparation of cross-sectional specimens of ceramic thermal barrier coatings for transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Unal, O; Heuer, A H; Mitchell, T E

    1990-04-01

    During the microstructural examination of ceramic thermal barrier coatings by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), initial efforts for the preparation of cross-sectional thin foils from interface regions by conventional means were mostly failures. Delamination of the Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 ceramic coating from the nickel-base alloy substrate sometimes occurred during fine polishing at around 80 microns thickness but mostly occurred during dimpling. Because of this sensitivity, special techniques for mechanical handling were developed so that ion milling could give thin enough regions of the metal-ceramic interface. TEM showed convincingly that the highly fragile nature of the coatings is in fact due to the extensive porosity at the interface developed as a result of heat treatment.

  16. Laser Triggered Electron Injection into a Channel Guided Wakefield Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Filip, C.

    2005-10-01

    Laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated the generation of narrow energy spread (˜ few %) electron beams with considerable amount of charge (>100 pC). Stability of laser-plasma accelerators, as in the conventional accelerators, requires highly synchronized injection of electrons into the structured accelerating field. The Colliding Pulse Method[1] with pre-formed plasma channel guiding [2] can result in jitter-free injection in a dark-current-free accelerating structure. We report on experimental progress of laser triggered injection of electrons into a laser wakefield, where an intense laser pulse is guided by a pre-formed plasma channel. The experiments use the multi-beam, multi-terawatt Ti:Al2O3 laser at LOASIS facility of LBNL. The ignitor-heater method is used to first produce a pre-formed plasma channel in a hydrogen gas jet. Two counter propagating beams (wakefield driver:100-500mJ-50fs, injector:50-300mJ-50fs) then are focused onto the entrance of the channel. Preliminary results indicate that electron beam properties are affected by the second beam. Details of the experiment will be presented. [1]G.Fubiani, et al, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016402 (2004). [2]C.G.R. Geddes et al, Nature 431, 538 (2004). This work is supported by DoE under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  17. Non-nuclear Electron Transport Channels in Hollow Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje

    2014-08-15

    Electron transport in inorganic semiconductors and metals occurs through delocalized bands formed by overlapping electron orbitals. Strong correlation of electronic wave functions with the ionic cores couples the electron and lattice motions, leading to efficient interaction and scattering that degrades coherent charge transport. By contrast, unoccupied electronic states at energies near the vacuum level with diffuse molecular orbitals may form nearly-free-electron bands with density maxima in non-nuclear interstitial voids, which are subject to weaker electron-phonon interaction. The position of such bands typically above the frontier orbitals, however, renders them unstable with respect to electronic interband relaxation and therefore unsuitable for charge transport. Through electronic-structure calculations, we engineer stable, non-nuclear, nearly-free-electron conduction channels in low-dimensional molecular materials by tailoring their electrostatic and polarization potentials. We propose quantum structures of graphane-derived Janus molecular sheets with spatially isolated conducting and insulating regions that potentially exhibit emergent electronic properties, as a paradigm for molecular-scale non-nuclear charge conductors; we also describe tuning of their electronic properties by application of external fields and calculate their electron–acoustic-phonon interaction.

  18. Energetics, bonding mechanism and electronic structure of ceramic/ceramic and metal/ceramic interfaces. Annual progress report, April 1, 1993--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, A.J.

    1994-03-01

    Objectives were to study theory of structure of the metal/ceramic interface (heterophase ceramic interfaces), ferroelectronic materials and their epitaxially grown oxide thin films (superlattice structure), perovskites, antiferroelectric and electro-optic materials, etc.

  19. Universal scalings for laser acceleration of electrons in ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudik, Vladimir; Arefiev, Alexey; Zhang, Xi; Shvets, Gennady

    2016-10-01

    We analytically investigate the acceleration of electrons undergoing betatron oscillations in an ion channel, driven by a laser beam propagating with superluminal (or luminal) phase velocity. The universal scalings for the maximum attainable electron energy are found for arbitrary laser and plasma parameters by deriving a set of dimensionless equations for paraxial ultra-relativistic electron motion. One of our analytic predictions is the emergence of forbidden zones in the electrons' phase space. For an individual electron, these give rise to a threshold-type dependence of the final energy gain on the laser intensity. The universal scalings are also generalized to the resonant laser interaction with the third harmonic of betatron motion and to the case when the laser beam is circularly polarized.

  20. All-optical control of electron trapping in plasma channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmykov, Serguei Y.; Shadwick, Bradley A.; Davoine, Xavier

    2013-10-01

    Generation of background-free, polychromatic electron beams using laser plasma acceleration in longitudinally uniform, mm-length dense plasma channels is demonstrated. Periodic self-injection and acceleration transfers up to 10 percents of the drive pulse energy to several 100-pC charge, GeV-scale-energy electron bunches, each having a few-percent energy spread. Negative chirp of the broad-bandwidth (up to 400 nm), few-Joule-energy driver reduces the nonlinear frequency red-shift, preventing rapid self-steepening of the pulse, whereas the channel suppresses diffraction of the pulse leading edge. The pulse thus remains uncompressed through electron dephasing, strongly reducing unwanted continuous injection. As a bonus, delayed self-compression of the driver extends the dephasing length, boosting electron energy to the GeV level. The number of the quasi-monoenergetic bunches, their charge, energy, and energy separation can be controlled by varying the channel radius and the acceleration length, whereas accumulation of the noise (viz. continuously injected charge) is prevented by the proper dispersion control via negative chirp of the pulse. These clean polychromatic beams can drive tunable, multi-color gamma-ray Compton sources. Supported by the U.S. DOE Grant DE-SC0008382, NSF Grant PHY-1104683, and DOD AFOSR Grant FA9550-11-1-0157. The CALDER-Circ simulations were performed using HPC resources of GENCI-CCRT and GENCI-CINES (grant 2013-057027).

  1. Electron mobility enhancement in (100) oxygen-inserted silicon channel

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Nuo; King Liu, Tsu-Jae; Takeuchi, Hideki; Hytha, Marek; Cody, Nyles W.; Stephenson, Robert J.; Mears, Robert J.; Kwak, Byungil; Cha, Seon Yong

    2015-09-21

    High performance improvement (+88% in peak G{sub m} and >30% in linear and saturation region drain currents) was observed for N-MOSFETs with Oxygen-Inserted (OI) Si channel. From TCAD analysis of the C-V measurement data, the improvement was confirmed to be due to electron mobility enhancement of the OI Si channel (+75% at N{sub inv} = 4.0 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} and +25% at N{sub inv} = 8.0 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}). Raman and high-resolution Rutherford backscattering measurements confirmed that negligible strain is induced in the OI Si layer, and hence, it cannot be used to explain the origin of mobility improvement. Poisson-Schrödinger based quantum mechanical simulation was performed, taking into account phonon, surface roughness and Coulomb scatterings. The OI layer was modeled as a “quasi barrier” region with reference to the Si conduction band edge to confine inversion electrons. Simulation explains the measured electron mobility enhancement as the confinement effect of inversion electrons while the formation of an super-steep retrograde well doping profile in the channel (as a result of dopant diffusion blocking effect accompanied by introduction of the OI layer) also contributes 50%–60% of the mobility improvement.

  2. Electronic transport of titanate heterostructures and their potential as channels on (001) Si

    SciTech Connect

    Kornblum, Lior Jin, Eric N.; Walker, Fred J.; Shoron, Omor; Boucherit, Mohamed; Rajan, Siddharth; Ahn, Charles H.

    2015-09-14

    Perovskite oxides and their heterostructures have demonstrated considerable potential for devices that require high carrier densities. These oxides are typically grown on ceramic substrates that suffer from low thermal conductivity, which limits performance under high currents, and from the limited size of substrates, which precludes large scale integration and processing. We address both of these hurdles by integrating oxide heterostructures with high carrier density 2D electron gases (2DEGs) directly on (001) Si. 2DEGs grown on Si show significant improvement of the high current performance over those grown on oxide substrates, a consequence of the higher thermal conductivity of the substrate. Hall analysis, transmission line measurements, and the conductance technique are employed for a detailed analysis of the carrier density, contact resistance, mobility, and electron drift velocities. Current densities of 10 A/cm are observed at room temperature with 2.9 × 10{sup 14} electrons/cm{sup 2} at a drift velocity exceeding 3.5 × 10{sup 5 }cm/s. These results highlight the promise of oxide 2DEGs integration on Si as channels for high electron density devices.

  3. Electron irradiation of transparent and ceramics window materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, Thomas M.; Gilde, Gary A.; Goodrich, Steven M.

    2001-09-01

    The use of energetic electrons to modify the optical and mechanical properties of several window materials was examined. The materials were exposed to fields of high-energy electrons (5 MeV at a dose of 1,000 MRad). In this paper, we will report on the electron irradiation effects on the following materials: alumina, ALON, ZnSe and ZnS. Alumina irradiated under these conditions revealed little if any changes in flexure strength at room temperature. Irradiation changes in ALON hardness were measured. The hardness fracture toughness of electron beam irradiated ZnS and ZnSe was examined by both indentation and known flaw methods. Toughness measured by both methods were then compared and contrasted to ascertain the effects induced by the irradiation. The electron irradiation produced changes in the fracture toughness of both the ZnS and the ZnSe. The optical properties of the ZnSe and ZnS were measured by FTIR indicated minor changes in the absorption spectra.

  4. Self-mixing differential vibrometer based on electronic channel subtraction.

    PubMed

    Donati, Silvano; Norgia, Michele; Giuliani, Guido

    2006-10-01

    An instrument for noncontact measurement of differential vibrations is developed, based on the self-mixing interferometer. As no reference arm is available in the self-mixing configuration, the differential mode is obtained by electronic subtraction of signals from two (nominally equal) vibrometer channels, taking advantage that channels are servo stabilized and thus insensitive to speckle and other sources of amplitude fluctuation. We show that electronic subtraction is nearly as effective as field superposition. Common-mode suppression is 25-30 dB, the dynamic range (amplitude) is in excess of 100 microm, and the minimum measurable (differential) amplitude is 20 nm on a B = 10 kHz bandwidth. The instrument has been used to measure vibrations of two metal samples kept in contact, revealing the hysteresis cycle in the microslip and gross-slip regimes, which are of interest in the study of friction induced vibration damping of gas turbine blades for aircraft applications.

  5. Microstress contrast in scanning electron acoustic microscopy of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Qian, Menglu

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model of image contrast in scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM) due to the effect of residual stresses in materials is presented. It is found that in regions near the ends of the radial cracks induced by Vickers indentation the SEAM micrographs reveal a rather large variation of the acoustic output signal.

  6. Characterization of encapsulated quantum dots via electron channeling contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deitz, Julia I.; Carnevale, Santino D.; De Graef, Marc; McComb, David W.; Grassman, Tyler J.

    2016-08-01

    A method for characterization of encapsulated epitaxial quantum dots (QD) in plan-view geometry using electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) is presented. The efficacy of the method, which requires minimal sample preparation, is demonstrated with proof-of-concept data from encapsulated (sub-surface) epitaxial InAs QDs within a GaAs matrix. Imaging of the QDs under multiple diffraction conditions is presented, establishing that ECCI can provide effectively identical visualization capabilities as conventional two-beam transmission electron microscopy. This method facilitates rapid, non-destructive characterization of sub-surface QDs giving immediate access to valuable nanostructural information.

  7. Electron channeling and EBIC studies of polycrystalline silicon sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y S; Matson, R J

    1984-05-01

    Electron channeling and EBIC studies have been performed on silicon sheets grown by the edge-supported pulling (ESP) and low-angle silicon sheet (LASS) processes. We have found that the dominant grain structure of the ESP sheets is long, narrow grains with surface normals oriented near (011); grains with this structure tend to have better electronic quality than random grains. We have also studied the twin-stabilized planar growth material of LASS sheets. This material, grown at 200 cm/sup 2//min, is essentially single-crystal.

  8. Embedded electronics for a 64-channel wireless brain implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgert, Johann D.; Malasek, Jan; Martel, Sylvain M.; Wiseman, Colette; Fofonoff, Timothy; Dyer, Robert; Hunter, Ian W.; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas; Donoghue, John

    2001-10-01

    The Telemetric Electrode Array System (TEAS) is a surgically implantable device for the study of neural activity in the brain. An 8x8 array of electrodes collects intra-cortical neural signals and connects them to an analog front end. The front end amplifies and digitizes these microvolt-level signals with 12 bits of resolution and at 31KHz per channel. Peak detection is used to extract the information carrying features of these signals, which are transmitted over a Bluetooth-based radio link at 725 Kbit/sec. The electrode array is made up of 1mm tall, 60-micron square electrodes spaced 500 microns tip-to-tip. A flex circuit connector provides mechanical isolation between the brain and the electronics, which are mounted to the cranium. Power consumption and management is a critical aspect of the design. The entire system must operate off a surgically implantable battery. With this power source, the system must provide the functionality of a wireless, 64-channel oscilloscope for several hours. The system also provides a low-power sleep mode during which the battery can be inductively charged. Power dissipation and biocompatibility issues also affect the design of the electronics for the probe. The electronics system must fit between the skull and the skin of the test subject. Thus, circuit miniaturization and microassembly techniques are essential to construct the probe's electronics.

  9. Mass-dependent channel electron multiplier operation. [for ion detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, S. A.; Burch, J. L.; Oran, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    The absolute counting efficiency and pulse height distributions of a continuous-channel electron multiplier used in the detection of hydrogen, argon and xenon ions are assessed. The assessment technique, which involves the post-acceleration of 8-eV ion beams to energies from 100 to 4000 eV, provides information on counting efficiency versus post-acceleration voltage characteristics over a wide range of ion mass. The charge pulse height distributions for H2 (+), A (+) and Xe (+) were measured by operating the experimental apparatus in a marginally gain-saturated mode. It was found that gain saturation occurs at lower channel multiplier operating voltages for light ions such as H2 (+) than for the heavier ions A (+) and Xe (+), suggesting that the technique may be used to discriminate between these two classes of ions in electrostatic analyzers.

  10. Scanning electron acoustic microscopy of residual stresses in ceramics: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Qian, Menglu

    1992-01-01

    Several reviews have highlighted a number of applications of scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM) to metals and semiconductors which show that SEAM can provide new information on surface and near-surface features of such materials, but there have been few studies attempting to determine the capabilities of SEAM for characterizing ceramic materials. We have recently observed image contrast in SEAM from residual stress fields induced in brittle materials by Vickers indentations that is strongly dependent on the electron beam chopping frequency. We have also recently developed a three-dimensional mathematical model of signal generation and contrast in SEAM, appropriate to the brittle materials studied, that we use as a starting point in this paper for modeling the effect of residual stress fields on the generated electron acoustic signal. The influence of the electron beam chopping frequency is also considered under restrictive assumptions.

  11. Channelling and related effects in electron microscopy: The current status

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    Channelling or Borrmann effect in electron diffraction has been developed into a versatile, high spatial resolution, crystallographic technique with demonstrated applicability in solving a variety of materials problems. In general, either the characteristic x-ray emissions or the electron energy-loss intensities are monitored as a function of the orientation of the incident beam. The technique, as formulated in the planar geometry has found wide applications in specific site occupancy and valence measurements, determination of small atomic displacements and crystal polarity studies. For site occupancy studies, the appropriate orientations in most cases can be determined by inspection and the analysis carried out according to a simple classification of the crystal structure discussed in this paper. Concentration levels as low as 0.1 wt% can be easily detected. The reciprocity principle may be used to advantage in all these studies, if electron energy-loss spectra are monitored, as both the channelling of the incoming beam and the blocking of the outgoing beam are included in the formulation and analysis. The formulation in the axial geometry is an useful alternative, particularly for monatomic crystals. Localization effects are important if, either the experiment is performed in the axial geometry or if low atomic number elements (z < 11) are detected. In general, the sensitivity to L-shells is lower compared to K-shell excitations. Other experimental parameters to be considered include temperature of the sample, the acceleration voltage and parallelism of the incident beam. Any detrimental effects of channelling on conventional microanalysis can be minimized either by tilting the crystal to an orientation where no lower order diffraction vectors are excited or by using a convergent probe such that a large range of incident beam orientations are averaged in the analysis. 49 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Design and fabrication of a novel porous implant with pre-set channels based on ceramic stereolithography for vascular implantation.

    PubMed

    Bian, Weiguo; Li, Dichen; Lian, Qin; Zhang, Weijie; Zhu, Linzhong; Li, Xiang; Jin, Zhongmin

    2011-09-01

    Being a multi-etiological factors disease, osteonecrosis of the femoral head affects many young people, leading to the collapse of the femur head; eventually the hip arthroplasty is needed if not treated in time. Unfortunately, as yet, no satisfactory therapy to repair necrotic bone at an early stage is present. Novel implants with pre-set channels were designed for the treatment of early femoral head necrosis. Ceramic stereolithography was applied to fabricate the green part from β-TCP powder. Other processes, such as dehydration, rinsing, drying and sintering, were processed successively. The final ceramic part remains the same as the engineered part in both shape and internal structure. No significant deformation or crack occurred. X-ray diffraction showed that no facies changed or chemical reaction occurred during the fabrication process. The chemical composition remains the same as that of the original β-TCP powder. The compressive strength is 23.54 MPa, close to that of natural cancellous bone. Novel implants with a pre-set channel were designed and fabricated for blood vessel implantation. Bioceramic stereolithography technology based directly on the CAD model in this research shows advantages in accurate design, optimization of 3D scaffold and critical control of the fabrication process. This proposed implant shows promising clinical application in the restoration of early femoral head necrosis.

  13. Nanojoint Formation between Ceramic Titanate Nanowires and Spot Melting of Metal Nanowires with Electron Beam.

    PubMed

    Bo, Arixin; Alarco, Jose; Zhu, Huaiyong; Waclawik, Eric R; Zhan, Haifei; Gu, YuanTong

    2017-03-15

    Construction of nanoarchitectures requires techniques like joint formation and trimming. For ceramic materials, however, it is extremely difficult to form nanojoints by conventional methods like merging. In this work, we demonstrate that ceramic titanate nanowires (NWs) can be joined by spot melting under electron beam (e-beam) irradiation (EBI). The irradiation fuses the contacted spot of titanate NWs yielding an intact nanojoint. Nanojoints with different morphologies can be produced. The joint structures consist of titanium dioxide (TiO2) rutile, anatase, and titanate phases in the direction away from the e-beam melting spot. The titanate binds to anatase via a crystallographic matching coherent interface (the oxygen atoms at the interface are shared by the two phases) and the anatase solidly binds to the rutile joint. The resulting rutile joint is stable at high temperatures. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the heat production from EBI treated rutile can be utilized to break metal NWs (Ag, Cu, and Ni) apart by spot melting. The required e-beam intensity is considerably mild (75 pA/cm(2)) which allows visual access and control over the NW melting. Direct melting of Ag and Cu is not applicable under EBI due to their high thermal conductivity even with high current density (500 pA/cm(2)). Our findings reveal that ceramic nanojoint formation and spot melting at nanoscale are applicable if the properties of nanomaterials are understood and properly utilized.

  14. Electron-beam-induced polarization of lithium- and manganese-modified lead ferroniobate ceramics and its respective emission phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevtsova, S. I.; Pavlenko, A. V.; Kozakov, A. T.; Reznichenko, L. A.; Nikol'skii, A. V.; Shilkina, L. A.

    2014-03-01

    A polarization state is formed with an electron beam in ceramic samples of pure lead ferroniobate (PFN) and PFN modified to a superstoichiometric composition at the stage of synthesis by adding 1 wt % lithium carbonate (PFNL) and 1 wt % of magnesia (PFNM). It is shown that in the case of PFNL, polarization by an electron beam is more efficient than the conventional method of "hot" polarization. Reasons for the observed effects, including enhanced electron emission from local irradiated areas on the surface of the ceramics, are discussed.

  15. Effect of ceramic membrane channel geometry and uniform transmembrane pressure on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effects of a ceramic microfiltration (MF) membrane's retentate flow channel geometry (round or diamond-shaped) and uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) on limiting flux (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal during skim milk MF at a temperature of 50°C, a retentate protein concentration of 8.5%, and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m·s(-1). Performance of membranes with round and diamond flow channels was compared in UTP mode. Performance of the membrane with round flow channels was compared with and without UTP. Using UTP with round flow channel MF membranes increased the LF by 5% when compared with not using UTP, but SP removal was not affected by the use of UTP. Using membranes with round channels instead of diamond-shaped channels in UTP mode increased the LF by 24%. This increase was associated with a 25% increase in Reynolds number and can be explained by lower shear at the vertices of the diamond-shaped channel's surface. The SP removal factor of the diamond channel system was higher than the SP removal factor of the round channel system below the LF. However, the diamond channel system passed more casein into the MF permeate than the round channel system. Because only one batch of each membrane was tested in our study, it was not possible to determine if the differences in protein rejection between channel geometries were due to the membrane design or random manufacturing variation. Despite the lower LF of the diamond channel system, the 47% increase in membrane module surface area of the diamond channel system produced a modular permeate removal rate that was at least 19% higher than the round channel system. Consequently, using diamond channel membranes instead of round channel membranes could reduce some of the costs associated with ceramic MF of skim milk if fewer membrane modules could be used to attain the required membrane area.

  16. Laser-electron Compton interaction in plasma channels

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Hirose, T.

    1998-10-01

    A concept of high intensity femtosecond laser synchrotron source (LSS) is based on Compton backscattering of focused electron and laser beams. The short Rayleigh length of the focused laser beam limits the length of interaction to a few picoseconds. However, the technology of the high repetition rate high-average power picosecond lasers required for high put through LSS applications is not developed yet. Another problem associated with the picosecond laser pulses is undesirable nonlinear effects occurring when the laser photons are concentrated in a short time interval. To avoid the nonlinear Compton scattering, the laser beam has to be split, and the required hard radiation flux is accumulated over a number of consecutive interactions that complicates the LSS design. In order to relieve the technological constraints and achieve a practically feasible high-power laser synchrotron source, the authors propose to confine the laser-electron interaction region in the extended plasma channel. This approach permits to use nanosecond laser pulses instead of the picosecond pulses. That helps to avoid the nonlinear Compton scattering regime and allows to utilize already existing technology of the high-repetition rate TEA CO{sub 2} lasers operating at the atmospheric pressure. They demonstrate the advantages of the channeled LSS approach by the example of the prospective polarized positron source for Japan Linear Collider.

  17. Method of forming a dense, high temperature electronically conductive composite layer on a porous ceramic substrate

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical device, containing a solid oxide electrolyte material and an electrically conductive composite layer, has the composite layer attached by: (A) applying a layer of LaCrO.sub.3, YCrO.sub.3 or LaMnO.sub.3 particles (32), on a portion of a porous ceramic substrate (30), (B) heating to sinter bond the particles to the substrate, (C) depositing a dense filler structure (34) between the doped particles (32), (D) shaving off the top of the particles, and (E) applying an electronically conductive layer over the particles (32) as a contact.

  18. Precessed electron beam electron energy loss spectroscopy of graphene: Beyond channelling effects

    SciTech Connect

    Yedra, Ll.; Estradé, S.; Torruella, P.; Eljarrat, A.; Peiró, F.; Darbal, A. D.; Weiss, J. K.

    2014-08-04

    The effects of beam precession on the Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) signal of the carbon K edge in a 2 monolayer graphene sheet are studied. In a previous work, we demonstrated the use of precession to compensate for the channeling-induced reduction of EELS signal when in zone axis. In the case of graphene, no enhancement of EELS signal is found in the usual experimental conditions, as graphene is not thick enough to present channeling effects. Interestingly, though it is found that precession makes it possible to increase the collection angle, and, thus, the overall signal, without a loss of signal-to-background ratio.

  19. Electron channeling in TiO2 coated Cu layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pengyuan; Zhou, Tianji; Gall, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Electron transport in metal conductors with ˜5-30 nm width is dominated by surface scattering. In situ transport measurements as a function of surface chemistry demonstrate that the primary parameter determining the surface scattering specularity is the localized surface density of states at the Fermi level N(E f ). In particular, the measured sheet resistance of epitaxial Cu(001) layers with thickness d Cu = 9-25 nm increases when coated with d Ti = 0.1-4.0 monolayers (MLs) of Ti, but decreases again during exposure to 37 Pa of O2. These resistivity changes are a function of d Cu and d Ti and are due to a transition from partially specular electron scattering at the Cu surface to completely diffuse scattering at the Cu-Ti interface, and the recovery of surface specularity as the Ti is oxidized. X-ray reflectivity and photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the formation of a 0.47 ± 0.03 nm thick Cu2O surface layer on top of the TiO2-Cu2O during air exposure, while density functional calculations of TiO x cap layers as a function of x = 0-2 and d Ti = 0.25-1.0 ML show a reduction of N(E f ) by up to a factor of four. This reduction is proposed to be the key cause for the recovery of surface specularity and results in electron confinement and channeling in the Cu layer upon Ti oxidation. Transport measurements at 293 and 77 K confirm the channeling and demonstrate the potential for high-conductivity metal nanowires by quantifying the surface specularity parameter p = 0.67 ± 0.05, 0.00 ± 0.05, and 0.35 ± 0.05 at the Cu-vacuum, Cu-Ti, and Cu-TiO2 interfaces.

  20. Metal ceramic alloy structure and surface layer modification during electron-ion-plasma irradiation of its surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovcharenko, V. E.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Shilko, E. V.; Mokhovikov, A. A.; Baohai, Yu; Tianyng, Xiong; Hua, Xu Yun; Lisheng, Zhong

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents research findings on the problems of electron-beam irradiation in noble gases plasma with different indexes of ionizing energy and atomic weight, and a surface layer structure modification versus a surface layer microhardness, wear and bending resistances and corrosion stability of 50% TiC/50% (Ni + 20% Cr) metal ceramic alloy samples. Discussions on the issues of the ways impulse electron-beam irradiation in the conditions of various types of noble gas plasma influences the mechanism of a metal ceramic alloy surface layer structure-phase state modification has been also presented.

  1. Electron channeling contrast imaging studies of nonpolar nitrides using a scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Naresh-Kumar, G.; Kraeusel, S.; Bruckbauer, J.; Edwards, P. R.; Hourahine, B.; Trager-Cowan, C.; Mauder, C.; Heuken, M.; Wang, K. R.; Trampert, A.; Kalisch, H.; Vescan, A.; Giesen, C.; Day, A. P.

    2013-04-08

    Threading dislocations, stacking faults, and associated partial dislocations significantly degrade the optical and electrical properties of materials such as non-polar III-nitride semiconductor thin films. Stacking faults are generally difficult to detect and quantify with existing characterization techniques. We demonstrate the use of electron channeling contrast imaging in the scanning electron microscope to non-destructively reveal basal plane stacking faults terminated by partial dislocations in m-plane GaN and InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures grown on {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy.

  2. Theoretical Studies on the Electronic Structures and Properties of Complex Ceramic Crystals and Novel Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, Wai-Yim

    2012-01-14

    This project is a continuation of a long program supported by the Office of Basic Energy Science in the Office of Science of DOE for many years. The final three-year continuation started on November 1, 2005 with additional 1 year extension to October 30, 2009. The project was then granted a two-year No Cost Extension which officially ended on October 30, 2011. This report covers the activities within this six year period with emphasis on the work completed within the last 3 years. A total of 44 papers with acknowledgement to this grant were published or submitted. The overall objectives of this project are as follows. These objectives have been evolved over the six year period: (1) To use the state-of-the-art computational methods to investigate the electronic structures of complex ceramics and other novel crystals. (2) To further investigate the defects, surfaces/interfaces and microstructures in complex materials using large scale modeling. (3) To extend the study on ceramic materials to more complex bioceramic crystals. (4) To initiate the study on soft condensed matters including water and biomolecules. (5) To focus on the spectroscopic studies of different materials especially on the ELNES and XANES spectral calculations and their applications related to experimental techniques. (6) To develop and refine computational methods to be effectively executed on DOE supercomputers. (7) To evaluate mechanical properties of different crystals and those containing defects and relate them to the fundamental electronic structures. (8) To promote and publicize the first-principles OLCAO method developed by the PI (under DOE support for many years) for applications to large complex material systems. (9) To train a new generation of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in modern computational materials science and condensed matter physics. (10) To establish effective international and domestic collaborations with both experimentalists and theorists in materials

  3. Scanning electron acoustic microscopy of indentation-induced cracks and residual stresses in ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Qian, Menglu; Ravichandran, M. V.; Knowles, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    The ability of scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM) to characterize ceramic materials is assessed. SEAM images of Vickers indentations in SiC whisker-reinforced alumina clearly reveal not only the radial cracks, the length of which can be used to estimate the fracture toughness of the material, but also reveal strong contrast, interpreted as arising from the combined effects of lateral cracks and the residual stress field left in the SiC whisker-reinforced alumina by the indenter. The strong contrast is removed after the material is heat treated at 1000 C to relieve the residual stresses around the indentations. A comparison of these observations with SEAM and reflected polarized light observations of Vickers indentations in soda-lime glass both before and after heat treatment confirms the interpretation of the strong contrast.

  4. The structure and properties of boron carbide ceramics modified by high-current pulsed electron-beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Yuri; Tolkachev, Oleg Petyukevich, Maria Polisadova, Valentina; Teresov, Anton; Ivanova, Olga Ikonnikova, Irina

    2016-01-15

    The present work is devoted to numerical simulation of temperature fields and the analysis of structural and strength properties of the samples surface layer of boron carbide ceramics treated by the high-current pulsed electron-beam of the submillisecond duration. The samples made of sintered boron carbide ceramics are used in these investigations. The problem of calculating the temperature field is reduced to solving the thermal conductivity equation. The electron beam density ranges between 8…30 J/cm{sup 2}, while the pulse durations are 100…200 μs in numerical modelling. The results of modelling the temperature field allowed ascertaining the threshold parameters of the electron beam, such as energy density and pulse duration. The electron beam irradiation is accompanied by the structural modification of the surface layer of boron carbide ceramics either in the single-phase (liquid or solid) or two-phase (solid-liquid) states. The sample surface of boron carbide ceramics is treated under the two-phase state (solid-liquid) conditions of the structural modification. The surface layer is modified by the high-current pulsed electron-beam produced by SOLO installation at the Institute of High Current Electronics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia. The elemental composition and the defect structure of the modified surface layer are analyzed by the optical instrument, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes. Mechanical properties of the modified layer are determined measuring its hardness and crack resistance. Research results show that the melting and subsequent rapid solidification of the surface layer lead to such phenomena as fragmentation due to a crack network, grain size reduction, formation of the sub-grained structure due to mechanical twinning, and increase of hardness and crack resistance.

  5. The structure and properties of boron carbide ceramics modified by high-current pulsed electron-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yuri; Tolkachev, Oleg; Petyukevich, Maria; Teresov, Anton; Ivanova, Olga; Ikonnikova, Irina; Polisadova, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The present work is devoted to numerical simulation of temperature fields and the analysis of structural and strength properties of the samples surface layer of boron carbide ceramics treated by the high-current pulsed electron-beam of the submillisecond duration. The samples made of sintered boron carbide ceramics are used in these investigations. The problem of calculating the temperature field is reduced to solving the thermal conductivity equation. The electron beam density ranges between 8…30 J/cm2, while the pulse durations are 100…200 μs in numerical modelling. The results of modelling the temperature field allowed ascertaining the threshold parameters of the electron beam, such as energy density and pulse duration. The electron beam irradiation is accompanied by the structural modification of the surface layer of boron carbide ceramics either in the single-phase (liquid or solid) or two-phase (solid-liquid) states. The sample surface of boron carbide ceramics is treated under the two-phase state (solid-liquid) conditions of the structural modification. The surface layer is modified by the high-current pulsed electron-beam produced by SOLO installation at the Institute of High Current Electronics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia. The elemental composition and the defect structure of the modified surface layer are analyzed by the optical instrument, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes. Mechanical properties of the modified layer are determined measuring its hardness and crack resistance. Research results show that the melting and subsequent rapid solidification of the surface layer lead to such phenomena as fragmentation due to a crack network, grain size reduction, formation of the sub-grained structure due to mechanical twinning, and increase of hardness and crack resistance.

  6. Ceramic Processing

    SciTech Connect

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  7. Crystal Chemistry and Ceramic Processing of Rare Earth Chalcogenide Optical and Electronic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Cheryl Marie

    1990-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with the development of new IR transmitting materials for the 8-14 micrometer atomspheric window. The strategy was to investigate, in detail, the synthesis, crystal chemistry, processing, optical, and electronic properties of the rare earth sulfide as candidate materials. The rare earths crystallize in five known structures. Study of their temperature stabilities during long reaction times showed that alpha (orthorhombic, Pnma) exists as the low temperature form, and gamma (cubic, I| 43d) exists as the high temperature form in the large rare earths. Delta (monoclinic, P2/m) exists in the smaller rare earths from Ho through Tm over all temperature ranges, and episilon (trigonal, R| 3c) forms from Yb and Lu. Beta (tetragonal, I4/acd), which is reported in literature as a mid temperature range, oxygen stabilized rare earth sulfide, appears to be an oxysulfide and is an intermediate step between the oxide and sulfide from La through Nd. Extremely fine-grained precursor oxides were synthesized by evaporative decomposition of solution. An ultrasonic dispersion of aqueous nitrate salts is misted into a hot walled furnace. The 2-5 micrometer resulting oxides were predominantly well-crystallized spherical particles. The sesquisulfides could be readily synthesized by direct reaction of the oxides with flowing H_2S in the presence of graphite. These reactive, fine-grained, EDS-derived sulfides could be sintered into ceramic compacts that achieved 92 -98 percent of theoretical density. Sintering temperatures from 1200^circ-1400 ^circC and time of 80-120 minutes in flowing H_2S produced the best ceramics. This method of preparation is superior to the method using stock 25-35 micrometer starting materials which only received 70-78 percent of theoretical density. The measurement of the electronic absorption edge yielded band gaps of 1.6-2.6 eV. The first-order transverse and longitudinal phonon frequencies obtained by specular reflectance FTIR spectroscopy

  8. Characterization of ionic transport in polymer and electronic transport in disordered selenium and ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Subhasish

    In this thesis, the properties of electronic conduction in vanadium (donor) and scandium (acceptor) doped Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 ceramics, amorphous Selenium and ionic conduction in polyester polyol based polyurethane have been investigated. The leakage current of bulk vanadium (donor) and scandium (acceptor) doped Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 ceramics structures measured using gold electrical contacts have been characterized and analyzed. Vanadium doping reduces the ohmic leakage current that dominates the transport characteristics up to 5 kV/cm. The Arrhenius activation energy is 0.18, 0.20 and 0.23 eV for 1, 2 and 4 at % V-doped samples, respectively. Above this field, the current-voltage characteristics exhibit discontinuous current transitions associated with trap filling by electronic carriers. At higher fields, trap controlled space charge limited conduction (SCLC) is observed with an effective mobility of 4+/-1x10-7 cm2/V s, characteristic of electronic transport process that involves quasi equilibrium between conduction in the band and trapping. In contrast, the leakage current of Sc-doped samples increases with impurity concentration and exhibits a 0.60 eV activation energy. In this case, the limiting current conduction mechanism is the transport of holes over the electrostatic barrier at grain boundaries. Comparison of these results to those on similarly-doped homoepitaxial SrTiO3 thin-films deposited on single-crystal and bicrystal substrates helped to identify the characteristics of transport in the bulk and across grain boundaries for this class of materials. Electrical, thermal and Li transport properties have been measured for polyester polyol and isocyanate-based polyurethanes doped with Lithium trifluoromethanesulfonimide (LiTFSI) and Lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) Electrical conductivities are estimated at 10-5--10-6 S/cm near 300 K. The conductivities show Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) behavior over a wide temperature ranges. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) shows

  9. Compositions and chemical bonding in ceramics by quantitative electron energy-loss spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, J.; Horton, L.L.; McHargue, C.J.; McKernan, S.; Carter, C.B.; Revcolevschi, A.; Tanaka, S.; Davis, R.F.

    1993-12-31

    Quantitative electron energy-loss spectrometry was applied to a range of ceramic materials at a spatial resolution of <5 nm. Analysis of Fe L{sub 23} white lines indicated a low-spin state with a charge transfer of {approximately}1.5 electrons/atom onto the Fe atoms implanted into (amorphized) silicon carbide. Gradients of 2 to 5% in the Co:O stoichiometry were measured across 100-nm-thick Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} layers in an oxidized directionally solidified CoO-ZrO{sub 2} eutectic, with the highest O levels near the ZrO{sub 2}. The energy-loss near-edge structures were dramatically different for the two cobalt oxides; those for CO{sub 3}O{sub 4} have been incorrectly ascribed to CoO in the published literature. Kinetically stabilized solid solubility occurred in an AlN-SiC film grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on {alpha}(6H)-SiC, and no detectable interdiffusion occurred in couples of MBE-grown AlN on SiC following annealing at up to 1750C. In diffusion couples of polycrystalline AlN on SiC, interfacial 8H sialon (aluminum oxy-nitride) and pockets of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rich {beta}{prime} sialon in the SiC were detected.

  10. Low-Pressure Gas Effects on the Potency of an Electron Beam Against Ceramic Cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Russell, C. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Fragomeni, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    An 8-kv electron beam with a current in the neighborhood of 100 mA from the Ukrainian space welding "Universal Hand Tool" (UHT) burned holes in Nextel AF-62 ceramic cloth designed to withstand temperatures up to 1,427 C. The burnthrough time was on the order of 8 scc at standoff distances between UHT and cloth ranging from 6-24 in. At both closer (2 in.) and farther (48 in.) standoff distances the potency of the beam against the cloth declined and the burnthrough time went up significantly. Prior to the test it had been expected that the beam would lay down a static charge on the cloth and be deflected without damaging the cloth. The burnthrough is thought to be an effect of partial transmission of beam power by a stream of positive ions generated by the high-voltage electron beam from contaminant gas in the "vacuum" chamber. A rough quantitative theoretical computation appears to substantiate this possibility.

  11. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    DOEpatents

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  12. Non-cross talk multi-channel photomultiplier using guided electron multipliers

    DOEpatents

    Gomez, J.; Majewski, S.; Weisenberger, A.G.

    1995-09-26

    An improved multi-channel electron multiplier is provided that exhibits zero cross-talk and high rate operation. Resistive material input and output masks are employed to control divergence of electrons. Electron multiplication takes place in closed channels. Several embodiments are provided for these channels including a continuous resistive emissive multiplier and a discrete resistive multiplier with discrete dynode chains interspaced with resistive layers-masks. Both basic embodiments provide high gain multiplication of electrons without accumulating surface charges while containing electrons to their proper channels to eliminate cross-talk. The invention can be for example applied to improve the performance of ion mass spectrometers, positron emission tomography devices, in DNA sequencing and other beta radiography applications and in many applications in particle physics. 28 figs.

  13. Non cross talk multi-channel photomultiplier using guided electron multipliers

    DOEpatents

    Gomez, Javier; Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    1995-01-01

    An improved multi-channel electron multiplier is provided that exhibits zero cross-talk and high rate operation. Resistive material input and output masks are employed to control divergence of electrons. Electron multiplication takes place in closed channels. Several embodiments are provided for these channels including a continuous resistive emissive multiplier and a discrete resistive multiplier with discrete dynode chains interspaced with resistive layers-masks. Both basic embodiments provide high gain multiplication of electrons without accumulating surface charges while containing electrons to their proper channels to eliminate cross-talk. The invention can be for example applied to improve the performance of ion mass spectrometers, positron emission tomography devices, in DNA sequencing and other beta radiography applications and in many applications in particle physics.

  14. The design of an asymmetric bionic branching channel for electronic chips cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shanglong; Qin, Jie; Guo, Wei; Fang, Kuang

    2013-06-01

    Inspired by the wing vein of Lepidoptera, a designment of asymmetric bionic branching channel for electronic chips cooling is developed. Lepidoptera vein D was chosen to measure the angle of first and second branch level. Based on these regular patterns, an asymmetric bionic branching channel is designed in a 35 mm × 35 mm chip. Comparing with fractal-like branching channel, it provides a stronger heat transfer capability, lower pressure drop and lower flow resistance in the experiment.

  15. Quantum ballistic transport by interacting two-electron states in quasi-one-dimensional channels

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Danhong; Gumbs, Godfrey; Abranyos, Yonatan; Pepper, Michael; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-11-15

    For quantum ballistic transport of electrons through a short conduction channel, the role of Coulomb interaction may significantly modify the energy levels of two-electron states at low temperatures as the channel becomes wide. In this regime, the Coulomb effect on the two-electron states is calculated and found to lead to four split energy levels, including two anticrossing-level and two crossing-level states. Moreover, due to the interplay of anticrossing and crossing effects, our calculations reveal that the ground two-electron state will switch from one anticrossing state (strong confinement) to a crossing state (intermediate confinement) as the channel width gradually increases and then back to the original anticrossing state (weak confinement) as the channel width becomes larger than a threshold value. This switching behavior leaves a footprint in the ballistic conductance as well as in the diffusion thermoelectric power of electrons. Such a switching is related to the triple spin degeneracy as well as to the Coulomb repulsion in the central region of the channel, which separates two electrons away and pushes them to different channel edges. The conductance reoccurrence region expands from the weak to the intermediate confinement regime with increasing electron density.

  16. Three-dimensional electron paramagnetic resonance imaging technique for mapping porosity in ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kordas, G.; Kang, Y.H. )

    1991-04-01

    This paper reports on a three-dimensional (3D) electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) method which was developed to probe the structure and size of pores in ceramic materials. The imaging device that was added to the EPR instrument consisted of a computer-controlled current source and magnetic field gradient. This add-on facility was tested using a well-defined diphenlpicrylhydrazzyl phantom sample. Pumice was then used to demonstrate the potential of the technique. This stone was immersed in a 0.5 mm {sup 15}N-substituted per-deutereted tempone water solution to fill the pores with spin labels. Images were reconstructed using a filtered back-projection technique. A two-dimensional (2D) imaging plane was constructed by collecting 33 projection planes over 180 {degrees}. A 3D image was derived from 22 planes each constructed by 22 projections. At present, the facility allows a resolution of 69 and 46 {mu}m for 2D and 3D imaging, respectively. Advancements of the imaging apparatus, software, and line width of the spin labels will be needed to enhance the resolution of this technique.

  17. COUNTER PROPAGATION OF ELECTRON AND CO2 LASER BEAMS IN A PLASMA CHANNEL.

    SciTech Connect

    HIROSE,T.; POGORELSKY,I.V.; BEN ZVI,I.; YAKIMENKO,V.; KUSCHE,K.; SIDDONS,P.; KUMITA,T.; KAMIYA,Y.; ZIGLER,A.; GREENBERG,B.; ET AL

    2002-11-12

    A high-energy CO{sub 2} laser is channeled in a capillary discharge. Occurrence of guiding conditions at a relatively low plasma density (<10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) is confirmed by MHD simulations. Divergence of relativistic electron beam changes depending on the plasma density. Counter-propagation of the electron and laser beams inside the plasma channel results in intense x-ray generation.

  18. Measuring Fracture Times Of Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J.; Bister, Leo; Bickler, Donald G.

    1989-01-01

    Electrical measurements complement or replace fast cinematography. Electronic system measures microsecond time intervals between impacts of projectiles on ceramic tiles and fracture tiles. Used in research on ceramics and ceramic-based composite materials such as armor. Hardness and low density of ceramics enable them to disintegrate projectiles more efficiently than metals. Projectile approaches ceramic tile specimen. Penetrating foil squares of triggering device activate display and recording instruments. As ceramic and resistive film break oscilloscope plots increase in electrical resistance of film.

  19. Electrical conductivity channels in the atmosphere produced by relativistic-electron microbursts from the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    2017-03-01

    The properties of a cylindrical-shaped magnetic-field-aligned channel of electrical conductivity produced by the precipitation of relativistic-electrons into the atmosphere during a spatially localized magnetospheric microburst are estimated. The conducting channel connects the middle atmosphere ( 50 km) to the ionosphere. A channel diameter of 8 km with an electric conductivity of 1.2×10-9 Ω-1m-1 near the bottom and 1.8×10-7 Ω-1m-1 higher up is found. In the fair-weather electric field, the higher-conductivity portions of the channel can carry substantial electrical currents.

  20. Enhancement of laser-driven electron acceleration in an ion channel

    SciTech Connect

    Arefiev, Alexey V.; Khudik, Vladimir N.; Schollmeier, Marius

    2014-03-15

    A laser beam with duration longer than the period of plasma oscillations propagating through an underdense plasma produces a steady-state positively charged channel in the electron density. We consider a test electron in the two-dimensional plane channel under the combined action of the laser field and the transverse static electric field of the channel. At ultrarelativistic laser wave amplitude (a≫1), the electron is pushed primarily forward. As the electron gradually dephases from the wave, the field it samples and its relativistic γ-factor strongly oscillate. The natural frequency of electron oscillations across the channel (betatron frequency) depends on γ, which couples the betatron oscillations to the longitudinal motion induced by the wave. We show that the modulation of the natural frequency makes the oscillations unstable. The resulting amplification of the oscillations across the channel reduces the axial dephasing between the electron and the wave, leading to a considerable electron energy enhancement well above the ponderomotive energy. We find that there is a well-pronounced laser amplitude threshold a{sub *}, above which the enhancement takes place, that scales as a{sub *}∝1/√(n{sub 0}), where n{sub 0} is the ion density. The presented mechanism of energy enhancement is robust with respect to a longitudinal variation of the density, because it relies on a threshold phenomenon rather than on a narrow linear resonance.

  1. High Energy Electron Acceleration from Underdense Plasma Channeling Using the OMEGA EP Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batson, Thomas; Raymond, Anthony; Hussein, Amina; Krushelnick, Karl; Willingale, Louise; Nilson, Phil; Froula, Dustin; Harberberger, Dan; Davies, Andrew; Theobald, Wolfgang; Williams, Jackson; Chen, Hui; Arefiev, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    For intense, ps scale lasers, propagation through underdense plasmas results in forces which expel electrons from along the laser axis, resulting in the formation of channels. Electrons can then be injected from the channel walls into the laser path, which results in the direct laser acceleration (DLA) of these electrons and the occurrence of an electron beam of 100's of MeV. Experiments performed at the OMEGA EP laser studied the formation of a laser channel in an underdense CH plasma, as well as the spatial properties and energy of an electron beam created via DLA mechanisms. The 4 omega optical probe diagnostic was used to characterize the density of the plasma plume, while proton radiography was used to observe the electromagnetic fields of the channel formation. These electric fields as well as the spectra of the accelerated electrons have been studied across different plasma density profiles. The channel behavior and electron spectra are compared to 2D particle-in-cell simulations.

  2. Composition and microstructure of maiolica from the museum of ceramics in Ascoli Piceno (Italy): evidences by electron microscopy and microanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulmini, M.; Scognamiglio, F.; Roselli, G.; Vaggelli, G.

    2015-09-01

    The present work focuses on majolica objects from the collection of the museum of ceramic in Ascoli Piceno (Italy). The scientific investigation was performed on fragments detached from seven maiolicas attributed to the Castelli production (Abruzzi region) and one majolica from the Ascoli Piceno production (Marche region). The Castelli artifacts (late sixteenth-early eighteenth century) belong to the decorated style known as " compendiario." The piece from Ascoli Piceno recalls the decoration style of the other considered objects and is attributable to the "Paci" manufacture (first half of the nineteenth century). The selected objects were investigated by fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy, micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with electron-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The ceramic bodies of all objects are calcareous, whereas the glazes are lead-alkali type opacified by tin dioxide. Blue and purplish-red decorations were obtained by cobalt and manganese compounds dissolved in the glaze, respectively. Yellow and orange decorations were obtained by particles of lead antimonate and hematite. Finally, black decorations were obtained using compounds rich in manganese and iron. The study contributes to knowledge on the production of Castelli ceramics and presents first archaeometric data on the maiolica production from Ascoli Piceno. The scientific examination highlights continuity with the Renaissance production, and the joint contribution of the three analytical techniques suggests distinctive features among different productions, thus integrating and refining the information obtained by the art-historical study.

  3. Electron acceleration in preformed plasma channels with terawatt CO{sub 2} laser

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1995-02-01

    Extended cylindrical plasma channels produced under gas breakdown by axicon-focused laser beams may be used as optical waveguides in laser-driven electron accelerators. Plasma channeling of the laser beams will help to maintain a high acceleration gradient over many Rayleigh lengths. In addition, the rarefied gas density channel produced after the optical gas breakdown, and followed by a plasma column expansion, reduces multiple scattering of the electron beam. A high-power picosecond C0{sub 2}laser operational at the ATF and being further upgraded to the 1 TW level is considered as the source for a plasma channel formation and as the laser accelerator driver. We show how various laser accelerator schemes including beat wave, wake field, and Inverse Cherenkov accelerator benefit from using a channeled short-pulse C0{sub 2}laser as a driver.

  4. Micromechanisms of brittle fracture: Acoustic emissions and electron channeling analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Gerberich, W.W.

    1990-06-01

    The objectives of this work are to: (i) Evaluate the initial stages of cleavage nucleation in single and polycrystalline samples; (ii) Determine the controlling event(s) which lead(s) to unstable cleavage (is it an unstable cluster'' of microcracks or a crack-tip opening displacement criterion for an array of ligaments surrounding these microcracks ); (iii) Determine how the process zone, which depends upon microstructure and processing history, affects the controlling event(s); (iv) Use selected area channeling patterns (SACP's) to assist in an independent measure of the cleavage fracture stress of grains cleaved at or just outside the elastic-plastic boundary; also, use it to evaluate static and dynamic strain distributions; and (v) Evaluate the effects of dislocation shielding and overload using combined methods of computational mechanics with discretized dislocation arrays and direct observations of dislocations using channeling, etch pit and birefringence methods. Accomplishments are discussed. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Electromagnetic dispersion characteristics of a high energy electron beam guided with an ion channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jixiong, Xiao; Zhong, Zeng; Zhijiang, Wang; Donghui, Xia; Changhai, Liu

    2017-02-01

    Taking self-fields into consideration, dispersion properties of two types of electromagnetic modes for a high energy electron beam guided with an ion channel are investigated by using the linear perturbation theory. The dependences of the dispersion frequencies of electromagnetic waves on the electron beam radius, betatron frequency and boundary current are revealed. It is found that the electron beam radius and betatron frequency have different influences on the electromagnetic waves dispersion behavior by compared with the previous works. As the boundary current is taken into account, the TM modes will have two branches and a low-frequency branch emerged as the new branch in strong ion channel case. This new branch has similar dispersion behavior to the betatron modes. For TE modes, there are two branches and they have different dispersion behaviors in strong ion channel case. However, in weak ion channel case, the dispersion behaviors for both of the low frequency and high frequency branches are similar.

  6. Boosting the Detection Potential of Liquid Chromatography-Electron Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using a Ceramic Coated Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrini, Laura; Famiglini, Giorgio; Palma, Pierangela; Termopoli, Veronica; Cappiello, Achille

    2016-01-01

    Detection of target and non-target substances and their characterization in complex samples is a challenging task. Here we demonstrate that coating the electron ionization (EI) ion source of an LC-MS system with a sol-gel ceramic film can drastically improve the detection of high-molecular weight and high-boiling analytes. A new ion source coated with a ceramic material was developed and tested with a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with an increasing number of rings. Comparison of the results obtained with those for an uncoated stainless steel (SS) ion source shows a dramatic improvement in the MS signals, with a nearly 40-fold increase of the signal-to-noise ratio. We also demonstrate the ability of the new system to produce excellent chromatographic profiles for hard-to-detect hormones.

  7. Dependence of the beam-channel interaction force on the radial profiles of a relativistic electron beam and an ion channel in the ion-focusing regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, E. K.; Manuilov, A. S.

    2017-02-01

    We have derived the formulas for calculating the force of the interaction of a relativistic electron beam with an ion plasma channel in the case of the beam transportation during ion focusing. The dependence of the difference in radial profiles of the beam and the ion channel on this force for different amplitudes of beam deviations from the channel symmetry axis has been studied.

  8. E-beam ionized channel guiding of an intense relativistic electron beam

    DOEpatents

    Frost, C.A.; Godfrey, B.B.; Kiekel, P.D.; Shope, S.L.

    1988-05-10

    An IREB is guided through a curved path by ionizing a channel in a gas with electrons from a filament, and confining the electrons to the center of the path with a magnetic field extending along the path. The magnetic field is preferably generated by a solenoid extending along the path. 2 figs.

  9. E-beam ionized channel guiding of an intense relativistic electron beam

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Charles A.; Godfrey, Brendon B.; Kiekel, Paul D.; Shope, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    An IREB is guided through a curved path by ionizing a channel in a gas with electrons from a filament, and confining the electrons to the center of the path with a magnetic field extending along the path. The magnetic field is preferably generated by a solenoid extending along the path.

  10. Electronic consent channels: preserving patient privacy without handcuffing researchers.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Robert H

    2011-02-09

    Advances in health information technology and electronic medical records have the tremendous potential to accelerate translational and clinical research. However, privacy concerns threaten to be a rate-limiting factor. By recognizing and responding to patient privacy concerns, policy-makers, researchers, and information technology leaders have the opportunity to transform trial recruitment and make it safer to electronically locate and convey sensitive health information.

  11. Enhanced acceleration of injected electrons in a laser-beat-wave-induced plasma channel.

    PubMed

    Tochitsky, S Ya; Narang, R; Filip, C V; Musumeci, P; Clayton, C E; Yoder, R B; Marsh, K A; Rosenzweig, J B; Pellegrini, C; Joshi, C

    2004-03-05

    Enhanced energy gain of externally injected electrons by a approximately 3 cm long, high-gradient relativistic plasma wave (RPW) is demonstrated. Using a CO2 laser beat wave of duration longer than the ion motion time across the laser spot size, a laser self-guiding process is initiated in a plasma channel. Guiding compensates for ionization-induced defocusing (IID) creating a longer plasma, which extends the interaction length between electrons and the RPW. In contrast to a maximum energy gain of 10 MeV when IID is dominant, the electrons gain up to 38 MeV energy in a laser-beat-wave-induced plasma channel.

  12. P -wave coupled channel effects in electron-positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Meng-Lin; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Wang, Qian

    2016-11-01

    P -wave coupled channel effects arising from the D D ¯, D D¯ *+c .c . , and D*D¯* thresholds in e+e- annihilations are systematically studied. We provide an exploratory study by solving the Lippmann-Schwinger equation with short-ranged contact potentials obtained in the heavy quark limit. These contact potentials can be extracted from the P -wave interactions in the e+e- annihilations, and then be employed to investigate possible isosinglet P -wave hadronic molecules. In particular, such an investigation may provide information about exotic candidates with quantum numbers JPC=1-+ . In the mass region of the D D ¯, D D¯ *+c .c . , and D*D¯* thresholds, there are two quark model bare states, i.e. the ψ (3770 ) and ψ (4040 ), which are assigned as (13D1) and (31S1) states, respectively. By an overall fit of the cross sections of e+e-→D D ¯, D D¯ *+c .c . , D*D¯*, we determine the physical coupling constants to each channel and extract the pole positions of the ψ (3770 ) and ψ (4040 ). The deviation of the ratios from that in the heavy quark spin symmetry (HQSS) limit reflects the HQSS breaking effect due to the mass splitting between the D and the D*. Besides the two poles, we also find a pole a few MeV above the D D¯ *+c .c . threshold which can be related to the so-called G (3900 ) observed earlier by BABAR and Belle. This scenario can be further scrutinized by measuring the angular distribution in the D*D¯* channel with high luminosity experiments.

  13. Growth and texture of spark plasma sintered Al2O3 ceramics: A combined analysis of X-rays and electron back scatter diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravarthana, D.; Chateigner, D.; Lutterotti, L.; Lacotte, M.; Marinel, S.; Dubos, P. A.; Hervas, I.; Hug, E.; Salvador, P. A.; Prellier, W.

    2013-04-01

    Textured alumina ceramics were obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering of undoped commercial α-Al2O3 powders. Various parameters (density, grain growth, grain size distribution) of the alumina ceramics, sintered at two typical temperatures 1400 °C and 1700 °C, are investigated. Quantitative textural and structural analysis, carried out using a combination of Electron Back Scattering Diffraction and X-ray diffraction, are represented in the form of mapping and pole figures. The mechanical properties of these textured alumina ceramics include high elastic modulus and hardness values with high anisotropic nature, opening the door for a large range of applications.

  14. Electron paramagnetic resonance of Nb-doped BaTiO3 ceramics with positive temperature coefficient of resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jida, Shin'suke; Miki, Toshikatsu

    1996-11-01

    Paramagnetic centers in Nb-doped BaTiO3 ceramics are measured at 77-500 K by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) for investigating the role of the centers on the well-known positive temperature coefficient of resistivity (PTCR) effect (PTCR at the Curie temperature). EPR detects four signals; an anisotropically broad singlet signal at g=2.005, a sextet signal due to Mn2+, a Cr3+ signal, and a Ti3+ signal. The former two signals arise in the rhombohedral and cubic phases, but disappear in the tetragonal and orthorhombic phases. The Cr3+ signal appears in all of the phases, while the Ti3+ signal is detected only at low temperatures. The singlet signal also arises in undoped, barium-deficient BaTiO3 ceramics, therefore the signal is attributable to barium-vacancy-associated centers rather than Nb4+ ions or Fe3+ ions proposed by several authors. In this article, we propose that the singlet signal is due to vacancy-pairs of VBa-F+ type, i.e., the vacancy pair of VBa-VO capturing one electron. The electrical resistivity data show a polaronic character of low-temperature conduction and a high resistivity jump around the Curie temperature. The low-temperature polaronic conduction is explained in terms of electron-hopping between Ti4+ and Ti3+ ions. The resistivity jump at the Curie temperature occurs along with the EPR intensity increase of the singlet signal, the Mn2+ signal and the Cr3+ signal. We conclude that the PTCR of Nb-doped BaTiO3 ceramics is strongly associated with the trap activation of the VBa-VO vacancy-pairs and manganese centers at the tetragonal-to-cubic transition.

  15. Free RCK arrangement in Kch, a putative escherichia coli potassium channel, as suggested by electron crystallography.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Qie; Purhonen, Pasi; Jegerschöld, Caroline; Koeck, Philip J B; Hebert, Hans

    2015-01-06

    The ligand-gated potassium channels are stimulated by various kinds of messengers. Previous studies showed that ligand-gated potassium channels containing RCK domains (the regulator of the conductance of potassium ion) form a dimer of tetramer structure through the RCK octameric gating ring in the presence of detergent. Here, we have analyzed the structure of Kch, a channel of this type from Escherichia coli, in a lipid environment using electron crystallography. By combining information from the 3D map of the transmembrane part of the protein and docking of an atomic model of a potassium channel, we conclude that the RCK domains face the solution and that an RCK octameric gating ring arrangement does not form under our crystallization condition. Our findings may be applied to other potassium channels that have an RCK gating ring arrangement.

  16. Imaging and spectroscopy of secondary electrons from AlN and β-SiAlON ceramics using fountain detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yujin; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Kimura, Takashi; Iwai, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    To clarify the bright contrast of insulating ceramics in secondary electron (SE) image taken using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the low-pass secondary electron signals and images of conductive AlN and insulating β-SiAlON powders taken by fountain detector (FD) were inspected. It was found that the background component of β-SiAlON is originally strong. This component may come from the SE acceleration according to the charging. The low energy SEs of 5-20 eV were strong in AlN particles. According to the wide acceptance angle of FSED, we could not detect clear energy shift in SE spectra. These observations suggest that the bright contrast of insulating materials is not an intrinsic character of insulators but the SE3 contribution.

  17. Parametric Channeling Radiation and its Application to the Measurement of Electron Beam Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Takabayashi, Y.

    2010-06-23

    We have proposed a method for observing parametric channeling radiation (PCR) and of applying it to the measurement of electron beam energy. The PCR process occurs if the energy of the channeling radiation coincides with the energy of the parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). The PCR process can be regarded as the diffraction of 'virtual channeling radiation'. We developed a scheme for beam energy measurement and designed an experimental setup. We also estimated the beam parameters, and calculated the angular distributions of PXR and PCR. These considerations indicate that the observation of PCR is promising.

  18. An upgraded 32-channel heterodyne electron cyclotron emission radiometer on Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    Segui, J.L.; Molina, D.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Huysmans, G.; Maget, P.; Ottaviani, M.

    2005-12-15

    A 32-channel, 1 GHz spaced heterodyne radiometer is used on the Tore Supra tokamak to measure electron cyclotron emission (ECE) in the frequency range 78-110 GHz for the ordinary mode (O:E parallel B,k perpendicular B) and 94-126 GHz for the extraordinary mode (X:E perpendicular B,k perpendicular B). The radial resolution is essentially limited by ECE relativistic effects, depending on electron temperature and density, and not by the channels' frequency spacing. The time resolution depends on the acquisition scheme: the system allows for both 1 ms and 10 {mu}s acquisition. For example, this leads to precise electron temperature mapping during MHD activity. First experimental results obtained with this upgraded 32-channel radiometer are presented.

  19. Dispersion characteristics of the electromagnetic waves in a relativistic electron beam guided by the ion channel

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzanejhad, Saeed; Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Ghasemi, Maede; Sedaghat, Zeinab; Mahdian, Zeinab

    2010-05-15

    In this article, the dispersion characteristics of the paraxial (near axis) electromagnetic (EM) waves in a relativistic electron beam guided by the ion channel are investigated. Equilibrium fields such as ion-channel electrostatic field and self-fields of relativistic electron beam are included in this formalism. In accordance with the equilibrium field structure, radial and azimuthal waves are selected as base vectors for EM waves. It is shown that the dispersion of the radially polarized EM and space charge waves are influenced by the equilibrium fields, but azimuthally polarized wave remain unaffected. In some wave number domains, the radially polarized EM and fast space charge waves are coupled. In these regions, instability is analyzed as a function of equilibrium structure. It is shown that the total equilibrium radial force due to the ion channel and electron beam and also relativistic effect play a key role in the coupling of the radially polarized EM wave and space charge wave. Furthermore, some asymptotic behaviors such as weak and strong ion channel, nonrelativistic case and cutoff frequencies are discussed. This instability could be used as an amplification mechanism for radially polarized EM waves in a beam-plasma system where a relativistic electron beam is guided by the ion channel.

  20. Electron capture acceleration channel in a slit laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P. X.; Scheid, W.; Ho, Y. K.

    2007-03-12

    Using numerical simulations, the authors find that the electrons can be captured and accelerated to high energies (GeV) in a slit laser beam with an intensity of I{lambda}{sup 2}{approx}10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} {mu}m{sup 2}, where {lambda} is the laser wavelength in units of {mu}m. The range of the optimum incident energy is very wide, even up to GeV. These results are of interest for experiments because the relatively low intensity can be achieved with present chirped pulse amplification technique and a wide range of incident energies means that a multistage acceleration is possible.

  1. Enhancing oxygen transport through Mixed-Ionic-and-Electronic-Conducting ceramic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Anthony S.

    Ceramic membranes based on Mixed-Ionic-and-Electronic-Conducting (MIEC) oxides are capable of separating oxygen from air in the presence of an oxygen partial-pressure gradient. These MIEC membranes show great promise for oxygen consuming industrial processes, such as the production of syngas from steam reforming of natural gas (SRM), as well as for electricity generation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). For both applications, the overall performance is dictated by the rate of oxygen transport across the membrane. Oxygen transport across MIEC membranes is composed of a bulk oxygen-ion diffusion process and surface processes, such as surface reactions and adsorption/desorption of gaseous reactants/products. The main goal of this thesis was to determine which process is rate-limiting in order to significantly enhance the overall rate of oxygen transport in MIEC membrane systems. The rate-limiting step was determined by evaluating the total resistance to oxygen transfer, Rtot. Rtot is the sum of a bulk diffusion resistance in the membrane itself, Rb, and interfacial loss components, Rs. Rb is a function of the membrane's ionic conductivity and thickness, while Rs arises primarily from slow surface-exchange kinetics that cause the P(O2) at the surfaces of the membrane to differ from the P(O 2) in the adjacent gas phases. Rtot can be calculated from the Nernst potential across the membrane and the measured oxygen flux. The rate-limiting process can be determined by evaluating the relative contributions of the various losses, Rs and Rb, to Rtot. Using this method, this thesis demonstrates that for most membrane systems, Rs is the dominating factor. In the development of membrane systems with high oxygen transport rates, thin membranes with high ionic conductivities are required to achieve fast bulk oxygen-ion diffusion. However, as membrane thickness is decreased, surface reaction kinetics become more important in determining the overall transport rate. The two

  2. Reaction enthalpies along the two channels of geminate electron recombination in liquid-to-supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Robert; Horváth, Ákos

    2013-11-01

    Ionizing radiation or UV light produces electrons and H2O+ ions in water. These species transform into hydrated electron, e-aq, hydrated H3O+ ion, and ·OH radical in each other's neighborhood much faster than any forthcoming chemical transformation. Part of the electrons escapes their geminate partners. There exists two possible paths for the remaining fraction to react: H3O++e-aq=H3O· [channel (A)] and ·OH+e-aq=OH- [channel (B)]. We devised two thermodynamic cycles for the computation of the reaction enthalpies of both channels. Channel (A) was found to be endothermic with an enthalpy of 3.61 eV at room temperature. The enthalpy is seen to be almost constant up to 500 K, to increase at 600 K and to drop abruptly around 650 K, i.e. in the region where the dielectric constant is below 20. Channel (B) was found to be exothermic with an enthalpy of -2.33 eV at room temperature. It is becoming gradually less exothermic with increasing temperature the variation becoming fast around 650 K. The tendency of these thermochemical results parallel with recent kinetic calculations by Torres-Alacan et al. (J. Torres-Alacan, S. Kratz, P. Vöhringer, 2011. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 20806-20819)

  3. Calibration of a 32 channel electron cyclotron emission radiometer on the HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Z. B. Jiang, M.; Huang, X. L.; Zhong, W. L.; Chen, W.; Che, Y. L.; Liu, Z. T.; Ding, X. T.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.

    2014-02-15

    A novel 32-channel electron cyclotron emission radiometer has been designed and tested for the measurement of electron temperature profiles on the HL-2A tokamak. This system is based on the intermediate frequency filter detection technique, and has the features of wide working frequency range and high spatial resolution. Two relative calibration methods have been investigated: sweeping the toroidal magnetic field and hopping the output frequency of the local oscillator. Preliminary results show that both methods can ensure reasonable profiles.

  4. Structure of a CLC chloride ion channel by cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunyong; Campbell, Ernest B; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2017-01-26

    CLC proteins transport chloride (Cl(-)) ions across cellular membranes to regulate muscle excitability, electrolyte movement across epithelia, and acidification of intracellular organelles. Some CLC proteins are channels that conduct Cl(-) ions passively, whereas others are secondary active transporters that exchange two Cl(-) ions for one H(+). The structural basis underlying these distinctive transport mechanisms is puzzling because CLC channels and transporters are expected to share the same architecture on the basis of sequence homology. Here we determined the structure of a bovine CLC channel (CLC-K) using cryo-electron microscopy. A conserved loop in the Cl(-) transport pathway shows a structure markedly different from that of CLC transporters. Consequently, the cytosolic constriction for Cl(-) passage is widened in CLC-K such that the kinetic barrier previously postulated for Cl(-)/H(+) transporter function would be reduced. Thus, reduction of a kinetic barrier in CLC channels enables fast flow of Cl(-) down its electrochemical gradient.

  5. Electron channeling: a problem for x-ray microanalysis in materials science.

    PubMed

    Meisenkothen, Frederick; Wheeler, Robert; Uchic, Michael D; Kerns, Robert D; Scheltens, Frank J

    2009-04-01

    Electron channeling effects can create measurable signal intensity variations in all product signals that result from the scattering of the electron beam within a crystalline specimen. Of particular interest to the X-ray microanalyst are any variations that occur within the characteristic X-ray signal that are not directly related to a specimen composition variation. Many studies have documented the effect of crystallographic orientation on the local X-ray yield; however, the vast majority of these studies were carried out on thin foil specimens examined in transmission. Only a few studies have addressed these effects in bulk specimen materials, and these analyses were generally carried out at common scanning electron microscope microanalysis overvoltages (>1.5). At these overvoltage levels, the anomalous transmission effect is weak. As a result, the effect of electron channeling on the characteristic X-ray signal intensity has traditionally been overlooked in the field of quantitative electron probe microanalysis. The present work will demonstrate that electron channeling can produce X-ray variations of up to 26%, between intensity maxima and minima, in low overvoltage X-ray microanalyses of bulk specimens. Intensity variations of this magnitude will significantly impact the accuracy of qualitative and quantitative X-ray microanalyses at low overvoltage on engineering structural materials.

  6. Scanning electron microscopical observation of an osteoblast/osteoclast co-culture on micropatterned orthopaedic ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Ker, Andrew; Meek, RM Dominic; Nadeem, Danish; Sjostrom, Terje; Su, Bo; McNamara, Laura E; Dalby, Matthew J; Young, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    In biomaterial engineering, the surface of an implant can influence cell differentiation, adhesion and affinity towards the implant. On contact with an implant, bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stromal cells demonstrate differentiation towards bone forming osteoblasts, which can improve osteointegration. The process of micropatterning has been shown to improve osteointegration in polymers, but there are few reports surrounding ceramics. The purpose of this study was to establish a co-culture of bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stromal cells with osteoclast progenitor cells and to observe the response to micropatterned zirconia toughened alumina ceramics with 30 µm diameter pits. The aim was to establish whether the pits were specifically bioactive towards osteogenesis or were generally bioactive and would also stimulate osteoclastogenesis that could potentially lead to osteolysis. We demonstrate specific bioactivity of micropatterns towards osteogenesis, with more nodule formation and less osteoclastogenesis compared to planar controls. In addition, we found that that macrophage and osteoclast-like cells did not interact with the pits and formed fewer full-size osteoclast-like cells on the pitted surfaces. This may have a role when designing ceramic orthopaedic implants. PMID:25383174

  7. Ceramic packaging for MEMS-based microsystems.

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, Jonathan Sloane

    2003-02-01

    Ceramic packaging is crucial to the development of MEMS-based microsystems. It is an enabling technology, giving the ability to build complex packages that combine MEMS, electronics, optics, and sensors in a compact volume. In addition, ceramic hermetic packaging has a long history of providing protection to the enclosed devices, even under harsh conditions. These capabilities are being used at Sandia to package complex, MEMS-based microsystems. Looking ahead, ceramic packaging is developing new capabilities important to microsystems, such as the addition of fluidic channels. These developments will make ceramic packaging a viable option for a wide variety of compact, highly integrated microsystems. However, MEMS, particularly surface micromachines, have new reliability concerns that ceramic packaging needs to address. One example is stiction, where small amounts of water can generate surface forces large enough to cause parts to stick together. This demonstrates the need to measure and control the internal environment with greater precision than has been required in the past. Despite these challenges, it is clear that ceramic packaging will be a key technology for complex microsystems in the future.

  8. Microstructure and properties of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamano, K.

    1984-01-01

    The history of research into the microstructure and properties of ceramic ware is discussed; methods of producing ceramics with particular characteristics are investigated. Bubbles, sintering, cracks, and electron microscopy are discussed.

  9. O^- channels of Dissociative Electron Attachment to water and heavy water molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adaniya, Hidehito; Rudek, Benedikt; Osipov, Timur; Lee, Sun; Weber, Thorsten; Hertlein, Marcus; Schoeffler, Markus; Prior, Mike; Belkacem, Ali

    2009-05-01

    A COLTRIM technique is modified to measure the kinetic energy and angular distribution of O^- ions arising from dissociative electron attachment to water and heavy water molecules. A low energy pulsed electron, an effusive water target, a pulsed extraction plate are used in combination with the COLTRIMS spectrometer. The spectrometer carries an electrostatic lens system to compensate the effusiveness of the target. This technique is applied to study the O^- channels in the three Feshbach resonances of water and heavy water anion. The measured kinetic energy release will give the energy partitioning among the fragments, and the means to identify the two-body and three-body breakup channels. The angular distribution of the O^- ions with respect to the electron beam is found to reflect well the breakup dynamics of the H2O^- at the dissociation. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions.

  10. H^- and D^- channels of Dissociative Electron Attachment to water molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adaniya, Hidehito; Rudek, Benedikt; Osipov, Timur; Lee, Sun; Weber, Thorsten; Hertlein, Marcus; Schoeffler, Markus; Prior, Mike; Belkacem, Ali

    2009-05-01

    A COLTRIM technique is modified to measure the kinetic energy and angular distribution of H^- and D^- ions arising from dissociative electron attachment to water and heavy water molecules. A low energy pulsed electron, an effusive water target, a pulsed extraction plate are used in combination with the COLTRIMS spectrometer. The spectrometer carries an electrostatic lens system to compensate the effusiveness of the target. This technique is applied to study the H^- and D^- channels in the three Feshbach resonances of water and heavy water anion. The measured kinetic energy release will give the energy partitioning among the fragments, and the means to identify the two-body and three-body breakup channels. The angular distribution of the H^-(D^-) ions with respect to the electron beam is found to reflect well the breakup dynamics of the H2O^- at the dissociation. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions.

  11. Numerical study of the generation of runaway electrons in a gas diode with a hot channel

    SciTech Connect

    Lisenkov, V. V.; Shklyaev, V. A.

    2015-11-15

    A new method for increasing the efficiency of runaway electron beam generation in atmospheric pressure gas media has been suggested and theoretically proved. The method consists of creating a hot region (e.g., a spark channel or a laser plume) with a decreased numerical density of gas molecules (N) near the cathode. In this method, the ratio E/N (E—electric field strength) is increased by decreasing N instead of increasing E, as has been done in the past. The numerical model that is used allows the simultaneous calculation of the formation of a subnanosecond gas discharge and the generation of runaway electrons in gas media. The calculations have demonstrated the possibility of obtaining current pulses of runaway electrons with amplitudes of hundred of amperes and durations of more than 100 ps. The influence of the hot channel geometry on the parameters of the generated beam has been investigated.

  12. Numerical study of the generation of runaway electrons in a gas diode with a hot channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenkov, V. V.; Shklyaev, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    A new method for increasing the efficiency of runaway electron beam generation in atmospheric pressure gas media has been suggested and theoretically proved. The method consists of creating a hot region (e.g., a spark channel or a laser plume) with a decreased numerical density of gas molecules (N) near the cathode. In this method, the ratio E/N (E—electric field strength) is increased by decreasing N instead of increasing E, as has been done in the past. The numerical model that is used allows the simultaneous calculation of the formation of a subnanosecond gas discharge and the generation of runaway electrons in gas media. The calculations have demonstrated the possibility of obtaining current pulses of runaway electrons with amplitudes of hundred of amperes and durations of more than 100 ps. The influence of the hot channel geometry on the parameters of the generated beam has been investigated.

  13. Using Electronic Properties of Adamantane Derivatives to Analyze their Ion Channel Interactions: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacum, Jason

    2013-03-01

    The derivatives of adamantane, which is a cage-like diamondoid structure, can be used as pharmaceuticals for the treatment of various diseases and disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. These drugs interact with ion channels, and they act by electronically and physically hindering the ion transport. The electronic properties of each compound influence the location and level of ion channel hindrance, and the specific use of each compound depends on the functional groups that are attached to the adamantane base chain. Computational analysis and molecular simulations of these different derivatives and the ion channels can provide useful insight into the effect that the functional groups have on the properties of the compounds. Using this information, conclusions can be made about the pharmaceutical mechanisms, as well as how to improve them or create new beneficial compounds. Focusing on the electronic properties, such as the dipole moments of the derivatives and amino acids in the ion channels, can provide more efficient predictions of how these drugs work and how they can be enhanced. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-06ER46304

  14. A 16-channel heterodyne electron cyclotron emission radiometer on J-TEXT.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z J; Phillips, P E; Zhuang, G; Xiao, J S; Huang, H; Rowan, W L; Wang, Z J

    2012-10-01

    To study equilibrium temporal dynamics and the mechanisms of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, a 16-channel heterodyne electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer has been developed to view the J-TEXT tokamak from the low field side. The ECE radiometer detects second-harmonic extraordinary mode in the frequency band of 94-125 GHz which corresponds to resonances from 1.8 T to 2.2 T. This ECE system consists of an ECE transmission line, a radio frequency unit, and two 8-channel intermediate frequency units. An in situ blackbody calibration source is applied for system calibration by comparison of hot and cold sources in order to provide an absolute temperature measurement.

  15. A 16-channel heterodyne electron cyclotron emission radiometer on J-TEXT

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z. J.; Zhuang, G.; Xiao, J. S.; Wang, Z. J.; Phillips, P. E.; Huang, H.; Rowan, W. L.

    2012-10-15

    To study equilibrium temporal dynamics and the mechanisms of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, a 16-channel heterodyne electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer has been developed to view the J-TEXT tokamak from the low field side. The ECE radiometer detects second-harmonic extraordinary mode in the frequency band of 94-125 GHz which corresponds to resonances from 1.8 T to 2.2 T. This ECE system consists of an ECE transmission line, a radio frequency unit, and two 8-channel intermediate frequency units. An in situ blackbody calibration source is applied for system calibration by comparison of hot and cold sources in order to provide an absolute temperature measurement.

  16. The Low Pressure Gas Effects On The Potency Of An Electron Beam On Ceramic Fabric Materials For Space Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Fragomeni, James M.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate if molten metal or electron beam impingement could damage or burn through the fabric of the astronauts Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) during electron beam welding exercises performed in space. An 8 kilovolt electron beam with a current in the neighborhood of 100 milliamps from the Ukrainian space welding "Universal Hand Tool" burned holes in Nextel AF-62 ceramic cloth designed to withstand temperatures up to 1427 C. The burnthrough time was on the order of 8 seconds at standoff distances between UHT and cloth ranging from 6 to 24 inches. At both closer (2") and farther (48") standoff distances the potency of the beam against the cloth declined and the burnthrough time went up significantly. Prior to the test it had been expected that the beam would lay down a static charge on the cloth and be deflected without damaging the cloth. The burnthrough is thought to be an effect of partial transmission of beam power by a stream of positive ions generated by the high voltage electron beam from contaminant gas in the "vacuum" chamber. A rough quantitative theoretical computation appears to substantiate this possibility.

  17. The Low Pressure Gas Effects on the Potency of AN Electron Beam on Ceramic Fabric Materials for Space Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Arthur C.; Fragomeni, James M.

    2002-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate if molten metal or electron beam impingement could damage or burn through the fabric of the astronauts extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) during electron beam welding exercises performed in space. An 8 kV electron beam with a current in the neighborhood of 100 mA from the Ukrainian space welding "Universal Hand Tool" burned holes in Nextel AF-62 ceramic cloth designed to withstand temperatures up to 1427°C. The burnthrough time was on the order of 8 s at standoff distances between UHT and cloth ranging from 6 to 24 in. At both closer (2 in) and farther (48 in) standoff distances, the potency of the beam against the cloth declined and the burnthrough time went up significantly. Prior to the test it had been expected that the beam would lay down a static charge on the cloth and be deflected without damaging the cloth. The burnthrough is thought to be an effect of partial transmission of beam power by a stream of positive ions generated by the high voltage electron beam from contaminant gas in the "vacuum" chamber. A rough quantitative theoretical computation appears to substantiate this possibility.

  18. Digitally controlled high-performance dc SQUID readout electronics for a 304-channel vector magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechstein, S.; Petsche, F.; Scheiner, M.; Drung, D.; Thiel, F.; Schnabel, A.; Schurig, Th

    2006-06-01

    Recently, we have developed a family of dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) readout electronics for several applications. These electronics comprise a low-noise preamplifier followed by an integrator, and an analog SQUID bias circuit. A highly-compact low-power version with a flux-locked loop bandwidth of 0.3 MHz and a white noise level of 1 nV/√Hz was specially designed for a 304-channel low-Tc dc SQUID vector magnetometer, intended to operate in the new Berlin Magnetically Shielded Room (BMSR-2). In order to minimize the space needed to mount the electronics on top of the dewar and to minimize the power consumption, we have integrated four electronics channels on one 3 cm × 10 cm sized board. Furthermore we embedded the analog components of these four channels into a digitally controlled system including an in-system programmable microcontroller. Four of these integrated boards were combined to one module with a size of 4 cm × 4 cm × 16 cm. 19 of these modules were implemented, resulting in a total power consumption of about 61 W. To initialize the 304 channels and to service the system we have developed software tools running on a laptop computer. By means of these software tools the microcontrollers are fed with all required data such as the working points, the characteristic parameters of the sensors (noise, voltage swing), or the sensor position inside of the vector magnetometer system. In this paper, the developed electronics including the software tools are described, and first results are presented.

  19. Green apatites: hydride ions, electrons and their interconversion in the crystallographic channel.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Katsuro; Hosono, Hideo

    2016-03-21

    Hydride (H(-)) ions and electrons in channel sites of the lattice of calcium phosphate apatites are characterized. Solid-state chemical reduction using TiH2 is effective for doping of H(-) ions into apatites. Irradiation of the H(-) ion-doped apatite with ultraviolet (UV) light induces green coloration. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) reveals that this colour centre is attributed to electrons captured at a vacant anion site in the crystallographic channel, forming F(+) centres. Transient H(0) atoms are detected at low temperatures by EPR. The concentration of UV-induced electrons in the apatite at room temperature decays according to second-order kinetics because of the chemical reactions involving two electrons; overall, electron generation and thermal decay can be described as: H(-) + O(2-) ↔ 2e(-) + OH(-). (1)H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to identify H(-) ions in the apatite, which are characterized by a chemical shift of +3.4 ppm. Various types of O-H groups including OH(-) ions in the channel and protons bound to phosphate groups are concurrently formed, and are identified by considering the relationship between the O-H stretching frequency and the (1)H chemical shift. The complementary results obtained by EPR and NMR reveal that the H(-) ions and transient H(0) atoms are located at the centre of Ca3 triangles in the apatite, while the electrons are located in the centre of Ca6 octahedra. These findings provide an effective approach for identifying new classes of mixed-oxide-hydride or -electride crystals.

  20. Grain boundary atomic structures and light-element visualization in ceramics: combination of Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2011-01-01

    Grain boundaries and interfaces of crystals have peculiar electronic structures, caused by the disorder in periodicity, providing the functional properties, which cannot be observed in a perfect crystal. In the vicinity of the grain boundaries and interfaces, dopants or impurities are often segregated, and they play a crucial role in deciding the properties of a material. Spherical aberration (Cs)-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), allowing the formation of sub-angstrom-sized electron probes, can directly observe grain boundary-segregated dopants. On the other hand, ceramic materials are composed of light elements, and these light elements also play an important role in the properties of ceramic materials. Recently, annular bright-field (ABF)-STEM imaging has been proposed, which is now known to be a very powerful technique in producing images showing both light- and heavy-element columns simultaneously. In this review, the atomic structure determination of ceramic grain boundaries and direct observation of grain boundary-segregated dopants and light elements in ceramics were shown to combine with the theoretical calculations. Examples are demonstrated for well-defined grain boundaries in rare earth-doped Al(2)O(3) and ZnO ceramics, CeO(2) and SrTiO(3) grain boundary, lithium battery materials and metal hydride, which were characterized by Cs-corrected high-angle annular dark-field and ABF-STEM. It is concluded that the combination of STEM characterization and first-principles calculation is very useful in interpreting the structural information and in understanding the origin of the properties in various ceramics.

  1. Computer simulation of electron-positron pair production by channeling radiation in amorphous converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdrashitov, S. V.; Bogdanov, O. V.; Dabagov, S. B.; Pivovarov, Yu L.; Tukhfatullin, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the radiator-converter approach at 200 MeV channeled electrons (the SPARC_LAB LNF facility energies) for the case of using W crystalline radiator and W amorphous converter. A comparison of the positron production by the axial channeling radiation and the bremsstrahlung is performed. The positron stopping in the convertor is studied by means of computer simulations. It is shown that for the maximum yield of positrons the thickness of the W amorphous converter should be taken 0.35 cm in the case of using the axial channeling radiation resulting to total yield of positrons 5 10-3 e+/e- and 0.71 cm in the case of using the bremsstrahlung resulting to total yield of positrons 3.3 10-3 e+/e-.

  2. Single particle electron cryo-microscopy of a mammalian ion channel

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Maofu; Cao, Erhu; Julius, David; Cheng, Yifan

    2014-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family is large and functionally diverse, second only to potassium channels. Despite their prominence within the animal kingdom, TRP channels have resisted crystallization and structural determination for many years. This barrier was recently broken when the three-dimensional structure of the vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) was determined by single particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). Moreover, this is the first example in which the near atomic resolution structure of an integral membrane protein was elucidated by this technique and in a manner not requiring crystals, demonstrating the transformative power of single particle cryo-EM for revealing high-resolution structures of integral membrane proteins, particularly those of mammalian origin. Here we summarize technical advances, in both biochemistry and cryo-EM, that led to this major breakthrough. PMID:24681231

  3. Self-modulated field electron emitter: Gated device of integrated Si tip-on-nano-channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhijun; Huang, Yifeng; Pan, Zhangxu; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Chen, Jun; Xu, Ningsheng

    2016-12-01

    We report the featured gated field electron emission devices of Si nano-tips with individually integrated Si nano-channels and the interpretation of the related physics. A rational procedure was developed to fabricate the uniform integrated devices. The electrical and thermal conduction tests demonstrated that the Si nano-channel can limit both the current and heat flows. The integrated devices showed the specialties of self-enhancement and self-regulation. The heat resistance results in the heat accumulation at the tip-apex, inducing the thermally enhanced field electron emission. The self-regulated effect of the electrical resistance is benefit for impeding the current overloading and prevents the emitters from a catastrophic breakdown. The nano-channel-integrated Si nano-tip array exhibited emission current density up to 24.9 mA/cm2 at a gate voltage of 94 V, much higher than that of the Si nano-tip array without an integrated nano-channel.

  4. Microstructure refinement of cold-sprayed copper investigated by electron channeling contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinyin; Brodusch, Nicolas; Descartes, Sylvie; Chromik, Richard R; Gauvin, Raynald

    2014-10-01

    The electron channeling contrast imaging technique was used to investigate the microstructure of copper coatings fabricated by cold gas dynamic spray. The high velocity impact characteristics for cold spray led to the formation of many substructures, such as high density dislocation walls, dislocation cells, deformation twins, and ultrafine equiaxed subgrains/grains. A schematic model is proposed to explain structure refinement of Cu during cold spray, where an emphasis is placed on the role of dislocation configurations and twinning.

  5. Multi-Channel Electronically Scanned Cryogenic Pressure Sensor And Method For Making Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Hopson, Purnell, Jr. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A miniature, multi-channel, electronically scanned pressure measuring device uses electrostatically bonded silicon dies in a multi-element array. These dies are bonded at specific sites on a glass, pre-patterned substrate. Thermal data is multiplexed and recorded on each individual pressure measuring diaphragm. The device functions in a cryogenic environment without the need of heaters to keep the sensor at constant temperatures.

  6. High-Electron Mobility Graphene Channel Transistors for Millimeter-Wave Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-31

    introducing this hydrogen treatment process. Figure 3. Change in surface morphology by lithography process: (a) as grown surface of graphenized SiC...characterized. In the FET process, the hydrogen treatment is adapted for the lift-off process in the ohmic contact on graphene . For the gate stack...1 AOARD Grant 09-4074 Final Report High-Electron Mobility Graphene Channel Transistors for Millimeter-Wave Applications Tetsuya Suemitsu

  7. Transmission electron microscopy investigations of AZ91 alloy deformed by equal-channel angular pressing.

    PubMed

    Braszczyńska-Malik, K N; Lityńska, L; Baliga, W

    2006-10-01

    The microstructure of transverse and longitudinal sections of a commercial AZ91 alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing was examined by transmission electron microscopy. A high dislocation density and large number of deformation twins were observed in the investigated material. The {102}(matrix) // {012}(twin) twinning system was determined by selection area diffraction patterns obtained from the twin and matrix. Transmission electron microscopy analyses also revealed that the twins interacted with each other and pile-ups of dislocations occurred near the twin boundary.

  8. Ceramic Seal.

    SciTech Connect

    Smartt, Heidi A.; Romero, Juan A.; Custer, Joyce Olsen; Hymel, Ross W.; Krementz, Dan; Gobin, Derek; Harpring, Larry; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael; Varble, Don; DiMaio, Jeff; Hudson, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Containment/Surveillance (C/S) measures are critical to any verification regime in order to maintain Continuity of Knowledge (CoK). The Ceramic Seal project is research into the next generation technologies to advance C/S, in particular improving security and efficiency. The Ceramic Seal is a small form factor loop seal with improved tamper-indication including a frangible seal body, tamper planes, external coatings, and electronic monitoring of the seal body integrity. It improves efficiency through a self-securing wire and in-situ verification with a handheld reader. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under sponsorship from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), have previously designed and have now fabricated and tested Ceramic Seals. Tests have occurred at both SNL and SRNL, with different types of tests occurring at each facility. This interim report will describe the Ceramic Seal prototype, the design and development of a handheld standalone reader and an interface to a data acquisition system, fabrication of the seals, and results of initial testing.

  9. Channel-resolved photo- and Auger-electron spectroscopy of halogenated hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, Utuq; Kaderiya, B.; Kumarapan, V.; Kushawaha, R.; Rudenko, A.; Rolles, D.; Xiong, H.; Berrah, N.; Bomme, C.; Savelyev, E.; Kilcoyne, D.

    2016-05-01

    Inner-shell photoelectron and Auger electron spectra of polyatomic molecules such as halogenated hydrocarbons are typically hard to interpret and assign due to many overlapping states that form broad bands even in high-resolution measurements. With the help of electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements performed using the velocity map imaging technique, we are able to detect high-energy (<= 150 eV) photo- and Auger electrons in coincidence with two- or many-body ionic fragmentation channels. Such channel-resolved measurements allow disentangling the overlapping electronic structures and help assigning individual components of the electron spectra to specific potential surfaces and final states. In this work, we present measurements on CH3 I, CH2 IBr, and CH2 ICl molecules in the gas-phase using soft x-ray light provided by the Advanced Light Source at LBNL. This project is supported by the DOE, Office of Science, BES, Division of Chemical, Geological and Biological Sciences under Award Number DE-FG02-86ER13491 (U.A., B.K., V.K., A.R., D.R.) and Award Number DE-SC0012376 (H.X., N.B.).

  10. Comparative Response of Microchannel Plate and Channel Electron Multiplier Detectors to Penetrating Radiation in Space

    DOE PAGES

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Harper, Ronnie W.; Dors, Eric E.; ...

    2015-10-02

    Channel electron multiplier (CEM) and microchannel plate (MCP) detectors are routinely used in space instrumentation for measurement of space plasmas. Here, our goal is to understand the relative sensitivities of these detectors to penetrating radiation in space, which can generate background counts and shorten detector lifetime. We use 662 keV γ-rays as a proxy for penetrating radiation such as γ-rays, cosmic rays, and high-energy electrons and protons that are ubiquitous in the space environment. We find that MCP detectors are ~20 times more sensitive to 662 keV γ-rays than CEM detectors. This is attributed to the larger total area ofmore » multiplication channels in an MCP detector that is sensitive to electronic excitation and ionization resulting from the interaction of penetrating radiation with the detector material. In contrast to the CEM detector, whose quantum efficiency εγ for 662 keVγ -rays is found to be 0.00175 and largely independent of detector bias, the quantum efficiency of the MCP detector is strongly dependent on the detector bias, with a power law index of 5.5. Lastly, background counts in MCP detectors from penetrating radiation can be reduced using MCP geometries with higher pitch and smaller channel diameter.« less

  11. Comparative Response of Microchannel Plate and Channel Electron Multiplier Detectors to Penetrating Radiation in Space

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Harper, Ronnie W.; Dors, Eric E.; Janzen, Paul A.; Larsen, Brian A.; MacDonald, Elizabeth A.; Poston, David I.; Ritzau, Stephen M.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2015-10-02

    Channel electron multiplier (CEM) and microchannel plate (MCP) detectors are routinely used in space instrumentation for measurement of space plasmas. Here, our goal is to understand the relative sensitivities of these detectors to penetrating radiation in space, which can generate background counts and shorten detector lifetime. We use 662 keV γ-rays as a proxy for penetrating radiation such as γ-rays, cosmic rays, and high-energy electrons and protons that are ubiquitous in the space environment. We find that MCP detectors are ~20 times more sensitive to 662 keV γ-rays than CEM detectors. This is attributed to the larger total area of multiplication channels in an MCP detector that is sensitive to electronic excitation and ionization resulting from the interaction of penetrating radiation with the detector material. In contrast to the CEM detector, whose quantum efficiency εγ for 662 keVγ -rays is found to be 0.00175 and largely independent of detector bias, the quantum efficiency of the MCP detector is strongly dependent on the detector bias, with a power law index of 5.5. Lastly, background counts in MCP detectors from penetrating radiation can be reduced using MCP geometries with higher pitch and smaller channel diameter.

  12. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-05-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  13. Industrial Ceramics: Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The expanding use of ceramic products in today's world can be seen in the areas of communications, construction, aerospace, textiles, metallurgy, atomic energy, and electronics. The demands of science have brought ceramics from an art to an industry using mass production and automated processes which requires the services of great numbers as the…

  14. Double electron–electron resonance reveals cAMP-induced conformational change in HCN channels

    PubMed Central

    Zagotta, William N.; Stoll, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Binding of 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) ion channels regulates their gating. cAMP binds to a conserved intracellular cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD) in the channel, increasing the rate and extent of activation of the channel and shifting activation to less hyperpolarized voltages. The structural mechanism underlying this regulation, however, is unknown. We used double electron–electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy to directly map the conformational ensembles of the CNBD in the absence and presence of cAMP. Site-directed, double-cysteine mutants in a soluble CNBD fragment were spin-labeled, and interspin label distance distributions were determined using DEER. We found motions of up to 10 Å induced by the binding of cAMP. In addition, the distributions were narrower in the presence of cAMP. Continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance studies revealed changes in mobility associated with cAMP binding, indicating less conformational heterogeneity in the cAMP-bound state. From the measured DEER distributions, we constructed a coarse-grained elastic-network structural model of the cAMP-induced conformational transition. We find that binding of cAMP triggers a reorientation of several helices within the CNBD, including the C-helix closest to the cAMP-binding site. These results provide a basis for understanding how the binding of cAMP is coupled to channel opening in HCN and related channels. PMID:24958877

  15. The Current Collapse in AlGaN/GaN High-Electron Mobility Transistors Can Originate from the Energy Relaxation of Channel Electrons?

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, Huan-Sheng; Wang, Jin-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Influence of the energy relaxation of the channel electrons on the performance of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) has been investigated using self-consistent solution to the coupled Schrödinger equation and Poisson equation. The first quantized energy level in the inversion layer rises and the average channel electron density decreases when the channel electric field increases from 20 kV/cm to 120 kV/cm. This research also demonstrates that the energy relaxation of the channel electrons can lead to current collapse and suggests that the energy relaxation should be considered in modeling the performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs such as, the gate leakage current, threshold voltage, source-drain current, capacitance-voltage curve, etc. PMID:26039589

  16. The Current Collapse in AlGaN/GaN High-Electron Mobility Transistors Can Originate from the Energy Relaxation of Channel Electrons?

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, Huan-Sheng; Wang, Jin-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Influence of the energy relaxation of the channel electrons on the performance of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) has been investigated using self-consistent solution to the coupled Schrödinger equation and Poisson equation. The first quantized energy level in the inversion layer rises and the average channel electron density decreases when the channel electric field increases from 20 kV/cm to 120 kV/cm. This research also demonstrates that the energy relaxation of the channel electrons can lead to current collapse and suggests that the energy relaxation should be considered in modeling the performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs such as, the gate leakage current, threshold voltage, source-drain current, capacitance-voltage curve, etc.

  17. Simulation of planar channeling-radiation spectra of relativistic electrons and positrons channeled in a diamond-structure or tungsten single crystal (classical approach)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadegan, B.; Wagner, W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a Mathematica package for simulation of spectral-angular distributions and energy spectra of planar channeling radiation of relativistic electrons and positrons channeled along major crystallographic planes of a diamond-structure or tungsten single crystal. The program is based on the classical theory of channeling radiation which has been successfully applied to study planar channeling of light charged particles at energies higher than 100 MeV. Continuous potentials for different planes of diamond, Si, Ge and W single crystals are calculated using the Doyle-Turner approximation to the atomic scattering factor and taking thermal vibrations of the crystal atoms into account. Numerical methods are applied to solve the classical one-dimensional equation of motion. The code is designed to calculate the trajectories, velocities and accelerations of electrons (positrons) channeled by the planar continuous potential. In the framework of classical electrodynamics, these data allow realistic simulations of spectral-angular distributions and energy spectra of planar channeling radiation. Since the generated output is quantitative, the results of calculation may be useful, e.g., for setup configuration and crystal alignment in channeling experiments, for the study of the dependence of channeling radiation on the input parameters of particle beams with respect to the crystal orientation, but also for the simulation of positron production by means of pair creation what is mandatory for the design of efficient positron sources necessary in high-energy and collider physics. Although the classical theory of channeling is well established for long time, there is no adequate library program for simulation of channeling radiation up to now, which is commonly available, sufficiently simple and effective to employ and, therefore, of benefit as for special investigations as for a quick overview of basic features of this type of radiation.

  18. Micromechanisms of brittle fracture: STM, TEM and electron channeling analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerberich, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    The original thrust of this grant was to apply newly developed techniques in scanning tunneling and transmission electron microscopy to elucidate the mechanism of brittle fracture. This grant spun-off several new directions in that some of the findings on bulk structural materials could be utilized on thin films or intermetallic single crystals. Modeling and material evaluation efforts in this grant are represented in a figure. Out of this grant evolved the field the author has designated as Contact Fracture Mechanics. By appropriate modeling of stress and strain distribution fields around normal indentations or scratch tracks, various measures of thin film fracture or decohesion and brittle fracture of low ductility intermetallics is possible. These measures of fracture resistance in small volumes are still evolving and as such no standard technique or analysis has been uniformly accepted. For brittle ceramics and ceramic films, there are a number of acceptable analyses such as those published by Lawn, Evans and Hutchinson. For more dissipative systems involving metallic or polymeric films and/or substrates, there is still much to be accomplished as can be surmised from some of the findings in the present grant. In Section 2 the author reviews the funding history and accomplishments associated mostly with bulk brittle fracture. This is followed by Section 3 which covers more recent work on using novel techniques to evaluate fracture in low ductility single crystals or thin films using micromechanical probes. Basically Section 3 outlines how the recent work fits in with the goals of defining contact fracture mechanics and gives an overview of how the several examples in Section 4 (the Appendices) fit into this framework.

  19. Density-functional theory study of gramicidin A ion channel geometry and electronic properties.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Milica; Bowler, David R; Gillan, Michael J; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi

    2013-12-06

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying ion channel function from the atomic-scale requires accurate ab initio modelling as well as careful experiments. Here, we present a density functional theory (DFT) study of the ion channel gramicidin A (gA), whose inner pore conducts only monovalent cations and whose conductance has been shown to depend on the side chains of the amino acids in the channel. We investigate the ground state geometry and electronic properties of the channel in vacuum, focusing on their dependence on the side chains of the amino acids. We find that the side chains affect the ground state geometry, while the electrostatic potential of the pore is independent of the side chains. This study is also in preparation for a full, linear scaling DFT study of gA in a lipid bilayer with surrounding water. We demonstrate that linear scaling DFT methods can accurately model the system with reasonable computational cost. Linear scaling DFT allows ab initio calculations with 10,000-100,000 atoms and beyond, and will be an important new tool for biomolecular simulations.

  20. Microfluidic CODES: a scalable multiplexed electronic sensor for orthogonal detection of particles in microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruxiu; Wang, Ningquan; Kamili, Farhan; Sarioglu, A Fatih

    2016-04-21

    Numerous biophysical and biochemical assays rely on spatial manipulation of particles/cells as they are processed on lab-on-a-chip devices. Analysis of spatially distributed particles on these devices typically requires microscopy negating the cost and size advantages of microfluidic assays. In this paper, we introduce a scalable electronic sensor technology, called microfluidic CODES, that utilizes resistive pulse sensing to orthogonally detect particles in multiple microfluidic channels from a single electrical output. Combining the techniques from telecommunications and microfluidics, we route three coplanar electrodes on a glass substrate to create multiple Coulter counters producing distinct orthogonal digital codes when they detect particles. We specifically design a digital code set using the mathematical principles of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) telecommunication networks and can decode signals from different microfluidic channels with >90% accuracy through computation even if these signals overlap. As a proof of principle, we use this technology to detect human ovarian cancer cells in four different microfluidic channels fabricated using soft lithography. Microfluidic CODES offers a simple, all-electronic interface that is well suited to create integrated, low-cost lab-on-a-chip devices for cell- or particle-based assays in resource-limited settings.

  1. Sensitivity of Δ G Through Open Heavy Quark Production using Electron Decay Channels at PHENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wei

    2000-10-01

    The PHENIX experiment at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory is capable of directly measuring the portion of the proton spin carri ed by gluons spin(Δ G)in several channels including direct photon product ion, π production and heavy flavor production. The extraction of Δ G throu gh independent channels gives good control of systematic and theoretical uncerta inty. In this paper we report on PHENIX's Δ G measurement in open heavy q uark production using electron decay channels. Heavy flavor production, cbarc and bbarb, is dominated by gluon-gluon interactions and gives rise to a double spin asymmetry A_LL ~ fracΔ G(x_A)G(x_A)øtimes fracΔ G(x_B)G(x_B)øtimes a_LL^ggarrow qbarq , from which Δ G can be extracted. We will report a full detector simulation which includes the effects of electron trigger and dilutions due to the conversion in inner chamber and π^0 Dalitz decays.

  2. Magnetotransport along a boundary: from coherent electron focusing to edge channel transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmann, T.; Wolf, D. E.; Lorke, A.

    2013-11-01

    We study theoretically how electrons, coherently injected at one point on the boundary of a two-dimensional electron system, are focused by a perpendicular magnetic field B onto another point on the boundary. Using the non-equilibrium Green's function approach, we calculate the generalized four-point Hall resistance Rxy as a function of B. In weak fields, Rxy shows the characteristic equidistant peaks observed in the experiment and explained by classical cyclotron motion along the boundary. In strong fields, Rxy shows a single extended plateau reflecting the quantum Hall effect. In intermediate fields, we find superimposed upon the lower Hall plateaus anomalous oscillations, which are neither periodic in 1/B (quantum Hall effect) nor in B (classical cyclotron motion). The oscillations are explained by the interference between the occupied edge channels, which causes beatings in Rxy. In the case of two occupied edge channels, these beatings constitute a new commensurability between the magnetic flux enclosed within the edge channels and the flux quantum. Introducing decoherence and a partially specular boundary shows that this new effect is quite robust.

  3. A ceramic radial insulation structure for a relativistic electron beam vacuum diode.

    PubMed

    Xun, Tao; Yang, Hanwu; Zhang, Jiande; Liu, Zhenxiang; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Yansong

    2008-06-01

    For one kind of a high current diode composed of a small disk-type alumina ceramic insulator water/vacuum interface, the insulation structure was designed and experimentally investigated. According to the theories of vacuum flashover and the rules for radial insulators, a "cone-column" anode outline and the cathode shielding rings were adopted. The electrostatic field along the insulator surface was obtained by finite element analysis simulating. By adjusting the outline of the anode and reshaping the shielding rings, the electric fields were well distributed and the field around the cathode triple junction was effectively controlled. Area weighted statistical method was applied to estimate the surface breakdown field. In addition, the operating process of an accelerator based on a spiral pulse forming line (PFL) was simulated through the PSPICE software to get the waveform of charging and diode voltage. The high voltage test was carried out on a water dielectric spiral PFL accelerator with long pulse duration, and results show that the diode can work stably in 420 kV, 200 ns conditions. The experimental results agree with the theoretical and simulated results.

  4. Portfolio: Ceramics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes eight art activities using ceramics. Elementary students created ceramic tiles to depict ancient Egyptian and medieval European art, made ceramic cookie stamps, traced bisque plates on sketch paper, constructed clay room-tableaus, and designed clay relief masks. Secondary students pit-fired ceramic pots and designed ceramic Victorian…

  5. Channeling, Volume Reection and Gamma Emission Using 14GeV Electrons in Bent Silicon Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Brandon

    2015-08-14

    High energy electrons can be deflected with very tight bending radius using a bent silicon crystal. This produces gamma radiation. As these crystals can be thin, a series of bent silicon crystals with alternating direction has the potential to produce coherent gamma radiation with reasonable energy of the driving electron beam. Such an electron crystal undulator offers the prospect for higher energy radiation at lower cost than current methods. Permanent magnetic undulators like LCLS at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory are expensive and very large (about 100 m in case of the LCLS undulator). Silicon crystals are inexpensive and compact when compared to the large magnetic undulators. Additionally, such a high energy coherent light source could be used for probing through materials currently impenetrable by x-rays. In this work we present the experimental data and analysis of experiment T523 conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We collected the spectrum of gamma ray emission from 14 GeV electrons on a bent silicon crystal counting single photons. We also investigated the dynamics of electron motion in the crystal i.e. processes of channeling and volume reflection at 14 GeV, extending and building off previous work. Our single photon spectrum for the amorphous crystal orientation is consistent with bremsstrahlung radiation and the volume reflection crystal orientation shows a trend consistent with synchrotron radiation at a critical energy of 740 MeV. We observe that in these two cases the data are consistent, but we make no further claims because of statistical limitations. We also extended the known energy range of electron crystal dechanneling length and channeling efficiency to 14 GeV.

  6. Electron inertia effect on incompressible plasma flow in a planar channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrikov, M. B.; Taiurskii, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    > In this paper, we consider a one-fluid model of electromagnetic hydrodynamics (EMHD) of quasi-neutral plasma, with ion and electron inertia fully taken into account. The EMHD and the MHD models are compared with regard to solving the classical problem of steady flow of incompressible plasma in a planar channel. In the MHD theory, the solution is given by the Hartmann flow, whereas in the EMHD model, the diagram of the longitudinal velocity is shown to be significantly different from the Hartmann profile: in particular, near-wall flows and a counterflow appear, while the flow velocity may significantly deviate from the direction of the antigradient pressure causing plasma to flow (the so-called hydrodynamic `Hall effect'). This study shows that the EMHD and the MHD planar channel theories are practically the same for liquid metal plasma and are very different for gas plasma.

  7. Self-assembled oxide films with tailored nanoscale ionic and electronic channels for controlled resistive switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seungho; Yun, Chao; Tappertzhofen, Stefan; Kursumovic, Ahmed; Lee, Shinbuhm; Lu, Ping; Jia, Quanxi; Fan, Meng; Jian, Jie; Wang, Haiyan; Hofmann, Stephan; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.

    2016-08-01

    Resistive switches are non-volatile memory cells based on nano-ionic redox processes that offer energy efficient device architectures and open pathways to neuromorphics and cognitive computing. However, channel formation typically requires an irreversible, not well controlled electroforming process, giving difficulty to independently control ionic and electronic properties. The device performance is also limited by the incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here, we report a novel memristive model material system based on self-assembled Sm-doped CeO2 and SrTiO3 films that allow the separate tailoring of nanoscale ionic and electronic channels at high density (~1012 inch-2). We systematically show that these devices allow precise engineering of the resistance states, thus enabling large on-off ratios and high reproducibility. The tunable structure presents an ideal platform to explore ionic and electronic mechanisms and we expect a wide potential impact also on other nascent technologies, ranging from ionic gating to micro-solid oxide fuel cells and neuromorphics.

  8. Analytic theory for betatron radiation from relativistic electrons in ion plasma channels with magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H. C.; Jiang, T. F.

    2010-11-15

    We analytically solve the relativistic equation of motion for an electron in ion plasma channels and calculate the corresponding trajectory as well as the synchrotron radiation. The relativistic effect on a trajectory is strong, i.e., many high-order harmonic terms in the trajectory, when the ratio of the initial transverse velocity (v{sub x0}) to the longitudinal velocity (v{sub z0}) of the electron injected to ion plasma channels is high. Interestingly, these high-order harmonic terms result in a quite broad and intense radiation spectrum, especially at an oblique angle, in contrast to an earlier understanding. As the initial velocity ratio (v{sub x0}:v{sub z0}) decreases, the relativistic effect becomes weak; only the first and second harmonic terms remain in the transverse and longitudinal trajectories, respectively, which coincides with the result of Esarey et al. [Phys. Rev. E 65, 056505 (2002)]. Our formalism also allows the description of electron's trajectory in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Critical magnetic fields for cyclotron motions are figured out and compared with semiclassical results. The cyclotron motion leads to more high-order harmonic terms than the trajectory without magnetic fields and causes an immensely broad spectrum with vastly large radiation amplitude for high initial velocity ratios (v{sub x0}:v{sub z0}). The radiation from hard x-ray to gamma-ray regions can be generated with a broad radiation angle, thus available for applications.

  9. Self-assembled oxide films with tailored nanoscale ionic and electronic channels for controlled resistive switching

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seungho; Yun, Chao; Tappertzhofen, Stefan; Kursumovic, Ahmed; Lee, Shinbuhm; Lu, Ping; Jia, Quanxi; Fan, Meng; Jian, Jie; Wang, Haiyan; Hofmann, Stephan; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Resistive switches are non-volatile memory cells based on nano-ionic redox processes that offer energy efficient device architectures and open pathways to neuromorphics and cognitive computing. However, channel formation typically requires an irreversible, not well controlled electroforming process, giving difficulty to independently control ionic and electronic properties. The device performance is also limited by the incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here, we report a novel memristive model material system based on self-assembled Sm-doped CeO2 and SrTiO3 films that allow the separate tailoring of nanoscale ionic and electronic channels at high density (∼1012 inch−2). We systematically show that these devices allow precise engineering of the resistance states, thus enabling large on–off ratios and high reproducibility. The tunable structure presents an ideal platform to explore ionic and electronic mechanisms and we expect a wide potential impact also on other nascent technologies, ranging from ionic gating to micro-solid oxide fuel cells and neuromorphics. PMID:27491392

  10. Coincident electron channeling and cathodoluminescence studies of threading dislocations in GaN.

    PubMed

    Naresh-Kumar, Gunasekar; Bruckbauer, Jochen; Edwards, Paul R; Kraeusel, Simon; Hourahine, Ben; Martin, Robert W; Kappers, Menno J; Moram, Michelle A; Lovelock, Stephen; Oliver, Rachel A; Humphreys, Colin J; Trager-Cowan, Carol

    2014-02-01

    We combine two scanning electron microscopy techniques to investigate the influence of dislocations on the light emission from nitride semiconductors. Combining electron channeling contrast imaging and cathodoluminescence imaging enables both the structural and luminescence properties of a sample to be investigated without structural damage to the sample. The electron channeling contrast image is very sensitive to distortions of the crystal lattice, resulting in individual threading dislocations appearing as spots with black-white contrast. Dislocations giving rise to nonradiative recombination are observed as black spots in the cathodoluminescence image. Comparison of the images from exactly the same micron-scale region of a sample demonstrates a one-to-one correlation between the presence of single threading dislocations and resolved dark spots in the cathodoluminescence image. In addition, we have also obtained an atomic force microscopy image from the same region of the sample, which confirms that both pure edge dislocations and those with a screw component (i.e., screw and mixed dislocations) act as nonradiative recombination centers for the Si-doped c-plane GaN thin film investigated.

  11. Self-assembled oxide films with tailored nanoscale ionic and electronic channels for controlled resistive switching

    DOE PAGES

    Cho, Seungho; Yun, Chao; Tappertzhofen, Stefan; ...

    2016-08-05

    Resistive switches are non-volatile memory cells based on nano-ionic redox processes that offer energy efficient device architectures and open pathways to neuromorphics and cognitive computing. However, channel formation typically requires an irreversible, not well controlled electroforming process, giving difficulty to independently control ionic and electronic properties. The device performance is also limited by the incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here, we report a novel memristive model material system based on self-assembled Sm-doped CeO2 and SrTiO3 films that allow the separate tailoring of nanoscale ionic and electronic channels at high density (~1012 inch–2). Here, we systematically show that these devicesmore » allow precise engineering of the resistance states, thus enabling large on–off ratios and high reproducibility. The tunable structure presents an ideal platform to explore ionic and electronic mechanisms and we expect a wide potential impact also on other nascent technologies, ranging from ionic gating to micro-solid oxide fuel cells and neuromorphics.« less

  12. Self-assembled oxide films with tailored nanoscale ionic and electronic channels for controlled resistive switching

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Seungho; Yun, Chao; Tappertzhofen, Stefan; Kursumovic, Ahmed; Lee, Shinbuhm; Lu, Ping; Jia, Quanxi; Fan, Meng; Jian, Jie; Wang, Haiyan; Hofmann, Stephan; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.

    2016-08-05

    Resistive switches are non-volatile memory cells based on nano-ionic redox processes that offer energy efficient device architectures and open pathways to neuromorphics and cognitive computing. However, channel formation typically requires an irreversible, not well controlled electroforming process, giving difficulty to independently control ionic and electronic properties. The device performance is also limited by the incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here, we report a novel memristive model material system based on self-assembled Sm-doped CeO2 and SrTiO3 films that allow the separate tailoring of nanoscale ionic and electronic channels at high density (~1012 inch–2). Here, we systematically show that these devices allow precise engineering of the resistance states, thus enabling large on–off ratios and high reproducibility. The tunable structure presents an ideal platform to explore ionic and electronic mechanisms and we expect a wide potential impact also on other nascent technologies, ranging from ionic gating to micro-solid oxide fuel cells and neuromorphics.

  13. Self-assembled oxide films with tailored nanoscale ionic and electronic channels for controlled resistive switching.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seungho; Yun, Chao; Tappertzhofen, Stefan; Kursumovic, Ahmed; Lee, Shinbuhm; Lu, Ping; Jia, Quanxi; Fan, Meng; Jian, Jie; Wang, Haiyan; Hofmann, Stephan; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L

    2016-08-05

    Resistive switches are non-volatile memory cells based on nano-ionic redox processes that offer energy efficient device architectures and open pathways to neuromorphics and cognitive computing. However, channel formation typically requires an irreversible, not well controlled electroforming process, giving difficulty to independently control ionic and electronic properties. The device performance is also limited by the incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here, we report a novel memristive model material system based on self-assembled Sm-doped CeO2 and SrTiO3 films that allow the separate tailoring of nanoscale ionic and electronic channels at high density (∼10(12) inch(-2)). We systematically show that these devices allow precise engineering of the resistance states, thus enabling large on-off ratios and high reproducibility. The tunable structure presents an ideal platform to explore ionic and electronic mechanisms and we expect a wide potential impact also on other nascent technologies, ranging from ionic gating to micro-solid oxide fuel cells and neuromorphics.

  14. A switch for epitaxial graphene electronics: Utilizing the silicon carbide substrate as transistor channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krach, F.; Hertel, S.; Waldmann, D.; Jobst, J.; Krieger, M.; Reshanov, S.; Schöner, A.; Weber, H. B.

    2012-03-01

    Due to the lack of graphene transistors with large on/off ratio, we propose a concept employing both epitaxial graphene and its underlying substrate silicon carbide (SiC) as electronic materials. We demonstrate a simple, robust, and scalable transistor, in which graphene serves as electrodes and SiC as a semiconducting channel. The common interface has to be chosen such that it provides favorable charge injection. The insulator and gate functionality is realized by an ionic liquid gate for convenience but could be taken over by a solid gate stack. On/off ratios exceeding 44000 at room temperature are found.

  15. Characteristics of four-channel Cherenkov-type detector for measurements of runaway electrons in the ISTTOK tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Plyusnin, V. V.; Duarte, P.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.

    2010-10-15

    A diagnostics capable of characterizing the runaway and superthermal electrons has been developing on the ISTTOK tokamak. In previous paper, a use of single-channel Cherenkov-type detector with titanium filter for runaway electron studies in ISTTOK was reported. To measure fast electron populations with different energies, a prototype of a four-channel detector with molybdenum filters was designed. Test-stand studies of filters with different thicknesses (1, 3, 7, 10, 20, 50, and 100 {mu}m) have shown that they should allow the detection of electrons with energies higher than 69, 75, 87, 95, 120, 181, and 260 keV, respectively. First results of measurements with the four-channel detector revealed the possibility to measure reliably different fast electrons populations simultaneously.

  16. Electron transfer activation of a second water channel for proton transport in [FeFe]-hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Sode, Olaseni; Voth, Gregory A.

    2014-12-14

    Hydrogenase enzymes are important because they can reversibly catalyze the production of molecular hydrogen. Proton transport mechanisms have been previously studied in residue pathways that lead to the active site of the enzyme via residues Cys299 and Ser319. The importance of this pathway and these residues has been previously exhibited through site-specific mutations, which were shown to interrupt the enzyme activity. It has been shown recently that a separate water channel (WC2) is coupled with electron transport to the active site of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase. The water-mediated proton transport mechanisms of the enzyme in different electronic states have been studied using the multistate empirical valence bond reactive molecular dynamics method, in order to understand any role WC2 may have in facilitating the residue pathway in bringing an additional proton to the enzyme active site. In a single electronic state A{sup 2−}, a water wire was formed through which protons can be transported with a low free energy barrier. The remaining electronic states were shown, however, to be highly unfavorable to proton transport in WC2. A double amino acid substitution is predicted to obstruct proton transport in electronic state A{sup 2-} by closing a cavity that could otherwise fill with water near the proximal Fe of the active site.

  17. Preparation of a dense, polycrystalline ceramic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, Jason; Chen, Ching-Fong; Alexander, David

    2010-12-07

    Ceramic nanopowder was sealed inside a metal container under a vacuum. The sealed evacuated container was forced through a severe deformation channel at an elevated temperature below the melting point of the ceramic nanopowder. The result was a dense nanocrystalline ceramic structure inside the metal container.

  18. Domain imaging in ferroelectric thin films via channeling-contrast backscattered electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Michael, Joseph R.; McKenzie, Bonnie B.; ...

    2016-09-16

    We report that ferroelastic domain walls provide opportunities for deterministically controlling mechanical, optical, electrical, and thermal energy. Domain wall characterization in micro- and nanoscale systems, where their spacing may be of the order of 100 nm or less is presently limited to only a few techniques, such as piezoresponse force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. These respective techniques cannot, however, independently characterize domain polarization orientation and domain wall motion in technologically relevant capacitor structures or in a non-destructive manner, thus presenting a limitation of their utility. In this work, we show how backscatter scanning electron microscopy utilizing channeling contrast yieldmore » can image the ferroelastic domain structure of ferroelectric films with domain wall spacing as narrow as 10 nm.« less

  19. Domain imaging in ferroelectric thin films via channeling-contrast backscattered electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Michael, Joseph R.; McKenzie, Bonnie B.; Scrymgeour, David A.; Maria, Jon-Paul; Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Kitahara, Andrew R.

    2016-09-16

    We report that ferroelastic domain walls provide opportunities for deterministically controlling mechanical, optical, electrical, and thermal energy. Domain wall characterization in micro- and nanoscale systems, where their spacing may be of the order of 100 nm or less is presently limited to only a few techniques, such as piezoresponse force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. These respective techniques cannot, however, independently characterize domain polarization orientation and domain wall motion in technologically relevant capacitor structures or in a non-destructive manner, thus presenting a limitation of their utility. In this work, we show how backscatter scanning electron microscopy utilizing channeling contrast yield can image the ferroelastic domain structure of ferroelectric films with domain wall spacing as narrow as 10 nm.

  20. Nonnuclear Nearly Free Electron Conduction Channels Induced by Doping Charge in Nanotube–Molecular Sheet Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jin; Zheng, Qijing; Petek, Hrvoje; Yang, Jinlong

    2014-09-04

    Nearly free electron (NFE) states with density maxima in nonnuclear (NN) voids may have remarkable electron transport properties ranging from suppressed electron–phonon interaction to Wigner crystallization. Such NFE states, however, usually exist near the vacuum level, which makes them unsuitable for transport. Through first principles calculations on nanocomposites consisting of carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays sandwiched between boron nitride (BN) sheets, we describe a stratagem for stabilizing the NN-NFE states to below the Fermi level. By doping the CNTs with negative charge, we establish Coulomb barriers at CNTs walls that, together with the insulating BN sheets, define the transverse potentials of one-dimensional (1D) transport channels, which support the NN-NFE states.

  1. Ultra-short channel GaN high electron mobility transistor-like Gunn diode with composite contact

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Lin'an Wang, Zhizhe; Chen, Qing; Huang, Yonghong; Dai, Yang; Chen, Haoran; Zhao, Hongliang; Hao, Yue

    2014-09-07

    We present a numerical analysis on an ultra-short channel AlGaN/GaN HEMT-like planar Gunn diode based on the velocity-field dependence of two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) channel accounting for the ballistic electron acceleration and the inter-valley transfer. In particular, we propose a Schottky-ohmic composite contact instead of traditional ohmic contact for the Gunn diode in order to significantly suppress the impact ionization at the anode side and shorten the “dead zone” at the cathode side, which is beneficial to the formation and propagation of dipole domain in the ultra-short 2-DEG channel and the promotion of conversion efficiency. The influence of the surface donor-like traps on the electron domain in the 2-DEG channel is also included in the simulation.

  2. Synthesis of Ba1-xKxBiO3 ceramic specimens: Electron paramagnetic resonance and microwave absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Sushil K.; Andronenko, Serguei I.; Andronenko, Rosa R.; Mezentseva, Larisa P.

    1996-04-01

    Ba1-xKxBiO3 ceramic samples were synthesized with many initial relative amounts of reagents. Chemical analysis was used to determine the final concentration x¯ in the synthesized samples. It was found that only four values of x¯=0.13, 0.25, 0.4, 0.5 with Δx¯=+/-0.03 were possible. Electron-paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and microwave-absorption investigations of the synthesized ceramic specimens were carried out in the temperature range 4-100 K. In the two nonsuperconducting specimens characterized by the smaller concentrations x¯=0.13, 0.25 the same two EPR lines at g=2.09 and g=4.25 were observed, whose intensities increased sharply below 40 K with decreasing temperature, likely due to the phase Ba0.875K0.125BiO3. A least-squares fitting of the intensity of the line at g=4.25 for the sample with x¯=0.13 with (1/T)exp(-Jp/T), yielded the value of the exchange constant Jp=2.3+/-0.5 K, confirming that this line is indeed due to a transition within the energy levels belonging to the excited triplet state of hole pairs localized on the oxygen ions. Low-field microwave absorption and x-ray diffraction by the superconducting specimens characterized by the higher concentrations x¯=0.4, 0.5 indicate that these samples consist of two different superconducting phases: one, with x=0.375, possessing Tc=28 K, and the other with x=0.5, possessing Tc=16 K. Four possible configurations of the solid solutions Ba1-xKxBiO3 wherein one, two, three, and four K+ ions substitute for the same number of Ba2+ ions, with well-defined positions of K+ ions in the unit cell, have been presently proposed.

  3. Multiscale modeling and computation of nano-electronic transistors and transmembrane proton channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Duan

    The miniaturization of nano-scale electronic transistors, such as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), has given rise to a pressing demand in the new theoretical understanding and practical tactic for dealing with quantum mechanical effects in integrated circuits. In biology, proton dynamics and transport across membrane proteins are of paramount importance to the normal function of living cells. Similar physical characteristics are behind the two subjects, and model simulations share common mathematical interests/challenges. In this thesis work, multiscale and multiphysical models are proposed to study the mechanisms of nanotransistors and proton transport in transmembrane at the atomic level. For nano-electronic transistors, we introduce a unified two-scale energy functional to describe the electrons and the continuum electrostatic potential. This framework enables us to put microscopic and macroscopic descriptions on an equal footing at nano-scale. Additionally, this model includes layered structures and random doping effect of nano-transistors. For transmembrane proton channels, we describe proton dynamics quantum mechanically via a density functional approach while implicitly treat numerous solvent molecules as a dielectric continuum. The densities of all other ions in the solvent are assumed to obey the Boltzmann distribution. The impact of protein molecular structure and its charge polarization on the proton transport is considered in atomic details. We formulate a total free energy functional to include kinetic and potential energies of protons, as well as electrostatic energy of all other ions on an equal footing. For both nano-transistors and proton channels systems, the variational principle is employed to derive nonlinear governing equations. The Poisson-Kohn-Sham equations are derived for nano-transistors while the generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and Kohn-Sham equation are obtained for proton channels. Related numerical

  4. Scanning electron acoustic microscopy of residual stresses in ceramics - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Qian, Menglu

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a three-dimensional mathematical model of signal generation and contrast in brittle materials and uses the model to simulate the effect of residual stress fields on the scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM)-generated electron acoustic signal. According to the model, a positive (tensile) strain produces an increase in the output signal, whereas a negative (compressive) strain produces a decrease in the ouput signal. Dark field contrast conditions occur at a chopping frequency at which V2 - V1 is greater than 0 (where V2 = V is the SEAM output in a region of residual stresses, and V1 is the output in a stress-free region of the sample). Under ideal conditions (maximum contrast) V1 approaches zero. It was found that tensile strains of the order 0.2-0.3 percent, possible in brittle materials, would produce a variation of the acoustic output signal of the order 10 nV (about 1 percent), well within the image contrast and signal processing capability of the SEAM electronics.

  5. The projection structure of Kch, a putative potassium channel in Escherichia coli, by electron crystallography.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Qie; Purhonen, Pasi; Jegerschöld, Caroline; Hebert, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The kch gene, the only potassium channel gene in Escherichia coli, has the property to express both full-length Kch and its cytosolic domain (RCK) due to a methionine at position 240. The RCK domains are believed to form an octameric ring structure and regulate the gating of the potassium channels after having bound certain ligands. Several different gating ring structures have been reported for the soluble RCK domains, however, these were studied isolated from their transmembrane parts. We previously reported an octameric structure of Kch in solution by electron microscopy and single particle reconstruction, composed of two tetrameric full-length proteins through RCK interaction. To exclude the effect of the detergent, we have now performed an electron crystallographic study of the full-length Kch in membrane bound form. Well-ordered two-dimensional crystals were grown in a natural phospholipid environment. A projection map merged from the fifteen best images extended to 6Å resolution. The c12 two-sided plane group of the two-dimensional crystals showed that Kch crystallized as two symmetrically related overlapping layers. The arrangement suggests that the two layers of RCK domains are shifted with respect to each other and the RCK octameric gating ring of Kch does not form under the crystallization condition.

  6. Electronic Communication Channel Use and Health Information Source Preferences Among Latinos in Northern Manhattan.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Schmitt, Karen M; Lizardo, Maria; Reyes, Andria; Bazan, Mercedes; Alvarez, Maria C; Sandoval, Rossy; Abdul, Kazeem; Orjuela, Manuela A

    2017-04-01

    Understanding key health concepts is crucial to participation in Precision Medicine initiatives. In order to assess methods to develop and disseminate a curriculum to educate community members in Northern Manhattan about Precision Medicine, clients from a local community-based organization were interviewed during 2014-2015. Health literacy, acculturation, use of Internet, email, and text messaging, and health information sources were assessed. Associations between age and outcomes were evaluated; multivariable analysis used to examine the relationship between participant characteristics and sources of health information. Of 497 interviewed, 29.4 % had inadequate health literacy and 53.6 % had access to the Internet, 43.9 % to email, and 45.3 % to text messaging. Having adequate health literacy was associated with seeking information from a healthcare professional (OR 2.59, 95 % CI 1.54-4.35) and from the Internet (OR 3.15, 95 % CI 1.97-5.04); having ≤ grade school education (OR 2.61, 95 % CI 1.32-5.17) also preferred information from their provider; persons >45 years (OR 0.29, 95 % CI 0.18-0.47) were less likely to use the Internet for health information and preferred printed media (OR 1.64, 95 % CI 1.07-2.50). Overall, electronic communication channel use was low and varied significantly by age with those ≤45 years more likely to utilize electronic channels. Preferred sources of health information also varied by age as well as by health literacy and educational level. This study demonstrates that to effectively communicate key Precision Medicine concepts, curriculum development for Latino community members of Northern Manhattan will require attention to health literacy, language preference and acculturation and incorporate more traditional communication channels for older community members.

  7. A Mathematica package for calculation of planar channeling radiation spectra of relativistic electrons channeled in a diamond-structure single crystal (quantum approach)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadegan, B.

    2013-03-01

    The presented Mathematica code is an efficient tool for simulation of planar channeling radiation spectra of relativistic electrons channeled along major crystallographic planes of a diamond-structure single crystal. The program is based on the quantum theory of channeling radiation which has been successfully applied to study planar channeling at electron energies between 10 and 100 MeV. Continuum potentials for different planes of diamond, silicon and germanium single crystals are calculated using the Doyle-Turner approximation to the atomic scattering factor and taking thermal vibrations of the crystal atoms into account. Numerical methods are applied to solve the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation. The code is designed to calculate the electron wave functions, transverse electron states in the planar continuum potential, transition energies, line widths of channeling radiation and depth dependencies of the population of quantum states. Finally the spectral distribution of spontaneously emitted channeling radiation is obtained. The simulation of radiation spectra considerably facilitates the interpretation of experimental data. Catalog identifier: AEOH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 446 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 209805 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: Platforms on which Mathematica is available. Operating system: Operating systems on which Mathematica is available. RAM: 1 MB Classification: 7.10. Nature of problem: Planar channeling radiation is emitted by relativistic charged particles during traversing a single crystal in direction parallel to a crystallographic plane. Channeling is modeled as the motion

  8. Ionization Cross Sections and Dissociation Channels of DNA Bases by Electron Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Dateo, Christopher E.; Fletcher, Graham D.

    2004-01-01

    Free secondary electrons are the most abundant secondary species in ionizing radiation. Their role in DNA damage, both direct and indirect, is an active area of research. While indirect damage by free radicals, particularly by the hydroxyl radical generated by electron collision with water. is relatively well studied, damage by direct electron collision with DNA is less well understood. Only recently Boudaiffa et al. demonstrated that electrons at energies well below ionization thresholds can induce substantial yields of single- and double-strand breaks in DNA by a resonant, dissociative attachment process. This study attracted renewed interest in electron collisions with DNA, especially in the low energy region. At higher energies ionization becomes important. While Monte Carlo track simulations of radiation damage always include ionization, the probability of dissociative ionization, i.e., simultaneous ionization and dissociation, is ignored. Just like dissociative attachment, dissociative ionization may be an important contributor to double-strand breaks since the radicals and ions produced by dissociative ionization, located in the vicinity of the DNA coil, can readily interact with other parts of the DNA. Using the improved binary-encounter dipole (iBED) formulation, we calculated the ionization cross sections of the four DNA bases, adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine, by electrons at energies from threshold to 1 KeV. The present calculation gives cross sections approximately 20% lower than the results by Bemhardt and Paretzke using the Deutsch-Mark and Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The difference is most likely due to the lack of a shielding term in the dipole potential used in the Deutsch-Mark and BEB formalisms. The dissociation channels of ionization for the bases are currently being studied.

  9. Electron and Light Microscopy Techniques Suitable for Studying Fatigue Damage in a Crystallized Glass Ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrell, Shelley; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1961-01-01

    The crystals of Pyroceram are randomly oriented and highly reflective so that standard microscopy techniques are not satisfactory for studying this material. Standard replicating procedures proved difficult to use. New microscopy techniques and procedures have therefore been developed. A method for locating, orienting, and identifying specific areas to be viewed with an electron microscope is described. This method not require any special equipment. Plastic replicas were found to be unsatisfactory because of their tendency to adhere to Pryoceram. This caused them to tear when released or resulted in artifacts. Preshadowed silicon monoxide replicas were satisfactory but required a releasing agent. A method of depositing the releasing agent is described. To polish specimens without evidence of fire-polishing, it was found necessary to use a vibratory polishing technique. Chrome oxide was used as the abrasive and either water or kerosene as the lubricant. Vibratory polishing is extremely slow, but surfaces so polished show no evidence of fire polishing, even when examined by electron microscopy. The most satisfactory etching process used for Pyroceram 9608 consisted of a primary etch of 5 milliliters of hydrochloric acid (concentrated), 5 milliliters of hydrogen fluoride (45 percent), and 45 milliliters of water, and a secondary etch with methyl alcohol replacing the water. Best results were obtained with total etching times from 25 to 30 seconds. Staining of the Pyroceram surface with a Sanford's marker was found to be an expedient way to reduce the glare of reflected light.

  10. Joining of ceramics for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilpas, Martti

    1987-01-01

    Summarized is a literature survey of the methods for joining ceramics to ceramics or ceramics to metals for high temperature applications. Also mechanical properties and potential applications of the joints are considered. The joining of ceramics is usually carried out by brazing or diffusion bonding. Especially the latter has been found useful, increasing the application of bonded ceramics. The possibility of using electron beam and laser beam welding for joining ceramics has also recently been investigated. The bonding of ceramics has found numerous applications typical for high operating temperatures, i.e., sensors and thermocouples.

  11. Structural ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wachtman, J.B. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The present work discusses opportunities for application of structural ceramics in heat engines, industrial-wear parts, prosthetics and bearings; conceptual and detailed design principles for structural ceramics; the processing, consolidation, and properties of members of the SiC family of structural ceramics; and the silicon nitride and sialon families of hot-pressed, sintered, and reaction-bonded, structural ceramics. Also discussed are partially-stabilized zirconia and zirconia-toughened ceramics for structural applications, the processing methods and mechanisms of fiber-reinforcement in ceramic-matrix fiber-reinforced composites, and the tribological properties of structural ceramics.

  12. Atomic structure and properties of grain boundaries in ceramics through Z-contrast electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, S.J.; Nellist, P.D.; Browning, N.D.

    1996-08-01

    The bulk properties of a large range of materials are controlled by the atomic structure and chemistry of grain boundaries, but how this occurs, at the fundamental atomic level, remains poorly understood. This is due largely to the many degrees of freedom associated with grain boundaries - five geometrical degrees of freedom along with a myriad of possibilities involving impurity segregation. Based on Z- contrast electron microscopy, a method have been developed for determining grain boundary atomic structure and chemistry directly from experimental data. The method utilizes the incoherent nature of the Z-contrast image; as there is no phase problem associated with an incoherent image, it represents a compositionally sensitive structure image which may be directly inverted to give atomic column positions. This method extracts the column locations to an accuracy of {+-}0.2 {Angstrom}, while preserving the intensity information. The procedure has been applied to SrTiO{sub 3} and YBCO.

  13. Polishing methods for metallic and ceramic transmission electron microscopy specimens: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kestel, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    In recent years, the increasing sophistication of transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies of materials has necessitated more exacting methods of specimen preparation. The present report describes improved equipment and techniques for electropolishing and chemically polishing a wide variety of specimens. Many of the specimens used in developing or improving the techniques to be described were irradiated with heavy ions such as nickel or vanadium to study radiation damage. The high cost of these specimens increased the need for reproducible methods of initial preparation postirradiation processing, and final thinning for TEM examination. A technique was also developed to salvage specimens that had previously been thinned but were unusable for various reasons. Jet polishing is, in general, the method of choice for surface polishing, sectioning, and thinning. The older beaker electropolishing method is included in this report because it is inexpensive and simple, and gives some insight into how the more recent methods were developed.

  14. Injection and Propagation of Multiple Relativistic Electron Beams into Preformed Plasma Channels for High-Power X-Ray Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    and a surface - flashover prepulse switch were added to the focused-beam diodes. These changes have improved the pinch stability of the focused beam... plasma channel-front expansion velocities from the exploding wire as inferred from the experi- mental data are 0.8 mm per microsecond for the 760 Torr...27.3 INJECTION AND PROPAGATION OF ~1ULTIPLE RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON BEAMS INTO PREFORMED PLASMA CHANNELS FOR HIGH-POWER X-RAY PRODUCTION F. J

  15. WIMAGINE: an implantable electronic platform for wireless 64-channel ECoG recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, M.; Porcherot, J.; Robinet, S.; D'Errico, R.; Josselin, V.; Sauter, F.; Mestais, C.; Charvet, G.

    2013-05-01

    The WIMAGINE platform was developed as a proof of concept and first functional prototype of an implantable device for recording ECoG signals on a large number of electrodes. The designed system provides the means of recording wirelessly up to 64 ECoG channels. Two ASIC CINESIC32 ensure the amplification and digitization of the neurosignals which are then transmitted to a PC using a ZL70102 transceiver in the MICS band. An MSP430 handles the communication protocol, configures the ASICs and gives access to various sensor information. The electronics are packaged hermetically in a biocompatible titanium housing encapsulated medical grade silicone. The whole device is powered remotely over an inductive link at 13.56MHz and complies with the regulations applicable to class III AIMD.

  16. Channel electron multiplier compatibility with Viton and Apiezon-L vacuum grease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomas, D. J.; Baldonado, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Barraclough, B. L.

    1987-01-01

    Clean Viton and Viton coated with Apiezon-L vacuum grease were tested for their noncontaminating compatibility with channel electron multipliers (CEMs). The test setup and procedure were the same as those used previously in conjunction with CEM compatibility tests of certain epoxies, solder, and fluorocarbon polymer materials useful for construction of spaceflight sensors. While some CEM gain degradation was noted during exposure to Viton and Apiezon-L, the present tests indicate that, at least over instrument lifetimes of about 2 x 10 to the 12th counts, these materials should be suitable for (1) preflight space sensor testing systems, (2) hermetic seals for CEM-based space sensors, and (3) terrestrial CEM-based instrumentation.

  17. Channel electron multiplier compatibility with Viton and Apiezon-L vacuum grease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, D. J.; Baldonado, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Barraclough, B. L.

    1987-12-01

    Clean Viton and Viton coated with Apiezon-L vacuum grease were tested for their noncontaminating compatibility with channel electron multipliers (CEMs). The test setup and procedure were the same as those used previously in conjunction with CEM compatibility tests of certain epoxies, solder, and fluorocarbon polymer materials useful for construction of spaceflight sensors. While some CEM gain degradation was noted during exposure to Viton and Apiezon-L, the present tests indicate that, at least over instrument lifetimes of about 2 x 10 to the 12th counts, these materials should be suitable for (1) preflight space sensor testing systems, (2) hermetic seals for CEM-based space sensors, and (3) terrestrial CEM-based instrumentation.

  18. Emittance growth of an nonequilibrium intense electron beam in a transport channel with discrete focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, B.E.

    1997-02-01

    The author analyzes the emittance growth mechanisms for a continuous, intense electron beam in a focusing transport channel, over distances short enough that the beam does not reach equilibrium. The emittance grows from the effect of nonlinear forces arising from (1) current density nonuniformities, (2) energy variations leading to nonlinearities in the space-charge force even if the current density is uniform, (3) axial variations in the radial vector potential, (4) an axial velocity shear along the beam, and (5) an energy redistribution of the beam as the beam compresses or expands. The emittance growth is studied analytically and numerically for the cases of balanced flow, tight focusing, and slight beam scalloping, and is additionally studied numerically for an existing 6-MeV induction linear accelerator. Rules for minimizing the emittance along a beamline are established. Some emittance growth will always occur, both from current density nonuniformities that arise along the transport and from beam radius changes along the transport.

  19. Effect of metal ions on radical type and proton-coupled electron transfer channel: sigma-radical vs pi-radical and sigma-channel vs pi-channel in the imide units.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohua; Xing, Dianxiang; Zhang, Liang; Cukier, Robert I; Bu, Yuxiang

    2009-12-01

    The mechanism of proton transfer (PT)/electron transfer (ET) in imide units, and its regulation by hydrated metal ions, was explored theoretically using density functional theory in a representative model (a nearly planar and cisoid complex between uracil and its N(3)-dehydrogenated radical, UU). In UU (sigma-radical), PT/ET normally occurs via a seven-center, cyclic proton-coupled sigma-electron sigma-channel transfer (PC(sigma)E(sigma)T) mechanism (3.8 kcal/mol barrier height) with a N(3)-->N(3') PT and an O(4)-->O(4') ET. Binding of hydrated metal ions to the dioxygen sites (O(2)/O(2') or/and O(4)/O(4')) of UU may significantly affect its PT/ET cooperative reactivity by changing the radical type (sigma-radical <--> pi-radical) and ET channel (sigma-channel <--> pi-channel), leading to different mechanisms, ranging from PC(sigma)E(sigma)T, to proton-coupled pi-electron sigma-channel transfer (PC(pi)E(sigma)T) to proton-coupled pi-electron pi-channel transfer (PC(pi)E(pi)T). This change originates from an alteration of the ordering of the UU moiety SOMO/HDMO (the singly occupied molecular orbital and the highest doubly occupied molecular orbital), induced by binding of the hydrated metal ions. It is a consequence of three associated factors: the asymmetric reactant structure, electron cloud redistribution, and fixing role of metal ions to structural backbone. The findings regarding the modulation of the PT/ET pathway via hydrated metal ions may provide valuable information for a greater understanding of PT/ET cooperative mechanisms, and an alternative way for designing imide-based molecular devices, such as molecular switches and molecular wires.

  20. In-situ transmission electron microscopy study of oxygen vacancy ordering and dislocation annihilation in undoped and Sm-doped CeO2 ceramics during redox processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yong; Chen, Yu; Pradel, Ken C.; Liu, Meilin; Lin Wang, Zhong

    2016-12-01

    Ceria (CeO2) based ceramics have been widely used for many applications due to their unique ionic, electronic, and catalytic properties. Here, we report our findings in investigating into the redox processes of undoped and Sm-doped CeO2 ceramics stimulated by high-energy electron beam irradiation within a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The reduced structure with oxygen vacancy ordering has been identified as the CeO1.68 (C-Ce2O3+δ) phase via high-resolution TEM. The reduction of Ce4+ to Ce3+ has been monitored by electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The decreased electronic conductivity of the Sm-doped CeO2 (Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9, SDC) is revealed by electron holography, as positive electrostatic charges accumulated at the surfaces of SDC grains under electron beam irradiation, but not at CeO2 grains. The formation of the reduced CeO1.68 domains corresponds to lattice expansion compared to the CeO2 matrix. Therefore, the growth of CeO1.68 nuclei builds up strain inside the matrix, causing annihilation of dislocations inside the grains. By using in-situ high-resolution TEM and a fast OneView camera recording system, we investigated dislocation motion inside both CeO2 and SDC grains under electron beam irradiation. The dislocations prefer to dissociate into Shockley partials bounded by stacking faults. Then, the partials can easily glide in the {111} planes to reach the grain surfaces. Even the Lomer-Cottrell lock can be swept away by the phase change induced strain field. Our results revealed the high mobility of dislocations inside CeO2 and SDC grains during their respective redox processes.

  1. Generation of a pulsed low-energy electron beam using the channel spark device.

    PubMed

    Elgarhy, M A I; Hassaballa, S E; Rashed, U M; ElSabbagh, M M; Soliman, H M; Saudy, A H

    2015-12-01

    For the generation of low-energy electron beam, the design and characteristics of channel spark discharge (CSD) operating at a low voltage are presented in this paper. The discharge voltage, discharge current, X-ray emissions, and electron beam current were experimentally determined. The effects of the applied voltage, working gas pressure, and external capacitance on the CSD and beam parameters were measured. At an applied voltage of 11 kV, an oxygen gas pressure of 25 mTorr, and an external capacitance of 16.45 nF, the maximum measured current was 900 A. The discharge current increased with the increase in the pressure and capacitance, while its periodic time decreased with the increase in the pressure. Two types of the discharge were identified and recorded: the hollow cathode discharge and the conduction discharge. A Faraday cup was used to measure the beam current. The maximum measured beam current was 120 A, and the beam signal exhibited two peaks. The increase in both the external capacitance and the applied discharge voltage increased the maximum electron beam current. The electron-beam pulse time decreased with the increase in the gas pressure at a constant voltage and increased with the decrease in the applied discharge voltage. At an applied voltage of 11 kV and an oxygen gas pressure of 15 mTorr, the maximum beam energy was 2.8 keV. The X-ray signal intensity decreased with the increase in the gas pressure and increased with the increase in the capacitance.

  2. Generation of a pulsed low-energy electron beam using the channel spark device

    SciTech Connect

    Elgarhy, M. A. I. Hassaballa, S. E.; Rashed, U. M.; ElSabbagh, M. M.; Saudy, A. H.; Soliman, H. M.

    2015-12-15

    For the generation of low-energy electron beam, the design and characteristics of channel spark discharge (CSD) operating at a low voltage are presented in this paper. The discharge voltage, discharge current, X-ray emissions, and electron beam current were experimentally determined. The effects of the applied voltage, working gas pressure, and external capacitance on the CSD and beam parameters were measured. At an applied voltage of 11 kV, an oxygen gas pressure of 25 mTorr, and an external capacitance of 16.45 nF, the maximum measured current was 900 A. The discharge current increased with the increase in the pressure and capacitance, while its periodic time decreased with the increase in the pressure. Two types of the discharge were identified and recorded: the hollow cathode discharge and the conduction discharge. A Faraday cup was used to measure the beam current. The maximum measured beam current was 120 A, and the beam signal exhibited two peaks. The increase in both the external capacitance and the applied discharge voltage increased the maximum electron beam current. The electron-beam pulse time decreased with the increase in the gas pressure at a constant voltage and increased with the decrease in the applied discharge voltage. At an applied voltage of 11 kV and an oxygen gas pressure of 15 mTorr, the maximum beam energy was 2.8 keV. The X-ray signal intensity decreased with the increase in the gas pressure and increased with the increase in the capacitance.

  3. Microfiltration: Effect of retentate protein concentration on limiting flux and serum protein removal with 4-mm-channel ceramic microfiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Hurt, E E; Adams, M C; Barbano, D M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of our study was to determine if the limiting flux and serum protein (SP) removal were different at 8, 9, or 10% true protein (TP) in the microfiltration (MF) retentate recirculation loop using 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability membranes with 4-mm-channel diameters operated at 50 °C using a diluted milk protein concentrate with 85% protein on a total solids basis (MPC85) as the MF feed. The limiting flux for the MF of diluted MPC85 was determined at 3 TP concentrations in the recirculation loop (8, 9, and 10%). The experiment was replicated 3 times for a total of 9 runs. On the morning of each run, MPC85 was diluted with reverse osmosis water to an MF feed TP concentration of 5.4%. In all runs, the starting flux was 55 kg/m(2) per hour, the flux was increased in steps until the limiting flux was reached. The minimum flux increase was 10 kg/m(2) per hour. The limiting flux decreased as TP concentration in the recirculation loop increased. The limiting flux was 154 ± 0.3, 133 ± 0.7, and 117 ± 3.3 kg/m(2) per hour at recirculation loop TP concentrations of 8.2 ± 0.07, 9.2 ± 0.04, and 10.2 ± 0.09%, respectively. No effect of recirculation loop TP concentration on the SP removal factor was detected. However, the SP removal factor decreased from 0.80 ± 0.02 to 0.75 ± 0.02 as flux was increased from the starting flux of 55 kg/m(2) per hour to the limiting flux, with a similar decrease seen at all recirculation loop TP concentrations.

  4. Designing calcium release channel inhibitors with enhanced electron donor properties: stabilizing the closed state of ryanodine receptor type 1.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yanping; Yaeger, Daniel; Owen, Laura J; Escobedo, Jorge O; Wang, Jialu; Singer, Jeffrey D; Strongin, Robert M; Abramson, Jonathan J

    2012-01-01

    New drugs with enhanced electron donor properties that target the ryanodine receptor from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (RyR1) are shown to be potent inhibitors of single-channel activity. In this article, we synthesize derivatives of the channel activator 4-chloro-3-methyl phenol (4-CmC) and the 1,4-benzothiazepine channel inhibitor 4-[-3{1-(4-benzyl) piperidinyl}propionyl]-7-methoxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,4-benzothiazepine (K201, JTV519) with enhanced electron donor properties. Instead of activating channel activity (~100 μM), the 4-methoxy analog of 4-CmC [4-methoxy-3-methyl phenol (4-MmC)] inhibits channel activity at submicromolar concentrations (IC(50) = 0.34 ± 0.08 μM). Increasing the electron donor characteristics of K201 by synthesizing its dioxole congener results in an approximately 16 times more potent RyR1 inhibitor (IC(50) = 0.24 ± 0.05 μM) compared with K201 (IC(50) = 3.98 ± 0.79 μM). Inhibition is not caused by an increased closed time of the channel but seems to be caused by an open state block of RyR1. These alterations to chemical structure do not influence the ability of these drugs to affect Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase type 1. Moreover, the FKBP12 protein, which stabilizes RyR1 in a closed configuration, is shown to be a strong electron donor. It seems as if FKBP12, K201, its dioxole derivative, and 4-MmC inhibit RyR1 channel activity by virtue of their electron donor characteristics. These results embody strong evidence that designing new drugs to target RyR1 with enhanced electron donor characteristics results in more potent channel inhibitors. This is a novel approach to the design of new, more potent drugs with the aim of functionally modifying RyR1 single-channel activity.

  5. Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article

    SciTech Connect

    Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert

    2016-01-12

    A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.

  6. Electronic structure of the LiAA‧O6 (A = Nb, Ta, and A‧ = W, Mo) ceramics by modified Becke-Johnson potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Zahid; Khan, Imad; Rahman, Mazhar; Ahmad, Rashid; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2016-08-01

    DFT is used to study various transition metal based ceramics LiAA‧O6 (A = Nb, Ta, and A‧ = W, Mo) in tetragonal phase with space group 421 m (No. 113). The calculated structural and geometrical parameters are found in closed agreement with the experiments. Electronic clouds explain the chemical bonding and reveal that Li atom occupy central position and form ionic bond. Other bonds in these compounds are significantly covalent due to the sharing of electrons between O and A/A‧. The electronic properties demonstrate that these compounds are wide bandgap semiconductors in the energy range of 2.18-2.60 eV. These bandgap energies confirm the suitability of these oxides in optoelectronic devices operating in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  7. On Ceramics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents four ceramics activities for secondary-level art classes. Included are directions for primitive kiln construction and glaze making. Two ceramics design activities are described in which students make bizarrely-shaped lidded jars, feet, and footwear. (AM)

  8. Ceramic Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-02

    A ceramic material which is (1) ceramics based on monoclinic BaO.Al2O3.2SiO2; (2) ceramics based on monoclinic SrO.Al2O3.2SiO2; or (3) ceramics based on monoclinic solid solution of BaO.Al2O3.2SiO2 and SrO.Al2O3.2SiO2.

  9. Hierarchical Nanostructured WO3 with Biomimetic Proton Channels and Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductivity for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Peng, Yiting; Liu, Fang; Le, Zaiyuan; Zhu, Jian; Shen, Gurong; Zhang, Dieqing; Wen, Meicheng; Xiao, Shuning; Liu, Chi-Ping; Lu, Yunfeng; Li, Hexing

    2015-10-14

    Protein channels in biologic systems can effectively transport ions such as proton (H(+)), sodium (Na(+)), and calcium (Ca(+)) ions. However, none of such channels is able to conduct electrons. Inspired by the biologic proton channels, we report a novel hierarchical nanostructured hydrous hexagonal WO3 (h-WO3) which can conduct both protons and electrons. This mixed protonic-electronic conductor (MPEC) can be synthesized by a facile single-step hydrothermal reaction at low temperature, which results in a three-dimensional nanostructure self-assembled from h-WO3 nanorods. Such a unique h-WO3 contains biomimetic proton channels where single-file water chains embedded within the electron-conducting matrix, which is critical for fast electrokinetics. The mixed conductivities, high redox capacitance, and structural robustness afford the h-WO3 with unprecedented electrochemical performance, including high capacitance, fast charge/discharge capability, and very long cycling life (>50,000 cycles without capacitance decay), thus providing a new platform for a broad range of applications.

  10. Structural Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of abstracts and slides of papers presented at the NASA Lewis Structural Ceramics Workshop. Collectively, these papers depict the scope of NASA Lewis' structural ceramics program. The technical areas include monolithic SiC and Si3N4 development, ceramic matrix composites, tribology, design methodology, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), fracture mechanics, and corrosion.

  11. Uses of ceramics in microelectronics: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratschun, W. R.; Mountvala, A. J.; Pincus, A. G.

    1971-01-01

    The properties and behavior of ceramic materials used in components for electronic circuitry are examined to appraise the present and future directions for microelectronics, and to suggest further product development, and how innovations may be useful in other technologies. Ceramic and glass insulators, resistors, capacitors, and the use of ceramics and glasses in microcircuitry are discussed along with technology transfer to nonaerospace uses.

  12. Broadband and Microwave Dielectric Studies on Ba5Nb4O15 Ceramics Supplemented with Its Nanoparticles for Cryogenic Electronic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anil Kumar, C.; Pamu, D.

    2017-02-01

    Ba5Nb4O15 (BNO) nanopowders were prepared by sol-gel process. The effect of BNO nanopowders ( x = 1 wt.%, 2 wt.%, and 3 wt.%) on micron-sized BNO polycrystalline powders were studied systematically. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of BNO nanoparticles revealed spherical and cylindrical shapes with average particle sizes of 45 nm and 60 nm, respectively. Further, the dielectric response of BNO ceramics with x wt.% of nanosized particles ( x = 1-3) measured in the temperature range of 80°C to 200°C showed relaxation behaviour and is described by using Havriliak-Negami equation. The best microwave dielectric properties of ɛ r and Q × f 0 values of 39.2 GHz and 59,000 GHz, at 6.52 GHz are obtained for the x = 3 wt.% sample, sintered at 1100°C, and is attributed to maximum density, large and uniform microstructure. The acquired static dielectric response of BNO ceramics with x wt.% of nanosized particles ( x = 1-3) are suitable for cryogenic electronic and dielectric resonator applications.

  13. Channel electron multipliers - Detection efficiencies with opaque MgF2 photocathodes at XUV wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapson, L. B.; Timothy, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Detection efficiencies of channel electron multipliers (CEM) with opaque MgF2 photocathodes obtained in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV), 44 A to 990 A, are reported. A stable highly efficient response is reported for that interval, with no adverse effects on CEM performance. Efficiencies twice those of uncoated CEMs are obtained for 50 A to 350 A. The Mullard B419BL and Galileo 4510WL single-stage cone-cathode CEMs were used in the experiments. A rare-gas double ionization chamber was employed as absolute standard detector for 406 A to 990 A, and a flow Geiger counter filled with 96% argon and 4% isobutane for 44 A to 256 A. Absolute detection efficiencies are 10% higher from 67 A to 990 A when photocathodes are illuminated at an angle of incidence 45 deg. The photocathodes suffered no loss of response in storage (in vacuum or air) after an initial aging period. Effects of scattered UV radiation are greatly reduced when MgF2-coated CEMs are used in the XUV.

  14. Ceramic component for electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.

    1979-01-01

    A ceramic component suitable for preparing MHD generator electrodes consists of HfO.sub.2 and sufficient Tb.sub.4 O.sub.7 to stabilize at least 60 volume percent of the HfO.sub.2 into the cubic structure. The ceramic component may also contain a small amount of PrO.sub.2, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 or a mixture of both to improve stability and electronic conductivity of the electrode. The component is highly resistant to corrosion by molten potassium seed and molten coal slag in the MHD fluid and exhibits both ionic and electronic conductivity.

  15. Baseline Industry Analysis, Advance Ceramics Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Commerce , Department of Defense, and the National Critical Technologies Panel. Advanced Ceramics, which include ceramic matrix composites, are found in...ceramics and materials industry being identified as a National Critical Technology, Commerce Emerging Technology, and Defense Critical Technology.’ There is...total procurement cost in advanced systems, and as much as ten percent of the electronics portion of those weapons. Ceramic capacitors are almost as

  16. Direct laser acceleration of electrons in plasma bubbles or ion channels with and without a longitudinal wakefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudik, Vladimir; Zhang, Xi; Arefiev, Alexey; Shvets, Gennady

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the motion of electrons in a plasma bubble (or an ion channel) under combined action of an oscillating laser field, quasistatic transverse wakefield, and longitudinal electric field. The longitudinal field E∥ significantly influences the broadband resonance between betatron oscillations of electrons and oscillations of the laser wave, which results in the profoundly different electron dynamics at different signs and magnitudes of the longitudinal force -eE∥. Specifically, we make a contrast between three representative cases: when this force is absent (-eE∥ = 0), when it accelerates electrons (-eE∥ > 0), and when it decelerates them (-eE∥ < 0). We estimate the electron energy gain at given laser-plasma parameters.

  17. Controlled generation of comb-like electron beams in plasma channels for polychromatic inverse Thomson γ-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmykov, S. Y.; Davoine, X.; Ghebregziabher, I.; Lehe, R.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Shadwick, B. A.

    2016-03-01

    Propagating a relativistically intense, negatively chirped laser pulse (the bandwidth  >150 nm) in a plasma channel makes it possible to generate background-free, comb-like electron beams—sequences of synchronized bunches with a low phase-space volume and controlled energy spacing. The tail of the pulse, confined in the accelerator cavity (an electron density ‘bubble’), experiences periodic focusing, while the head, which is the most intense portion of the pulse, steadily self-guides. Oscillations of the cavity size cause periodic injection of electrons from the ambient plasma, creating an electron energy comb with the number of components, their mean energy, and energy spacing dependent on the channel radius and pulse length. These customizable electron beams enable the design of a tunable, all-optical source of pulsed, polychromatic γ-rays using the mechanism of inverse Thomson scattering, with up to  ˜10-5 conversion efficiency from the drive pulse in the electron accelerator to the γ-ray beam. Such a source may radiate  ˜107 quasi-monochromatic photons per shot into a microsteradian-scale cone. The photon energy is distributed among several distinct bands, each having sub-30% energy spread, with a highest energy of 12.5 MeV.

  18. Electron channel mobility in silicon-doped Ga2O3 MOSFETs with a resistive buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Man Hoi; Sasaki, Kohei; Kuramata, Akito; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Higashiwaki, Masataka

    2016-12-01

    The electron mobility in depletion-mode lateral β-Ga2O3(010) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with an n-channel formed by Si-ion (Si+) implantation doping was extracted using low-field electrical measurements on FET structures. An undoped Ga2O3 buffer layer protected the channel against charge compensation by suppressing outdiffusion of deep Fe acceptors from the semi-insulating substrate. The molecular beam epitaxy growth temperature was identified as a key process parameter for eliminating parasitic conduction at the buffer/substrate growth interface. Devices with a resistive buffer showed room temperature channel mobilities of 90-100 cm2 V-1 s-1 at carrier concentrations of low- to mid-1017 cm-3, with small in-plane mobility anisotropy of 10-15% ascribable to anisotropic carrier scattering.

  19. A low noise front end electronics for micro-channel plate detector with wedge and strip anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, K.; Li, F.; Liang, F.; Chen, L.; Jin, G.

    2016-03-01

    A low noise Front End Electronics (FEE) for two-dimensional position sensitive Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) detector has been developed. The MCP detector is based on Wedge and Strip Anode (WSA) with induction readout mode. The WSA has three electrodes, the wedge electrode, the strip electrode, and the zigzag electrode. Then, three readout channels are designed in the Printed Circuit Board (PCB). The FEE is calibrated by a pulse generator from Agilent. We also give an analysis of the charge loss from the CSA. The noise levels of the three channels are less than 1 fC RMS at the shaping time of 200 ns. The experimental result shows that the position resolution of the MCP detector coupled with the designed PCB can reach up to 110 μm.

  20. A wireless 64-channel ECoG recording electronic for implantable monitoring and BCI applications: WIMAGINE.

    PubMed

    Charvet, G; Foerster, M; Chatalic, G; Michea, A; Porcherot, J; Bonnet, S; Filipe, S; Audebert, P; Robinet, S; Josselin, V; Reverdy, J; D'Errico, R; Sauter, F; Mestais, C; Benabid, A L

    2012-01-01

    A wireless, low power, 64-channel data acquisition system named WIMAGINE has been designed for ElectroCorticoGram (ECoG) recording. This system is based on a custom integrated circuit (ASIC) for amplification and digitization on 64 channels. It allows the RF transmission (in the MICS band) of 32 ECoG recording channels (among 64 channels available) sampled at 1 kHz per channel with a 12-bit resolution. The device is powered wirelessly through an inductive link at 13.56 MHz able to provide 100mW (30mA at 3.3V). This integration is a first step towards an implantable device for brain activity monitoring and Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) applications. The main features of the WIMAGINE platform and its architecture will be presented, as well as its performances and in vivo studies.

  1. Ceramic joining

    SciTech Connect

    Loehman, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the relation between reactions at ceramic-metal interfaces and the development of strong interfacial bonds in ceramic joining. Studies on a number of systems are described, including silicon nitrides, aluminium nitrides, mullite, and aluminium oxides. Joints can be weakened by stresses such as thermal expansion mismatch. Ceramic joining is used in a variety of applications such as solid oxide fuel cells.

  2. Ceramic filters

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Filters were formed from ceramic fibers, organic fibers, and a ceramic bond phase using a papermaking technique. The distribution of particulate ceramic bond phase was determined using a model silicon carbide system. As the ceramic fiber increased in length and diameter the distance between particles decreased. The calculated number of particles per area showed good agreement with the observed value. After firing, the papers were characterized using a biaxial load test. The strength of papers was proportional to the amount of bond phase included in the paper. All samples exhibited strain-tolerant behavior.

  3. Efficiency enhancement in free-electron laser amplifier with one dimensional helical wiggler and ion-channel guiding

    SciTech Connect

    Jafari Bahman, F.; Maraghechi, B.

    2012-01-15

    A method for efficiency enhancement in free-electron laser is studied which uses both tapered wiggler magnetic field and ion-channel density. Derivation of a set of nonlinear and coupled differential equations leads to the self-consistent description of the evolution of both an ensemble of electrons and the electromagnetic radiation. Numerical solution of these equations reveals considerable enhancements of the interaction efficiency. In order to obtain a better insight into physical basis of the problem, a modified pendulum equation for the interaction is derived and a small signal theory of the efficiency enhancement is developed.

  4. Ab initio Computations of the Electronic, Mechanical, and Thermal Properties of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) ZrB2 and HfB2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, John W.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Daw, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Refractory materials such as metallic borides, often considered as ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC), are characterized by high melting point, high hardness, and good chemical inertness. These materials have many applications which require high temperature materials that can operate with no or limited oxidation. Ab initio, first principles methods are the most accurate modeling approaches available and represent a parameter free description of the material based on the quantum mechanical equations. Using these methods, many of the intrinsic properties of these material can be obtained. We performed ab initio calculations based on density functional theory for the UHTC materials ZrB2 and HfB2. Computational results are presented for structural information (lattice constants, bond lengths, etc), electronic structure (bonding motifs, densities of states, band structure, etc), thermal quantities (phonon spectra, phonon densities of states, specific heat), as well as information about point defects such as vacancy and antisite formation energies.

  5. Three-dimensional nonlinear efficiency enhancement analysis in free-electron laser amplifier with prebunched electron beam and ion-channel guiding

    SciTech Connect

    Jafari Bahman, F.; Maraghechi, B.

    2013-02-15

    Efficiency enhancement in free-electron laser is studied by three-dimensional and nonlinear simulation using tapered helical wiggler magnetic field or tapered ion-channel density. In order to reduce the saturation length, prebunched electron beam is used. A set of nonlinear and coupled differential equations are derived that provides the self-consistent description of the evolution of both an ensemble of electrons and the electromagnetic radiation. These equations are solved numerically to show that the combined effect of tapering and prebunching results in significant enhancement of power and considerable reduction of the saturation length. To have a deeper insight into the problem, an analytical treatment is also presented that uses the small signal theory to derive a modified pendulum equation.

  6. Characterization of Amorphous Oxide Nano-Thick Layers on 316L Stainless Steel by Electron Channeling Contrast Imaging and Electron Backscatter Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Dorri, Mahrokh; Turgeon, Stéphane; Brodusch, Nicolas; Cloutier, Maxime; Chevallier, Pascale; Gauvin, Raynald; Mantovani, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Characterization of the topmost surface of biomaterials is crucial to understanding their properties and interactions with the local environment. In this study, the oxide layer microstructure of plasma-modified 316L stainless steel (SS316L) samples was analyzed by a combination of electron backscatter diffraction and electron channeling contrast imaging using low-energy incident electrons. Both techniques allowed clear identification of a nano-thick amorphous oxide layer, on top of the polycrystalline substrate, for the plasma-modified samples. A methodology was developed using Monte Carlo simulations combined with the experimental results to estimate thickness of the amorphous layer for different surface conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiles were used to validate these estimations.

  7. Rare reaction channels in real-time time-dependent density functional theory: the test case of electron attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, Lionel; Dinh, P. Huong Mai; Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard; Suraud, Eric; Sanche, Leon

    2015-08-01

    We present an extension of standard time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to include the evaluation of rare reaction channels, taking as an example of application the theoretical modelling of electron attachment to molecules. The latter process is of great importance in radiation-induced damage of biological tissue for which dissociative electron attachment plays a decisive role. As the attachment probability is very low, it cannot be extracted from the TDDFT propagation whose mean field provides an average over various reaction channels. To extract rare events, we augment TDDFT by a perturbative treatment to account for the occasional jumps, namely electron capture in our test case. We apply the modelling to electron attachment to H2O, H3O+, and (H2O)2. Dynamical calculations have been done at low energy (3-16 eV). We explore, in particular, how core-excited states of the targets show up as resonances in the attachment probability. Contribution to the Topical Issue "COST Action Nano-IBCT: Nano-scale Processes Behind Ion-Beam Cancer Therapy", edited by Andrey Solov'yov, Nigel Mason, Gustavo García, Eugene Surdutovich.

  8. Inexpensive read-out for coincident electron spectroscopy with a transmission electron microscope at nanometer scale using micro channel plates and multistrip anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollander, R. W.; Bom, V. R.; van Eijk, C. W. E.; Faber, J. S.; Hoevers, H.; Kruit, P.

    1994-09-01

    The elemental composition of a sample at nanometer scale is determined by measurement of the characteristic energy of Auger electrons, emitted in coincidence with incoming primary electrons from a microbeam in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Single electrons are detected with position sensitive detectors, consisting of MicroChannel Plates (MCP) and MultiStrip Anodes (MSA), one for the energy of the Auger electrons (Auger-detector) and one for the energy loss of primary electrons (EELS-detector). The MSAs are sensed with LeCroy 2735DC preamplifiers. The fast readout is based on LeCroy's PCOS III system. On the detection of a coincidence (Event) energy data of Auger and EELS are combined with timing data to an Event word. Event words are stored in list mode in a VME memory module. Blocks of Event words are scanned by transputers in VME and two-dimensional energy histograms are filled using the timing information to obtain a maximal true/accidental ratio. The resulting histograms are stored on disk of a PC-386, which also controls data taking. The system is designed to handle 10 5 Events per second, 90% of which are accidental. In the histograms the "true" to "accidental" ratio will be 5. The dead time is 15%.

  9. Soft electronic structure modulation of surface (thin-film) and bulk (ceramics) morphologies of TiO2-host by Pb-implantation: XPS-and-DFT characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatsepin, D. A.; Boukhvalov, D. W.; Gavrilov, N. V.; Zatsepin, A. F.; Shur, V. Ya.; Esin, A. A.; Kim, S. S.; Kurmaev, E. Z.

    2017-04-01

    The results of combined experimental and theoretical study of substitutional and clustering effects in the structure of Pb-doped TiO2-hosts (bulk ceramics and thin-film morphologies) are presented. Pb-doping of the bulk and thin-film titanium dioxide was made with the help of pulsed ion-implantation without posterior tempering (Electronic Structure Modulation Mode). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) qualification of core-levels and valence bands and Density-Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were employed in order to study the yielded electronic structure of Pb-ion modulated TiO2 host-matrices. The combined XPS-and-DFT analysis has agreed definitely with the scenario of the implantation stimulated appearance of PbO-like structures in the bulk morphology of TiO2:Pb, whereas in thin-film morphology the PbO2-like structure becomes dominating, essentially contributing weak O/Pb bonding (PbxOy defect clusters). The crucial role of the oxygen hollow-type vacancies for the process of Pb-impurity "insertion" into the structure of bulk TiO2 was pointed out employing DFT-based theoretical background. Both experiment and theory established clearly the final electronic structure re-arrangement of the bulk and thin-film morphologies of TiO2 because of the Pb-modulated deformation and shift of the initial Valence Base-Band Width about 1 eV up.

  10. Channeling, volume reflection and gamma emission using 14GeV electrons in bent silicon crystals - Oral presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Brandon

    2015-08-23

    High energy electrons can be deflected with very tight bending radius using a bent silicon crystal. This produces gamma radiation. As these crystals can be thin, a series of bent silicon crystals with alternating direction has the potential to produce coherent gamma radiation with reasonable energy of the driving electron beam. Such an electron crystal undulator offers the prospect for higher energy radiation at lower cost than current methods. Permanent magnetic undulators like LCLS at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory are expensive and very large (about 100 m in case of the LCLS undulator). Silicon crystals are inexpensive and compact when compared to the large magnetic undulators. Additionally, such a high energy coherent light source could be used for probing through materials currently impenetrable by x-rays. In this work we present the experimental data and analysis of experiment T523 conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We collected the spectrum of gamma ray emission from 14 GeV electrons on a bent silicon crystal counting single photons. We also investigated the dynamics of electron motion in the crystal i.e. processes of channeling and volume reflection at 14 GeV, extending and building off previous work. Our single photon spectrum for the amorphous crystal orientation is consistent with bremsstrahlung radiation and the volume reflection crystal orientation shows a trend consistent with synchrotron radiation at a critical energy of 740 MeV. We observe that in these two cases the data are consistent, but we make no further claims because of statistical limitations. We also extended the known energy range of electron crystal dechanneling length and channeling efficiency to 14 GeV.

  11. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  12. Registration characteristics of neutral particles with power 0.6 - 2.0 keV channel electron multiplier with funnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruntman, M. A.; Kalinin, A. P.

    1978-01-01

    Operating a channel electron multiplier with a VEU-6 funnel shaped opening is studied. Different procedures were used when recording neutral particles. The results obtained make it possible to optimally use the multiplier in actual physical studies.

  13. The effects of temperature and magnetic flux on electron transport through a four-channel DNA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunhee; Hedin, Eric; Joe, Yong

    2010-03-01

    The temperature dependence of the conductivity of lambda phage DNA has been measured by Tran et al [1] experimentally, where the conductivity displayed strong (weak) temperature dependence above (below) a threshold temperature. In order to understand the temperature effects of electron transport theoretically, we study a two-dimensional and four-channel DNA model using a tight-binding (TB) Hamiltonian. The thermal effects within a TB model are incorporated into the hopping integral and the relative twist angle from its equilibrium value between base-pairs. Since these thermal structural fluctuations localize the electronic wave functions in DNA, we examine a temperature-dependent localization length, a temperature-driven transmission, and current-voltage characteristics in this system. In addition, we incorporate magnetic field effects into the analysis of the transmission through DNA in order to modulate the quantum interference between the electron paths that comprise the 4-channel structure. [1] P. Tran, B. Alavi, and G. Gruner, PRL 85, 1564 (2000).

  14. Nondestructive characterization of micromachined ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooney, Adam; Hix, Kenneth E.; Yaney, Perry; Zhan, Qiwen; Dosser, Larry R.; Blackshire, James L.

    2005-05-01

    The aerospace, automotive, and electronic industries are finding increasing need for components made from silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4). The development and use of miniaturized ceramic parts, in particular, is of significant interest in a variety of critical applications. As these application areas grow, manufacturers are being asked to find new and better solutions for machining and forming ceramic materials with microscopic precision. Recent advances in laser machining technologies are making precision micromachining of ceramics a reality. Questions regarding micromachining accuracy, residual melt region effects, and laser-induced microcracking are of critical concern during the machining process. In this activity, a variety of nondestructive inspection methods have been used to investigate the microscopic features of laser-machined ceramic components. The primary goal was to assess the micromachined areas for machining accuracy and microcracking using laser ultrasound, scanning electron microscopy, and white-light interference microscopic imaging of the machined regions.

  15. Properties of the Channel Electron Multiplier Arrays (CEMAs) for the SOLEX solar X-ray Spectrometer/Spectroheliograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng, W., Jr.; Landecker, P. B.

    1981-06-01

    A Channel Electron Multiplier Array (CEMA) detector was launched on 24 February 1979 as part of the SOLEX Solar X-Ray Spectrometer/Spectroheliograph experiment aboard the U.S. Air Force Space Test Program P78-1 satellite. Since launch, this detector has successfully recorded X-rays in the 3-25 A wavelength range. This report describes the comprehensive laboratory testing program of the flight and flight spare CEMA detectors. Quantum efficiencies, energy resolution and gain are given as a function of different incident photon wavelengths, voltage configurations, incident angles and lifetime exposures. Our results are compared to other published values.

  16. Structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Douglas F.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation gives a brief history of the field of materials sciences and goes on to expound the advantages of the fastest growing area in that field, namely ceramics. Since ceramics are moving to fill the demand for lighter, stronger, more corrosion resistant materials, advancements will rely more on processing and modeling from the atomic scale up which is made possible by advanced analytical, computer, and processing techniques. All information is presented in viewgraph format.

  17. Comparison of the properties of glass, glass-ceramic and ceramic materials produced from coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Erol, M; Küçükbayrak, S; Ersoy-Meriçboyu, A

    2008-05-01

    Glass, glass-ceramic and ceramic materials were produced from thermal power plant fly ash without any additives. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the amorphous phase of the glass sample. Augite phase was detected in the glass-ceramic sample, while the enstatite and mullite phases occurred in the ceramic samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations showed that tiny crystallites homogeneously dispersed in the microstructure of the glass-ceramic sample and elongated crystals formed in the ceramic samples. Density values of the obtained samples are comparable to those of the commercially produced glass, glass-ceramic and ceramic samples. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results indicated that the produced samples could be taken as non-hazardous materials. Produced samples showed high resistance to alkali solutions in contrast to acidic solutions. Microstructural, physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the produced glass-ceramic samples are better than those of the produced glass and ceramic samples.

  18. Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, A.; Boguslavskiy, A. E.; Dagan, M.; Blanchet, V.; Bruner, B. D.; Burgy, F.; Camper, A.; Descamps, D.; Fabre, B.; Fedorov, N.; Gaudin, J.; Geoffroy, G.; Mikosch, J.; Patchkovskii, S.; Petit, S.; Ruchon, T.; Soifer, H.; Staedter, D.; Wilkinson, I.; Stolow, A.; Dudovich, N.; Mairesse, Y.

    2015-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation in polyatomic molecules generally involves multiple channels of ionization. Their relative contribution can be strongly influenced by the presence of resonances, whose assignment remains a major challenge for high-harmonic spectroscopy. Here we present a multi-modal approach for the investigation of unaligned polyatomic molecules, using SF6 as an example. We combine methods from extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy, above-threshold ionization and attosecond metrology. Fragment-resolved above-threshold ionization measurements reveal that strong-field ionization opens at least three channels. A shape resonance in one of them is found to dominate the signal in the 20–26 eV range. This resonance induces a phase jump in the harmonic emission, a switch in the polarization state and different dynamical responses to molecular vibrations. This study demonstrates a method for extending high-harmonic spectroscopy to polyatomic molecules, where complex attosecond dynamics are expected. PMID:25608712

  19. Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, A.; Boguslavskiy, A. E.; Dagan, M.; Blanchet, V.; Bruner, B. D.; Burgy, F.; Camper, A.; Descamps, D.; Fabre, B.; Fedorov, N.; Gaudin, J.; Geoffroy, G.; Mikosch, J.; Patchkovskii, S.; Petit, S.; Ruchon, T.; Soifer, H.; Staedter, D.; Wilkinson, I.; Stolow, A.; Dudovich, N.; Mairesse, Y.

    2015-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation in polyatomic molecules generally involves multiple channels of ionization. Their relative contribution can be strongly influenced by the presence of resonances, whose assignment remains a major challenge for high-harmonic spectroscopy. Here we present a multi-modal approach for the investigation of unaligned polyatomic molecules, using SF6 as an example. We combine methods from extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy, above-threshold ionization and attosecond metrology. Fragment-resolved above-threshold ionization measurements reveal that strong-field ionization opens at least three channels. A shape resonance in one of them is found to dominate the signal in the 20-26 eV range. This resonance induces a phase jump in the harmonic emission, a switch in the polarization state and different dynamical responses to molecular vibrations. This study demonstrates a method for extending high-harmonic spectroscopy to polyatomic molecules, where complex attosecond dynamics are expected.

  20. Dynamics of the microstructure of current channels and the generation of high-energy electrons in nanosecond discharges in air

    SciTech Connect

    Karelin, V. I.; Trenkin, A. A. Fedoseev, I. G.

    2015-12-15

    The results of the three-dimensional numerical simulation of the dynamics of the microstructure of high-voltage nanosecond discharges in air at atmospheric pressure are presented. It is established that the fast (at a time of ≈10 ns) broadening and significant decrease in the gas concentration in the microchannels occur as a result of the ohmic heating of microchannels with the diameter of 1–30 μm. It was shown that the broadening of microchannels in a nanosecond diffusive discharge provides an increase in the ratio of the electric field strength to the gas concentration in microchannels to values sufficient for the generation highenergy electron beams and X-ray bremsstrahlung in them. Features of the dynamics of the system of microchannels and its effect on the efficiency of the generation of high-energy electrons in discharges developing in the microstructuring regime of the current channels are considered.

  1. Imaging the Phase Separation in Atomically Thin Buried SrTiO3 Layers by Electron Channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourkoutis, L. Fitting; Hellberg, C. Stephen; Vaithyanathan, V.; Li, Hao; Parker, M. K.; Andersen, K. E.; Schlom, D. G.; Muller, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    A phase-separation instability, resulting in the dewetting of thin SrTiO3 films grown on Si(100) is shown by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Plan-view imaging of 1-nm thick, buried SrTiO3 films was achieved by exploiting electron channeling through the substrate to focus the incident 0.2 nm beam down to a 0.04 nm diameter, revealing a nonuniform coverage by epitaxial SrTiO3 islands and 2×1 Sr-covered regions. Density-functional calculations predict the ground state is a coexistence of 2×1 Sr-reconstructed Si and Sr-deficient SrTiO3, in correspondence with the observed islanding.

  2. Effects of electromagnetic wiggler and ion channel guiding on equilibrium orbits and waves propagation in a free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Amri, Hassan Ehsani; Mohsenpour, Taghi

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, an analysis of equilibrium orbits for electrons by a simultaneous solution of the equation of motion and the dispersion relation for electromagnetic wave wiggler in a free-electron laser (FEL) with ion-channel guiding has been presented. A fluid model has been used to investigate interactions among all possible waves. The dispersion relation has been derived for electrostatic and electromagnetic waves with all relativistic effects included. This dispersion relation has been solved numerically. For group I and II orbits, when the transverse velocity is small, only the FEL instability is found. In group I and II orbits with relatively large transverse velocity, new couplings between other modes are found.

  3. Channeling of electron transport to improve collection efficiency in mesoporous titanium dioxide dye sensitized solar cell stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Fakharuddin, Azhar; Ahmed, Irfan; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Jose, Rajan E-mail: joserajan@gmail.com; Khalidin, Zulkeflee

    2014-02-03

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) modules are generally made by interconnecting large photoelectrode strips with optimized thickness (∼14 μm) and show lower current density (J{sub SC}) compared with their single cells. We found out that the key to achieving higher J{sub SC} in large area devices is optimized photoelectrode volume (V{sub D}), viz., thickness and area which facilitate the electron channeling towards working electrode. By imposing constraints on electronic path in a DSC stack, we achieved >50% increased J{sub SC} and ∼60% increment in photoelectric conversion efficiency in photoelectrodes of similar V{sub D} (∼3.36 × 10{sup −4} cm{sup 3}) without using any metallic grid or a special interconnections.

  4. A frequency tunable, eight-channel correlation ECE system for electron temperature turbulence measurements on the DIII-D tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, C.; Peebles, W. A.; Wannberg, C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Nguyen, X.; Lantsov, R.; Bardóczi, L.

    2016-11-01

    A new eight-channel correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic has recently been installed on the DIII-D tokamak to study both turbulent and coherent electron temperature fluctuations under various plasma conditions and locations. This unique system is designed to cover a broad range of operation space on DIII-D (1.6-2.1 T, detection frequency: 72-108 GHz) via four remotely selected local oscillators (80, 88, 96, and 104 GHz). Eight radial locations are measured simultaneously in a single discharge covering as much as half the minor radius. In this paper, we present design details of the quasi-optical system, the receiver, as well as representative data illustrating operation of the system.

  5. A frequency tunable, eight-channel correlation ECE system for electron temperature turbulence measurements on the DIII-D tokamak.

    PubMed

    Sung, C; Peebles, W A; Wannberg, C; Rhodes, T L; Nguyen, X; Lantsov, R; Bardóczi, L

    2016-11-01

    A new eight-channel correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic has recently been installed on the DIII-D tokamak to study both turbulent and coherent electron temperature fluctuations under various plasma conditions and locations. This unique system is designed to cover a broad range of operation space on DIII-D (1.6-2.1 T, detection frequency: 72-108 GHz) via four remotely selected local oscillators (80, 88, 96, and 104 GHz). Eight radial locations are measured simultaneously in a single discharge covering as much as half the minor radius. In this paper, we present design details of the quasi-optical system, the receiver, as well as representative data illustrating operation of the system.

  6. Parity mix interferences and pairwise channel cancellation in the attosecond control of electron emission from {{\\rm{H}}}_{2}^{+}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boll, D. I. R.; Fojón, O. A.

    2017-03-01

    We study the single photoionization of simple diatomic molecules such as {{{H}}}2+ by a train of attopulses assisted by a near infrared laser. In particular, we focus on the so called orbital parity mix interferences leading to asymmetrical electron emission. We employ a non-perturbative model obtaining for those asymmetries analytical expressions with a functional form independent of the target structure encoding the interaction of the photoelectron with the laser field to all orders. Related to these interferences, we give conditions at which a pairwise cancellation of channels opened by the laser field occurs. Finally, we exploit the non-perturbative character of our model to analyze the dependence of the asymmetrical electron emission and the angular distribution of photoelectrons with the laser intensity. An asymmetric inhibition of the emission in the classical direction is found.

  7. Structural Ceramics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

  8. Electron doping through lithium intercalation to interstitial channels in tetrahedrally bonded SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Yuki; Oshiyama, Atsushi

    2015-11-07

    We report on first-principles calculations that clarify the effect of lithium atom intercalation into zinc blende 3C-silicon carbide (3C-SiC) on electronic and structural properties. Lithium atoms inside 3C-SiC are found to donate electrons to 3C-SiC that is an indication of a new way of electron doping through the intercalation. The electrons doped into the conduction band interact with lithium cations and reduce the band spacing between the original valence and conduction bands. We have also found that a silicon monovacancy in 3C-SiC promotes the lithium intercalation, showing that the vacancy generation makes SiC as a possible anode material for lithium-ion battery.

  9. Electronic communication channel within the patient data management system improves internal communication in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Paula; Holopainen, Jaana

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the internal communication within the intensive care unit of the Kuopio University Hospital. We developed an intranet based internal communication channel within the patient data management system and studied the effectiveness of this system in improving communication in the ICU. The hypothesis was that the communication difficulties caused by the structure of the unit, large personnel and work schedule (three separate shifts) could be reduced by supplementing oral communication by this intranet based system. The results clearly indicate that this type of system can significantly improve communication within our unit.

  10. Performance characteristics of high-conductivity channel electron multipliers. [as UV and x ray detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.; Bybee, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes a new type of continuous channel multiplier (CEM) fabricated from a low-resistance glass to produce a high-conductivity channel section and thereby obtain a high count-rate capability. The flat-cone cathode configuration of the CEM is specifically designed for the detection of astigmatic exit images from grazing-incidence spectrometers at the optimum angle of illumination for high detection efficiencies at XUV wavelengths. Typical operating voltages are in the range of 2500-2900 V with stable counting plateau slopes in the range 3-6% per 100-V increment. The modal gain at 2800 V was typically in the range (50-80) million. The modal gain falls off at count rates in excess of about 20,000 per sec. The detection efficiency remains essentially constant to count rates in excess of 2 million per sec. Higher detection efficiencies (better than 20%) are obtained by coating the CEM with MgF2. In life tests of coated CEMs, no measurable change in detection efficiency was measured to a total accumulated signal of 2 times 10 to the 11th power counts.

  11. The Arabidopsis Thylakoid Chloride Channel AtCLCe Functions in Chloride Homeostasis and Regulation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Herdean, Andrei; Nziengui, Hugues; Zsiros, Ottó; Solymosi, Katalin; Garab, Győző; Lundin, Björn; Spetea, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Chloride ions can be translocated across cell membranes through Cl− channels or Cl−/H+ exchangers. The thylakoid-located member of the Cl− channel CLC family in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCLCe) was hypothesized to play a role in photosynthetic regulation based on the initial photosynthetic characterization of clce mutant lines. The reduced nitrate content of Arabidopsis clce mutants suggested a role in regulation of plant nitrate homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to further investigate the role of AtCLCe in the regulation of ion homeostasis and photosynthetic processes in the thylakoid membrane. We report that the size and composition of proton motive force were mildly altered in two independent Arabidopsis clce mutant lines. Most pronounced effects in the clce mutants were observed on the photosynthetic electron transport of dark-adapted plants, based on the altered shape and associated parameters of the polyphasic OJIP kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction. Other alterations were found in the kinetics of state transition and in the macro-organization of photosystem II supercomplexes, as indicated by circular dichroism measurements. Pre-treatment with KCl but not with KNO3 restored the wild-type photosynthetic phenotype. Analyses by transmission electron microscopy revealed a bow-like arrangement of the thylakoid network and a large thylakoid-free stromal region in chloroplast sections from the dark-adapted clce plants. Based on these data, we propose that AtCLCe functions in Cl− homeostasis after transition from light to dark, which affects chloroplast ultrastructure and regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. PMID:26904077

  12. The observation of unusual resonance channels in the electron attachment to mixed argon-oxygen clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foltin, M.; Grill, V.; Märk, T. D.

    1992-01-01

    An additional electron attachment resonance peak, not observable in pure oxygen cluster anions, has been found at an energy of about 11.5 eV for both the stoichiometric Ar m(O 2) n- and the nonstoichiometric Ar m(O 2) n-1 O - cluster anions (produced by electron attachment to mixed argon-oxygen clusters). Two possible competing mechanisms are proposed to explain the appearance of these resonance peaks, i.e. the multiple-collision electron-scavenging mechanism and the core-excited resonance attachment mechanism. From the peak-width analysis it follows that in Ar m(O 2) 2- the first mechanism is dominant, while in Ar m(O 2) n-1 O - the second mechanism seems to be the only one occurring.

  13. Coronal electron stream and Langmuir wave detection inside a propagation channel at 4.3 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttighoffer, A.; Pick, M.; Roelof, E. C.; Hoang, S.; Mangeney, A.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Forsyth, R. J.; Phillips, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Observations of an energetic interplanetary electron event associated with the production of Langmuir waves, both of which are identified at 4.3 AU by instruments on the Ulysses spacecraft, are presented in this paper. This electron event propagates inside a well-defined magnetic structure. The existence of this structure is firmly established by joint particle and plasma observations made by Ulysses instruments. Its local estimated radial width is of the order of 2.3 x 10(exp 7) km (0.15 AU). The electron beam is associated with a type III burst observed from Earth at high frequencies and at low frequencies from Ulysses in association with Langmuir waves detected inside the structure. The consistency of local (Ulysses) and remote (Earth) observations in terms of temporal and geometrical considerations establishes that the structure is anchored in the solar corona near the solar active region responisble for the observed type III emission and gives an accurate determination of the injection time for the observed electron beam. Propagation analysis of the electron event is presented. In order to quantify the magnetic field properties, a variance analysis has been performed and is presented in this paper. The analysis establishes that inside the structure the amount of magnetic energy involved in the fluctuations is less than 4% of the total magnetic energy; the minimal variance direction is well defined and in coincidence with the direction of the mean magnetic field. This configuration may produce conditions favorable for scatter free streaming of energetic electrons and/or Langmuir wave production. The results presented show that the magnetic field might play a role in stabilizing the coronal-origin plasma structures and then preserving them to large, approximately 4 AU, distances in the heliosphere.

  14. Electronic and optical properties of ceramic Sc2O3 and Y2O3: Compton spectroscopy and first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Babu Lal; Sharma, Sonu; Heda, Narayan Lal; Tiwari, Shailja; Kumar, Kishor; Meena, Bhoor Singh; Bhatt, Samir

    2016-05-01

    We present the first-ever experimental Compton profiles (CPs) of Sc2O3 and Y2O3 using 740 GBq 137Cs Compton spectrometer. The experimental momentum densities have been compared with the theoretical CPs computed using linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) within density functional theory (DFT). Further, the energy bands, density of states (DOS) and Mulliken's population (MP) data have been calculated using LCAO method with different exchange and correlation approximations. In addition, the energy bands, DOS, valence charge density (VCD), dielectric function, absorption coefficient and refractive index have also been computed using full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method with revised functional of Perdew-Becke-Ernzerhof for solids (PBEsol) and modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) approximations. Both the ab-initio calculations predict wide band gaps in Sc2O3 and Y2O3. The band gaps deduced from FP-LAPW (with mBJ) are found to be close to available experimental data. The VCD and MP data show more ionic character of Sc2O3 than Y2O3. The ceramic properties of both the sesquioxides are explained in terms of their electronic and optical properties.

  15. Electron Channeling: A Problem for X-Ray Microanalysis in Materials Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    polish or electropolish – it is expected that little or no plastic deformation will remain resident near the specimen surface to fowl the electron...mentioning that the authors have observed results of the same magnitude in Cu and Inconel 600, though the data has been omitted here (< 5 % variation in x

  16. Ionization Cross Sections and Dissociation Channels of the DNA Sugar-Phosphate Backbone by Electron Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dateo, Christopher; Huo, Winifred M.; Fletcher, Graham D.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in living cells are not caused by the highly energetic incident radiation, but rather are induced by less energetic secondary species generated, the most abundant of which are free electrons.' The secondary electrons will further react to cause DNA damage via indirect and direct mechanisms. Detailed knowledge of these mechanisms is ultimately important for the development of global models of cellular radiation damage. We are studying one possible mechanism for the formation cf DNA strand breaks involving dissociative ionization of the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone induced by secondary electron co!lisions. We will present ionization cross sections at electron collision energies between threshold and 10 KeV using the improved binary encounter dipole (iBED) formulation' Preliminary results of the possible dissociative ionization pathways will be presented. It is speculated that radical fragments produced from the dissociative ionization can further react, providing a possible mechanism for double strand breaks and base damage.

  17. Fundamental radiation effects parameters in metals and ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1998-03-01

    Useful information on defect production and migration can be obtained from examination of the fluence-dependent defect densities in irradiated materials, particularly when a transition from linear to sublinear accumulation is observed. Further work is needed on several intriguing reported radiation effects in metals. The supralinear defect cluster accumulation regime in thin foil irradiated metals needs further experimental confirmation, and the physical mechanisms responsible for its presence need to be established. Radiation hardening and the associated reduction in strain hardening capacity in FCC metals is a serious concern for structural materials. In general, the loss of strain hardening capacity is associated with dislocation channeling, which occurs when a high density of small defect clusters are produced (stainless steel irradiated near room temperature is a notable exception). Detailed investigations of the effect of defect cluster density and other physical parameters such as stacking fault energy on dislocation channeling are needed. Although it is clearly established that radiation hardening depends on the grain size (radiation-modified Hall-Petch effect), further work is needed to identify the physical mechanisms. In addition, there is a need for improved hardening superposition models when a range of different obstacle strengths are present. Due to a lack of information on point defect diffusivities and the increased complexity of radiation effects in ceramics compared to metals, many fundamental radiation effects parameters in ceramics have yet to be determined. Optical spectroscopy data suggest that the oxygen monovacancy and freely migrating interstitial fraction in fission neutron irradiated MgO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are {approximately}10% of the NRT displacement value. Ionization induced diffusion can strongly influence microstructural evolution in ceramics. Therefore, fundamental data on ceramics obtained from highly ionizing radiation sources

  18. New electronics of the spectrometric channel for the SND detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achasov, M. N.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Korol, A. A.; Koshuba, S. V.; Kovrizhin, D. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Surin, I. K.; Tekut`ev, A. I.; Usov, Yu. V.

    2016-07-01

    The Spherical Neutral Detector (SND) is intended for study of electron-positron annihilation at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider (BINP, Novosibirsk) in the center-of-mass energy region below 2 GeV. The main part of the detector is a three-layer electromagnetic calorimeter based on NaI(Tl) crystals. The physics program of the SND experiment includes a high statistics study of neutron-antineutron production near threshold, for which time measurements in the calorimeter are required. In this paper we describe new shaping and digitizing calorimeter electronics, which allow to reach a time resolution of about 1 ns for 100 MeV signal and an amplitude resolution of about 250 keV.

  19. Electron crystallography of PhoE porin, an outer membrane, channel- forming protein from E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Walian, P.J.

    1989-11-01

    One approach to studying the structure of membrane proteins is the use of electron crystallography. Dr. Bing Jap has crystallized PhoE pore-forming protein (porin) from the outer membrane of escherichia coli (E. coli) into monolayer crystals. The findings of this research and those of Jap (1988, 1989) have determined these crystals to be highly ordered, yielding structural information to a resolution of better than 2.8 angstroms. The task of this thesis has been to collect and process the electron diffraction patterns necessary to generate a complete three-dimensional set of high resolution structure factor amplitudes of PhoE porin. Fourier processing of these amplitudes when combined with the corresponding phase data is expected to yield the three-dimensional structure of PhoE porin at better than 3.5 angstroms resolution. 92 refs., 33 figs., 3 tabs. (CBS)

  20. Near-GeV-energy laser-wakefield acceleration of self-injected electrons in a centimeter-scale plasma channel.

    PubMed

    Tsung, F S; Narang, Ritesh; Mori, W B; Joshi, C; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O

    2004-10-29

    The first three-dimensional, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of laser-wakefield acceleration of self-injected electrons in a 0.84 cm long plasma channel are reported. The frequency evolution of the initially 50 fs (FWHM) long laser pulse by photon interaction with the wake followed by plasma dispersion enhances the wake which eventually leads to self-injection of electrons from the channel wall. This first bunch of electrons remains spatially highly localized. Its phase space rotation due to slippage with respect to the wake leads to a monoenergetic bunch of electrons with a central energy of 0.26 GeV after 0.55 cm propagation. At later times, spatial bunching of the laser enhances the acceleration of a second bunch of electrons to energies up to 0.84 GeV before the laser pulse intensity is significantly reduced.

  1. Design and characterization of a 32-channel heterodyne radiometer for electron cyclotron emission measurements on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Han, X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. Li, E. Z.; Hu, L. Q.; Gao, X.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-07-15

    A 32-channel heterodyne radiometer has been developed for the measurement of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). This system collects X-mode ECE radiation spanning a frequency range of 104–168 GHz, where the frequency coverage corresponds to a full radial coverage for the case with a toroidal magnetic field of 2.3 T. The frequency range is equally spaced every 2 GHz from 105.1 to 167.1 GHz with an RF bandwidth of ∼500 MHz and the video bandwidth can be switched among 50, 100, 200, and 400 kHz. Design objectives and characterization of the system are presented in this paper. Preliminary results for plasma operation are also presented.

  2. Quasimolecular electron promotion beyond the 1 s σ and 2 p π channels in slow collisions of H e2 + and He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, L. Ph. H.; Schöffler, M.; Goihl, C.; Jahnke, T.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Dörner, R.

    2016-11-01

    The electron emission pattern of transfer ionization in collisions of H e2 + with He was investigated for impact velocities between 0.53 a.u. and 0.77 a.u. (7 keV/u-15 keV/u) employing recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy. This process is known to be dominated by the promotion of the 2 p π quasimolecular orbital into the continuum which results in banana-shaped areas of high electron momentum densities in the collision plane extending from the target to the projectile in velocity space. Asymmetries are explained by a coherent superposition of the 1 s σ channel of quasimolecular promotion with the 2 p π channel. Here we report on additional contributions from channels of higher angular momentum which emerge at the smaller impact velocities. They show up as highly structured electron emission patterns in the plane perpendicular to the direction of impact.

  3. High voltage studies of inverted-geometry ceramic insulators for a 350 kV DC polarized electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M.; Hansknecht, J.

    2016-02-01

    Jefferson Lab is constructing a 350 kV direct current high voltage photoemission gun employing a compact inverted-geometry insulator. This photogun will produce polarized electron beams at an injector test facility intended for low energy nuclear physics experiments, and to assist the development of new technology for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility. A photogun operating at 350kV bias voltage reduces the complexity of the injector design, by eliminating the need for a graded-beta radio frequency “capture” section employed to boost lower voltage beams to relativistic speed. However, reliable photogun operation at 350 kV necessitates solving serious high voltage problems related to breakdown and field emission. This study focuses on developing effective methods to avoid breakdown at the interface between the insulator and the commercial high voltage cable that connects the photogun to the high voltage power supply. Three types of inverted insulators were tested, in combination with two electrode configurations. Our results indicate that tailoring the conductivity of the insulator material, and/or adding a cathode triple-junction screening electrode, effectively serves to increase the hold-off voltage from 300kV to more than 375kV. In conclusion, electrostatic field maps suggest these configurations serve to produce a more uniform potential gradient across the insulator.

  4. High voltage studies of inverted-geometry ceramic insulators for a 350 kV DC polarized electron gun

    DOE PAGES

    Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M.; Hansknecht, J.

    2016-02-01

    Jefferson Lab is constructing a 350 kV direct current high voltage photoemission gun employing a compact inverted-geometry insulator. This photogun will produce polarized electron beams at an injector test facility intended for low energy nuclear physics experiments, and to assist the development of new technology for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility. A photogun operating at 350kV bias voltage reduces the complexity of the injector design, by eliminating the need for a graded-beta radio frequency “capture” section employed to boost lower voltage beams to relativistic speed. However, reliable photogun operation at 350 kV necessitates solving serious high voltage problems relatedmore » to breakdown and field emission. This study focuses on developing effective methods to avoid breakdown at the interface between the insulator and the commercial high voltage cable that connects the photogun to the high voltage power supply. Three types of inverted insulators were tested, in combination with two electrode configurations. Our results indicate that tailoring the conductivity of the insulator material, and/or adding a cathode triple-junction screening electrode, effectively serves to increase the hold-off voltage from 300kV to more than 375kV. In conclusion, electrostatic field maps suggest these configurations serve to produce a more uniform potential gradient across the insulator.« less

  5. Fabrication and characterization of InAlN/GaN-based double-channel high electron mobility transistors for electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, JunShuai; Zhang, JinCheng; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Yi; Zhang, LinXia; Ma, XiaoHua; Li, XiaoGang; Meng, FanNa; Hao, Yue

    2012-06-01

    In our previous work [J. S. Xue et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013507 (2012)], superior electron-transport properties are obtained in InAlN/GaN/InAlN/GaN double-channel (DC) heterostructures grown by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PMOCVD). In this paper, we present a detailed fabrication and systematic characterization of high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) fabricated on these heterostructures. The device exhibits distinct DC behavior concerning with both static-output and small-signal performance, demonstrating an improved maximum drain current density of 1059 mA/mm and an enhanced transconductance of 223 mS/mm. Such enhancement of device performance is attributed to the achieved low Ohmic contact resistance as low as 0.33 ± 0.05 Ω.mm. Moreover, very low gate diode reverse leakage current is observed due to the high quality of InAlN barrier layer deposited by PMOCVD. A current gain frequency of 10 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency 21 GHz are also observed, which are comparable to the state-of-the-art AlGaN/GaN-based DC HEMT found in the literature. The results demonstrate the great potential of PMOCVD for application in InAlN-related device's epitaxy.

  6. Effects, determination, and correction of count rate nonlinearity in multi-channel analog electron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Reber, T. J.; Plumb, N. C.; Waugh, J. A.; Dessau, D. S.

    2014-04-15

    Detector counting rate nonlinearity, though a known problem, is commonly ignored in the analysis of angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy where modern multichannel electron detection schemes using analog intensity scales are used. We focus on a nearly ubiquitous “inverse saturation” nonlinearity that makes the spectra falsely sharp and beautiful. These artificially enhanced spectra limit accurate quantitative analysis of the data, leading to mistaken spectral weights, Fermi energies, and peak widths. We present a method to rapidly detect and correct for this nonlinearity. This algorithm could be applicable for a wide range of nonlinear systems, beyond photoemission spectroscopy.

  7. Capacitor Test, Evaluation. and Modeling Within NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. "Why Ceramic Capacitors Fracture During Manual Soldering and How to Avoid Failures"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Presentation discusses: (1) Why Multi-Layer Ceramic Capacitors(MLCCs) crack during manual soldering? Workmanship and parts issues. (2) Do existing qualification requirements assure crack-free soldering? MIL-spec Thermal Shock (TS) testing. MIL-spec Resistance to Soldering Heat (RSH) test. (3) What test can assure reliable soldering? Mechanical characteristics of ceramics. Comparison of three TS techniques: LND, TSD, and IWT. (4) Simulation of TS conditions.

  8. Auto-thermal reforming using mixed ion-electronic conducting ceramic membranes for a small-scale H₂ production plant.

    PubMed

    Spallina, Vincenzo; Melchiori, Tommaso; Gallucci, Fausto; van Sint Annaland, Martin

    2015-03-18

    The integration of mixed ionic electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes for air separation in a small-to-medium scale unit for H2 production (in the range of 650-850 Nm3/h) via auto-thermal reforming of methane has been investigated in the present study. Membranes based on mixed ionic electronic conducting oxides such as Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) give sufficiently high oxygen fluxes at temperatures above 800 °C with high purity (higher than 99%). Experimental results of membrane permeation tests are presented and used for the reactor design with a detailed reactor model. The assessment of the H2 plant has been carried out for different operating conditions and reactor geometry and an energy analysis has been carried out with the flowsheeting software Aspen Plus, including also the turbomachines required for a proper thermal integration. A micro-gas turbine is integrated in the system in order to supply part of the electricity required in the system. The analysis of the system shows that the reforming efficiency is in the range of 62%-70% in the case where the temperature at the auto-thermal reforming membrane reactor (ATR-MR) is equal to 900 °C. When the electric consumption and the thermal export are included the efficiency of the plant approaches 74%-78%. The design of the reactor has been carried out using a reactor model linked to the Aspen flowsheet and the results show that with a larger reactor volume the performance of the system can be improved, especially because of the reduced electric consumption. From this analysis it has been found that for a production of about 790 Nm3/h pure H2, a reactor with a diameter of 1 m and length of 1.8 m with about 1500 membranes of 2 cm diameter is required.

  9. Photodissociating methyl vinyl ether to calibrate O+ethylene product branching and to test propensity rules for product channel electronic accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, M. L.; Szpunar, D. E.; Butler, L. J.

    2001-07-01

    These experiments investigate the photodissociation of methyl vinyl ether at 193 nm in a crossed laser-molecular beam apparatus. We observe two C-O bond fission channels, a minor channel producing CH3+CH2CHO (X˜ 2A″) and the major channel yielding CH3+CH2CHO (à 2A'). Some of the neutral à state vinoxy product undergoes secondary dissociation to produce ketene+H. These experiments on the photodissociation of methyl vinyl ether, which produce nascent vinoxy and methyl radicals cleanly in a one-to-one ratio, serve two purposes. First, using the measured photofragment velocities and product branching we calibrate the relative sensitivity of mass spectrometric detection to the methyl and vinoxy polyatomic radical products at the m/e=15 daughter ion, taking into account the loss of neutral vinoxy to ketene+H formation. This relative mass spectrometric sensitivity calibration factor is determined to be 0.116±0.022. Knowledge of this factor allows us to extract the product branching ratio between the two major competing primary product channels from the O(3P)+ethylene reaction, a branching ratio that has been much disputed in the literature. Our results give a CH3+HCO/H+CH2CHO product branching ratio of R=0.61±.11, corresponding to 38% (±5%) branching to the CH3+HCO channel. Second, we use the result that the channel producing Östate vinoxy dominates over the formation of ground-state vinoxy to test propensity rules being developed to help predict what product channels may be suppressed by electronically nonadiabatic effects in chemical reactions. These propensity rules discriminate between channels that are "electronically facile" and "electronically difficult/prohibitive." We find that a qualitative analysis of the changes in electronic configuration along the reaction coordinates for the photodissociation of methyl vinyl ether correctly predicts the dominant channel to be the production of excited state (Ã) vinoxy, the electronically facile channel.

  10. O/S-1/ interactions - The product channels. [collisional electron quenching and chemical reaction pathway frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, T. G.; Black, G.

    1978-01-01

    The first measurements are reported of the reaction pathways for the interaction between oxygen atoms in the 4.19 eV S-1 state, and four molecules, N2O, CO2, H2O, and NO. Distinction is made between three possible paths - quenching to O(D-1), quenching to O(P-3), and chemical reaction. With N2O, the most reasonable interpretation of the data indicates that there no reaction, in sharp contrast with the interaction between O(D-1) and N2O, which proceeds entirely by reaction. Similarly, there is no reaction with CO2. With H2O, the reactive pathway is the dominant one, although electronic quenching is not negligible. With NO, O(D-1) is the preferred product.

  11. Electron back-scattered diffraction and nanoindentation analysis of nanostructured Al tubes processed by multipass tubular-channel angular pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbah, Mohsen; Faraji, Ghader; Bushroa, A. R.

    2016-03-01

    Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of nanostructured 1060 aluminum alloy tubes processed by tubular-channel angular pressing (TCAP) process were investigated using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoindentation analyzes. EBSD scans revealed a homogeneous ultrafine grained microstructure after the third passes of the TCAP process. Apart from that the mean grain sizes of the TCAP processed tubes were refined to 566 nm, 500 nm and 480 nm respectively after the first, second and third passes. The results showed that after the three TCAP passes, the grain boundaries with a high angle comprised 78% of all the boundaries. This is in comparison to the first pass processed sample that includes approximately 20% HAGBs. The TEM inspection afforded an appreciation of the role of very low-angle misorientation boundaries in the process of refining microstructure. Nanoindentation results showed that hardness was the smallest form of an unprocessed sample while the largest form of the processed sample after the three passes of TCAP indicated the highest resistant of the material. In addition, the module of elasticity of the TCAP processed samples was greater from that of the unprocessed sample.

  12. Comparing the Marginal Adaptation of Cold Ceramic and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate by Means of Scanning Electron Microscope: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Modaresi, Jalil; Javadi, Gholamreza; Davoudi, Amin; Badrian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term success of endodontic surgeries is often influenced by the type of root-end filling material (RFM). The aim of present study was to compare the marginal adaptation of two different RFM, cold ceramic (CC) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: About 20 extracted human single-rooted teeth were collected and stored into sodium hypochlorite 5.25%. The teeth were decronated from the cemento-enamel junction to prepare 16 mm roots. The working length was measured, and 1/3 coronal of the canal was prepared by Gates-Glidden drills. Apical flaring was followed by K file size # 40-70 based on step back technique. After filling of the canals, 3 mm above the apex was cut at 90° to the long axis. Furthermore, 3 mm of the filling was removed from the apical part using the ultrasonic device. All of the prepared specimens were divided into two groups and were retro filled by MTA and CC. The roots were cut horizontally from 1 mm above the apical part, and dentin-filling material interface was observed by SEM. Finally, the collected data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test and using SPSS software version 18 at a significant level of 0.05. Results: The mean interfacial adaptation was higher in CC group. However, no significant differences were observed by statistical test (P = 0.35). Conclusion: Both CC and MTA had similar marginal adaptation as RFM however in vivo studies are recommended for better determination. PMID:26435608

  13. Computational study of structural, elastic and electronic properties of lithium disilicate (Li(2)Si(2)O(5)) glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Biskri, Zine Elabidine; Rached, Habib; Bouchear, Merzoug; Rached, Djamel

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate theoretically the structural, elastic and electronic properties of Lithium Disilicate (LD) crystal (Li2Si2O5), using the pseudo potential method based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) with the Local Density Approximation (LDA) and the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA). The calculated structural properties namely the equilibrium lattice parameters and cell volume are in good agreement with the available experimental results. However, for the LD crystal elastic moduli: Shear modulus G, Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio ν we have found a discrepancy between our theoretical values and experimental ones reported in polycrystalline sample containing LD crystals. The calculated elastic properties show that LD is more rigid compared with other components. We also investigated the mechanical stability of Li2Si2O5 compound and we have noticed that this compound is stable against elastic deformations. On the basis of shear to bulk modulus ratio analysis, we inferred that Li2Si2O5 compound is brittle in nature. In order to complete the fundamental characteristics of this compound we have measured the elastic anisotropy. Our results for the energy band structure and Density of States (DOS) show that Li2Si2O5 compound has an insulator characteristic.

  14. Metal/Ceramic Adhesion at the Fe/TiN Interface: Electronic and Magnetic Structure, and Effect of S Impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joo-Hyoung; Freeman, A. J.; Olson, G. B.

    2004-03-01

    As part of our ongoing effort in steel research to design a new class of materials with advanced fracture toughness and strength, we performed first-principles calculations on the Fe matrix/TiN fine particle interface with the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method for film geometry(Wimmer, Krakauer, Weinert, and Freeman, Phys. Rev. B, 24), 864 (1981) within the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA(J. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77), 3865 (1996)), and compared the results with those found previously for Fe/TiC(T. Shishidou,Joo-Hyoung Lee, Yu-Jun Zhao, A. J. Freeman, and G. B. Olson, unpublished). The work of adhesion (3.82 J/m^2 for Fe/TiC, and 3.79 J/m^2 for Fe/TiN) and their calculated force separation laws are very close to each other, but the induced Ti magnetic moment at the interface shows a large difference (-0.02 μ_B for Fe/TiC, and -0.19 μ_B for Fe/TiN). In order to investigate impurity effects, 25% of S atoms were inserted at the interface; results of calculations (now in progress) on the effects of S will be analyzed and discussed.

  15. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on microwave processing of ceramics: Microwave-material interactions; anticipated advantage of microwave sintering; ceramic sintering; and ceramic joining. 24 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

  16. Simulation of ultra-relativistic electrons and positrons channeling in crystals with MBN EXPLORER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushko, Gennady B.; Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Korol, Andrei V.; Greiner, Walter; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2013-11-01

    A newly developed code, implemented as a part of the MBN EXPLORER package (Solov'yov et al., 2012; http://www.mbnexplorer.com/, 2012) [1,2] to simulate trajectories of an ultra-relativistic projectile in a crystalline medium, is presented. The motion of a projectile is treated classically by integrating the relativistic equations of motion with account for the interaction between the projectile and crystal atoms. The probabilistic element is introduced by a random choice of transverse coordinates and velocities of the projectile at the crystal entrance as well as by accounting for the random positions of the atoms due to thermal vibrations. The simulated trajectories are used for numerical analysis of the emitted radiation. Initial approbation and verification of the code have been carried out by simulating the trajectories and calculating the radiation emitted by ε=6.7 GeV and ε=855 MeV electrons and positrons in oriented Si(110) crystal and in amorphous silicon. The calculated spectra are compared with the experimental data and with predictions of the Bethe-Heitler theory for the amorphous environment.

  17. Simulation of ultra-relativistic electrons and positrons channeling in crystals with MBN EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Sushko, Gennady B.; Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Korol, Andrei V.; Greiner, Walter; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2013-11-01

    A newly developed code, implemented as a part of the MBN EXPLORER package (Solov'yov et al., 2012; (http://www.mbnexplorer.com/), 2012) [1,2] to simulate trajectories of an ultra-relativistic projectile in a crystalline medium, is presented. The motion of a projectile is treated classically by integrating the relativistic equations of motion with account for the interaction between the projectile and crystal atoms. The probabilistic element is introduced by a random choice of transverse coordinates and velocities of the projectile at the crystal entrance as well as by accounting for the random positions of the atoms due to thermal vibrations. The simulated trajectories are used for numerical analysis of the emitted radiation. Initial approbation and verification of the code have been carried out by simulating the trajectories and calculating the radiation emitted by ε=6.7 GeV and ε=855 MeV electrons and positrons in oriented Si(110) crystal and in amorphous silicon. The calculated spectra are compared with the experimental data and with predictions of the Bethe–Heitler theory for the amorphous environment.

  18. Search for electroweak top quark production in the electron + jets channel in the D0 experiment at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Busato, Emmanuel

    2005-04-01

    The top quark, whose mass approaches the electroweak symmetry breaking scale, is by far the heaviest known elementary particle. New physics is therefore expected to have its most important effect in the top sector. The Tevatron is, currently, the only collider able to produce the top quark. Among all possible production processes in the standard model, the top-antitop pair production via strong interaction, first observed in 1995, is the one with the largest cross section. The production via electroweak interaction (known as single top production), more difficult to extract from the background because of a lower cross section and of a lower signal to background ratio, has never been observed. In this thesis, we have searched for these processes by studying proton-antiproton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ =1.96 TeV produced by the Tevatron and detected with the DØ detector. The experimental study of the top quark is very sensitive to the quality of the data taken by the calorimeter. This detector showed, at the beginning of the Run II, rather important noise problems. Having identified the origin of the noise, new treatments at the offline level were implemented and their effects studied. It has been shown that these treatments reduce very significantly the effect of the noise in the reconstruction of physical quantities without notable degradation of the signal. Within the standard model, the top quark decays into W b with a branching ratio close to 100%. Leptonic decays of the into electron + neutrino have been used to identify the from the top decay. The main backgrounds to the single top signal ( +jets and QCD) are made essentially of light quark jets in the final state. Two ..-tagging algorithms have therefore been applied in order to improve the signal to background ratio. No evidence for electroweak top quark production has been found. Upper limits at the 95 % confidence level on the observed (expected) cross sections have be computed. They are found to be 14

  19. Kinetic description of a free electron laser with an electromagnetic-wave wiggler and ion-channel guiding by using the Einstein coefficient technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdian, H.; AbasiRostami, S.; Hasanbeigi, A.

    2016-04-01

    A theoretical study of electron trajectories and gain in a free electron laser (FEL) with an electromagnetic-wave wiggler and ion-channel guiding is presented based on the Einstein coefficient method. The laser gain in the low-gain regime is obtained for the case of a cold tenuous relativistic electron beam, where the beam plasma frequency is much less than the radiation frequency propagating in this configuration. The resulting gain equation is analyzed numerically over a wide range of system parameters.

  20. Dissociative electron attachment to DNA-diamine thin films: Impact of the DNA close environment on the OH- and O- decay channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanouar, Omar; Fromm, Michel; Mavon, Christophe; Cloutier, Pierre; Sanche, Léon

    2013-08-01

    We measure the desorption of anions stimulated by the impact of 0-20 eV electrons on highly uniform thin films of plasmid DNA-diaminopropane. The results are accurately correlated with film thickness and composition by AFM and XPS measurements, respectively. Resonant structures in the H-, O-, and OH- yield functions are attributed to the decay of transient anions into the dissociative electron attachment (DEA) channel. The diamine induces ammonium-phosphate bridges along the DNA backbone, which suppresses the DEA O- channel and in counter-part increases considerably the desorption of OH-. The close environment of the phosphate groups may therefore play an important role in modulating the rate and type of DNA damages induced by low energy electrons.

  1. Dissociative electron attachment to DNA-diamine thin films: Impact of the DNA close environment on the OH{sup −} and O{sup −} decay channels

    SciTech Connect

    Boulanouar, Omar; Fromm, Michel; Mavon, Christophe; Cloutier, Pierre; Sanche, Léon

    2013-08-07

    We measure the desorption of anions stimulated by the impact of 0–20 eV electrons on highly uniform thin films of plasmid DNA-diaminopropane. The results are accurately correlated with film thickness and composition by AFM and XPS measurements, respectively. Resonant structures in the H{sup −}, O{sup −}, and OH{sup −} yield functions are attributed to the decay of transient anions into the dissociative electron attachment (DEA) channel. The diamine induces ammonium-phosphate bridges along the DNA backbone, which suppresses the DEA O{sup −} channel and in counter-part increases considerably the desorption of OH{sup −}. The close environment of the phosphate groups may therefore play an important role in modulating the rate and type of DNA damages induced by low energy electrons.

  2. Mode couplings in a two-stream free-electron laser with a helical wiggler and an ion-channel guiding

    SciTech Connect

    Mohsenpour, Taghi Alirezaee, Hajar

    2014-08-15

    In this study, the method of perturbation has been applied to obtain the dispersion relation (DR) of a two-stream free-electron laser (FEL) with a helical wiggler and an ion-channel with all relativistic effects on waves. This DR has been solved numerically to find the unstable modes and their growth rate. Numerical solutions of DR show that the growth rate is considerably enhanced in comparison with single-stream free-electron laser. In group II orbits, with relatively large wiggler induced velocities, new couplings are found. The effect of the velocity difference of the two electron beams on the instabilities has also been investigated in this study. Moreover, the effect of the ion-channel density on the maximum growth rate of FEL resonance has been analyzed.

  3. A multi-channel opto-electronic sensor to accurately monitor heart rate against motion artefact during exercise.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain

    2015-10-12

    This study presents the use of a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor (OEPS) to effectively monitor critical physiological parameters whilst preventing motion artefact as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work was to study how to capture the heart rate (HR) efficiently through a well-constructed OEPS and a 3-axis accelerometer with wireless communication. A protocol was designed to incorporate sitting, standing, walking, running and cycling. The datasets collected from these activities were processed to elaborate sport physiological effects. t-test, Bland-Altman Agreement (BAA), and correlation to evaluate the performance of the OEPS were used against Polar and Mio-Alpha HR monitors. No differences in the HR were found between OEPS, and either Polar or Mio-Alpha (both p > 0.05); a strong correlation was found between Polar and OEPS (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation (SD) 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA) from -17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm. For the Mio-Alpha and OEPS, a strong correlation was found (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 1.63 bpm, SD 8.62 bpm, LOA from -15.27 bpm to +18.58 bpm. These results demonstrate the OEPS to be capable of carrying out real time and remote monitoring of heart rate.

  4. Quantum efficiency of opaque CsI photocathodes with channel electron multiplier arrays in the extreme and far ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C.; Bowyer, S.

    1982-01-01

    The arrays are overcoated with a CsI photocathode in the VUV. The measurements are part of the development program for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer. Monochromatic light from a hollow cathode discharge source passing through a McPherson grazing incidence monochromator is used to illuminate the CsI photocathode. The beam diameter is kept small (approximately 2 mm) to confine it within the individual thickness strips. A bias grid is used to produce a 50-V/mm electric field to guarantee collection of all photoelectrons emitted by the CEMA (channel electron multiplier array) webbing. The CEMAs are operated with a gain of 2-3 x 10 to the 6th and are moderately saturated. A channeltron secondary transfer standard is used to determine the absolute QE in the EUV, whereas an NBS calibrated windowed photodiode is used to measure the FUV absolute QE. It is noted that the CsI gives a factor of 3 increase in the QE in the EUV and a factor of 50-5000 in the FUV.

  5. A Multi-Channel Opto-Electronic Sensor to Accurately Monitor Heart Rate against Motion Artefact during Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the use of a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor (OEPS) to effectively monitor critical physiological parameters whilst preventing motion artefact as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work was to study how to capture the heart rate (HR) efficiently through a well-constructed OEPS and a 3-axis accelerometer with wireless communication. A protocol was designed to incorporate sitting, standing, walking, running and cycling. The datasets collected from these activities were processed to elaborate sport physiological effects. t-test, Bland-Altman Agreement (BAA), and correlation to evaluate the performance of the OEPS were used against Polar and Mio-Alpha HR monitors. No differences in the HR were found between OEPS, and either Polar or Mio-Alpha (both p > 0.05); a strong correlation was found between Polar and OEPS (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation (SD) 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA) from −17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm. For the Mio-Alpha and OEPS, a strong correlation was found (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 1.63 bpm, SD 8.62 bpm, LOA from −15.27 bpm to +18.58 bpm. These results demonstrate the OEPS to be capable of carrying out real time and remote monitoring of heart rate. PMID:26473860

  6. Channel electron multiplier operated on a sounding rocket without a cryogenic vacuum pump from 120 - 75 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, S.; Gausa, M. A.; Robertson, S. H.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate that a channel electron multiplier (CEM) can be operated on a sounding rocket in the pulse-counting mode from 120 km to 75 km altitude without the cryogenic evacuation used in the past. Evacuation of the CEM is provided only by aerodynamic flow around the rocket. This demonstration is motivated by the need for additional flights of mass spectrometers to clarify the fate of metallic compounds and ions ablated from micrometeorites and their possible role in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds. The CEMs were flown as guest instruments on the two sounding rockets of the CHAMPS (CHarge And mass of Meteoritic smoke ParticleS) rocket campaign which were launched into the mesosphere in October 2011 from Andøya Rocket Range, Norway. Modeling of the aerodynamic flow around the payload with Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) code showed that the pressure is reduced below ambient in the void beneath an aft-facing surface. An enclosure containing the CEM was placed above an aft-facing deck and a valve was opened on the downleg to expose the CEM to the aerodynamically evacuated region below. The CEM operated successfully from apogee down to ~75 km. A Pirani gauge confirmed pressures reduced to as low as 20% of ambient with the extent of reduction dependent upon altitude and velocity. Additional DSMC simulations indicate that there are alternate payload designs with improved aerodynamic pumping for forward mounted instruments such as mass spectrometers.

  7. Channel electron multiplier operated on a sounding rocket without a cryogenic vacuum pump from 120 to 80 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Shannon; Gausa, Michael; Robertson, Scott; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate that a channel electron multiplier (CEM) can be operated on a sounding rocket in the pulse-counting mode from 120 km to 80 km altitude without the cryogenic evacuation used in the past. Evacuation of the CEM is provided only by aerodynamic flow around the rocket. This demonstration is motivated by the need for additional flights of mass spectrometers to clarify the fate of metallic compounds and ions ablated from micrometeorites and their possible role in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds. The CEMs were flown as guest instruments on two sounding rockets to the mesosphere. Modeling of the aerodynamic flow around the payload with Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) code showed that the pressure is reduced below ambient in the void behind (relative to the direction of motion) an aft-facing surface. An enclosure containing the CEM was placed forward of an aft-facing deck and a valve was opened during flight to expose the CEM to the aerodynamically evacuated region behind it. The CEM operated successfully from apogee down to ∼80 km. A Pirani gauge confirmed pressures reduced to as low as 20% of ambient with the extent of reduction dependent upon altitude and velocity. Additional DSMC simulations indicate that there are alternate payload designs with improved aerodynamic pumping for forward mounted instruments such as mass spectrometers.

  8. Polarization-mediated Debye-screening of surface potential fluctuations in dual-channel AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deen, David A.; Miller, Ross A.; Osinsky, Andrei V.; Downey, Brian P.; Storm, David F.; Meyer, David J.; Scott Katzer, D.; Nepal, Neeraj

    2016-12-01

    A dual-channel AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) architecture is proposed, simulated, and demonstrated that suppresses gate lag due to surface-originated trapped charge. Dual two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channels are utilized such that the top 2DEG serves as an equipotential that screens potential fluctuations resulting from surface trapped charge. The bottom channel serves as the transistor's modulated channel. Two device modeling approaches have been performed as a means to guide the device design and to elucidate the relationship between the design and performance metrics. The modeling efforts include a self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger solution for electrostatic simulation as well as hydrodynamic three-dimensional device modeling for three-dimensional electrostatics, steady-state, and transient simulations. Experimental results validated the HEMT design whereby homo-epitaxial growth on free-standing GaN substrates and fabrication of the same-wafer dual-channel and recessed-gate AlN/GaN HEMTs have been demonstrated. Notable pulsed-gate performance has been achieved by the fabricated HEMTs through a gate lag ratio of 0.86 with minimal drain current collapse while maintaining high levels of dc and rf performance.

  9. Rietveld refinement, electronic structure and ionic conductivity of Sr4La6(SiO4)6F2 and Sr4La6(SiO4)6O ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughzala, Khaled; Debbichi, Mourad; Njema, Hela; Bouzouita, Khaled

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we report the effect of the tunnel anions on the ionic conductivity of Strontium-Lanthanum silicate apatites. The Sr4La6(SiO4)6F2 and Sr4La6(SiO4)6O ceramics were prepared by the solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction, NMR spectroscopy and Raman measurements were performed to investigate the crystal structure and vibrational active modes. Moreover, the electronic structures of the crystals were evaluated by the first-principles quantum mechanical calculation based on the density functional theory. Finally, the ionic conductivity was studied according to the complex impedance method.

  10. Electron microscopy of X7R and Y5V type barium titanate multilayer ceramic capacitors with noble and base metal electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qiquan

    Two types of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs), Y5V with Ni electrodes and X7R with Ag/Pd electrodes, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and showed quite different microstructures which determined their dielectric behaviors. In X7R-type MLCCs, core-shell structures were observed. The flat dielectric constant-temperature curves obtained from these materials can be interpreted in terms of the internal stress states in individual grains. The stress states were observed using weak beam dark field (WBDF) microscopy. The strain contours observed were formed by distorted crystal planes and were dependent on the stress state of the crystal instead of crystal symmetry. The stress distribution in individual grains was determined by both the thickness ratio of shell and core and the geometrical relationship of the core and the shell. (111) lamella twins and dislocation loops in the paraelectric phases of BaTiO3 doped with Bi2O3 were analyzed by TEM under two-beam conditions. Y5V-type MLCCs based on re-oxidized Ba(Ti 0.88,Zr0.12)O3 (BTZ) materials exhibited frequency relaxation effects. Multi-domain structures coexisting in one grain were observed at dynamical diffraction conditions. Uneven distribution of internal stress and coexistence of multi-phases and multi-domains in individual grains were considered to be responsible for the frequency relaxor behavior observed in these materials. The compatibility of electrodes and dielectrics in cofired MLCCs with both Ni and Ag/Pd electrodes was characterized by TEM using tripod polished samples. NiO lamellae and P-rich intermediate layers were found in highly accelerated life tested (HALT) MLCCs with Ni electrodes. It is believed that Mn ions were reduced by the Ni electrodes, as P-rich and Mn-rich segregated layers were observed in the virginal non-life tested MLCCs. No silver diffusion was found in either the BaTiO3 based perovskite lattices or the flux phases in air-fired X7R type MLCCs.

  11. Breakdown mechanisms in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with different GaN channel thickness values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Ya-Man; Wang, Xin-Hua; Yuan, Ting-Ting; Pang, Lei; Chen, Wei-Wei; Liu, Xin-Yu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the off-state breakdown characteristics of two different AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), featuring a 50-nm and a 150-nm GaN thick channel layer, respectively, are compared. The HEMT with a thick channel exhibits a little larger pinch-off drain current but significantly enhanced off-state breakdown voltage (BVoff). Device simulation indicates that thickening the channel increases the drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) but reduces the lateral electric field in the channel and buffer underneath the gate. The increase of BVoff in the thick channel device is due to the reduction of the electric field. These results demonstrate that it is necessary to select an appropriate channel thickness to balance DIBL and BVoff in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Project supported by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. NCET-12-0915) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61334002 and 61204086).

  12. Novel intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer-based probe for the Human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Zhou, Yubin; Du, Lupei; Li, Minyong

    2015-12-21

    Drug induced long QT syndrome is a high risk event in clinic, which mainly results from their high affinity to the Human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) potassium channel. Therefore, evaluation of the drug's inhibitory activity against the hERG potassium channel is a required step in drug discovery and development. In this study, we developed a series of novel conformation-mediated intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer fluorogenic probes for the hERG potassium channel. After careful evaluation, probes N4 and N6 showed good activity and may have a promising application in the cell-based hERG potassium channel inhibitory activity assay, as well as potential hERG-associated cardiotoxicity evaluation. Compared with other assay methods, such as patch clamp assay, radio-ligand competitive binding assay, fluorescence polarization and potential-sensitive fluorescent probes, this method is convenient and can also selectively measure the inhibitory activity in the native state of the hERG potassium channel. Meanwhile, these probes can also be used for hERG potassium channel imaging without complex washing steps.

  13. A fractographic study of clinically retrieved zirconia–ceramic and metal–ceramic fixed dental prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Zhen; Chughtai, Asima; Sailer, Irena; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A recent 3-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) of tooth supported three- to five-unit zirconia–ceramic and metal–ceramic posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) revealed that veneer chipping and fracture in zirconia–ceramic systems occurred more frequently than those in metal–ceramic systems [1]. This study seeks to elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the fracture phenomena observed in this RCT using a descriptive fractographic analysis. Methods Vinyl-polysiloxane impressions of 12 zirconia–ceramic and 6 metal–ceramic FDPs with veneer fractures were taken from the patients at the end of a mean observation of 40.3 ± 2.8 months. Epoxy replicas were produced from these impressions [1]. All replicas were gold coated, and inspected under the optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for descriptive fractography. Results Among the 12 zirconia–ceramic FDPs, 2 had small chippings, 9 had large chippings, and 1 exhibited delamination. Out of 6 metal–ceramic FDPs, 5 had small chippings and 1 had large chipping. Descriptive fractographic analysis based on SEM observations revealed that fracture initiated from the wear facet at the occlusal surface in all cases, irrespective of the type of restoration. Significance Zirconia–ceramic and metal–ceramic FDPs all fractured from microcracks that emanated from occlusal wear facets. The relatively low fracture toughness and high residual tensile stress in porcelain veneer of zirconia restorations may contribute to the higher chipping rate and larger chip size in zirconia–ceramic FDPs relative to their metal–ceramic counterparts. The low veneer/core interfacial fracture energy of porcelain-veneered zirconia may result in the occurrence of delamination in zirconia–ceramic FDPs. PMID:26233469

  14. Nondestructive evaluation of structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, Stanley J.; Baaklini, George Y.; Abel, Phillip B.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented on research and development of techniques for nondestructive evaluation and characterization of advanced ceramics for heat engine applications. Highlighted in this review are Lewis Research Center efforts in microfocus radiography, scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM), scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM), and photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). The techniques were evaluated by applying them to research samples of green and sintered silicon nitride and silicon carbide in the form of modulus-of-rupture bars containing seeded voids. Probabilities of detection of voids were determined for diameters as small as 20 microns for microfucus radiography, SLAM, and SAM. Strengths and limitations of the techniques for ceramic applications are identified. Application of ultrasonics for characterizing ceramic microstructures is also discussed.

  15. Ceramic fiber ceramic matrix filter development

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Stinton, D.P.; Smith, R.G.; Fischer, E.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop a novel type of candle filter based on a ceramic fiber-ceramic matrix composite material, and to extend the development to full-size, 60-mm OD by 1-meter-long candle filters. The goal is to develop a ceramic filter suitable for use in a variety of fossil energy system environments such as integrated coal gasification combined cycles (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), and other advanced coal combustion environments. Further, the ceramic fiber ceramic matrix composite filter, hereinafter referred to as the ceramic composite filter, was to be inherently crack resistant, a property not found in conventional monolithic ceramic candle filters, such as those fabricated from clay-bonded silicon carbide. Finally, the adequacy of the filters in the fossil energy system environments is to be proven through simulated and in-plant tests.

  16. Ceramic transactions: Case studies in ceramic product development, manufacturing, and commercialization. Volume 75

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.; Barks, R.E.; Hiremath, B.

    1997-12-31

    This document presents studies on ceramic development and manufacturing. Topics include general manufacturing, the manufacture of electronic optical components, and bioceramic components. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  17. Kaolinite as a Suspending Agent for Preparation of Porous BaTiO3 Ceramics via Freeze Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pin; Pu, Yongping; Dong, Zijing; Gao, Pan

    2014-02-01

    Porous barium titanate (BT) ceramics were fabricated by a freeze-casting technique with kaolinite as a suspending agent, and the effects of the kaolinite content on the microstructure and dielectric properties were investigated. The porous BT ceramics possessed high porosity and a unique two-dimensional pore structure along the freezing direction. The absolute value of the zeta potential and the viscosity of the slurry increased with increasing kaolinite content. The zeta potential plot and viscosity characterization results showed that a stable slurry was obtained when the kaolinite content was 8 wt.%. The porosity was substantially affected by the suspension effect and the fluxing action of the kaolinite. Porosity characterization showed that the porosity of the porous BT ceramic reached a maximum value for 8 wt.% addition of kaolinite. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the porous BT ceramics possessed a multilayered channel structure. The temperature dependence of the permittivity showed that the porous BT ceramics possessed good temperature stability of the dielectric constant.

  18. Combining Electron Crystallography and X-ray Crystallography to Study the MlotiK1 Cyclic Nucleotide-Regulated Potassium Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, G.; Aller, S; Wang, J; Unger, V; Morais-Cabral, J

    2009-01-01

    We have recently reported the X-ray structure of the cyclic nucleotide-regulated potassium channel, MlotiK1. Here we describe the application of both electron and X-ray crystallography to obtain high quality crystals. We suggest that the combined application of these techniques provides a useful strategy for membrane protein structure determination. We also present negative stain projection and cryo-data projection maps. These maps provide new insights about the properties of the MlotiK1 channel. In particular, a comparison of a 9 {angstrom} cryo-data projection with calculated model maps strongly suggests that there is a very weak interaction between the pore and the S1-S4 domains of this 6 TM tetrameric cation channel and that the S1-S4 domains can adopt multiple orientations relative to the pore.

  19. High Electron Mobility Ge n-Channel Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Fabricated by the Gate-Last Process with the Solid Source Diffusion Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Tatsuro; Morita, Yukinori; Takagi, Shinichi

    2010-06-01

    We fabricate high-k/Ge n-channel metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) by the gate-last process with the thermal solid source diffusion to achieve both of high quality source/drain (S/D) and gate stack. The n+/p junction formed by solid source diffusion technique of Sb dopant shows the excellent diode characteristics of ˜1.5×105 on/off ratio between +1 and -1 V and the quite low reverse current density of ˜4.1×10-4 A/cm2 at +1 V after the fabrication of high-k/Ge n-channel MISFETs that enable us to observe well-behaved transistor performances. The extracted electron mobility with the peak of 891 cm2/(V.s) is high enough to be superior to the Si universal electron mobility especially in low Eeff.

  20. Influence of the kink effect on the dynamic performance of short-channel InAlAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasallo, B. G.; Mateos, J.; Pardo, D.; González, T.

    2005-09-01

    A semiclassical two-dimensional ensemble Monte Carlo simulator is used to perform a microscopic study of the influence of the kink effect on the dynamic behaviour of short-channel InAlAs/InGaAs lattice-matched high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). To this end, the transient behaviour of the kink onset and the degradation introduced in some elements of the small signal equivalent circuit are analysed. According to our results, the pile-up of holes (generated by impact ionization) which is at the origin of the kink effect, jointly with the higher electron density in the channel, causes an increase of the gate-source capacitance. The drain conductance also increases because the accumulated hole density depends significantly on the drain-source voltage. In addition, the frequency dependence of the drain conductance reflects the influence of the hole recombination processes taking place in the accumulation zone.

  1. Photoinduced Electron Transfer and Fluorophore Motion as a Probe of the Conformational Dynamics of Membrane Proteins: Application to the Influenza A M2 Proton Channel

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Julie M. G.; Polishchuk, Alexei L.; Guo, Lin; Wang, Jun; DeGrado, William F.; Gai, Feng

    2011-01-01

    The structure and function of the Influenza A M2 proton channel have been the subject of intensive investigations in recent years because of its critical role in the life cycle of the Influenza virus. Using a truncated version of the M2 proton channel (i.e., M2TM) as a model, here we show that fluctuations in the fluorescence intensity of a dye reporter that arise from both fluorescence quenching via the mechanism of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) by an adjacent tryptophan (Trp) residue and local motions of the dye molecule can be used to probe the conformational dynamics of membrane proteins. Specifically, we find that the dynamics of the conformational transition between the N-terminally-open and C-terminally-open states of the M2TM channel occur on a timescale of about 500 μs and that binding of either amantadine or rimantadine does not inhibit the pH-induced structural equilibrium of the channel. These results are consistent with the direct occluding mechanism of inhibition which suggests that the antiviral drugs act by sterically occluding the channel pore. PMID:21401044

  2. Monte Carlo study of kink effect in short-channel InAlAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasallo, B. G.; Mateos, J.; Pardo, D.; González, T.

    2003-09-01

    A semiclassical two-dimensional ensemble Monte Carlo simulator is used to perform a physical microscopic analysis of the kink effect in short-channel InAlAs/InGaAs lattice-matched high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Due to the small band gap of InGaAs, these devices are very susceptible to suffer impact ionization processes, with the subsequent hole transport in the channel, both supposedly implicated in the kink effect and easy to be implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicate that for high enough VDS, holes, generated by impact ionization, tend to pile up in the channel under the source side of the gate due to the attracting potential caused by the surface charge at the recess and, mostly, by the gate potential. Due to this pile up of positive charge, the potential barrier controlling the current through the channel is lowered, so that the channel is further opened and ID increases, leading to the well known kink effect in the current-voltage characteristics. The microscopic understanding of this phenomenon provides valuable information to conceive the optimum fabrication process for kink-effect-free HEMTs.

  3. polycrystalline ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yunqi; Ma, Ji; Cui, Qi; Wang, Wenzhang; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Qingming

    2014-12-01

    La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 polycrystalline ceramics were synthesized by sol-gel method. Sharp temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) variation (with peak value up to 22 %) has been observed near the metal-insulator transition temperature T MI (273 K) for the sample sintered at 1,450 °C. This TCR value is much higher than the previously reported values for the undoped and Ag-doped La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 samples and is comparable to the optimized thin films. It was concluded that the improved physical properties of the La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 material are due to its improved microstructure and homogeneity.

  4. Investigation of breakdown in porous ceramics initiated by nanosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punanov, I. F.; Emlin, R. V.; Morozov, P. A.; Cholakh, S. O.

    2012-07-01

    Breakdown delay times are measured and velocities of forming a conductive channel in aluminum oxide based porous ceramic materials impregnated with transformer oil are determined for pulsed electrical breakdown initiated by nanosecond pulses at a voltage of 140 kV. The breakdown delay times are also measured in monolithic aluminum oxide ceramics and leuco-sapphire single crystals. It is demonstrated that in porous ceramics, the average velocity of breakdown channel propagation decreases with increasing volume of the sample occupied by the liquid dielectric in comparison with single crystal and monolythic ceramics; it makes 50% of the velocity of breakdown channel propagation in leuco-sapphire and exceeds 3 times the corresponding value in transformer oil measured at the same voltage and pulse duration.

  5. Microstructural characterization of nuclear-waste ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F.J.; Clarke, D.R.

    1982-09-22

    Characterization of nuclear waste ceramics requires techniques possessing high spatial and x-ray resolution. XRD, SEM, electron microprobe, TEM and analytical EM techniques are applied to ceramic formulations designed to immobilize both commercial and defense-related reactor wastes. These materials are used to address the strengths and limitations of the techniques above. An iterative approach combining all these techniques is suggested. 16 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Ceramic inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Werve, Michael E.

    2006-05-16

    A system for inspecting a ceramic component. The ceramic component is positioned on a first rotary table. The first rotary table rotates the ceramic component. Light is directed toward the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component. A detector is located on a second rotary table. The second rotary table is operably connected to the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component. The second rotary table is used to move the detector at an angle to the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component.

  7. Dental ceramics: An update

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Arvind; Shenoy, Nina

    2010-01-01

    In the last few decades, there have been tremendous advances in the mechanical properties and methods of fabrication of ceramic materials. While porcelain-based materials are still a major component of the market, there have been moves to replace metal ceramics systems with all ceramic systems. Advances in bonding techniques have increased the range and scope for use of ceramics in dentistry. In this brief review, we will discuss advances in ceramic materials and fabrication techniques. Examples of the microstructure property relationships for these ceramic materials will also be addressed. PMID:21217946

  8. Radiation effects in ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Linn W.; Clinard, Frank W.; Zinkle, Steven J.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    1994-10-01

    Ceramics represent a large class of solids with a wide spectrum of applicability, whose structures range from simple to complex, whose bonding runs from highly ionic to almost entirely covalent and, in some cases, partially metallic, and whose band structures yield wide-gap insulators, narrow-gap semiconductors or even superconductors. These solids exhibit responses to irradiation which are more complex than those for metals. In ceramic materials, atomic displacements can be produced by direct momentum transfer to often more than one distinguishable sublattice, and in some cases radiolytically by electronic excitations, and result in point defects which are in general not simple. Radiation-induced defect interaction, accumulation and aggregation modes differ significantly from those found in metals. Amorphization is a frequent option in response to high-density defect perturbation and is strongly related to structural topology. These fundamental responses to irradiation result in significant changes to important applicable properties, such as strength, toughness, electrical and thermal conductivities, dielectric response and optical behavior. The understanding of such phenomena is less well-understood than the simple responses of metals but is being increasingly driven by critical applications in fusion energy production, nuclear waste disposal and optical communications.

  9. Strength and Microstructure of Ceramics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    120 keV. Chemical composition of the intergranular glass was determined using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) and Energy Dispersive...punch fixture. Details of this particular method of mechanical testing have been described elsewhere [71. 2 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table I shows the...34 microplasticity " stage in crack initiation from the flaw’ " for alumina ceramics has been carried out. Results of (from literal adaptations of the original

  10. Why do a precision measurement of delta m(atm)**2 in the electron-neutrino and anti-electron-neutrino disappearance channel?

    SciTech Connect

    Nunokawa, H; Parke, Stephen J; Zukanovich Funchal, R

    2005-07-01

    We discuss why high precision measurements of {delta}m{sub atm}{sup 2} in the {nu}{sub e}/{bar {nu}}{sub e} disappearance channels would be desirable in conjunction with the {delta}m{sub atms}{sup 2} high precision measurements that will be performed in the {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} disappearance channels by long baseline experiments such as T2K and NOvA. We show that if these measurements can achieve the challenging precision of about 0.5%, it will be possible to determine the mass hierarchy of the neutrino sector without the need of matter effects.

  11. Microporous calcium phosphate ceramics driving osteogenesis through surface architecture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Barbieri, Davide; ten Hoopen, Hetty; de Bruijn, Joost D; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Yuan, Huipin

    2015-03-01

    The presence of micropores in calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics has shown its important role in initiating inductive bone formation in ectopic sites. To investigate how microporous CaP ceramics trigger osteoinduction, we optimized two biphasic CaP ceramics (i.e., BCP-R and BCP-S) to have the same chemical composition, equivalent surface area per volume, comparable protein adsorption, similar ion (i.e., calcium and phosphate) exchange and the same surface mineralization potential, but different surface architecture. In particular, BCP-R had a surface roughness (Ra) of 325.4 ± 58.9 nm while for BCP-S it was 231.6 ± 35.7 nm. Ceramic blocks with crossing or noncrossing channels of 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 µm were implanted in paraspinal muscle of dogs for 12 weeks. The percentage of bone volume in the channels was not affected by the type of pores (i.e., crossing vs. closed) or their size, but it was greatly influenced by the ceramic type (i.e., BCP-R vs. BCP-S). Significantly, more bone was formed in the channels of BCP-R than in those of BCP-S. Since the two CaP ceramics differed only in their surface architecture, the results hereby demonstrate that microporous CaP ceramics may induce ectopic osteogenesis through surface architecture.

  12. Ceramic electrolyte coating methods

    DOEpatents

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2004-10-12

    Processes for preparing aqueous suspensions of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material such as yttrium-stabilized zirconia. The invention also includes a process for preparing an aqueous coating slurry of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material. The invention further includes a process for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material on pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  13. Advanced Ceramic Armor Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-11

    materials, toughened alumina, fiber -reinforced glass matrix composites, and multilayer-gradient materials for ballistic testing. Fabrication and...material systems: Multilayer advanced armor materials consisting of a hard ceramic faceplate bonded to a graphite fiber -reinforced glass matrix...toughened alumina, and fiber - applied studies of advanced reinforced ceramic matrix glass and glass -ceramic composites for ballistic testing. technologies

  14. Brittleness of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroupa, F.

    1984-01-01

    The main characteristics of mechanical properties of ceramics are summarized and the causes of their brittleness, especially the limited mobility of dislocations, are discussed. The possibility of improving the fracture toughness of ceramics and the basic research needs relating to technology, structure and mechanical properties of ceramics are stressed in connection with their possible applications in engineering at high temperature.

  15. Ceramic to metal seal

    DOEpatents

    Snow, Gary S.; Wilcox, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Providing a high strength, hermetic ceramic to metal seal by essentially heating a wire-like metal gasket and a ceramic member, which have been chemically cleaned, while simultaneously deforming from about 50 to 95 percent the metal gasket against the ceramic member at a temperature of about 30 to 75 percent of the melting temperature of the metal gasket.

  16. First-principles mode-by-mode analysis for electron-phonon scattering channels and mean free path spectra in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Te-Huan; Zhou, Jiawei; Liao, Bolin; Singh, David J.; Chen, Gang

    2017-02-01

    We present a first-principles framework to investigate the electron scattering channels and transport properties for polar materials by combining the exact solution of the linearized electron-phonon (e-ph) Boltzmann transport equation in its integral-differential form associated with the e-ph coupling matrices obtained from the polar Wannier interpolation scheme. No ad hoc parameter is required throughout this calculation, and GaAs, a well-studied polar material, is used as an example to demonstrate this method. In this work, the long-range and short-range contributions as well as the intravalley and intervalley transitions in the e-ph interactions (EPIs) have been quantitatively addressed. Promoted by such mode-by-mode analysis, we find that in GaAs, the piezoelectric scattering is comparable to deformation-potential scattering for electron scatterings by acoustic phonons in EPI even at room temperature, and it makes a significant contribution to mobility. Furthermore, we achieved good agreement with experimental data for the mobility, and we identified that electrons with mean free paths between 130 and 210 nm provide the dominant contribution to the electron transport at 300 K. Such information provides a deeper understanding of the electron transport in GaAs, and the presented framework can be readily applied to other polar materials.

  17. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckel, Zak C.; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H.; Jacobsen, Alan J.; Carter, William B.; Schaedler, Tobias A.

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  18. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Zak C; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Schaedler, Tobias A

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  19. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  20. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  1. All-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Lehner, C R; Schärer, P

    1992-06-01

    Despite the good appearance and biocompatibility of dental porcelains, failures are still of considerable concern because of some limited properties common to all-ceramic crown systems. As in the years before, pertinent scientific articles published between November 1990 and December 1991 focused on strengthening mechanisms and compared fracture toughness for different ceramic systems by using various test methods. Some evaluated the clinical implications thereon for seating and loading crowns and measured wear against different ceramic surface conditions. Recently introduced with pleasing aesthetic qualities, IPS-Empress (Ivoclar, Schaan, Liechtenstein), a new European leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic, has finally drawn attention in some journals and has been reviewed with promising in vitro test results. Using a simple press-molding technique, well-fitting crowns, inlays, and veneers can be fabricated without an additional ceramming procedure. Again, only long-term clinical trials will validate achievements compared with other all-ceramic systems and with well-established metal ceramics.

  2. Electron confinement in drift detectors by means of ``channel-stop`` implants: Characterization at high signal charges

    SciTech Connect

    Castoldi, A.; Rehak, P.; Strueder, L.

    1996-12-01

    Electron confinement in the direction transverse to the drift can be implemented in silicon drift detectors by means of deep p-implants. The reduced broadening of the electron cloud due to the deep p-implants has been tested as a function of the signal amplitude up to 200,000 electrons. The maximum number of electrons for which full confinement is achieved has been measured. The dependence of this threshold charge on the potential barrier generated by the deep p-implants, the size of the confinement, and the detector operating conditions are reported.

  3. Electrical characterization of electron beam induced damage on sub-10 nm n-channel MOS transistors using nano-probing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jonghyuk; Lee, Sungho; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2016-11-01

    Electron beam induced damage on sub-10 nm n-channel MOS transistors was evaluated using an atomic force microscopy-based nano-probing technique. After electron beam irradiation, all the device parameters shifted including threshold voltage (V th), saturation current, sub-threshold slope and transistor leakage current. A negative shift in V th occurred at low electron beam acceleration voltage (V acc) because of the increase in oxide trapped holes generated by excited plasmons. At high V acc, however, a positive V th shift was observed because of an increased contribution of interface trap generation caused by the deeper electron penetration depth. In addition, interface trap generation not only degraded the sub-threshold slope due to the additional capacitance from the generated interface traps, but also increased transistor leakage current due to changes in junction characteristics. Our studies show that it is critical to avoid electron beam exposure before electrical characterization on sub-10 nm devices even in the range of less than 1.0 kV of V acc using nano-probe systems.

  4. Radiation stability test on multiphase glass ceramic and crystalline ceramic waste forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Jarvinen, Gordon; Crum, Jarrod; Turo, Laura; Riley, Brian; Brinkman, Kyle; Fox, Kevin; Amoroso, Jake; Marra, James

    2014-05-01

    A radiation stability study was performed on glass ceramic and crystalline ceramic waste forms. These materials are candidate host materials for immobilizing alkali/alkaline earth (Cs/Sr-CS) + lanthanide (LN) + transition metal (TM) fission product waste streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing. In this study, glass ceramics were fabricated using a borosilicate glass as a matrix in which to incorporate CS/LN/TM combined waste streams. The major phases in these multiphase materials are powellite, oxyaptite, pollucite, celsian, and durable residual glass phases. Al2O3 and TiO2 were combined with these waste components to produce multiphase crystalline ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites, pyrochlores and other minor metal titanate phases. For the radiation stability test, selected glass ceramic and crystalline ceramic samples were exposed to different irradiation environments including low fluxes of high-energy (∼1-5 MeV) protons and alpha particles generated by an ion accelerator, high fluxes of low-energy (hundreds of keV) krypton particles generated by an ion implanter, and in-situ electron irradiations in a transmission electron microscope. These irradiation experiments were performed to simulate self-radiation effects in a waste form. Ion irradiation-induced microstructural modifications were examined using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Our preliminary results reveal different radiation tolerance in different crystalline phases under various radiation damage environments. However, their stability may be rate dependent which may limit the waste loading that can be achieved.

  5. Radiation stability test on multiphase glass ceramic and crystalline ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Jarvinen, G. D.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Brinkman, Kyle; Fox, Kevin M.; Amoroso, Jake; Marra, James C.

    2014-02-03

    A radiation stability study was performed on glass ceramic and crystalline ceramic waste forms. These materials are candidate host materials for immobilizing alkali/alkaline earth (Cs/Sr-CS) + lanthanide (LN) + transition metal (TM) fission product waste streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing. In this study, glass ceramics were fabricated using a borosilicate glass as a matrix in which to incorporate CS/LN/TM combined waste streams. The major phases in these multiphase materials are powellite, oxyaptite, pollucite, celsian, and durable residual glass phases. Al2O3 and TiO2 were combined with these waste components to produce multiphase crystalline ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites, pyrochlores and other minor metal titanate phases. For the radiation stability test, selected glass ceramic and crystalline ceramic samples were exposed to different irradiation environments including low fluxes of high-energy (~1–5 MeV) protons and alpha particles generated by an ion accelerator, high fluxes of low-energy (hundreds of keV) krypton particles generated by an ion implanter, and in-situ electron irradiations in a transmission electron microscope. These irradiation experiments were performed to simulate self-radiation effects in a waste form. Ion irradiation-induced microstructural modifications were examined using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Our preliminary results reveal different radiation tolerance in different crystalline phases under various radiation damage environments. However, their stability may be rate dependent which may limit the waste loading that can be achieved.

  6. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Study on the degradation of NMOSFETs with ultra-thin gate oxide under channel hot electron stress at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shi-Gang; Hao, Yue; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Cao, Yan-Rong; Chen, Chi; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2009-12-01

    This paper studies the degradation of device parameters and that of stress induced leakage current (SILC) of thin tunnel gate oxide under channel hot electron (CHE) stress at high temperature by using n-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (NMOSFETs) with 1.4-nm gate oxides. The degradation of device parameters under CHE stress exhibits saturating time dependence at high temperature. The emphasis of this paper is on SILC of an ultra-thin-gate-oxide under CHE stress at high temperature. Based on the experimental results, it is found that there is a linear correlation between SILC degradation and Vh degradation in NMOSFETs during CHE stress. A model of the combined effect of oxide trapped negative charges and interface traps is developed to explain the origin of SILC during CHE stress.

  7. Effect of intermediate ceramics and firing temperature on bond strength between tetragonal zirconia polycrystal and veneering ceramics.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Naoya; Yoshinari, Masao; Takemoto, Shinji; Hattori, Masayuki; Kawada, Eiji; Oda, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of the intermediate ceramics and firing temperature on bond strength between tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP) and its intermediate ceramics. Two types of intermediate ceramics, defined as a ceramics placed between the TZP and its veneering ceramics, were used; one including high-strength lithium-disilicate (EP) or feldspathic liner porcelain (SB). The firing temperature of the intermediate ceramics was set at 930°C, 945°C or 960°C. Shear bond strength showed values of 35.8 MPa in SB and 54.9 MPa in EP at a firing temperature of 960°C. Electron probe microanalysis revealed that components of the intermediate ceramics remained on the TZP surface after debonding, indicating that fractures occurred in the intermediate ceramics near the TZP. These results indicate that the bond strength between and a TZP framework and its veneering ceramics could be improved by using a high-strength intermediate ceramics and a comparatively high firing temperature.

  8. Channeling of high-power radio waves under conditions of strong anomalous absorption in the presence of an averaged electron heating source

    SciTech Connect

    Vas'kov, V. V.; Ryabova, N. A.

    2010-02-15

    Strong anomalous absorption of a high-power radio wave by small-scale plasma inhomogeneities in the Earth's ionosphere can lead to the formation of self-consistent channels (solitons) in which the wave propagates along the magnetic field, but has a soliton-like intensity distribution across the field. The structure of a cylindrical soliton as a function of the wave intensity at the soliton axis is analyzed. Averaged density perturbations leading to wave focusing were calculated using the model proposed earlier by Vas'kov and Gurevich (Geomagn. Aeron. 16, 1112 (1976)), in which an averaged electron heating source was used. It is shown that, under conditions of strong electron recombination, the radii of individual solitons do not exceed 650 m.

  9. High-efficient photo-electron transport channel in SiC constructed by depositing cocatalysts selectively on specific surface sites for visible-light H2 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Da; Peng, Yuan; Wang, Qi; Pan, Nanyan; Guo, Zhongnan; Yuan, Wenxia

    2016-04-01

    Control cocatalyst location on a metal-free semiconductor to promote surface charge transfer for decreasing the electron-hole recombination is crucial for enhancing solar energy conversion. Based on the findings that some metals have an affinity for bonding with the specific atoms of polar semiconductors at a heterostructure interface, we herein control Pt deposition selectively on the Si sites of a micro-SiC photocatalyst surface via in-situ photo-depositing. The Pt-Si bond forming on the interface constructs an excellent channel, which is responsible for accelerating photo-electron transfer from SiC to Pt and then reducing water under visible-light. The hydrogen production is enhanced by two orders of magnitude higher than that of bare SiC, and 2.5 times higher than that of random-depositing nano-Pt with the same loading amount.

  10. Flow-Induced Vibration of a Reed in a Channel: Effect of Reed Shape on Convective Heat Transfer with Application to Electronic Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rips, Aaron; Shoele, Kourosh; Glezer, Ari; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-11-01

    Flow-induced vibration of a reed (a thin plate or flag) in a channel can improve heat transfer efficiency in forced convection applications, allowing for more heat transfer for the same fan power. Such systems have wide ranging applications in electronic and power cooling. We investigate the effect of 3D reed shape on heat transfer enhancement. To study 3D effects, we first use 2D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations of an optimized reed (in terms of mass and stiffness) to generate a prescribed reed motion. We then apply that motion to a pseudo 3D reed (i.e. infinitely stiff in the spanwise direction) and study the heat transfer enhancement in a 3D channel. This method allows us to explore a large parameter space exhaustively, and using this method, we examine the effect of several parameters, such as reed planform and spanwise gap, on the heat transfer enhancements for forced convection in a channel. Simulations indicate that these geometrical feature have a significant effect on the vortex dynamics in the wake as well as the heat transfer efficiency. This work was supported by grants from AFOSR, EPRI and NSF.

  11. Freeze Tape Casting of Functionally Graded Porous Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofie, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    Freeze tape casting is a means of making preforms of ceramic sheets that, upon subsequent completion of fabrication processing, can have anisotropic and/or functionally graded properties that notably include aligned and graded porosity. Freeze tape casting was developed to enable optimization of the microstructures of porous ceramic components for use as solid oxide electrodes in fuel cells: Through alignment and grading of pores, one can tailor surface areas and diffusion channels for flows of gas and liquid species involved in fuel-cell reactions. Freeze tape casting offers similar benefits for fabrication of optimally porous ceramics for use as catalysts, gas sensors, and filters.

  12. The friction and wear of ceramic/ceramic and ceramic/metal combinations in sliding contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    The tribological characteristics of ceramics sliding on ceramics are compared to those of ceramics sliding on a nickel-based turbine alloy. The friction and wear of oxide ceramics and silicon-based ceramics in air at temperatures from room ambient to 900 C (in a few cases to 1200 C) were measured for a hemispherically-tipped pin on a flat sliding contact geometry. In general, especially at high temperature, friction and wear were lower for ceramic/metal combinations than for ceramic/ceramic combinations. The better tribological performance for ceramic/metal combinations is attributed primarily to the lubricious nature of the oxidized surface of the metal.

  13. The friction and wear of ceramic/ceramic and ceramic/metal combinations in sliding contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    The tribological characteristics of ceramics sliding on ceramics are compared to those of ceramics sliding on a nickel based turbine alloy. The friction and wear of oxide ceramics and silicon-based ceramics in air at temperatures from room ambient to 900 C (in a few cases to 1200 C) were measured for a hemispherically-tipped pin on a flat sliding contact geometry. In general, especially at high temperature, friction and wear were lower for ceramic/metal combinations than for ceramic/ceramic combinations. The better tribological performance for ceramic/metal combinations is attributed primarily to the lubricious nature of the oxidized surface of the metal.

  14. Trap states in enhancement-mode double heterostructures AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with different GaN channel layer thicknesses

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yunlong; Wang, Chong Li, Xiangdong; Zhao, Shenglei; Mi, Minhan; Pei, Jiuqing; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue; Li, Peixian; Ma, Xiaohua

    2015-08-10

    This is the report on trap states in enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterostructures high electron mobility transistors by fluorine plasma treatment with different GaN channel layer thicknesses. Compared with the thick GaN channel layer sample, the thin one has smaller 2DEG concentration, lower electron mobility, lower saturation current, and lower peak transconductance, but it has a higher threshold voltage of 1.2 V. Deep level transient spectroscopy measurements are used to obtain the accurate capture cross section of trap states. By frequency dependent capacitance and conductance measurements, the trap state density of (1.98–2.56) × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} is located at E{sub T} in a range of (0.37–0.44) eV in the thin sample, while the trap state density of (2.3–2.92) × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} is located at E{sub T} in a range of (0.33–0.38) eV in the thick one. It indicates that the trap states in the thin sample are deeper than those in the thick one.

  15. The g-factor of quasi-two-dimensional electrons in InAs/InGaAs/InAlAs inserted-channels

    SciTech Connect

    Pakmehr, Mehdi; Khaetskii, A.; McCombe, B. D.; Bhandari, N.; Cahay, M.; Chiatti, Olivio; Fischer, S. F.; Heyn, C.; Hansen, W.

    2015-08-24

    We have measured the Landau-level spin-splitting of two-dimensional electrons in the composite InAs/InGaAs channels of two InAs/InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures with different alloy compositions by magnetotransport and THz magneto-photoconductivity in magnetic fields up to 10 T. The structures differ importantly in the mobility of the channel, the electron density and the composition of the barriers. The magnitudes of the experimental g-factors for B along the quantization axis and their anisotropies are larger by at least a factor of 2 than the corresponding calculated single particle values. The angular dependence of many-body exchange contributions and the effects of broadening of Landau–level densities of states are necessary for understanding this behaviour. We find evidence for a marked decrease of the exchange contribution at low perpendicular magnetic fields in the higher mobility sample from coincidence measurements, but no indications of such behaviour in the lower mobility sample.

  16. Comparative study of donor-induced quantum dots in Si nano-channels by single-electron transport characterization and Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyszka, K.; Moraru, D.; Samanta, A.; Mizuno, T.; Jabłoński, R.; Tabe, M.

    2015-06-01

    We comparatively study donor-induced quantum dots in Si nanoscale-channel transistors for a wide range of doping concentration by analysis of single-electron tunneling transport and surface potential measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). By correlating KPFM observations of donor-induced potential landscapes with simulations based on Thomas-Fermi approximation, it is demonstrated that single-electron tunneling transport at lowest gate voltages (for smallest coverage of screening electrons) is governed most frequently by only one dominant quantum dot, regardless of doping concentration. Doping concentration, however, primarily affects the internal structure of the quantum dot. At low concentrations, individual donors form most of the quantum dots, i.e., "donor-atom" quantum dots. In contrast, at high concentrations above metal-insulator transition, closely placed donors instead of individual donors form more complex quantum dots, i.e., "donor-cluster" quantum dots. The potential depth of these "donor-cluster" quantum dots is significantly reduced by increasing gate voltage (increasing coverage of screening electrons), leading to the occurrence of multiple competing quantum dots.

  17. Comparative study of donor-induced quantum dots in Si nano-channels by single-electron transport characterization and Kelvin probe force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tyszka, K.; Moraru, D.; Samanta, A.; Mizuno, T.; Tabe, M.; Jabłoński, R.

    2015-06-28

    We comparatively study donor-induced quantum dots in Si nanoscale-channel transistors for a wide range of doping concentration by analysis of single-electron tunneling transport and surface potential measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). By correlating KPFM observations of donor-induced potential landscapes with simulations based on Thomas-Fermi approximation, it is demonstrated that single-electron tunneling transport at lowest gate voltages (for smallest coverage of screening electrons) is governed most frequently by only one dominant quantum dot, regardless of doping concentration. Doping concentration, however, primarily affects the internal structure of the quantum dot. At low concentrations, individual donors form most of the quantum dots, i.e., “donor-atom” quantum dots. In contrast, at high concentrations above metal-insulator transition, closely placed donors instead of individual donors form more complex quantum dots, i.e., “donor-cluster” quantum dots. The potential depth of these “donor-cluster” quantum dots is significantly reduced by increasing gate voltage (increasing coverage of screening electrons), leading to the occurrence of multiple competing quantum dots.

  18. Electronics and Electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nièpce, J.-C.; Givord, D.

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are the capacitors most commonly used in electronic circuits (television, radio, telephone, automobile, aeronautics, space, etc.). The main advantages are low cost, small size, a good level of chemical inertness, due to the fact that they are made from chemically very stable oxide ceramics, and hence good stability in time.

  19. Ceramic tamper-revealing seals

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Sheen, Shuh-Haw

    1992-01-01

    A flexible metal or ceramic cable with composite ceramic ends, or a u-shaped ceramic connecting element attached to a binding element plate or block cast from alumina or zirconium, and connected to the connecting element by shrink fitting.

  20. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sabloff, J A

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

  1. Ceramic laser materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikesue, Akio; Aung, Yan Lin

    2008-12-01

    The word 'ceramics' is derived from the Greek keramos, meaning pottery and porcelain. The opaque and translucent cement and clay often used in tableware are not appropriate for optical applications because of the high content of optical scattering sources, that is, defects. Recently, scientists have shown that by eliminating the defects, a new, refined ceramic material - polycrystalline ceramic - can be produced. This advanced ceramic material offers practical laser generation and is anticipated to be a highly attractive alternative to conventional glass and single-crystal laser technologies in the future. Here we review the history of the development of ceramic lasers, the principle of laser generation based on this material, some typical results achieved with ceramic lasers so far, and discuss the potential future outlook for the field.

  2. NDE of ceramics and ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex; Klima, Stanley J.

    1991-01-01

    Although nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for ceramics are fairly well developed, they are difficult to apply in many cases for high probability detection of the minute flaws that can cause failure in monolithic ceramics. Conventional NDE techniques are available for monolithic and fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites, but more exact quantitative techniques needed are still being investigated and developed. Needs range from flaw detection to below 100 micron levels in monolithic ceramics to global imaging of fiber architecture and matrix densification anomalies in ceramic composites. NDE techniques that will ultimately be applicable to production and quality control of ceramic structures are still emerging from the lab. Needs are different depending on the processing stage, fabrication method, and nature of the finished product. NDE techniques are being developed in concert with materials processing research where they can provide feedback information to processing development and quality improvement. NDE techniques also serve as research tools for materials characterization and for understanding failure processes, e.g., during thermomechanical testing.

  3. Proton conducting cerate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    Cerate perovskites of the general formula AM{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where A = Sr or Ba and where M = Gd, Nd, Y, Yb or other rare earth dopant, are known to conduct a protonic current. Such materials may be useful as the electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell operating at intermediate temperatures, as an electrochemical hydrogen separation membrane, or as a hydrogen sensor. Conduction mechanisms in these materials were evaluated using dc cyclic voltammetry and mass spectrometry, allowing currents and activation energies for proton, electron, and oxygen ion contributions to the total current to be determined. For SrYb{sub 0.05}Ce{sub 0.95}O{sub 3-{delta}}, one of the best and most environmentally stable compositions, proton conduction followed two different mechanisms: a low temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 0.42{+-}0.04 eV, and a high temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 1.38{+-}0.13 eV. It is believed that the low temperature process is dominated by grain boundary conduction while bulk conduction is responsible for the high temperature process. The activation energy for oxygen ion conduction (0.97{+-}0.10 eV) agrees well with other oxygen conductors, while that for electronic conduction, 0.90{+-}0.09 eV, is affected by a temperature-dependent electron carrier concentration. Evaluated by direct measurement of mass flux through a dense ceramic with an applied dc field, oxygen ions were determined to be the majority charge carrier except at the lowest temperatures, followed by electrons and then protons.

  4. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  5. Displacive Transformation in Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-28

    oxidizing atmosphere. In the fiber pullout mechanism of toughening which is thought to be the most powerful to date in ceramics, in non-graphite coated ...induced transformation of the ceramic coating promotes not only fiber pullout mechanisms, but also dissipates crack energy as well as causing frictional...1-11, (1971). 15 G. W. Taylor, "Electrical Properties of Niobium -Doped Ferroelectric Pb(Zr,SnTi)0 3 Ceramics," J. Appl. Phys., 38 [12], 4696-4706

  6. Alumina-based ceramic composite

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, Kathleen B.; Tiegs, Terry N.; Becher, Paul F.; Waters, Shirley B.

    1996-01-01

    An improved ceramic composite comprising oxide ceramic particulates, nonoxide ceramic particulates selected from the group consisting of carbides, borides, nitrides of silicon and transition metals and mixtures thereof, and a ductile binder selected from the group consisting of metallic, intermetallic alloys and mixtures thereof is described. The ceramic composite is made by blending powders of the ceramic particulates and the ductile to form a mixture and consolidating the mixture of under conditions of temperature and pressure sufficient to produce a densified ceramic composite.

  7. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1992-01-01

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density.

  8. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1992-11-17

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density. 2 figs.

  9. Phase Equilibria and Crystallography of Ceramic Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Ng, W.; Roth, R. S.; Vanderah, T. A.; McMurdie, H. F.

    2001-01-01

    Research in phase equilibria and crystallography has been a tradition in the Ceramics Division at National Bureau of Standards/National Institute of Standatrds and Technology (NBS/NIST) since the early thirties. In the early years, effort was concentrated in areas of Portland cement, ceramic glazes and glasses, instrument bearings, and battery materials. In the past 40 years, a large portion of the work was related to electronic materials, including ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, ionic conductors, dielectrics, microwave dielectrics, and high-temperature superconductors. As a result of the phase equilibria studies, many new compounds have been discovered. Some of these discoveries have had a significant impact on US industry. Structure determinations of these new phases have often been carried out as a joint effort among NBS/NIST colleagues and also with outside collaborators using both single crystal and neutron and x-ray powder diffraction techniques. All phase equilibria diagrams were included in Phase Diagrams for Ceramists, which are collaborative publications between The American Ceramic Society (ACerS) and NBS/NIST. All x-ray powder diffraction patterns have been included in the Powder Diffraction File (PDF). This article gives a brief account of the history of the development of the phase equilibria and crystallographic research on ceramic oxides in the Ceramics Division. Represented systems, particularly electronic materials, are highlighted. PMID:27500068

  10. Phase Equilibria and Crystallography of Ceramic Oxides.

    PubMed

    Wong-Ng, W; Roth, R S; Vanderah, T A; McMurdie, H F

    2001-01-01

    Research in phase equilibria and crystallography has been a tradition in the Ceramics Division at National Bureau of Standards/National Institute of Standatrds and Technology (NBS/NIST) since the early thirties. In the early years, effort was concentrated in areas of Portland cement, ceramic glazes and glasses, instrument bearings, and battery materials. In the past 40 years, a large portion of the work was related to electronic materials, including ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, ionic conductors, dielectrics, microwave dielectrics, and high-temperature superconductors. As a result of the phase equilibria studies, many new compounds have been discovered. Some of these discoveries have had a significant impact on US industry. Structure determinations of these new phases have often been carried out as a joint effort among NBS/NIST colleagues and also with outside collaborators using both single crystal and neutron and x-ray powder diffraction techniques. All phase equilibria diagrams were included in Phase Diagrams for Ceramists, which are collaborative publications between The American Ceramic Society (ACerS) and NBS/NIST. All x-ray powder diffraction patterns have been included in the Powder Diffraction File (PDF). This article gives a brief account of the history of the development of the phase equilibria and crystallographic research on ceramic oxides in the Ceramics Division. Represented systems, particularly electronic materials, are highlighted.

  11. Corrosion of Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1999-01-01

    Non-oxide ceramics are promising materials for a range of high temperature applications. Selected current and future applications are listed. In all such applications, the ceramics are exposed to high temperature gases. Therefore it is critical to understand the response of these materials to their environment. The variables to be considered here include both the type of ceramic and the environment to which it is exposed. Non-oxide ceramics include borides, nitrides, and carbides. Most high temperature corrosion environments contain oxygen and hence the emphasis of this chapter will be on oxidation processes.

  12. Defect production in ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Kinoshita, C.

    1997-08-01

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

  13. Thermoplastic Extrusion for Ceramic Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, Frank

    Originally for the extrusion of ceramic bricks and tiles, clay and water were used to endow ceramic particle mixtures with sufficient plastic behaviour to permit practical shaping of the ceramic bodies. High-performance ceramics, however, often require the elimination of clay from extrusion formulations because the chemistry of the clay is incompatible with that of the desired ceramic materials. Therefore organic materials are frequently used in ceramic extrusion to provide plastic flow. Not only plastic behaviour is important for the extrusion of ceramic bodies. There are many other characteristics that can be tailored by the suitable addition of organics in a ceramic extrusion paste, or feedstock.

  14. Spectroscopic investigations on glasses, glass-ceramics and ceramics developed for nuclear waste immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caurant, D.

    2014-05-01

    Highly radioactive nuclear waste must be immobilized in very durable matrices such as glasses, glass-ceramics and ceramics in order to avoid their dispersion in the biosphere during their radioactivity decay. In this paper, we present various examples of spectroscopic investigations (optical absorption, Raman, NMR, EPR) performed to study the local structure of different kinds of such matrices used or envisaged to immobilize different kinds of radioactive wastes. A particular attention has been paid on the incorporation and the structural role of rare earths—both as fission products and actinide surrogates—in silicate glasses and glass-ceramics. An example of structural study by EPR of a ceramic (hollandite) irradiated by electrons (to simulate the effect of the β-irradiation of radioactive cesium) is also presented.

  15. Effect of ceramic etching protocols on resin bond strength to a feldspar ceramic.

    PubMed

    Bottino, M A; Snellaert, A; Bergoli, C D; Özcan, M; Bottino, M C; Valandro, L F

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the resin microtensile bond strength (MTBS) stability of a leucite-reinforced ceramic after different ceramic etching protocols. The microtensile test had 40 ceramic blocks (5×5×6 mm) assigned to five groups (n=8), in accordance with the following surface etching protocols: NE nonetched (control); 9HF: hydrofluoric (HF) acid etching (9%HF)+wash/dry; 4HF: 4%HF+wash/dry; 5HF: 5%HF+wash/dry; and 5HF+N: 5%HF+neutralizer+wash/dry+ultrasonic-cleaning. Etched ceramic surfaces were treated with a silane agent. Next, resin cement blocks were built on the prepared ceramic surface and stored for 24 hours in distilled water at 37°C. The specimens were then sectioned to obtain microtensile beams (32/block), which were randomly assigned to the following conditions, nonaged (immediate test) and aged (water storage for 150 days plus 12,000 thermal cycles), before the microtensile test. Bond strength data were submitted to one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (α=0.05). Additional ceramic samples were subjected to the different ceramic etching protocols and evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (n=2) and atomic force microscopy (n=2). Aging led to a statistically significant decrease in the MTBS for all groups, except the untreated one (NE). Among the groups submitted to the same aging conditions, the untreated (NE) revealed inferior MTBS values compared to the 9HF and 4HF groups. The 5HF and 5HF+N groups had intermediate mean values, being statistically similar to the higher values presented by the 9HF and 4HF groups and to the lower value associated with the NE group. The neutralization procedure did not enhance the ceramic/resin cement bond strength. HF acid etching is a crucial step in resin/ceramic bonding.

  16. University of Utah four-channel pulse-to-pulse commutated SUPER-LOKI rocket meteorological parachutesonde (electronics)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, K. W.; Soss, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    The electronics and temperature sensing units of the pulse-to-pulse rocketsonde are described. The sonde is designed for the 2 1/8-inch dart of the SUPER-LOKI meteorological rocket. In flight, the sonde descends by parachute from rocket apogees of about 75 kilometers. As the sonde descends, it transmits air temperature data back to ground radio receiving stations.

  17. NASA/CARES dual-use ceramic technology spinoff applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Lynn M.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Nemeth, Noel N.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has developed software that enables American industry to establish the reliability and life of ceramic structures in a wide variety of 21st Century applications. Designing ceramic components to survive at higher temperatures than the capability of most metals and in severe loading environments involves the disciplines of statistics and fracture mechanics. Successful application of advanced ceramics material properties and the use of a probabilistic brittle material design methodology. The NASA program, known as CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures), is a comprehensive general purpose design tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. The latest version of this software, CARESALIFE, is coupled to several commercially available finite element analysis programs (ANSYS, MSC/NASTRAN, ABAQUS, COSMOS/N4, MARC), resulting in an advanced integrated design tool which is adapted to the computing environment of the user. The NASA-developed CARES software has been successfully used by industrial, government, and academic organizations to design and optimize ceramic components for many demanding applications. Industrial sectors impacted by this program include aerospace, automotive, electronic, medical, and energy applications. Dual-use applications include engine components, graphite and ceramic high temperature valves, TV picture tubes, ceramic bearings, electronic chips, glass building panels, infrared windows, radiant heater tubes, heat exchangers, and artificial hips, knee caps, and teeth.

  18. Ceramic Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Ceramic Technology Project was developed by the USDOE Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the USDOE and NASA advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. These programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. A five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. In July 1990 the original plan was updated through the estimated completion of development in 1993. The objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities.

  19. Application of electron conformational-genetic algorithm approach to 1,4-dihydropyridines as calcium channel antagonists: pharmacophore identification and bioactivity prediction.

    PubMed

    Geçen, Nazmiye; Sarıpınar, Emin; Yanmaz, Ersin; Sahin, Kader

    2012-01-01

    Two different approaches, namely the electron conformational and genetic algorithm methods (EC-GA), were combined to identify a pharmacophore group and to predict the antagonist activity of 1,4-dihydropyridines (known calcium channel antagonists) from molecular structure descriptors. To identify the pharmacophore, electron conformational matrices of congruity (ECMC)-which include atomic charges as diagonal elements and bond orders and interatomic distances as off-diagonal elements-were arranged for all compounds. The ECMC of the compound with the highest activity was chosen as a template and compared with the ECMCs of other compounds within given tolerances to reveal the electron conformational submatrix of activity (ECSA) that refers to the pharmacophore. The genetic algorithm was employed to search for the best subset of parameter combinations that contributes the most to activity. Applying the model with the optimum 10 parameters to training (50 compounds) and test (22 compounds) sets gave satisfactory results (R(2)(training)= 0.848, R(2)(test))= 0.904, with a cross-validated q(2) = 0.780).

  20. Planar ceramic membrane assembly and oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Dyer, legal representative, Kathryn Beverly; Wilson, Merrill Anderson; Ohm, Ted R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Peterson, David; Chen, Christopher M.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Dyer, deceased, Paul Nigel

    2007-10-09

    Planar ceramic membrane assembly comprising a dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material, wherein the dense layer has a first side and a second side, a porous layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material in contact with the first side of the dense layer, and a ceramic channeled support layer in contact with the second side of the dense layer. The planar ceramic membrane assembly can be used in a ceramic wafer assembly comprising a planar ceramic channeled support layer having a first side and a second side; a first dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the first side of the ceramic channeled support layer; a first outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the first dense layer; a second dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the second side of the ceramic channeled layer; and a second outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the second dense layer.

  1. Planar ceramic membrane assembly and oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Dyer, legal representative, Kathryn Beverly; Wilson, Merrill Anderson; Ohrn, Ted R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Peterson, David; Chen, Christopher M.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Dyer, Paul Nigel

    2009-04-07

    Planar ceramic membrane assembly comprising a dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material, wherein the dense layer has a first side and a second side, a porous layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material in contact with the first side of the dense layer, and a ceramic channeled support layer in contact with the second side of the dense layer. The planar ceramic membrane assembly can be used in a ceramic wafer assembly comprising a planar ceramic channeled support layer having a first side and a second side; a first dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the first side of the ceramic channeled support layer; a first outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the first dense layer; a second dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the second side of the ceramic channeled layer; and a second outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the second dense layer.

  2. Motion of a virtual cathode in a cylindrical channel with electron beam transport in the "compressed" state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belomyttsev, S. Ya.; Grishkov, A. A.; Kurkan, I. K.; Tsygankov, R. V.

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies the motion of a virtual cathode in a two-section drift tube with the formation and breakup of the "compressed" state of an electron beam. Experimental arrangements to intercept part of the injected current during the voltage pulse and to provide virtual cathode motion toward the collector are proposed. The arrangements were implemented on the SINUS-7 high-current electron accelerator. Theoretical and experimental dependences of the virtual cathode velocity on the injected current and cathode voltage are presented. The experimental data on virtual cathode motion agree with its theoretical model based on analytical solutions of equations assisted by computer simulation with the PIC code KARAT. The results of the work demonstrate the feasibility of controlling the virtual cathode motion which can be used in collective ion acceleration and microwave generation.

  3. High electron mobility recovery in AlGaN/GaN 2DEG channels regrown on etched surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Silvia H.; Keller, Stacia; Tahhan, Maher; Li, Haoran; Romanczyk, Brian; DenBaars, Steven P.; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports high two-dimensional electron gas mobility attained from the regrowth of the AlGaN gating layer on ex situ GaN surfaces. To repair etch-damaged GaN surfaces, various pretreatments were conducted via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, followed by a regrown AlGaN/GaN mobility test structure to evaluate the extent of recovery. The developed treatment process that was shown to significantly improve the electron mobility consisted of a N2 + NH3 pre-anneal plus an insertion of a 4 nm or thicker GaN interlayer prior to deposition of the AlGaN gating layer. Using the optimized process, a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device was fabricated which exhibited a high mobility of 1450 cm2 V-1 s-1 (R sh = 574 ohm/sq) and low dispersion characteristics. The additional inclusion of an in situ Al2O3 dielectric into the regrowth process for MOS-HEMTs still preserved the transport properties near etch-impacted areas.

  4. Contact Resistance and Channel Conductance of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors under Low-Energy Electron Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Giubileo, Filippo; Di Bartolomeo, Antonio; Martucciello, Nadia; Romeo, Francesco; Iemmo, Laura; Romano, Paola; Passacantando, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effects of low-energy electron beam irradiation up to 10 keV on graphene-based field effect transistors. We fabricated metallic bilayer electrodes to contact mono- and bi-layer graphene flakes on SiO2, obtaining specific contact resistivity ρc≈19 kΩ·µm2 and carrier mobility as high as 4000 cm2·V−1·s−1. By using a highly doped p-Si/SiO2 substrate as the back gate, we analyzed the transport properties of the device and the dependence on the pressure and on the electron bombardment. We demonstrate herein that low energy irradiation is detrimental to the transistor current capability, resulting in an increase in contact resistance and a reduction in carrier mobility, even at electron doses as low as 30 e−/nm2. We also show that irradiated devices recover their pristine state after few repeated electrical measurements. PMID:28335335

  5. Method of making a modified ceramic-ceramic composite

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Billy L.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Stinton, David P.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of making a shaped ceramic-ceramic composite articles, such as gas-fired radiant heat burner tubes, heat exchangers, flame dispersers, and other furnace elements, having a formed-on ceramic-ceramic composite thereon.

  6. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2001-02-01

    This is the fifth quarterly report on a new study to develop a ceramic membrane/metal joint. Results of wetting experiments on commercially available Nickel based brazing alloys on perovskite surfaces are described. Additionally, experimental and numerical investigations on the strength of concentric ceramic/metal joints are presented.

  7. Electron collisions with phenol: Total, integral, differential, and momentum transfer cross sections and the role of multichannel coupling effects on the elastic channel.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Romarly F; de Oliveira, Eliane M; Bettega, Márcio H F; Varella, Márcio T do N; Jones, Darryl B; Brunger, Michael J; Blanco, Francisco; Colmenares, Rafael; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; García, Gustavo; Lima, Marco A P

    2015-03-14

    We report theoretical and experimental total cross sections for electron scattering by phenol (C6H5OH). The experimental data were obtained with an apparatus based in Madrid and the calculated cross sections with two different methodologies, the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR), and the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials (SMCPP). The SMCPP method in the Nopen-channel coupling scheme, at the static-exchange-plus-polarization approximation, is employed to calculate the scattering amplitudes at impact energies ranging from 5.0 eV to 50 eV. We discuss the multichannel coupling effects in the calculated cross sections, in particular how the number of excited states included in the open-channel space impacts upon the convergence of the elastic cross sections at higher collision energies. The IAM-SCAR approach was also used to obtain the elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) and for correcting the experimental total cross sections for the so-called forward angle scattering effect. We found a very good agreement between our SMCPP theoretical differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections and experimental data for benzene (a molecule differing from phenol by replacing a hydrogen atom in benzene with a hydroxyl group). Although some discrepancies were found for lower energies, the agreement between the SMCPP data and the DCSs obtained with the IAM-SCAR method improves, as expected, as the impact energy increases. We also have a good agreement among the present SMCPP calculated total cross section (which includes elastic, 32 inelastic electronic excitation processes and ionization contributions, the latter estimated with the binary-encounter-Bethe model), the IAM-SCAR total cross section, and the experimental data when the latter is corrected for the forward angle scattering effect [Fuss et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 042702 (2013)].

  8. Mounting for ceramic scroll

    DOEpatents

    Petty, Jack D.

    1993-01-01

    A mounting for a ceramic scroll on a metal engine block of a gas turbine engine includes a first ceramic ring and a pair of cross key connections between the first ceramic ring, the ceramic scroll, and the engine block. The cross key connections support the scroll on the engine block independent of relative radial thermal growth and for bodily movement toward an annular mounting shoulder on the engine. The scroll has an uninterrupted annular shoulder facing the mounting shoulder on the engine block. A second ceramic ring is captured between mounting shoulder and the uninterrupted shoulder on the scroll when the latter is bodily shifted toward the mouting shoulder to define a gas seal between the scroll and the engine block.

  9. Strain isolated ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolokan, R. P.; Brady, J. B.; Jarrabet, G. P.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are used in gas turbine engines to improve component temperature capability and cooling air efficiency. A compliant metal fiber strain isolator between a plasma sprayed ceramic coating and a metal substrate improves ceramic durability while allowing thicker coatings for better insulation. Development of strain isolated coatings has concentrated on design and fabrication of coatings and coating evaluation via thermal shock testing. In thermal shock testing, five types of failure are possible: buckling failure im compression on heat up, bimetal type failure, isothermal expansion mismatch failure, mudflat cracking during cool down, and long term fatigue. A primary failure mode for thermally cycled coatings is designated bimetal type failure. Bimetal failure is tensile failure in the ceramic near the ceramic-metal interface. One of the significant benefits of the strain isolator is an insulating layer protecting the metal substrate from heat deformation and thereby preventing bimetal type failure.

  10. Ceramic heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    LaHaye, P.G.; Rahman, F.H.; Lebeau, T.P.; Severin, B.K.

    1998-06-16

    A tube containment system is disclosed. The tube containment system does not significantly reduce heat transfer through the tube wall. The contained tube is internally pressurized, and is formed from a ceramic material having high strength, high thermal conductivity, and good thermal shock resistance. The tube containment system includes at least one ceramic fiber braid material disposed about the internally pressurized tube. The material is disposed about the tube in a predetermined axial spacing arrangement. The ceramic fiber braid is present in an amount sufficient to contain the tube if the tube becomes fractured. The tube containment system can also include a plurality of ceramic ring-shaped structures, in contact with the outer surface of the tube, and positioned between the tube and the ceramic fiber braid material, and/or at least one transducer positioned within tube for reducing the internal volume and, therefore, the energy of any shrapnel resulting from a tube fracture. 6 figs.

  11. Ceramic heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    LaHaye, Paul G.; Rahman, Faress H.; Lebeau, Thomas P. E.; Severin, Barbara K.

    1998-01-01

    A tube containment system. The tube containment system does not significantly reduce heat transfer through the tube wall. The contained tube is internally pressurized, and is formed from a ceramic material having high strength, high thermal conductivity, and good thermal shock resistance. The tube containment system includes at least one ceramic fiber braid material disposed about the internally pressurized tube. The material is disposed about the tube in a predetermined axial spacing arrangement. The ceramic fiber braid is present in an amount sufficient to contain the tube if the tube becomes fractured. The tube containment system can also include a plurality of ceramic ring-shaped structures, in contact with the outer surface of the tube, and positioned between the tube and the ceramic fiber braid material, and/or at least one transducer positioned within tube for reducing the internal volume and, therefore, the energy of any shrapnel resulting from a tube fracture.

  12. Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1987-01-01

    A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate.

  13. Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1985-04-03

    A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate.

  14. Mixture for producing fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic material by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1987-09-22

    A fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is produced by a method which involves preparing a ceramic precursor mixture comprising glass material, a coupling agent, and resilient fibers, and then exposing the mixture to microwave energy. The microwave field orients the fibers in the resulting ceramic material in a desired pattern wherein heat later generated in or on the substrate can be dissipated in a desired geometric pattern parallel to the fiber pattern. Additionally, the shunt capacitance of the fracture-resistant, fiber-reinforced ceramic substrate is lower which provides for a quicker transit time for electronic pulses in any conducting pathway etched into the ceramic substrate. 2 figs.

  15. Long-Pulse Relativistic Electron Beam Generation and Propagation in Gases and in Ultraviolet Laser Ionized Channels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, Robert Francis, Jr.

    1988-12-01

    Experiments on the propagation of relativistic electron beams (REB) in the ion-focus regime (IFR) are described. A novel feature of the experiments is the long -pulse nature of the electron beam from the Michigan Electron Long Beam Accelerator (MELBA), a Marx generator with voltage compensation (1 MV, 10 kA, 1 microsecond). The REB is extracted from the diode through a 2.5 cm diameter aperture. A cold cathode is used. To reduce voltage droop from diode gap closure, anode-cathode spacings >7 cm are used. A 7.6 cm dia. cotton velvet cathode provides 300 A of injected current for 800 ns before a rapid increase in injected current, attributed to diode instability. Loss of REB transport accompanies this current increase. Conclusions drawn from the empirical diode study are: (1) successful generation of microsecond electron beams without magnetic insulation from cold cathodes requires diode spacing of ~10 cm, (2) cotton velvet gives improved beam quality over carbon fiber "brush" cathodes, (3) velvet cathodes have slower closure velocity of the cathode plasma. In the IFR regime partial neutralization of the space-charge of an REB by an ion background with the magnetic pinch force of the REB current achieves radial force balance. Experiments are performed in neutral gas, and in diethylaniline (DEA), preionized with a KrF laser. A pressure window for propagation is observed. For helium this window is 50-300 mtorr. The longest propagated pulse is 300 ns with a peak transported efficiency of 80%. In air the pressure window is 5-75 mtorr with similar efficiency. In DEA, fractional ionization of 0.004 has been achieved at a laser fluence of 10 mJ per square cm. To provide sufficient preionization for propagation, pressures where impact ionization is not negligible are required. A pressure window for propagation is again observed. For the current density and laser fluence in this experiment the pressure window is 0.2-2 mTorr. Within the pressure window instability, of the REB

  16. Nanocrystallization in Fluorochlorozirconate Glass-Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carlos J; Liu, Yuzi; Leonard, Russell L; Johnson, Jacqueline A; Petford-Long, Amanda K

    2013-11-01

    Heat treating fluorochlorozirconate (FCZ) glasses nucleates nanocrystals in the glass matrix, resulting in a nanocomposite glass-ceramic that has optical properties suitable for use as a medical imaging plate. Understanding the way in which the nanocrystal nucleation proceeds is critical to controlling the optical behavior. The nucleation and growth of nanocrystals in FCZ glass-ceramics was investigated with in situ transmission electron microscopy heating experiments. The experiments showed the nucleation and growth of previously unreported BaF2 nanocrystals in addition to the expected BaCl2 nanocrystals. Chemical analysis of the BaF2 nanocrystals shows an association with the optically active dopant previously thought only to interact with BaCl2 nanocrystals. The association of the dopant with BaF2 crystals suggests that it plays a role in the photoluminescent (PL) properties of FCZ glass-ceramics.

  17. Failure probability prediction of dielectric ceramics in multilayer capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, A.A.; Breder, K.; Ferber, M.K.; Bridge, R.J.; Riester, L.; Kirkland, T.P.

    1998-11-01

    Dielectric ceramics in multilayer capacitors are subjected to manufacturing or service thermomechanical stresses which, if severe enough, will cause mechanical failure and perhaps subsequent loss of electrical function. Strength of monolithic ceramics is probabilistic in nature; however, probabilistic design of such electronic ceramic components generally has not been used by manufacturers and end-users of these components. To illustrate how probabilistic design may be utilized for small components, the present study demonstrates the applicability of an existing probabilistic life design computer code in the prediction of failure probability of a dielectric ceramic in an arbitrary multilayer capacitor. Issues involving the generation of representative strength and fatigue data for specimens at this small scale and the ultimate failure probability prediction of dielectric ceramics in multilayer capacitors are presented. Additionally, alternative means to generate a strength distribution as input for the probabilistic life design computer codes which are under consideration by the authors are discussed.

  18. Dual-channel cathodic electrochemiluminescence of luminol induced by injection of hot electrons on a niobate semiconductor modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huifeng; Ye, Hongzhi; Zhu, Xi; Liang, Shijing; Guo, Longhua; Lin, Zhenyu; Liu, Xianxiang; Chen, Guonan

    2013-01-07

    In this paper, a new niobate semiconductor photocatalyst Sr(0.4)H(1.2)Nb(2)O(6)·H(2)O (HSN) nanoparticle was applied to investigate the cathodic electrochemiluminescent (ECL) behavior of luminol for the first time. The results presented here demonstrated that there were two ECL peaks of luminol at the cathodic potential attributed to immobilization of HSN on the electrode surface. It is implied that HSN can be electrically excited and injected electrons into aqueous electrolytes from this electrode under a quite low potential that only excites luminol. A mechanism for this luminol-ECL system on HSN/GCE has been proposed. Additionally, this HSN/GCE has lots of advantages, such as high stability, good anti-interference ability, simple instrumentation, rapid procedure and ultrasensitive ECL response. It is envisioned that this HSN/GCE has further applications in biosensors.

  19. Coherence properties and diagnostics of betatron radiation emitted by an externally-injected electron beam propagating in a plasma channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paroli, B.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Petrillo, V.; Potenza, M. A. C.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.

    2015-07-01

    A 3-dimensional time-domain simulation of X-ray produced by a laser wakefield accelerated electron beam was performed in order to know its properties like intensity, spectrum, divergence and coherence. Particular attention was paid to the coherence around the acceleration axis. The broad spectrum of betatron radiation (1-10 keV) leads to a short coherence length. Nevertheless we observe that under particular detection condition the spatial coherence has a characteristic enlargement. We give a simplified interpretation of this effect in terms of phase shift of the electric field on a virtual detector. Moreover we describe a near field scattering technique to characterize the betatron radiation. This diagnostics will be used to map the transverse spatio-temporal coherence of X-ray radiation in the laser wakefield accelerator under development at Frascati National Laboratories (LNF).

  20. Ceramic-silicide composites

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1998-12-01

    The area of ceramic-silicide composites represents a merging of structural ceramics and structural silicides. Such ceramic-silicide composites can possess the desirable characteristics of both classes of compounds. Important structural ceramics are materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, SiC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZrO{sub 2}, which possess covalent, ionic, or mixed covalent-ionic atomic bonding. An important structural silicide is MoSi{sub 2}, which possesses mixed covalent-metallic bonding. The arena of ceramic-silicide composites encompasses both composites where the structural silicide is the matrix and the structural ceramic is the reinforcement, and composites where the structural ceramic is the matrix and the structural silicide is the reinforcement. In the former area, MoSi{sub 2}-SiC, MoSi{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, and MoSi{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites are discussed. In the latter area, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-MoSi{sub 2} composites are described.

  1. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael E.; Harkins, Bruce D.

    1993-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  2. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

    1993-11-30

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

  3. Application of Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to Determine Texture, Microtexture, and Grain Boundary Energies in Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, S.J.; Rohrer, G.S.; Saylor, D.M.; Vedula, V.R.

    1999-05-19

    Crystallographic orientations in alumina (Al203) and magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl204) were obtained using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) patterns. The texture and mesotexture (grain boundary misorientations) were random and no special boundaries were observed. The relative grain boundary energies were determined by thermal groove geometries using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to identify relationships between the grain boundary energies and misorientations.

  4. Space group analysis of Sr1-xCaxTiO3 ceramics with x = 0.20, 0.27 and 0.30 through electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Shahid; Lalla, N. P.

    2007-10-01

    The space groups of Sr1-xCaxTiO3 in the composition range 0.20<=x<=0.30 have been investigated using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction techniques. Electron diffraction has been used in selected area diffraction (SAD), convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and micro-diffraction modes to record zero-order Laue zone (ZOLZ) and higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) patterns. For the 0.20<=x<=0.30 composition range there is still controversy regarding the correct space group: P 21/m, Pnma, Imma or I4/mcm. By invoking Rietveld refinement, detailed analysis of CBED patterns containing A2-type GM-lines and comparison between simulated ZOLZ/FOLZ and experimentally observed SAD patterns, we have established that for Sr1-xCaxTiO3 (0.20<=x<=0.30) two types of phase coexist at room temperature. These are the Pnma and P 21212 orthorhombic phases, coexisting with volume fractions of about 40% and 60% respectively.

  5. The APS ceramic chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, S.; Warner, D.

    1994-07-01

    Ceramics chambers are used in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) machines at the locations of the pulsed kicker and bumper magnets. The ceramic will be coated internally with a resistive paste. The resistance is chosen to allow the low frequency pulsed magnet field to penetrate but not the high frequency components of the circulating beam. Another design goal was to keep the power density experienced by the resistive coating to a minimum. These ceramics, their associated hardware, the coating process, and our recent experiences with them are described.

  6. Spacecraft ceramic protective shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larriva, Rene F. (Inventor); Nelson, Anne (M.); Czechanski, James G. (Inventor); Poff, Ray E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A low areal density protective shield apparatus, and method for making same, for protecting spacecraft structures from impact with hypervelocity objects, including a bumper member comprising a bumper ceramic layer, a bumper shock attenuator layer, and a bumper confining layer. The bumper ceramic layer can be SiC or B.sub.4 C; the bumper shock attenuator layer can be zirconia felt; and the bumper confining layer can be aluminum. A base armor member can be spaced from the bumper member and a ceramic fiber-based curtain can be positioned between the bumper and base armor members.

  7. A multienzyme complex channels substrates and electrons through acetyl-CoA and methane biosynthesis pathways in Methanosarcina.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Dillon J; Catlett, Jennifer; Madayiputhiya, Nandu; Nandakumar, Renu; Lopez, Madeline M; Metcalf, William W; Buan, Nicole R

    2014-01-01

    Multienzyme complexes catalyze important metabolic reactions in many organisms, but little is known about the complexes involved in biological methane production (methanogenesis). A crosslinking-mass spectrometry (XL-MS) strategy was employed to identify proteins associated with coenzyme M-coenzyme B heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), an essential enzyme in all methane-producing archaea (methanogens). In Methanosarcina acetivorans, Hdr forms a multienzyme complex with acetyl-CoA decarbonylase synthase (ACDS), and F420-dependent methylene-H4MPT reductase (Mer). ACDS is essential for production of acetyl-CoA during growth on methanol, or for methanogenesis from acetate, whereas Mer is essential for methanogenesis from all substrates. Existence of a Hdr:ACDS:Mer complex is consistent with growth phenotypes of ACDS and Mer mutant strains in which the complex samples the redox status of electron carriers and directs carbon flux to acetyl-CoA or methanogenesis. We propose the Hdr:ACDS:Mer complex comprises a special class of multienzyme redox complex which functions as a "biological router" that physically links methanogenesis and acetyl-CoA biosynthesis pathways.

  8. Crystallization Kinetics in Fluorochloroziroconate Glass-Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Carlos J.

    Annealing fluorochlorozirconate (FCZ) glasses nucleates BaCl2 nanocrystals in the glass matrix, resulting in a nanocomposite glass-ceramic that has optical properties suitable for use as a medical X-ray imaging plate. Understanding the way in which the BaCl¬2 nanocrystal nucleation, growth and phase transformation processes proceed is critical to controlling the optical behavior. However, there is a very limited amount of information about the formation, morphology, and distribution of the nanocrystalline particles in FCZ glass-ceramics. In this thesis, the correlation between the microstructure and the crystallization kinetics of FCZ glass-ceramics, are studied in detail. In situ X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy annealing experiments are used to analyze the crystal structure, size and distribution of BaCl 2 nanocrystals in FCZ glass-ceramics as a function of annealing rate and temperature. Microstructural analysis of the early stages on nucleation identified the formation of both BaCl2 and BaF2 nanocrystals. Annealing FCZ glass-ceramics above 280°C can cause the formation of additional glass matrix phase crystals, their microstructure and the annealing parameters required for their growth are identified. As the crystalline phases grow directly from the glass, small variations in processing of the glass can have a profound influence on the crystallization process. The information obtained from these experiments improves the understanding of the nucleation, growth and phase transformation process of the BaCl¬2 nanocrystals and additional crystalline phases that form in FCZ glass-ceramics, and may help expedite the implementation of FCZ glass-ceramics as next-generation X-ray detectors. Lastly, as these glass-ceramics may one day be commercialized, an investigation into their degradation in different environmental conditions was also performed. The effects of direct contact with water or prolonged exposure to humid environments on the

  9. High-Temperature, Thin-Film Ceramic Thermocouples Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayir, Ali; Blaha, Charles A.; Gonzalez, Jose M.

    2005-01-01

    To enable long-duration, more distant human and robotic missions for the Vision for Space Exploration, as well as safer, lighter, quieter, and more fuel efficient vehicles for aeronautics and space transportation, NASA is developing instrumentation and material technologies. The high-temperature capabilities of thin-film ceramic thermocouples are being explored at the NASA Glenn Research Center by the Sensors and Electronics Branch and the Ceramics Branch in partnership with Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). Glenn s Sensors and Electronics Branch is developing thin-film sensors for surface measurement of strain, temperature, heat flux, and surface flow in propulsion system research. Glenn s Ceramics Branch, in conjunction with CWRU, is developing structural and functional ceramic technology for aeropropulsion and space propulsion.

  10. All ceramic structure for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.; Kucera, Eugenia H.

    1992-01-01

    An all-ceramic molten carbonate fuel cell having a composition formed of a multivalent metal oxide or oxygenate such as an alkali metal, transition metal oxygenate. The structure includes an anode and cathode separated by an electronically conductive interconnect. The electrodes and interconnect are compositions ceramic materials. Various combinations of ceramic compositions for the anode, cathode and interconnect are disclosed. The fuel cell exhibits stability in the fuel gas and oxidizing environments. It presents reduced sealing and expansion problems in fabrication and has improved long-term corrosion resistance.

  11. Improvement in the cloud mask for Terra MODIS mitigated by electronic crosstalk correction in the 6.7 μm and 8.5 μm channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Madhavan, S.; Wang, M.

    2016-09-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a remarkable heritage sensor in the fleet of Earth Observing System for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in space orbit on two spacecrafts. They are the Terra (T) and Aqua (A) platforms which tracks the Earth in the morning and afternoon orbits. T-MODIS has continued to operate over 15 years easily surpassing the 6 year design life time on orbit. Of the several science products derived from MODIS, one of the primary derivatives is the MODIS Cloud Mask (MOD035). The cloud mask algorithm incorporates several of the MODIS channels in both reflective and thermal infrared wavelengths to identify cloud pixels from clear sky. Two of the thermal infrared channels used in detecting clouds are the 6.7 μm and 8.5 μm. Based on a difference threshold with the 11 μm channel, the 6.7 μm channel helps in identifying thick high clouds while the 8.5 μm channel being useful for identifying thin clouds. Starting 2010, it had been observed in the cloud mask products that several pixels have been misclassified due to the change in the thermal band radiometry. The long-term radiometric changes in these thermal channels have been attributed to the electronic crosstalk contamination. In this paper, the improvement in cloud detection using the 6.7 μm and 8.5 μm channels are demonstrated using the electronic crosstalk correction. The electronic crosstalk phenomena analysis and characterization were developed using the regular moon observation of MODIS and reported in several works. The results presented in this paper should significantly help in improving the MOD035 product, maintaining the long term dataset from T-MODIS which is important for global change monitoring.

  12. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-23

    Ceramic materials are disclosed which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200--550 C or organic salt (including SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) at temperatures of 25--200 C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components. 1 fig.

  13. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Ceramic materials which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  14. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    Ceramic materials which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  15. Fibrous ceramic insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.E.

    1982-11-01

    Some of the reusable heat shielding materials used to protect the Space Shuttles, their manufacturing processes, properties, and applications are discussed. Emphasis is upon ceramic materials. Space Shuttle Orbiter tiles are discussed.

  16. Light emitting ceramic device

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Paul; Edwards, Doreen D.; Walker, Jr., William John; Slack, Lyle H.; Brown, Wayne Douglas; Osborne, Cathy; Norton, Michael; Begley, Richard

    2010-05-18

    A light-emitting ceramic based panel, hereafter termed "electroceramescent" panel, is herein claimed. The electroceramescent panel is formed on a substrate providing mechanical support as well as serving as the base electrode for the device. One or more semiconductive ceramic layers directly overlay the substrate, and electrical conductivity and ionic diffusion are controlled. Light emitting regions overlay the semiconductive ceramic layers, and said regions consist sequentially of a layer of a ceramic insulation layer and an electroluminescent layer, comprised of doped phosphors or the equivalent. One or more conductive top electrode layers having optically transmissive areas overlay the light emitting regions, and a multi-layered top barrier cover comprising one or more optically transmissive non-combustible insulation layers overlay said top electrode regions.

  17. Making Ceramic Cameras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squibb, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make a clay camera. This idea of creating functional cameras from clay allows students to experience ceramics, photography, and painting all in one unit. (Contains 1 resource and 3 online resources.)

  18. Advanced Ceramics Property Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ceramic bodies can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. The Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, has developed dozens of consensus test standards and practices to measure various properties of a ceramic monolith, composite, or coating. The standards give the "what, how, how not, and why" for measurement of many mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results from your test lab, or another. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the C-28 standards and information on how to obtain individual copies with full details or the complete collection of standards in one volume.

  19. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  20. Super Thin Ceramic Coatings

    NASA Video Gallery

    New technology being developed at NASA's Glenn Research Center creates super thin ceramic coatings on engine components. The Plasma Spray – Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) rig uses a powerful ...

  1. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-07-01

    This is the fourth quarterly report on a new study to develop a ceramic membrane/metal joint. The first experiments using the La-Sr-Fe-O ceramic are reported. Some of the analysis performed on the samples obtained are commented upon. A set of experiments to characterize the mechanical strength and thermal fatigue properties of the joints has been designed and begun. Finite element models of joints used to model residual stresses are described.

  2. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  3. Bonding at Metal-Ceramic Interfaces in Hybrid Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-31

    composites), M. Mendiratta (niobium silicide based materials), P. Smith ( titanium aluminide ceramic composites), C. Woodward (electronic structure...Although the technique may work for ceramic fibers in a titanium aluminide matrix, it may not be successful if the matrix has a low yield stress. The...structrual materials. A natural ougrowth of this focus can be to train young scientists. Our nationwide Ph.D. shortage in high temperature structural

  4. Tailoring of Nano- and Microstructure in Biomimetically Synthesized Ceramic Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    ceramic thin film deposition approach through which inorganic materials were deposited on a functionalized organic matrix from aqueous media at low...temperatures was studied. This process is analogous to the natural biomineralization process. Specifically, nanostructured ZrO2 and TiO2 thin films ...ceramic thin films have found applications in fuel cells, semiconductors, electronic packaging, optical equipment, thermal barrier coatings, and

  5. Radiopaque Strontium Fluoroapatite Glass-Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Dittmer, Marc; Ritzberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The controlled precipitation of strontium fluoroapatite crystals was studied in four base glass compositions derived from the SiO2–Al2O3–Y2O3–SrO–Na2O–K2O/Rb2O/Cs2O–P2O5–F system. The crystal phase formation of these glasses and the main properties of the glass-ceramics, such as thermal and optical properties and radiopacity were compared with a fifth, a reference glass-ceramic. The reference glass-ceramic was characterized as Ca-fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. The four strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics showed the following crystal phases: (a) Sr5(PO4)3F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, (b) Sr5(PO4)3F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, (c) Sr5(PO4)3F – pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, and (d) Sr5(PO4)3F – Rb-leucite, RbAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4. The proof of crystal phase formation was possible by X-ray diffraction. The microstructures, which were studied using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrated a uniform distribution of the crystals in the glass matrix. The Sr-fluoroapatites were precipitated based on an internal crystallization process, and the crystals demonstrated a needle-like morphology. The study of the crystal growth of needle-like Sr-fluoroapatites gave a clear evidence of an Ostwald ripening mechanism. The formation of leucite, pollucite, and Rb-leucite was based on a surface crystallization mechanism. Therefore, a twofold crystallization mechanism was successfully applied to develop these types of glass-ceramics. The main focus of this study was the controlled development of glass-ceramics exhibiting high radiopacity in comparison to the reference glass-ceramic. This goal could be achieved with all four glass-ceramics with the preferred development of the Sr-fluoroapatite – pollucite-type glass-ceramic. In addition to this main development, it was possible to control the thermal properties. Especially the Rb-leucite containing glass-ceramic showed the highest coefficient of thermal

  6. Characterization of Ultra-high Temperature Ceramics via Transmission Electron Microscopy Relevant ZrB2-based Composites, TaC-based Composites and Oxides Containing SiC Chopped Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-06

    TaC-based composites and oxides containing SiC chopped fibers Laura Silverstroni Diletta Sciti Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics...S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics Via Granarolo 64 FAENZA, 48018 ITALY 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...of activity in the frame of the contract No. FA8655-12-1-3004 between the US Air Force Research Laboratory and the Institute of Science and

  7. A new freeze casting technique for ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Kiyoshi

    A new freeze casting technique for ceramics capable of manufacturing near room temperature with a sublimable vehicle has been developed in order to eliminate expensive processes under extremely cold temperatures in the conventional freeze casting. Fluid concentrated slurries of Al2O 3 powder in molten camphene (C10H16) were successfully prepared at 55°C with a small amount of a dispersant. These slurries were quickly solidified (frozen) at room temperature to yield a rigid solid green body, where the frozen camphene was easily removed by sublimation (freeze-drying) with negligible shrinkage. Sintering was successfully conducted without any special binder burnout process to yield dense sintered bodies (over 98% T.D). An organic alloy with a eutectic composition in the naphthalene (C 10H8)-camphor (C10H16O) binary system with a eutectic temperature of 31°C was also found to be a successful vehicle for the new ceramic freeze casting. The fabrication processes are almost the same as those with camphene. It was found that vehicles with off-eutectic compositions resulted in large voids in the sintered body due to the ceramic particle rejection by pro-eutectic crystals during freezing. At the eutectic composition, fine lamellar microstructure in the solidified vehicle inhibits the particle rejection. The proposed advantages of the new freeze casting technique with a sublimable vehicle include; (1) elimination of extremely cold temperatures used in conventional freeze casting; (2) elimination of troublesome binder burnout process; and (3) fast manufacturing cycle due to quick solidification. Porous ceramic bodies with unique interconnected pore channels were fabricated by the new freeze casting with lower solid content. The unique channels surrounded by fully dense walls have nearly circular cross-sections unlike conventional aqueous freeze casting. The porosity and the channel diameters are controllable by the solid content in the slurry. The unique channels are

  8. Alumina-based ceramic composite

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, K.B.; Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.; Waters, S.B.

    1996-07-23

    An improved ceramic composite comprising oxide ceramic particulates, nonoxide ceramic particulates selected from the group consisting of carbides, borides, nitrides of silicon and transition metals and mixtures thereof, and a ductile binder selected from the group consisting of metallic, intermetallic alloys and mixtures thereof is described. The ceramic composite is made by blending powders of the ceramic particulates and the ductile to form a mixture and consolidating the mixture of under conditions of temperature and pressure sufficient to produce a densified ceramic composite. 5 figs.

  9. Ceramic electrolyte coating and methods

    DOEpatents

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2007-08-28

    Aqueous coating slurries useful in depositing a dense coating of a ceramic electrolyte material (e.g., yttrium-stabilized zirconia) onto a porous substrate of a ceramic electrode material (e.g., lanthanum strontium manganite or nickel/zirconia) and processes for preparing an aqueous suspension of a ceramic electrolyte material and an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material. The invention also includes processes for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material onto pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  10. Ceramic catalyst materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sault, A.G.; Gardner, T.J.; Hanprasopwattanna, A.; Reardon, J.; Datye, A.K.

    1995-08-01

    Hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) ion-exchange materials show great potential as ceramic catalyst supports due to an inherently high ion-exchange capacity which allows facile loading of catalytically active transition metal ions, and an ability to be cast as thin films on virtually any substrate. By coating titania and HTO materials onto inexpensive, high surface area substrates such as silica and alumina, the economics of using these materials is greatly improved, particularly for the HTO materials, which are substantially more expensive in the bulk form than other oxide supports. In addition, the development of thin film forms of these materials allows the catalytic and mechanical properties of the final catalyst formulation to be separately engineered. In order to fully realize the potential of thin film forms of titania and HTO, improved methods for the deposition and characterization of titania and HTO films on high surface area substrates are being developed. By varying deposition procedures, titania film thickness and substrate coverage can be varied from the submonolayer range to multilayer thicknesses on both silica and alumina. HTO films can also be formed, but the quality and reproducibility of these films is not nearly as good as for pure titania films. The films are characterized using a combination of isopropanol dehydration rate measurements, point of zero charge (PZC) measurements, BET surface area, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and elemental analysis. In order to assess the effects of changes in film morphology on catalytic activity, the films are being loaded with MoO{sub 3} using either incipient wetness impregnation or ion-exchange of heptamolybdate anions followed by calcining. The MoO{sub 3} is then sulfided to form MOS{sub 2}, and tested for catalytic activity using pyrene hydrogenation and dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulfurization, model reactions that simulate reactions occurring during coal liquefaction.

  11. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-08-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

  12. Surfaces and interfaces of glass and ceramics; Proceedings of the International Symposium on Special Topics in Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, N.Y., August 27-29, 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frechette, V. D. (Editor); Lacourse, W. C.; Burdick, V. L.

    1974-01-01

    The characterization of surfaces and interfaces is considered along with the infrared spectra of several N-containing compounds absorbed on montmorillonites, applications of surface characterization techniques to glasses, the observation of electronic spectra in glass and ceramic surfaces, a method for determining the preferred orientation of crystallites normal to a surface, and the friction and wear behavior of glasses and ceramics. Attention is given to the wear behavior of cast surface composites, an experimental investigation of the dynamic and thermal characteristics of the ceramic stock removal process, a dynamic elastic model of ceramic stock removal, and the structure and properties of solid surfaces. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  13. Enhancement of absorption and resistance of motion utilizing a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor to effectively monitor physiological signs during sport exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    This study presents an effective engineering approach for human vital signs monitoring as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work is to study how to capture critical physiological parameters efficiently through a well-constructed electronic system and a robust multi-channel opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS), together with a wireless communication. A unique design comprising multi-wavelength illumination sources and a rapid response photo sensor with a 3-axis accelerometer enables to recover pulsatile features, compensate motion and increase signal-to-noise ratio. An approved protocol with designated tests was implemented at Loughborough University a UK leader in sport and exercise assessment. The results of sport physiological effects were extracted from the datasets of physical movements, i.e. sitting, standing, waking, running and cycling. t-test, Bland-Altman and correlation analysis were applied to evaluate the performance of the OEPS system against Acti-Graph and Mio-Alpha.There was no difference in heart rate measured using OEPS and both Acti-Graph and Mio-Alpha (both p<0.05). Strong correlations were observed between HR measured from the OEPS and both the Acti-graph and Mio-Alpha (r = 0.96, p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis for the Acti-Graph and OEPS found the bias 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA) -17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm for lower and upper limits of agreement respectively, for the Mio-Alpha and OEPS the bias is 1.63 bpm, standard deviation SD8.62 bpm, lower and upper limits of agreement, - 15.27 bpm and +18.58 bpm respectively. The OEPS demonstrates a real time, robust and remote monitoring of cardiovascular function.

  14. A calcium channel blocker, benidipine, improves cell membrane fluidity in human subjects via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. An electron paramagnetic resonance investigation.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Kazushi; Nishio, Ichiro

    2004-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed that benidipine, a long-acting dihydropyridine-type of calcium (Ca) channel blocker, may exert its protective effect against vascular disorders by increasing nitric oxide (NO) production. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of benidipine and NO on the membrane function in human subjects. We measured the membrane fluidity of erythrocytes by using an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and spin-labeling method. Benidipine decreased the order parameter (S) for 5-nitroxide stearate (5-NS) and the peak height ratio (h(o)/h(-1)) for 16-NS obtained from EPR spectra of erythrocyte membranes in a dose-dependent manner in normotensive volunteers. The finding indicated that benidipine increased the membrane fluidity and improved the microviscosity of erythrocytes. The effect of benidipine was significantly potentiated by the NO donor, S-nitroso-n-acetylpenicillamine, and by the cyclic guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cGMP) analog, 8-bromo-cGMP. In contrast, the change evoked by benidipine was counteracted by the NO synthase inhibitors, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester and asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine. These results demonstrated that benidipine increased the membrane fluidity of erythrocytes, at least in part, via the NO- and cGMP-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, the data strongly suggest that benidipine might have a beneficial effect on the rheologic behavior of erythrocytes and the improvement of the microcirculation in humans.

  15. A glass-ceramic plate for mammography.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J. A.; Schweizer, S.; Lubinsky, A. R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Univ. of Paderborn; State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook

    2007-01-01

    We developed translucent glass-ceramic image plates for digital mammography. The glass ceramics are based on europium-doped fluorozirconate glasses, which were additionally doped with chlorine to initiate the nucleation of barium chloride nanoparticles therein. The X-ray image is stored in the form of stable electron-hole pairs, which can be read out afterwards with a scanning laser beam in a 'photostimulated luminescence' (PSL) process. Measurements of the required stimulating exposure, integrated PSL signal, and optical light spreading of the stimulating laser light were performed to allow projection of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for the proposed X-ray storage phosphor system. The projected DQE is compared with commercially available electronic mammography systems.

  16. Fundamental tribological properties of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Miyoshi, K.

    1985-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with itself, another ceramic, or a metal, strong bond forces can develop between the materials. Adhesion between a ceramic and itself or another solid are discussed from a theoretical consideration of the nature of the surfaces and experimentally by relating bond forces to the interface resulting from solid state contact. Elastic, plastic, and fracture behavior of ceramics in solid-state contact are discussed as they relate to friction and wear. The contact load necessary to initiate fracture in ceramics is shown to be appreciably reduced with tangential motion. Both friction and wear of ceramics are anisotropic and relate to crystal structure as with metals. Both free energy of oxide formation and the d valence bond character of metals are related to the friction and wear characteristics for metals in contact with ceramics. Lubrication is found to increase the critical load necessary to initiate fracture of ceramics with sliding or rubbing contact.

  17. Piezoelectric Ceramics and Their Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, I.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the piezoelectric effect in ceramics and presents a quantitative representation of this effect. Explains the processes involved in the manufacture of piezoelectric ceramics, the materials used, and the situations in which they are applied. (GS)

  18. Frictional forces and surface topography of a new ceramic bracket.

    PubMed

    Tanne, K; Matsubara, S; Hotei, Y; Sakuda, M; Yoshida, M

    1994-09-01

    The present study was designed to measure the frictional forces between orthodontic wires and a new ceramic bracket and to investigate the differences in the frictional forces with the new and two previously available ceramic brackets. Frictional forces were measured during the sliding of 0.016 x 0.022-inch and 0.017 x 0.022-inch cobalt-chromium alloy wire through three brackets bonded to a simulated tooth. The wires were not ligated into the brackets, so as to eliminate the influences of ligation on the bracket-wire friction. Further, slot surfaces of the three brackets were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The magnitude of frictional forces produced by the new ceramic bracket was significantly less for both the wires than that produced by the two ceramic brackets at 1% level of confidence. The frictional forces with all the brackets exhibited a slight increase as the wire size became larger. The magnitude of frictional forces decreased substantially as the retraction point shifted more cervically. Slot surfaces of the new ceramic bracket were substantially smoother than those surfaces of the two other ceramic brackets. It is shown that refinements of slot surfaces of the ceramic bracket may be effective to reduce friction, although the bracket-wire frictions in this in vitro study were somewhat underestimated because of the lack of ligation of the wire into the bracket.

  19. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  20. Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  1. Ceramic microstructure and adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with a ceramic, a polymer, or a metal, strong bond forces can develop between the materials. The bonding forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between a ceramic and another solid are discussed from a theoretical consideration of the nature of the surfaces and experimentally by relating bond forces to interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties of ceramics correlated with adhesion include, orientation, reconstruction and diffusion as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where a ceramic is in contact with a metal their interactive chemistry and bond strength is considered. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structures and crystallographic orientation. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include silicon carbide, nickel zinc ferrite, manganese zinc ferrite, and aluminum oxide. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.

  2. Ceramic combustor mounting

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Melvin G.; Janneck, Frank W.

    1982-01-01

    A combustor for a gas turbine engine includes a metal engine block including a wall portion defining a housing for a combustor having ceramic liner components. A ceramic outlet duct is supported by a compliant seal on the metal block and a reaction chamber liner is stacked thereon and partly closed at one end by a ceramic bypass swirl plate which is spring loaded by a plurality of circumferentially spaced, spring loaded guide rods and wherein each of the guide rods has one end thereof directed exteriorly of a metal cover plate on the engine block to react against externally located biasing springs cooled by ambient air and wherein the rod spring support arrangement maintains the stacked ceramic components together so that a normal force is maintained on the seal between the outlet duct and the engine block under all operating conditions. The support arrangement also is operative to accommodate a substantial difference in thermal expansion between the ceramic liner components of the combustor and the metal material of the engine block.

  3. FATIGUE OF DENTAL CERAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Sailer, Irena; Lawn, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Clinical data on survival rates reveal that all-ceramic dental prostheses are susceptible to fracture from repetitive occlusal loading. The objective of this review is to examine the underlying mechanisms of fatigue in current and future dental ceramics. Data/sources The nature of various fatigue modes is elucidated using fracture test data on ceramic layer specimens from the dental and biomechanics literature. Conclusions Failure modes can change over a lifetime, depending on restoration geometry, loading conditions and material properties. Modes that operate in single-cycle loading may be dominated by alternative modes in multi-cycle loading. While post-mortem examination of failed prostheses can determine the sources of certain fractures, the evolution of these fractures en route to failure remains poorly understood. Whereas it is commonly held that loss of load-bearing capacity of dental ceramics in repetitive loading is attributable to chemically-assisted 'slow crack growth' in the presence of water, we demonstrate the existence of more deleterious fatigue mechanisms, mechanical rather than chemical in nature. Neglecting to account for mechanical fatigue can lead to gross overestimates in predicted survival rates. Clinical significance Strategies for prolonging the clinical lifetimes of ceramic restorations are proposed based on a crack-containment philosophy. PMID:24135295

  4. Ceramic impregnated superabrasives

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Robert P.; Sherman, Andrew

    2009-02-10

    A superabrasive fracture resistant compact is formed by depositing successive layers of ceramic throughout the network of open pores in a thermally stable self-bonded polycrystalline diamond or cubic boron nitride preform. The void volume in the preform is from approximately 2 to 10 percent of the volume of the preform, and the average pore size is below approximately 3000 nanometers. The preform is evacuated and infiltrated under at least about 1500 pounds per square inch pressure with a liquid pre-ceramic polymerizable precursor. The precursor is infiltrated into the preform at or below the boiling point of the precursor. The precursor is polymerized into a solid phase material. The excess is removed from the outside of the preform, and the polymer is pyrolized to form a ceramic. The process is repeated at least once more so as to achieve upwards of 90 percent filling of the original void volume. When the remaining void volume drops below about 1 percent the physical properties of the compact, such as fracture resistance, improve substantially. Multiple infiltration cycles result in the deposition of sufficient ceramic to reduce the void volume to below 0.5 percent. The fracture resistance of the compacts in which the pores are lined with formed in situ ceramic is generally at least one and one-half times that of the starting preforms.

  5. Novel, Ceramic Membrane System For Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, S.

    2012-12-31

    Separation of hydrogen from coal gas represents one of the most promising ways to produce alternative sources of fuel. Ceramatec, teamed with CoorsTek and Sandia National Laboratories has developed materials technology for a pressure driven, high temperature proton-electron mixed conducting membrane system to remove hydrogen from the syngas. This system separates high purity hydrogen and isolates high pressure CO{sub 2} as the retentate, which is amenable to low cost capture and transport to storage sites. The team demonstrated a highly efficient, pressure-driven hydrogen separation membrane to generate high purity hydrogen from syngas using a novel ceramic-ceramic composite membrane. Recognizing the benefits and limitations of present membrane systems, the all-ceramic system has been developed to address the key technical challenges related to materials performance under actual operating conditions, while retaining the advantages of thermal and process compatibility offered by the ceramic membranes. The feasibility of the concept has already been demonstrated at Ceramatec. This project developed advanced materials composition for potential integration with water gas shift rectors to maximize the hydrogenproduction.

  6. Dielectric silicone elastomers with mixed ceramic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Stiubianu, George; Bele, Adrian; Cazacu, Maria; Racles, Carmen; Vlad, Stelian; Ignat, Mircea

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Composite ceramics nanoparticles (MCN) with zirconium dioxide and lead zirconate. • Dielectric elastomer films wDith PDMS matrix and MCN as dielectric filler. • Hydrophobic character—water resistant and good flexibility specific to siloxanes. • Increased value of dielectric constant with the content of MCN in dielectric films. • Increased energy output from uniaxial deformation of the dielectric elastomer films. - Abstract: A ceramic material consisting in a zirconium dioxide-lead zirconate mixture has been obtained by precipitation method, its composition being proved by wide angle X-ray powder diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average diameter of the ceramic particles ranged between 50 and 100 nm, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy images. These were surface treated and used as filler for a high molecular mass polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diol (Mn = 450,000) prepared in laboratory, the resulted composites being further processed as films and crosslinked. A condensation procedure, unusual for polydimethylsiloxane having such high molecular mass, with a trifunctional silane was approached for the crosslinking. The effect of filler content on electrical and mechanical properties of the resulted materials was studied and it was found that the dielectric permittivity of nanocomposites increased in line with the concentration of ceramic nanoparticles.

  7. Anisotropic and Hierarchical Porosity in Multifunctional Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtner, Aaron Zev

    The performance of multifunctional porous ceramics is often hindered by the seemingly contradictory effects of porosity on both mechanical and non-structural properties and yet a sufficient body of knowledge linking microstructure to these properties does not exist. Using a combination of tailored anisotropic and hierarchical materials, these disparate effects may be reconciled. In this project, a systematic investigation of the processing, characterization and properties of anisotropic and isotropic hierarchically porous ceramics was conducted. The system chosen was a composite ceramic intended as the cathode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Comprehensive processing investigations led to the development of approaches to make hierarchical, anisotropic porous microstructures using directional freeze-casting of well dispersed slurries. The effect of all the important processing parameters was investigated. This resulted in an ability to tailor and control the important microstructural features including the scale of the microstructure, the macropore size and total porosity. Comparable isotropic porous ceramics were also processed using fugitive pore formers. A suite of characterization techniques including x-ray tomography and 3-D sectional scanning electron micrographs (FIB-SEM) was used to characterize and quantify the green and partially sintered microstructures. The effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure was quantified and discrete element simulations (DEM) were used to explain the experimental observations. Finally, the comprehensive mechanical properties, at room temperature, were investigated, experimentally and using DEM, for the different microstructures.

  8. Ceramic coatings on smooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A. (Inventor); Brindley, W. J. (Inventor); Rouge, C. J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A metallic coating is plasma sprayed onto a smooth surface of a metal alloy substitute or on a bond coating. An initial thin ceramic layer is low pressure sprayed onto the smooth surface of the substrate or bond coating. Another ceramic layer is atmospheric plasma sprayed onto the initial ceramic layer.

  9. Assessment of ceramic membrane filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Geyer, H.K.; Im, K.H.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this project include the development of analytical models for evaluating the fluid mechanics of membrane coated, dead-end ceramic filters, and to determine the effects of thermal and thermo-chemical aging on the material properties of emerging ceramic hot gas filters. A honeycomb cordierite monolith with a thin ceramic coating and a rigid candle filter were evaluated.

  10. Ceramic composites: Enabling aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites (CMC) have the potential for significant impact on the performance of aerospace propulsion and power systems. In this paper, the potential benefits are discussed in broad qualitative terms and are illustrated by some specific application case studies. The key issues in need of resolution for the potential of ceramics to be realized are discussed.

  11. Ceramic tamper-revealing seals

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Sheen, S.H.

    1992-12-08

    A flexible metal or ceramic cable is described with composite ceramic ends, or a U-shaped ceramic connecting element attached to a binding element plate or block cast from alumina or zirconium, and connected to the connecting element by shrink fitting. 7 figs.

  12. Ceramic technology for automotive turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents an update on ceramic technology for automotive turbines. Progress in research and development of improved ceramics is reviewed, including approaches for assessing time-dependent strength characteristics. Processes for making shapes are discussed, and the design and testing of selected ceramic turbine components are reviewed.

  13. Artificial Voids In Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Generazio, Edward R.; Baaklini, George Y.

    1988-01-01

    Method for creating voids in ceramic specimens developed. Silicon carbide and silicon nitride are high-temperature structural ceramic materials considered for applications in advanced gas-turbine engines. Ability to detect and characterize voids (by sizes, shapes, and locations) in structural ceramics vital for increasing strengths and reliabilities of materials. Small holes made deliberately to help quantify techniques of nondestructive evaluation.

  14. Microstructures and Dielectric Characteristics of Ultrafine-Grained Barium Titanate-Based Ceramics for Base-Metal-Electrode Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian; Wang, Xiaohui; Song, Tae-Ho; Li, Longtu

    2007-10-01

    Ultrafine-grained ceramics based on barium titanate for base-metal-electrode multilayer ceramic capacitors (BME-MLCCs) applications have been prepared. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to identify the phase compositions of the ceramics. The microstructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of different dopant contents on the crystal structures, grain growth, microstructures, and dielectric characteristics of the ceramics were investigated. Desired core-shell structures have been observed and the relationships of composition, crystal structure, grain growth, and microstructure have been discussed. The present ceramics show an average grain size of 180 nm and homogeneous microstructures, as well as a high dielectric constant, a low degree of dielectric loss and good X7R temperature characteristics, which would be promising candidates for next-generation BME-MLCC applications.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A CERAMIC TAMPER INDICATING SEAL: SRNL CONTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Krementz, D.; Brinkman, K.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Weeks, G.

    2013-06-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are collaborating on development of a Ceramic Seal, also sometimes designated the Intrinsically Tamper Indicating Ceramic Seal (ITICS), which is a tamper indicating seal for international safeguards applications. The Ceramic Seal is designed to be a replacement for metal loop seals that are currently used by the IAEA and other safeguards organizations. The Ceramic Seal has numerous features that enhance the security of the seal, including a frangible ceramic body, protective and tamper indicating coatings, an intrinsic unique identifier using Laser Surface Authentication, electronics incorporated into the seal that provide cryptographic seal authentication, and user-friendly seal wire capture. A second generation prototype of the seal is currently under development whose seal body is of Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) construction. SRNL has developed the mechanical design of the seal in an iterative process incorporating comments from the SNL vulnerability review team. SRNL is developing fluorescent tamper indicating coatings, with recent development focusing on optimizing the durability of the coatings and working with a vendor to develop a method to apply coatings on a 3-D surface. SRNL performed a study on the effects of radiation on the electronics of the seal and possible radiation shielding techniques to minimize the effects. SRNL is also investigating implementation of Laser Surface Authentication (LSA) as a means of unique identification of each seal and the effects of the surface coatings on the LSA signature.

  16. Ceramic regenerator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Jerrold E.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating an Air Turbo Ramjet (ATR) regenerator containing intricate hydraulic passages from a ceramic material in order to allow operation with high temperature combustion gas and to reduce weight as compared with metallic materials was demonstrated. Platelet technology, ceramic tape casting, and multilayer ceramic packaging techniques were used in this fabrication of subscale silicon nitride components. Proof-of-concept demonstrations were performed to simulate a methane cooled regenerator for an ATR engine. The regenerator vane was designed to operate at realistic service conditions, i.e., 600 psi in a 3500 R (3040 F), 500 fps combustion gas environment. A total of six regenerators were fabricated and tested. The regenerators were shown to be able to withstand internal pressurization to 1575 psi. They were subjected to testing in 500 fps, 3560 R (3100 F) air/propane combustion products and were operated satisfactorily for an excess of 100 hr and 40 thermal cycles which exceeded 2460 R (2000 F).

  17. Ceramic vane drive joint

    DOEpatents

    Smale, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    A variable geometry gas turbine has an array of ceramic composition vanes positioned by an actuating ring coupled through a plurality of circumferentially spaced turbine vane levers to the outer end of a metallic vane drive shaft at each of the ceramic vanes. Each of the ceramic vanes has an end slot of bow tie configuration including flared end segments and a center slot therebetween. Each of the vane drive shafts has a cross head with ends thereof spaced with respect to the sides of the end slot to define clearance for free expansion of the cross head with respect to the vane and the cross head being configured to uniformly distribute drive loads across bearing surfaces of the vane slot.

  18. In-process EDM truing to generate complex contours on metal-bond, superabrasive grinding wheels for precision grinding structural ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Piscotty, M.A.; Davis, P.J.; Saito, T.T.; Blaedel, K.L.; Griffith, L.

    1997-08-01

    The demand and use of precision grinding of structural ceramics continue to increase as the worldwide advanced ceramic industry surpasses $20 billion is sales. Included in this industry are engineering structural ceramics, electronic ceramics, bioceramics and others. These materials are used in applications such as engine components, casting and extrusion dies, bearings, medical implants, nozzles, thermal insulators, and more. Along with the variety of ceramic applications comes a broad range of precision requirements, which in turn leads to various required processes to accommodate a spectrum of specifications. A process for grinding ceramic components to micrometer tolerances was employed and further developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for two separate grinding projects.

  19. Clearance of inhaled ceramic fibers from rat lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Yamato, H; Tanaka, I; Higashi, T; Kido, M

    1994-01-01

    Deposition, clearance, retention, and durability of inhaled particles in lung are important factors for induction of pulmonary fibrosis or lung cancer. To study the deposition and clearance of aluminium silicate ceramic fibers from the lung, male Wistar rats were exposed to ceramic fibers, with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 3.7 microns, for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. The average exposure concentration was 27.2 mg/m3 (SD 9.0). The rats were killed at 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the end of exposure, and the fiber numbers and dimensions were measured with a scanning electron microscope. No significant difference in length of residual ceramic fibers in the lungs was found among the groups. The geometric mean diameter and number of ceramic fibers, however, decreased according to the clearance period. These findings suggest that the fibers were dissolved at their surface. PMID:7882924

  20. Microwave sintering of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Successful adaptation of microwave heating to the densification of ceramic materials require a marriage of microwave and materials technologies. Using an interdisciplinary team of microwave and materials engineers, we have successfully demonstrated the ability to density ceramic materials over a wide range of temperatures. Microstructural evolution during microwave sintering has been found to be significantly different from that observed in conventional sintering. Our results and those of others indicate that microwave sintering has the potential to fabricate components to near net shape with mechanical properties equivalent to hot pressed or hot isostatically pressed material. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Ceramic breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Kummerer, K.R.; Roth, E.

    1987-01-01

    Ceramic materials are under investigation as potential breeder material in fusion reactors. This paper will review candidate materials with respect to fabrication routes and characterization, properties in as-fabricated and irradiated condition, and experimental results from laboratory and inpile investigations on tritium transport and release. Also discussed are the resources of beryllium, which is being considered as a neutron multiplier. The comparison of ceramic properties that is attempted here aims at the identification of the most-promising material for use in a tritium breeding blanket. 82 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Environment Conscious Ceramics (Ecoceramics)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Environment conscious ceramics (Ecoceramics) are a new class of materials, which can be produced with renewable natural resources (wood) or wood wastes (wood sawdust). Silicon carbide-based ecoceramics have been fabricated by reactive infiltration of carbonaceous preforms by molten silicon or silicon-refractory metal alloys. These carbonaceous preforms have been fabricated by pyrolysis of solid wood bodies at 1000 C. The fabrication approach, microstructure, and mechanical properties of SiC-based ecoceramics are presented. Ecoceramics have tailorable properties and behave like ceramic materials manufactured by conventional approaches.

  3. Performance of Dental Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Rekow, E.D.; Silva, N.R.F.A.; Coelho, P.G.; Zhang, Y.; Guess, P.; Thompson, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    The clinical success of modern dental ceramics depends on an array of factors, ranging from initial physical properties of the material itself, to the fabrication and clinical procedures that inevitably damage these brittle materials, and the oral environment. Understanding the influence of these factors on clinical performance has engaged the dental, ceramics, and engineering communities alike. The objective of this review is to first summarize clinical, experimental, and analytic results reported in the recent literature. Additionally, it seeks to address how this new information adds insight into predictive test procedures and reveals challenges for future improvements. PMID:21224408

  4. Why ceramic engines?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Oil is still a problem for the U.S. and its allies. Transportation uses 61 percent of U.S. oil and its share is increasing, so more efficient technology should be concentrated there. Trucks' share of oil use is increasing because they are already much more efficient than autos. The primary truck opportunities are streamlining, more efficient engines, and shifting freight to railroads. More efficient engines are possible using ceramics to allow elimination of cooling systems and better use of waste exhaust heat. A 60 percent improvement seems possible if ceramics can be made tough enough and durable enough.

  5. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  6. Supported microporous ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Webster, E.; Anderson, M.

    1993-12-14

    A method for the formation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms. 4 figures.

  7. Supported microporous ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Webster, Elizabeth; Anderson, Marc

    1993-01-01

    A method for permformation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms.

  8. [Ceramic couplings in orthopedic surgery].

    PubMed

    Thomsen, M; Willmann, G

    2003-01-01

    Ceramic materials have been used as a coupling in total hip arthroplasty since the 1970s to solve the problem of polyethylene particle disease. Several problems with the material and the design have been identified and solved. Using inlays and ceramic heads of the latest generation offers the possibility of reducing the wear rate to as low as 0.001 mm per year. The problem of ceramic fractures is rare. Recently due to the manufacturing process some zirconia ceramic heads have been problematic. New developments with other ceramics are discussed.

  9. Experimental Study of Relationships between Ultrasonic Attenuation and Dispersion for Ceramic Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumenko, A. A.; Shcherbinin, S. A.; Makariev, D. I.; Rybyanets, A. N.

    In this paper an experimental study of different ceramic matrix composites with high elastic losses and dispersion (porous piezoceramics, composites ceramics/crystals) were carried out. Complex sets of elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric parameters of the porous piezoceramics and ceramic matrix piezocomposites were determined by the impedance spectroscopy method using Piezoelectric Resonance Analysis software. Microstructure of polished and chipped surfaces of composite samples was observed with the optical and scanning electron microcopies. Experimental frequency dependencies of attenuation coefficients and ultrasonic velocities for different ceramic matrix composites were compared with the theoretical results obtained using general Kramers-Kronig relations between the ultrasonic attenuation and dispersion.

  10. Tribological properties of structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Miyoshi, K.

    1985-01-01

    The tribological and lubricated behavior of both oxide and nonoxide ceramics are reviewed in this chapter. Ceramics are examined in contact with themselves, other harder materials and metals. Elastic, plastic and fracture behavior of ceramics in solid state contact is discussed. The contact load necessary to initiate fracture in ceramics is shown to be appreciably reduced with tangential motion. Both friction and wear of ceramics are anisotropic and relate to crystal structure as has been observed with metals. Grit size effects in two and three body abrasive wear are observed for ceramics. Both free energy of oxide formation and the d valence bond character of metals are related to the friction and wear characteristics for metals in contact with ceramics. Surface contaminants affect friction and adhesive wear. For example, carbon on silicon carbide and chlorine on aluminum oxide reduce friction while oxygen on metal surfaces in contact with ceramics increases friction. Lubrication increases the critical load necessary to initiate fracture of ceramics both in indentation and with sliding or rubbing. Ceramics compositions both as coatings and in composites are described for the high temperature lubrication of both alloys and ceramics.

  11. Light-weight ceramic insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Ultra-high temperature, light-weight, ceramic insulation such as ceramic tile is obtained by pyrolyzing a siloxane gel derived from the reaction of at least one organo dialkoxy silane and at least one tetralkoxy silane in an acid or base liquid medium. The reaction mixture of the tetra- and dialkoxy silanes may contain also an effective amount of a mono- or trialkoxy silane to obtain the siloxane gel. The siloxane gel is dried at ambient pressures to form a siloxane ceramic precursor without significant shrinkage. The siloxane ceramic precursor is subsequently pyrolyzed, in an inert atmosphere, to form the black ceramic insulation comprising atoms of silicon, carbon and oxygen. The ceramic insulation, can be characterized as a porous, uniform ceramic tile resistant to oxidation at temperatures ranging as high as 1700.degree. C. and is particularly useful as lightweight tiles for spacecraft and other high-temperature insulation applications.

  12. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOEpatents

    Lasecki, J.V.; Novak, R.F.; McBride, J.R.

    1991-08-27

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system. 11 figures.

  13. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOEpatents

    Lasecki, John V.; Novak, Robert F.; McBride, James R.

    1991-01-01

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system.

  14. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, M.A.; Guangyao Sheng.

    1993-05-04

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  15. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-04-07

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  16. Silicon carbide ceramic production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.

    1984-01-01

    A method to produce sintered silicon carbide ceramics in which powdery carbonaceous components with a dispersant are mixed with silicon carbide powder, shaped as required with or without drying, and fired in nonoxidation atmosphere is described. Carbon black is used as the carbonaceous component.

  17. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Sheng, Guangyao

    1993-01-01

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  18. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  19. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  20. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2001-05-01

    The mechanical properties of model systems were analyzed. A reasonably accurate finite element model was implemented and a rational metric to predict the strength of ceramic/metal concentrical joints was developed. The mode of failure of the ceramic/metal joints was determined and the importance of the mechanical properties of the braze material was assessed. Thermal cycling experiments were performed on the model systems and the results were discussed. Additionally, experiments using the concept of placing diffusion barriers on the ceramic surface to limit the extent of the reaction with the braze were performed. It was also observed that the nature and morphology of the reaction zone depends greatly on the nature of the perovskite structure being used. From the experiments, it is observed that the presence of Cr in the Fe-occupied sites decreases the tendency of Fe to segregate and to precipitate out of the lattice. In these new experiments, Ni was observed to play a major role in the decomposition of the ceramic substrate.

  1. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendfra Nagabhushana

    2001-07-01

    The mechanical properties of model systems were analyzed. A reasonably accurate finite element model was implemented and a rational metric to predict the strength of ceramic/metal concentrical joints was developed. The mode of failure of the ceramic/metal joints was determined and the importance of the mechanical properties of the braze material was assessed. Thermal cycling experiments were performed on the model systems and the results were discussed. Additionally, experiments using the concept of placing diffusion barriers on the ceramic surface to limit the extent of the reaction with the braze were performed. It was also observed that the nature and morphology of the reaction zone depends greatly on the nature of the perovskite structure being used. From the experiments, it is observed that the presence of Cr in the Fe-occupied sites decreases the tendency of Fe to segregate and to precipitate out of the lattice. In these new experiments, Ni was observed to play a major role in the decomposition of the ceramic substrate.

  2. Ceramic Coating Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-02

    platinum, protactinium , rhenium, chemically stable in oxygen or other oxidizing atmospheres. rhodium; ruthenium, samarium, scandium, silicon, tantalum; 20...high "mismatch" platinum, protactinium , rhenium, and tantalum braze layer, 30 between ceramic (e.g., A12O3 or ZrO2 ) and carbon steel, the lower-melting

  3. Durability of ceramic filters

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Tressler, R.E.; Lippert, T.E.; Diaz, E.S.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1994-10-01

    The objectives of this program are to identify the potential long-term thermal/chemical effects that advanced coal-based power generating systems have on the stability of porous ceramic filter materials, as well as to assess the influence of these effects on filter operating performance and life.

  4. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  5. Refractory ceramic fibers

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Refractory ceramic fibers ; CASRN Not found Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  6. Practical colloidal processing of multication ceramics

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Monson, Todd C.; Diantonio, Christopher; ...

    2015-09-07

    The use of colloidal processing principles in the formation of ceramic materials is well appreciated for developing homogeneous material properties in sintered products, enabling novel forming techniques for porous ceramics or 3D printing, and controlling microstructure to enable optimized material properties. The solution processing of electronic ceramic materials often involves multiple cationic elements or dopants to affect microstructure and properties. Material stability must be considered through the steps of colloidal processing to optimize desired component properties. This review provides strategies for preventing material degradation in particle synthesis, milling processes, and dispersion, with case studies of consolidation using spark plasma sinteringmore » of these systems. The prevention of multication corrosion in colloidal dispersions can be achieved by utilizing conditions similar to the synthesis environment or by the development of surface passivation layers. The choice of dispersing surfactants can be related to these surface states, which are of special importance for nanoparticle systems. A survey of dispersant chemistries related to some common synthesis conditions is provided for perovskite systems as an example. Furthermore, these principles can be applied to many colloidal systems related to electronic and optical applications.« less

  7. Practical colloidal processing of multication ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Monson, Todd C.; Diantonio, Christopher; Wu, Yiquan

    2015-09-07

    The use of colloidal processing principles in the formation of ceramic materials is well appreciated for developing homogeneous material properties in sintered products, enabling novel forming techniques for porous ceramics or 3D printing, and controlling microstructure to enable optimized material properties. The solution processing of electronic ceramic materials often involves multiple cationic elements or dopants to affect microstructure and properties. Material stability must be considered through the steps of colloidal processing to optimize desired component properties. This review provides strategies for preventing material degradation in particle synthesis, milling processes, and dispersion, with case studies of consolidation using spark plasma sintering of these systems. The prevention of multication corrosion in colloidal dispersions can be achieved by utilizing conditions similar to the synthesis environment or by the development of surface passivation layers. The choice of dispersing surfactants can be related to these surface states, which are of special importance for nanoparticle systems. A survey of dispersant chemistries related to some common synthesis conditions is provided for perovskite systems as an example. Furthermore, these principles can be applied to many colloidal systems related to electronic and optical applications.

  8. US U-25 channel performance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.; Pan, Y. C.

    1980-07-01

    The results of an ANL computational analysis of the performance of the US U-25 MHD channel are presented. This channel has gone through several revisions. The major revision occurred after it had been decided by the DOE Office of MHD to operate the channel with platinum-clad copper electrodes (cold), rather than with ceramic electrodes (hot), as originally planned. This work has been performed at the request of the DOE Office of MHD and the US U-25 generator design Review Committee. The channel specifications and operating conditions are presented. The combustor temperature and thermodynamic and electrical properties of the plasma are computed, and the results are discussed. The MHD channel performance has been predicted for different operating conditions. Sensitivity studies have also been performed on the effects of mass flow rate, surface roughness, combustor temperatures, and loading on the channel performance.

  9. Spraying of the brittle ceramic zirconium diboride by a wire explosion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Hideki; Ogura, Takahiko; Nagahama, Mutsuhisa; Tanabe, Yasuhiro; Sawaoka, Akira B.

    1994-02-01

    A wire explosion technique was employed for the spraying of zirconium diboride, a high-melting-point, brittle ceramic. To study its spraying mechanism and the feasibility of high-density coating, the explosion of a ZrB2 ceramic wire was examined with time-resolved measurements of the apparent resistance of an exploding wire, expansion of a discharge channel, wire fragmentation, and gas flow around the wire. The explosion under argon gas of 0.1 MPa in base pressure was started with heating up to the melting point of ZrB2, and with sequential gas breakdown around the wire. The breakdown was followed by the formation of a cylindrical shock wave and an electrical discharge channel, and by their expansion. Wire breaks were found at a later period of the electrical discharge, and resulted in the fragmentation of the wire of less than 1 mm in size, and in the transformation of almost the whole wire into fine-molten particles. On the other hand, at the explosion under air of 13.3 Pa in base pressure no shock wave was found, but larger fragments of the wire and the transformation of about 50% of the wire volume into fine particles were observed. ZrB2 coated substrates were analyzed with x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The spraying under the high-base-pressure condition provided a much denser coating than that under the low base pressure. However, a small number of cracks was found on the sprayed film surface, and it was assumed that their formation was induced due to the brittleness of ZrB2. These measurements have revealed the close relation of the wire explosion to the base pressure of surrounding gas, and, in particular, the result that the high-base-pressure explosion associated with a cylindrical shock wave could provide a high-density coating. In consideration of the existence of high-base-pressure gas and the structure of a shock wave and an associated discharge channel, it is suggested that adequate heating and high-temperature holding of the

  10. Ceramic Laser Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Soules, T F; Clapsaddle, B J; Landingham, R L; Schaffers, K I

    2005-02-15

    Transparent ceramic materials have several major advantages over single crystals in laser applications, not the least of which is the ability to make large aperture parts in a robust manufacturing process. After more than a decade of working on making transparent YAG:Nd, Japanese workers have recently succeeded in demonstrating samples that performed as laser gain media as well as their single crystal counterparts. Since then several laser materials have been made and evaluated. For these reasons, developing ceramic laser materials is the most exciting and futuristic materials topic in today's major solid-state laser conferences. We have established a good working relationship with Konoshima Ltd., the Japanese producer of the best ceramic laser materials, and have procured and evaluated slabs designed by us for use in our high-powered SSHCL. Our measurements indicate that these materials will work in the SSHCL, and we have nearly completed retrofitting the SSHCL with four of the largest transparent ceramic YAG:Nd slabs in existence. We have also begun our own effort to make this material and have produced samples with various degrees of transparency/translucency. We are in the process of carrying out an extensive design-of-experiments to establish the significant process variables for making transparent YAG. Finally because transparent ceramics afford much greater flexibility in the design of lasers, we have been exploring the potential for much larger apertures, new materials, for example for the Mercury laser, other designs for SSHL, such as, edge pumping designs, slabs with built in ASE suppression, etc. This work has just beginning.

  11. Ceramic tubesheet design analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, R.H.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1996-06-01

    A transport combustor is being commissioned at the Southern Services facility in Wilsonville, Alabama to provide a gaseous product for the assessment of hot-gas filtering systems. One of the barrier filters incorporates a ceramic tubesheet to support candle filters. The ceramic tubesheet, designed and manufactured by Industrial Filter and Pump Manufacturing Company (EF&PM), is unique and offers distinct advantages over metallic systems in terms of density, resistance to corrosion, and resistance to creep at operating temperatures above 815{degrees}C (1500{degrees}F). Nevertheless, the operational requirements of the ceramic tubesheet are severe. The tubesheet is almost 1.5 m in (55 in.) in diameter, has many penetrations, and must support the weight of the ceramic filters, coal ash accumulation, and a pressure drop (one atmosphere). Further, thermal stresses related to steady state and transient conditions will occur. To gain a better understanding of the structural performance limitations, a contract was placed with Mallett Technology, Inc. to perform a thermal and structural analysis of the tubesheet design. The design analysis specification and a preliminary design analysis were completed in the early part of 1995. The analyses indicated that modifications to the design were necessary to reduce thermal stress, and it was necessary to complete the redesign before the final thermal/mechanical analysis could be undertaken. The preliminary analysis identified the need to confirm that the physical and mechanical properties data used in the design were representative of the material in the tubesheet. Subsequently, few exploratory tests were performed at ORNL to evaluate the ceramic structural material.

  12. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.

    1993-12-07

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.

  13. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Joseph L.; Hung, Cheng-Hung

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions.

  14. Radiation-hard ceramic Resistive Plate Chambers for forward TOF and T0 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akindinov, A.; Dreyer, J.; Fan, X.; Kämpfer, B.; Kiselev, S.; Kotte, R.; Garcia, A. Laso; Malkevich, D.; Naumann, L.; Nedosekin, A.; Plotnikov, V.; Stach, D.; Sultanov, R.; Voloshin, K.

    2017-02-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers with ceramic electrodes are the main candidates for a use in precise multi-channel timing systems operating in high-radiation conditions. We report the latest R&D results on these detectors aimed to meet the requirements of the forward T0 counter at the CBM experiment. RPC design, gas mixture, limits on the bulk resistivity of ceramic electrodes, efficiency, time resolution, counting rate capabilities and ageing test results are presented.

  15. Fractal analysis of fracture in glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Mecholsky, J.J. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    The application of fractal geometry offers the potential to establish the scaling relationships between critical energies at all levels during fracture. The fracture energy, {gamma}, is directly related to the fractal dimensional increment, D*, and the elastic modulus, E: {gamma} = 0.5 E D* a{sub 0}, where the characteristic atomic parameter, a{sub 0}, can be interpreted as the fractal generator (on the atomic scale) or the process zone size. D* can be shown to be related to the crack/fracture-mirror size ratio. The purpose of this paper is to show the relationship between fractal geometry, fractography and the fracture process in the analysis of the fracture of glass ceramics. Examples of the fracture analysis of glass ceramics used as materials for dental restorations, radomes and electron generators will be presented.

  16. Durability Testing of Commercial Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schienle, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Technical efforts by AlliedSignal Engines in DOE/NASA-funded project from February, 1978 through December, 1995 are reported in the fields ceramic materials for gas turbine engines and cyclic thermal durability testing. A total of 29 materials were evaluated in 40 cyclic oxidation exposure durability tests. Ceramic test bars were cyclically thermally exposed to a hot combustion environment at temperatures up to 1371 C (2500 F) for periods of up to 3500 hours, simulating conditions typically encountered by hot flowpath components in an automotive gas turbine engine. Before and after exposure, quarter-point flexure strength tests were performed on the specimens, and fractography examinations including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to determine failure origins.

  17. Structural and Chemical Analysis of the Zirconia-Veneering Ceramic Interface.

    PubMed

    Inokoshi, M; Yoshihara, K; Nagaoka, N; Nakanishi, M; De Munck, J; Minakuchi, S; Vanmeensel, K; Zhang, F; Yoshida, Y; Vleugels, J; Naert, I; Van Meerbeek, B

    2016-01-01

    The interfacial interaction of veneering ceramic with zirconia is still not fully understood. This study aimed to characterize morphologically and chemically the zirconia-veneering ceramic interface. Three zirconia-veneering conditions were investigated: 1) zirconia-veneering ceramic fired on sandblasted zirconia, 2) zirconia-veneering ceramic on as-sintered zirconia, and 3) alumina-veneering ceramic (lower coefficient of thermal expansion [CTE]) on as-sintered zirconia. Polished cross-sectioned ceramic-veneered zirconia specimens were examined using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (Feg-SEM). In addition, argon-ion thinned zirconia-veneering ceramic interface cross sections were examined using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) at high resolution. Finally, the zirconia-veneering ceramic interface was quantitatively analyzed for tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation and residual stress using micro-Raman spectroscopy (µRaman). Feg-SEM revealed tight interfaces for all 3 veneering conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) disclosed an approximately 1.0-µm transformed zone at sandblasted zirconia, in which distinct zirconia grains were no longer observable. Straight grain boundaries and angular grain corners were detected up to the interface of zirconia- and alumina-veneering ceramic with as-sintered zirconia. EDS mapping disclosed within the zirconia-veneering ceramic a few nanometers thick calcium/aluminum-rich layer, touching the as-sintered zirconia base, with an equally thick silicon-rich/aluminum-poor layer on top. µRaman revealed t-ZrO2-to-m-ZrO2 phase transformation and residual compressive stress at the sandblasted zirconia surface. The difference in CTE between zirconia- and the alumina-veneering ceramic resulted in residual tensile stress within the zirconia immediately adjacent to its interface with the veneering ceramic. The rather minor chemical

  18. Electron velocity of 6 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at 300 K in stress engineered InAlN/GaN nano-channel high-electron-mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Arulkumaran, S. Manoj Kumar, C. M.; Ranjan, K.; Teo, K. L.; Ng, G. I.; Shoron, O. F.; Rajan, S.; Bin Dolmanan, S.; Tripathy, S.

    2015-02-02

    A stress engineered three dimensional (3D) Triple T-gate (TT-gate) on lattice matched In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN nano-channel (NC) Fin-High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (Fin-HEMT) with significantly enhanced device performance was achieved that is promising for high-speed device applications. The Fin-HEMT with 200-nm effective fin-width (W{sub eff}) exhibited a very high I{sub Dmax} of 3940 mA/mm and a highest g{sub m} of 1417 mS/mm. This dramatic increase of I{sub D} and g{sub m} in the 3D TT-gate In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN NC Fin-HEMT translated to an extracted highest electron velocity (v{sub e}) of 6.0 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s, which is ∼1.89× higher than that of the conventional In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN HEMT (3.17 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s). The v{sub e} in the conventional III-nitride transistors are typically limited by highly efficient optical-phonon emission. However, the unusually high v{sub e} at 300 K in the 3D TT-gate In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN NC Fin-HEMT is attributed to the increase of in-plane tensile stress component by SiN passivation in the formed NC which is also verified by micro-photoluminescence (0.47 ± 0.02 GPa) and micro-Raman spectroscopy (0.39 ± 0.12 GPa) measurements. The ability to reach the v{sub e} = 6 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at 300 K by a stress engineered 3D TT-gate lattice-matched In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN NC Fin-HEMTs shows they are promising for next-generation ultra-scaled high-speed device applications.

  19. Ceramic Hosts for Fission Products Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C Kong

    2010-07-01

    Natural spinel, perovskite and zirconolite rank among the most leach resistant of mineral forms. They also have a strong affinity for a large number of other elements and including actinides. Specimens of natural perovskite and zirconolite were radioisotope dated and found to have survived at least 2 billion years of natural process while still remain their loading of uranium and thorium . Developers of the Synroc waste form recognized and exploited the capability of these minerals to securely immobilize TRU elements in high-level waste . However, the Synroc process requires a relatively uniform input and hot pressing equipment to produce the waste form. It is desirable to develop alternative approaches to fabricate these durable waste forms to immobilize the radioactive elements. One approach is using a high temperature process to synthesize these mineral host phases to incorporate the fission products in their crystalline structures. These mineral assemblages with immobilized fission products are then isolated in a durable high temperature glass for periods measured on a geologic time scale. This is a long term research concept and will begin with the laboratory synthesis of the pure spinel (MgAl2O4), perovskite (CaTiO3) and zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) from their constituent oxides. High temperature furnace and/or thermal plasma will be used for the synthesis of these ceramic host phases. Nonradioactive strontium oxide will be doped into these ceramic phases to investigate the development of substitutional phases such as Mg1-xSrxAl2O4, Ca1-xSrxTiO3 and Ca1-xSrxZrTi2O7. X-ray diffraction will be used to establish the crystalline structures of the pure ceramic hosts and the substitution phases. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) will be performed for product morphology and fission product surrogates distribution in the crystalline hosts. The range of strontium doping is planned to reach the full substitution of the divalent

  20. Oxidation and Corrosion of Ceramics and Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Lee, Kang N.

    2000-01-01

    Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites are candidates for numerous applications in high temperature environments with aggressive gases and possible corrosive deposits. There is a growing realization that high temperature oxidation and corrosion issues must be considered. There are many facets to these studies, which have been extensively covered in some recent reviews. The focus of this paper is on current research, over the past two years. In the authors' view, the most important oxidation and corrosion studies have focused on four major areas during this time frame. These are; (I) Oxidation of precursor-based ceramics; (II) Studies of the interphase material in ceramic matrix composites; (III) Water vapor interactions with ceramics, particularly in combustion environments; and (IV) Development of refractory oxide coatings for silicon-based ceramics. In this paper, we shall explore the most current work in each of these areas.

  1. Control Channel Vulnerability Analysis of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.16m-2011 and 802.16- 2009 Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Constant defined for Initial Ranging RangingSinr TBCC Tail-Biting Convolutional Code TDD Time Division Duplexing TDM Time Division...a ARQ block to ensure that the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) test passes and the message is accepted. The position uncertainty of the MS, BS, and...summarized in Figure 16. For control channels, a tail-biting convolutional code ( TBCC ) with minimum rate of ¼ is used for control channels. This form of

  2. Gradient-Hierarchic-Aligned Porosity SiOC Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakifahmetoglu, Cekdar; Zeydanli, Damla; Innocentini, Murilo Daniel De Mello; Ribeiro, Fernanda Dos Santos; Lasso, Paulo Renato Orlandi; Soraru, Gian Domenico

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a simple technique to produce porous ceramics with aligned porosity having very high permeability and specific surface area. SiOC-based compositions were processed from blends of three types of preceramic polymer and a catalyst, followed by curing and pyrolysis. The heating applied from the bottom of molds promoted the nucleation, expansion and rising of gas bubbles, and the creation of a ceramic matrix with axially oriented channels interconnected by small round pores. The samples were analyzed by SEM, tomography, BET, water immersion porosimetry and permeation to gas flow. The resulting bodies presented levels of open porosity (69.9–83.4%), average channel diameter (0.59–1.25 mm) and permeability (0.56–3.83 × 10‑9 m2) comparable to those of ceramic foams and honeycomb monoliths, but with specific surface area (4.8–121.9 m2/g) typical adsorbents, enabling these lotus-type ceramics to be advantageously used as catalytic supports and adsorption components in several environmental control applications.

  3. Gradient-Hierarchic-Aligned Porosity SiOC Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Vakifahmetoglu, Cekdar; Zeydanli, Damla; Innocentini, Murilo Daniel de Mello; Ribeiro, Fernanda dos Santos; Lasso, Paulo Renato Orlandi; Soraru, Gian Domenico

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a simple technique to produce porous ceramics with aligned porosity having very high permeability and specific surface area. SiOC-based compositions were processed from blends of three types of preceramic polymer and a catalyst, followed by curing and pyrolysis. The heating applied from the bottom of molds promoted the nucleation, expansion and rising of gas bubbles, and the creation of a ceramic matrix with axially oriented channels interconnected by small round pores. The samples were analyzed by SEM, tomography, BET, water immersion porosimetry and permeation to gas flow. The resulting bodies presented levels of open porosity (69.9–83.4%), average channel diameter (0.59–1.25 mm) and permeability (0.56–3.83 × 10−9 m2) comparable to those of ceramic foams and honeycomb monoliths, but with specific surface area (4.8–121.9 m2/g) typical adsorbents, enabling these lotus-type ceramics to be advantageously used as catalytic supports and adsorption components in several environmental control applications. PMID:28106140

  4. Polymer-Derived Ceramic Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    SiC-based ceramic fibers are derived from polycarbosilane or polymetallocarbosilane precursors and are classified into three groups according to their chemical composition, oxygen content, and C/Si atomic ratio. The first-generation fibers are Si-C-O (Nicalon) fibers and Si-Ti-C-O (Tyranno Lox M) fibers. Both fibers contain more than 10-wt% oxygen owing to oxidation during curing and lead to degradation in strength at temperatures exceeding 1,300°C. The maximum use temperature is 1,100°C. The second-generation fibers are SiC (Hi-Nicalon) fibers and Si-Zr-C-O (Tyranno ZMI) fibers. The oxygen content of these fibers is reduced to less than 1 wt% by electron beam irradiation curing in He. The thermal stability of these fibers is improved (they are stable up to 1,500°C), but their creep resistance is limited to a maximum of 1,150°C because their C/Si atomic ratio results in excess carbon. The third-generation fibers are stoichiometric SiC fibers, i.e., Hi-Nicalon Type S (hereafter Type S), Tyranno SA, and Sylramic™ fibers. They exhibit improved thermal stability and creep resistance up to 1,400°C. Stoichiometric SiC fibers meet many of the requirements for the use of ceramic matrix composites for high-temperature structural application. SiBN3C fibers derived from polyborosilazane also show promise for structural applications, remain in the amorphous state up to 1,800°C, and have good high-temperature creep resistance.

  5. TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, Kartik; Montell, Craig

    2011-01-01

    The TRP (Transient Receptor Potential) superfamily of cation channels is remarkable in that it displays greater diversity in activation mechanisms and selectivities than any other group of ion channels. The domain organizations of some TRP proteins are also unusual, as they consist of linked channel and enzyme domains. A unifying theme in this group is that TRP proteins play critical roles in sensory physiology, which include contributions to vision, taste, olfaction, hearing, touch, and thermo- and osmosensation. In addition, TRP channels enable individual cells to sense changes in their local environment. Many TRP channels are activated by a variety of different stimuli and function as signal integrators. The TRP superfamily is divided into seven subfamilies: the five group 1 TRPs (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPN, and TRPA) and two group 2 subfamilies (TRPP and TRPML). TRP channels are important for human health as mutations in at least four TRP channels underlie disease. PMID:17579562

  6. Ceramic/metal nanocomposites by lyophilization: Processing and HRTEM study

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Gonzalez, C.F.; Agouram, S.; Torrecillas, R.; Moya, J.S.; Lopez-Esteban, S.

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cryogenic route has been used to obtain ceramic/metal nanostructured powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The powders present good homogeneity and dispersion of metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The metal nanoparticle size distributions are centred in 17-35 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both phases, ceramic and metal, present a high degree of crystallinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good metal/ceramic interfaces due to epitaxial growth, studied by HRTEM. -- Abstract: This work describes a wet-processing route based on spray-freezing and subsequent lyophilization designed to obtain nanostructured ceramic/metal powders. Starting from the ceramic powder and the corresponding metal salt, a water-based suspension is sprayed on liquid nitrogen. The frozen powders are subsequently freeze-dried, calcined and reduced. The material was analyzed using X-ray diffraction analysis at all stages. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies showed a uniform distribution of metal nanoparticles on the ceramic grain surfaces, good interfaces and high crystallinity, with an average metal particle size in the nanometric range.

  7. Integrally cored ceramic investment casting mold fabricated by ceramic stereolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Chang-Jun

    Superalloy airfoils are produced by investment casting (IC), which uses ceramic cores and wax patterns with ceramic shell molds. Hollow cored superalloy airfoils in a gas turbine engine are an example of complex IC parts. The complex internal hollow cavities of the airfoil are designed to conduct cooling air through one or more passageways. These complex internal passageways have been fabricated by a lost wax process requiring several processing steps; core preparation, injection molding for wax pattern, and dipping process for ceramic shell molds. Several steps generate problems such as high cost and decreased accuracy of the ceramic mold. For example, costly tooling and production delay are required to produce mold dies for complex cores and wax patterns used in injection molding, resulting in a big obstacle for prototypes and smaller production runs. Rather than using separate cores, patterns, and shell molds, it would be advantageous to directly produce a mold that has the casting cavity and the ceramic core by one process. Ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA) can be used to directly fabricate the integrally cored ceramic casting mold (ICCM). CerSLA builds ceramic green objects from CAD files from many thin liquid layers of powder in monomer, which are solidified by polymerization with a UV laser, thereby "writing" the design for each slice. This dissertation addresses the integrally cored casting ceramic mold (ICCM), the ceramic core with a ceramic mold shell in a single patternless construction, fabricated by ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA). CerSLA is considered as an alternative method to replace lost wax processes, for small production runs or designs too complex for conventional cores and patterns. The main topic is the development of methods to successfully fabricate an ICCM by CerSLA from refractory silica, as well as related issues. The related issues are the segregation of coarse fused silica powders in a layer, the degree of segregation parameter to

  8. Ceramic Stereolithography: Additive Manufacturing for Ceramics by Photopolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, John W.

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic stereolithography and related additive manufacturing methods involving photopolymerization of ceramic powder suspensions are reviewed in terms of the capabilities of current devices. The practical fundamentals of the cure depth, cure width, and cure profile are related to the optical properties of the monomer, ceramic, and photo-active components. Postpolymerization steps, including harvesting and cleaning the objects, binder burnout, and sintering, are discussed and compared with conventional methods. The prospects for practical manufacturing are discussed.

  9. Grain boundaries in ceramics and ceramic-metal interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.R.; Wolf, D.

    1986-01-01

    Three interfaces exist: the crystal-crystal grain boundary in very pure single-phase ceramics, the crystal-glass-crystal grain boundary in most single-phase and polyphase ceramics, and the ceramic-metal interface. It is needed to correlate their structure and adhesion/failure. Methods for studying the bonding, interfacial structure, and fracture and adhesion are discussed, and recommendations are given. 42 refs. (DLC)

  10. Near net shape forming of advanced structural ceramic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao-Chih

    This research applied a combination of rapid prototyping techniques and ceramic gelcasting processes in the design and manufacturing of advanced structural ceramic components that cannot be fabricated by other shape-forming processes. An Assembly Mold SDM process, a derivative process of Shape Deposition Manufacturing, was adopted along with modified gelcasting with great success. The fabricated gas turbine rotors, inlet nozzles, and mesoscale burner arrays have demonstrated superior shape accuracy, mechanical strength, and surface smoothness with a feature size of 200 mum. The design concepts and functionalities of the ceramic devices were verified with performance tests. The shape complexity and surface quality of ceramic parts have been further improved by the use of a mold assembly made of a low melting temperature metal alloy. The introduction of metal alloy required modifications in the mold design, machining procedure, and ceramic processing. A complete shape forming process (from slurry to final parts) was developed for the low melting temperature metal alloy. In addition, the choice of ceramic material now includes SiC, which is critical to the development of micro heat exchangers. Forty-channel, high-aspect-ratio structured SiC heat exchangers were fabricated, and the thermal conductivity value of SiC was found to be comparable to that of steel. The catalyst deposition and ceramic precursor impregnation processes were proposed to enable use of the SiC heat exchangers as micro reactors. Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS)-related techniques such as SU-8 deep photolithography and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography were combined with gelcasting to make micro patterns on structural ceramics. A feature size of 125 mum and aspect ratio of 8 have been achieved in the preliminary experiments. Based on the fabricated ceramic devices, a graphical method to characterize the shape attributes of complex-shaped components was proposed and used to compare

  11. Brazing of alumina with Ti-Cu-0 dilute ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, C.; Carim, A.H.

    1994-12-31

    The joining of ceramics using active metal braze alloys (such as Ag-Cu-Ti mixtures) produces a layered structure of interfacial reaction products, often including one or more `dilute ceramic` compounds. These phases have composition M{sub a}X{sub b} where M is one or more metallic elements, X is a light element such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, or boron, and a {much_gt} b. Replacing the active metal used in ceramic joints with one of these dilute ceramics would result in a joint without residual metal at the interface. The closer thermal expansion match with the substrate and the higher melting temperature of the dilute ceramic should reduce residual stresses and may improve high-temperature stability and strength. The work reported here is an initial study of the brazing of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using the dilute ceramics Ti{sub 4}Cu{sub 2}O and Ti{sub 3}Cu{sub 3}O. This is the first attempt to join ceramics directly with these transitional compounds as the interlayers. Recent efforts have made the ternary Ti-Cu-O phases available in bulk form and have provided information about their properties. Both solid slices and powders of the dilute ceramics were used to join alumina slabs to one another. Interlayer-substrate reactions must still occur in order to form a strong joint. This investigation concentrates on joint fabrication and on identification of reaction products and interface morphology using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The observed reaction products are discussed in light of the previously determined phase stabilities for the Ti-Cu-Al-O system.

  12. Seal between metal and ceramic conduits

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Richard Paul; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2015-02-03

    A seal between a ceramic conduit and a metal conduit of an ion transport membrane device consisting of a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a single gasket body, and a single compliant interlayer.

  13. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    DOEpatents

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski; Forsythe, George Daniel; Domanski, Daniel Matthew; Chambers, Jeffrey Allen; Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam

    1999-01-01

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  14. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    DOEpatents

    Connolly, E.S.; Forsythe, G.D.; Domanski, D.M.; Chambers, J.A.; Rajendran, G.P.

    1999-05-11

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter is described having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during back pulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  15. Additive Manufacturing of SiC Based Ceramics and Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael Charles; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics and SiC fiber reinforcedSiC ceramic matrix composites (SiCSiC CMCs) offer high payoff as replacements for metals in turbine engine applications due to their lighter weight, higher temperature capability, and lower cooling requirements. Additive manufacturing approaches can offer game changing technologies for the quick and low cost fabrication of parts with much greater design freedom and geometric complexity. Four approaches for developing these materials are presented. The first two utilize low cost 3D printers. The first uses pre-ceramic pastes developed as feed materials which are converted to SiC after firing. The second uses wood containing filament to print a carbonaceous preform which is infiltrated with a pre-ceramic polymer and converted to SiC. The other two approaches pursue the AM of CMCs. The first is binder jet SiC powder processing in collaboration with rp+m (Rapid Prototyping+Manufacturing). Processing optimization was pursued through SiC powder blending, infiltration with and without SiC nano powder loading, and integration of nanofibers into the powder bed. The second approach was laminated object manufacturing (LOM) in which fiber prepregs and laminates are cut to shape by a laser and stacked to form the desired part. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted on materials from all approaches with select approaches also characterized with XRD, TGA, and bend testing.

  16. Testing Ceramics for Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Adaptation of diesel engine allows prestressed ceramic materials evaluated under realistic pressure, temperature, and stress without introducing extraneous stress. Ceramic specimen part of prechamber of research engine. Specimen held in place by clamp, introduces required axial compressive stress. Specimen -- cylindrical shell -- surrounded by chamber vented or pressurized to introduce requisite radial stress in ceramic. Pressure chamber also serves as safety shield in case speimen disintegrates. Materials under consideration as cylinder liners for diesel engines.

  17. Processing method for superconducting ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Bloom, Ira D.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Flandermeyer, Brian K.

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing a superconducting ceramic and particularly YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-.delta., where .delta. is in the order of about 0.1-0.4, is carried out using a polymeric binder which decomposes below its ignition point to reduce carbon residue between the grains of the sintered ceramic and a nonhydroxylic organic solvent to limit the problems with water or certain alcohols on the ceramic composition.

  18. Processing method for superconducting ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Bloom, Ira D.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Flandermeyer, Brian K.

    1993-02-02

    A process for preparing a superconducting ceramic and particularly YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-.delta., where .delta. is in the order of about 0.1-0.4, is carried out using a polymeric binder which decomposes below its ignition point to reduce carbon residue between the grains of the sintered ceramic and a nonhydroxylic organic solvent to limit the problems with water or certain alcohols on the ceramic composition.

  19. Tailored Ceramics for Laser Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Joel

    2007-12-10

    Transparent ceramics match or exceed the performance of single-crystal materials in laser applications, with a more-robust fabrication process. Controlling the distribution of optical dopants in transparent ceramics would allow qualitative improvements in amplifier slab design by allowing gain and loss to be varied within the material. My work aims to achieve a controlled pattern or gradient of dopant prior to sintering, in order to produce tailored ceramics.

  20. Ceramic composite coating

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.

    1997-01-21

    A thin, room-temperature-curing, ceramic composite for coating and patching metal substrates comprises a sol gel silica glass matrix filled with finely ground particles or fibers, preferably alumina. The sol gel glass is made by adding ethanol to water to form a first mixture, then separately adding ethanol to tetraethyl orthosilicate to form a second mixture, then slowly adding the first to the second mixture to make a third mixture, and making a slurry by adding the finely ground particles or fibers to the third mixture. The composite can be applied by spraying, brushing or trowelling. If applied to patch fine cracks, densification of the ceramic composite may be obtained to enhance sealing by applying heat during curing.

  1. Ceramic composite coating

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.

    1997-01-01

    A thin, room-temperature-curing, ceramic composite for coating and patching etal substrates comprises a sol gel silica glass matrix filled with finely ground particles or fibers, preferably alumina. The sol gel glass is made by adding ethanol to water to form a first mixture, then separately adding ethanol to tetraethyl orthosilicate to form a second mixture, then slowly adding the first to the second mixture to make a third mixture, and making a slurry by adding the finely ground particles or fibers to the third mixture. The composite can be applied by spraying, brushing or trowelling. If applied to patch fine cracks, densification of the ceramic composite may be obtained to enhance sealing by applying heat during curing.

  2. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  3. Ceramics for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications.

  4. Ceramic fabrication R D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This project is separated into three tasks. The first task is a design and modeling effort to be carried out by MSE, Inc. The purpose of this task is to develop and analyze designs for various cohesive ceramic fabrication (CCF) components, including an MHD electrode for strategic defense initiative (SDI) applications and a high stress, low cost, reinforced ceramic component for armor applications. The MHD electrode design is substantially completed. A layered structure composed of molybdenum disilicide graded with quartz glass has been designed and analyzed using finite element methods. The design demonstrates the fabrication capabilities of the CCF process. The high stress, armor application component will be silicon carbide reinforced alumina in thick plates. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Microprobes aluminosilicate ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Sheng, Guangyao

    1993-01-01

    Methods have been developed to make mixed alumina-silicate and aluminosilicate particulate microporous ceramic membranes. One method involves the making of separate alumina and silica sols which are then mixed. Another method involves the creation of a combined sol with aluminosilicate particles. The resulting combined alumina and silica membranes have high surface area, a very small pore size, and a very good temperature stability.

  6. Miniature ceramic fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Lessing, Paul A.; Zuppero, Anthony C.

    1997-06-24

    A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

  7. Transformation Toughening of Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    TRANSFORMATION ZONE SHAPE EFFECTS IN CRACK SHIELDING IN CERIA-PARTIALLY STABILIZED ZIRCONIA (Ce-TZP). ALUMINA COMPOSITES to be published in J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 13 Cl...lS85HWejw TRANSFORMATION ZONE SHAPE EFFECTS ON CRACK SHIELDING IN CERIA-PARTIALLY-STABILIZED ZIRCONIA (Ce-TZP)- ALUMINA S..COMPOSITES Cheng-Sheng Yu...zones in Ce-TZP/Al203 composites, in which the transformation zone sizes were changed significantly by varying the sintering temperature to control

  8. Superplastic forging nitride ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Panda, Prakash C.; Seydel, Edgar R.; Raj, Rishi

    1988-03-22

    The invention relates to producing relatively flaw free silicon nitride ceramic shapes requiring little or no machining by superplastic forging This invention herein was made in part under Department of Energy Grant DE-AC01-84ER80167, creating certain rights in the United States Government. The invention was also made in part under New York State Science and Technology Grant SB1R 1985-10.

  9. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2001-12-01

    Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  10. Transparent Spinel Ceramic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    2009 NRL REVIEW 215 OPTICAL SCIENCES Transparent Spinel Ceramic J.S. Sanghera, G. Villalobos , W. Kim, S. Bayya, and I.D. Aggarwal Optical Sciences...Sponsored by NRL and ONR] Reference 1 G. Villalobos , J.S. Sanghera, S.B. Bayya, and I.D. Aggarwal, “Fluoride Salt Coated Magnesium Aluminate,” U.S. Patent 7,211,325, May 1, 2007.

  11. Multifracture of ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Weitsman, Y.J. ); Zhu, H. )

    1992-03-01

    This work presents a mechanistic model for the multifracture process of uniaxially reinforced fibrous ceramic composites under monotonically increasing tension parallel to the fiber direction. The model employs an energy criterion to account for the progression of matrix cracks, bridged by intact fibers, and Weibull failure statistics to relate the failure of the fibers. Consideration is given to the interactions between the foregoing failure processes as well as to the effects of various material parameters on the response of the composite.

  12. Joined ceramic product

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles W [Kennewick, WA; Brimhall, John L [West Richland, WA

    2001-08-21

    According to the present invention, a joined product is at least two ceramic parts, specifically bi-element carbide parts with a bond joint therebetween, wherein the bond joint has a metal silicon phase. The bi-element carbide refers to compounds of MC, M.sub.2 C, M.sub.4 C and combinations thereof, where M is a first element and C is carbon. The metal silicon phase may be a metal silicon carbide ternary phase, or a metal silicide.

  13. Transformation Toughening of Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    International Science Center SC5444.FR 1. INTRODUCTION Zirconia -containing ceramics can be toughened dramatically by the marten- sitic tetragonal -to-monoclinic...cm- 1) coincide with peaks of the monoclinic phase (Fig. 3(c)), but the remaining nine do not belong to any of the tetragonal , monoclinic or cubic ... tetragonal precipitates and the remainder cubic matrix. After cooling, there was no change in the intensities of the monoclinic peaks (e.g. (G1T)and (111

  14. Laser synthesis of nanostructured ceramics from liquid precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilden, Johannes; Fischer, Georg

    2007-12-01

    The free-form net shape laser synthesis of nanostructured ceramics from liquid precursors enables a residual stress-free production of high temperature resistant ceramic units and components for the use in microsystem engineering. Due to the use of molecular compounded liquid, ceramic precursors the resulting ceramic components show outstanding properties, for example high purity and a nanostructured material design. The use of pulsed lasers enables a defined input of energy required to pyrolyse the precursor material into a crystalline ceramic, so the active volume can be reduced significantly compared to other processes, for example pyrolysis by furnace. In this paper several methods for a further minimization of the active volume are presented. The investigations determined different factors affecting the process. Realizing selective experiments allows a determination of their influencing level and the definition of a working area to produce three-dimensional components with high aspect ratio. By several studies, e.g., scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffraction analysis, the atomic structure and composition of the created components were analyzed and valued, so the different reaction processes can be described extensively.

  15. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roode, M. van

    1995-10-01

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  16. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roode, M. van

    1995-12-31

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  17. Structures and Stabilization Mechanisms in Chemically Stabilized Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai-Boyes, Pratibha L.; Saltzberg, Michael A.; Vega, Alexander

    1993-09-01

    Structural complexities and disorder in chemically stabilized cristobalites (CSC), which are room temperature silica-based ceramics, prepared by a wet chemical route, are described. CSC displays many of the structural characteristics of the high temperature cristobalite, elucidated by HREM and X-ray diffraction. In-situ electron diffraction and NMR results suggest that the disorder is structural and is static.

  18. Preliminary study of ceramic-metal interface in thermal boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremouilles, G.; Derep, J. Luc

    1987-10-01

    The interface of yttrium doped zircon ceramic on NiCrAlY alloy is studied. The different phases in the zircon are examined with electron microscopy. The presence of alumina in the interface is demonstrated. The possibility of damaging the NiCrAlY substrate when using a plasma gun is discussed.

  19. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Improvement in Dielectric Tunability of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO4-Mg2TiO4 Composite Ceramics via Heterogeneous Nucleation Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuo; Li, Yong-Xiang

    2009-11-01

    Dielectric tunable composite ceramics Ba0.6Sr0.4 TiO3-Mg2TiO4 (BST-MT) are prepared with a heterogeneous nucleation sol-gel approach. The Mg2TiO4 powders are synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The micro-sized MT powders with dispersant Ciba-4010 are introduced into Ba-Sr-Ti sol to obtain uniform and homogeneous mixture compounds with nano-sized BST particles synthesized via heterogeneous nucleation (HN) in the sol-gel process. Thus, the microstructural and dielectric properties can be tailored. The dielectric constants of BST-MT composite ceramics can be adjusted in a large range from 294 to 1790, and the dielectric tunability can be adjusted from 29.4% to 37.0% with different MT contents from 60 wt% to 20 wt%. Compared to the samples prepared by the conventional solid-state (SS) process, the BST-MT composite ceramics by the heterogeneous nucleation sol-gel process exhibit a more uniform microstructure, and improve dielectric properties.

  20. A study of Channeling, Volume Reflection and Volume Capture of 3.35 - 14.0 GeV Electrons in a bent Silicon Crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Wistisen, T. N.; Uggerhoj, U. I.; Wienands, U.; Markiewicz, T. W.; Noble, R. J.; Benson, B. L.; Smith, T.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Holtzapple, R.; Tucker, S.

    2015-12-03

    We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111) plane in a strongly bent quasi-mosaic silicon crystal. Additionally, these phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5 and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.070, 0.088, 0.13, 0.22 and 0.29 times the critical curvature respectively. We have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.