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Sample records for ceramic roller kiln

  1. The System of Simulation and Multi-objective Optimization for the Roller Kiln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Chen, Xishen; Li, Wugang; Li, Zhuoqiu

    It is somewhat a difficult researching problem, to get the building parameters of the ceramic roller kiln simulation model. A system integrated of evolutionary algorithms (PSO, DE and DEPSO) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), is proposed to solve the problem. And the temperature field uniformity and the environment disruption are studied in this paper. With the help of the efficient parallel calculation, the ceramic roller kiln temperature field uniformity and the NOx emissions field have been researched in the system at the same time. A multi-objective optimization example of the industrial roller kiln proves that the system is of excellent parameter exploration capability.

  2. Numerical analysis of an entire ceramic kiln under actual operating conditions for the energy efficiency improvement.

    PubMed

    Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Stefani, Matteo; Saponelli, Roberto; Lizzano, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    The paper focuses on the analysis of an industrial ceramic kiln in order to improve the energy efficiency and thus the fuel consumption and the corresponding carbon dioxide emissions. A lumped and distributed parameter model of the entire system is constructed to simulate the performance of the kiln under actual operating conditions. The model is able to predict accurately the temperature distribution along the different modules of the kiln and the operation of the many natural gas burners employed to provide the required thermal power. Furthermore, the temperature of the tiles is also simulated so that the quality of the final product can be addressed by the modelling. Numerical results are validated against experimental measurements carried out on a real ceramic kiln during regular production operations. The developed numerical model demonstrates to be an efficient tool for the investigation of different design solutions for the kiln's components. In addition, a number of control strategies for the system working conditions can be simulated and compared in order to define the best trade off in terms of fuel consumption and product quality. In particular, the paper analyzes the effect of a new burner type characterized by internal heat recovery capability aimed at improving the energy efficiency of the ceramic kiln. The fuel saving and the relating reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulted in the order of 10% when compared to the standard burner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CFD analysis of a full-scale ceramic kiln module under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Stefani, Matteo; Venturelli, Matteo

    2017-11-01

    The paper focuses on the CFD analysis of a full-scale module of an industrial ceramic kiln under actual operating conditions. The multi-dimensional analysis includes the real geometry of a ceramic kiln module employed in the preheating and firing sections and investigates the heat transfer between the tiles and the burners' flame as well as the many components that comprise the module. Particular attention is devoted to the simulation of the convective flow field in the upper and lower chambers and to the effects of radiation on the different materials is addressed. The assessment of the radiation contribution to the tiles temperature is paramount to the improvement of the performance of the kiln in terms of energy efficiency and fuel consumption. The CFD analysis is combined to a lumped and distributed parameter model of the entire kiln in order to simulate the module behaviour at the boundaries under actual operating conditions. Finally, the CFD simulation is employed to address the effects of the module operating conditions on the tiles' temperature distribution in order to improve the temperature uniformity as well as to enhance the energy efficiency of the system and thus to reduce the fuel consumption.

  4. Pin and roller attachment system for ceramic blades

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-07-25

    In a turbine, a plurality of blades are attached to a turbine wheel by way of a plurality of joints which form a rolling contact between the blades and the turbine wheel. Each joint includes a pin and a pair of rollers to provide rolling contact between the pin and an adjacent pair of blades. Because of this rolling contact, high stress scuffing between the blades and the turbine wheel reduced, thereby inhibiting catastrophic failure of the blade joints. 3 figs.

  5. Pin and roller attachment system for ceramic blades

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    In a turbine, a plurality of blades are attached to a turbine wheel by way of a plurality of joints which form a rolling contact between the blades and the turbine wheel. Each joint includes a pin and a pair of rollers to provide rolling contact between the pin and an adjacent pair of blades. Because of this rolling contact, high stress scuffing between the blades and the turbine wheel reduced, thereby inhibiting catastrophic failure of the blade joints.

  6. New R-SiC extends service life in kiln furniture

    SciTech Connect

    Sonntag, A.

    1997-11-01

    Silicon carbide kiln furniture systems are an essential part of modern high-temperature technology. SiC ceramics have exceptional high-temperature stability and thermal shock resistance., They show no plastic deformation (creep) under mechanical load and maintain their geometry after each high-temperature cycle. Therefore, various new kiln systems with light and open setting patterns can be realized where more fired goods can be produced with less kiln furniture ballast and within shorter firing cycles. The fast-firing technology of porcelain is an opportunity for new SiC kiln furniture ceramics. The new SiC ceramic systems available include: (1) recrystallized SiC (R-SiC); (2) silicon-infiltrated reaction-bonded SiCmore » (SiSiC); and (3) nitride-bonded SiC (NSiC). The new SiC ceramics have an important production criterion in common. They show practically no shrinkage during production. This is important for the manufacture of large shapes, such as beams, rollers and setter plates, as well as tailored geometries that allow light and open kiln furniture construction. Because of the extraordinarily high thermal shock resistance, high strength and high-temperature creep stability of these SiC ceramics, delicate and precise kiln furniture configurations have been introduced. One application is the fast firing of tableware with automatic setting robots.« less

  7. Energy consumption analysis and simulation of waste heat recovery technology of ceramic rotary kiln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiguang; Zhou, Yu; Qin, Chaokui; Zhang, Xuemei

    2018-03-01

    Ceramsite is widely used in the construction industry, insulation works and oil industry in China, and the manufacture equipment is mainly industrial kiln. In this paper, energy consumption analysis had been carried out through experimental test of a Ceramsite kiln in Henan province. Results showed that the discharge temperature of Ceramsite was about 1393K, and the waste heat accounted for 22.1% of the total energy consumption. A structure of cyclone preheater which recovered waste heat of the high temperature Ceramsite by blast cooling was designed. Then, using Fluent software, performance of the unit was simulated. The minimum temperature that Ceramsite could reach, heat dissipating capacity of Ceramsite, temperature at air outlet, wall temperature of the unit and pressure loss were analyzed. Performance of the designed unit under different inlet velocity was analyzed as well.

  8. Roller Coasters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansberry, Karen; Morgan, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Students of all ages are fascinated by the ups, downs, loops, and twists of roller coaster rides! What they may not realize is that there is a lot of science involved in making a roller coaster work. This month's column puts students in the shoes of a roller coaster designer as they work in teams to create their own roller coasters. (Contains 1…

  9. Thrust rollers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A thrust roller bearing system comprising an inner rotating member, an outer rotating member and multiple rollers coupling the inner rotating member with outer rotating member. The inner and outer rotating members include thrust lips to enable the rollers to act as thrust rollers. The rollers contact inner and outer rotating members at bearing contact points along a contact line. Consequently, the radial/tilt and thrust forces move synchronously and simultaneously to create a bearing action with no slipping.

  10. Roller ginning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Roller ginning provided the first mechanical means of separating cotton lint from seed. The first true roller gin was the Churka gin, which was hand operated and consisted of two hard rollers that ran together at the same surface speed, pinching fiber from the seed and producing up to 2.3 kg (5.0 l...

  11. On Ceramics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents four ceramics activities for secondary-level art classes. Included are directions for primitive kiln construction and glaze making. Two ceramics design activities are described in which students make bizarrely-shaped lidded jars, feet, and footwear. (AM)

  12. Cutting roller

    SciTech Connect

    Best, G.; Weikert, N.B.

    1984-05-29

    A cutting roller for a mining machine, having a substantially conical closure member arranged to face the workings and a tubular body member which has a larger diameter at the end nearer the face working face than at the discharge end. The tubular member carries at least one cutting blade, and the closure member mounts at least one cutting blade; each blade is provided at its edge region with a plurality of bit holders for the attachment of cutter bits. The outer surface of the body member merges into the substantially conical closure member in a smooth, even curve, somore » that the outside diameter of the body member in the region of the working face is substantially greater than the diameter in the region of the discharge end of the cutting roller. The roller is provided with liquid distribution channels on each cutting blade, which channels are connected to a single liquid distribution ring channel in the region of the substantially conical closure member.« less

  13. Solar heated rotary kiln

    DOEpatents

    Shell, Pamela K.

    1984-01-01

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  14. Roller bearing geometry design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Pinkston, B. H. W.

    1976-01-01

    A theory of kinematic stabilization of rolling cylinders is extended and applied to the design of cylindrical roller bearings. The kinematic stabilization mechanism puts a reverse skew into the rolling elements by changing the roller taper. Twelve basic bearing modification designs are identified amd modeled. Four have single transverse convex curvature in their rollers while eight have rollers which have compound transverse curvature made up of a central cylindrical band surrounded by symmetric bands with slope and transverse curvature. The bearing designs are modeled for restoring torque per unit axial displacement, contact stress capacity, and contact area including dynamic loading, misalignment sensitivity and roller proportion. Design programs are available which size the single transverse curvature roller designs for a series of roller slopes and load separations and which design the compound roller bearings for a series of slopes and transverse radii of curvature. The compound rollers are proportioned to have equal contact stresses and minimum size. Design examples are also given.

  15. Roller unlocking sprags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A roller type sprag member consisting of three main elements, an outer roller half section, an inner roller half section, and an assembly-location pin. The sprag locks using roller locking techniques in a manner well known in the case of a three-dimensional (3-D) locking sprag. It unlocks, however, using a roll technique in which the inner and outer roller halves rotate in mutually opposite directions, one clockwise and the other counterclockwise. In the process of rotation, the roller is foreshortened between the distance across the sprag contact surfaces, whereupon it loses its ability to act as a locking sprag and releases.

  16. Vibratory roller study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1984-01-01

    Recently, much criticism has been directed toward the use of vibratory rollers to compact bituminous concrete. The results of the study reported here indicate that when these rollers are operated properly they can produce dense, strong, smooth riding...

  17. A review on waste heat recovery from exhaust in the ceramics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpech, Bertrand; Axcell, Brian; Jouhara, Hussam

    2017-11-01

    Following the energy crisis in 1980, many saving technologies have been investigated with attempts to implement them into various industries, one of them is the field of ceramic production. In order to comply with energy saving trends and environmental issues, the European ceramic industry sector has developed energy efficient systems which reduced significantly production time and costs and reduced total energy consumption. The last achievement is of great importance as the energy consumption of the ceramic process accounts for a significant percentage of the total production costs. More precisely, the firing stage consumes the highest amount of energy during the whole ceramic production process. The use of roller kilns, fired by natural gas, involves a loss of 50% of the input energy via the flue gas and the cooling gas exhausts. This review paper briefly describes the production process of the different ceramic products, with a focus on the ceramic sector in Europe. Due to the limited on waste heat recovery in the ceramic industry, other high temperature waste heat recovery applications are considered in the paper, such as in concrete and steel production, which could have a potential use in the ceramic industry. The state of the art technologies used in the ceramics industry are reviewed with a special interest in waste heat recovery from the ceramic process exhaust stacks and energy saving technologies.

  18. Improvements of gas-fired kiln by use of a microcomputer control system for the porcelain manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Loong, H.; Liang, C.C.; Tseng, K.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of microcomputer control system to gas-fired kiln not only enhanced the porcelain kiln's productivity from 75% to 95% but also saved its operation cost around US$ 200,000 per year. The self-designed microcomputer control system can simultaneous set and control the firing conditions of the period kiln which was built up in our laboratory. Our period kiln having volume of 4 M/sup 3/ was insulated by ceramic fiber which is different from use of refractory in traditional kilns. At the bottom of the kiln is an off-gas tunnel connected with a chimney. Besides the auto start-up and continuous operationmore » of kiln, the main functions of this microcomputer control system are summarized.« less

  19. Dry kiln operator's manual

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson

    1991-01-01

    The modern dry kiln is a unique product of research, development, and experience. It is the only practical means now in wide use for rapid, high- volume drying of lumber to conditions necessary for maximum serviceability in housing, furniture, millwork, and many other wood products. As part of our charge to help further the efficient utilization of our nation’s timber...

  20. Rotary kiln seal

    DOEpatents

    Drexler, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    A rotary seal used to prevent the escape of contaminates from a rotating kiln incinerator. The rotating seal combines a rotating disc plate which is attached to the rotating kiln shell and four sets of non-rotating carbon seal bars housed in a primary and secondary housing and which rub on the sides of the disc. A seal air system is used to create a positive pressure in a chamber between the primary and secondary seals to create a positive air flow into the contaminated gas chamber. The seal air system also employs an air inlet located between the secondary and tertiary seals to further insure that no contaminates pass the seal and enter the external environment and to provide makeup air for the air which flows into the contaminated gas chamber. The pressure exerted by the seal bars on the rotating disc is controlled by means of a preload spring. The seal is capable of operating in a thermally changing environment where the both radial expansion and axial movement of the rotating kiln do not result in the failure of the seal.

  1. Solar-heated rotary kiln

    DOEpatents

    Shell, P.K.

    1982-04-14

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate is disclosed. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  2. Variable loading roller

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  3. Variable loading roller

    DOEpatents

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  4. Kinematic correction for roller skewing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A theory of kinematic stabilization of rolling cylinders is developed for high-speed cylindrical roller bearings. This stabilization requires race and roller crowning to produce changes in the rolling geometry as the roller shifts axially. These changes put a reverse skew in the rolling elements by changing the rolling taper. Twelve basic possible bearing modifications are identified in this paper. Four have single transverse convex curvature in the rollers while eight have rollers with compound transverse curvature composed of a central cylindrical band of constant radius surrounded by symmetric bands with both slope and transverse curvature.

  5. Kinematic correction for roller skewing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A theory of kinematic stabilization of rolling cylinders is developed for high-speed cylindrical roller bearings. This stabilization requires race and roller crowning to product changes in the rolling geometry as the roller shifts axially. These changes put a reverse skew in the rolling elements by changing the rolling taper. Twelve basic possible bearing modifications are identified in this paper. Four have single transverse convex curvature in the rollers while eight have rollers with compound transverse curvature composed of a central cylindrical band of constant radius surrounded by symmetric bands with both slope and transverse curvature.

  6. Roller Locking Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Roller locking brake is normally braking rotary mechanism allowing free rotation when electromagnet in mechanism energized. Well suited to robots and other machinery which automatic braking upon removal of electrical power required. More compact and reliable. Requires little electrical power to maintain free rotation and exhibits minimal buildup of heat.

  7. Portable Roller Staking Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, R. G.; Berson, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    Staking tool compact and portable. Tool combines clamping and staking operations in single unit. Tool clamps workpiece (a bearing or bushing), alines it, and stakes on of flat faces. Used for most roller staking operations which acess both faces of workpiece.

  8. Roller Coaster Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumners, Carolyn; Jones, Howard L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the science of roller coasters, relating gravity, potential/kinetic energy, inertia, and centripetal force to the various parts of the ride, providing tips on linking classroom discussions to field trips. Includes sample student activity sheet and source for additional units using amusement park rides/playground activities to teach…

  9. Kiln emissions and potters' exposures.

    PubMed

    Hirtle, B; Teschke, K; van Netten, C; Brauer, M

    1998-10-01

    Some ten thousand British Columbia potters work in small private studios, cooperative facilities, educational institutions, or recreation centers. There has been considerable concern that this diffuse, largely unregulated activity may involve exposures to unacceptable levels of kiln emissions. Pottery kiln emissions were measured at 50 sites--10 from each of 5 categories: professional studios, recreation centers, elementary schools, secondary schools, and colleges. Area monitoring was done 76 cm from firing kilns and 1.6 m above the floor to assess breathing zone concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, fluorides, aldehydes, aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc. Personal exposures to the same metals were measured at 24 sites. Almost all measured values were well below permissible concentrations for British Columbia work sites and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) with the following two exceptions. A single firing duration (495 minute) acrolein measurement adjacent to an electric kiln (0.109 ppm) exceeded these guidelines. One 15-minute sulfur dioxide measurement collected adjacent to a gas kiln (5.7 ppm) exceeded the ACGIH short-term exposure limit. The fact that concentrations in small, ventilated kiln rooms ranked among the highest measured gives rise to concern that unacceptable levels of contamination may exist where small kiln rooms remain unventilated. Custom designed exhaust hoods and industrial heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems were the most effective ventilation strategies. Passive diffusion and wall/window fans were least effective.

  10. 40 CFR 63.1343 - Standards for kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../raw mills. 63.1343 Section 63.1343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Industry Emission Standards and Operating Limits § 63.1343 Standards for kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills. (a) General. The provisions in this section apply to each kiln, each in-line kiln/raw mill, and any...

  11. The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiemann, Harry D

    1919-01-01

    This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

  12. Roller-compacted concrete pavements.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-01

    Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) gets its name from the heavy vibratory steel drum and rubber-tired rollers used to help compact it into its final form. RCC has similar strength properties and consists of the same basic ingredients as conventional con...

  13. Integration Research on Gas Turbine and Tunnel Kiln Combined System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hefei; Ma, Liangdong; Liu, Mingsheng

    2018-04-01

    Through the integrated modeling of gas turbine and tunnel kiln combined system, a thermodynamic calculation method of combined system is put forward, and the combined system operation parameters are obtained. By this method, the optimization of the combined system is analyzed and the optimal configuration of the gas turbine is calculated. At the same time, the thermal efficiency of the combined system is analyzed, and the heat distribution and thermal efficiency of the system before and after the improvement are explained. Taking the 1500 kg/h ceramic production as an example, pointed out that if the tunnel kiln has a gas turbine with a power of 342 kw. The amount of electricity of the combined system that produced per unit volume of the fuel which consumes more than it used to will be 7.19 kwh, the system thermal efficiency will reach 57.49%, which higher than the individual gas turbine’s cycle thermal efficiency 20% at least.

  14. A Pottery Electric Kiln Using Decompression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoe, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Nakayama, Minoru; Minamide, Akiyuki; Takemata, Kazuya

    This paper presents a novel type electric kiln which fires the pottery using the decompression. The electric kiln is suitable for the environment and the energy saving as the pottery furnace. This paper described the baking principle and the baking characteristic of the novel type electric kiln.

  15. Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Chang, Aimin; Zhao, Qing; Ye, Haitao; Wu, Yiquan

    2014-11-01

    The microstructure and thermoelectric properties of Yb-doped Ca0.9- x Yb x La0.1 MnO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) ceramics prepared by using the Pechini method derived powders have been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis has shown that all samples exhibit single phase with orthorhombic perovskite structure. All ceramic samples possess high relative densities, ranging from 97.04% to 98.65%. The Seebeck coefficient is negative, indicating n-type conduction in all samples. The substitution of Yb for Ca leads to a marked decrease in the electrical resistivity, along with a moderate decrease in the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient. The highest power factor is obtained for the sample with x = 0.05. The electrical conduction in these compounds is due to electrons hopping between Mn3+ and Mn4+, which is enhanced by increasing Yb content.

  16. Kiln for hot-pressing compacts in a continuous manner

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, C.D Jr.

    1983-08-08

    The invention is directed to a hot pressing furnace or kiln which is capable of preheating, hot pressing, and cooling a plurality of articles in a sequential and continuous manner. The hot pressing furnace of the present invention comprises an elongated, horizontally disposed furnace capable of holding a plurality of displaceable pusher plates each supporting a die body loaded with refractory or ceramic material to be hot pressed. Each of these plates and the die body supported thereby is sequentially pushed through the preheating zone, a temperature stabilizing and a hot pressing zone, and a cooling zone so as to provide a continuous hot-pressing operation of a plurality of articles.

  17. Kiln for hot-pressing compacts in a continuous manner

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, Jr., Carl D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a hot pressing furnace or kiln which is capable of preheating, hot pressing, and cooling a plurality of articles in a sequential and continuous manner. The hot pressing furnace of the present invention comprises an elongated, horizontally disposed furnace capable of holding a plurality of displaceable pusher plates each supporting a die body loaded with refractory or ceramic material to be hot pressed. Each of these plates and the die body supported thereby is sequentially pushed through the preheating zone, a temperature stabilizing and a hot pressing zone, and a cooling zone so as to provide a continuous hot-pressing operation of a plurality of articles.

  18. 62. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT THE LIME KILNS AND MOTOR DRIVES FOR THE KILNS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  19. Vibratory roller evaluation study : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-03-01

    The Louisiana Department of Highways has recently completed a program to evaluate the use of vibratory rollers in the compaction of asphaltic concrete pavements. In all, a total of nine different vibratory rollers was tested along with conventional s...

  20. Problematics of Reliability of Road Rollers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stawowiak, Michał; Kuczaj, Mariusz

    2018-06-01

    This article refers to the reliability of road rollers used in a selected roadworks company. Information on the method of road rollers service and how the service affects the reliability of these rollers is presented. Attention was paid to the process of the implemented maintenance plan with regard to the machine's operational time. The reliability of road rollers was analyzed by determining and interpreting readiness coefficients.

  1. Accelerating the kiln drying of oak

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson

    1980-01-01

    Reducing kiln-drying time for oak lumber can reduce energy requirements as well as reduce lumber inventories. In this work, l-inch northern red oak and white oak were kiln dried from green by a combination of individual accelerating techniques– presurfacing, presteaming, accelerated and smooth schedule, and high-temperature drying below 18 percent moisture content....

  2. Effect of Roller Profile on Cylindrical Roller Bearing Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poplawski, Joseph V.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Peters, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    Four roller profiles used in cylindrical roller bearing design and manufacture were analyzed using both a closed form solution and finite element analysis (FEA) for stress and life. The roller profiles analyzed were flat, tapered end, aerospace, and fully crowned loaded against a flat raceway. Four rolling-element bearing life models were chosen for this analysis and compared. These were those of Weibull, Lundberg and Palmgren, Ioannides and Harris, and Zaretsky. The flat roller profile without edge loading has the longest predicted life. However, edge loading can reduce life by as much as 98 percent. The end tapered profile produced the highest lives but not significantly different than the aerospace profile. The fully crowned profile produces the lowest lives. The resultant predicted life at each stress condition not only depends on the life equation used but also on the Weibull slope assumed. For Weibull slopes of 1.5 and 2, both Lundberg-Palmgren and Iaonnides-Harris equations predict lower lives than the ANSI/ABMAJISO standards. Based upon the Hertz stresses for line contact, the accepted load-life exponent of 10/3 results in a maximum Hertz stress-life exponent equal to 6.6. This value is inconsistent with that experienced in the field.

  3. Roller skating injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Inkelis, S H; Stroberg, A J; Keller, E L; Christenson, P D

    1988-06-01

    Many children who roller skate sustain injuries. To determine the type and severity of these mishaps, the medical records of 76 children less than 16 years of age with roller skating injuries presenting to two pediatric emergency departments were reviewed. Seventy-five percent were girls, and 25% were boys. The upper extremity was the most common body part injured (74%) (P less than 0.0001). Lower extremity injuries occurred in 12%, head and face injuries in 10%, and chest injuries in 4%. The most common type of injury was a fracture (69%), with the wrist and forearm being most frequently fractured (53%). Hospitalization and long-term sequelae were infrequent. Younger children (less than or equal to 9) had an increased frequency of fracture injury (P less than 0.02). This is most likely because maturation of lower and upper extremity speed, strength, agility, coordination, balance, and reaction time and morphologically stronger bones combine to afford relative protection to the older child. Physicians and parents need to be aware of a child's skill level before the child is encouraged to roller skate. Measures which may decrease the likelihood of injury include protective gear, instruction in roller skating technique, learning to skate in an uncongested area on level, familiar terrain, and learning to fall properly.

  4. Stopping a Roller Coaster Train

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Karlsteen, Magnus; Rodjegard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A roller coaster ride comes to an end. Magnets on the train induce eddy currents in the braking fins, giving a smooth rise in braking force as the remaining kinetic energy is absorbed by the brakes and converted to thermal energy. In this paper an IR camera was used to monitor the temperature of the first braking fin, before, during and after the…

  5. Kiln Size Affects Energy Required to Dry Lumber

    Treesearch

    Howard N. Rosen

    1980-01-01

    Energy requirements for lumber drying kilns can depend on kiln size and range from 18,000 Btu/lb water evaporated for a 10 board food capacity kiln to 1,600 Btu/lb water evaporated for a 100,000 board foot capacity kiln.

  6. 40 CFR 63.1344 - Operating limits for kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... kiln/raw mills. 63.1344 Section 63.1344 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Industry Emission Standards and Operating Limits § 63.1344 Operating limits for kilns and in-line kiln/raw... specified in paragraph (b) of this section. The owner or operator of an in-line kiln/raw mill subject to a D...

  7. Effect of Roller Geometry on Roller Bearing Load-Life Relation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Cylindrical roller bearings typically employ roller profile modification to equalize load distribution, minimize stress concentration at roller ends and allow for a small amount of misalignment. The 1947 Lundberg-Palmgren analysis reported an inverse fourth power relation between load and life for roller bearings with line contact. In 1952, Lundberg and Palmgren changed their load-life exponent to 10/3 for roller bearings, assuming mixed line and point contact. The effect of roller-crown profile was reanalyzed in this paper to determine the actual load-life relation for modified roller profiles. For uncrowned rollers (line contact), the load-life exponent is p = 4, in agreement with the 1947 Lundberg-Palmgren value but crowning reduces the value of the exponent, p. The lives of modern roller bearings made from vacuum-processed steels significantly exceed those predicted by the Lundberg-Palmgren theory. The Zaretsky rolling-element bearing life model of 1996 produces a load-life exponent of p = 5 for flat rollers, which is more consistent with test data. For the Zaretsky model with fully crowned rollers p = 4.3. For an aerospace profile and chamfered rollers, p = 4.6. Using the 1952 Lundberg-Palmgren value p = 10/3, the value incorporated in ANSI/ABMA and ISO bearing standards, can create significant life calculation errors for roller bearings.

  8. Roller skating accidents and injuries.

    PubMed

    Sedlin, E D; Zitner, D T; McGinniss, G

    1984-02-01

    A consecutive series of 65 fractures, dislocations, and ligament tears produced by roller skating accidents treated by the Orthopaedic Department of the Mt. Sinai Services at City Hospital Center of Elmhurst, New York, is reviewed. It was learned that the injuries resulting from collisions occurring in a skating rink were more serious than those resulting from street accidents. Data indicated that lack of expertise is a prominent factor in the production of serious injury. However, the sport has inherent risk which is not eliminated by expertise. It was concluded that roller skating can and does produce disabling injuries. In order to reduce the number of injuries it will be required to reduce crowding in rinks, designate separate beginners' areas, use training wheels or clampon-type of skates when learning, encourage lessons, and separate beginners in the rinks.

  9. The 1982 epidemic--roller skating injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, T. D.

    1983-01-01

    A series of 100 roller skating injuries is presented. Roller skating injuries have been occurring at a higher rate than the previously reported skateboarding epidemic of 1977. The severity of injury has been lower, 32% fractures and dislocations occurring whilst roller skating, compared to 60% whilst skateboarding. In particular a striking reduction is seen in ankle fractures. Fifty questionnaires detailing method of injury were analysed. Images p205-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6652406

  10. 63. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT THE FIRE BOX AND KILN FOR DILLUTANT. APRIL 22, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  11. Operation and cost of a small dehumidification dry kiln

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Bergman

    2008-01-01

    Obtaining small quantities of custom kiln-dried lumber can be an expensive process for an individual woodworker. Building and operating a small kiln capable of drying custom cuts of lumber (such as slabs, bowl blanks) gives woodworkers another option. Our approach was to build and operate a small dehumidification dry kiln. The four charges of lumber ranged from 600 to...

  12. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley...

  13. Reducing firing of an early pottery making kiln at Batán Grande, Peru: A Mössbauer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, U.; Gebhard, R.; Häusler, W.; Hutzelmann, T.; Riederer, J.; Shimada, I.; Sosa, J.; Wagner, F. E.

    1999-11-01

    Material from field firing experiments using a 2,700-year old Formative kiln at Batán Grande, Peru, was studied by X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The experiments explore the technology involved in producing the gray and black reduced ware for which Cupisnique and other Formative ceramics are justly known. During firing, the iron-bearing compounds in clays undergo characteristic changes which depend on kiln temperature and atmosphere. These changes can be observed in the Mössbauer spectra. By comparing spectra of an appropriate clay fired in field experiments and in the laboratory with the spectra of ancient ceramics, a description of Formative firing techniques in a reducing environment is attempted.

  14. Screw-released roller brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A screw-released roller brake including an input drive assembly, an output drive assembly, a plurality of locking sprags, a mechanical tripper nut for unlocking the sprags, and a casing therefor. The sprags consist of three dimensional (3-D) sprag members having pairs of contact surface regions which engage respective pairs of contact surface regions included in angular grooves or slots formed in the casing and the output drive assembly. The sprags operate to lock the output drive assembly to the casing to prevent rotation thereof in an idle mode of operation. In a drive mode of operation, the tripper is either self actuated or motor driven and is translated linearly up and down against a spline and at the limit of its travel rotates the sprags which unlock while coupling the input drive assembly to the output drive assembly so as to impart a turning motion thereto in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

  15. Environmental impact of incineration of calorific industrial waste: rotary kiln vs. cement kiln.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Isabel; Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Dewulf, Wim; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    Rotary kiln incinerators and cement kilns are two energy intensive processes, requiring high temperatures that can be obtained by the combustion of fossil fuel. In both processes, fossil fuel is often substituted by high or medium calorific waste to avoid resource depletion and to save costs. Two types of industrial calorific waste streams are considered: automotive shredder residue (ASR) and meat and bone meal (MBM). These waste streams are of current high interest: ASR must be diverted from landfill, while MBM can no longer be used for cattle feeding. The environmental impact of the incineration of these waste streams is assessed and compared for both a rotary kiln and a cement kiln. For this purpose, data from an extensive emission inventory is applied for assessing the environmental impact using two different modeling approaches: one focusing on the impact of the relevant flows to and from the process and its subsystems, the other describing the change of environmental impact in response to these physical flows. Both ways of assessing emphasize different aspects of the considered processes. Attention is paid to assumptions in the methodology that can influence the outcome and conclusions of the assessment. It is concluded that for the incineration of calorific wastes, rotary kilns are generally preferred. Nevertheless, cement kilns show opportunities in improving their environmental impact when substituting their currently used fuels by more clean calorific waste streams, if this improvement is not at the expense of the actual environmental impact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Method of operating an oil shale kiln

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-05-23

    Continuously determining the bulk density of raw and retorted oil shale, the specific gravity of the raw oil shale and the richness of the raw oil shale provides accurate means to control process variables of the retorting of oil shale, predicting oil production, determining mining strategy, and aids in controlling shale placement in the kiln for the retorting.

  17. Railcar Roller Bearing Failure Progression Tests

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-04-01

    This report describes the laboratory endurance test of six railcar roller bearings that had previously suffered physical damage or were otherwise degraded as a result of actual railroad service. Two different onboard impending bearing failure sensors...

  18. 100. DAM ROLLER GATES GEAR SEGMENTS & TRACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. DAM - ROLLER GATES - GEAR SEGMENTS & TRACK EXTENSIONS (ML-8-47/16-FS) June 1935 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  19. Health hazards of ceramic artists.

    PubMed

    Dorevitch, S; Babin, A

    2001-01-01

    Ceramic artists can be exposed to many hazards including metals (such as lead), fibrogenic dusts (such as silica), heat, repetitive motion, radiation, and toxic emissions from kilns. The health risks of these exposures have not been well characterized among artists, although limited information is available from commercial potteries. Adverse health effects may be prevented by using less hazardous materials (such as lead-free glazes), improved ventilation, and proper work practices. Special precautions must be in place if children have access to the ceramics studio. The use of glazed ceramic dishes can be a risk for lead toxicity. Food should not be stored in glazed ceramics, and pregnant women should avoid daily use of ceramic mugs for drinking hot beverages.

  20. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from brick kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajarathnam, Uma; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Maithel, Sameer; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Kumar, Sonal; Baum, Ellen; Weyant, Cheryl; Bond, Tami

    2014-12-01

    India has more than 100,000 brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks annually. Indian brick industry is often a small scale industry and third largest consumer of coal in the country. With the growing demand for building materials and characterised by lack of pollution control measures the brick industry has a potential to cause adverse effects on the environment. This paper presents assessment of five brick making technologies based on the measurements carried out at seventeen individual brick kilns. Emissions of PM, SO2, CO and CO2 were measured and these emissions were used to estimate the emission factors for comparing the emissions across different fuel or operating conditions. Estimated emission from brick kilns in South Asia are about 0.94 million tonnes of PM; 3.9 million tonnes of CO and 127 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Among various technologies that are widely used in India, Zig zag and vertical shaft brick kilns showed better performance in terms of emissions over the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns. This suggests that the replacement of traditional technologies with Zig zag, vertical shaft brick kilns or other cleaner kiln technologies will contribute towards improvements in the environmental performance of brick kiln industry in the country. Zig zag kilns appear to be the logical replacement because of low capital investment, easy integration with the existing production process, and the possibility of retrofitting fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns into Zig zag firing.

  1. Roller to separator contact forces and cage to shaft speed ratios in roller bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nypan, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    Cage to roller force measurements, cage to shaft speed ratios are reported for 115- and 118-mm bore roller bearings operating at speeds of 4000, 8000, and 12,000 rpm under loads ranging from 360 to 6670 N (80 to 1500 lb).

  2. Adhesive Wear of Rollers in Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaeef, Iqbal; Krantz, Timothy L.

    2012-01-01

    This work was done to support NASA's James Webb Space Telescope that is equipped with a Near Infrared Camera and Spectrograph and Micro Shutter Assembly (MSA). A MSA mechanism's qualification test in cryogenic vacuum at 30deg K for 96K cycles resulted in roller wear and formation of some debris. Lab tests in vacuum were conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to understand the wear of Ti6Al4V mated with 440F steel rollers. Misalignment angle was found to have the most significant effect on debris formation. At misalignment angle of 1.4deg, significant amount of wear debris were formed within 50,000 cycles. Very few wear particles were found for a zero misalignment angle, and the total wear was small even after 367,000 cycles. The mode of wear in all the tests was attributed to adhesion, which was clearly evident from video records as well as the plate-like amalgamated debris material from both rollers. The adhesive wear rate was found to be approximately proportional to the misalignment angle. The wear is a two-way phenomenon, and the mixing of both roller materials in wear debris was confirmed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and EDX spectra. While there was a net loss of mass from the steel rollers, XRF and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectra showed peaks of Ti on steel rollers, and peaks of Fe on Ti rollers. These results are useful for designers in terms of maintaining appropriate tolerances to avoid misalignment of rolling elements and the resulting severe wear

  3. Improvements In solar dry kiln design

    Treesearch

    E. M. Wengert

    1971-01-01

    Interest in solar drying of lumber has increased in recent years because previous results had indicated that: Drying times are shorter and final moisture contents are lower in solar drying than in air drying; much less lumber degrade occurs in solar drying when compared to air drying; and the cost of energy is less in solar drying than in kiln drying. Work in the field...

  4. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1991-04-22

    The focus of our work during the first quarter of 1991 was on combustion tests at the PEDCO rotary kiln reactor at North American Rayon (NARCO) plant in Elizabethton, TN. The tests had essentially tow related objectives: (a) to obtain basic data on the combustion of anthracite culm in a rotary kiln reactor, and (b) upon the test results, determine how best to proceed with our own planned program at the Humphrey Charcoal kiln in Brookville, PA. The rationale for the tests at PEDCO arose from process analysis which posted red flags on the feasibility of burning low-grade, hard-to-burn fuelsmore » like anthracite culms, in the rotary kiln. The PEDCO unit afforded a unique opportunity to obtain some quick answers at low cost. Two different anthracite culm fuels were tested: a so-called Jeddo culm with an average heating value of 7000 Btu/lb, and a relatively poorer culm, and Emerald'' culm, with an average heating value of 5000 Btu/lb. An attempt was also made to burn a blend of the Emerald culm with bituminous coal in 75/25 percent proportions. This report describes the tests, their chronology, and preliminary results. As it turned out, the PEDCO unit is not configured properly for the combustion of anthracite culm. As a result, it proved difficult to achieve a sustained period of steady-state combustion operation, and combustion efficiencies were low even when supplemental fuel was used to aid combustion of the culm. 1 fig., 2 tabs.« less

  5. 40 CFR 63.1345 - Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw and finish mills, and open clinker piles. 63.1345 Section 63.1345 Protection of Environment... for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed...

  6. Roller compacted concrete : field evaluation and mixture optimization.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-08-01

    Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) as an economical, fast construction and sustainable materials has attracted increasing attention for pavement construction. The growth of roller-compacted concrete pavement used in different regions is impeded by conce...

  7. 29 CFR 1918.63 - Chutes, gravity conveyors and rollers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chutes, gravity conveyors and rollers. 1918.63 Section 1918... Equipment Other Than Ship's Gear § 1918.63 Chutes, gravity conveyors and rollers. (a) Chutes shall be of... and gravity conveyor roller sections shall be firmly placed and secured to prevent displacement...

  8. 29 CFR 1918.63 - Chutes, gravity conveyors and rollers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chutes, gravity conveyors and rollers. 1918.63 Section 1918... Equipment Other Than Ship's Gear § 1918.63 Chutes, gravity conveyors and rollers. (a) Chutes shall be of... and gravity conveyor roller sections shall be firmly placed and secured to prevent displacement...

  9. 29 CFR 1918.63 - Chutes, gravity conveyors and rollers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chutes, gravity conveyors and rollers. 1918.63 Section 1918... Equipment Other Than Ship's Gear § 1918.63 Chutes, gravity conveyors and rollers. (a) Chutes shall be of... and gravity conveyor roller sections shall be firmly placed and secured to prevent displacement...

  10. 29 CFR 1918.63 - Chutes, gravity conveyors and rollers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chutes, gravity conveyors and rollers. 1918.63 Section 1918... Equipment Other Than Ship's Gear § 1918.63 Chutes, gravity conveyors and rollers. (a) Chutes shall be of... and gravity conveyor roller sections shall be firmly placed and secured to prevent displacement...

  11. 29 CFR 1918.63 - Chutes, gravity conveyors and rollers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chutes, gravity conveyors and rollers. 1918.63 Section 1918... Equipment Other Than Ship's Gear § 1918.63 Chutes, gravity conveyors and rollers. (a) Chutes shall be of... and gravity conveyor roller sections shall be firmly placed and secured to prevent displacement...

  12. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition. ...

  13. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition. ...

  14. Remote Sensing Characteristics of Wave Breaking Rollers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, M. C.; Catalan, P.

    2006-12-01

    The wave roller has a primary influence on the balances of mass and momentum in the surf zone (e.g. Svendsen, 1984; Dally and Brown, 1995; Ruessink et al., 2001). In addition, the roller area and its angle of inclination on the wave front are important quantities governing the dissipation rates in breaking waves (e.g Madsen et al., 1997). Yet, there have been very few measurements published of individual breaking wave roller geometries in shallow water. A number of investigators have focused on observations of the initial jet-like motion at the onset of breaking before the establishment of the wave roller (e.g. Basco, 1985; Jansen, 1986), while Govender et al. (2002) provide observations of wave roller vertical cross-sections and angles of inclination for a pair of laboratory wave conditions. Nonetheless, presently very little is known about the growth, evolution, and decay of this aerated region of white water as it propagates through the surf zone; mostly due to the inherent difficulties in making the relevant observations. The present work is focused on analyzing observations of the time and space scales of individual shallow water breaking wave rollers as derived from remote sensing systems. Using a high-resolution video system in a large-scale laboratory facility, we have obtained detailed measurements of the growth and evolution of the wave breaking roller. In addition, by synchronizing the remote video with in-situ wave gages, we are able to directly relate the video intensity signal to the underlying wave shape. Results indicate that the horizontal length scale of breaking wave rollers differs significantly from the previous observations of Duncan (1981), which has been a traditional basis for roller model parameterizations. The overall approach to the video analysis is new in the sense that we concentrate on individual breaking waves, as opposed to the more commonly used time-exposure technique. In addition, a new parameter of interest, denoted Imax, is

  15. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods : temperate and tropical

    Treesearch

    R. Sidney Boone; Charles J. Kozlik; Paul J. Bois; Eugene M. Wengert

    1988-01-01

    This report contains suggested dry kiln schedules for over 500 commercial woods, both temperate and tropical. Kiln schedules are completely assembled and written out for easy use. Schedules for several thicknesses and specialty products (e.g. squares, handle stock, gunstock blanks) are given for many species. The majority of the schedules are from the world literature...

  16. New emission controls for Missouri batch-type charcoal kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Yronwode, P.; Graf, W.J.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal kilns have been exempted from air emission regulation in the state of Missouri. Today, 80% of US charcoal production takes place in Missouri. As a result of a petition filed by people in the area around an installation in southern Missouri, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set up air monitors and measured ambient air levels at that charcoal manufacturing installation. These monitors yielded the highest particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM{sub 10}) levels ever recorded in the state. Earlier stack testing at another charcoal manufacturing installation indicated that toxics and carcinogens are present in charcoal kiln airmore » emissions. A Charcoal Kiln Workgroup was formed to determine the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for charcoal kilns and to draft a charcoal kiln rule that requires BACT. The BACT report determined that afterburners were suitable for controlling emissions from batch-type charcoal kilns. In addition, the charcoal industry supported incorporating the BACT limits and requirements into an enforceable state rule and submitting this rule to the EPA for federal approval. A consent agreement between the EPA and three major charcoal companies was signed with provisions to install, operate, and maintain emission control devices on charcoal kilns. This agreement was to settle complaints alleging that the three major charcoal producers had failed to report toxic air emissions to federal and state regulators. The agreement provided that industry would install control devices on a set schedule with some charcoal kilns being shut down.« less

  17. Investment opportunity : the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln

    Treesearch

    George B. Harpole

    1988-01-01

    Two equations are presented that may be used to estimate a maximum investment limit and working capital requirements for the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln systems. The equations require data for drying cycle time, green lumber cost, and kiln-dried lumber costs. Results are intended to provide a preliminary estimate.

  18. ELIMINATION OF WATER POLLUTION BY RECYCLING CEMENT PLANT KILN DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excessive amounts of alkalies can have deleterious effects upon the process of cement manufacture and the product. Normally much of the alkali present in cement raw materials is volatilized in the cement kiln and condenses on the particles of kiln dust which are carried out of th...

  19. 9. Rear of northern kiln group, looking northeast. Although not ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Rear of northern kiln group, looking northeast. Although not visible from this distance, the Viola Mine was located in the mountain range in the background. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  20. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In Addition, other pollu...

  1. 7 CFR 305.28 - Kiln sterilization treatment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kiln sterilization treatment schedule. 305.28 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.28 Kiln sterilization treatment schedule. T404-b-4 Dry bulb temperature( °F) Wet bulb depression( °F) Percent...

  2. Improvement of Railroad Roller Bearing Test Procedures & Development of Roller Bearing Diagnostic Techniques. Volume 2.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive review of existing basic diagnostic techniques applicable to the railcar roller bearing defect and failure problem was made. Of the potentially feasible diagnostic techniques identified, high frequency vibration was selected for exper...

  3. Improvement of Railroad Roller Bearing Test Procedures & Development of Roller Bearing Diagnostic Techniques. Volume 1.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-03-01

    Bearing defect data from 8,000 railroad roller bearings are analyzed to determine their defect modes and defect rate distributions. Cone bore growth, brinelling, and fatigue are identified as the predominant defect modes during the first 12 years of ...

  4. Depreciation of bearing blocks of rollers of roller conveyers of rolling mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artiukh, Viktor; Belyaev, Michael; Ignatovich, Igor; Miloradova, Nadezda

    2017-10-01

    Essential increase in functional durability of a node of a roller of the roller conveyer of the rolling mill by the rational choice of parameters of the small-size shock-absorber (buffer adapter) is shown. At the same time dimensions of a node don’t change, costs of reconstruction are small. The possibility of management of loadings in a bearing node without change of technology parameters of the process which is carried out by the rolling mill is confirmed.

  5. Roller Skating; Physical Education: 9.8414.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amacker, Kathy; Mikell, Lenora

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 7-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Methods and procedures of roller skating. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The contents are divided into six areas, which are Course Guidelines, Course Description and Accreditation Standard Broad Goal, Course of Study Behavioral Objectives, Course Content, Learning Activities and Teaching…

  6. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Technology (MACT) Standards § 270.235 Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns... malfunction plan, design, and operating history. (2) Retain or add these permit requirements to the permit to... information including the source's startup, shutdown, and malfunction plan, design, and operating history; and...

  7. Roller compaction of moist pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    Wu, C-Y; Hung, W-L; Miguélez-Morán, A M; Gururajan, B; Seville, J P K

    2010-05-31

    The compression behaviour of powders during roller compaction is dominated by a number of factors, such as process conditions (roll speed, roll gap, feeding mechanisms and feeding speed) and powder properties (particle size, shape, moisture content). The moisture content affects the powder properties, such as the flowability and cohesion, but it is not clear how the moisture content will influence the powder compression behaviour during roller compaction. In this study, the effect of moisture contents on roller compaction behaviour of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, Avicel PH102) was investigated experimentally. MCC samples of different moisture contents were prepared by mixing as-received MCC powder with different amount of water that was sprayed onto the powder bed being agitated in a rotary mixer. The flowability of these samples were evaluated in terms of the poured angle of repose and flow functions. The moist powders were then compacted using the instrumented roller compactor developed at the University of Birmingham. The flow and compression behaviour during roller compaction and the properties of produced ribbons were examined. It has been found that, as the moisture content increases, the flowability of moist MCC powders decreases and the powder becomes more cohesive. As a consequence of non-uniform flow of powder into the compaction zone induced by the friction between powder and side cheek plates, all produced ribbons have a higher density in the middle and lower densities at the edges. For the ribbons made of powders with high moisture contents, different hydration states across the ribbon width were also identified from SEM images. Moreover, it was interesting to find that these ribbons were split into two halves. This is attributed to the reduction in the mechanical strength of moist powder compacts with high moisture contents produced at high compression pressures. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Small bore ceramic laser tube inspection light table

    DOEpatents

    Updike, Earl O.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for inspecting small bore ceramic laser tubes, which includes a support base with one or more support rollers. A fluorescent light tube is inserted within the laser tube and the laser tube is supported by the support rollers so that a gap is maintained between the laser tube and the fluorescent tube to enable rotation of the laser tube. In operation, the ceramic tube is illuminated from the inside by the fluorescent tube to facilitate visual inspection. Centering the tube around the axial light of the fluorescent tube provides information about straightness and wall thickness of the laser tube itself.

  9. Evaluating a Small Structural Insulated Panel (SIP) Designed Solar Kiln in Southwestern New Mexico - Part 1

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Bergman; Ted E.M. Bilek

    2012-01-01

    With increasing energy costs, using small dry kilns for drying lumber for small-volume value-added wood products has become more of an option when compared with conventional drying. Small solar kilns are one such option, and a number of solar kiln designs exist and are in use. However, questions remain about the design and operation of solar kilns, particularly during...

  10. Drying hard maple (Acer saccharum L.) lumber in a small dehumidification kiln

    Treesearch

    Neal Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Portable sawmill owners quickly recognize the advantage to kiln drying lumber they produce. Having the ability to provide properly kiln-dried lumber opens new market opportunities and can increase profit margins. However, the construction and operation of a dry kiln must be economical and simple. A small dehumidification dry kiln constructed and tested in Princeton, WV...

  11. Self-Mobilization Using a Foam Roller Versus a Roller Massager: Which Is More Effective for Increasing Hamstrings Flexibility?

    PubMed

    DeBruyne, Danielle M; Dewhurst, Marina M; Fischer, Katelyn M; Wojtanowski, Michael S; Durall, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Clinical Scenario: Increasing the length of the muscle-tendon unit may prevent musculotendinous injury. Various methods have been proposed to increase muscle-tendon flexibility, including self-mobilization using foam rollers or roller massagers, although the effectiveness of these devices is uncertain. This review was conducted to determine if the use of foam rollers or roller massagers to improve hamstrings flexibility is supported by moderate- to high-quality evidence. Are foam rollers or roller massagers effective for increasing hamstrings flexibility in asymptomatic physically active adults? Summary of Key Findings: The literature was searched for studies on the effects of using foam rollers or roller massagers to increase hamstrings flexibility in asymptomatic physically active adults. Four randomized controlled trials were included; 2 studies provided level 2 or 3 evidence regarding foam rollers and 2 studies provided level 2 or 3 evidence regarding roller massagers. Both roller-massager studies reported increases in hamstrings flexibility after treatment. Data from the foam-roller studies did not demonstrate a statistically significant increase in hamstrings flexibility, but 1 study did demonstrate a strong effect size. Clinical Bottom Line: The reviewed moderate-quality studies support the use of roller massagers but provide limited evidence on the effectiveness of foam rolling to increase hamstrings flexibility in asymptomatic physically active adults. Flexibility gains may be improved by a longer duration of treatment and administration by a trained therapist. Gains appear to decline rapidly postrolling. Neither device has been shown to confer a therapeutic benefit superior to static stretching, and the effectiveness of these devices for preventing injury is unknown. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence supports the use of roller massagers to increase hamstrings flexibility in asymptomatic physically active adults.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Forces Produced by Misaligned Steel Rollers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy; DellaCorte, Christopher; Dube, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) uses a roller-based mechanism for positioning of the solar arrays. The forces and moments that develop at the roller interfaces are influenced by the design including the kinematic constraints and the lubrication condition. To help understand the SARJ operation, a set of dedicated experiments were completed using roller pairs. Of primary interest was to measure the axial force directed along the axis of rotation of the roller as a function of shaft misalignment. The conditions studied included dry and clean surfaces; one surface plated by a gold film, and greased surfaces. For the case of a bare 440C roller against a nitrided 15-5 roller without lubrication, the axial force can be as great as 0.4 times the normal load for a shaft angle of 0.5 degree. Such a magnitude of force on a roller in the SARJ mechanism would cause roller tipping and contact pressures much greater than anticipated by the designers. For the case of a bare 440C roller against a nitrided 15-5 roller with grease lubrication, the axial force does not exceed about 0.15 times the normal load even for the largest misalignment angles tested. Gold films provided good lubrication for the short duration testing reported herein. Grease lubrication limited the magnitude of the axial force to even smaller magnitudes than was achieved with the gold films. The experiments demonstrate the critical role of good lubrication for the SARJ mechanism.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Forces Produced by Misaligned Steel Rollers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy; DellaCorte, Christopher; Dube, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) uses a roller-based mechanism for positioning of the solar arrays. The forces and moments that develop at the roller interfaces are influenced by the design including the kinematic constraints and the lubrication condition. To help understand the SARJ operation, a set of dedicated experiments were completed using roller pairs. Of primary interest was to measure the axial force directed along the axis of rotation of the roller as a function of shaft misalignment. The conditions studied included dry and clean surfaces; one surface plated by a gold film, and greased surfaces. For the case of a bare 440C roller against a nitrided 15-5 roller without lubrication, the axial force can be as great as 0.4 times the normal load for a shaft angle of 0.5 deg. Such a magnitude of force on a roller in the SARJ mechanism would cause roller tipping and contact pressures much greater than anticipated by the designers. For the case of a bare 440C roller against a nitrided 15-5 roller with grease lubrication, the axial force does not exceed about 0.15 times the normal load even for the largest misalignment angles tested. Gold films provided good lubrication for the short duration testing reported herein. Grease lubrication limited the magnitude of the axial force to even smaller magnitudes than was achieved with the gold films. The experiments demonstrate the critical role of good lubrication for the SARJ mechanism.

  14. 57. ORIGINAL TILE PRESS AND EXPERIMENTAL DENTAL KILN, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. ORIGINAL TILE PRESS AND EXPERIMENTAL DENTAL KILN, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING, HENRY MERCER USED THE KILN FOR HIS EARLIEST GLAZE TESTS. THE PRESS WAS DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH METAL CASED MOLDS. SINCE ONLY THE EARLIEST TILE DESIGNS ARE IN METAL CASES. THIS TECHNIQUE WAS PROBABLY DISCONTINUED. THIS PRESS WAS, THEREFORE, PROBABLY NOT USED EXTENSIVELY AT THIS SITE. THE UPPER PART OF GLAZE KILN No. 2 IS AT THE LEFT REAR. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  15. Interference Fit Life Factors for Roller Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of hoop stresses in reducing cylindrical roller bearing fatigue life was determined for various classes of inner ring interference fit. Calculations were performed for up to seven interference fit classes for each of ten bearing sizes. Each fit was taken at tightest, average and loosest values within the fit class for RBEC-5 tolerance, thus requiring 486 separate analyses. The hoop stresses were superimposed on the Hertzian principal stresses created by the applied radial load to calculate roller bearing fatigue life. The method was developed through a series of equations to calculate the life reduction for cylindrical roller bearings based on interference fit. All calculated lives are for zero initial bearing internal clearance. Any reduction in bearing clearance due to interference fit was compensated by increasing the initial (unmounted) clearance. Results are presented as tables and charts of life factors for bearings with light, moderate and heavy loads and interference fits ranging from extremely light to extremely heavy and for bearing accuracy class RBEC 5 (ISO class 5). Interference fits on the inner bearing ring of a cylindrical roller bearing can significantly reduce bearing fatigue life. In general, life factors are smaller (lower life) for bearings running under light load where the unfactored life is highest. The various bearing series within a particular bore size had almost identical interference fit life factors for a particular fit. The tightest fit at the high end of the RBEC-5 tolerance band defined in ANSI/ABMA shaft fit tables produces a life factor of approximately 0.40 for an inner-race maximum Hertz stress of 1200 MPa (175 ksi) and a life factor of 0.60 for an inner-race maximum Hertz stress of 2200 MPa (320 ksi). Interference fits also impact the maximum Hertz stress-life relation.

  16. 25. INTERIOR OF GLAZE KILN NO. 2, SHOWING HOW SAGGERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR OF GLAZE KILN NO. 2, SHOWING HOW SAGGERS AND LOOSE QUARRY TILES WERE STACKED. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  17. Conversion of Conventional Rotary Kiln Into Effective Sandy Alumina Calciner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, M.; Hirano, T.; Yajima, H.

    Using conventional rotary kiln for calcining sandy alumina in potlines, remakable heat-saving and capacity-improving can be achieved. 83 liters of oil per tonne of alumina (3200MJ/tonne) were required for calcining 800 m.t.p.d. of sandy alumina in the rotary kiln at Shimizu Works. The kiln is installed with two stages of flash dryers and planetary coolers, and was originally designed for calcining floury alumina at 550 m.t.p.d. This improvement in capacity and unit oil consumption was achieved mainly through shortening the flame by using a special burner and effective heat recovery. The quality of sandy alumina calcined by the kiln is good enough for potlines.

  18. 40 CFR 63.1348 - Standards for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw...; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw and finish mills. The owner or operator of each new or existing raw material, clinker, or finished product...

  19. Kinematic stability of roller pairs in free rolling contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    A set of generalized stability equations was developed for roller pairs in free rolling contact. A symmetric, dual contact model was used. Four possible external contact profiles that possess continuous contacting surfaces were studied. It was found that kinematic stability would be insured if the larger radius of transverse curvature, in absolute value, and the smaller rolling radius both exist on the roller that has the apex of its conical surface outboard of its main body. The stability criteria developed are considered to be useful for assessing axial restraint requirements for a variety of roller mechanisms and in the selection of roller contact geometry for traction drive devices.

  20. Drying firewood in a temporary solar kiln: a case study.

    Treesearch

    George R. Sampson; Anthony F. Gasbarro

    1986-01-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to determine drying rates for small diameter, unsplit paper birch firewood that was dried: (1) in a conventional top-covered pile; (2) in a simple, temporary solar kiln; and (3) in tree length. Drying rates were the same for firewood piles whether they were in the temporary solar kilns or only covered on top to keep rain or snow from...

  1. 38. SLABROLLING ROOM, SHOWING BISCUIT KILN No. 4 IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SLAB-ROLLING ROOM, SHOWING BISCUIT KILN No. 4 IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND AND BISCUIT KILN No. 5 AT THE RIGHT. TILE PRESSES ARE THROUGH THE DOORWAY AT THE LEFT. NOTE THE AIR FILTER, INSTALLED IN 1986. HANGING IN THE CENTER OF THE ROOM. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  2. 51. UPPER CHAMBER OF BISCUIT KILN No. 4, FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. UPPER CHAMBER OF BISCUIT KILN No. 4, FROM THE SECOND FLOOR. ALL BRICK KILNS AT THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS HAD TWO CHAMBERS. WARE WAS STACKED IN THE LOWER CHAMBERS FOR FIRING AND THE UPPER CHAMBERS PROVIDED ACCESS TO FLUES AND DAMPERS FROM THE SECOND FLOOR. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  3. Eco-friendly rubberized cotton fabric roller for ginning machines.

    PubMed

    Iyer, G V

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the pollution caused by chrome composite leather-clad (CCLC) rollers commonly used in cotton roller ginning mills and suggests an alternative roller material. CCLC rollers contain about 18,000 to 36,000 mg/kg (ppm) total chromium in trivalent and hexavalent forms, which are toxic to human health and carcinogenic. When seed-cotton is processed in double roller (DR) ginning machines, the lint is contaminated with chromium, and chromium particles are carried into the spun yarns and cotton by-products. Specifically, due to persistent rubbing of the leather-clad roller over the stationary knife during the ginning process, the lint is contaminated with about 140 to 1990 ppm of chromium, and the spun yarns and cotton by-products contain about 100 to 200 ppm, far in excess of the standard limit of 0.1 ppm. Gin and mill workers are directly exposed to this carcinogenic substance. To offset this problem, pollution-free rubberized cotton fabric (RCF) rollers have been fabricated and tested in roller gins. The RCF roller covering is made of multiple layers of fabric bonded together using a white rubber compound, which has a surface finish conducive to high ginning efficiency. This eliminates chromium contamination and pollution during the ginning process. On the basis of the design and development of various test rollers and subsequent evaluation studies, the performance of pollution-free RCF rollers has been demonstrated with reference to their commercial benefit and eco-friendliness in cotton ginning mills.

  4. Lightweight Ceramic Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, W. H.; Creedon, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    Fiber burnout process yields low densities. Low density attained by process of sacrificial burnout. Graphite or carbon fibers mixed into slurry of silica, alumina, and boron-compound fibers in amounts ranging from 25 to 75 percent of total fiber content by weight. Mixture formed into blocks and dried. Blocks placed in kiln and heated to 1,600 degrees F(870 degrees C) for several hours. Graphite or carbon fibers slowly oxidize away, leaving voids and reducing block density. Finally, blocks heated to 2,350 degrees F (1,290 degrees C) for 90 minutes to bond remaining ceramic fibers together. Developed for use on Space Shuttle and other spacecraft, rigid insulation machined to requisite shape and bonded in place.

  5. Sensing roller for in-process thickness measurement

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.

    1996-07-16

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for processing materials by sensing roller, in which the sensing roller has a plurality of conductive rings (electrodes) separated by rings of dielectric material. Sensing capacitances or impedances between the electrodes provides information on thicknesses of the materials being processed, location of wires therein, and other like characteristics of the materials. 6 figs.

  6. 49 CFR 215.115 - Defective roller bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.115 Defective roller bearing. (a) A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (1) A roller bearing that shows signs of having been overheated as evidenced by— (i...

  7. 49 CFR 215.115 - Defective roller bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.115 Defective roller bearing. (a) A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (1) A roller bearing that shows signs of having been overheated as evidenced by— (i...

  8. 49 CFR 215.115 - Defective roller bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.115 Defective roller bearing. (a) A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (1) A roller bearing that shows signs of having been overheated as evidenced by— (i...

  9. 49 CFR 215.115 - Defective roller bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.115 Defective roller bearing. (a) A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (1) A roller bearing that shows signs of having been overheated as evidenced by— (i...

  10. 49 CFR 215.115 - Defective roller bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.115 Defective roller bearing. (a) A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (1) A roller bearing that shows signs of having been overheated as evidenced by— (i...

  11. Sensing roller for in-process thickness measurement

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for processing materials by sensing roller, in which the sensing roller has a plurality of conductive rings (electrodes) separated by rings of dielectric material. Sensing capacitances or impedances between the electrodes provides information on thicknesses of the materials being processed, location of wires therein, and other like characteristics of the materials.

  12. Zink rotary kiln seal: Cam followers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.L.

    1994-12-09

    The CIF will treat hazardous and mixed low-level radioactive waste in a rotary kiln and secondary combustion chamber. A high efficiency air pollution control system follows the secondary chamber. The rotary kiln is designed with a gas seal at each end of its rotating barrel which provides a barrier between the interior of the kiln and outside air. The internal pressure of the rotary kiln will be maintained below atmospheric pressure, so exterior air passing the seals is forced into the kiln`s interior. Positive pressure may be applied in the seal labyrinth, adding a barrier to flow. Both CIF sealsmore » will be covered entirely with exhaust hoods, drawing air over the outside of the seal and into a HEPA filtered exhaust system. Cam follower misalignment on a John Zink rotary kiln seal caused damage to the seal`s rotor. The misalignment was quantified, corrected, and checked to verify straightness. The primary purpose of the correction was to allow seal testing 1 to continue, but the information is applicable to the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) since two large seals of similar design will be installed there. Cam follower straightness was off as much as 3.5{degrees}, causing followers to run untrue on the rotor. High contact forces resulted, removing flakes of metal from the rotor surface. The misalignment caused weight bearing followers on one side of the seal to back out of their threaded mounts. The root cause was poor machining of the follower mounting holes. Correction was accomplished by relieving the holes and installing machined spacers and retaining nuts. Cam followers on the CIF`s Zink seals should be inspected for straightness before the seals are installed.« less

  13. Ice-skating and roller disco injuries in Dublin.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, C.; McCabe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out on a series of 72 ice-skating and 57 roller skating injuries over a sixteen month period. The average patient age was 20.5 years in the ice-skating group and 16.5 years in the roller skating group. Females predominated in both groups accounting for 72% of ice-skaters injured and 77% of roller skaters injured. Ice-skaters sustained more serious injuries than roller skaters as was evident from the significant difference in fracture numbers in the two groups. Ice-skating fractures accounted for 40% of all injuries while roller skating fractures were only 14% of their total injuries. The majority of ice-skating fractures occurred in females. As a result of our study we recommended several preventative measures. Images p207-a p207-b PMID:6487948

  14. Lateral Stability Simulation of a Rail Truck on Roller Rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukkipati, Rao V.

    The development of experimental facilities for rail vehicle testing is being complemented by analytic studies. The purpose of this effort has been to gain insight into the dynamics of rail vehicles in order to guide development of the Roller Rigs and to establish an analytic framework for the design and interpretation of tests to be conducted on Roller Rigs. The work described here represents initial efforts towards meeting these objectives. Generic linear models were developed of a freight car (with a characteristic North American three-piece truck) on tangent track. The models were developed using the generalized multi body dynamics software MEDYNA. Predictions were made of the theoretical linear model hunting (lateral stability) characteristics of the freight car, i. e., the critical speeds and frequencies, for five different configurations: (a) freight car on track, (b) the freight car's front truck on the roller stand and its rear truck on track, (c) freight car on the roller rig, (d) a single truck on track, and (e) single truck on the roller stand. These were compared with the Association of American Railroads' field test data for an 80-ton hopper car equipped with A-3 ride control trucks. Agreement was reached among all the analytical models, with all models indicating a range of hunting speeds of 2% from the highest to lowest. The largest discrepancy, approximately 6%, was indicated between the models and the field test data. Parametric study results using linear model of freight truck on the roller rig show that (a) increasing roller radius increases critical speed (b) increasing the wheel initial cone angle will decrease the hunting speed (c) increasing the roller cant increases hunting speed (d) decrowning of the wheelset on the rollers will not effect the hunting speed but induces longitudinal destabilizing horizontal forces at the contact and (e) lozenging of wheelset on the rollers induces a yaw moment and the hunting speed decreases with increasing

  15. 36 CFR 13.916 - Use of roller skates, skateboards, roller skis, in-line skates, and similar devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.916 Use of roller skates... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of roller skates...

  16. 36 CFR 13.916 - Use of roller skates, skateboards, roller skis, in-line skates, and similar devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.916 Use of roller skates... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of roller skates...

  17. 36 CFR 13.916 - Use of roller skates, skateboards, roller skis, in-line skates, and similar devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.916 Use of roller skates... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of roller skates...

  18. The Effect of Kiln Drying on the Strength of Airplane Woods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T R C

    1920-01-01

    This report is a very complete treatise on the comparative strength of air and kiln dried wood. The series of tests includes 26 species of wood, approximately 100 kiln runs, and over 10,000 mechanical tests.

  19. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through the...

  20. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through the...

  1. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through the...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through the...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through the...

  4. System for automatically aligning a support roller system under a rotating body

    DOEpatents

    Singletary, B. Huston

    1983-01-01

    Two support rings on a rotatable drum respectively engage conically tapered nd surfaces of support rollers mounted on pivot universally relative to its axis of rotation and translate therealong. Rotation of the drum on differential conical support roller diameters causes pivotal steering and axial translation of support roller until roller is centered on support rings.

  5. System for automatically aligning a support roller system under a rotating body

    DOEpatents

    Singletary, B.H.

    1982-07-21

    Two support rings on a rotatable drum respectively engage conically tapered end surfaces of support rollers mounted on pivot universally relative to its axis of rotation and translate therealong. Rotation of the drum on differential conical support roller diameters causes pivotal steering and axial translation of support roller until roller is centered on support rings.

  6. Reverse engineering the ancient ceramic technology based on X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sciau, Philippe; Leon, Yoanna; Goudeau, Philippe

    2011-07-06

    We present results of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analyses of ancient ceramic cross-sections aiming at deciphering the different firing protocols used for their production. Micro-focused XRF elemental mapping, Fe chemical mapping and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy were performed on pre-sigillata ceramics from southern Gaul, and terra Sigillata vessels from Italy and southern Gaul. Pieces from the different workshops and regions showed significant difference in the starting clay material, clay conditioning and kiln firing condition. By contrast, sherds from the same workshop exhibited more subtle differences and possible misfirings. Understanding the precise firing conditions and protocols wouldmore » allow recreation of kilns for various productions. Furthermore, evolution and modification of kiln design would shed some light on how ancient potters devised solutions to diverse technological problems they encountered.« less

  7. Development of small bore, high speed tapered roller bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, F. R.; Gassel, S. S.; Bovenkerk, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of four rolling bearing configurations for use on the input pinion shaft of a proposed commercial helicopter transmission was evaluated. The performance characteristics of a high speed tapered roller bearing operating under conditions comparable to those existing at this input pinion shaft were defined. The tapered roller bearing shaft support configuration was developed for the gearbox using commercially available bearing designings. The configuration was optimized and interactive thermomechanically system analyzed. Automotive pinion quality tapered roller bearings were found to be reliable under load and speed conditions in excess of those anticipated in the helicopter transmission. However, it is indicated that the elastohydrodynamic lubricant films are inadequate.

  8. Portfolio: Ceramics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes eight art activities using ceramics. Elementary students created ceramic tiles to depict ancient Egyptian and medieval European art, made ceramic cookie stamps, traced bisque plates on sketch paper, constructed clay room-tableaus, and designed clay relief masks. Secondary students pit-fired ceramic pots and designed ceramic Victorian…

  9. "No. 169. Congressional party visiting the roller crest dam in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "No. 169. Congressional party visiting the roller crest dam in 1915. Dedication." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  10. 18. VIEW OF ROLLER LEVELER USED TO STRAIGHTEN AND FLATTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF ROLLER LEVELER USED TO STRAIGHTEN AND FLATTEN METAL SHEETS. (7/2/86) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. 49 CFR 215.117 - Defective roller bearing adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... a car, if the car has a roller bearing adapter that is— (a) Cracked or broken; (b) Not in its design...

  12. 49 CFR 215.117 - Defective roller bearing adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... a car, if the car has a roller bearing adapter that is— (a) Cracked or broken; (b) Not in its design...

  13. 49 CFR 215.117 - Defective roller bearing adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... a car, if the car has a roller bearing adapter that is— (a) Cracked or broken; (b) Not in its design...

  14. 49 CFR 215.117 - Defective roller bearing adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... a car, if the car has a roller bearing adapter that is— (a) Cracked or broken; (b) Not in its design...

  15. 49 CFR 215.117 - Defective roller bearing adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... a car, if the car has a roller bearing adapter that is— (a) Cracked or broken; (b) Not in its design...

  16. Rotary roller of no. 2 seamless line in bays 19 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rotary roller of no. 2 seamless line in bays 19 and 20 of the main pipe mill building looking north. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  17. Survey of Freight Car Roller Bearing Requirements and Failure Modes

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-07-01

    AAR roller bearing requirements and interchange rules are presented and reviewed; also included and reviewed are rules covering adapters and grease for freight car bearings. Bearing fatigue theory, methods of fatigue life calculations, and characteri...

  18. Use of roller-compacted concrete pavement in Stafford, Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-05-01

    Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) is a relatively stiffer hydraulic cement concrete mixture than regular concrete when : fresh. Similar to regular concrete, RCC is a mixture of aggregate, cementitious materials, and water, but it is placed using asphal...

  19. Vibratory roller evaluation study : interim report No. 1.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-08-01

    The Louisiana Department of Highways has in progress a two phase program to evaluate the use of vibratory rollers in the compaction of asphaltic concrete pavements. Phase one on the first construction project is now complete with eight different vibr...

  20. Application of Roller Compacted Concrete in Colorado's Roadways

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-10-01

    Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) is a no-slump concrete mixture that is transported, placed, and compacted with : the same construction equipment as asphalt pavement. RCCs were used to construct three sections of pavement in : Weld County Road 28 (WCR...

  1. Field evaluation of roller integrated intelligent compaction monitoring

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-05-01

    DOTD conducted a demonstration : project to evaluate intelligent compaction (IC). The : project developed specifications, which allo : wed and incorporated : the IC rollers on the : project. The specification went through th : e competitive bidding p...

  2. 98. DAM ROLLER GATE GENERAL ARRANGEMENTSECTION AND ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. DAM - ROLLER GATE - GENERAL ARRANGEMENT-SECTION AND ELEVATION (ML-8-47/1-FS) June 1935 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  3. MINIMIZATION OF TRANSIENT EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transient emissions of organics can occur from rotary kiln incinerators when drums containing liquid wastes bound on sorbents are introduced in a batch-wise fashion. Physical processes controlling the release of waste from the sorbent material are greatly affected by the rotation...

  4. TRANSIENT SUPPRESSION PACKAGING FOR REDUCED EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator to determine whether innovative waste packaging designs might reduce transient emissions of products of incomplete combustion due to batch charging of containerized liquid surrogate waste compounds bound on g...

  5. 80. KILN AT FIRST MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. KILN AT FIRST MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS AT ALDIE, 1901. PHOTOGRAPH PUBLISHED IN HOUSE AND GARDEN. AUGUST 1901, p. 19. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  6. 14. UPPER SHOES, FIXED SHOES, ROLLER SHOES, CENTER WEB, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. UPPER SHOES, FIXED SHOES, ROLLER SHOES, CENTER WEB, AND ROLLER BED PLATES. (Also includes a sheet index and a schedule of parts). American Bridge Company, Ambridge Plant No. 5, sheet no. 4, dated April 7, 1928, order no. F5073. For U.S. Steel Products Company, Pacific Coast Depot, order no. SF578. For Southern Pacific Company, order no. 8873-P-28746. various scales. - Napa River Railroad Bridge, Spanning Napa River, east of Soscol Avenue, Napa, Napa County, CA

  7. 26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting on fixed turntable upon masonry center pier. Swing drive shaft (vertical) is turned by level gear of horizontal shaft (protruding through machine room wall), which turns pinion gear toothed to fixed turntable rack below rollers. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  8. Numerical Simulation of Roller Levelling using SIMULIA Abaqus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusov, K. A.; Mishnev, P. A.; Kopaev, O. V.; Nushtaev, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The finite element (FE) 2D-model of roller levelling process is developed in the SIMILIA Abaqus. The objective of this paper is development FE-model and investigation of adjustable parameters of roller leveller together with elastic-plastic material behaviour. Properties of the material were determined experimentally. After levelling, the strip had a residual stress distribution. The longbow after cutting is predicted too. Recommendation for practical use were proposed.

  9. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soils with incompletely combusted organic material (aka 'black carbon') are considered fertile for plant growth. Considerable enrichment of soils with black carbon is known from Chernozems, from anthropogenic induced altering of soils like the 'Terra Preta' in South America (e.g. Glaser, 2001), and from charcoal kiln relicts. Recent studies have reported a high spatial frequency of charcoal kiln relicts in the Northeastern German lowlands (Raab et al., 2015), which today are often overgrown by forest plantations. In this context the question arises whether these sites are favorable for tree growth. Here we compare the performance of 22 Pinus sylvestris individuals - a commonly used tree species in forestry - growing on charcoal kiln relicts with 22 control trees. Growth performance (height growth and diameter growth) of the trees was determined using dendrochronological techniques, i.e. standard ring-width measurements were undertaken on each two cores per tree and tree height was measured in the field. Several other wood properties such as annual wood density, average resin content, as well as wood chemistry were analyzed. Our results indicate that trees growing on charcoal kiln relicts grow significantly less and have a significantly lower wood density in comparison with control trees. Specific chemical components such as Manganese as well as resin contents were significantly higher in kiln trees. These results highlight that tree growth on charcoal kiln relicts is actually hampered instead of enhanced. Possibly this is a combined effect of differing physical soil properties which alter soil water accessibility for plants and differing chemical soil properties which may negatively affect tree growth either if toxic limits are surpassed or if soil nutrient availability is decreased. Additional soil analyses with respect to soil texture and soil chemistry shall reveal further insight into this hypothesis. Given the frequent distribution of charcoal kiln relicts in

  10. A study on rheological characteristics of roller milled fenugreek fractions.

    PubMed

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Prabhasankar, P

    2016-01-01

    Fenugreek seeds were fractionated by roller milling to get various fractions. The roller milled fractions and whole fenugreek flour (WFF) were evaluated for the flow behavior and time-dependent flow properties using a rotational viscometer at the temperatures of 10-60 (0)C. The samples subjected to a programmed shear rate increase linearly from 0 to 300 s(-1) in 3 min and successive decrease linearly shear rate from 300 s(-1) to 0 in 3 min. The roller milled fractions and WFF paste exhibited non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. Difference in hysteresis loop area was observed among the roller milled fractions and WFF, being more noticeable at lower temperatures. Power law and Casson models were used to predict flow properties of samples. The power law model described well the flow behavior of the roller milled fractions and WFF at temperatures tested. Except flour (FL) fraction, consistency coefficient, m, increased with the temperature both in the forward and backward measurements. The roller milled fractions and WFF exhibited rheopectic behavior that increased viscosity with increasing the shear speed and the temperature. For all the sample tested, initial shear stress increased with increase in shear rate and temperature.

  11. Mössbauer Spectra of Clays and Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F. E.; Wagner, U.

    2004-06-01

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical aspects of the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy in studies of clay-based ceramics are described. Mössbauer spectra of pottery clays fired under oxidising, reducing and changing conditions are explained, and the possibilities of using Mössbauer spectra to derive information on the firing temperatures and the kiln atmosphere during firing in antiquity are discussed and illustrated by examples.

  12. Kiln drying lumber in the United States : a survey of volume, species, kiln capacity, equipment, and procedures, 1992-1993

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Rice; Jeffrey L. Howe; R. Sidney Boone; John L. Tschernitz

    1994-01-01

    A survey was conducted of primary and secondary manufacturing firms that have at least one dry kiln and process approximately 2 million board feet or more of lumber annually. More than 1,500 surveys were completed, representing manufacturers in 43 states. According to survey respondents, approximately 5 billion board feet of hardwood lumber and 24 billion board feet of...

  13. 3000-HP Roller Gear Transmission Development Program. Volume 3. Roller Gear Manufacture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    power is fed through the ramp roller clutch type free- wheel units to spur gears which mesh with the combining spur gear whose centerline is common...when the engine tends to turn faster than the main rotor shaft. It is in the free- wheel mode when the main rotor shaft tends to turn faster than the...gears are cut progrind at this time. Check face runout on each end of largo gears. Not to exceed .002" TIR 30 EBW one end 40 EBW opposite end

  14. Spherical roller bearing analysis. SKF computer program SPHERBEAN. Volume 1: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleckner, R. J.; Pirvics, J.

    1980-01-01

    The models and associated mathematics used within the SPHERBEAN computer program for prediction of the thermomechanical performance characteristics of high speed lubricated double row spherical roller bearings are presented. The analysis allows six degrees of freedom for each roller and three for each half of an optionally split cage. Roller skew, free lubricant, inertial loads, appropriate elastic and friction forces, and flexible outer ring are considered. Roller quasidynamic equilibrium is calculated for a bearing with up to 30 rollers per row, and distinct roller and flange geometries are specifiable. The user is referred to the material contained here for formulation assumptions and algorithm detail.

  15. Pair aligning improved motility of Quincke rollers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shi Qing; Zhang, Bing Yue; Zhang, Zhi Chao; Shi, Yan; Zhang, Tian Hui

    2018-06-06

    Density-dependent speed is studied in a two-dimensional active colloid in which the colloidal particles are propelled by an external electric field via a Quincke rotation. Above the critcal electric field, dense dynamic clusters form spotaneously, in which the particles are highly aligned in velocity and move much faster than isolated units. Detailed observations on pair collision reveal that the alignment of velocity is induced by the long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions and the improvement of speed in the clusters arises from pair aligning in which two particles are closely paired and rotate synchronically. In the aligning state, the short-range in-plane dipole-dipole attraction enhances the rotation torque and gives rises to a larger rolling speed. The pair aligning becomes difficult and unstable at high electric field where the normal dipole-dipole repulsion becomes dominant. As a consequence, the dependence of speed on density becomes weak increasingly upon the increase of the electric field. This result offers an interpretation for the discrepancy between our and previous observations on Quincke rollers.

  16. Performance of rotary kiln reactor for the elephant grass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    De Conto, D; Silvestre, W P; Baldasso, C; Godinho, M

    2016-10-01

    The influence of process conditions (rotary speed/temperature) on the performance of a rotary kiln reactor for non-catalytic pyrolysis of a perennial grass (elephant grass) was investigated. The product yields, the production of non-condensable gases as well as the biochar properties were evaluated. The maximum H2 yield was close to that observed for catalytic pyrolysis processes, while the bio-oil yield was higher than reported for pyrolysis of other biomass in rotary kiln reactors. A H2/CO ratio suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was obtained. The biochars presented an alkaline pH (above 10) and interesting contents of nutrients, as well as low electrical conductivity, indicating a high potential as soil amendment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hazardous child labor in Nepal: The case of brick kilns.

    PubMed

    Larmar, Stephen; O'Leary, Patrick; Chui, Cheryl; Benfer, Katherine; Zug, Sebastian; Jordan, Lucy P

    2017-10-01

    Hazardous child labor in Nepal is a serious concern, particularly in the brick kiln industry. Although a range of interventions have been implemented in Nepal to address hazardous child labor, there is a lack of research to both measure success and shape further development in interventions that integrate sound child protection practices to ensure the wellbeing of all children. This paper provides a review of the literature outlining interventions for children working in brick kilns in Nepal, and presents preliminary case study findings of one current intervention in the Kathmandu Valley. The paper highlights the strength of applying foundational child protection principles and advocates for the development and implementation of future programs underpinned by broad civil society principles within a child rights and protection framework. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Static analysis of masonry kilns built with fictile tubules bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivito, Renato S.; Scuro, Carmelo; Codispoti, Rosamaria

    2016-12-01

    Industrial archeology is a branch that studies all the testimony (tangible and intangible, direct and indirect) related to the process of industrialization since its origins. This technical field is based on an interdisciplinary approach, it has the task of deepening the story, understanding the technological development made by man over the centuries. The present work focused attention on the study and analysis of a masonry kiln, built with the technique of hollow clay fictile tubules. The study, in particular, has been carried out analyzing the stress state caused by the wind on the structure. The kiln is constituted by a particular geometric configuration that develops in height due to the presence of chimney over the dome.

  19. 7 CFR 300.2 - Dry Kiln Operator's Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry Kiln Operator's Manual. 300.2 Section 300.2... in 7 CFR chapter III by the Director of the Office of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C..._locations.html; or (2) Are for sale as ISBN 0-16-035819-1 by the U.S. Government Printing Office...

  20. 1998 data bank for kiln-dried red oak lumber

    Treesearch

    Charles J. Gatchell; R. Edward Thomas; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1998-01-01

    A collection of 3,487 fully described, kiln-dried red oak boards totaling 20,021 board feet. The boards, which are straight or contain no more than ? inch of crook, are FAS, FAS ONE FACE (F1F), Selects, No. 1 Common, No. 2A Common, or No. 3A common. The boards were graded with the UGRS (Ultimate Grading and Remanufacturing System) computer program. After the grade was...

  1. Finite element estimation of the residual stresses in roller-straightened rail

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-11-13

    The purpose of this paper is to develop models to accurately predict : the residual stresses due to the roller straightening of railroad rails. : Several aspects of residual stress creation in rail due to roller : straightening are addressed. The eff...

  2. 48 CFR 225.7009 - Restriction on ball and roller bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on ball and roller bearings. 225.7009 Section 225.7009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... roller bearings. ...

  3. Roller Compacted Concrete over Soil Cement under Accelerated Loading : Research Project Capsule

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-09-01

    Roller compacted concrete (RCC) is a stiff , zero-slump concrete mixture placed with modifi ed : asphalt paving equipment and compacted by vibratory rollers. Properly designed RCC mixes : can achieve outstanding compressive strengths similar to those...

  4. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOEpatents

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

  5. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOEpatents

    McIntosh, Michael J.; Arzoumanidis, Gregory G.

    1997-01-01

    A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  6. Pediatric fractures during skateboarding, roller skating, and scooter riding.

    PubMed

    Zalavras, Charalampos; Nikolopoulou, Georgia; Essin, Daniel; Manjra, Nahid; Zionts, Lewis E

    2005-04-01

    Skateboarding, roller skating, and scooter riding are popular recreational and sporting activities for children and adolescents but can be associated with skeletal injury. The purpose of this study is to describe the frequency and characteristics of fractures resulting from these activities. Fractures from skateboarding, roller skating, and scooter riding compose a considerable proportion of pediatric musculoskeletal injuries. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Demographic data and injury characteristics were analyzed for all patients who presented to the pediatric fracture clinic of the level I trauma center from January 2001 to May 2002 after sustaining fractures due to skateboarding, roller skating, and scooter riding. Among a total of 2371 fractures, the authors identified 325 fractures (13.7%) that occurred during one of these activities. There were 187 patients (mean age, 13 years; 95% male) who sustained 191 skateboard-related fractures, 64 patients (mean age, 10.8 years; 54% male) who sustained 65 fractures while roller skating, and 66 patients (mean age, 9.7 years; 64% male) who sustained 69 fractures while riding a scooter. The forearm was fractured most often, composing 48.2% of skate-boarding fractures, 63.1% of roller-skating fractures, and 50.7% of fractures due to scooter riding. Of the forearm fractures, 94% were located in the distal third. In the skateboarding group, 10 of 191 (5.2%) fractures were open injuries of the forearm, compared to 6 of 2046 (0.3%) fractures caused by other mechanisms of injury (significant odds ratio, 18.8). Skateboarding, roller-skating, and scooter-riding accidents result in a large proportion of pediatric fractures. An open fracture, especially of the forearm, was more likely to be caused by skateboarding than by other mechanisms of injury. Use of wrist and forearm protective equipment should be considered in all children who ride a skateboard.

  7. Experimental use of rubber-tire rollers as a means of improving density in asphalt overlays.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1991-01-01

    This study reports the results of comparative tests on sections of asphalt pavement rolled with conventional steel-wheel rollers and those rolled with a rubber tire roller added between the steel-wheel breakdown and steel wheel finish rollers. Nuclea...

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7016 - Restriction on acquisition of ball and roller bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of ball and roller bearings. 252.225-7016 Section 252.225-7016 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and roller bearings. As prescribed in 225.7009-5, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Ball and Roller Bearings (MAR 2006) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause' (1) Bearing...

  9. Evaluation of the use of rubber-tire rollers on asphalt concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1989-01-01

    The addition of a rubber-tire roller was required on two projects on maintenance schedules and on two construction projects in 1988. The rubber-tire roller was used as an addition to the conventional rollers on one-half of each project. The rubber-ti...

  10. TUBE FLANGING APPARATUS HAVING SPIRAL CAM ACTUATED FLANGING ROLLERS

    DOEpatents

    Bellarts, H.J.

    1958-06-24

    A tube flaring apparatus designed to roll flawless uniform flanges on tube ends suitable for use in a Van Stone joint is described. Tapered rollers are mounted on gear segnnents and placed in the end of the tube. The assembly is rotated axially within the tube, and periodically the gear segments are moved by a worm gear so as to force the rollers radially against the tube wall until eventually a perfect 90 d flange is formed on the tube. All flanges formed by this machine are uniform, stronger, and have fewer possibilities for leaks than conventional methods heretofore used.

  11. Computer Analysis Of High-Speed Roller Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, H.

    1988-01-01

    High-speed cylindrical roller-bearing analysis program (CYBEAN) developed to compute behavior of cylindrical rolling-element bearings at high speeds and with misaligned shafts. With program, accurate assessment of geometry-induced roller preload possible for variety of out-ring and housing configurations and loading conditions. Enables detailed examination of bearing performance and permits exploration of causes and consequences of bearing skew. Provides general capability for assessment of designs of bearings supporting main shafts of engines. Written in FORTRAN IV.

  12. Biochar from "Kon Tiki" flame curtain and other kilns: Effects of nutrient enrichment and kiln type on crop yield and soil chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Naba Raj; Mulder, Jan; Hale, Sarah Elisabeth; Schmidt, Hans Peter

    2017-01-01

    Biochar application to soils has been investigated as a means of improving soil fertility and mitigating climate change through soil carbon sequestration. In the present work, the invasive shrub "Eupatorium adenophorum" was utilized as a sustainable feedstock for making biochar under different pyrolysis conditions in Nepal. Biochar was produced using several different types of kilns; four sub types of flame curtain kilns (deep-cone metal kiln, steel shielded soil pit, conical soil pit and steel small cone), brick-made traditional kiln, traditional earth-mound kiln and top lift up draft (TLUD). The resultant biochars showed consistent pH (9.1 ± 0.3), cation exchange capacities (133 ± 37 cmolc kg-1), organic carbon contents (73.9 ± 6.4%) and surface areas (35 to 215 m2/g) for all kiln types. A pot trial with maize was carried out to investigate the effect on maize biomass production of the biochars made with various kilns, applied at 1% and 4% dosages. Biochars were either pretreated with hot or cold mineral nutrient enrichment (mixing with a nutrient solution before or after cooling down, respectively), or added separately from the same nutrient dosages to the soil. Significantly higher CEC (P< 0.05), lower Al/Ca ratios (P< 0.05), and high OC% (P<0.001) were observed for both dosages of biochar as compared to non-amended control soils. Importantly, the study showed that biochar made by flame curtain kilns resulted in the same agronomic effect as biochar made by the other kilns (P > 0.05). At a dosage of 1% biochar, the hot nutrient-enriched biochar led to significant increases of 153% in above ground biomass production compared to cold nutrient-enriched biochar and 209% compared to biochar added separately from the nutrients. Liquid nutrient enhancement of biochar thus improved fertilizer effectiveness compared to separate application of biochar and fertilizer. PMID:28448621

  13. Biochar from "Kon Tiki" flame curtain and other kilns: Effects of nutrient enrichment and kiln type on crop yield and soil chemistry.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Naba Raj; Mulder, Jan; Hale, Sarah Elisabeth; Schmidt, Hans Peter; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Biochar application to soils has been investigated as a means of improving soil fertility and mitigating climate change through soil carbon sequestration. In the present work, the invasive shrub "Eupatorium adenophorum" was utilized as a sustainable feedstock for making biochar under different pyrolysis conditions in Nepal. Biochar was produced using several different types of kilns; four sub types of flame curtain kilns (deep-cone metal kiln, steel shielded soil pit, conical soil pit and steel small cone), brick-made traditional kiln, traditional earth-mound kiln and top lift up draft (TLUD). The resultant biochars showed consistent pH (9.1 ± 0.3), cation exchange capacities (133 ± 37 cmolc kg-1), organic carbon contents (73.9 ± 6.4%) and surface areas (35 to 215 m2/g) for all kiln types. A pot trial with maize was carried out to investigate the effect on maize biomass production of the biochars made with various kilns, applied at 1% and 4% dosages. Biochars were either pretreated with hot or cold mineral nutrient enrichment (mixing with a nutrient solution before or after cooling down, respectively), or added separately from the same nutrient dosages to the soil. Significantly higher CEC (P< 0.05), lower Al/Ca ratios (P< 0.05), and high OC% (P<0.001) were observed for both dosages of biochar as compared to non-amended control soils. Importantly, the study showed that biochar made by flame curtain kilns resulted in the same agronomic effect as biochar made by the other kilns (P > 0.05). At a dosage of 1% biochar, the hot nutrient-enriched biochar led to significant increases of 153% in above ground biomass production compared to cold nutrient-enriched biochar and 209% compared to biochar added separately from the nutrients. Liquid nutrient enhancement of biochar thus improved fertilizer effectiveness compared to separate application of biochar and fertilizer.

  14. A comparative analysis of reticular crack on ceramic plate driven by thermal shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, XiangHong; Sheng, ShiLong; Tian, Cheng; Yuan, WenJun

    2016-07-01

    Reticular crack is generally found on the surface of ceramic material that has been subjected to a thermal-shock condition. In the present study, a quantitative effect of thermal shock and quench temperature has been studied and investigated. Experimental tests were carried out to characterize the reticular crack that has been found in the Ge Kiln, which is a famous art of the ancient Chinese culture. After comparative analysis between thermal-shock cracks and the glaze crack patterns of the Ge Kiln porcelain, it is found that this study is expected to provide a powerful tool for recurrence of the long-lost firing and cooling process of the Ge Kiln porcelain.

  15. Wear of Steel and Ti6Al4V Rollers in Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Shareef, Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was prompted by results of a qualification test of a mechanism to be used for the James Webb Space Telescope. Post-test inspections of the qualification test article revealed some loose wear debris and wear of the steel rollers and the mating Ti6Al4V surfaces. An engineering assessment of the design and observations from the tested qualification unit suggested that roller misalignment was a controlling factor. The wear phenomena were investigated using dedicated laboratory experiments. Tests were done using a vacuum roller rig for a range of roller misalignment angles. The wear in these tests was mainly adhesive wear. The measured wear rates were highly correlated to the misalignment angle. For all tests with some roller misalignment, the steel rollers lost mass while the titanium rollers gained mass indicating strong adhesion of the steel with the titanium alloy. Inspection of the rollers revealed that the adhesive wear was a two-way process as titanium alloy was found on the steel rollers and vice versa. The qualification test unit made use of 440F steel rollers in the annealed condition. Both annealed 440F steel rollers and hardened 440C rollers were tested in the vacuum roller rig to investigate possibility to reduce wear rates and the risk of loose debris formation. The 440F and 440C rollers had differing wear behaviors with significantly lesser wear rates for the 440C. For the test condition of zero roller misalignment, the adhesive wear rates were very low, but still some loose debris was formed

  16. Structural Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of abstracts and slides of papers presented at the NASA Lewis Structural Ceramics Workshop. Collectively, these papers depict the scope of NASA Lewis' structural ceramics program. The technical areas include monolithic SiC and Si3N4 development, ceramic matrix composites, tribology, design methodology, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), fracture mechanics, and corrosion.

  17. Roller-gear drives for robotic manipulators design, fabrication and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William J.; Shipitalo, William

    1991-01-01

    Two single axis planetary roller-gear drives and a two axis roller-gear drive with dual inputs were designed for use as robotic transmissions. Each of the single axis drives is a two planet row, four planet arrangement with spur gears and compressively loaded cylindrical rollers acting in parallel. The two axis drive employs bevel gears and cone rollers acting in parallel. The rollers serve a dual function: they remove backlash from the system, and they transmit torque when the gears are not fully engaged.

  18. 12. DETAIL LOOKING AT DOWNSTREAM APRON OF LOGWAY, WITH ROLLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL LOOKING AT DOWNSTREAM APRON OF LOGWAY, WITH ROLLER GATE TRACK IN RIGHT FOREGROUND, POWER PENSTOCK OUTLETS (WITH DRAFT TUBE CONTROL VENTS OVER) IN LEFT BACKGROUND AND NEW YORK CANAL IN EXTREME LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  19. 77 FR 50716 - Tapered Roller Bearings From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-344 (Third Review)] Tapered Roller..., the United States International Trade Commission (Commission) determines, pursuant to section 751(c... notice in the Office of the Secretary, U.S. International Trade Commission, Washington, DC, and by...

  20. AXONOMETRIC, LAUNCH DOOR AND DOOR CYLINDER, LAUNCH PLATFORM ROLLER GUIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AXONOMETRIC, LAUNCH DOOR AND DOOR CYLINDER, LAUNCH PLATFORM ROLLER GUIDE, CRIB SUSPENSION SHOCK STRUT, LAUNCH PLATFORM - Dyess Air Force Base, Atlas F Missle Site S-8, Launch Facility, Approximately 3 miles east of Winters, 500 feet southwest of Highway 1770, center of complex, Winters, Runnels County, TX

  1. Visualization in Mechanics: The Dynamics of an Unbalanced Roller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumber, Peter S.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that mechanical engineering students often find mechanics a difficult area to grasp. This article describes a system of equations describing the motion of a balanced and an unbalanced roller constrained by a pivot arm. A wide range of dynamics can be simulated with the model. The equations of motion are embedded in a graphical…

  2. Detection of internally infested popcorn using electrically conductive roller mills

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To detect popcorn kernels infested by the internal feeding stored-product insect pest Sitophilus zeamais, maize weevil, a laboratory roller mill was modified so that the electrical conductivity of the grain is measured while the kernels are milled between the rolls. When a kernel with a S. zeamais l...

  3. Rotary roller mandrel of no. 2 seamless line in bays ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rotary roller mandrel of no. 2 seamless line in bays 19 and 20 of the main pipe mill building looking south. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  4. Tapered Roller Bearing Damage Detection Using Decision Fusion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Kreider, Gary; Fichter, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A diagnostic tool was developed for detecting fatigue damage of tapered roller bearings. Tapered roller bearings are used in helicopter transmissions and have potential for use in high bypass advanced gas turbine aircraft engines. A diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting oil debris data from failure progression tests conducted using health monitoring hardware. Failure progression tests were performed with tapered roller bearings under simulated engine load conditions. Tests were performed on one healthy bearing and three pre-damaged bearings. During each test, data from an on-line, in-line, inductance type oil debris sensor and three accelerometers were monitored and recorded for the occurrence of bearing failure. The bearing was removed and inspected periodically for damage progression throughout testing. Using data fusion techniques, two different monitoring technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration, were integrated into a health monitoring system for detecting bearing surface fatigue pitting damage. The data fusion diagnostic tool was evaluated during bearing failure progression tests under simulated engine load conditions. This integrated system showed improved detection of fatigue damage and health assessment of the tapered roller bearings as compared to using individual health monitoring technologies.

  5. Bead Roller, at right, used for preparing flume sheeting (still ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bead Roller, at right, used for preparing flume sheeting (still in use, 2004); on left is a pipe cutter. Facing southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  6. 9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES BEING INSTALLED ON THE WEST SIDE (SIDE B) OF BUILDING 883. SIDE B OF BUILDING 883 WAS USED TO PROCESS ENRICHED URANIUM FROM 1957-66. (1/23/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Water removal of wet veneer by roller pressing

    Treesearch

    Koji Adachi; Masafumi Inoue; Kozo Kanayama; Roger M. Rowell; Shuichi Kawai

    2004-01-01

    High moisture content, flat sawn Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) veneer was compressed using a roller press to mechanically remove water. The amount of water removed depended on the amount of compression applied. At 60% compression, 400 kg/m3 of water was removed. The process was not dependent on the size of the wood, the degree of compression, or the feed...

  8. New seed-cotton reclaimer for high speed roller gins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experimental laboratory prototype reclaimer is being developed by the USDA-ARS in cooperation with Lummus Corporation. The objective of the project is to develop a seed-cotton reclaimer for high speed roller ginning that has a higher operational capacity and reduced seed loss in comparison to cur...

  9. Manual of design and installation of Forest Service water spray dry kiln

    Treesearch

    L.V. Teesdale

    1920-01-01

    The best thing that can be said of any dry kiln is that when it is run by a properly informed operator the temperature, humidity, and circulation are constant and uniform. In an endeavor to produce a kiln in which each of these could be regulated independently of the others, the Forest Products Laboratory designed and developed the "Forest Service Humidity...

  10. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...

  11. A Thermoelectric Waste-Heat-Recovery System for Portland Cement Rotary Kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qi; Li, Peng; Cai, Lanlan; Zhou, Pingwang; Tang, Di; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie

    2015-06-01

    Portland cement is produced by one of the most energy-intensive industrial processes. Energy consumption in the manufacture of Portland cement is approximately 110-120 kWh ton-1. The cement rotary kiln is the crucial equipment used for cement production. Approximately 10-15% of the energy consumed in production of the cement clinker is directly dissipated into the atmosphere through the external surface of the rotary kiln. Innovative technology for energy conservation is urgently needed by the cement industry. In this paper we propose a novel thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system to reduce heat losses from cement rotary kilns. This system is configured as an array of thermoelectric generation units arranged longitudinally on a secondary shell coaxial with the rotary kiln. A mathematical model was developed for estimation of the performance of waste heat recovery. Discussions mainly focus on electricity generation and energy saving, taking a Φ4.8 × 72 m cement rotary kiln as an example. Results show that the Bi2Te3-PbTe hybrid thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system can generate approximately 211 kW electrical power while saving 3283 kW energy. Compared with the kiln without the thermoelectric recovery system, the kiln with the system can recover more than 32.85% of the energy that used to be lost as waste heat through the kiln surface.

  12. Infrared and colorimetric characterization of discolored kiln-dried hard maple lumber

    Treesearch

    Benjamin E. Dawson-Andoh; Michael Wiemann; Laurent Matuana; John Baumgras

    2004-01-01

    Discoloration of hard maple lumber commonly occurs during kiln-drying. In this study, discolored andnondiscolored kiln-dried hard maple lumber boards were characterized using a colorimetric method and Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Colorimetric measurements (L*, a*, b*) were found to be in good agreement with visual...

  13. Relationship between longitudinal stress wave transit time and moisture content of lumber during kiln-drying

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson; Xiping. Wang

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between longitudinal stress wave transit time and wood moisture content (MC) was examined as a potential means of estimating MC control points in dry kiln schedules for lumber. A linear relationship was found between the relative transit time and the average MC of sugar maple and ponderosa pine boards dried according to typical kiln schedules.

  14. Design and operation of a solarheated dry kiln for tropical latitudes

    Treesearch

    Brian Bond; Omar Espinoza; Philip Araman

    2011-01-01

    Lumber is usually dried to a specific moisture content prior to further manufacturing or use. While lumber can be air-dried, the ambient humidity in most localities prevents the lumber from reaching the moisture content necessary for dimensional stability and use, especially for interior use. Solar kilns are an inexpensive alternative to conventional steam-heated kilns...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must not... (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50 parts per million by volume, over...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must not... (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50 parts per million by volume, over...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must not... (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50 parts per million by volume, over...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must not... (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50 parts per million by volume, over...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1220 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning cement kilns? 63.1220 Section 63.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... burning cement kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources. You must not... (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50 parts per million by volume, over...

  20. MECHANISMS GOVERNING TRANSIENTS FROM THE BATCH INCINERATION OF LIQUID WASTES IN ROTARY KILNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When "containerized" liquid wastes, bound on sorbents. are introduced into a rotary kiln in a batch mode, transient phenomena in-volving heat transfer into, and waste mass transfer out of, the sorbent can oromote the raoid release of waste vaoor into the kiln environment. This ra...

  1. Potential sources of variation that influence the final moisture content of kiln-dried hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    Hongmei Gu; Timothy M. Young; William W. Moschler; Brian H. Bond

    2004-01-01

    Excessive variability in the final moisture content (MC) of hardwood lumber may have a significant impact on secondary wood processing and final product performance. Sources of final MC variation during kiln- drying have been studied in prior research. A test examining the final MC of red oak (Quercus spp.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) lumber after kiln-...

  2. Online detecting system of roller wear based on laser-linear array CCD technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuan

    2010-10-01

    Roller is an important metallurgy tool in the rolling mill. And the surface of a roller affects the quantity of the rolling product directly. After using a period of time, roller must be repaired or replaced. Examining the profile of a working roller between the intervals of rolling is called online detecting for roller wear. The study of online detecting roller wear is very important for selecting the grinding time in reason, reducing the exchanging times of rollers, improving the quality of the product and realizing online grinding rollers. By applying the laser-linear array CCD detective technology, a method for online non-touch detecting roller wear was brought forward. The principle, composition and the operation process of the linear array CCD detecting system were expatiated. And an error compensation algorithm is exactly calculated to offset the shift of the roller axis in this measurement system. So the stability and the accuracy were improved remarkably. The experiment proves that the accuracy of the detecting system reaches to the demand of practical production process. It can provide a new method of high speed and high accuracy online detecting for roller wear.

  3. 40 CFR 63.1204 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1220? 63... standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards... plant site where a cement kiln (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1204 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1220? 63... standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards... plant site where a cement kiln (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1204 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1220? 63... standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards... plant site where a cement kiln (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1204 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1220? 63... What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance... plant site where a cement kiln (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1204 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1220? 63... What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance... plant site where a cement kiln (whether burning hazardous waste or not) did not previously exist, to 50...

  8. Roller massage decreases spinal excitability to the soleus.

    PubMed

    Young, James D; Spence, Alyssa-Joy; Behm, David G

    2018-04-01

    Roller massage (RM) interventions have shown acute increases in range of motion (ROM) and pain pressure threshold (PPT). It is unclear whether the RM-induced increases can be attributed to changes in neural or muscle responses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of altered afferent input via application of RM on spinal excitability, as measured with the Hoffmann (H-) reflex. A randomized within-subjects design was used. Three 30-s bouts of RM were implemented on a rested, nonexercised, injury-free muscle with 30 s of rest between bouts. The researcher applied RM to the plantar flexors at three intensities of pain: high, moderate, and sham. Measures included normalized M-wave and H-reflex peak-to-peak amplitudes before, during, and up to 3 min postintervention. M-wave and H-reflex measures were highly reliable. RM resulted in significant decreases in soleus H-reflex amplitudes. High-intensity, moderate-intensity, and sham conditions decreased soleus H-reflex amplitudes by 58%, 43%, and 19%, respectively. H-reflexes induced with high-intensity rolling discomfort or pain were significantly lower than moderate and sham conditions. The effects were transient in nature, with an immediate return to baseline following RM. This is the first evidence of RM-induced modulation of spinal excitability. The intensity-dependent response observed indicates that rolling pressure or pain perception may play a role in modulation of the inhibition. Roller massage-induced neural modulation of spinal excitability may explain previously reported increases in ROM and PPT. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Recent evidence indicates that the benefits of foam rolling and roller massage are primarily accrued through neural mechanisms. The present study attempts to determine the neuromuscular response to roller massage interventions. We provide strong evidence of roller massage-induced neural modulation of spinal excitability to the soleus. It is plausible that reflex inhibition may explain

  9. Manufacture of a ceramic paper for art applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dölle, K.; Honig, A.; Piatkowski, J.; Kuempel, C.

    2018-01-01

    Ceramic paper products are mostly used as high temperature ceramic insulation products. They offer an effective solution for most demanding heat management and insulation applications. The objective for this research project was to create a ceramic paper like product that combines the advantages of paper fibers, ceramic filler, and a clay product into one product, which can be produced on a continuous base with a paper machine. The produced ceramic paper product had a ceramic filler level between 59.68% and 78.8% with a basis weight between 322.9 g/m² and 693.7 g/m², and a final moisture content of 58.6% to 44.7% respectively. The wooden fiber served as a support medium for the ceramic filler material during production on the paper machine and during the conversion process into art pieces. During firing in a kiln, the fiber material combusted and the ceramic filler material mixture acts as common pottery clay, holding the desired shape of the art pieces produced.

  10. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, Douglas L.; Hatfield, Kent E

    An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internallymore » by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.« less

  11. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, L. Douglas; Hatfield, Kent E

    2012-10-30

    An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

  12. Preliminary Comparison of 17- and 75-millimeter-bore Cageless Cylindrical Roller Bearings with Conventional Cylindrical Roller Bearings at High Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E Fred; Anderson, W J; Nemeth, Zolton N

    1953-01-01

    Preliminary results at high speeds indicate lower bearing temperatures, less internal bearing wear, and greater reliability of the conventional, cage-type cylindrical roller bearings than of either full-complement or special cageless roller bearings of the types investigated, although the latter bearing types have been operated successfully to DN values of 1.0 X 10 superscript 6.

  13. Study of rolling element dynamic interactions with separators and raceway paths: Roller to separator contact forces and cage to shaft speed ratios in roller bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nypan, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    Cage to roller force measurements, cage to shaft forces, and cage to shaft speed ratios are reported for 115 and 118mm bore roller bearings operating at speeds of 4,000, 8,000, and 12,000 rpm under loads ranging from 360 to 6670 N (80 to 1500 lb).

  14. Ceramic Processing

    SciTech Connect

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referredmore » to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.« less

  15. Evaluation of Respirable Crystalline Silica in High School Ceramics Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Fechser, Matthew; Alaves, Victor; Larson, Rodney; Sleeth, Darrah

    2014-01-01

    Air concentrations of respirable crystalline silica were measured in eleven (11) high school ceramics classrooms located in Salt Lake County, UT, USA. Respirable dust was collected on PVC filters using precision flow pumps and cyclone samplers (n = 44). Filters were subsequently analyzed for respirable dust and percent crystalline silica content. The geometric mean of the silica concentrations was 0.009 mg/m3 near the teacher’s work station and 0.008 mg/m3 near the kilns. The number of students in the classroom was correlated to the silica concentration in the ceramics classroom, but no correlation was found between the silica concentrations and either the size of the classroom or the age of the building. Results from this study indicate that ceramics teachers may be at an increased risk of exposure to crystalline silica based on the ACGIH TLV of 0.025 mg/m3, with an exceedance of 21%. PMID:24464235

  16. Evaluation of respirable crystalline silica in high school ceramics classrooms.

    PubMed

    Fechser, Matthew; Alaves, Victor; Larson, Rodney; Sleeth, Darrah

    2014-01-23

    Air concentrations of respirable crystalline silica were measured in eleven (11) high school ceramics classrooms located in Salt Lake County, UT, USA. Respirable dust was collected on PVC filters using precision flow pumps and cyclone samplers (n = 44). Filters were subsequently analyzed for respirable dust and percent crystalline silica content. The geometric mean of the silica concentrations was 0.009 mg/m3 near the teacher's work station and 0.008 mg/m3 near the kilns. The number of students in the classroom was correlated to the silica concentration in the ceramics classroom, but no correlation was found between the silica concentrations and either the size of the classroom or the age of the building. Results from this study indicate that ceramics teachers may be at an increased risk of exposure to crystalline silica based on the ACGIH TLV of 0.025 mg/m3, with an excess of 21%.

  17. Effect on interference fits on roller bearing fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, H. H.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine the effects of inner-ring speed and press fits on roller bearing fatigue life. The effects of the resultant hoop and radial stresses on the principal stresses were considered. The maximum shear stresses below the Hertzian contact were determined for different conditions of inner-ring speed and load, and were applied to a conventional roller bearing life analysis. The effect of mean stress was determined using Goodman diagram approach. Hoop stresses caused by press fits and centrifugal force can reduce bearing life by as much as 90 percent. Use of a Goodman diagram predicts life reductions of 20 to 30 percent. The depth of the maximum shear stress remains virtually unchanged.

  18. Effect of interference fits on roller bearing fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, Harold H.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine the effects of inner-ring speed and press fits on roller bearing fatigue life. The effects of the resultant hoop and radial stresses on the principal stresses were considered. The maximum shear stresses below the Hertzian contact were determined for different conditions of inner-ring speed and load, and were applied to a conventional roller bearing life analysis. The effect of mean stress was determined using Goodman diagram approach. Hoop stresses caused by press fits and centrifugal force can reduce bearing life by as much as 90 percent. Use of a Goodman diagram predicts life reduction of 20 to 30 percent. The depth of the maximum shear stress remains virtually unchanged.

  19. Visualization in mechanics: the dynamics of an unbalanced roller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumber, Peter S.

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that mechanical engineering students often find mechanics a difficult area to grasp. This article describes a system of equations describing the motion of a balanced and an unbalanced roller constrained by a pivot arm. A wide range of dynamics can be simulated with the model. The equations of motion are embedded in a graphical user interface for its numerical solution in MATLAB. This allows a student's focus to be on the influence of different parameters on the system dynamics. The simulation tool can be used as a dynamics demonstrator in a lecture or as an educational tool driven by the imagination of the student. By way of demonstration the simulation tool has been applied to a range of roller-pivot arm configurations. In addition, approximations to the equations of motion are explored and a second-order model is shown to be accurate for a limited range of parameters.

  20. Interference-Fit Life Factors for Roller Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of hoop stresses in reducing cylindrical roller bearing fatigue life was determined for various classes of inner-ring interference fit. Calculations were performed for up to 7 fit classes for each of 10 bearing sizes. The hoop stresses were superimposed on the Hertzian principal stresses created by the applied radial load to calculate roller bearing fatigue life. A method was developed through a series of equations to calculate the life reduction for cylindrical roller bearings. All calculated lives are for zero initial internal clearance. Any reduction in bearing clearance due to interference fit would be compensated by increasing the initial (unmounted) clearance. Results are presented as tables and charts of life factors for bearings with light, moderate, and heavy loads and interference fits ranging from extremely light to extremely heavy for bearing accuracy class RBEC-5 (ISO class 5). Interference fits on the inner ring of a cylindrical roller bearing can significantly reduce bearing fatigue life. In general, life factors are smaller (lower life) for bearings running under light load where the unfactored life is highest. The various bearing series within a particular bore size had almost identical interference-fit life factors for a particular fit. The tightest fit at the high end of the tolerance band produces a life factor of approximately 0.40 for an inner-race maximum Hertz stress of 1200 MPa (175 ksi) and a life factor of 0.60 for an inner-race maximum Hertz stress of 2200 MPa (320 ksi). Interference fits also impact the maximum Hertz stress-life relation.

  1. Kiln time and temperature affect shrinkage, warp, and mechanical properties of southern pine lumber

    Treesearch

    E.W. Price; P. Koch

    1980-01-01

    Four hundred and eighty No.2 Dense southern pine 2 by 6's, 95 inches long, were kiln-dried in 4-foot-wide loads with a 3,000-pound top load restraint. The kiln-drying regimes consisted of dry-bulb temperatures of 180°, 240°, and 270°F with wet-bulb temperature of 160°F and kiln times of 120 hours at 180°F; 36 and 120 hours at 240°F; and 9, 36, and 120 hours at 270...

  2. Biomechanical pole and leg characteristics during uphill diagonal roller skiing.

    PubMed

    Lindinger, Stefan Josef; Göpfert, Caroline; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2009-11-01

    Diagonal skiing as a major classical technique has hardly been investigated over the last two decades, although technique and racing velocities have developed substantially. The aims of the present study were to 1) analyse pole and leg kinetics and kinematics during submaximal uphill diagonal roller skiing and 2) identify biomechanical factors related to performance. Twelve elite skiers performed a time to exhaustion (performance) test on a treadmill. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded separately during diagonal roller skiing (9 degrees; 11 km/h). Performance was correlated to cycle length (r = 0.77; P < 0.05), relative leg swing (r = 0.71), and gliding time (r = 0.74), hip flexion range of motion (ROM) during swing (r = 0.73) and knee extension ROM during gliding (r = 0.71). Push-off demonstrated performance correlations for impulse of leg force (r = 0.84), relative duration (r= -0.76) and knee flexion (r = 0.73) and extension ROM (r = 0.74). Relative time to peak pole force was associated with performance (r = 0.73). In summary, diagonal roller skiing performance was linked to 1) longer cycle length, 2) greater impulse of force during a shorter push-off with larger flexion/extension ROMs in leg joints, 3) longer leg swing, and 4) later peak pole force, demonstrating the major key characteristics to be emphasised in training.

  3. Errors of car wheels rotation rate measurement using roller follower on test benches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapov, A. S.; Svirbutovich, O. A.; Krivtsov, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    The article deals with rotation rate measurement errors, which depend on the motor vehicle rate, on the roller, test benches. Monitoring of the vehicle performance under operating conditions is performed on roller test benches. Roller test benches are not flawless. They have some drawbacks affecting the accuracy of vehicle performance monitoring. Increase in basic velocity of the vehicle requires increase in accuracy of wheel rotation rate monitoring. It determines the degree of accuracy of mode identification for a wheel of the tested vehicle. To ensure measurement accuracy for rotation velocity of rollers is not an issue. The problem arises when measuring rotation velocity of a car wheel. The higher the rotation velocity of the wheel is, the lower the accuracy of measurement is. At present, wheel rotation frequency monitoring on roller test benches is carried out by following-up systems. Their sensors are rollers following wheel rotation. The rollers of the system are not kinematically linked to supporting rollers of the test bench. The roller follower is forced against the wheels of the tested vehicle by means of a spring-lever mechanism. Experience of the test bench equipment operation has shown that measurement accuracy is satisfactory at small rates of vehicles diagnosed on roller test benches. With a rising diagnostics rate, rotation velocity measurement errors occur in both braking and pulling modes because a roller spins about a tire tread. The paper shows oscillograms of changes in wheel rotation velocity and rotation velocity measurement system’s signals when testing a vehicle on roller test benches at specified rates.

  4. Salmonella transfer during pilot plant scale washing and roller conveying of tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiqiang; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella transfer during washing and roller conveying of inoculated tomatoes was quantified using a pilot scale tomato packing line equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers. Red round tomatoes (2.3 kg) were dip inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 (avirulent) (4 log CFU/g), air dried for 2 h, and then washed in sanitizer-free water for 2 min. Inoculated tomatoes were then passed single file over a 1.5-m conveyor equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers followed by 25 previously washed uninoculated tomatoes. Tomato samples were collected after 2 min of both washing and roller conveying, with all 25 uninoculated tomatoes collected individually after conveying. Roller surface samples were collected before and after conveying the uninoculated tomatoes. Both tomato and surface samples were quantitatively examined for Salmonella by direct plating or membrane filtration using xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar. Regardless of the roller type, Salmonella populations on inoculated tomatoes did not significantly (P < 0.05) decrease during contact with the roller conveyors. After conveying uninoculated tomatoes over contaminated foam rollers, 96% of the 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at >100 CFU per tomato. With plastic rollers, 24 and 76% of tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at 10 to 100 and 1 to 10 CFU per tomato, respectively. In contrast, only 8% of 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with brush rollers with Salmonella populations of 1 to 10 CFU per tomato. Overall, cross-contamination was greatest with foam, followed by plastic and brush rollers (P < 0.05). Adding peroxyacetic acid or chlorine to the wash water significantly decreased cross-contamination during tomato conveying, with chlorine less effective in controlling Salmonella on foam compared with plastic and brush rollers.

  5. [Ceramic posts].

    PubMed

    Mainjot, Amélie; Legros, Caroline; Vanheusden, Alain

    2006-01-01

    As a result of ceramics and all-ceram technologies development esthetic inlay core and abutments flooded the market. Their tooth-colored appearance enhances restoration biomimetism principally on the marginal gingiva area. This article reviews indications and types of cores designed for natural teeth and implants.

  6. Mössbauer studies of Haltern 70 amphorae from Castro do Vieito, North of Portugal, and of amphora sherds from kilns in the Roman provinces Hispania Baetica and Lusitania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, B. F. O.; Silva, A. J. M.; Wagner, F. E.; Wagner, U.

    2011-11-01

    Haltern 70 amphora sherds from Castro do Vieito and from kilns in the Roman provinces Baetica and Lusitania were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, EDX and XRD. An amphora whose handle was carefully studied must have been fired reducingly at a temperature of or above about 900°C and cooled in oxidizing conditions in the end. Oxidation and hematite formation went hand in hand, and the amount of hematite formed depended sensitively of the speed of penetration of the oxygen and the cooling rate in the interior of the ceramic body.

  7. Roller compaction: Effect of relative humidity of lactose powder.

    PubMed

    Omar, Chalak S; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Palzer, Stefan; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2016-09-01

    The effect of storage at different relative humidity conditions, for various types of lactose, on roller compaction behaviour was investigated. Three types of lactose were used in this study: anhydrous lactose (SuperTab21AN), spray dried lactose (SuperTab11SD) and α-lactose monohydrate 200M. These powders differ in their amorphous contents, due to different manufacturing processes. The powders were stored in a climatic chamber at different relative humidity values ranging from 10% to 80% RH. It was found that the roller compaction behaviour and ribbon properties were different for powders conditioned to different relative humidities. The amount of fines produced, which is undesirable in roller compaction, was found to be different at different relative humidity. The minimum amount of fines produced was found to be for powders conditioned at 20-40% RH. The maximum amount of fines was produced for powders conditioned at 80% RH. This was attributed to the decrease in powder flowability, as indicated by the flow function coefficient ffc and the angle of repose. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was also applied to determine the velocity of primary particles during ribbon production, and it was found that the velocity of the powder during the roller compaction decreased with powders stored at high RH. This resulted in less powder being present in the compaction zone at the edges of the rollers, which resulted in ribbons with a smaller overall width. The relative humidity for the storage of powders has shown to have minimal effect on the ribbon tensile strength at low RH conditions (10-20%). The lowest tensile strength of ribbons produced from lactose 200M and SD was for powders conditioned at 80% RH, whereas, ribbons produced from lactose 21AN at the same condition of 80% RH showed the highest tensile strength. The storage RH range 20-40% was found to be an optimum condition for roll compacting three lactose powders, as it resulted in a minimum amount of fines in the

  8. A COMPARISON OF IN-SITU VITRIFICATION AND ROTARY KILN INCINERATION FOR SOILS TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the hazardous waste community, the term "thermal destruction" is a catch-all phrase that broadly refers to high temperature destruction of hazardous contaminants. ncluded in the thermal destruction category are treatment technologies such as rotary kiln incineration, fluidized...

  9. Effects of blends of cement kiln dust and fly ash on properties of concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated concretes containing cement kiln dust (CKD) and fly ash to determine whether satisfactory properties can be achieved for long-lasting performance in the field. The results indicate that certain combinations of cement, CKD, and fl...

  10. Improving the operating effectiveness of the shaft kilns of magnesite combine

    SciTech Connect

    Utenkov, A.F.; Sinitsyn, E.A.; Gor'kova, T.V.

    1986-11-01

    The authors analyze the combustion efficiency of a natural gas-fired tunnel kiln and propose design and performance modifications to the burner and fuel systems to provide for optimum combustion and utilization of the calorific value of the fuel.

  11. FPL design for lumber dry kiln using solar/wood energy in tropical latitudes

    Treesearch

    J. L. Tschernitz; W. T. Simpson

    1985-01-01

    Developing countries with a timber resource that can be manufactured into finished products either for local use or export often lack the capital to build high-cost dry kilns. Many of these countries are in the tropics where solar radiation and ambient temperatures are high. The low-cost solar/wood energy lumber dry kiln described in this report was designed and tested...

  12. Solar Kilns: Feasibility of Utilizing Solar Energy for Drying Lumber in Developing Countries,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    Design. .. ............. ... 52 Direct ( Greenhouse ) Design .. .. ............ ... 57 Literature Cited and Partial Bibliography of Solar Lumber Drying...experimental performance of a greenhouse -type solar kiln in Puerto Rico. (Chudnoff et al., 1966). 36"J. Table 9.--Comparison of experimental and calculated...at one dryer orientation (long axis north-south) from 30 percent to 10 percent moisture content. 49 Table 15.-- Greenhouse -type solar kiln capacity

  13. Roller Massage: A Descriptive Survey of Allied Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Scott W

    2018-04-13

    In sports medicine, the interprofessional care of athletes has become a frequent practice. This type of care often involves different interventions used among professionals. One common intervention prescribed is roller massage (RM) or self-myofascial release. The trends in the use of RM among allied health professionals is non-existent. The surveillance of such responses has not been documented. To survey and document responses in the knowledge, clinical application, and use of RM devices among allied health professionals in the United States. Cross-sectional descriptive survey study. A 20 question survey was sent to allied health professionals including physical therapists, athletic trainers, and fitness professionals. The survey covered topics such as demographics, beliefs about RM, preferred devices, exercise prescription, and client education. Results One thousand forty-two professionals (N=1042) completed the survey. Most respondents believed that RM decreases pain (82%) and increases mobility (76%). A high percentage use a foam roller in their practice (81%), recommend a full-size foam roller (49%), and believe the medium density (48%) is the most effective. A high proportion of respondents prescribe RM for injury treatment (69%) and for pre-and post-exercise (61%). They also recommend rolling daily for 30 seconds to 2 minutes per muscle group (33%) at a self-paced cadence (46%). A high percentage of respondents use patient reported outcomes (74%), joint ROM (49%), and movement-based testing (48%) to measure effects of RM. Eighty-seven percent use live instruction to educate clients and 88% believe there is a gap in the research. The results of this survey document responses in the use of RM among allied health professionals. The reported responses provide insight into how professionals are using RM as an intervention and the potential gaps between the research and professional practice. Future studies are needed to further validate these findings.

  14. Structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Douglas F.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation gives a brief history of the field of materials sciences and goes on to expound the advantages of the fastest growing area in that field, namely ceramics. Since ceramics are moving to fill the demand for lighter, stronger, more corrosion resistant materials, advancements will rely more on processing and modeling from the atomic scale up which is made possible by advanced analytical, computer, and processing techniques. All information is presented in viewgraph format.

  15. Roller skating--is it a dangerous sport?

    PubMed Central

    Tse, P Y; Shen, W Y; Chan, K M; Leung, P C

    1987-01-01

    A prospective survey of 111 cases of roller skating injuries within one year are reported. Males were more commonly injured than females. There was a high incidence (86%) of serious injuries, 28% of which required surgical treatment. The wrist (23%) was the commonest region involved, followed by the shoulder (20%), the elbow (15%) and the ankle (12%). Collision with other skaters and loss of control were the main factors leading to injury. Better rink discipline, instruction classes and safety publicity should be helpful in minimising accidents. Images Fig. 2 & Fig. 3 PMID:3676638

  16. Oak leaf roller: contact toxicity of four insecticides applied to the larvae

    Treesearch

    Lula E. Greene; Marion Page

    1974-01-01

    A defoliator of oak and witch-hazel, the oak leaf roller (Archips semiferanus [Walker]) is found in large numbers in northeastern United States and in southwest Ontario, Canada. DDT was formerly used to control this insect. As a preliminary step in finding alternatives to DDT for field testing against the oak leaf roller, four insecticides were...

  17. 77 FR 12326 - Tapered Roller Bearings From China; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-344 (Third Review)] Tapered Roller Bearings From China; Scheduling of a Full Five- Year Review AGENCY: United States International Trade... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on tapered roller bearings from China would be likely to...

  18. Investigation of roller-compacted concrete for use in pavements in Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-01

    Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) is a stiff mixture of aggregate, cementitious materials, and water with zero slump. RCC : is consolidated or compacted in the fresh state by use of a roller with or without vibration. RCC typically is placed with aspha...

  19. A weed compaction roller system for use with mechanical herbicide application

    Treesearch

    Adam H. Wiese; Daniel A. Netzer; Don E. Riemenschneider; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2006-01-01

    We designed, constructed, and field-tested a versatile and unique weed compaction roller system that can be used with mechanical herbicide application for invasive weed control in tree plantations, agronomic settings, and areas where localized flora and fauna are in danger of elimination from the landscape. The weed compaction roller system combined with herbicide...

  20. The influence of grip on oxygen consumption and leg forces when using classical style roller skis.

    PubMed

    Ainegren, M; Carlsson, P; Laaksonen, M S; Tinnsten, M

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of classical style roller skis' grip (static friction coefficients, μS) on cross-country skiers' oxygen consumption and leg forces during treadmill roller skiing, when using the diagonal stride and kick double poling techniques. The study used ratcheted wheel roller skis from the open market and a uniquely designed roller ski with an adjustable camber and grip function. The results showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher oxygen consumption (∼ 14%), heart rate (∼ 7%), and lower propulsive forces from the legs during submaximal exercise and a shorter time to exhaustion (∼ 30%) in incremental maximal tests when using roller skis with a μS similar to on-snow skiing, while there was no difference between tests when using different pairs of roller skis with a similar, higher μS. Thus, we concluded that oxygen consumption (skiing economy), propulsive leg forces, and performance time are highly changed for the worse when using roller skis with a lower μS, such as for on-snow skiing with grip-waxed cross-country skis, in comparison to ratcheted wheel roller skis with several times higher μS. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A neglected - but not negligible - carbon reservoir in the Italian forests: relic charcoal kiln soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrolonardo, Giovanni; Francioso, Ornella; Carrari, Elisa; Brogi, Cristiana; Venturi, Martina; Certini, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal production in forests is one of the oldest human activities in Italy and the other European countries. Here, 3 thousand years ago civilizations were already used to convert wood into charcoal for energetic and metallurgic purposes. The technique for making charcoal remained substantially unchanged in time: wood piles covered with turf were built in appositely shaped emplacements, and then left to pyrolyse for days under controlled semi-anoxic conditions. This widespread activity lasted until a few decades ago, leaving as legacy a plethora of repeatedly used emplacements where soil shows a thick top layer very rich in charcoal. Despite the high frequency of relic charcoal kilns in the European forests, no studies aimed at accurately determining their C stock to assess their relevance as C sink in forest environment. In this work, we studied some relic charcoal kilns in a mixed oak forest at Marsiliana, Tuscany, central Italy, where charcoal production was enduring and massive at least since the Middle age. At Marsiliana, density of charcoal kiln sites was not uniform within the forest areas as it mostly depends on biomass availability. According to the aspect, northerly or southerly, we recognized two main forest areas where kiln sites density ranged between 2 and 3 sites per hectare. In general, the C content in the kiln soils was eight times the one in the surrounding soil, with just one third of the C in the form of pyrogenic C. Hence, natural organic carbon content was significantly higher in the kiln soils. Such a finding confirms that charcoal gives a substantial contribution to the C stock in the kilns but does not fully account for their particular richness in C. It has been thus hypothesized that charcoal is somehow able to stimulate the accumulation of native soil organic matter. At Marsiliana forest, relic charcoal kilns soils cover less than 0.5% of total surface. Nonetheless, their contribution to the total C stock in the top soil (30 cm

  2. Study on the property of the production for Fengdongyan kiln in Early Ming dynasty by INAA and EDXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Huang, Y.; Sun, H. Y.; Yan, L. T.; Feng, S. L.; Xu, Q.; Feng, X. Q.

    2016-08-01

    A lot of official wares carved "Guan" or the dragon patterns were excavated on the strata of Ming dynasty of the Fengdongyan kiln site at Dayao County. The imperial porcelain was fired in Hongwu and Yongle eras. However, the emergence of this imperial porcelain has triggered academic debate about the property of Fengdongyan kiln in the Early Ming dynasty. Based on the differences of the official kiln management, some scholars have determined that the property of the production for this kiln was the civilian kiln. According to the historical textural records and typology, others preliminary confirmed that Fengdongyan kiln was the official kiln. In this paper, the elemental compositions of body and glaze in imperial and civilian porcelain are study by INAA and EDXRF for determining the property of the production for this kiln in Early Ming dynasty. After the processing of experimental data by geochemical analysis and principal component analysis, the result show that the raw materials for making body and glaze in imperial porcelain are similar with those of the civilian porcelain and the degrees of elutriation for body can be slightly different in HW-M period of Ming dynasty. The analytical results support the view that the Fengdongyan kiln is civilian not official.

  3. [Atmospheric emission of PCDD/Fs from modern dry processing cement kilns with preheating in the southwest area, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Lu, Yi; Jian, Chuan; Guo, Zhi-Shun; Zhu, Ming-Ji; Deng, Li; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Six cement kilns were measured for emissions of PCDD/Fs in the Southwest Area, China. The results indicated that the emission levels of PCDD/Fs were 0.0029-0.0062 ng-m(-3) (Average, 0.0043 ng X m(-3)) from cement kilns which did not burn solid waste, and 0.028 ng X m(-3) from co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln. The levels of PCDD/Fs emissions from cement manufacturing in the Southwest Area were significantly below the national emissions standard (0.1 ng x m(-3)). Emission factors of PCDD/Fs from the six cement kilns varied between 0.0089 and 0.084 microg x t(-1) cement, which were near or below the lowest emission factor reported by UNEP in 2005. Moreover, the emission factor of PCDD/Fs from co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln was 7.6 times of the average factors from the other five cement kilns. Moreover,congener distribution of PCDD/F in stack gas from the two types of cement kilns was very different. The results showed that modern dry process cement kilns with preheating have lower emissions of PCDD/Fs. This suggested that the product of co-processing solid waste in cement kilns should be largely enhanced in China in future.

  4. 77 FR 45588 - Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished, From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-601] Tapered Roller Bearings and... new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order on tapered roller bearings from the People... The notice announcing the antidumping duty order on tapered roller bearings from the PRC was published...

  5. 76 FR 6397 - Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-601] Tapered Roller Bearings and... on tapered roller bearings (``TRBs'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') meets the... published in the Federal Register on June 15, 1987. See Antidumping Duty Order; Tapered Roller Bearings and...

  6. 76 FR 45777 - Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-601] Tapered Roller Bearings and... tapered roller bearings (``TRBs'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') meets the statutory and... Register on June 15, 1987. See Antidumping Duty Order; Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof, Finished...

  7. Structural Ceramics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

  8. Simulation of roller compaction with subsequent tableting and characterization of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Hein, Stephanie; Picker-Freyer, Katharina M; Langridge, John

    2008-01-01

    Tablets are by far the most common solid oral dosage forms, and many drugs need to be granulated before they can be tableted. Increasingly roller compaction is being used as a dry granulation technique; however it is a very time and material intensive method. Thus some mini roller compactors and simulations of the roller compaction process have been developed as a means of studying the technique at small scale. An important factor in the selection of materials for roller compaction is their ability to be recompressed into tablets after the initial roller compaction and milling steps. In this paper the roller compaction process was simulated on the basis of some models by Gereg and Cappola (2002) and Zinchuk et al. (2004). An eccentric tableting machine was used to make compacts from alpha-lactose monohydrate, anhydrous beta-lactose, spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose at different maximum relative densities (rho rel,max 0.6-0.9). These compacts were milled immediately to granules with a rotary granulator. The properties of the granules were analyzed and compared to the properties of the original powders. These granules and powders were then tableted at different maximum relative densities (rho rel,max 0.75-0.95) and their properties including elastic recovery, crushing force and 3D-model were analyzed. The properties of the tablets made from the granules were compared to the properties of the tablets made from the powders to determine which excipients are most suitable for the roller compaction process. The study showed that anhydrous beta-lactose is the preferred form of lactose for use in roller compaction since compaction did not affect tablet crushing force to a large extent. With the simulation of roller compaction process one is able to find qualified materials for use in roller compaction without the necessity of a great deal of material and time.

  9. Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE-RBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhang, K.; Xia, C. D.; Liu, M. T.; Zhu, J. J.; An, Z.; Bai, B.

    2015-03-01

    A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB6 crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907-960 A.D.) had been propagated to the Waguantan kiln site of Guizhou Province in the Yuan Dynasty.

  10. Hot Ductility Behavior of an 8 Pct Cr Roller Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Sun, Shuhua; Shi, Zhongping; Wang, Bo; Fu, Wantang

    2015-04-01

    The hot ductility of an 8 pct Cr roller steel was determined between 1173 K and 1473 K (900 °C and 1200 °C) at strain rates of 0.01 to 10 s-1 through tensile testing. The fracture morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy, and the microstructure was examined through optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The dependence of the hot ductility behavior on the deformation conditions, grain size, and precipitation was analyzed. The relationship between the reduction in area and the natural logarithm of the Zener-Hollomon parameter (ln Z) was found to be a second-order polynomial. When ln Z was greater than 40 s-1, the hot ductility was poor and fracture was mainly caused by incompatible deformation between the grains. When ln Z was between 32 and 40 s-1, the hot ductility was excellent and the main fracture mechanism was void linking. When ln Z was below 32 s-1, the hot ductility was poor and fracture was mainly caused by grain boundary sliding. A fine grain structure is beneficial for homogenous deformation and dynamic recrystallization, which induces better hot ductility. The effect of M7C3 carbide particles dispersed in the matrix on the hot ductility was small. The grain growth kinetics in the 8 pct Cr steel were obtained between 1373 K and 1473 K (1100 °C and 1200 °C). Finally, optimized preheating and forging procedures for 8 pct Cr steel rollers are provided.

  11. High-energy roller injuries to the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Askins, G; Finley, R; Parenti, J; Bush, D; Brotman, S

    1986-12-01

    Eleven cases of high-energy industrial roller injuries treated between 1980 and 1984 were retrospectively reviewed. The dominant extremity was affected in nine. Six patients sustained fractures and/or dislocations, and three of these patients required fasciotomies for clinical signs of impending compartment syndromes. All fracture/dislocations, with the exception of a scapula fracture, anterior dislocation of a thumb interphalangeal joint, and a fractured coronoid process of the ulna, required open reduction with internal fixation. Three patients required split-thickness skin grafting for extensive skin degloving. Two patients required immediate amputation. Late sequelae included prolonged edema, nutritional depletion, neuroma formation of the superficial branch of the radial nerve, late carpal tunnel syndrome, and partial brachial plexus palsy. Industrial roller injuries continue to be an occupational hazard associated with more severe crushing trauma than the low-energy wringer washer injuries first described by MacCollum (11). Attention must be paid to the treatment of crushed skin, muscle, and nerves, fracture stabilization, nutritional support, and occupational therapy. Concurrent monitoring for signs of a developing compartment syndrome and complications of rhabdomyolysis is essential.

  12. Improved oil-off survivability of tapered roller bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreider, Gary E.; Lee, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this program is to improve the oil-off survivability of a tapered roller bearing when applied to a helicopter transmission, since the tapered bearing has shown a performance advantage in this application. However, the critical roller end-rib conjunction is vulnerable to damage in an oil-off condition. Three powdered metal materials were selected to use as the rib material for oil-off evaluation. These were: M2 steel to a 65% density, CBS 1000M 65% density, and CBS 1000M 75% density. The bearing styles tested were ribbed cone (inner race) and ribbed cup (outer race). Carburized solid CBS 600 was also used as a ribbed material for comparison of oil-off results. The tests were conducted at six speeds from 4000 rpm (0.26 million DN) through 37000 rpm (2.4 million DN).The ribbed cup style bearing achieved longer lives than the ribbed cone style. A standard bearing lasted only 10 minutes at 4000 rpm; however, the 30-min oil-off goal was achieved through 11000 rpm using the survivable ribbed cup bearing. The oil-off lives at 37000 rpm were less than 10 seconds. The grinding of the powder metal materials and surface preparation to achieve an open porosity is extremely critical to the oil-off performance of the powder metal component.

  13. Study on coming out of the shaft from ceramic sleeve in terms of the residual displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. W.; Noda, N.-A.; Sano, Y.; Sakai, H.

    2018-06-01

    Ceramic roller can be used in the heating furnace conveniently because of its high temperature resistance. However, the coming out of the shaft may often happen from the ceramic sleeve under repeated load. In this paper, a two-dimensional shrink fitted structure is considered by replacing the shaft with the inner plate and by replacing the sleeve with the outer plate. Based on the model with stopper, the FEM simulation is performed under alternate loading with certain intervals newly added. The analysis results show that the coming out failure can be explained from the residual displacement accumulation during these intervals.

  14. Development of Portable Venturi Kiln for Agricultural Waste Utilization by Carbonization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustina, S. E.; Chasanah, N.; Eris, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Many types of kiln or carbonization equipment have been developed, but most of them were designed for big capacity and some also having low performance. This research aims to develop kiln, especially portable metal kiln, which has higher performance, more environmental- friendly, and can be used for several kinds of biomass or agricultural waste (not exclusive for one kind of biomass) as feeding material. To improve the kiln performance, a venturi drum type of portable kiln has been designed with an optimum capacity of 12.45 kg coconut shells. Basic idea of those design is heat flow improvement causing by venturi effect. The performance test for coconut shell carbonization shows that the carbonization process takes about 60-90 minutes to produce average yields of 23.8%., and the highest temperature of the process was 441 °C. The optimum performance has been achieved in the 4th test, which was producing 24% yield of highest charcoal quality (represented by LHV) in 65 minutes process at average temperature level 485 °C. For pecan shell and palm shell, design modification has been done by adding 6 air inlet holes and 3 ignition column to get better performance. While operation procedure should be modified on loading and air supply, depending on each biomass characteristic. The result of performance test showed that carbonization process of pecan shell produce 17 % yield, and palm shell produce 15% yield. Based on Indonesian Standard (SNI), all charcoal produced in those carbonization has good quality level.

  15. CFD modeling using PDF approach for investigating the flame length in rotary kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elattar, H. F.; Specht, E.; Fouda, A.; Bin-Mahfouz, Abdullah S.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are performed to investigate the flame length characteristics in rotary kilns using probability density function (PDF) approach. A commercial CFD package (ANSYS-Fluent) is employed for this objective. A 2-D axisymmetric model is applied to study the effect of both operating and geometric parameters of rotary kiln on the characteristics of the flame length. Three types of gaseous fuel are used in the present work; methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and biogas (50 % CH4 + 50 % CO2). Preliminary comparison study of 2-D modeling outputs of free jet flames with available experimental data is carried out to choose and validate the proper turbulence model for the present numerical simulations. The results showed that the excess air number, diameter of kiln air entrance, radiation modeling consideration and fuel type have remarkable effects on the flame length characteristics. Numerical correlations for the rotary kiln flame length are presented in terms of the studied kiln operating and geometric parameters within acceptable error.

  16. Ecology of the Sand Roller (Percopsis transmontana) in a lower Snake River Reservoir, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Erhardt, John M.; Rhodes, Tobyn N.; Hemingway, Rulon J.

    2017-01-01

    The Sand Roller (Percopsis transmontana), has not been abundant in the Snake River since it was first found in the system in the 1950s, but its population has apparently increased in recent years. As a result, we initiated a study to better understand its ecology in habitats of Lower Granite Reservoir. From November 2014 to October 2015, Sand Rollers were present along shorelines, with peak abundance being observed during spring months. Logistic regression analyses showed that Sand Rollers were more likely to be present in shoreline habitats at temperatures ≤18.4°C. Fish were found over a range of substrates, with the lowest odds of fish presence being associated with riprap, which is common in hydropower reservoirs. From length-frequency analysis, we suggest that Sand Roller spawning occurs primarily in May and early June. Assessment of Sand Roller diets found dipteran (chironomid) larvae and pupae were the most important prey consumed by all sizes of Sand Rollers, but Opossum Shrimp (Neomysis mercedis) were also prominent in diets of larger fish in shoreline and offshore habitats. At a time when the populations of so many native species are in decline, the increase of the Sand Roller population in the lower Snake River represents a positive, yet curious occurrence.

  17. Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis Liquid Oxygen Prevalve Detent Roller Cracking Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleman, Elizabeth; Eddleman, David; Richard, James; Jacobs, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    During routine inspections of the Space Shuttle's Main Propulsion System (MPS) Liquid Oxygen (LO2) pre-valve, the mechanism provided to maintain the valve in the open position was found cracked. The mechanism is a Vespel roller held against the valve visor by a stack of Belleville springs. The roller has been found cracked 3 times. All three instances were in the same valve in the same location. There are 6 pre-valves on each orbiter, and only one has exhibited this problem. Every-flight inspections were instituted and the rollers were found to be cracked after only one flight. Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center and Kennedy Space Center worked together to determine a solution. There were several possible contributors to the failure: a mis-aligned visor, an out of specification edge with a sharp radius, an out of specification tolerance stack up of a Belleville spring stack that caused un-predicted loads on the Vespel SP-21 roller, and a dimple machined into the side of the roller to indicate LO2 compatibility that created a stress riser. The detent assembly was removed and replaced with parts that were on the low-side of the tolerance stack up to eliminate the potential for high loads on the detent roller. After one flight, the roller was inspected and showed fewer signs of wear and no cracks.

  18. Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis Liquid Oxygen Pre-Valve Detent Roller Cracking Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleman, Elizabeth; Eddleman, David; Jacobs, Rebecca; Richard, James

    2008-01-01

    During routine inspections of the Space Shuttle s Main Propulsion System Liquid Oxygen (LO2) pre-valve, the mechanism provided to maintain the valve in the open position was found cracked. The mechanism is a Vespel roller held against the valve visor by a stack of Belleville springs. The roller has been found cracked 3 times. All three instances were in the same valve in the same location. There are 6 pre-valves on each orbiter, and only one has exhibited this problem. Every-flight inspections were instituted and the rollers were found to be cracked after only one flight. Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, and Kennedy Space Center worked together to determine a solution. There were several possible contributors to the failure: a misaligned visor, an out-of-specification edge with a sharp radius, an out-of-specification tolerance stack up of a Belleville spring stack that caused un-predicted loads on the Vespel SP-21 roller, and a dimple machined into the side of the roller to indicate LO2 compatibility that created a stress riser. The detent assembly was removed and replaced with parts that were on the low side of the tolerance stack up to eliminate the potential for high loads on the detent roller. After one flight, the roller was inspected and showed fewer signs of wear and no cracks.

  19. Guidelines for Controlling Indoor Air Quality Problems Associated with Kilns, Copiers, and Welding in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

    Guidelines for controlling indoor air quality problems associated with kilns, copiers, and welding in schools are provided in this document. Individual sections on kilns, duplicating equipment, and welding operations contain information on the following: sources of contaminants; health effects; methods of control; ventilation strategies; and…

  20. GREENHOUSE GASES FROM SMALL-SCALE COMBUSTION DEVICES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, CHARCOAL-MAKING KILNS IN THAILAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of measurements of airborne emissions, during typical operating conditions, from charcoal-making kilns commonly used in the developing world. The kilns tested were of five types: brick beehive, mud beehive, earth mound, rice husk mound, and single (oil) d...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1343 - What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker storage piles? 63.1343 Section 63.1343 Protection... Limits § 63.1343 What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker... associated with that kiln, clinker cooler, raw material dryer, and open clinker storage pile. All D/F, HCl...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1343 - What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker storage piles? 63.1343 Section 63.1343 Protection... Limits § 63.1343 What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker... associated with that kiln, clinker cooler, raw material dryer, and open clinker storage pile. All D/F, HCl...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources... atmosphere. (2) 99.9999% DRE. If you burn the dioxin-listed hazardous wastes F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, or...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources... atmosphere. (2) 99.9999% DRE. If you burn the dioxin-listed hazardous wastes F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, or...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for... prior to release to the atmosphere. (2) 99.9999% DRE. If you burn the dioxin-listed hazardous wastes...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for existing sources... atmosphere. (2) 99.9999% DRE. If you burn the dioxin-listed hazardous wastes F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, or...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1221 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? 63.1221 Section 63.1221 Protection of Environment... hazardous waste burning lightweight aggregate kilns? (a) Emission and hazardous waste feed limits for... prior to release to the atmosphere. (2) 99.9999% DRE. If you burn the dioxin-listed hazardous wastes...

  8. Thermal treatment of medical waste in a rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Bujak, J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of an experimental system with thermal treatment (incineration) of medical waste conducted at a large complex of hospital facilities. The studies were conducted for a period of one month. The processing system was analysed in terms of the energy, environmental and economic aspects. A rotary combustion chamber was designed and built with the strictly assumed length to inner diameter ratio of 4:1. In terms of energy, the temperature distribution was tested in the rotary kiln, secondary combustion (afterburner) chamber and heat recovery system. Calorific value of medical waste was 25.0 MJ/kg and the thermal efficiency of the entire system equalled 66.8%. Next, measurements of the pollutant emissions into the atmosphere were performed. Due to the nature of the disposed waste, particular attention was paid to the one-minute average values of carbon oxide and volatile organic compounds as well as hydrochloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulphur dioxide and total dust. Maximum content of non-oxidized organic compounds in slag and bottom ash were also verified during the analyses. The best rotary speed for the combustion chamber was selected to obtain proper afterburning of the bottom slag. Total organic carbon content was 2.9%. The test results were used to determine the basic economic indicators of the test system for evaluating the profitability of its construction. Simple payback time (SPB) for capital expenditures on the implementation of the project was 4 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sustainability of cement kiln co-processing of wastes in India: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Baidya, Rahul; Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Parlikar, Ulhas V

    2017-07-01

    Co-processing in cement kiln achieves effective utilization of the material and energy value present in the wastes, thereby conserving the natural resources by reducing the use of virgin material. In India, a number of multifolded initiatives have been taken that take into account the potential and volume of waste generation. This paper studies the factors which might influence the sustainability of co-processing of waste in cement kilns as a business model, considering the issues and challenges in the supply chain framework in India in view of the four canonical pillars of sustainability. A pilot study on co-processing was carried out in one of the cement plant in India to evaluate the environmental performance, economical performance, operational performance and social performance. The findings will help India and other developing countries to introduce effective supply chain management for co-processing while addressing the issues and challenges during co-processing of different waste streams in the cement kilns.

  10. Research on friction torque analysis of planetary roller screw mechanism considering load distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Fajin; Mao, Pengcheng; Zheng, Shicheng; Li, Guangliang; Xin, Shupeng

    2018-04-01

    Based on the Hertzian contact theory, frictional moment of planetary roller screw mechanism (RSM) caused by elastic hysteresis, roller's spinning sliding, and differential sliding was analyzed, which were considering load distribution of rollers threads. The relationship between friction torque of screw pairs and its input axial load were obtained. Finally, the frictional moment of the screw pairs under the situation overstress will created at some localized contact surfaces were discussed. Results shows that the frictional moment caused by elastic hysteresis gives the greatest rise to the total frictional moment and that due to differential sliding can be ignored. The stress uniformity has great influence on the frictional moment.

  11. CFD analysis of a rotary kiln using for plaster production and discussion of the effects of flue gas recirculation application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürtürk, Mert; Oztop, Hakan F.; Pambudi, Nugroho Agung

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the CFD analysis of the rotary kiln is carried out for examining effects of various parameters on energy consumption and efficiency of the rotary kiln. The flue gas recirculation using in many applications is a useful method for combusting of fuel unburned in the flue gas. Also, effects of flue gas recirculation on the combusting of fuel, operating temperature and efficiency of the rotary kiln are discussed in this study. The rotary kiln, which is considered in this study, is used in plaster plant. Two different CFD models were created and these models are compared according to many parameters such as temperature distribution, mixture fraction, the mass fraction of O2, CO, CO and CH4 in the combustion chamber. It is found that the plaster plant has a great potential for an increase in energy efficiency. Results obtained for producers of rotary kiln and burner will be useful for determining better design parameters.

  12. Application of the dynamic model of Saeman to an industrial rotary kiln incinerator: numerical and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, L G; Caillat, S; Chinnayya, A; Gambier, D; Baudoin, B

    2010-07-01

    In order to simulate granular materials structure in a rotary kiln under the steady-state regime, a mathematical model has been developed by Saeman (1951). This model enables the calculation of the bed profiles, the axial velocity and solids flow rate along the kiln. This model can be coupled with a thermochemical model, in the case of a reacting moving bed. This dynamic model was used to calculate the bed profile for an industrial size kiln and the model projections were validated by measurements in a 4 m diameter by 16 m long industrial rotary kiln. The effect of rotation speed under solids bed profile and the effect of the feed rate under filling degree were established. On the basis of the calculations and the experimental results a phenomenological relation for the residence time estimation was proposed for the rotary kiln. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multi-disciplinary dating of a baked clay kiln excavated at Chieri, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tema, Evdokia; Fantino, Fulvio; Ferrara, Enzo; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Barello, Federico; Vella, Silvia; Cirillo, Luigi; Gulmini, Monica

    2014-05-01

    A combined archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence study has been carried out on a rescue excavation kiln, discovered at Chieri, Northern Italy. Rock magnetic experiments indicate the dominance of a low coercivity magnetic phase, such as magnetite and/or Ti-magnetite as the main carrier of the remanent magnetization. Stepwise thermal demagnetization experiments generally show a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). The mean archaeomagnetic direction, calculated from 17 independently oriented samples, is D=18.2o, I=66.8o with α95=2.6o and k=184. Archaeomagnetic dating of the kiln has been obtained after comparison of the kiln's ChRM direction with the reference curves produced by the SHA.DIF.3K European regional geomagnetic field model. Independent dating of the kiln has also been obtained from thermoluminescence (TL) study of two baked clay samples coming from the kiln's walls. The environmental dose has been measured in situ using field dosimeters. Accurate TL procedures have been followed for the calculation of annual dose and eventually the TL age. The combination of the archaeological evidence, archaeomagnetic and TL datings suggest that the last usage of the kiln occurred around the 17th century AD. Comparison of the results obtained from the different methods shows the relevant potential of these techniques on dating of baked clay artefacts; yet it also highlights the range of uncertainty sources affecting measurements, related to the samples and/or to the environment, and the utility of dating cross-checking for obtaining reliable dates.

  14. Respiratory Abnormalities among Occupationally Exposed, Non-Smoking Brick Kiln Workers from Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Supriya; Gupta, Sharat; Singh, Sharanjeet; Kumar, Avnish

    2017-07-01

    Brick manufacturing industry is one of the oldest and fast-growing industries in India that employs a large section of people. Brick kiln workers are occupationally exposed to air pollutants. Nonetheless, only a few studies have so far been conducted on their respiratory health. To investigate the extent of respiratory impairment in brick kiln workers and to correlate it with the duration of exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Spirometric parameters of 110 non-smoking male brick kiln workers aged 18-35 years in Patiala district, Punjab, India, were compared with an age-matched comparison group of 90 unexposed individuals. Brick kiln workers showed a significant (p<0.05) decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF 25-75% ) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) compared with those of the comparison group. The extent of deterioration in lung function of brick kiln workers was associated with the duration of exposure. In workers with >8 years of exposure, the mean values of FEV 1 (1.92 L), FVC (2.01 L), FEF 25-75% (2.19 L/s) and PEFR (4.81 L/s) were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those recorded in workers with <8 years of exposure in whom the values were 2.01 L, 2.68 L, 2.71 L/s, and 5.76 L/s, respectively. There is a significant association between exposure to workplace pollutants and lung function deterioration among brick kiln workers.

  15. Roller Bearing Health Monitoring Using CPLE Frequency Analysis Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jong, Jen-Yi; Jones, Jess H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a unique vibration signature analysis technique Coherence Phase Line Enhancer (CPLE) Frequency Analysis - for roller bearing health monitoring. Defects of roller bearing (e.g. wear, foreign debris, crack in bearing supporting structure, etc.) can cause small bearing characteristic frequency shifts due to minor changes in bearing geometry. Such frequency shifts are often too small to detect by the conventional Power Spectral Density (PSD) due to its frequency bandwidth limitation. This Coherent Phase Line Enhancer technology has been evolving over the last few years and has culminated in the introduction of a new and novel frequency spectrum which is fully described in this paper. This CPLE technology uses a "key phasor" or speed probe as a preprocessor for this analysis. With the aid of this key phasor, this CPLE technology can develop a two dimensional frequency spectrum that preserves both amplitude and phase that is not normally obtained using conventional frequency analysis. This two-dimensional frequency transformation results in several newly defined spectral functions; i. e. CPLE-PSD, CPLE-Coherence and the CPLE-Frequency. This paper uses this CPLE frequency analysis to detect subtle, low level bearing related signals in the High Pressure Fuel Pump (HPFP) of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). For many rotating machinery applications, a key phasor is an essential measurement that is used in the detection of bearing related signatures. There are times however, when a key phasor is not available; i. e. during flight of any of the SSME turbopumps or on the SSME High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) where no speed probe is present. In this case, the CPLE analysis approach can still be achieved using a novel Pseudo Key Phasor (PKP) technique to reconstruct a 1/Rev PKP signal directly from external vibration measurements. This paper develops this Pseudo Key Phasor technique and applies it to the SSME vibration data.

  16. Air quality comparison between two European ceramic tile clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Guerra, L.; Busani, G.; Sterni, A.; Querol, X.

    2013-08-01

    The European ceramic tile industry is mostly concentrated in two clusters, one in Castelló (Spain) and another one in Modena (Italy). Industrial clusters may have problems to accomplish the EU air quality regulations because of the concentration of some specific pollutants and, hence, the feasibility of the industrial clusters can be jeopardised. The present work assesses the air quality in these ceramic clusters in 2008, when the new EU emission regulations where put into force. PM10 samples were collected at two sampling sites in the Modena ceramic cluster and one sampling site in the Castelló ceramic cluster. PM10 annual average concentrations were 12-14 μg m-3 higher in Modena than in Castelló, and were close to or exceeded the European limit. Air quality in Modena was mainly influenced by road traffic and, in a lower degree, the metalmechanical industry, as evidenced by the high concentrations of Mn, Cu, Zn, Sn and Sb registered. The stagnant weather conditions from Modena hindering dispersion of pollutants also contributed to the relatively high pollution levels. In Castelló, the influence of the ceramic industry is evidenced by the high concentrations of Ti, Se, Tl and Pb, whereas this influence is not seen in Modena. The difference in the impact of the ceramic industry on the air quality in the two areas was attributed to: better abatement systems in the spray-drier facilities in Modena, higher coverage of the areas for storage and handling of dusty raw materials in Modena, presence of two open air quarries in the Castelló region, low degree of abatement systems in the ceramic tile kilns in Castelló, and abundance of ceramic frit, glaze and pigment manufacture in Castelló as opposed to scarce manufacture of these products in Modena. The necessity of additional measures to fulfil the EU air quality requirements in the Modena region is evidenced, despite the high degree of environmental measures implemented in the ceramic industry. The Principal

  17. Acoustic detection of railcar roller bearing defects. Phase I, Laboratory test.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-06-01

    A series of tests were performed at the Bearing Test Facility at the Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI) in Pueblo, Colorado, to gather acoustic and acceleration emissions for a number of roller bearing defect types designated by the rail i...

  18. Acoustic detection of rail car roller bearing defects. Phase III, System evaluation test.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-08-01

    In July 1999, Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI), a subsidiary of the Association of American Railroads (AAR), conducted a system evaluation test as part of the Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) Improved Freight Car Roller Bearing ...

  19. Cost of a roller skating rink to the local accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Nayeem, N; Shires, S E; Porter, J E

    1990-01-01

    A 14 month retrospective study was undertaken to determine the cost implications of the opening of a roller skating rink to the local hospital accident and emergency department (A and E). A total of 398 patients attended following injury at the roller skating rink, of whom 384 were included in the study. The estimated cost of their injuries was determined by the hospital accounts department. The average cost per patient attending the A and E department following roller skating injury was about 100 pounds. The total cost to the A and E department of all injuries sustained at the rink over this period was 38,412 pounds. The cost implications of opening a roller skating rink for the A and E department are considerable. If proposals for self-budgeting are applied, A and E departments will have to seek additional funding if such leisure facilities are opened in their vicinity. PMID:2097020

  20. Prevention of Roller Bearing-Initiated Burnoffs in Railroad Freight Car Journals

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this program was to determine the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of constructing three separate devices for the prevention of catastrophic roller bearing-initiated, railroad journal failure. 1. Construction of a low cos...

  1. Bilateral vertebral artery dissection possibly precipitated in delayed fashion as a result of roller coaster rides.

    PubMed

    Schneck, Michael; Simionescu, Monica; Bijari, Armita

    2008-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of persistent vertigo after multiple roller coaster rides, followed by neck pain for 1 month and then 2 weeks of blurred vision related to diplopia. She was ultimately found to have bilateral cervical vertebral artery dissection. The images are described and the literature is reviewed regarding late diagnosis of vertebral dissection and prior cases of roller coaster-associated dissection.

  2. Continuous overturn control of compactors/rollers by rollover protective structures

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Melvin L.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to report on the effectiveness of Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS) in preventing continuous overturns of compactors/rollers. This study is a case-based analysis of government investigation reports of injury-related overturns of compactors/rollers. The overturns were predominately on construction sites including road and embankment construction in the USA. Other sites included driveway and roadway maintenance or repair and transporting of compactors/rollers either by driving or when loading on or unloading from trailers. The principle intervention observed in controlling a continuous overturn (a roll beyond 90° relative to the impact surface) was the presence of a ROPS on a compactor/roller that serves as an anti-roll bar. The main outcome measures are cases of compactor/roller overturns that are restricted to a 90° roll or are continuous (exceed a 90° roll.) All cases of an overturn in which a ROPS was present resulted in no continuous overturn, and the cases involved with no ROPS averaged an overturn of 301°, showing a propensity for a continuous overturn. This case-based analysis identified a ROPS on compactors/rollers as an effective control for reducing the risk of an overturn to 90° relative to the impact plane. PMID:21765649

  3. Improving feeding powder distribution to the compaction zone in the roller compaction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingzhe; Omar, Chalak; Schmidt, Alexander; Litster, James D; Salman, Agba D

    2018-07-01

    In the roller compaction process, powder flow properties have a significant influence on the uniformity of the ribbon properties. The objective of this work was to improve the powder flow in the feeding zone by developing novel feeding guiders which are located in the feeding zone close to the rollers in the roller compactor (side sealing system). Three novel feeding guiders were designed by 3D printing and used in the roller compactor, aiming to control the amount of powder passing across the roller width. The new feeding guiders were used to guide more powder to the sides between the rollers and less powder to the centre comparing to the original feeding elements. Temperature profile and porosity across the ribbon width indicated the uniformity of the ribbon properties. Using the novel feeding guiders resulted in producing ribbons with uniform temperature profile and porosity distribution across the ribbon width. The design of the feeding guiders contributed to improving the tensile strength of the ribbons produced from the compaction stage as well as reducing the fines produced from the crushing stage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Anthropometric and somatotype characteristics of world class male roller skaters by discipline.

    PubMed

    Vila, H; Abraldes, J A; Rodríguez, N; Ferragut, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to describe the anthropometric profile and somatotype of the elite male roller skaters; and: 2) to assess if there are any differences in these items by roller skating discipline (figures, freestyle, pair and dance). Eighty-eight male skater participants in the 51st Figure Roller Skating World Championship were selected for the study. The International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) protocol was used to determine the anthropometric profile of the figure skaters. Additionally, Body Mass Index (BMI), sum of four and six skinfolds and somatotype were also analysed. No significant differences were found for the sum of four and six skinfolds among disciplines. Significant differences were found for flexed arm (P≤0.05), forearm (P≤0.05) and wrist girths (P≤0.001) between artistic roller figure and pair skaters. Significant differences were found in waist girth (P≤0.05), flexed arm, forearm and wrist girths (P≤0.001) between artistic roller freestyle and pairs skaters. No differences were found in lower limbs girths among disciplines. Significant differences were found in humerus (P<0.05) and bistyloid (P<0.05) breadth among disciplines. The general somatotype is endo-mesomorphic for roller freestyle and figure skaters. In pair skaters the somatotype is ecto-mesomorphic, and for dance skaters it is balanced mesomorphic.

  5. Ceramics breakthrough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Joon Hyung

    2018-03-01

    Protonic ceramic fuel cells (PCFCs) are a potential alternative to solid oxide fuel cells at temperatures below 600 °C, but they suffer from low power output and poor chemical stability. Now, PCFCs with a power density of over 500 mW per cm2 at 500 °C and long-term stability are demonstrated using optimized perovskite-based electrolyte and electrodes.

  6. The construction and use of a small-scale dehumidification kiln

    Treesearch

    Neal. Bennett

    2012-01-01

    Kiln-drying small volumes of lumber (less than 1,000 board feet) is an available service many portable sawmill owners would like to have. Unfortunately, in most areas, no one offers this capability, but the ability to provide it could open new market opportunities.

  7. The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Huansheng; Zheng, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070–c. 1600 BC), the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subsequent kiln sites in the vicinity. Using principal components analysis on the major chemical compositions, we reveal the relationships between impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain samples from the six kiln sites. The sherds from different sites have distinctive chemical profiles. The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally. We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze. It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula. PMID:26535583

  8. The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Huansheng; Zheng, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070-c. 1600 BC), the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subsequent kiln sites in the vicinity. Using principal components analysis on the major chemical compositions, we reveal the relationships between impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain samples from the six kiln sites. The sherds from different sites have distinctive chemical profiles. The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally. We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze. It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula.

  9. Perspectives and limits for cement kilns as a destination for RDF.

    PubMed

    Genon, G; Brizio, E

    2008-11-01

    RDF, the high calorific value fraction of MSW obtained by conventional separation systems, can be employed in technological plants (mainly cement kilns) in order to obtain a useful energy recovery. It is interesting and important to evaluate this possibility within the general framework of waste-to-energy solutions. The solution must be assessed on the basis of different aspects, namely: technological features and clinker characteristics; local atmospheric pollution; the effects of RDF used in cement kilns on the generation of greenhouse gases; the economics of conventional solid fuels substitution and planning perspectives, from the point of view of the destination of RDF and optimal cement kiln policy. The different experiences of this issue throughout Europe are reviewed, and some applications within Italy are also been considered. The main findings of the study are that the use of RDF in cement kilns instead of coal or coke offers environmental benefits in terms of greenhouse gases, while the formation of conventional gaseous pollutants is not a critical aspect. Indeed, the generation of nitrogen oxides can probably be lower because of lower flame temperatures or lower air excess. The presence of chlorinated micro-pollutants is not influenced by the presence of RDF in fuel, whereas depending on the quality of the RDF, some problems could arise compared to the substituted fuel as far as heavy metals are concerned, chiefly the more volatile ones.

  10. The Correlation Between Green Density and the Occurrence of Honeycomb in Kiln-Dried

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Harris; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    Fresh-cut, 5/4 red oak (Quercus sp.) boards were weighed, measured to determine volume and then kiln-dried to determine if the initial green density (green weight/green volume) was correlated to the occurrence of honeycomb. A positive relationship was found between the occurrence of honeycomb during drying and the initial green density. These results...

  11. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cement kilns co-processing solid waste.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rong; Zhan, Jiayu; Liu, Guorui; Zhao, Yuyang; Zheng, Minghui; Yang, Lili; Wang, Mei

    2017-05-01

    Co-incineration of sewage sludge in cement kilns can be used for its disposal. In the present study, samples were collected from three cement production runs where sewage sludge and other wastes (e.g. municipal solid waste, waste acid and wet sewage sludge) were co-processed. The samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The dioxin-like (dl)-PCB concentrations in the stack gases from run 1, 2, and 3 were 344.6, 548.7, and 104.3 pg m -3 , respectively. The toxic equivalency (TEQs) values for runs 1, 2, and 3 were 5.6, 8.9, and 0.7 pg TEQ Nm -3 , respectively. Calculation of net emissions for the three runs indicated that the co-incineration of other waste in addition to sewage sludge in cement kilns would not increase emission of the dl-PCBs. PCB concentrations in samples from the suspension boiler and humidifier tower, kiln-end bag filter, and cyclone preheater were much higher than those in samples from the kiln head area, indicating that these stages will be important for controlling PCB formation. Chlorinated biphenyl (CB)-77, CB-105 and CB-118 were the major dl-PCB congeners, CB-52, CB-101 were the major indicator PCB congeners, and tetra-CB to hexa-CB were the major homologues for the total input or output materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Seasoning and surfacing degrade in kiln-drying ponderosa pine in eastern Washington.

    Treesearch

    A.C. Knauss; E.H. Clarke

    1961-01-01

    This report presents results of a study to determine the degrade (loss in volume and value) of ponderosa pine lumber when cut, kiln-dried, and surfaced in accordance with commercial practice. The study measured (1) loss in volume due to culling and trimming surfaced dry lumber because of sawing, seasoning, and surfacing defects; (2) reduction in grade due to seasoning...

  13. Seasoning and surfacing degrade in kiln-drying western hemlock in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    A.C. Knauss; E.H. Clarke

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine the degrade (loss in volume and value) of western hemlock lumber cut, kiln-dried, and surfaced in accordance with commercial practice in western Oregon. The study measured (1) loss in volume due to culling and trimming surfaced dry lumber because of sawing, seasoning, and surfacing defects; (2) reduction in grade...

  14. Palaeointensity determination on an early medieval kiln from Switzerland and the effect of cooling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donadini, F.; Kovacheva, M.; Kostadinova, M.; Hedley, I. G.; Pesonen, L. J.

    The archaeomagnetic intensity reference curve for Western Europe lacks data during the period from 600 to 1000 AD. Baked clay from the walls of a pottery kiln at Reinach (Switzerland), archaeologically dated to the beginning of the 9th century AD, and having a 14C date of 1250 ± 50 BP, was investigated in order to refine the ancient geomagnetic field intensity during this period. A previous study to test the suitability of the material has shown that the magnetic properties of the baked clay from this Reinach kiln are appropriate for an archaeomagnetic study, and furthermore an archaeomagnetic directional date agrees well with the 14C date. A series of palaeointensity measurements was carried out in Sofia (Bulgaria). Here we present the results obtained from the same material, as performed in Helsinki (Finland) using different techniques. The comparison of the results shows significant differences between the two datasets. Based on the literature data, the discrepancy can be explained in terms of the different cooling rates of the samples used during the experiments in the two laboratories. Nevertheless, the results show that the geomagnetic field intensity had a high mean value of 86.85 ± 1.49 μT when the kiln was last used. This observation is consistent with recent studies from France covering the period during which the Reinach kiln functioned.

  15. Characteristics of dioxin emissions from a Waelz plant with acid and basic kiln mode.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pao Chen; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chen, Mei Lien; Chang, Moo Been

    2012-01-30

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in the flue gas of a Waelz plant operated in acid and basic modes, respectively. To abate (PCDD/F) and other pollutants, the plant operates with a post-treatment of flue gases by activated carbon injection and subsequent filtration. Relatively high PCDD/F discharge by fly ashes is found with acid kiln mode of the Waelz process. Therefore, basic kiln mode of the Waelz process is investigated and compared in this plant. With the adsorbent injection rate of 7 kg/h (95 mg/Nm(3)), the PCDD/F concentration in stack gas was measured as 0.123 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) in the basic operating mode. The added Ca(OH)(2) reacted with metal catalysts and HCl((g)) in the flue gas and thus effectively suppressed the formation of PCDD/Fs. PCDD/F concentrations in fly ashes sampled from the dust settling chamber, cyclone, primary filter and secondary filter in basic kiln mode were significantly lower than that in acid kiln mode. Total PCDD/F emission on the basis of treating one kg of electric arc furnace dust in the basic operation mode was 269 ng I-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated which was significantly lower than that in acid mode (640 ng I-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The numerical modelling and process simulation for the fault diagnosis of rotary kiln incinerator.

    PubMed

    Roh, S D; Kim, S W; Cho, W S

    2001-10-01

    The numerical modelling and process simulation for the fault diagnosis of rotary kiln incinerator were accomplished. In the numerical modelling, two models applied to the modelling within the kiln are the combustion chamber model including the mass and energy balance equations for two combustion chambers and 3D thermal model. The combustion chamber model predicts temperature within the kiln, flue gas composition, flux and heat of combustion. Using the combustion chamber model and 3D thermal model, the production-rules for the process simulation can be obtained through interrelation analysis between control and operation variables. The process simulation of the kiln is operated with the production-rules for automatic operation. The process simulation aims to provide fundamental solutions to the problems in incineration process by introducing an online expert control system to provide an integrity in process control and management. Knowledge-based expert control systems use symbolic logic and heuristic rules to find solutions for various types of problems. It was implemented to be a hybrid intelligent expert control system by mutually connecting with the process control systems which has the capability of process diagnosis, analysis and control.

  17. Seasoning degrade in kiln drying ponderosa pine in south central Oregon.

    Treesearch

    A.C. Knauss

    1957-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine the loss in volume and value of lumber when kiln drying and surfacing the production from ponderosa pine logs. The study measured (1) the reduction in volume due to trimming and culling dry lumber after surfacing, (2) the reduction in grade due to seasoning defects, (3) the reduction in grade due to failure of...

  18. Steaming of Red Oak Prior to Kiln-Drying: Effects on Moisture Movement

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Harris; James G. Schroeder; Stan C. Addis

    1989-01-01

    Red oak boards were steamed prior to kiln-drying to determine the effect of steaming on initial moisture content (MC), moisture distribution, and drying rate. Four hours of steaming in a saturated steam atmosphere caused a drop of approximately 10 percent in initial MC, a reduced moisture gradient through the thickness of the boards, and an increase in drying rate...

  19. Perspectives and limits for cement kilns as a destination for RDF

    SciTech Connect

    Genon, G.; Brizio, E.

    2008-11-15

    RDF, the high calorific value fraction of MSW obtained by conventional separation systems, can be employed in technological plants (mainly cement kilns) in order to obtain a useful energy recovery. It is interesting and important to evaluate this possibility within the general framework of waste-to-energy solutions. The solution must be assessed on the basis of different aspects, namely: technological features and clinker characteristics; local atmospheric pollution; the effects of RDF used in cement kilns on the generation of greenhouse gases; the economics of conventional solid fuels substitution and planning perspectives, from the point of view of the destination of RDFmore » and optimal cement kiln policy. The different experiences of this issue throughout Europe are reviewed, and some applications within Italy are also been considered. The main findings of the study are that the use of RDF in cement kilns instead of coal or coke offers environmental benefits in terms of greenhouse gases, while the formation of conventional gaseous pollutants is not a critical aspect. Indeed, the generation of nitrogen oxides can probably be lower because of lower flame temperatures or lower air excess. The presence of chlorinated micro-pollutants is not influenced by the presence of RDF in fuel, whereas depending on the quality of the RDF, some problems could arise compared to the substituted fuel as far as heavy metals are concerned, chiefly the more volatile ones.« less

  20. Pulmonary dysfunctions, oxidative stress and DNA damage in brick kiln workers.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, R; Khaliq, F; Subramaneyaan, M; Ahmed, R S

    2012-11-01

    Brick kilns in the suburban areas in developing countries pose a big threat to the environment and hence the health of their workers and people residing around them. The present study was planned to assess the lung functions, oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage in brick kiln workers. A total of 31 male subjects working in brick kiln, and 32 age, sex and socioeconomic status matched controls were included in the study. The lung volumes, capacities and flow rates, namely, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV(1)/FVC, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity (IC), maximal expiratory flow when 50% of FVC is remaining to be expired, maximum voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow rate and vital capacity were significantly decreased in the brick kiln workers. Increased oxidative stress as evidenced by increased malonedialdehyde levels and reduced glutathione content, glutathione S-transferase activity and ferric reducing ability of plasma were observed in the study group when compared with controls. Our results indicate a significant correlation between oxidative stress parameters and pulmonary dysfunction, which may be due to silica-induced oxidative stress and resulting lung damage.

  1. Effect of kilning on the antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of pale malts.

    PubMed

    Woffenden, Helen M; Ames, Jennifer M; Chandra, Sachin; Anese, Monica; Nicoli, M Cristina

    2002-08-14

    Pale malts were prepared using standard and rapid kilning regimes that differed in the temperature and moisture profiles in the kiln. Samples were taken over the last 9 h of kilning, that is, at 18, 20, 22, 25, and 27 h. Antioxidant activity, assessed by redox potential, scavenging of the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS*+), and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), increased at moisture levels below 6.7% for both regimes. The 27 h malt exposed to the rapid regime (moisture content of 4.8%) had a higher activity than the 27 h standard regime sample (moisture content of 4.8%). None of the malts scavenged oxygen. Pro-oxidant activity profiles were different for the malts obtained using each regime and, at 27 h, the rapid procedure gave malt with higher activity. Levels of (+)-catechin and ferulic acid (the most abundant phenolic compounds identified) generally increased as the moisture content of malt fell below 6.7%. Differences in antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of the 27 h malts are partly attributed to the Maillard reaction, as evidenced by lower L* and higher b* values and higher levels of Maillard-derived flavor compounds, in the sample obtained by the rapid procedure. Levels of lipid-derived flavor compounds were significantly higher after 27 h of kilning using the rapid procedure.

  2. Design of Refractory Linings for Balanced Energy Efficiency, Uptime, and Capacity in Lime Kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Gorog, John Peter; Hemrick, James Gordon; Walker, Harold

    2014-01-01

    The rotary kilns used by the pulp and paper industry to regenerate lime in the Kraft process are very energy intensive. Throughout the 90 s, in response to increasing fuel prices, the industry used back up insulation in conjunction with the high alumina brick used to line the burning zones of their kilns. While this improved energy efficiency, the practice of installing insulating brick behind the working lining increased the inner wall temperatures. In the worst case, due to the increased temperatures, rapid brick failures occurred causing unscheduled outages and expensive repairs. Despite these issues, for the most part, themore » industry continued to use insulating refractory linings in that the energy savings were large enough to offset any increase in the cost of maintaining the refractory lining. Due to the dramatic decline in the price of natural gas in some areas combined with mounting pressures to increasing production of existing assets, over the last decade, many mills are focusing more on increasing the uptime of their kilns as opposed to energy savings. To this end, a growing number of mills are using basic (magnesia based) brick instead of high alumina brick to line the burning zone of the kiln since the lime mud does not react with these bricks at the operating temperatures of the burning zone of the kiln. In the extreme case, a few mills have chosen to install basic brick in the front end of the kiln running a length equivalent to 10 diameters. While the use of basic brick can increase the uptime of the kiln and reduce the cost to maintain the refractory lining, it does dramatically increase the heat losses resulting from the increased operating temperatures of the shell. Also, over long periods of time operating at these high temperatures, damage can occur in the shell. There are tradeoffs between energy efficiency, capacity and uptime. When fuel prices are very high, it makes sense to insulate the lining. When fuel prices are lower, trading

  3. Evaluation of PCDD/Fs emissions during ceramic production: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mang; Luo, Yi-Jing; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Xiao, Meng; Zhang, Min

    2012-08-30

    Because of the ubiquity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in kaolinitic clays, the ceramic industry is considered to be a potential source of PCDD/Fs. However, studies on the emission of PCDD/Fs from ceramic production are still very scarce. In this study, PCDD/Fs emissions during ceramic production were investigated in an electric laboratory batch kiln. The results showed that the PCDD/Fs were completely removed from the ceramic pieces after 30 min of firing at the peak temperature of 1200°C. Nevertheless, on the mass and international toxic equivalent basis, 27.5% and 46.2% of the total PCDD/Fs amount in the raw clay were released into the atmosphere during firing, respectively. These PCDD/Fs were emitted into the air before the temperature was elevated to a level high enough for their destruction. Dechlorination reactions generated a broad distribution within the PCDD/Fs congeners including a variety of non-2,3,7,8-substituted ones. The emission of PCDD/Fs was decreased to 16.3 wt.% of the total PCDD/Fs amount in the raw clay, when the initial kiln temperature was enhanced to 600°C. The emission of PCDD/Fs could be reduced significantly in the presence of a glaze coating on the ceramic test piece. These results indicated that ceramic production is an un-neglectable source of PCDD/Fs in the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of laboratory compaction methods of roller compacted concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trtík, Tomáš; Chylík, Roman; Bílý, Petr; Fládr, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) is an ordinary concrete poured and compacted with machines typically used for laying of asphalt road layers. One of the problems connected with this technology is preparation of representative samples in the laboratory. The aim of this work was to analyse two methods of preparation of RCC laboratory samples with bulk density as the comparative parameter. The first method used dynamic compaction by pneumatic hammer. The second method of compaction had a static character. The specimens were loaded by precisely defined force in laboratory loading machine to create the same conditions as during static rolling (in the Czech Republic, only static rolling is commonly used). Bulk densities obtained by the two compaction methods were compared with core drills extracted from real RCC structure. The results have shown that the samples produced by pneumatic hammer tend to overestimate the bulk density of the material. For both compaction methods, immediate bearing index test was performed to verify the quality of compaction. A fundamental difference between static and dynamic compaction was identified. In static compaction, initial resistance to penetration of the mandrel was higher, after exceeding certain limit the resistance was constant. This means that the samples were well compacted just on the surface. Specimens made by pneumatic hammer actively resisted throughout the test, the whole volume was uniformly compacted.

  5. Documentation of roller-bearing effect on butterfly inspired grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Sashank; Lang, Amy

    2017-11-01

    Butterfly wings are covered with scales in a roof shingle pattern which align together to form grooves. The increase or decrease of laminar friction drag depends on the flow orientation to the scales. Flow in the longitudinal direction to the grooves encounters increased surface area which increases the friction drag. However, in the transverse direction, for low Re laminar flow, a single vortex is formed inside each groove and is predicted to remain stable due to the very low Re of the flow in each cavity. These embedded vortices act as roller bearings to the flow above, such that the fluid from the outer boundary layer does not mix with fluid inside the cavities. This leads to a reduction of skin friction drag when compared to a smooth surface. When the cavity flow Re is increased beyond a critical point, the vortex becomes unstable and the low-momentum fluid in the grooves mixes with the outer boundary layer flow, increasing the drag. The objective of this experiment is to determine the critical Re where the embedded vortex transitions from a stable to an unstable state using DPIV. Subsequently, for steady vortex conditions, a comparison of skin friction drag between the grooved and flat plate can show that the butterfly scaled surface can result in sub-laminar friction drag. The National Science Foundation (Grant No. 1335848).

  6. Sculpting Ceramic Heads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1983-01-01

    Clay sculpture is difficult to produce because of the requirements of kiln firing. The problems can be overcome by modeling the original manikin head and making a plaster mold, pressing molding slabs of clay into the plaster mold to form the hollow clay armature, and sculpting on the armature. (IS)

  7. Joining engineering ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehman, Ronald E.

    Methods for joining ceramics are outlined with attention given to their fundamental properties, and some examples of ceramic bonding in engineering ceramic systems are presented. Ceramic-ceramic bonds using no filler material include diffusion and electric-field bonding and ceramic welding, and bonds with filler materials can be provided by Mo-Mn brazing, microwave joining, and reactive nonmetallic liquid bonding. Ceramic-metal joints can be effected with filler material by means of the same ceramic-ceramic processes and without filler material by means of use of molten glass or diffusion bonding. Key properties of the bonding processes include: bonds with discontinuous material properties, energies that are positive relative to the bulk material, and unique chemical and mechanical properties. The processes and properties are outlined for ceramic-metal joints and for joining silicon nitride, and the factors that control wetting, adhesion, and reaction on the atomic scale are critical for establishing successful joints.

  8. Environmental durability of ceramics and ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Dennis S.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of the current understanding of the environmental durability of both monolithic ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites, with a view to the prospective development of methods for the characterization, prediction, and improvement of ceramics' environmental durability. Attention is given to the environmental degradation behaviors of SiC, Si3N4, Al2O3, and glass-ceramic matrix compositions. The focus of corrosion prevention in Si-based ceramics such as SiC and Si3N4 is on the high and low sulfur fuel combustion-product effects encountered in heat engine applications of these ceramics; sintering additives and raw material impurities are noted to play a decisive role in ceramics' high temperature environmental response.

  9. A practical approach for the scale-up of roller compaction process.

    PubMed

    Shi, Weixian; Sprockel, Omar L

    2016-09-01

    An alternative approach for the scale-up of ribbon formation during roller compaction was investigated, which required only one batch at the commercial scale to set the operational conditions. The scale-up of ribbon formation was based on a probability method. It was sufficient in describing the mechanism of ribbon formation at both scales. In this method, a statistical relationship between roller compaction parameters and ribbon attributes (thickness and density) was first defined with DoE using a pilot Alexanderwerk WP120 roller compactor. While the milling speed was included in the design, it has no practical effect on granule properties within the study range despite its statistical significance. The statistical relationship was then adapted to a commercial Alexanderwerk WP200 roller compactor with one experimental run. The experimental run served as a calibration of the statistical model parameters. The proposed transfer method was then confirmed by conducting a mapping study on the Alexanderwerk WP200 using a factorial DoE, which showed a match between the predictions and the verification experiments. The study demonstrates the applicability of the roller compaction transfer method using the statistical model from the development scale calibrated with one experiment point at the commercial scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Roller compaction of different pseudopolymorphic forms of theophylline: Effect on compressibility and tablet properties.

    PubMed

    Hadzović, Ervina; Betz, Gabriele; Hadzidedić, Seherzada; El-Arini, Silvia Kocova; Leuenberger, Hans

    2010-08-30

    The effect of roller compaction on disintegration time, dissolution rate and compressibility of tablets prepared from theophylline anhydrate powder, theophylline anhydrate fine powder and theophylline monohydrate was studied. In addition, the influence of adding microcrystalline cellulose, a commonly used excipient, in mixtures with these materials was investigated. Theophylline anhydrate powder was used as a model drug to investigate the influence of different compaction pressures on the tablet properties. Tablets with same porosity were prepared by direct compaction and by roller compaction/re-compaction. Compressibility was characterized by Heckel and modified Heckel equations. Due to the property of polymorphic materials to change their form during milling and compression, X-ray diffraction analysis of theophylline anhydrate powder, theophylline anhydrate fine powder and theophylline monohydrate powders and granules was carried out. After roller compaction the disintegration time and the dissolution rate of the tablets were significantly improved. Compressibility of theophylline anhydrate powder and theophylline anhydrate fine powder was decreased, while theophylline monohydrate showed higher compressibility after roller compaction. Microcrystalline cellulose affected compressibility of theophylline anhydrate powder, theophylline anhydrate fine powder and theophylline monohydrate whereby the binary mixtures showed higher compressibility than the individual materials. X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed that there were no polymorphic/pseudopolymorphic changes after roller compaction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of solid microneedle rollers to enhance transmembrane delivery of doxycycline and inhibition of MMP activity.

    PubMed

    Omolu, Abbie; Bailly, Maryse; Day, Richard M

    2017-11-01

    Many chronic wounds exhibit high matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity that impedes the normal wound healing process. Intradermal delivery (IDD) of sub-antimicrobial concentrations of doxycycline, as an MMP inhibitor, could target early stages of chronic wound development and inhibit further wound progression. To deliver doxycycline intradermally, the skin barrier must be disrupted. Microneedle rollers offer a minimally invasive technique to penetrate the skin by creating multiple microchannels that act as temporary conduits for drugs to diffuse through. In this study, an innovative and facile approach for delivery of doxycycline across Strat-M TM membrane was investigated using microneedle rollers. The quantity and rate of doxycycline diffusing through the micropores directly correlated with increasing microneedle lengths (250, 500 and 750 μm). Treatment of Strat-M TM with microneedle rollers resulted in a reduction in fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction and MMP activity compared with untreated Strat-M TM . Our results show that treatment of an epidermal mimetic with microneedle rollers provides sufficient permeabilization for doxycycline diffusion and inhibition of MMP activity. We conclude that microneedle rollers are a promising, clinically ready tool suitable for delivery of doxycycline intradermally to treat chronic wounds.

  12. A method of increasing the depth of the plastically deformed layer in the roller burnishing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalik, Marek; Trzepiecinski, Tomasz

    2018-05-01

    The subject of this paper is an analysis of the determination of the depth of the plastically deformed layer in the process of roller burnishing a shaft using a newly developed method in which a braking moment is applied to the roller. It is possible to increase the depth of the plastically deformed layer by applying the braking moment to the roller during the burnishing process. The theoretical considerations presented are based on the Hertz-Bielayev and Huber-Mises theories and permit the calculation of the depth of plastic deformation of the top layer of the burnished shaft. The theoretical analysis has been verified experimentally and using numerical calculations based on the finite element method using the Msc.MARC program. Experimental tests were carried out on ring-shaped samples made of C45 carbon steel. The samples were burnished at different values of roller force and different values of braking moment. A significant increase was found in the depth of the plastically deformed surface layer of roller burnished shafts. Usage of the phenomenon of strain hardening of steel allows the technology presented here to increase the fatigue life of the shafts.

  13. An improved segmentation method for defects inspection on steel roller surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jirui; Li, Xuekun; Cao, Yuzhong; Shi, Depeng; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Sheng; Rong, Yiming

    2018-05-01

    In the field of metal rolling, the quality of the steel roller's surface is significant for the final rolling products, e.g. metal sheets or foils. Besides the dimensional accuracy and surface roughness, the optical uniformity of the roller surface is also required for high quality rolling application. The typical optical defects of rollers after finish grinding include speckles, chatter marks, feed traces, and combination of all above. Unlike surface roughness, the optical defects can hardly be characterized by the topography or scanning electrical microscope measurement. Only the inspection by bared eyes of experienced engineers appears to be the effective manner for surface optical defects examination for large steel rollers. In this paper, an on-site machine vision system is designed to add on to the roller grinding machine to capture the surface image, and then an improved optical defects segmentation algorithm is developed based on the active contour model. Finally, experiments are carried out to verify the efficacy of the improved model.

  14. Impact of ancient charcoal kilns on chemical properties of several forest soils after 2 centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufey, Joseph; Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon plays a major role in soil biogeochemical processes and carbon budgets. Until the early 19th century, charcoal was the unique combustible used for iron metallurgy in Wallonia (Belgium). Traditional charcoal kilns were built directly in the forest: wood logs were piled into a mound and isolated from air oxygen with a covering of vegetation residues and soil before setting fire, inducing wood pyrolysis. Nowadays, ancient wood-charring platforms are still easy to identify on the forest floor as heightened domes of 10 meters in diameter characterized by a very dark topsoil horizon containing charcoal dust and fragments. Our goal is to assess the effects of wood charring at mound kiln sites on the properties of various forest soil types in Wallonia (Belgium), after two centuries. We sampled soil by horizon in 18 ancient kiln sites to 1.20 meter depth. The adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils were sampled the same way. We also collected recent charcoal fragments and topsoil samples from a still active charcoal kiln located close to Dole (France) to apprehend the evolution of soil properties over time. The pH, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, available phosphorus (Pav), cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+) and loss on ignition at 550°C (LI550) were measured on each soil sample. We separated the soil profiles in 5 groups based on the nature of soil substrate and pedogenesis for interpretation of the results. We show that the total carbon stock is significantly increased at kiln sites due to higher C concentrations and greater depth of the organo-mineral horizon. The C/N ratio in charcoal-enriched soil horizons is significantly higher than in the neighboring reference soils but clearly attenuated compared to pure wood-charcoal fragments. The CEC is higher in the charcoal-enriched soil horizons, not only due to higher C concentrations but also to increased CEC by carbon unit at kiln sites. The high

  15. Lime kiln dust as a potential raw material in portland cement manufacturing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M. Michael; Callaghan, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, the manufacture of portland cement involves burning in a rotary kiln a finely ground proportional mix of raw materials. The raw material mix provides the required chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron, and small amounts of other ingredients. The majority of calcium is supplied in the form of calcium carbonate usually from limestone. Other sources including waste materials or byproducts from other industries can be used to supply calcium (or lime, CaO), provided they have sufficiently high CaO content, have low magnesia content (less than 5 percent), and are competitive with limestone in terms of cost and adequacy of supply. In the United States, the lime industry produces large amounts of lime kiln dust (LKD), which is collected by dust control systems. This LKD may be a supplemental source of calcium for cement plants, if the lime and cement plants are located near enough to each other to make the arrangement economical.

  16. Selenium recovery from kiln powder of cement manufacturing by chemical leaching and bioreduction.

    PubMed

    Soda, S; Hasegawa, A; Kuroda, M; Hanada, A; Yamashita, M; Ike, M

    2015-01-01

    A novel process by using chemical leaching followed by bacterial reductive precipitation was proposed for selenium recovery from kiln powder as a byproduct of cement manufacturing. The kiln powder at a slurry concentration of 10 w/v% with 0.25 M Na2CO3 at 28°C produced wastewater containing about 30 mg-Se/L selenium. The wastewater was diluted four-fold and adjusted to pH 8.0 as preconditioning for bioreduction. A bacterial strain Pseudomonas stutzeri NT-I, capable of reducing selenate and selenite into insoluble elemental selenium, could recover about 90% selenium from the preconditioned wastewater containing selenium of 5 mg-Se/L when supplemented with lactate or glycerol. The selenium concentrations in the treated wastewater were low around the regulated effluent concentration of 0.1 mg-Se/L in Japan.

  17. Evaluation of a high-torque backlash-free roller actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a test program that evaluated the stiffness, accuracy, torque ripple, frictional losses, and torque holding capability of a 16:1 ratio, 430 N-m (320 ft-lb) planetary roller drive for a potential space vehicle actuator application. The drive's planet roller supporting structure and bearings were found to be the largest contributors to overall drive compliance, accounting for more than half the total. In comparison, the traction roller contacts themselves contributed only 9 percent of the drive's compliance based on an experimentally verified stiffnesss model. Torque ripple tests showed the drive to be extremely smooth, actually providing some damping of input torsional oscillations. The drive also demonstrated the ability to hold static torque with drifts of 7 arc sec or less over a 24-hour period at 35 percent of full load.

  18. 76 FR 72213 - Tapered Roller Bearings From China; Notice of Commission determination To Conduct a Full Five...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-344 (Third Review)] Tapered Roller Bearings From China; Notice of Commission determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review AGENCY: United...(c)(5)) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on tapered roller bearings from...

  19. 77 FR 45587 - Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished, from the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-601] Tapered Roller Bearings and... new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order on tapered roller bearings (``TRBs'') from... from Zhejiang Zhengda Bearing Co., Ltd. (``Zhejiang Zhengda''). Zhejiang Zhengda's request was made in...

  20. 78 FR 45912 - Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished, From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-601] Tapered Roller Bearings and... Bearing Co., Ltd.'s (Tainai's) request for a new shipper review (NSR) of the antidumping duty order on tapered roller bearings and parts thereof, finished and unfinished (TRBs), from the People's Republic of...

  1. Interrelations of green oak leaf roller population and common oak: results of 30-year monitoring and mathematical modeling

    Treesearch

    V. V. Rubtsov; I. A. Utkina

    2003-01-01

    Long-term monitoring followed by mathematical modeling was used to describe the population dynamics of the green oak leaf roller Tortrix viridana L. over a period of 30 years and to study reactions of oak stands to different levels of defoliation. The mathematical model allows us to forecast the population dynamics of the green oak leaf roller and...

  2. 78 FR 3396 - Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished, From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... pillow blocks) incorporating tapered rollers, with or without spindles, whether or not for automotive use... JTEKT (Thailand) Co., Ltd. We valued CPZ/SKF's roller steel using Harmonized Tariff Schedule (``HTS... circular cross- section''), rather than HTS category 7227.90 (``Bars and rods of alloy steel (other than...

  3. Seasoning and surfacing degrade in kiln-drying Douglas-fir in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    A.C. Knauss; E.H. Clarke

    1959-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine the degrade—loss in volume and grade—of coast-type Douglas-fir lumber when kiln-dried and surfaced in accordance with commercial practice. The study measured (1) loss in volume due to culling and trimming of dry-surfaced lumber because of seasoning and surfacing defects, (2) reduction in grade...

  4. High-temperature kilning of southern pine poles, timbers, lumber, and thick veneer

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1973-01-01

    At dry-bulb temperatures above the boiling point of water, with large wet-bulb depressions and high air velocities, southern pine prodcuts can be dried quickly. In an impingement-jet kiln at 300o F., veneer 3/8-inch to 5/8-inch thick can be brought to 10 percent moisture content in 40 to 75 minutes. Drying times for lumber arte linearly related...

  5. Video analysis of falls experienced by paediatric iceskaters and roller/inline skaters

    PubMed Central

    Knox, C L; Comstock, R D

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate differences in the way iceskaters and roller/inline skaters fall. Methods Children's falls related to skating were videotaped and categorised based on type of skating activity, child's estimated age, direction of fall, whether the child attempted to break the fall, and whether the head struck the skating surface. Results In total, 216 iceskating and 201 roller/inline skating falls were captured on videotape. In both iceskating and roller/inline skating, the majority of falls were forward in direction. The skaters attempted to break the falls with their arms or hands in over 90% of falls in both iceskating (93.1%) and roller/inline skating (94.5%). A greater proportion of falls in iceskating resulted in the head striking the skating surface (13.0%) than did those in roller/inline skating (3.0%) (odds ratio = 4.8; 95% confidence interval 1.9 to 13.3; p<0.001). Conclusions This study found that paediatric iceskaters and roller/inline skaters fall similarly and that both types of skaters try to break their falls with their arms or hands; however, because iceskating takes place on a low friction surface, attempts to break falls with the arms or hands are often unsuccessful, leading to head and face injuries. The development of a new type of protective gear, a wrist guard with a non‐slip palm, should stop iceskaters from striking the head, protect against upper extremity fractures, and unlike a bulky helmet, should not discourage children from skating. PMID:16505087

  6. Differential compaction behaviour of roller compacted granules of clopidogrel bisulphate polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Khomane, Kailas S; Bansal, Arvind K

    2014-09-10

    In the present work, in-die and out-of-die compaction behaviour of dry-granulated powders of clopidogrel bisulphate (CLP) polymorphs, form I and form II, was investigated using a fully instrumented rotary tablet press. Each polymorph was compacted at three different roller pressures [70.3 (S1), 105.5 (S2) and 140.6 (S3)kgf/cm(2)], and obtained granules were characterized for their physico-mechanical properties. Compaction data were analyzed for out-of-die compressibility, tabletability and compactibility profiles, and in-die Heckel, Kawakita and Walker analysis. The roller compacted granules of both forms showed markedly different tabletting behaviour. Roller pressure exhibited a trend on compaction behaviour of form I granules, whereas, in case of form II, the effect was insignificant. Tabletability of the six granule batches follows the order; I_S1>I_S2>I_S3>II_S1≈II_S2≈II_S3. In case of form I, the reduced tabletability of the granules compacted at higher roller pressure was attributed to the decreased compressibility and plastic deformation. This was confirmed by compressibility plot and various mathematical parameters derived from Heckel (Py), Kawakita (1/b) and Walker (W) equations. The reduced tabletability of form I granules was due to 'granule hardening' during roller compaction. On the other hand, insignificant effect of roller compaction on tabletting behaviour of form II granules was attributed to brittle fragmentation. The extensive fragmentation of granules offered new 'clean' surfaces and higher contact points that negated the effect of granule hardening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An investigation into the impact of magnesium stearate on powder feeding during roller compaction.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Jason; Gamble, John F; Greenwood, Richard; Robbins, Phil; Tobyn, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic evaluation on the effect of magnesium stearate on the transmission of a placebo formulation from the hopper to the rolls during screw fed roller compaction has been carried out. It is demonstrated that, for a system with two 'knurled' rollers, addition of 0.5% w/w magnesium stearate can lead to a significant increase in ribbon mass throughput, with a consequential increase in roll gap, compared to an unlubricated formulation (manufactured at equivalent process conditions). However, this effect is reduced if one of the rollers is smooth. Roller compaction of a lubricated formulation using two smooth rollers was found to be ineffective due to a reduction in friction at the powder/roll interface, i.e. powder was not drawn through the rollers leading to a blockage in the feeding system. An increase in ribbon mass throughput could also be achieved if the equipment surfaces were pre-lubricated. However this increase was found to be temporary suggesting that the residual magnesium stearate layer was removed from the equipment surfaces. Powder sticking to the equipment surfaces, which is common during pharmaceutical manufacturing, was prevented if magnesium stearate was present either in the blend, or at the roll surface. It is further demonstrated that the influence of the hopper stirrer, which is primarily used to prevent bridge formation in the hopper and help draw powder more evenly into the auger chamber, can lead to further mixing of the formulation, and could therefore affect a change in the lubricity of the carefully blended input material.

  8. Skateboarding: more dangerous than roller skating or in-line skating.

    PubMed

    Osberg, J S; Schneps, S E; Di Scala, C; Li, G

    1998-10-01

    To describe the circumstances, severity, and outcomes of skating-related injuries among children admitted to trauma centers. A cross-sectional comparison of roller skaters (n = 154), in-line skaters (n = 190), and skateboarders (n = 254) aged 5 to 19 years who were hospitalized with injuries. Seventy-nine hospitals and pediatric trauma centers participating in the National Pediatric Trauma Registry between October 1988 and April 1997. Three quarters (75.8%) of the study sample were male, nearly half (47.8%) were injured on roads, and more than one third (37.1%) had head injuries. Among skateboarders, 50.8% had head injuries compared with 33.7% of in-line skaters and 18.8% of roller skaters (P<.001). According to the Injury Severity Score, injuries to skateboarders were 8 times more likely to be severe or critical compared with roller skaters' injuries and more than 2 times as likely to be severe or critical compared with in-line skaters' injuries. Mean hospital length of stay was 6.0 days for skateboarders, 3.4 days for in-line skaters, and 2.4 days for roller skaters (P<.001). Skateboarders were more likely to be male and to be injured on roads than were in-line skaters or roller skaters. Skateboarding-related injuries are more severe and have more serious consequences than roller skating or in-line skating injuries. Research is needed to identify ergonomic and behavioral factors responsible for higher head injury risk to skateboarders, and interventions are needed to reduce the risk.

  9. Do Maximal Roller Skiing Speed and Double Poling Performance Predict Youth Cross-Country Skiing Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Stöggl, Roland; Müller, Erich; Stöggl, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to analyze whether specific roller skiing tests and cycle length are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance, and to evaluate sex specific differences by applying non-invasive diagnostics. Forty-nine young XC skiers (33 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 yrs and 16 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 yrs) performed roller skiing tests consisting of both shorter (50 m) and longer durations (575 m). Test results were correlated with on snow XC skiing performance (PXC) based on 3 skating and 3 classical distance competitions (3 to 6 km). The main findings of the current study were: 1) Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys’, but not to girls’ PXC; 2) Significant moderate to acceptable correlations between girls’ and boys’ short duration maximal roller skiing speed (double poling, V2 skating, leg skating) and PXC were found; 3) Boys’ PXC was best predicted by double poling test performance on flat and uphill, while girls’ performance was mainly predicted by uphill double poling test performance; 4) When controlling for maturity offset, boys’ PXC was still highly associated with the roller skiing tests. The use of simple non-invasive roller skiing tests for determination of PXC represents practicable support for ski clubs, schools or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent. Key points Double poling tests on flat and uphill terrain and short duration maximal speed tests were the highest cross-country skiing predicting factors in girls and boys. Only in the boys there was an effect of maturation on the performance outcomes, pointing out that girls seem to be almost fully matured at the age of 13 in contrast to the boys. Roller skiing tests over short distance (50-m) and longer distance 225 m and 350 m are stable and valid measures and suitable for performance prediction in youth cross-country skiers. PMID:28912656

  10. A method for testing railway wheel sets on a full-scale roller rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Binbin; Bruni, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    Full-scale roller rigs for tests on a single axle enable the investigation of several dynamics and durability problems related with the design and operation of the railway rolling stock. In order to exploit the best potential of this test equipment, appropriate test procedures need to be defined, particularly in terms of actuators' references, to make sure that meaningful wheel -rail contact conditions can be reproduced. The aim of this paper is to propose a new methodology to define the forces to be generated by the actuators in the rig in order to best reproduce the behaviour of a wheel set and especially the wheel -rail contact forces in a running condition of interest as obtained either from multi-body system (MBS) simulation or from on-track measurements. The method is supported by the use of a mathematical model of the roller rig and uses an iterative correction scheme, comparing the time histories of the contact force components from the roller rig test as predicted by the mathematical model to a set of target contact force time histories. Two methods are introduced, the first one considering a standard arrangement of the roller rig, the second one assuming that a differential gear is introduced in the rig, allowing different rolling speeds of the two rollers. Results are presented showing that the deviation of the roller rig test results from the considered targets can be kept within low tolerances (1% approximately) as far as the vertical and lateral contact forces on both wheels are concerned. For the longitudinal forces, larger deviations are obtained except in the case where a differential gear is introduced.

  11. Organic and inorganic pollutants from cement kiln stack feeding alternative fuels.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Juan A; Gálvez, Araceli; Mateos, Fernán; Martín-Gullón, Ignacio; Font, Rafael

    2008-10-30

    In this work, an analysis of the emission of different pollutants when replacing partially the fuel type used in a cement kiln is done. The wastes used to feed the kiln were tyres and two types of sewage sludge. The increasing mass flow of sludge is between 700 kg h(-1) and 5,500 kg h(-1)1, for a total production of clinker of 150th(-1), whereas the fed tyres were in the flow range of 500-1,500 kg h(-1). Dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other hydrocarbons, heavy metals, HCl and HF, CO, CO(2), NO(x) and other parameters of the stack were analyzed, according to the standard methods of sampling and determination, through more than 1 year in six series: one blank (no sewage sludge) and five more with increasing amount of sludge and/or tyres. The emission of PAHs and dioxins seems to increase with the amount of tyres fed to the kiln, probably due to the fed point used for this waste.

  12. Improvements in Pyrolysis of Wastes in an Externally Heated Rotary Kiln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Tomoko; Okazaki, Teruyuki; Yamamoto, Kenji; Nakata, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Osamu

    The effects of rotating speed and internal structure on the performance of an externally heated rotary kiln for waste pyrolysis were investigated. A newly developed method was adopted to evaluate the overall heat transfer coefficient km-w from the inner wall to the wastes for this purpose. The experimental results revealed that km-w monotonically increased with the number of lifters and their height. When six lifters 200 mm in height were attached to the inner wall of the kiln, the mean value of km-w increased from 38.6 W/m2K to 45.3 W/m2K at 2.7 rpm. In addition, km-w increased to 50.1 W/m2K when the rotating speed was increased to 4.0 rpm. In the water vaporization phase during the course of the pyrolysis process, the height of the lifters had a significant influence on km-w. However, the number of lifters had a significant impact on km-w in the pyrolysis phase of the plastic-based wastes. According to measurements, a 10 % increase in km-w could be obtained when installing lifters to attain a ratio of lifter height Hl to the thickness of the waste layer Hw larger than 0.45 or when arc length between two lifters Ll to the arc length of the interface between the wastes and the kiln wall Lw was larger than 1.

  13. Air pollution tolerance index of plants around brick kilns in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Achakzai, Khanoranga; Khalid, Sofia; Adrees, Muhammad; Bibi, Aasma; Ali, Shafaqat; Nawaz, Rab; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    In any contaminated environment, the sensitive plant species can serve as bio-indicator of air pollution while tolerant plant species can act as a sink for air pollutants. Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) is an important tool to screen out plants based on their tolerance or sensitivity level to different air pollutants. The present study was aimed to identify the sensitive and tolerant plant species in the vicinity of brick kilns in the Rawalpindi city. To determine the susceptibility level of the selected plant species, four biochemical parameters, ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll content, relative water content and pH of leaf extract, were assessed and APTI was calculated. Plant sampling was carried out with increasing distance of 100, 300 and 500 m around three brick kiln sites and APTI values were calculated by following the standard methods. The results of the study revealed that among nine studied plant species, Calotropis procera (APTI = 20.05) and Althernanthera pungens (APTI = 17.13) were found to be the most tolerant species, whereas Malva neglecta (APTI = 8.83) was found to be the most sensitive species. Inconsistent trend of variations was seen in the APTI values at each site. The present study suggested that the most tolerant species, C. procera and A. pungens, could be grown in the vicinity of such pollution sources as a remedial measure of brick kiln pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Increasing the Energy Efficiency of the Cyclic Action Mechanisms in Rolling for a Roller Bed Used as an Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    andreev, A. N.; Kolesnichenko, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The possibility of increasing the energy efficiency of the production cycle in a roller bed is briefly reviewed and justified. The sequence diagram of operation of the electrical drive in a roller bed is analyzed, and the possible increase in the energy efficiency is calculated. A method for energy saving is described for the application of a frequency-controlled asynchronous electrical drive of drive rollers in a roller bed with an increased capacitor capacity in a dc link. A fine mathematical model is developed to describe the behavior of the electrical drive during the deceleration of a roller bed. An experimental setup is created and computer simulation and physical modeling are performed. The basic information flows of the general hierarchical automatic control system of an enterprise are described and determined with allowance for the proposed method of increasing the energy efficiency.

  15. Improved ceramic slip casting technique. [application to aircraft model fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M. (Inventor); Vasquez, Peter (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A primary concern in modern fluid dynamics research is the experimental verification of computational aerothermodynamic codes. This research requires high precision and detail in the test model employed. Ceramic materials are used for these models because of their low heat conductivity and their survivability at high temperatures. To fabricate such models, slip casting techniques were developed to provide net-form, precision casting capability for high-purity ceramic materials in aqueous solutions. In previous slip casting techniques, block, or flask molds made of plaster-of-paris were used to draw liquid from the slip material. Upon setting, parts were removed from the flask mold and cured in a kiln at high temperatures. Casting detail was usually limited with this technique -- detailed parts were frequently damaged upon separation from the flask mold, as the molded parts are extremely delicate in the uncured state, and the flask mold is inflexible. Ceramic surfaces were also marred by 'parting lines' caused by mold separation. This adversely affected the aerodynamic surface quality of the model as well. (Parting lines are invariably necessary on or near the leading edges of wings, nosetips, and fins for mold separation. These areas are also critical for flow boundary layer control.) Parting agents used in the casting process also affected surface quality. These agents eventually soaked into the mold, the model, or flaked off when releasing the case model. Different materials were tried, such as oils, paraffin, and even an algae. The algae released best, but some of it remained on the model and imparted an uneven texture and discoloration on the model surface when cured. According to the present invention, a wax pattern for a shell mold is provided, and an aqueous mixture of a calcium sulfate-bonded investment material is applied as a coating to the wax pattern. The coated wax pattern is then dried, followed by curing to vaporize the wax pattern and leave a shell

  16. High speed cylindrical roller bearing analysis, SKF computer program CYBEAN. Volume 2: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleckner, R. J.; Pirvics, J.

    1978-01-01

    The CYBEAN (Cylindrical Bearing Analysis) was created to detail radially loaded, aligned and misaligned cylindrical roller bearing performance under a variety of operating conditions. Emphasis was placed on detailing the effects of high speed, preload and system thermal coupling. Roller tilt, skew, radial, circumferential and axial displacement as well as flange contact were considered. Variable housing and flexible out-of-round outer ring geometries, and both steady state and time transient temperature calculations were enabled. The complete range of elastohydrodynamic contact considerations, employing full and partial film conditions were treated in the computation of raceway and flange contacts. Input and output architectures containing guidelines for use and a sample execution are detailed.

  17. Modelling of a mecanum wheel taking into account the geometry of road rollers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hryniewicz, P.; Gwiazda, A.; Banaś, W.; Sękala, A.; Foit, K.

    2017-08-01

    During the process planning in a company one of the basic factors associated with the production costs is the operation time for particular technological jobs. The operation time consists of time units associated with the machining tasks of a workpiece as well as the time associated with loading and unloading and the transport operations of this workpiece between machining stands. Full automation of manufacturing in industry companies tends to a maximal reduction in machine downtimes, thereby the fixed costs simultaneously decreasing. The new construction of wheeled vehicles, using Mecanum wheels, reduces the transport time of materials and workpieces between machining stands. These vehicles have the ability to simultaneously move in two axes and thus more rapid positioning of the vehicle relative to the machining stand. The Mecanum wheel construction implies placing, around the wheel free rollers that are mounted at an angle 450, which allow the movement of the vehicle not only in its axis but also perpendicular thereto. The improper selection of the rollers can cause unwanted vertical movement of the vehicle, which may cause difficulty in positioning of the vehicle in relation to the machining stand and the need for stabilisation. Hence the proper design of the free rollers is essential in designing the whole Mecanum wheel construction. It allows avoiding the disadvantageous and unwanted vertical vibrations of a whole vehicle with these wheels. In the article the process of modelling the free rollers, in order to obtain the desired shape of unchanging, horizontal trajectory of the vehicle is presented. This shape depends on the desired diameter of the whole Mecanum wheel, together with the road rollers, and the width of the drive wheel. Another factor related with the curvature of the trajectory shape is the length of the road roller and its diameter decreases depending on the position with respect to its centre. The additional factor, limiting construction of

  18. Ceramic inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Werve, Michael E [Modesto, CA

    2006-05-16

    A system for inspecting a ceramic component. The ceramic component is positioned on a first rotary table. The first rotary table rotates the ceramic component. Light is directed toward the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component. A detector is located on a second rotary table. The second rotary table is operably connected to the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component. The second rotary table is used to move the detector at an angle to the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component.

  19. Roller-massager application to the quadriceps and knee-joint range of motion and neuromuscular efficiency during a lunge.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Squires, David J; Noftall, Jennifer C; Sullivan, Kathleen M; Behm, David G; Power, Kevin E; Button, Duane C

    2015-02-01

    Roller massagers are used as a recovery and rehabilitative tool to initiate muscle relaxation and improve range of motion (ROM) and muscular performance. However, research demonstrating such effects is lacking. To determine the effects of applying a roller massager for 20 and 60 seconds on knee-joint ROM and dynamic muscular performance. Randomized controlled clinical trial. University laboratory. Ten recreationally active men (age = 26.6 ± 5.2 years, height = 175.3 ± 4.3 cm, mass = 84.4 ± 8.8 kg). Participants performed 3 randomized experimental conditions separated by 24 to 48 hours. In condition 1 (5 repetitions of 20 seconds) and condition 2 (5 repetitions of 60 seconds), they applied a roller massager to the quadriceps muscles. Condition 3 served as a control condition in which participants sat quietly. Visual analog pain scale, electromyography (EMG) of the vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris during roller massage and lunge, and knee-joint ROM. We found no differences in pain between the 20-second and 60-second roller-massager conditions. During 60 seconds of roller massage, pain was 13.5% (5.7 ± 0.70) and 20.6% (6.2 ± 0.70) greater at 40 seconds and 60 seconds, respectively, than at 20 seconds (P < .05). During roller massage, VL and biceps femoris root mean square (RMS) EMG was 8% and 7%, respectively, of RMS EMG recorded during maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Knee-joint ROM was 10% and 16% greater in the 20-second and 60-second roller-massager conditions, respectively, than the control condition (P < .05). Finally, average lunge VL RMS EMG decreased as roller-massage time increased (P < .05). Roller massage was painful and induced muscle activity, but it increased knee-joint ROM and neuromuscular efficiency during a lunge.

  20. Thermal co-treatment of combustible hazardous waste and waste incineration fly ash in a rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Huber, Florian; Blasenbauer, Dominik; Mallow, Ole; Lederer, Jakob; Winter, Franz; Fellner, Johann

    2016-12-01

    As current disposal practices for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash are either associated with significant costs or negative environmental impacts, an alternative treatment was investigated in a field scale experiment. Thereto, two rotary kilns were fed with hazardous waste, and moistened MSWI fly ash (water content of 23%) was added to the fuel of one kiln with a ratio of 169kg/Mg hazardous waste for 54h and 300kg/Mg hazardous waste for 48h while the other kiln was used as a reference. It was shown that the vast majority (>90%) of the inserted MSWI fly ash was transferred to the bottom ash of the rotary kiln. This bottom ash complied with the legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills, thereby demonstrating the potential of the investigated method to transfer hazardous waste (MSWI fly ash) into non-hazardous waste (bottom ash). The results of a simple mixing test (MSWI fly ash and rotary kiln bottom ash have been mixed accordingly without thermal treatment) revealed that the observed transformation of hazardous MSWI fly ash into non-hazardous bottom ash during thermal co-treatment cannot be referred to dilution, as the mixture did not comply with legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills. For the newly generated fly ash of the kiln, an increase in the concentration of Cd, K and Pb by 54%, 57% and 22%, respectively, was observed. In general, the operation of the rotary kiln was not impaired by the MSWI fly ash addition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ceramic Laser Materials

    PubMed Central

    Sanghera, Jasbinder; Kim, Woohong; Villalobos, Guillermo; Shaw, Brandon; Baker, Colin; Frantz, Jesse; Sadowski, Bryan; Aggarwal, Ishwar

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic laser materials have come a long way since the first demonstration of lasing in 1964. Improvements in powder synthesis and ceramic sintering as well as novel ideas have led to notable achievements. These include the first Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic laser in 1995, breaking the 1 KW mark in 2002 and then the remarkable demonstration of more than 100 KW output power from a YAG ceramic laser system in 2009. Additional developments have included highly doped microchip lasers, ultrashort pulse lasers, novel materials such as sesquioxides, fluoride ceramic lasers, selenide ceramic lasers in the 2 to 3 μm region, composite ceramic lasers for better thermal management, and single crystal lasers derived from polycrystalline ceramics. This paper highlights some of these notable achievements. PMID:28817044

  2. Ceramic electrolyte coating methods

    DOEpatents

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2004-10-12

    Processes for preparing aqueous suspensions of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material such as yttrium-stabilized zirconia. The invention also includes a process for preparing an aqueous coating slurry of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material. The invention further includes a process for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material on pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  3. Advanced Ceramic Armor Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-11

    materials, toughened alumina, fiber -reinforced glass matrix composites, and multilayer-gradient materials for ballistic testing. Fabrication and...material systems: Multilayer advanced armor materials consisting of a hard ceramic faceplate bonded to a graphite fiber -reinforced glass matrix...toughened alumina, and fiber - applied studies of advanced reinforced ceramic matrix glass and glass -ceramic composites for ballistic testing. technologies

  4. Compaction of asphaltic concrete pavement with high intensity pneumatic roller : part I.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1963-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to: : 1) Determine the magnitude of the compactive effort and the umber of passes required in the field to obtain optimum density using a high intensity pneumatic roller. : 2) Effect a correlation between the fie...

  5. Spherical roller bearing analysis. SKF computer program SPHERBEAN. Volume 2: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleckner, R. J.; Dyba, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    The user's guide for the SPHERBEAN computer program for prediction of the thermomechanical performance characteristics of high speed lubricated double row spherical roller bearings is presented. The material presented is structured to guide the user in the practical and correct implementation of SPHERBEAN. Input and output, guidelines for program use, and sample executions are detailed.

  6. Acceleration in One, Two, and Three Dimensions in Launched Roller Coasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    2008-01-01

    During a roller coaster ride, the body experiences acceleration in three dimensions. An accelerometer can measure and provide a graph of the forces on the body during different parts of a ride. To couple the experience of the body to pictures of the ride and an analysis of data can contribute to a deeper understanding of Newton's laws. This…

  7. Productivity of a large-wheeled skidder and roller chopper for preparing sites.

    Treesearch

    Edwin S. Miyata; Helmuth M. Steinhilb; Glenn D. Mroz; Lynne A. Coyer

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the results of a field test of a Pettibone Master 1500 skidder and Flecor Corporation SS812 roller chopper for site preparation work in Wisconsin. Includes cost, productivity, and effectiveness of site preparation on 23.4 acres (9.47 ha).

  8. Design study of a continuously variable roller cone traction CVT for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoin, D. K.; Walker, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Continuously variable ratio transmissions (CVT) featuring cone and roller traction elements and computerized controls are studied. The CVT meets or exceeds all requirements set forth in the design criteria. Further, a scalability analysis indicates the basic concept is applicable to lower and higher power units, with upward scaling for increased power being more readily accomplished.

  9. The Comfortable Roller Coaster--on the Shape of Tracks with a Constant Normal Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmark, Arne B.; Essen, Hanno

    2010-01-01

    A particle that moves along a smooth track in a vertical plane is influenced by two forces: gravity and normal force. The force experienced by roller coaster riders is the normal force, so a natural question to ask is, what shape of the track gives a normal force of constant magnitude? Here we solve this problem. It turns out that the solution is…

  10. Investigation of improved compaction by rubber-tire rollers : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1987-01-01

    The study consisted of a review of the literature and field testing on five projects. The field testing on each project consisted of rolling a conventional section using the contractor's steel-wheel rollers and rolling a test section using a rubber-t...

  11. High speed cylindrical roller bearing analysis. SKF computer program CYBEAN. Volume 2: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyba, G. J.; Kleckner, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    CYBEAN (CYlindrical BEaring ANalysis) was created to detail radially loaded, aligned and misaligned cylindrical roller bearing performance under a variety of operating conditions. Emphasis was placed on detailing the effects of high speed, preload and system thermal coupling. Roller tilt, skew, radial, circumferential and axial displacement as well as flange contact were considered. Variable housing and flexible out-of-round outer ring geometries, and both steady state and time transient temperature calculations were enabled. The complete range of elastohydrodynamic contact considerations, employing full and partial film conditions were treated in the computation of raceway and flange contacts. The practical and correct implementation of CYBEAN is discussed. The capability to execute the program at four different levels of complexity was included. In addition, the program was updated to properly direct roller-to-raceway contact load vectors automatically in those cases where roller or ring profiles have small radii of curvature. Input and output architectures containing guidelines for use and two sample executions are detailed.

  12. High Speed Cylindrical Roller Bearing Analysis, SKF Computer Program CYBEAN. Volume 1: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleckner, R. J.; Pirvics, J.

    1978-01-01

    The CYBEAN (CYlindrical BEaring ANalysis) program was created to detail radially loaded, aligned and misaligned Cylindrical roller bearing performance under a variety of operating conditions. The models and associated mathematics used within CYBEAN are described. The user is referred to the material for formulation assumptions and algorithm detail.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of steel-roller round baler for woody biomass baling

    Treesearch

    B. J. Stokes; D. L. Sirois; S. L. Woodfin

    1987-01-01

    A round hay baler with little modification was used to bale small-diameter, crushed trees. The trees had been crushed using a series of compression rollers. Bale cores had to be developed by hand before the baler became self-feeding. Windrowed material was packed off the ground by the baler system after a core had been developed.

  14. Investigation of Tapered Roller Bearing Damage Detection Using Oil Debris Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Krieder, Gary; Fichter, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A diagnostic tool was developed for detecting fatigue damage to tapered roller bearings. Tapered roller bearings are used in helicopter transmissions and have potential for use in high bypass advanced gas turbine aircraft engines. This diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting oil debris data from failure progression tests performed by The Timken Company in their Tapered Roller Bearing Health Monitoring Test Rig. Failure progression tests were performed under simulated engine load conditions. Tests were performed on one healthy bearing and three predamaged bearings. During each test, data from an on-line, in-line, inductance type oil debris sensor was monitored and recorded for the occurrence of debris generated during failure of the bearing. The bearing was removed periodically for inspection throughout the failure progression tests. Results indicate the accumulated oil debris mass is a good predictor of damage on tapered roller bearings. The use of a fuzzy logic model to enable an easily interpreted diagnostic metric was proposed and demonstrated.

  15. One City, Two Worlds, and Yet...: New York from "Roller Skates" to "Stevie."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Linnea

    1998-01-01

    Explores Ruth Sawyer's "Roller Skates" and John Steptoe's "Stevie"--two very different works linked by common themes and settings. Concludes that these works portray children exploring the variety and richness of life in New York City of the 1890s and of the 1960s, and that both emphasize the importance of love, family, and…

  16. Compaction of asphaltic concrete pavement with high intensity pneumatic roller : part II : densification due to traffic.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1965-10-01

    In the early of 1961 a research project was undertaken by the Louisiana Department of Highways in cooperation with the Bureau of Public Roads to study the effect of high intensity pneumatic rollers on the density of asphaltic concrete pavement using ...

  17. The Roller-Coaster of Experiences: Becoming the Parent of a Deaf Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosteels, Sigrid; Van Hove, Geert; Vandenbroeck, Michel

    2012-01-01

    When early testing indicates a hearing loss, parents find themselves on a roller-coaster of experiences leaving little time or space for reflection. This study is based on interviews with families in the Flemish region of Belgium, one of the earliest in the world to introduce universal neonatal screening for hearing loss. Starting from a…

  18. Concentrations and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls at different process stages of cement kilns co-processing waste incinerator fly ash.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Yang, Lili; Zhan, Jiayu; Zheng, Minghui; Li, Li; Jin, Rong; Zhao, Yuyang; Wang, Mei

    2016-12-01

    Cement kilns can be used to co-process fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators. However, this might increase emission of organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Knowledge of PCB concentrations and homolog and congener patterns at different stages in this process could be used to assess the possibility of simultaneously controlling emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and "dioxin-like" compounds. To date, emissions from cement kilns co-processing fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators have not been analyzed for PCBs. In this study, stack gas and particulate samples from two cement kilns co-processing waste incinerator fly ash were analyzed for PCBs. The average total tri- to deca-chlorinated biphenyl (∑ 3-10 PCB) concentration in the stack gas samples was 10.15ngm -3 . The ∑ 3-10 PCB concentration ranges in particulate samples from different stages were 0.83-41.79ngg -1 for cement kiln 1and0.13-1.69ngg -1 for cement kiln 2. The ∑ 3-10 PCB concentrations were much higher in particulate samples from the suspension pre-heater boiler, humidifier tower, and kiln back-end bag filters than in particulate samples from other stages. For these three stages, PCBs contributed to 15-18% of the total PCB, PCDD/F, and polychlorinated naphthalene toxic equivalents in stack gases and particulate matter. The PCB distributions were similar to those found in other studies for PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated naphthalenes, which suggest that it may be possible to simultaneously control emissions of multiple organic pollutants from cement kilns. Homolog patterns in the particulate samples were dominated by the pentachlorobiphenyls. CB-105, CB-118, and CB-123 were the dominant dioxin-like PCB congeners that formed at the back-end of the cement kiln. A mass balance of PCBs in the cement kilns indicated that the total mass of PCBs in the stack gases and clinker was about half the mass of PCBs in the raw materials

  19. Temperature and Thermal Expansion Analysis of the Cooling Roller Based on the Variable Heat Flux Boundary Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongkang; Yang, Yang; He, Changyan

    2018-04-01

    Planar flow casting (PFC) is a primary method for preparing an amorphous ribbon. The qualities of the amorphous ribbon are significantly influenced by the temperature and thermal expansion of the cooling roller. This study proposes a new approach to analyze the three-dimensional temperature and thermal expansion of the cooling roller using variable heat flux that acted on the cooling roller as a boundary condition. First, a simplified two-dimensional model of the PFC is developed to simulate the distribution of the heat flux in the circumferential direction with the software FLUENT. The resulting heat flux is extended to be three-dimensional in the ribbon's width direction. Then, the extended heat flux is imported as the boundary condition by the CFX Expression Language, and the transient temperature of the cooling roller is analyzed in the CFX software. Next, the transient thermal expansion of the cooling roller is simulated through the thermal-structural coupling method. Simulation results show that the roller's temperature and expansion are unevenly distributed, reach the peak value in the middle width direction, and the quasi-steady state of the maximum temperature and thermal expansion are achieved after approximately 50 s and 150 s of casting, respectively. The minimum values of the temperature and expansion are achieved when the roller has a thickness of 45 mm. Finally, the reliability of the approach proposed is verified by measuring the roller's thermal expansion on the spot. This study provides theoretical guidance for the roller's thermal expansion prediction and the gap adjustment in the PFC.

  20. Temperature and Thermal Expansion Analysis of the Cooling Roller Based on the Variable Heat Flux Boundary Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongkang; Yang, Yang; He, Changyan

    2018-06-01

    Planar flow casting (PFC) is a primary method for preparing an amorphous ribbon. The qualities of the amorphous ribbon are significantly influenced by the temperature and thermal expansion of the cooling roller. This study proposes a new approach to analyze the three-dimensional temperature and thermal expansion of the cooling roller using variable heat flux that acted on the cooling roller as a boundary condition. First, a simplified two-dimensional model of the PFC is developed to simulate the distribution of the heat flux in the circumferential direction with the software FLUENT. The resulting heat flux is extended to be three-dimensional in the ribbon's width direction. Then, the extended heat flux is imported as the boundary condition by the CFX Expression Language, and the transient temperature of the cooling roller is analyzed in the CFX software. Next, the transient thermal expansion of the cooling roller is simulated through the thermal-structural coupling method. Simulation results show that the roller's temperature and expansion are unevenly distributed, reach the peak value in the middle width direction, and the quasi-steady state of the maximum temperature and thermal expansion are achieved after approximately 50 s and 150 s of casting, respectively. The minimum values of the temperature and expansion are achieved when the roller has a thickness of 45 mm. Finally, the reliability of the approach proposed is verified by measuring the roller's thermal expansion on the spot. This study provides theoretical guidance for the roller's thermal expansion prediction and the gap adjustment in the PFC.

  1. Stretch-shortening cycle in roller ski skating: effects of technique.

    PubMed

    Perrey, S; Millet, G Y; Candau, R; Rouillon, J D

    1998-11-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to examine the occurrence of the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) in the three principal techniques of ski skating and 2) to test the hypothesis that differences in SSC behaviour may explain the choice of a technique when the grade is altered. Ten highly skilled male cross-country skiers roller skied at 5.3+/-0.1 m x s(-1) using the V1 skate (V1), V2-alternate (V2A), and V2 skate (V2) techniques. Knee and ankle joint kinematics, EMG of the vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) muscles, and roller ski velocity were recorded during the last 40 s of each bout of roller skiing. The existence of an EMG signal during the eccentric phase prior to the thrust, as well as the lack of significant delay between the two phases, showed that SSC occurs in the three techniques of roller ski skating with the exception of 50% of the subjects at the weak side knee with V1. The VL stretching velocity over the eccentric phase was higher (p < 0.005) with V2 and V2A than V1, indicating that less elastic energy was stored in the lower limbs extensor muscles with V1. This could partly explain why this technique is not used on flat terrains during races. However, no differences of average EMG activity or IEMG existed between techniques for either GL or VL during the concentric phase, suggesting that the theoretical advantage due to the SSC behaviour is minor in roller ski skating.

  2. Nest ecology of blood parasites in the European roller and its ectoparasitic carnid fly.

    PubMed

    Václav, Radovan; Betáková, Tatiana; Švančarová, Petra; Pérez-Serrano, Jorge; Criado-Fornelio, Ángel; Škorvanová, Lucia; Valera, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    Haemosporidian parasites are considered the most important vector-borne parasites. However, vector identity and ecology is unknown for most such host-vector-parasite systems. In this study, we employ microscopic and molecular analyses to examine haemosporidian prevalence in a migratory, cavity-nesting bird, European roller Coracias garrulus, and its nidicolous blood-feeding ectoparasite Carnus hemapterus. This system is unique in that the ectoparasite is confined to a near-closed environment, in contrast to the free-wandering system of haematophagous dipterans such as mosquitoes. Blood film analysis confirms previous works in that Haemoproteus parasites are widely prevalent in adult rollers and belong to a single species, Haemoproteus coraciae. Leucocytozoon sp. and Trypanosoma sp. also are detected in adult rollers at low intensities with this technique. By means of molecular analysis, we report for the first time Plasmodium sp. presence in C. garrulus. Based on PCR results, Plasmodium parasites are relatively less prevalent than Haemoproteus parasites (20% vs. 31%) in rollers. In contrast, haemosporidian prevalences show the opposite trend for Carnus flies: Plasmodium sp. occurrence (62%) clearly predominates over that of Haemoproteus sp. (5%). A comparison between roller and Carnus samples reveals a significantly higher prevalence of Plasmodium sp. in Carnus samples. Insect survey and phylogenetic analysis suggest Culicoides flies as Haemoproteus sp. vectors, which appear to readily transmit the parasite in southern Spain. This study does not find support for Carnus flies to serve as biological or mechanical vectors of haemosporidians. In spite of this, nidicolous blood-feeding ectoparasites, such as carnid flies, appear as a suitable model for studies on the occurrence and temporal dynamics of avian haemosporidians such as Plasmodium sp. present at low intensities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    DOEpatents

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  4. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  5. Ceramic Parts for Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. D.; Carpenter, Harry W.; Tellier, Jim; Rollins, Clark; Stormo, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Abilities of ceramics to serve as turbine blades, stator vanes, and other elements in hot-gas flow of rocket engines discussed in report. Ceramics prime candidates, because of resistance to heat, low density, and tolerance of hostile environments. Ceramics considered in report are silicon nitride, silicon carbide, and new generation of such ceramic composites as transformation-toughened zirconia and alumina and particulate- or whisker-reinforced matrices. Report predicts properly designed ceramic components viable in advanced high-temperature rocket engines and recommends future work.

  6. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Cccc of... - Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning Kilns That Commenced Construction After June 4, 2010, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning... Waste-Burning Kilns That Commenced Construction After June 4, 2010, or Reconstruction or Modification... indefinitely. Table 7 to Subpart CCCC of Part 60—Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning Kilns That Commenced...

  7. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Cccc of... - Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning Kilns That Commenced Construction After June 4, 2010, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning..., Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart CCCC of Part 60—Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning Kilns That Commenced... limit. b NOX limits for new waste-burning kilns based on data for best-performing similar source...

  8. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011 8 Table 8 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60 Protection of..., Table 8 Table 8 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60—Model Rule—Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning... to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011 For the air pollutant You must meet this emissionlimitation...

  9. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011 8 Table 8 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60 Protection of...—Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011 [Date to be specified in state...

  10. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011 8 Table 8 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60 Protection of...—Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011 [Date to be specified in state...

  11. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Cccc of... - Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning Kilns That Commenced Construction After June 4, 2010, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning... Waste-Burning Kilns That Commenced Construction After June 4, 2010, or Reconstruction or Modification... indefinitely. Table 7 to Subpart CCCC of Part 60—Emission Limitations for Waste-Burning Kilns That Commenced...

  12. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Cccc of... - Emission Limitations for Waste-burning Kilns That Commenced Construction After June 4, 2010, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission Limitations for Waste-burning Kilns That Commenced Construction After June 4, 2010, or Reconstruction or Modification After August 7... to Subpart CCCC of Part 60—Emission Limitations for Waste-burning Kilns That Commenced Construction...

  13. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011 8 Table 8 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60 Protection of...—Emission Limitations That Apply to Waste-Burning Kilns After May 20, 2011 For the air pollutant You must...

  14. [Line scanning analysis of white porcelain from Gong Kiln in early Tang dynasty by energy disperse X-ray fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Ling, Xue; Mao, Zhen-wei; Feng, Min; Hu, Yao-wu; Wang, Chang-sui; Liu, Hong-miao

    2005-07-01

    Gong kiln, for its long porcelain-firing history, was one of three representative white porcelain kilns in northern China. In order to improve the quality and whiteness of white porcelain, a decorating layer or cosmetic earth was laid on the body surface in Gong kiln during early Tang dynasty, which was able to blot out rough surface and weaken the influence of fuscous body upon surface color. In this paper the main chemical composition of the white porcelain's profile was analyzed by using energy disperse X-Ray fluorescence. The result showed that different materials were used as cosmetic earth during early Tang dynasty, in accordance with the phenomenon under optical microscope. In addition, the glaze belongs to calcium glaze in which plant ash was added.

  15. New archaeomagnetic data from three roman kilns in northeast Spain: a contribution to the Iberian palaeosecular variation curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamud, E.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; McIntosh, G.; Larrasoaña, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    New archaeomagnetic results from three kilns recovered from a roman age archaeological site in Badalona (northeast Spain) are reported. Archaeological evidences constrain the abandonment of kilns BC1 and BC2 between 0 and 50 yrs AD, whereas the abandonment of kiln BC3 is established between 50 and 150 yrs AD. In order to perform the archaeomagnetic study 12 to 14 samples per kiln were collected using a portable electrical drill with a water-cooled diamond bit, following standard palaeomagnetic sampling methods. Samples were distributed all around the combustion chambers, being obtained in different orientations from the burnt walls and central pillars. Rock magnetic measurements revealed a dominance of low titanium titanomagnetite or substituted magnetite as the main carrier of the magnetic signal and a minor contribution of maghemite. The presence of single domain material, along with the thermal stability of the samples, means that they are suitable candidates for archaeomagnetic studies, and in particular intensity determinations. Archaeomagnetic experiments were attempted on 32 specimens characterised by NRM intensities between 0.5 and 8.3 A/m. Mean archaeomagnetic directions and archaeointensities have been obtained from the original Thellier method with regular partial thermoremanent magnetisation (pTRM) checks being used to estimate archaeointensities. Mean intensities of 68.3 ± 4.2 µT, 72.4 ± 5.0 µT and 72.9 ± 3.7 µT were obtained for kilns BC1, BC2 and BC3, respectively. A cooling rate correction factor of 5% has been applied to mean intensities and the values obtained have been relocated to Paris and Madrid through the virtual dipole moment VDM. The mean directions of the characteristic magnetization of each kiln and their associated statistical parameters were derived from principal component analysis and Fisher statistics. Very similar directions were obtained for BC1 and BC2 with the circle of confidence (α95) of the BC2 direction falling within

  16. Evaluation of the release of dioxins and PCBs during kiln-firing of ball clay.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Kendra; Meeker, John D; Luksemburg, William; Maier, Martha; Garabrant, David; Demond, Avery; Franzblau, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Ball clay is known to be naturally contaminated with high levels of polychlorinated di-benzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). This study evaluated the potential for PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) release during the kiln firing of ball clay in an art studio. Toxic equivalence (TEQ) were calculated using World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 toxic equivalence factors (TEF) and congener concentrations. Ten bags of commercial ball clay were found to have an average TEQ of 1,370 nanograms/kilogram (ng kg(-1)) dry weight (dw), almost exclusively due to PCDDs (99.98% of TEQ). After firing, none of the 29 dioxin-like analytes was measured above the limits of detection (LOD) in the clay samples. Air samples were taken during firings using both low-flow and high-flow air samplers. Few low-flow air samples contained measurable levels of dioxin congeners above the LOD. The mean TEQ in the high volume air samples ranged from 0.07 pg m(-3) to 0.21 pg m(-3) when firing ball clay, and was 0.11 pg m(-3) when no clay was fired. These concentrations are within the range measured in typical residences and well-controlled industrial settings. The congener profiles in the high-flow air samples differed from the unfired clay; the air samples had a considerable contribution to the TEQ from PCDFs and PCBs. Given that the TEQs of all air samples were very low and the profiles differed from the unfired clay, it is likely that the PCDDs in dry ball clay were destroyed during kiln firing. These results suggest that inhalation of volatilized dioxins during kiln firing of dry ball clay is an unlikely source of exposure for vocational and art ceramicists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New archeointensity results from the reconstructed ancient kiln by the Tsunakawa-Shaw method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Hatakeyama, T.; Kitahara, Y.; Saito, T.

    2017-12-01

    Yamamoto et al. (2015) reported that baked clay samples from the floor of a reconstructed ancient kiln provided a reliable Tsunakawa-Shaw (LTD-DHT Shaw) archeointensity (AI) estimate of 47.3 +/- 2.2 microT which is fairly consistent with the in situ geomagnetic field of 46.4 microT at the time of the reconstruction. The reconstruction was conducted to reproduce an excavated kiln of the seventh century in Japan and Sue-type potteries of contemporary style were also fired (Nakajima et al., 1974). Two of the potteries with reddish color were recently subjected to the Tsunakawa-Shaw archeointensity determinations, resulting in reliable AI estimates of 45.4 +/- 2.3 (N=6) and 48.2 +/- 2.7 microT (N=15) when specimens were heated in air in laboratory (Yamamoto et al., 2017 JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting). We have had another opportunity to take samples from a new reconstructed ancient kiln in Japan which was fired in autumn 2016. The samples were two Sue-type potteries with grayish color (bowl-type and plate-type) and some blocks collected from inner wall of the kiln body. They were cut into mini specimens and then subjected to the Tsunakawa-Shaw experiment. Heating in laboratory was done either in air or vacuum.For the bowl-type pottery, AIs of 46.9 +/- 2.8 (N=6, air) and 45.3 +/- 2.3 microT (N=6, vacuum) are obtained. They are indistinguishable each other and consistent with the IGRF field of 47.4 microT at the reconstructed location in 2016. For the plate-type pottery, AIs result in 41.8 +/- 1.3 (N=4, air) and 43.9 +/- 3.9 microT (N=4, vacuum). They are also indistinguishable each other but the former AI is slightly lower than the IGRF field.For the inner wall, AIs of 45.0 (N=1, air) and 46.8 microT (N=1, vacuum) are obtained from a right-side wall, and those of 45.5 +/- 2.5 (N=2, air) and 47.7 +/- 3.0 microT (N=2, vacuum) are observed from a left-side wall. They are all indistinguishable and consistent with the IGRF field.

  18. Climate change-induced heat risks for migrant populations working at brick kilns in India: a transdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Lundgren-Kownacki, Karin; Kjellberg, Siri M; Gooch, Pernille; Dabaieh, Marwa; Anandh, Latha; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2018-03-01

    During the summer of 2015, India was hit by a scorching heat wave that melted pavements in Delhi and caused thousands of deaths, mainly among the most marginalized populations. One such group facing growing heat risks from both occupational and meteorological causes are migrant brick kiln workers. This study evaluates both current heat risks and the potential future impacts of heat caused by climate change, for the people working at brick kilns in India. A case study of heat stress faced by people working at brick kilns near Chennai, India, is the anchor point around which a transdisciplinary approach was applied. Around Chennai, the situation is alarming since occupational heat exposure in the hot season from March to July is already at the upper limits of what humans can tolerate before risking serious impairment. The aim of the study was to identify new pathways for change and soft solutions by both reframing the problem and expanding the solution space being considered in order to improve the quality of life for the migrant populations at the brick kilns. Technical solutions evaluated include the use of sun-dried mud bricks and other locally "appropriate technologies" that could mitigate the worsening of climate change-induced heat. Socio-cultural solutions discussed for empowering the people who work at the brick kilns include participatory approaches such as open re-localization, and rights-based approaches including the environmental sustainability and the human rights-based approach framework. Our analysis suggests that an integrative, transdisciplinary approach could incorporate a more holistic range of technical and socio-culturally informed solutions in order to protect the health of people threatened by India's brick kiln industry.

  19. Climate change-induced heat risks for migrant populations working at brick kilns in India: a transdisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren-Kownacki, Karin; Kjellberg, Siri M.; Gooch, Pernille; Dabaieh, Marwa; Anandh, Latha; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2018-03-01

    During the summer of 2015, India was hit by a scorching heat wave that melted pavements in Delhi and caused thousands of deaths, mainly among the most marginalized populations. One such group facing growing heat risks from both occupational and meteorological causes are migrant brick kiln workers. This study evaluates both current heat risks and the potential future impacts of heat caused by climate change, for the people working at brick kilns in India. A case study of heat stress faced by people working at brick kilns near Chennai, India, is the anchor point around which a transdisciplinary approach was applied. Around Chennai, the situation is alarming since occupational heat exposure in the hot season from March to July is already at the upper limits of what humans can tolerate before risking serious impairment. The aim of the study was to identify new pathways for change and soft solutions by both reframing the problem and expanding the solution space being considered in order to improve the quality of life for the migrant populations at the brick kilns. Technical solutions evaluated include the use of sun-dried mud bricks and other locally "appropriate technologies" that could mitigate the worsening of climate change-induced heat. Socio-cultural solutions discussed for empowering the people who work at the brick kilns include participatory approaches such as open re-localization, and rights-based approaches including the environmental sustainability and the human rights-based approach framework. Our analysis suggests that an integrative, transdisciplinary approach could incorporate a more holistic range of technical and socio-culturally informed solutions in order to protect the health of people threatened by India's brick kiln industry.

  20. Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/Biochar Production

    PubMed Central

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Pandit, Naba Raj; Taylor, Paul; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Sparrevik, Magnus; Schmidt, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Flame Curtain Biochar Kilns Pyrolysis of organic waste or woody materials yields charcoal, a stable carbonaceous product that can be used for cooking or mixed into soil, in the latter case often termed "biochar". Traditional kiln technologies for charcoal production are slow and without treatment of the pyrolysis gases, resulting in emissions of gases (mainly methane and carbon monoxide) and aerosols that are both toxic and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In retort kilns pyrolysis gases are led back to a combustion chamber. This can reduce emissions substantially, but is costly and consumes a considerable amount of valuable ignition material such as wood during start-up. To overcome these problems, a novel type of technology, the Kon-Tiki flame curtain pyrolysis, is proposed. This technology combines the simplicity of the traditional kiln with the combustion of pyrolysis gases in the flame curtain (similar to retort kilns), also avoiding use of external fuel for start-up. Biochar Characteristics A field study in Nepal using various feedstocks showed char yields of 22 ± 5% on a dry weight basis and 40 ± 11% on a C basis. Biochars with high C contents (76 ± 9%; n = 57), average surface areas (11 to 215 m2 g-1), low EPA16—PAHs (2.3 to 6.6 mg kg-1) and high CECs (43 to 217 cmolc/kg)(average for all feedstocks, mainly woody shrubs) were obtained, in compliance with the European Biochar Certificate (EBC). Gas Emission Factors Mean emission factors for the flame curtain kilns were (g kg-1 biochar for all feedstocks); CO2 = 4300 ± 1700, CO = 54 ± 35, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) = 6 ± 3, CH4 = 30 ± 60, aerosols (PM10) = 11 ± 15, total products of incomplete combustion (PIC) = 100 ± 83 and NOx = 0.4 ± 0.3. The flame curtain kilns emitted statistically significantly (p<0.05) lower amounts of CO, PIC and NOx than retort and traditional kilns, and higher amounts of CO2. Implications With benefits such as high quality biochar, low emission

  1. Ceramic components manufacturing by selective laser sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Ph.; Bayle, F.; Combe, C.; Goeuriot, P.; Smurov, I.

    2007-12-01

    In the present paper, technology of selective laser sintering/melting is applied to manufacture net shaped objects from pure yttria-zirconia powders. Experiments are carried out on Phenix Systems PM100 machine with 50 W fibre laser. Powder is spread by a roller over the surface of 100 mm diameter alumina cylinder. Design of experiments is applied to identify influent process parameters (powder characteristics, powder layering and laser manufacturing strategy) to obtain high-quality ceramic components (density and micro-structure). The influence of the yttria-zirconia particle size and morphology onto powder layering process is analysed. The influence of the powder layer thickness on laser sintering/melting is studied for different laser beam velocity V ( V = 1250-2000 mm/s), defocalisation (-6 to 12 mm), distance between two neighbour melted lines (so-called "vectors") (20-40 μm), vector length and temperature in the furnace. The powder bed density before laser sintering/melting also has significant influence on the manufactured samples density. Different manufacturing strategies are applied and compared: (a) different laser beam scanning paths to fill the sliced surfaces of the manufactured object, (b) variation of vector length (c) different strategies of powder layering, (d) temperature in the furnace and (e) post heat treatment in conventional furnace. Performance and limitations of different strategies are analysed applying the following criteria: geometrical accuracy of the manufactured samples, porosity. The process stability is proved by fabrication of 1 cm 3 volume cube.

  2. 77 FR 2271 - Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished, From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-601] Tapered Roller Bearings and...: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On July 13, 2011, the Department of Commerce (``Department'') published the preliminary results and intent to...

  3. Acute, fatal Sarcocystis calchasi-associated hepatitis in Roller pigeons (Columbia livia f. dom.) at Philadelphia Zoo

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and fr...

  4. The friction and wear of ceramic/ceramic and ceramic/metal combinations in sliding contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    The tribological characteristics of ceramics sliding on ceramics are compared to those of ceramics sliding on a nickel based turbine alloy. The friction and wear of oxide ceramics and silicon-based ceramics in air at temperatures from room ambient to 900 C (in a few cases to 1200 C) were measured for a hemispherically-tipped pin on a flat sliding contact geometry. In general, especially at high temperature, friction and wear were lower for ceramic/metal combinations than for ceramic/ceramic combinations. The better tribological performance for ceramic/metal combinations is attributed primarily to the lubricious nature of the oxidized surface of the metal.

  5. Comparing a spray boom to a roller-wiper system for a single-passenger four-wheeler

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood; Richard Hallman

    1992-01-01

    The ability of spray booms and carpet-covered roller-wipers mounted on four-wheelers to apply herbicides on pine plantings sites was tested with the following treatments: spray boom application of 0.31 kg (0.69 lb) acid equivalent glyphosate with 0.08 kg (0.18 lb) active ingredient sulfometuron in 215 liters of water/ha (23 gallons/acre) and roller-wiping the...

  6. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, V N; Papandreou, A; Kanellopoulou, D; Stournaras, C J

    2013-11-15

    In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in an increase of mechanical strength. Moreover, leaching tests performed according to the Europeans standards on the EAFD-block samples showed that the quantities of heavy metals leached from crushed blocks were within the regulatory limits. Thus the EAFD-blocks can be regarded as material of no environmental concern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  7. NDE of ceramics and ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex; Klima, Stanley J.

    1991-01-01

    Although nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for ceramics are fairly well developed, they are difficult to apply in many cases for high probability detection of the minute flaws that can cause failure in monolithic ceramics. Conventional NDE techniques are available for monolithic and fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites, but more exact quantitative techniques needed are still being investigated and developed. Needs range from flaw detection to below 100 micron levels in monolithic ceramics to global imaging of fiber architecture and matrix densification anomalies in ceramic composites. NDE techniques that will ultimately be applicable to production and quality control of ceramic structures are still emerging from the lab. Needs are different depending on the processing stage, fabrication method, and nature of the finished product. NDE techniques are being developed in concert with materials processing research where they can provide feedback information to processing development and quality improvement. NDE techniques also serve as research tools for materials characterization and for understanding failure processes, e.g., during thermomechanical testing.

  8. Combustion modeling and performance evaluation in a full-scale rotary kiln incinerator.

    PubMed

    Chen, K S; Hsu, W T; Lin, Y C; Ho, Y T; Wu, C H

    2001-06-01

    This work summarizes the results of numerical investigations and in situ measurements for turbulent combustion in a full-scale rotary kiln incinerator (RKI). The three-dimensional (3D) governing equations for mass, momentum, energy, and species, together with the kappa - epsilon turbulence model, are formulated and solved using a finite volume method. Volatile gases from solid waste were simulated by gaseous CH4 distributed nonuniformly along the kiln bed. The combustion process was considered to be a two-step stoichiometric reaction for primary air mixed with CH4 gas in the combustion chamber. The mixing-controlled eddy-dissipation model (EDM) was employed to predict the conversion rates of CH4, O2, CO2, and CO. The results of the prediction show that reverse flows occur near the entrance of the first combustion chamber (FCC) and the turning point at the entrance to the second combustion chamber (SCC). Temperature and species are nonuniform and are vertically stratified. Meanwhile, additional mixing in the SCC enhances postflame oxidation. A combustion efficiency of up to 99.96% can be achieved at approximately 150% excess air and 20-30% secondary air. Reasonable agreement is achieved between numerical predictions and in situ measurements.

  9. Life cycle assessment of the use of alternative fuels in cement kilns: A case study.

    PubMed

    Georgiopoulou, Martha; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2018-06-15

    The benefits of using alternative fuels (AFs) in the cement industry include reduction of the use of non-renewable fossil fuels and lower emissions of greenhouse gases, since fossil fuels are replaced with materials that would otherwise be degraded or incinerated with corresponding emissions and final residues. Furthermore, the use of alternative fuels maximizes the recovery of energy. Seven different scenaria were developed for the production of 1 ton of clinker in a rotary cement kiln. Each of these scenaria includes the use of alternative fuels such as RDF (Refuse derived fuel), TDF (Tire derived fuel) and BS (Biological sludge) or a mixture of them, in partial replacement of conventional fuels such as coal and pet coke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of the use of alternative fuels in relation to conventional fuels in the kiln operation. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to quantify the potential environmental impacts in each scenario. The interpretation of the results provides the conclusion that the most environmentally friendly prospect is the scenario based on RDF while the less preferable scenario is the scenario based on BS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental footprints of brick kiln bottom ashes: Geostatistical approach for assessment of metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Ananya; Das, Subhasish; Sah, Rajesh Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2017-12-31

    Coal fired brick kiln factories generate significant of brick kiln bottom ash (BKBA) that contaminate soil and water environments of areas near the dumping sites through leaching of toxic metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Mn, and Cu). However, characteristics and environmental effects of BKBAs are yet unknown. We collected BKBA samples from 32 strategic locations of two rapidly developing States (West Bengal and Assam) of India. Scanning electron microscope images indicated spherical and granular structures of BKBAs produced in West Bengal (WBKBA) and Assam (ABKBA) respectively; while energy dispersive spectroscopy and analytical assessments confirmed substantial occurrence of total organic C and nutrient elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) in both the BKBAs. FTIR analysis revealed greater predominance of organic matter in ABKBAs than WBKBAs. Occurrence of toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Cu) was higher in ABKBAs than in WBKBAs; while organic and residual fractions of metals were highly predominant in most of the BKBAs. Principal component analysis showed that metal contents and pH were the major distinguishing characteristics of the BKBAs generated in the two different environmental locations. Human health risk associated with BKBAs generated in Assam is of significant concern. Finally, geo-statistical tools enabled to predict the spatial distribution patterns of toxic metals contributed by the BKBAs in Assam and West Bengal respectively. Assessment of contamination index, geo-accumulation index, and ecological risk index revealed some BKBAs to be more toxic than others. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Modeling the combustion behavior of hazardous waste in a rotary kiln incinerator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxiang; Pijnenborg, Marc J A; Reuter, Markus A; Verwoerd, Joep

    2005-01-01

    Hazardous wastes have complex physical forms and chemical compositions and are normally incinerated in rotary kilns for safe disposal and energy recovery. In the rotary kiln, the multifeed stream and wide variation of thermal, physical, and chemical properties of the wastes cause the incineration system to be highly heterogeneous, with severe temperature fluctuations and unsteady combustion chemistry. Incomplete combustion is often the consequence, and the process is difficult to control. In this article, modeling of the waste combustion is described by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Through CFD simulation, gas flow and mixing, turbulent combustion, and heat transfer inside the incinerator were predicted and visualized. As the first step, the waste in various forms was modeled to a hydrocarbon-based virtual fuel mixture. The combustion of the simplified waste was then simulated with a seven-gas combustion model within a CFD framework. Comparison was made with previous global three-gas combustion model with which no chemical behavior can be derived. The distribution of temperature and chemical species has been investigated. The waste combustion model was validated with temperature measurements. Various operating conditions and the influence on the incineration performance were then simulated. Through this research, a better process understanding and potential optimization of the design were attained.

  12. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Bao, Y B; Cai, X L; Chen, C H; Ye, X C

    2014-08-15

    The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1.

    PubMed

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6-12, temperatures of 28-50°C, and NaCl concentrations of 0-16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sabloff, J A

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

  15. Ceramic tamper-revealing seals

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Sheen, Shuh-Haw

    1992-01-01

    A flexible metal or ceramic cable with composite ceramic ends, or a u-shaped ceramic connecting element attached to a binding element plate or block cast from alumina or zirconium, and connected to the connecting element by shrink fitting.

  16. Ceramic Electron Multiplier

    DOE PAGES

    Comby, G.

    1996-10-01

    The Ceramic Electron Multipliers (CEM) is a compact, robust, linear and fast multi-channel electron multiplier. The Multi Layer Ceramic Technique (MLCT) allows to build metallic dynodes inside a compact ceramic block. The activation of the metallic dynodes enhances their secondary electron emission (SEE). The CEM can be used in multi-channel photomultipliers, multi-channel light intensifiers, ion detection, spectroscopy, analysis of time of flight events, particle detection or Cherenkov imaging detectors. (auth)

  17. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Fareed, Ali; Craig, Phillip A.

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  18. A roller-like bird (Coracii) from the Early Eocene of Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Estelle; Kristoffersen, Anette V.; Bonde, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The fossil record of crown group birds (Neornithes) prior to the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary is scarce and fragmentary. Early Cenozoic bird fossils are more abundant, but are typically disarticulated and/or flattened. Here we report the oldest roller (Coracii), Septencoracias morsensis gen. et sp. nov. (Primobucconidae), based on a new specimen from the Early Eocene (about 54 million years ago) Fur Formation of Denmark. The new fossil is a nearly complete, three-dimensionally preserved and articulated skeleton. It lies at the lower end of the size range for extant rollers. Salient diagnostic features of Septencoracias relative to other Coracii include the proportionally larger skull and the small, ovoid and dorsally positioned narial openings. Our discovery adds to the evidence that the Coracii had a widespread northern hemisphere distribution in the Eocene. Septencoracias is the oldest substantial record of the Picocoraciae and provides a reliable calibration point for molecular phylogenetic studies. PMID:27670387

  19. Study on the Effect of Steel Wheel and Ground on Single Steel Vibratory Roller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiabo; You, Guanghui; Qiao, Jiabin; Ye, Min; Guo, Jin; Zhang, Hongyang

    2018-03-01

    In the compacting operation of single drum vibratory roller, the forces acting on the foundation of drum include the weight of the drum, the weight of the frame, the exciting force and so on. Based on the theoretical study of ground mechanics, this paper analyzes and calculates the forces acting on the steel wheel and the ground, and obtains the distribution of the laminar stress in the ground when the working plane vibrates. Derive the formula of dynamic compressive stress and static compressive stress in the foundation during vibration compaction. Through the compaction test of the soil trough of 20T single drum roller, the compressive stress data of the soil hydraulic field are obtained. The data of the dynamic compressive stress and the static compressive stress of each layer during the third compaction are obtained, and the theoretical research is verified.

  20. A roller-like bird (Coracii) from the Early Eocene of Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Estelle; Kristoffersen, Anette V; Bonde, Niels

    2016-09-27

    The fossil record of crown group birds (Neornithes) prior to the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary is scarce and fragmentary. Early Cenozoic bird fossils are more abundant, but are typically disarticulated and/or flattened. Here we report the oldest roller (Coracii), Septencoracias morsensis gen. et sp. nov. (Primobucconidae), based on a new specimen from the Early Eocene (about 54 million years ago) Fur Formation of Denmark. The new fossil is a nearly complete, three-dimensionally preserved and articulated skeleton. It lies at the lower end of the size range for extant rollers. Salient diagnostic features of Septencoracias relative to other Coracii include the proportionally larger skull and the small, ovoid and dorsally positioned narial openings. Our discovery adds to the evidence that the Coracii had a widespread northern hemisphere distribution in the Eocene. Septencoracias is the oldest substantial record of the Picocoraciae and provides a reliable calibration point for molecular phylogenetic studies.

  1. Effect of Internal Clearance on Load Distribution and Life of Radially Loaded Ball and Roller Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of internal clearance on radially loaded deepgroove ball and cylindrical roller bearing load distribution and fatigue life was determined for four clearance groups defined in the bearing standards. The analysis was extended to negative clearance (interference) conditions to produce a curve of life factor versus internal clearance. Rolling-element loads can be optimized and bearing life maximized for a small negative operating clearance. Life declines gradually with positive clearance and rapidly with increasing negative clearance. Relationships were found between bearing life and internal clearance as a function of ball or roller diameter, adjusted for load. Results are presented as life factors for radially loaded bearings independent of bearing size or applied load. In addition, a modified Stribeck Equation is presented that relates the maximum rolling-element load to internal bearing clearance.

  2. Low-frequency vibrations of a cylindrical shell rotating on rollers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    Small free low-frequency vibrations of a rotating closed cylindrical shell which is in a contact with rigid cylindrical rollers are considered. Assumptions of semi-momentless shell theory are used. By means of the expansion of solutions in truncated Fourier series in circumference coordinate the system of the algebraic equations for the approximate calculation of the vibration frequencies and the mode shapes is obtained. The algorithm for the evaluation of frequencies and vibration modes based on analytical solution is developed. In particular, the lowest frequencies of thin cylindrical shell, representing greatest interest for applications, were found. Approximate results are compared with results of numerical calculations carried out by the Finite Elements Analysis. It is shown that the semi-momentless theory can be used for the evaluation of the low frequencies of a cylindrical shell rotating on rollers.

  3. Lubrication of optimized-design tapered-roller bearings to 2.4 million DN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Pinel, S. I.; Signer, Hans R.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of 120.65 mm (4.75 in.) bore high speed design, tapered roller bearings was investigated at shaft speeds to 20,000 rpm (2.4 million DN) under combined thrust and radial load. The test bearing design was computer optimized for high speed operation. Temperature distribution bearing heat generation were determined as a function of shaft speed, radial and thrust loads, lubricant flow rates, and lubricant inlet temperature. The high speed design, tapered roller bearing operated successfully at shaft speeds up to 20,000 rpm under heavy thrust and radial loads. Bearing temperatures and heat generation with the high speed design bearing were significantly less than those of a modified standard bearing tested previously. Cup cooling was effective in decreasing the high cup temperatures to levels equal to the cone temperature.

  4. Pervasive liquid metal based direct writing electronics with roller-ball pen

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliu@mail.ipc.ac.cn

    A roller-ball pen enabled direct writing electronics via room temperature liquid metal ink was proposed. With the rolling to print mechanism, the metallic inks were smoothly written on flexible polymer substrate to form conductive tracks and electronic devices. The contact angle analyzer and scanning electron microscope were implemented to disclose several unique inner properties of the obtained electronics. An ever high writing resolution with line width and thickness as 200 μm and 80 μm, respectively was realized. Further, with the administration of external writing pressure, GaIn{sub 24.5} droplets embody increasing wettability on polymer which demonstrates the pervasive adaptability of themore » roller-ball pen electronics.« less

  5. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1992-01-01

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density.

  6. Measuring Fracture Times Of Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J.; Bister, Leo; Bickler, Donald G.

    1989-01-01

    Electrical measurements complement or replace fast cinematography. Electronic system measures microsecond time intervals between impacts of projectiles on ceramic tiles and fracture tiles. Used in research on ceramics and ceramic-based composite materials such as armor. Hardness and low density of ceramics enable them to disintegrate projectiles more efficiently than metals. Projectile approaches ceramic tile specimen. Penetrating foil squares of triggering device activate display and recording instruments. As ceramic and resistive film break oscilloscope plots increase in electrical resistance of film.

  7. Alumina-based ceramic composite

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, Kathleen B.; Tiegs, Terry N.; Becher, Paul F.; Waters, Shirley B.

    1996-01-01

    An improved ceramic composite comprising oxide ceramic particulates, nonoxide ceramic particulates selected from the group consisting of carbides, borides, nitrides of silicon and transition metals and mixtures thereof, and a ductile binder selected from the group consisting of metallic, intermetallic alloys and mixtures thereof is described. The ceramic composite is made by blending powders of the ceramic particulates and the ductile to form a mixture and consolidating the mixture of under conditions of temperature and pressure sufficient to produce a densified ceramic composite.

  8. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1992-11-17

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density. 2 figs.

  9. Coming out prevention by stopper for the shrink fitted sandwiched shaft from the ceramic sleeve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guowei; Noda, Nao-Aki; Sano, Yoshikazu; Sakai, Hiromasa; Oda, Kazuhiro

    2017-05-01

    Ceramic roller can be used in the heating furnace conveniently because of its high temperature resistance. The roller consists of sleeve and steel shaft connected only under a small shrink fitting ratio because of the brittleness. However, the coming out of the shaft may often happen from the ceramic sleeve under repeated bending load. Therefore, how to prevent the coming out failure becomes an important issue. Based on the previous study, a two-dimensional shrink fitted structure is considered by replacing the shaft with the inner plate and by replacing the sleeve with the outer plate. Then, this research focuses on preventing the inner plate coming out from the outer plate by introducing a newly designed stopper on the outer plate. The simulation results shows that the coming out phenomenon can be prevented effectively due to the contact between the inter plate and the stopper installed on the outer plate. In order to evaluate the contact force between the inner plate and the stopper, the coming out mechanism is clarified. To prevent the coming out by stopper safely, the effects of the magnitude of repeated load and the friction coefficient upon the contact compressive force are investigated under large number of loading cycles by using 2D simulation.

  10. Corrosion of Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1999-01-01

    Non-oxide ceramics are promising materials for a range of high temperature applications. Selected current and future applications are listed. In all such applications, the ceramics are exposed to high temperature gases. Therefore it is critical to understand the response of these materials to their environment. The variables to be considered here include both the type of ceramic and the environment to which it is exposed. Non-oxide ceramics include borides, nitrides, and carbides. Most high temperature corrosion environments contain oxygen and hence the emphasis of this chapter will be on oxidation processes.

  11. Ceramic brush seals development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Harold

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in this viewgraph presentation: ceramic brush seals, research and development, manufacturing, brazed assembly development, controlling braze flow, fiber selection, and braze results.

  12. Development of Mainshaft High-Speed Cylindrical Roller Bearings for Gas Turbine Engines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    roller motion, that calculation may then be eliminated for subsequent, similar runs. TIhis option provides the user a corresponding savings in computer...to W BEARING DN X !0.6 Figl"re 2..’ Test of Grou p-N Bearing No, ,5 Shows" Increased Skid as l~oad Is N" l)’creans4’d but With No Skid at Anyt Loand

  13. The influence of increased distal loading on metabolic cost, efficiency, and kinematics of roller ski skating.

    PubMed

    Bolger, Conor M; Bessone, Veronica; Federolf, Peter; Ettema, Gertjan; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of increased loading of the roller ski on metabolic cost, gross efficiency, and kinematics of roller ski skating in steep and moderate terrain, while employing two incline-specific techniques. Ten nationally ranked male cross-country skiers were subjected to four 7-minute submaximal intervals, with 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg added beneath the roller-ski in a randomized order. This was done on two separate days, with the G2 skating at 12% incline and 7 km/h speed and G3 skating at 5% incline and 14 km/h speed, respectively. At 12% incline, there was a significant increase in metabolic rate and a decrease in gross efficiency with added weight (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). At 5% incline, no change in metabolic rate or gross efficiency was found (P = 0.89 and P = 0.11). Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) increased gradually with added weight at both inclines (P>0.05). No changes in cycle characteristics were observed between the different ski loadings at either incline, although the lateral and vertical displacements of the foot/skis were slightly altered at 12% incline with added weight. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that increased loading of the ski increases the metabolic cost and reduces gross efficiency during steep uphill roller skiing in G2 skating, whereas no significant effect was revealed when skating on relatively flat terrain in G3. Cycle characteristics remained unchanged across conditions at both inclines, whereas small adjustments in the displacement of the foot coincided with the efficiency changes in uphill terrain. The increased RPE values with added ski-weight at both inclines indicates that other factors than those measured here could have influenced effort and/or fatigue when lifting a heavier ski.

  14. Neuromuscular Responses of Elite Skaters During Different Roller Figure Skating Jumps

    PubMed Central

    Pantoja, Patrícia Dias; Mello, André; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the neuromuscular activity of elite athletes who performed various roller figure skating jumps, to determine whether the muscle activation is greater during jumps with more rotations and in which phase the muscles are more active. This study also aimed to analyze if there is any difference in the muscle activity pattern between female and male skaters. Four elite skaters were evaluated, and each participated in two experimental sessions. During the first session, anthropometric data were collected, and the consent forms were signed. For the second session, neuromuscular data were collected during jumps, which were performed with skates at a rink. The following four roller figure skating jumps were evaluated: single Axel, double Axel, double Mapes and triple Mapes. The neuromuscular activity of the following seven muscles was obtained with an electromyograph which was fixed to the waist of each skater with a strap: biceps femoris, lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and gluteus maximus. The signal was transmitted wirelessly to a laptop. During the roller figure skating jumps, the lateral gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus, showed more activation during the jumps with more rotations, and the activation mainly occurred during the propulsion and flight phases. Female skaters demonstrated higher muscle activities in tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and gluteus maximus during the landing phase of the triple Mapes, when compared to their male counterparts. The results obtained in this study should be considered when planning training programs with specific exercises that closely resemble the roller figure skating jumps. This may be important for the success of elite skaters in competitions. PMID:25114728

  15. Dynamic and thermal analysis of high speed tapered roller bearings under combined loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crecelius, W. J.; Milke, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a computer program capable of predicting the thermal and kinetic performance of high-speed tapered roller bearings operating with fluid lubrication under applied axial, radial and moment loading (five degrees of freedom) is detailed. Various methods of applying lubrication can be considered as well as changes in bearing internal geometry which occur as the bearing is brought to operating speeds, loads and temperatures.

  16. Rereading "The Jack-Roller:" Hidden Histories in Sociology and Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ian

    2009-01-01

    I revisit one of the iconic Chicago School studies, Clifford Shaw's "The Jack-Roller". A naive reading of Shaw's book leaves the reader with a sense of having been inducted into a melange of what we now know as "sociology" and "social work," but which to Shaw seems a coherent stance. I suggest that this is close to the heart of how things were,…

  17. Competition After Windrowing or Single-Roller Chopping For Site Preparation in the Southern Piedmont

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1980-01-01

    For two years, post-treatment regrowth of herbaceous and woody species was sampled on two adjoining areas in the southern Piedmont where they had been either sheared and piled into windrows or chopped by a single pass of a single-drum roller-chopper. Windrowing yielded 55% less total standing crop of woody trees, shrubs, and vines after 2 years than chopping did. But...

  18. On Calculation Methods and Results for Straight Cylindrical Roller Bearing Deflection, Stiffness, and Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess some calculation methods for quantifying the relationships of bearing geometry, material properties, load, deflection, stiffness, and stress. The scope of the work was limited to two-dimensional modeling of straight cylindrical roller bearings. Preparations for studies of dynamic response of bearings with damaged surfaces motivated this work. Studies were selected to exercise and build confidence in the numerical tools. Three calculation methods were used in this work. Two of the methods were numerical solutions of the Hertz contact approach. The third method used was a combined finite element surface integral method. Example calculations were done for a single roller loaded between an inner and outer raceway for code verification. Next, a bearing with 13 rollers and all-steel construction was used as an example to do additional code verification, including an assessment of the leading order of accuracy of the finite element and surface integral method. Results from that study show that the method is at least first-order accurate. Those results also show that the contact grid refinement has a more significant influence on precision as compared to the finite element grid refinement. To explore the influence of material properties, the 13-roller bearing was modeled as made from Nitinol 60, a material with very different properties from steel and showing some potential for bearing applications. The codes were exercised to compare contact areas and stress levels for steel and Nitinol 60 bearings operating at equivalent power density. As a step toward modeling the dynamic response of bearings having surface damage, static analyses were completed to simulate a bearing with a spall or similar damage.

  19. ACES II Seat Roller Study: Findings of Detrimental Friction under High Windblast or Adverse Flight Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-12

    Seat’s legacy "seat roller" (a dry metal wheel on a shaft), when subjected to high loads (such as ejections at high speeds or with an aircraft yaw...Calibrated, Equivalent, True” KIAS = Knots Indicated Airspeed ( aircraft -dependent interpretation of speed , as displayed on gage) KCAS = Knots...the man-seat on the aircraft rail during high- speed ejections. This high friction response – when combined with modern changes to the ejection system

  20. A single center's conversion from roller pump to centrifugal pump technology in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Shade, Brandon C; Schiavo, Kellie; Rosenthal, Tami; Connelly, James T; Melchior, Richard W

    2016-06-05

    Recent advances in blood pump technology have led to an increased use of centrifugal pumps for prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Data from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization confirms that many institutions have converted to centrifugal pumps after prior experience with roller pump technology. Centrifugal pump technology is more compact and may generate less heat and hemolysis than a conventional roller pump. Based on the potential advantages of centrifugal pumps, a decision was made institution-wide to convert to centrifugal pump technology in pediatric implementation of ECMO. Based on limited prior experience with centrifugal pumps, a multidisciplinary approach was used to implement this new technology. The new centrifugal pump (Sorin Revolution, Arvada, CO) was intended for ECMO support in the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU), the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The perfusion team used their knowledge and expertise with centrifugal pumps to create the necessary teaching tools and interactive training sessions for the technical specialists who consisted primarily of registered nurses and respiratory therapists. The first phase consisted of educating all personnel involved in the care of the ECMO patient, followed by patient implementation in the CICU, followed by the PICU and NICU. The institution-wide conversion took several months to complete and was well received among all disciplines in the CICU and PICU. The NICU personnel did use the centrifugal pump circuit, but decided to revert back to using the roller pump technology. A systematic transition from roller pump to centrifugal pump technology with a multidisciplinary team can ensure a safe and successful implementation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Effect of Silicon Nitride Balls and Rollers on Rolling Bearing Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Vlcek, Brian L.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    Three decades have passed since the introduction of silicon nitride rollers and balls into conventional rolling-element bearings. For a given applied load, the contact (Hertz) stress in a hybrid bearing will be higher than an all-steel rolling-element bearing. The silicon nitride rolling-element life as well as the lives of the steel races were used to determine the resultant bearing life of both hybrid and all-steel bearings. Life factors were determined and reported for hybrid bearings. Under nominal operating speeds, the resultant calculated lives of the deep-groove, angular-contact, and cylindrical roller hybrid bearings with races made of post-1960 bearing steel increased by factors of 3.7, 3.2, and 5.5, respectively, from those calculated using the Lundberg-Palmgren equations. An all-steel bearing under the same load will have a longer life than the equivalent hybrid bearing under the same conditions. Under these conditions, hybrid bearings are predicted to have a lower fatigue life than all-steel bearings by 58 percent for deep-groove bearings, 41 percent for angular-contact bearings, and 28 percent for cylindrical roller bearings.

  2. Forces and mechanical energy fluctuations during diagonal stride roller skiing; running on wheels?

    PubMed

    Kehler, Alyse L; Hajkova, Eliska; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Kram, Rodger

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical energy can be conserved during terrestrial locomotion in two ways: the inverted pendulum mechanism for walking and the spring-mass mechanism for running. Here, we investigated whether diagonal stride cross-country roller skiing (DIA) utilizes similar mechanisms. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that running and DIA would share similar phase relationships and magnitudes of kinetic energy (KE), and gravitational potential energy (GPE) fluctuations, indicating elastic energy storage and return, as if roller skiing is like 'running on wheels'. Experienced skiers (N=9) walked and ran at 1.25 and 3 m s(-1), respectively, and roller skied with DIA at both speeds on a level dual-belt treadmill that recorded perpendicular and parallel forces. We calculated the KE and GPE of the center of mass from the force recordings. As expected, the KE and GPE fluctuated with an out-of-phase pattern during walking and an in-phase pattern during running. Unlike walking, during DIA, the KE and GPE fluctuations were in phase, as they are in running. However, during the glide phase, KE was dissipated as frictional heat and could not be stored elastically in the tendons, as in running. Elastic energy storage and return epitomize running and thus we reject our hypothesis. Diagonal stride cross-country skiing is a biomechanically unique movement that only superficially resembles walking or running. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Effects of frequency on gross efficiency and performance in roller ski skating.

    PubMed

    Leirdal, S; Sandbakk, O; Ettema, G

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of frequency on efficiency and performance during G3 roller ski skating. Eight well-trained male cross-country skiers performed three submaximal 5-min speeds (10, 13, and 16 km/h) and a time-to-exhaustion (TTE) performance (at 20 km/h) using the G3 skating technique using freely chosen, high, and low frequency at all four speeds. All tests were done using roller skis on a large treadmill at 5% incline. Gross efficiency (GE) was calculated as power divided by metabolic rate. Power was calculated as the sum of power against frictional forces and power against gravity. Metabolic rate was calculated from oxygen consumption and blood lactate concentration. Freely chosen frequency increased from 60 to 70 strokes/min as speed increased from 10 to 20 km/h. GE increased with power. At high power (20 km/h performance test), both efficiency and performance were significantly reduced by high frequency. In regard to choice of frequency during G3 roller ski skating, cross-country skiers seems to be self-optimized both in relation to energy saving (efficiency) and performance (TTE). © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Intermittent stick-slip dynamics during the peeling of an adhesive tape from a roller.

    PubMed

    Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Guerra, Claudia; Cohen, Caroline; Ciccotti, Matteo; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc

    2013-02-01

    We study experimentally the fracture dynamics during the peeling at a constant velocity of a roller adhesive tape mounted on a freely rotating pulley. Thanks to a high speed camera, we measure, in an intermediate range of peeling velocities, high frequency oscillations between phases of slow and rapid propagation of the peeling fracture. This so-called stick-slip regime is well known as the consequence of a decreasing fracture energy of the adhesive in a certain range of peeling velocity coupled to the elasticity of the peeled tape. Simultaneously with stick slip, we observe low frequency oscillations of the adhesive roller angular velocity which are the consequence of a pendular instability of the roller submitted to the peeling force. The stick-slip dynamics is shown to become intermittent due to these slow pendular oscillations which produce a quasistatic oscillation of the peeling angle while keeping constant the peeling fracture velocity (averaged over each stick-slip cycle). The observed correlation between the mean peeling angle and the stick-slip amplitude questions the validity of the usually admitted independence with the peeling angle of the fracture energy of adhesives.

  5. Feasibility study of a discrete bearing/roller drive rotary joint for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Schuller, F. T.

    1986-01-01

    The most critical mechanism on board the proposed space station is the continously rotating joint which must accurately align the solar power units with the sun during earth orbit. The feasibility of a multiple, discrete bearing supported joint driven by a self-loading, pinch drive actuator was investigated for this application. This concept appears to offer greater protection against catastrophic jamming, less sensitivity to adverse thermal gradients, greater accessibility to inorbit servicing or replacement and greater adaptability to very large (5 m) truss members than to more conventional continuous support bearing/gear reducer joints. Analytical trade studies performed herein establish that a discrete cam roller bearing support system having eight hangers around a continuous ring would provide sufficient radial and bending stiffness to prevent any degradation in the fundamental frequencies of the solar wing structure. Furthermore, it appears that the pinch roller drive mechanism can be readily sized to meet or exceed system performance and service life requirements. Wear life estimates based on experimental data for a steel roller coated with an advanced polyimide film show a continuous service life more than two orders of magnitude greater than required for this application.

  6. Design and Operating Characteristics of High-Speed, Small-Bore Cylindrical-Roller Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinel, Stanley, I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2000-01-01

    The computer program SHABERTH was used to analyze 35-mm-bore cylindrical roller bearings designed and manufactured for high-speed turbomachinery applications. Parametric tests of the bearings were conducted on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester and the results were compared with the computer predictions. Bearings with a channeled inner ring were lubricated through the inner ring, while bearings with a channeled outer ring were lubricated with oil jets. Tests were run with and without outer-ring cooling. The predicted bearing life decreased with increasing speed because of increased contact stresses caused by centrifugal load. Lower temperatures, less roller skidding, and lower power losses were obtained with channeled inner rings. Power losses calculated by the SHABERTH computer program correlated reasonably well with the test results. The Parker formula for XCAV (used in SHABERTH as a measure of oil volume in the bearing cavity) needed to be adjusted to reflect the prevailing operating conditions. The XCAV formula will need to be further refined to reflect roller bearing lubrication, ring design, cage design, and location of the cage-controlling land.

  7. Scale up of diesel oil biodegradation in a baffled roller bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Nikakhtari, Hossein; Song, Wanning; Kumar, Pardeep; Nemati, Mehdi; Hill, Gordon A

    2010-05-01

    Diesel oil is a suitable substance to represent petroleum contamination from accidental spills in operating and transportation facilities. Using a microbial culture enriched from a petroleum contaminated soil, biodegradation of diesel oil was carried out in 2.2, 55, and 220 L roller baffled bioreactors. The effects of bioreactor rotation speed (from 5 to 45 rpm) and liquid loading (from 18% to 73% of total volume) on the biodegradation of diesel oil were studied. In the small scale bioreactor (2.2L), the maximum rotation speed of 45 rpm resulted in the highest biodegradation rate with a first order biodegradation kinetic constant of 0.095 d(-1). In the larger scale bioreactors, rotation speed did not affect the biodegradation rate. Liquid loadings higher than 64% resulted in reduced biodegradation rates in the small scale bioreactor; however, in the larger roller bioreactors liquid loading did not affect the biodegradation rate. Biodegradation of diesel oil at 5 rpm and 73% loading is recommended for operating large scale roller baffled bioreactors. Under these conditions, high diesel oil concentrations up to 50 gL(-1) can be bioremediated at a rate of 1.61 gL(-1)d(-1). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Granule fraction inhomogeneity of calcium carbonate/sorbitol in roller compacted granules.

    PubMed

    Bacher, C; Olsen, P M; Bertelsen, P; Sonnergaard, J M

    2008-02-12

    The granule fraction inhomogeneity of roller compacted granules was examined on mixtures of three different morphologic forms of calcium carbonate and three particle sizes of sorbitol. The granule fraction inhomogeneity was determined by the distribution of the calcium carbonate in each of the 10 size fractions between 0 and 2000 microm and by calculating the demixing potential. Significant inhomogeneous occurrence of calcium carbonate in the size fractions was demonstrated, depending mostly on the particles sizes of sorbitol but also on the morphological forms of calcium carbonate. The heterogeneous distribution of calcium carbonate was related to the decrease in compactibility of roller compacted granules in comparison to the ungranulated materials. This phenomenon was explained by a mechanism where fracturing of the ribbon during granulation occurred at the weakest interparticulate bonds (the calcium carbonate: calcium carbonate bonds) and consequently exposed the weakest areas of bond formation on the surface of the granules. Accordingly, the non-uniform allocation of the interparticulate attractive forces in a tablet would cause a lowering of the compactibility. Furthermore, the ability of the powder to agglomerate in the roller compactor was demonstrated to be related to the ability of the powder to be compacted into a tablet, thus the most compactable calcium carbonate and the smallest sized sorbitol improved the homogeneity by decreasing the demixing potential.

  9. Analysis of Three-Dimensional Roller Performance in a Micro-g Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, B.; Shook, L.; Hossaini, L.; Cohen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 960 hours of extravehicular activity (EVA), or spacewalks, are planned for the construction of the International Space Station over the next six years. This is over two-and-a-half times the total number of EVA hours accumulated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the past 35 years of U.S. spaceflight. Therefore, it is advantageous to explore ways to assist astronauts in being more efficient while working in space. The Space Systems Laboratory at the University of Maryland is investigating ways of improving conventional ratcheting tools that do not work effectively in confined spaces and have been seen to exhibit other limitations that restrict their use during EVA. By replacing the traditional ratchet mechanism with a NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center-developed three-dimensional (3-D) sprag and roller mechanism, ratcheting tools can be made more efficient. In October of 1998, a 3-D roller mechanism was flown on space shuttle mission STS-95 as part of the Space Experiment Module program. The goal of the experiment was to quantify the roller's performance when operating for an extended period in a micro-g environment. This paper discusses the design of the experiment, as well as the results obtained.

  10. The dynamic analysis of drum roll lathe for machining of rollers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Zheng; Wu, Dongxu; Wang, Bo; Li, Guo; Wang, Huiming; Ding, Fei

    2014-08-01

    An ultra-precision machine tool for machining of the roller has been designed and assembled, and due to the obvious impact which dynamic characteristic of machine tool has on the quality of microstructures on the roller surface, the dynamic characteristic of the existing machine tool is analyzed in this paper, so is the influence of circumstance that a large scale and slender roller is fixed in the machine on dynamic characteristic of the machine tool. At first, finite element model of the machine tool is built and simplified, and based on that, the paper carries on with the finite element mode analysis and gets the natural frequency and shaking type of four steps of the machine tool. According to the above model analysis results, the weak stiffness systems of machine tool can be further improved and the reasonable bandwidth of control system of the machine tool can be designed. In the end, considering the shock which is caused by Z axis as a result of fast positioning frequently to feeding system and cutting tool, transient analysis is conducted by means of ANSYS analysis in this paper. Based on the results of transient analysis, the vibration regularity of key components of machine tool and its impact on cutting process are explored respectively.

  11. Optical Fiber On-Line Detection System for Non-Touch Monitoring Roller Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y.; Wang, Y. T.

    2006-10-01

    Basing on the principle of reflective displacement fiber-optic sensor, a high accuracy non-touch on-line optical fiber measurement system for roller shape is presented. The principle and composition of the detection system and the operation process are expatiated also. By using a novel probe of three optical fibers in equal transverse space, the effects of fluctuations in the light source, reflective changing of target surface and the intensity losses in the fiber lines are automatically compensated. Meantime, an optical fiber sensor model of correcting static error based on BP artificial neural network (ANN) is set up. Also by using interpolation method and value filtering to process the signals, effectively reduce the influence of random noise and the vibration of the roller bearing. So enhance the accuracy and resolution remarkably. Experiment proves that the accuracy of the system reach to the demand of practical production process, it provides a new method for the high speed, accurate and automatic on line detection of the mill roller shape.

  12. Evaluation of a high-torque backlash-free roller actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Rohn, Douglas A.; Anderson, William

    1986-01-01

    The results are presented of a test program that evaluated the stiffness, accuracy, torque ripple, frictional losses, and torque holding capability of a 16:1 ratio, 430 N-m (320 ft-lb) planetary roller drive for a potential space vehicle actuator application. The drive's planet roller supporting structure and bearings were found to be the largest contributors to overall drive compliance, accounting for more than half of the total. In comparison, the traction roller contacts themselves contributed only 9 percent of the drive's compliance based on an experimentally verified stiffness model. The drive exhibited no backlash although 8 arc sec of hysteresis deflection were recorded due to microcreep within the contact under torque load. Because of these load-dependent displacements, some form of feedback control would be required for arc second positioning applications. Torque ripple tests showed the drive to be extremely smooth, actually providing some damping of input torsional oscillations. The drive also demonstrated the ability to hold static torque with drifts of 7 arc sec or less over a 24 hr period at 35 percent of full load.

  13. Dynamic Analysis of the Temperature and the Concentration Profiles of an Industrial Rotary Kiln Used in Clinker Production.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Diulia C Q; Soares, Atílio P; Costa, Esly F; Costa, Andréa O S

    2017-01-01

    Cement is one of the most used building materials in the world. The process of cement production involves numerous and complex reactions that occur under different temperatures. Thus, there is great interest in the optimization of cement manufacturing. Clinker production is one of the main steps of cement production and it occurs inside the kiln. In this paper, the dry process of clinker production is analysed in a rotary kiln that operates in counter flow. The main phenomena involved in clinker production is as follows: free residual water evaporation of raw material, decomposition of magnesium carbonate, decarbonation, formation of C3A and C4AF, formation of dicalcium silicate, and formation of tricalcium silicate. The main objective of this study was to propose a mathematical model that realistically describes the temperature profile and the concentration of clinker components in a real rotary kiln. In addition, the influence of different speeds of inlet gas and solids in the system was analysed. The mathematical model is composed of partial differential equations. The model was implemented in Mathcad (available at CCA/UFES) and solved using industrial input data. The proposal model is satisfactory to describe the temperature and concentration profiles of a real rotary kiln.

  14. THE FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A VENTURI/PACKED COLUMN SCRUBBER - VOLUME II: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 5-week series of pilot-scale incineration tests, employing a synthetic waste feed, was performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with a venturi scrubber/p...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1343 - What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles? 63.1343 Section 63.1343 Protection of... What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles? (a..., clinker cooler, and raw material dryer. All dioxin D/F, HCl, and total hydrocarbon (THC) emission limits...

  16. Assessment of potential concerns associated with the use of cement kiln baghouse dust in FDOT concrete mixes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-08-01

    As a means of controlling mercury (Hg) stack emissions at cement kiln operations, some facilities have proposed or have instituted a practice known as dust shuttling, where baghouse filter dust (BFD) is routed to be blended with the final cement prod...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1343 - What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles? 63.1343 Section 63.1343 Protection of... What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles? (a..., clinker cooler, and raw material dryer. All dioxin D/F, HCl, and total hydrocarbon (THC) emission limits...

  18. Gaseous pollutants from brick kiln industry decreased the growth, photosynthesis, and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shah, Aamir Mehmood; Abbas, Farhat; Saleem, Farhan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Jabeen, Fariha; Ali, Shafaqat

    2016-05-01

    Gaseous pollutant emissions from brick kiln industries deteriorate the current state of ambient air quality in Pakistan and worldwide. These gaseous pollutants affect the health of plants and may decrease plant growth and yield. A field experiment that was conducted to monitor the concentration of gaseous pollutants emitted mainly from brick kilns in the ambient air and associated impacts on the growth and physiological attributes of the two wheat (Triticum spp.) cultivars. Plants were grown at three sites, including control (Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, AARI), low pollution (LP) site (Small Estate Industry), and high pollution (HP) site (Sidar Bypass), of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Monitoring of ambient air pollution at experimental sites was carried out using the state-of-art ambient air analyzers. Plants were harvested after 120 days of germination and were analyzed for different growth attributes. Results showed that the hourly average concentration of gaseous air pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, and PM10 at HP site were significantly higher than the LP and control sites. Similarly, gaseous pollutants decreased plant height, straw and grain yield, photosynthesis and increased physical injury, and metal concentrations in the grains. However, wheat response toward gaseous pollutants did not differ between cultivars (Galaxy and 8173) studied. Overall, the results indicated that brick kiln emissions could reduce the performance of wheat grown in the soils around kilns and confirm the adverse impacts of pollutants on the growth, yield, and quality of the wheat.

  19. New Medium for Isolation of Bacteria From Cement Kiln Dust with a Potential to Apply in Bio-Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshalif, A. F.; Irwan, J. M.; Othman, N.; Al-Gheethi, A.

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to introduce a new isolation medium named kiln dust medium (KDM) for recovering of bacteria from cement kiln dust with high pH (>pH 11) without the need for nutrients additives. The cement kiln dust samples were collected from five different areas of Cement Industries of Malaysia Berhad (CIMA). The bacterial isolates were recovered on KDM by direct plating technique. The chemical components for all collected samples were identified using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The primary identification for the bacterial isolates indicated that these bacteria belongs to Bacillus spp. Based on the morphological characteristics. The growth curve of the bacterial strains was monitored using the optical density (OD) with 650 nm wavelength, which in role confirmed that all isolated bacteria had the ability to grow successfully in the proposed medium. The ability of the bacterial strains to grow at high pH reflects their potential in the bio-concrete applications (aerated and non-aerated concrete). These findings indicated that the cement kiln dust samples from Cement Industries represent the most appropriate source for bacteria used in the bioconcrete.

  20. Effects of co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln on NOx, NH3 and PAHs emissions.

    PubMed

    Lv, Dong; Zhu, Tianle; Liu, Runwei; Lv, Qingzhi; Sun, Ye; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Fan

    2016-09-01

    The effects of co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln on NOx, NH3 and PAHs emissions were systematically investigated in a cement production line in Beijing. The results show that co-processing the sewage sludge was helpful to reduce NOx emission, which primarily depends on the NH3 amount released from the sewage sludge. Meanwhile, NOx and NH3 concentrations in the flue gas have a negative correlation, and the contribution of feeding the sewage sludge to NOx removal decreased with the increase of injection amount of ammonia water in the SNCR system. Therefore, it is suggested that the injection amount of ammonia water in SNCR system may reduce to cut down the operating costs during co-processing the sewage sludge in cement kiln. In addition, the emission of total PAHs seems to increase with the increased amount of the sewage sludge feeding to the cement kiln. However, the distributions of PAHs were barely changed, and lower molecular weight PAHs were mainly distributed in gaseous phase, accounted for the major portion of PAHs when co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/Biochar Production.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Pandit, Naba Raj; Taylor, Paul; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Sparrevik, Magnus; Schmidt, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis of organic waste or woody materials yields charcoal, a stable carbonaceous product that can be used for cooking or mixed into soil, in the latter case often termed "biochar". Traditional kiln technologies for charcoal production are slow and without treatment of the pyrolysis gases, resulting in emissions of gases (mainly methane and carbon monoxide) and aerosols that are both toxic and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In retort kilns pyrolysis gases are led back to a combustion chamber. This can reduce emissions substantially, but is costly and consumes a considerable amount of valuable ignition material such as wood during start-up. To overcome these problems, a novel type of technology, the Kon-Tiki flame curtain pyrolysis, is proposed. This technology combines the simplicity of the traditional kiln with the combustion of pyrolysis gases in the flame curtain (similar to retort kilns), also avoiding use of external fuel for start-up. A field study in Nepal using various feedstocks showed char yields of 22 ± 5% on a dry weight basis and 40 ± 11% on a C basis. Biochars with high C contents (76 ± 9%; n = 57), average surface areas (11 to 215 m2 g-1), low EPA16-PAHs (2.3 to 6.6 mg kg-1) and high CECs (43 to 217 cmolc/kg)(average for all feedstocks, mainly woody shrubs) were obtained, in compliance with the European Biochar Certificate (EBC). Mean emission factors for the flame curtain kilns were (g kg-1 biochar for all feedstocks); CO2 = 4300 ± 1700, CO = 54 ± 35, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) = 6 ± 3, CH4 = 30 ± 60, aerosols (PM10) = 11 ± 15, total products of incomplete combustion (PIC) = 100 ± 83 and NOx = 0.4 ± 0.3. The flame curtain kilns emitted statistically significantly (p<0.05) lower amounts of CO, PIC and NOx than retort and traditional kilns, and higher amounts of CO2. With benefits such as high quality biochar, low emission, no need for start-up fuel, fast pyrolysis time and, importantly, easy and cheap

  2. Quantification of atmospheric emissions and energy metrics from simulated clamp kiln technology in the clay brick industry.

    PubMed

    Akinshipe, Oladapo; Kornelius, Gerrit

    2018-05-01

    The quantification of atmospheric emissions from clamp kilns in the clay brick industry has met with limited success globally. The complex configuration of clamp kilns using coal or other carbonaceous fuels and uncertainties regarding kiln combustion conditions, has proven to be a hurdle in measurement of emissions and standardization of process and energy metrics. To enable quantification of these metrics, a model kiln was designed to simulate operating conditions and configuration similar to transverse slice of a typical full-scale clamp kiln, but with lower capacity (20,000 to 35,000 bricks per cycle). Hourly measurements of flue gas at extraction duct were recorded for thirteen firing cycles obtained from various source factories, each lasting 8-14 days, for SO 2 , NO 2 , NO, PM, CO and CO 2 emissions in the extraction stack. A statistical mean efficiency for model kiln emissions capturing and channelling capacity was calculated from sulfur mass balance results of batches that lie within 95% confidence interval of assumed true mean (100%) to give 84.2%. Final emission factors (mean ± standard deviation) were quantified as 22.5 ± 18.8 g/brick for CO, 0.14 ± 0.1 g/brick for NO, 0.0 g/brick for NO 2 , 0.14 ± 0.1 g/brick for NO x , 1.07 ± 0.7 g/brick for SO 2 , 378 ± 223 g/brick for CO 2 ; 0.96 ± 0.5 g/brick for PM 10 ; as well as 1.53 g/brick for hydrocarbons. Energy analysis indicate that a significant reduction of 0.9 MJ/kg (36%) in energy use could be achieved by clamp kiln operators, thereby reducing input costs, and significantly reducing atmospheric emissions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development ceramic composites based on Al2O3, SiO2 and IG-017 additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurovics, E.; Shmakova, A.; Kanev, B.; Gömze, L. A.

    2017-02-01

    Based on high purity alumina and quartz powders and IG-017 bio-original additives the authors have developed new ceramic composite materials for different industrial purposes. The main goal was to fine a material and morphological structures of high performance ceramic composites as frames for development complex materials for extreme consumptions in the future. For this the mixed powders of Al2O3 , SiO2 and IG-017 bio-original additive were uniaxially pressed at different compaction pressures into disc shapes and were sintered in electric kiln under air (1) and nitrogrn (2) atmosphere. The grain size distributions of the raw materials were determined by laser granulometry. There thermo-physical properties were also determined by derivatography. The prepared and sintered specimens were tested on geometrical sizes, microstructure and morphology by scanning electron microscopy, porosity and water absorption. In this work the authors present the results of their research and investigation.

  4. Industrial Ceramics: Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The expanding use of ceramic products in today's world can be seen in the areas of communications, construction, aerospace, textiles, metallurgy, atomic energy, and electronics. The demands of science have brought ceramics from an art to an industry using mass production and automated processes which requires the services of great numbers as the…

  5. Kiln control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Bob

    2016-03-01

    In reply to the feature article “Bubble signatures revealed in antique artefacts” by Stephen C Wallace and Geraldine Kenney-Wallace (January pp34-38) about how physics can help to tell a real antique porcelain object from a fake.

  6. Method of making a modified ceramic-ceramic composite

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Billy L.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Stinton, David P.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of making a shaped ceramic-ceramic composite articles, such as gas-fired radiant heat burner tubes, heat exchangers, flame dispersers, and other furnace elements, having a formed-on ceramic-ceramic composite thereon.

  7. Validation of a Functional Pyelocalyceal Renal Model for the Evaluation of Renal Calculi Passage While Riding a Roller Coaster.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Marc A; Wartinger, David D

    2016-10-01

    The identification and evaluation of activities capable of dislodging calyceal renal calculi require a patient surrogate or validated functional pyelocalyceal renal model. To evaluate roller coaster facilitation of calyceal renal calculi passage using a functional pyelocalyceal renal model. A previously described adult ureteroscopy and renoscopy simulator (Ideal Anatomic) was modified and remolded to function as a patient surrogate. Three renal calculi of different sizes from the patient who provided the original computed tomographic urograph on which the simulator was based were used. The renal calculi were suspended in urine in the model and taken for 20 rides on the Big Thunder Mountain Railroad roller coaster at Walt Disney World in Orlando, Florida. The roller coaster rides were analyzed using variables of renal calculi volume, calyceal location, model position on the roller coaster, and renal calculi passage. Sixty renal calculi rides were analyzed. Independent of renal calculi volume and calyceal location, front seating on the roller coaster resulted in a passage rate of 4 of 24. Independent of renal calculi volume and calyceal location, rear seating on the roller coaster resulted in a passage rate of 23 of 36. Independent of renal calculi volume in rear seating, calyceal location differed in passage rates, with an upper calyceal calculi passage rate of 100%; a middle calyceal passage rate of 55.6%; and a lower calyceal passage rate of 40.0%. The functional pyelocalyceal renal model serves as a functional patient surrogate to evaluate activities that facilitate calyceal renal calculi passage. The rear seating position on the roller coaster led to the most renal calculi passages.

  8. Ceramic heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    LaHaye, Paul G.; Rahman, Faress H.; Lebeau, Thomas P. E.; Severin, Barbara K.

    1998-01-01

    A tube containment system. The tube containment system does not significantly reduce heat transfer through the tube wall. The contained tube is internally pressurized, and is formed from a ceramic material having high strength, high thermal conductivity, and good thermal shock resistance. The tube containment system includes at least one ceramic fiber braid material disposed about the internally pressurized tube. The material is disposed about the tube in a predetermined axial spacing arrangement. The ceramic fiber braid is present in an amount sufficient to contain the tube if the tube becomes fractured. The tube containment system can also include a plurality of ceramic ring-shaped structures, in contact with the outer surface of the tube, and positioned between the tube and the ceramic fiber braid material, and/or at least one transducer positioned within tube for reducing the internal volume and, therefore, the energy of any shrapnel resulting from a tube fracture.

  9. Ceramic heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    LaHaye, P.G.; Rahman, F.H.; Lebeau, T.P.; Severin, B.K.

    1998-06-16

    A tube containment system is disclosed. The tube containment system does not significantly reduce heat transfer through the tube wall. The contained tube is internally pressurized, and is formed from a ceramic material having high strength, high thermal conductivity, and good thermal shock resistance. The tube containment system includes at least one ceramic fiber braid material disposed about the internally pressurized tube. The material is disposed about the tube in a predetermined axial spacing arrangement. The ceramic fiber braid is present in an amount sufficient to contain the tube if the tube becomes fractured. The tube containment system can also include a plurality of ceramic ring-shaped structures, in contact with the outer surface of the tube, and positioned between the tube and the ceramic fiber braid material, and/or at least one transducer positioned within tube for reducing the internal volume and, therefore, the energy of any shrapnel resulting from a tube fracture. 6 figs.

  10. Mounting for ceramic scroll

    DOEpatents

    Petty, Jack D.

    1993-01-01

    A mounting for a ceramic scroll on a metal engine block of a gas turbine engine includes a first ceramic ring and a pair of cross key connections between the first ceramic ring, the ceramic scroll, and the engine block. The cross key connections support the scroll on the engine block independent of relative radial thermal growth and for bodily movement toward an annular mounting shoulder on the engine. The scroll has an uninterrupted annular shoulder facing the mounting shoulder on the engine block. A second ceramic ring is captured between mounting shoulder and the uninterrupted shoulder on the scroll when the latter is bodily shifted toward the mouting shoulder to define a gas seal between the scroll and the engine block.

  11. Strain isolated ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolokan, R. P.; Brady, J. B.; Jarrabet, G. P.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are used in gas turbine engines to improve component temperature capability and cooling air efficiency. A compliant metal fiber strain isolator between a plasma sprayed ceramic coating and a metal substrate improves ceramic durability while allowing thicker coatings for better insulation. Development of strain isolated coatings has concentrated on design and fabrication of coatings and coating evaluation via thermal shock testing. In thermal shock testing, five types of failure are possible: buckling failure im compression on heat up, bimetal type failure, isothermal expansion mismatch failure, mudflat cracking during cool down, and long term fatigue. A primary failure mode for thermally cycled coatings is designated bimetal type failure. Bimetal failure is tensile failure in the ceramic near the ceramic-metal interface. One of the significant benefits of the strain isolator is an insulating layer protecting the metal substrate from heat deformation and thereby preventing bimetal type failure.

  12. Ferronickel Preparation from Nickeliferous Laterite by Rotary Kiln-Electric Furnace Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guanghui; Jia, Hao; Luo, Jun; Peng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yuanbo; Jiang, Tao

    Nickel is an important strategic metal, which is mainly used for stainless steel production. In the recent years, ferronickel has been used as a substitute for electrolytic nickel for alleviating the cost of stainless steel production. Rotary kiln-electric furnace (RKEF) smelting is currently the world-wide mainstreaming process for ferronickel production from nickeliferous laterite ore, in spite of the high power consumption. In this study, aiming to provide some meaningful guidance for ferronickel production of RKEF smelting, reductive roasting followed by smelting process was carried out. The conditions including reducing parameters (roasting temperature and time) and smelting parameters (coke dosage, CaO dosage, melting temperature and time) were ascertained. The metal recovery ratios, as well as Ni, Fe, S and P content of ferronickel were considered. The results showed that a ferronickel containing 10. 32 wt. % Ni was obtained from a laterite with 1. 85 wt. % Ni, the nickel recovery ratio was about 99%.

  13. The effect of sintering time on recycled magnesia brick from kiln of the cement plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, B. B.; Rosalina, D.; Azhar; Amin, M.

    2018-01-01

    This research aim was to investigate the effect of sintering time on reuse waste of magnesia brick from the rotary kiln of the cement plant. Reuse of the magnesia brick was carried out by mixed the kaolin as the binder. Spent refractory was used as aggregate with the composition of 85% spent refractory and 15% kaolin clay, respectively. The reuse brick then was molded with the size of 5x5x5 cm using hydraulic press under a load of 10 tons in order to forms green body. Green body then dried and sintered at 1200 °C with time variation of 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours and 10 hours, respectively. Thus, for comparison reuse brick was tested to its apparent porosity, the bulk density, and Cold Crushing Strength (CCS). The effect of kaolin addition as binder was also discussed.

  14. The primary evaluation and characterization of obsolete DDT pesticide from a precalciner of a cement kiln.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei; He, Jie

    2014-01-01

    1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bi(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) pesticide that has been extensively used in agriculture in China in the last century, and even now, has been banned from all purposes. The disposal of obsolete DDT pesticide has been an urgent task for the Chinese government. In order to evaluate the feasibility of co-processing DDT in the current new style dry-process rotary kiln with a precalciner as the feeding point, the destruction efficiency (DE) of DDTs (including p,p(')-DDT, o,p(')-DDT, p,p(')-DDE and p,p(')-DDD), proportion of DDTs in the combustion residue and exhaust gas, and the release of chlorine were studied under different operating conditions of temperature, oxygen content and gas retention time in the laboratory. The DE of DDTs exceeded 99% when the temperature was over 800 °C with enough oxygen. As the temperature increased from 600 °C to 1200 °C, the proportion of p,p(')-DDD increased and p,p(')-DDT decreased but still the main effective component remained in the combustion residue. In the exhaust gas, the most dominant phenomenon was the rapid increase in p,p(')-DDE concentration as the temperature increased. The release of chlorine reached a peak between 800 °C and 900 °C. It was found that the oxygen content had a positive correlation with the process of dechlorination. The proportion of p,p(')-DDE increased as the oxygen content was increased in the exhaust gas. The gas retention time had almost no influenced on the DE of DDTs, but affected the degradation extent of DDTs in the gas phase. These experiments showed that co-processing of obsolete DDT pesticide in cement kiln precalciners is feasible.

  15. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cement kiln dust for potential reuse in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Salem, W M; Sayed, W F; Halawy, S A; Elamary, R B

    2015-09-01

    Cement kiln dust (CKD), a byproduct of cement manufacturing process, was collected from Misr Cement Co. at Qena, Egypt. CKD was characterized by X-ray diffraction and FTIR analysis. This byproduct was investigated for its physical-chemical characters, antibacterial activities on sewage water and the presence of nematode, parasites and algae in the treated water. The efficiency of CKD-treated water was also examined on Hibiscus sabdarriffa seed germination. Total bacteria, total and fecal coliform, as well as fecal streptococci were completely inhibited by CKD. Interestingly, zinc, manganese, iron, nickel and lead were completely absent from sewage water as these metals precipitated after treatment with 10gl(-1) CKD. On the other hand, among all the tested plant criteria, only root length was significantly reduced by 55% and 15% after zero and 3 days of CKD addition respectively compared to control. Furthermore, plant lipid peroxidation showed no significant differences between treated sewage water and control after zero and 3 days time addition of CKD. Catalase enzyme activity showed significant decrease by 56% and 64%, while peroxidase activity significantly increased up to 49% and 63% compared to untreated sewage after zero and 3 days of treatment, respectively. The absorption of lead, iron and copper by treated and untreated plants showed no significant differences. Chromium ions were highly absorbed (0.075mgl(-1)) by plants irrigated only with treated sewage water at zero time, and decreased gradually to 0.018mgl(-1) after 3 days of CKD addition. This study highlighted the efficiency of cement kiln dust as an antibacterial agent and its ability of scavenging heavy metals leading to the use of treated sewage water in activities such as crop irrigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ceramics for engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiser, James D.; Levine, Stanley R.; Dicarlo, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Structural ceramics were under nearly continuous development for various heat engine applications since the early 1970s. These efforts were sustained by the properties that ceramics offer in the areas of high-temperature strength, environmental resistance, and low density and the large benefits in system efficiency and performance that can result. The promise of ceramics was not realized because their brittle nature results in high sensitivity to microscopic flaws and catastrophic fracture behavior. This translated into low reliability for ceramic components and thus limited their application in engines. For structural ceramics to successfully make inroads into the terrestrial heat engine market requires further advances in low cost, net shape fabrication of high reliability components, and improvements in properties such as toughness, and strength. These advances will lead to very limited use of ceramics in noncritical applications in aerospace engines. For critical aerospace applications, an additional requirement is that the components display markedly improved toughness and noncatastrophic or graceful fracture. Thus the major emphasis is on fiber-reinforced ceramics.

  17. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael E.; Harkins, Bruce D.

    1993-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  18. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

    1993-11-30

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

  19. 40 CFR Table Aa-2 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for CH4 and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for CH4 and N2O AA Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. AA, Table AA -2 Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98—Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner...

  20. Spacecraft ceramic protective shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larriva, Rene F. (Inventor); Nelson, Anne (M.); Czechanski, James G. (Inventor); Poff, Ray E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A low areal density protective shield apparatus, and method for making same, for protecting spacecraft structures from impact with hypervelocity objects, including a bumper member comprising a bumper ceramic layer, a bumper shock attenuator layer, and a bumper confining layer. The bumper ceramic layer can be SiC or B.sub.4 C; the bumper shock attenuator layer can be zirconia felt; and the bumper confining layer can be aluminum. A base armor member can be spaced from the bumper member and a ceramic fiber-based curtain can be positioned between the bumper and base armor members.

  1. Anaerobic threshold assessment through the ventilatory method during roller-ski skating testing: right or wrong?

    PubMed

    Fabre, Nicolas; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Pellegrini, Barbara; Zerbini, Livio; Mourot, Laurent; Schena, Federico

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed at questioning the validity of the ventilatory method to determine the anaerobic threshold (respiratory compensation point [RCP]) during an incremental roller-ski skating test to exhaustion. Nine elite crosscountry skiers were evaluated. The skiers carried out an incremental roller-ski test on a treadmill with the V2 skating technique. Ventilatory parameters were continuously collected breath by breath, thanks to a portable gas exchange measurement system. Poling signal was obtained using instrumented ski poles. For each stage, ventilatory and poling signals were synchronized and averaged. The poor coefficient of interobserver reliability for the time at RCP confirmed the great difficulty felt by the 3 blinded reviewers for the RCP determination. Moreover, the reviewer agreed with the impossibility of determining RCP in 4 of the 9 skiers. There was no significant difference between breathing frequency (Bf) and poling frequency (Pf) during the last 8 stages. However, it seems that the differences observed during the first stages arose from the use of either a strictly 1:1 or a 1:2 Bf to Pf ratio when the exercise intensity was still moderate. So, even if there were significant differences between the frequencies, the Bf was strictly subordinate to the Pf during the entire test. In the same way, the normalized tidal volume and peak poling forces curves were superposable. These findings showed that when the upper body is mainly involved in the propulsion, the determinants of the ventilation are strictly dependent on the poling pattern during an incremental test to exhaustion. Thus, during roller-ski skating, the determination of RCP must be used cautiously because too much depending on mechanical factors.

  2. Cycling on rollers: influence of tyre pressure and cross section on power requirements.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Raoul; Watt, Jon; Peterson, Michael

    2003-07-01

    The resistance against a cyclist while riding on rollers is due mainly to rolling resistance produced by the deformation of the tyre as it rolls against small diameter drums. Resistance is then combined with wheel speed to set power output. The effect of tyre pressure and cross-section on power was investigated by systematically altering the pressure (552 kPa, 690 kPa, and 827 KPa) in a 20c, 23c, 25c, and 28c tyre of the same design while riding at a wheel speed of 45 kph. Average power over 1 minute was measured with a Power Tap Hub (Tune Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) on five occasions. Statistical significance was evaluated at p < 0.05. Power requirements increased significantly with each reduction in tyre pressure for all tyres and pressures except the 25c between 690 and 827 kPa. The 20c tyre required significantly more power from the cyclist at each tested tyre pressure when compared to the other tyres (which were not different from each other). The differences in resistance from tyre size were not observed when ridden on the road. Additionally, a slightly different tyre design from the same manufacturer responded similarly in the 20c, but was significantly different in the 23c size. It was also observed that power requirements increased significantly when both the wheels were ridden on the rollers as compared to just the rear wheel. These results indicate that the power requirements may be significantly altered by the cyclist by adjusting tyre pressure, tyre cross-section size, tyre type, and with the number of wheels contacting the rollers. However, the magnitude of these power requirements may not be suitable for intense workouts of trained cyclists.

  3. Lubrication and Cooling Studies of Cylindrical-Roller Bearings at High Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E Fred; Nemeth, Zolton N

    1952-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of the effect of oil inlet distribution and oil inlet temperature on the inner and outer-race temperatures of 75-millimeter-bore (size 215) cylindrical-roller inner-race-riding cage-type bearings are reported. A radial-load test rig was used over a range of dn values (product of the bearing bore in mm and the shaft speed in r.p.m) from 0.3 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(6) and static radial loads from 7 to 1113 pounds.

  4. Abrasion Resistance and Mechanical Properties of Waste-Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Roller-compacted Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildizel, S. A.; Timur, O.; Ozturk, A. U.

    2018-05-01

    The potential use of waste glass fibers in roller-compacted concrete (RCC) was investigated with the aim to improve its performance and reduce environmental effects. The research was focused on the abrasion resistance and compressive and flexural strengths of the reinforced concrete relative to those of reference mixes without fibers. The freeze-thaw resistance of RCC mixes was also examined. It was found that the use of waste glass fibers at a rate of 2 % increased the abrasion resistance of the RCC mixes considerably.

  5. Analysis of crack propagation in roller bearings using the boundary integral equation method - A mixed-mode loading problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, L. J.

    1988-01-01

    Crack propagation in a rotating inner raceway of a high-speed roller bearing is analyzed using the boundary integral method. The model consists of an edge plate under plane strain condition upon which varying Hertzian stress fields are superimposed. A multidomain boundary integral equation using quadratic elements was written to determine the stress intensity factors KI and KII at the crack tip for various roller positions. The multidomain formulation allows the two faces of the crack to be modeled in two different subregions, making it possible to analyze crack closure when the roller is positioned on or close to the crack line. KI and KII stress intensity factors along any direction were computed. These calculations permit determination of crack growth direction along which the average KI times the alternating KI is maximum.

  6. Effects of different roller/crimper designs and rolling speed on rye cover crop termination and seedcotton yield in A no-till system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rollers/crimpers have been utilized in no-till systems to mechanically terminate cover crops as a substitute for chemical termination; however, excessive vibration generated by the original straight bar roller adopted from Brazil has delayed its adoption in the U.S. To reduce excessive vibration, pr...

  7. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-23

    Ceramic materials are disclosed which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200--550 C or organic salt (including SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) at temperatures of 25--200 C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components. 1 fig.

  8. Making Ceramic Cameras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squibb, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make a clay camera. This idea of creating functional cameras from clay allows students to experience ceramics, photography, and painting all in one unit. (Contains 1 resource and 3 online resources.)

  9. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    Ceramic materials which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  10. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Ceramic materials which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  11. Experiments with ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, E. K.; Rollins, C. T.

    1968-01-01

    Report describes the procedures and techniques used in the application of a ceramic coating and the evaluation of test parts through observation of the cracks that occur in this coating due to loading.

  12. Light emitting ceramic device

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Paul; Edwards, Doreen D.; Walker, Jr., William John; Slack, Lyle H.; Brown, Wayne Douglas; Osborne, Cathy; Norton, Michael; Begley, Richard

    2010-05-18

    A light-emitting ceramic based panel, hereafter termed "electroceramescent" panel, is herein claimed. The electroceramescent panel is formed on a substrate providing mechanical support as well as serving as the base electrode for the device. One or more semiconductive ceramic layers directly overlay the substrate, and electrical conductivity and ionic diffusion are controlled. Light emitting regions overlay the semiconductive ceramic layers, and said regions consist sequentially of a layer of a ceramic insulation layer and an electroluminescent layer, comprised of doped phosphors or the equivalent. One or more conductive top electrode layers having optically transmissive areas overlay the light emitting regions, and a multi-layered top barrier cover comprising one or more optically transmissive non-combustible insulation layers overlay said top electrode regions.

  13. Advanced Ceramics Property Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ceramic bodies can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. The Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, has developed dozens of consensus test standards and practices to measure various properties of a ceramic monolith, composite, or coating. The standards give the "what, how, how not, and why" for measurement of many mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results from your test lab, or another. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the C-28 standards and information on how to obtain individual copies with full details or the complete collection of standards in one volume.

  14. Ceramics for Solar Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudirka, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    Materials for high-temperature use reviewed. Report discusses characteristics of ceramics and assesses potential of candidate materials in solar receivers. Design requirements presented, including those for receiver with fluid exit temperatures up to 1,425 degrees C.

  15. Ceramic Solar Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar receiver uses ceramic honeycomb matrix to absorb heat from Sun and transfer it to working fluid at temperatures of 1,095 degrees and 1,650 degrees C. Drives gas turbine engine or provides heat for industrial processes.

  16. Cohering Behavior of Coal Ash with Pellet Scrap Powder and Relationship Between Coal Ash and Kiln Ringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong-bin; Zhang, Yan; Zhong, Qiang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Qian; Xu, Bin

    The occurrence of different ringing behaviors in oxidized pellet kiln for two kinds of coal (A and B) with similar properties, is difficult to explain based on the relationship between kiln ringing and coal properties. In this paper, the interaction of coal ash with pellet scrap powder was considered by studying the cohering behavior of powders consisting of them. The results showed that the cohering briquette strength of pellet scrap powder increased considerably when mixed with a small amount of coal ash; a maximum could be reached when the mass percent ratio of coal ash was 1.5%; the strength of powder mixed with coal B ash was always higher in same firing system. This obviously illustrated that coal B caused a more serious ringing problem. The relevant mechanism was that the stronger reactivity of coal B ash made cohering briquette have a more perfect crystallization and a more compact structure.

  17. Industrial hazardous waste treatment featuring a rotary kiln and grate furnace incinerator: a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pan; Ma, Zengyi; Yan, Jianhua; Chi, Yong; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2011-10-01

    As one of the fastest developing countries, China is facing severe problems concerning hazardous waste treatment and disposal. This paper presents a new incineration technology and demonstration project in eastern China. The incineration system includes a rotary kiln, a grate furnace for burning out the kiln residue and a flue gas post-combustion chamber. Flue gas treatment and emission control is based on: a quench tower, followed by dry hydrated lime and activated carbon injection, a dual bag filter system, and a wet scrubber. It demonstrated that this incineration technology can effectively dispose of industrial hazardous waste with variable and complex characteristics. Gas emissions meet the demands of the Chinese Environmental Protection Association standard.

  18. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  19. Tribology of Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Surface crystallography must be studied as modified by friction. Toughening and embrittling phase transformations have been discovered and modify the...2) dispersed ceramic whiskers, (3) long fiber rein- forcement, (4) precipitation , and (5) ductile metal phase . Each of these results in a...structure. Metastable structures of certain ceramics (Kingery et al., 1976) such as ZrO 2 allow a martensitic transformation under stress, which confers

  20. A 23.2:1 ratio, 300-watt, 26 N-m output torque, planetary roller-gear robotic transmission: Design and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Wyatt S.; Anderson, William J.; Shipitalo, William; Rohn, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    The design philosophy and measurements performed on a new roller-gear transmission prototype for a robotic manipulator are described. The design incorporates smooth rollers in a planetary configuration integrated with conventional toothed gears. The rollers were designed to handle low torque with low backlash and friction while the complementary gears support higher torques and prevent accumulated creep or slip of the rollers. The introduction of gears with finite numbers of teeth to function in parallel with the rollers imposes severe limits on available designs. Solutions for two-planet row designs are discussed. A two-planet row, four-planet design was conceived, fabricated, and tested. Detailed calculations of cluster geometry, gear stresses, and gear geometry are given. Measurement data reported here include transmission linearity, static and dynamic friction, inertia, backlash, stiffness, and forward and reverse efficiency. Initial test results are reported describing performance of the transmission in a servomechanism with torque feedback.

  1. A numerical model of a HIL scaled roller rig for simulation of wheel-rail degraded adhesion condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Roberto; Meli, Enrico; Pugi, Luca; Malvezzi, Monica; Bartolini, Fabio; Allotta, Benedetto; Rindi, Andrea; Toni, Paolo

    2012-05-01

    Scaled roller rigs used for railway applications play a fundamental role in the development of new technologies and new devices, combining the hardware in the loop (HIL) benefits with the reduction of the economic investments. The main problem of the scaled roller rig with respect to the full scale ones is the improved complexity due to the scaling factors. For this reason, before building the test rig, the development of a software model of the HIL system can be useful to analyse the system behaviour in different operative conditions. One has to consider the multi-body behaviour of the scaled roller rig, the controller and the model of the virtual vehicle, whose dynamics has to be reproduced on the rig. The main purpose of this work is the development of a complete model that satisfies the previous requirements and in particular the performance analysis of the controller and of the dynamical behaviour of the scaled roller rig when some disturbances are simulated with low adhesion conditions. Since the scaled roller rig will be used to simulate degraded adhesion conditions, accurate and realistic wheel-roller contact model also has to be included in the model. The contact model consists of two parts: the contact point detection and the adhesion model. The first part is based on a numerical method described in some previous studies for the wheel-rail case and modified to simulate the three-dimensional contact between revolute surfaces (wheel-roller). The second part consists in the evaluation of the contact forces by means of the Hertz theory for the normal problem and the Kalker theory for the tangential problem. Some numerical tests were performed, in particular low adhesion conditions were simulated, and bogie hunting and dynamical imbalance of the wheelsets were introduced. The tests were devoted to verify the robustness of control system with respect to some of the more frequent disturbances that may influence the roller rig dynamics. In particular we verified

  2. Profiled Roller Stress/Fatigue Life Analysis Methodology and Establishment of an Appropriate Stress/Life Exponent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the three dimensional volumetric stress field, surface pressure distribution and actual contact area between a 0.50" square roller with different crown profiles and a flat raceway surface using Finite Element Analysis. The 3-dimensional stress field data was used in conjunction with several bearing fatigue life theories to extract appropriate values for stress-life exponents. Also, results of the FEA runs were used to evaluate the laminated roller model presently used for stress and life prediction.

  3. Using acoustic analysis to presort warp-prone ponderosa pine 2 by 4s before kiln-drying

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; William T. Simpson

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of acoustic analysis as presorting criteria to identify warp-prone boards before kiln-drying. Dimension lumber, 38 by 89 mm (nominal 2 by 4 in.) and 2.44 m (8 it) long, sawn from open-grown small-diameter ponderosa pine trees, was acoustically tested lengthwise at green condition. Three acoustic properties (acoustic speed, rate of...

  4. Serrated kiln sticks and top load substantially reduce warp in southern pine studs dried at 240°F

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1974-01-01

    Sharply toothed aluminum kiln sticks pressed into 2 by 4's cut from veneer cores, with a clamping force of 50 to 200 pounds per stick-pair per stud, significantly reduced warp from that observed in matched studs stacked on smooth sticks with a top load of 10 pounds per stick-pair per stud. When dried in 24 hours to an average MC of 8.1 percent (standard deviation...

  5. Serrated kiln sticks and top load substantially reduce warp in southern pine studs dried at 240°F

    Treesearch

    P. Koch

    1974-01-01

    Sharply toothed luminum kiln sticks pressed into 2 by 4's cut from veneer cores, willi a clamping force of 50 to 200 pounds per stick-pair per stud, significantly reduced warp from that observed in matched studs stacked on smooth sticks with a top load of 10 pounds per stick-pair per stud. When dried in 24 hours to an average MC of 8.1 percent (standard deviation...

  6. Continuous tunnel kiln direct-fired with bark to dry 1.75-inch southern pine in 12 hours.

    Treesearch

    P. Koch; W.L. Wellford

    1977-01-01

    Length-sorted lumber is surfaced on one side to 1.75-inch thickness, mechanically stacked 5 feet wide and 10 feet high on 1-1/4-inch-thick sticks, and continuously transported through a zone-controlled tunnel kiln at 8 ft./hr. to yield 500,000 fbm of lumber dried to 9 percent average MC per 168-hour week. In the tunnel, the lumber is dried for 8 (possibly 10) hours at...

  7. Continuous tunnel kiln direct-fired with bark to dry 1.75-inch southern pine in 12 hours

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch; Walker L. Wellford

    1976-01-01

    Length-sorted lumber is surfaced on one side to 1.75-inch thickness, mechanically stacked 5 feet wide and 10 feet high on 1-1/4-inch-thick sticks, and continuously transported through a zone-controlled tunnel kiln at 8 ft./hr. to yield 500,000 fbm of lumber dried to 9 percent average MC per 168-hour week. In the tunnel, the lumber is dried for 8 (possibly 10) hours of...

  8. Prevalence of chest symptoms amongst brick kiln migrant workers and care seeking behaviour: a study from South India.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Beena E; Charles, Niruparani; Watson, Basilea; Chandrasekaran, V; Senthil Kumar, R; Dhanalakshmi, A; Wares, Fraser; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2015-12-01

    Early detection and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) have been key principles of TB control. However, this can be a challenge with 'hard to reach' populations such as migrants. Brick kiln workers are one such group of migrants who are exposed to smoke, heat and dust from brick kilns which are one of the major causes of respiratory illnesses. A cross-sectional community based study was carried out in Thiruvallur, Tamil Nadu, South India, from August 2011 to June 2012. A total of 4002 individuals from 55 brick kiln chambers were interviewed to determine the prevalence of chest symptoms and care seeking behaviour patterns. Three hundred and seventy-seven (9.4%) chest symptomatics were identified. The most significant variables associated with chest symptoms were illiteracy, alcohol abuse and heavy smoking. Of the chest symptomatics identified, 50.4% took action to get relief from their symptoms. The duration of over 6-month stay in the chamber was significantly associated with taking action (OR, 5.5, 95% CI: 2.3, 13.3). The TB control programme needs to further explore how to extend its services to such 'hard to reach' groups. Active case finding to ensure early diagnosis and treatment initiation amongst such groups needs consideration. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. An engineering assessment of the burning of the combustible fraction of construction and demolition wastes in a redundant brick kiln.

    PubMed

    Chang, N B; Lin, K S; Sun, Y P; Wang, H P

    2001-12-01

    This paper confirms both technical feasibility and economic potential via the use of redundant brick kilns as an alternative option for disposal of the combustible fractions of construction and demolition wastes by a three-stage analysis. To assess such an idea, one brick kiln was selected for performing an engineering feasibility study. First of all, field sampling and lab-analyses were carried out to gain a deeper understanding of the physical, chemical, and thermodynamic properties of the combustible fractions of construction and demolition wastes. Kinetic parameters for the oxidation of the combustible fractions of construction and demolition wastes were therefore numerically calculated from the weight loss data obtained through a practice of thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Secondly, an engineering assessment for retrofitting the redundant brick kiln was performed based on integrating several new and existing unit operations, consisting of waste storage, shredding, feeding, combustion, flue gas cleaning, and ash removal. Such changes were subject to the operational condition in accordance with the estimated mass and energy balances. Finally, addressing the economic value of energy recovery motivated a renewed interest to convert the combustible fractions of construction and demolition wastes into useful hot water for secondary uses.

  10. Ceramic electrolyte coating and methods

    DOEpatents

    Seabaugh, Matthew M [Columbus, OH; Swartz, Scott L [Columbus, OH; Dawson, William J [Dublin, OH; McCormick, Buddy E [Dublin, OH

    2007-08-28

    Aqueous coating slurries useful in depositing a dense coating of a ceramic electrolyte material (e.g., yttrium-stabilized zirconia) onto a porous substrate of a ceramic electrode material (e.g., lanthanum strontium manganite or nickel/zirconia) and processes for preparing an aqueous suspension of a ceramic electrolyte material and an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material. The invention also includes processes for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material onto pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  11. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-05-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  12. Alumina-based ceramic composite

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, K.B.; Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.; Waters, S.B.

    1996-07-23

    An improved ceramic composite comprising oxide ceramic particulates, nonoxide ceramic particulates selected from the group consisting of carbides, borides, nitrides of silicon and transition metals and mixtures thereof, and a ductile binder selected from the group consisting of metallic, intermetallic alloys and mixtures thereof is described. The ceramic composite is made by blending powders of the ceramic particulates and the ductile to form a mixture and consolidating the mixture of under conditions of temperature and pressure sufficient to produce a densified ceramic composite. 5 figs.

  13. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Anu, Sharma, E-mail: issaranu@gmail.com; Gayatri, Sharma, E-mail: sharmagayatri@gmail.com

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  14. The history of ceramic filters.

    PubMed

    Fujishima, S

    2000-01-01

    The history of ceramic filters is surveyed. Included is the history of piezoelectric ceramics. Ceramic filters were developed using technology similar to that of quartz crystal and electro-mechanical filters. However, the key to this development involved the theoretical analysis of vibration modes and material improvements of piezoelectric ceramics. The primary application of ceramic filters has been for consumer-market use. Accordingly, a major emphasis has involved mass production technology, leading to low-priced devices. A typical ceramic filter includes monolithic resonators and capacitors packaged in unique configurations.

  15. Secular variation between 5 and 10c CE in Japan: remeasurements of 2000 samples collected between 1960-70's from Sueki earthenware kilns in Osaka.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, H.; Mochizuki, N.; Hatakeyama, T.

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, archeomagnetic measurements are vigorously developed for years, though it is not well known to paleomagnetism community in english. One of the works is massive archeomagnetic study of Suemura kiln group carried out in Osaka University in 1960's to early 70's. More than 500 kilns were excavated in Sakai city and vicinities, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The kiln group is called as Suemura Kilns, and are for Sueki earthenware of 5c to 10c CE. About 300 kilns were sampled and most of the samples were measured at the time, and the results are reported in e.g. Hirooka (1971) and Shibuya (1980). However, the results have significant scatter in direction, which may be due to the limitation of old astatic magnetometer measurements and handwriting graphic determination of magnetic direction, and/or the lack of demagnetization. We recently inherited many of those samples and remeasured them with spinner magnetometer applying alternation field demagnetization (afd). The magnetizations are generally very stable, as usual as other archeomagnetic samples, and afd does not change the magnetic direction mostly. However, significant number of sites show large scatter in magnetic directions, which might be due to the wrong identification of kiln floor or disturbance at the time of collapsing or excavation. Taking kilns of α95<4o, we recovered 131 paleomagnetic directions. Although third of them are dated by pottery shape chronology, the range of each pottery style is not precisely known and the relation of the baked floor and the potteries excavated around kilns are not always clear. The carbon dating of those kilns are very scares. Thus we first try to draw secular variation curve in declination-inclination plot. With the rough ages of those kilns, it is pretty easy to draw the SVC. It is also numerically determined taking the distance of each direction from nearest point in SVC and the velocity change of the SVC as penalty function, within a couple of degrees in the error

  16. Simultaneous Comparison of Two Roller Compaction Techniques and Two Particle Size Analysis Methods.

    PubMed

    Saarinen, Tuomas; Antikainen, Osmo; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2017-11-01

    A new dry granulation technique, gas-assisted roller compaction (GARC), was compared with conventional roller compaction (CRC) by manufacturing 34 granulation batches. The process variables studied were roll pressure, roll speed, and sieve size of the conical mill. The main quality attributes measured were granule size and flow characteristics. Within granulations also the real applicability of two particle size analysis techniques, sieve analysis (SA) and fast imaging technique (Flashsizer, FS), was tested. All granules obtained were acceptable. In general, the particle size of GARC granules was slightly larger than that of CRC granules. In addition, the GARC granules had better flowability. For example, the tablet weight variation of GARC granules was close to 2%, indicating good flowing and packing characteristics. The comparison of the two particle size analysis techniques showed that SA was more accurate in determining wide and bimodal size distributions while FS showed narrower and mono-modal distributions. However, both techniques gave good estimates for mean granule sizes. Overall, SA was a time-consuming but accurate technique that provided reliable information for the entire granule size distribution. By contrast, FS oversimplified the shape of the size distribution, but nevertheless yielded acceptable estimates for mean particle size. In general, FS was two to three orders of magnitude faster than SA.

  17. Fault Detection of Roller-Bearings Using Signal Processing and Optimization Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Dae-Ho; Lee, Dong-Han; Ahn, Jong-Hyo; Koh, Bong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a fault detection of roller bearings through signal processing and optimization techniques. After the occurrence of scratch-type defects on the inner race of bearings, variations of kurtosis values are investigated in terms of two different data processing techniques: minimum entropy deconvolution (MED), and the Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator (TKEO). MED and the TKEO are employed to qualitatively enhance the discrimination of defect-induced repeating peaks on bearing vibration data with measurement noise. Given the perspective of the execution sequence of MED and the TKEO, the study found that the kurtosis sensitivity towards a defect on bearings could be highly improved. Also, the vibration signal from both healthy and damaged bearings is decomposed into multiple intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), through empirical mode decomposition (EMD). The weight vectors of IMFs become design variables for a genetic algorithm (GA). The weights of each IMF can be optimized through the genetic algorithm, to enhance the sensitivity of kurtosis on damaged bearing signals. Experimental results show that the EMD-GA approach successfully improved the resolution of detectability between a roller bearing with defect, and an intact system. PMID:24368701

  18. Chemical, rheological and bread making characteristics of bran duster flours from roller flourmills.

    PubMed

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Indrani, D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Gaikwad, Shwetha B; Rao, G Venkateswara

    2014-10-01

    Bran dusters are used in the wheat flour milling process to increase flour extraction rate. Chemical, rheological and bread characteristics of bran duster flours (BDR1, BDR2, BDR3) and straight run flour (SRF) obtained from two commercial roller flour mills were analyzed. Important chemical characteristics such as ash, dry gluten content, sedimentation value, damaged starch and falling number of bran duster flours were determined. Rheological behavior was tested using farinograph and alveograph equipments. The results showed an increase in ash, dry gluten content and Zeleny's sedimentation value for bran duster flours compared to SRF. Rheological characteristics indicated higher farinograph dough development time and stability values for bran duster flours. Alveograph characteristics indicated higher extensibility and lower elasticity values for bran duster flours. Over all quality score of bread for BDR1 from A and B roller flour mills ranged from 73.4 to 74.7, BDR2 (79-81.8), BDR3 (69-70.4) as against SRF (85.4-86.3).

  19. Automatic Identification of Subtechniques in Skating-Style Roller Skiing Using Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Fujita, Zenya; Ishige, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop and validate an automated system for identifying skating-style cross-country subtechniques using inertial sensors. In the first experiment, the performance of a male cross-country skier was used to develop an automated identification system. In the second, eight male and seven female college cross-country skiers participated to validate the developed identification system. Each subject wore inertial sensors on both wrists and both roller skis, and a small video camera on a backpack. All subjects skied through a 3450 m roller ski course using a skating style at their maximum speed. The adopted subtechniques were identified by the automated method based on the data obtained from the sensors, as well as by visual observations from a video recording of the same ski run. The system correctly identified 6418 subtechniques from a total of 6768 cycles, which indicates an accuracy of 94.8%. The precisions of the automatic system for identifying the V1R, V1L, V2R, V2L, V2AR, and V2AL subtechniques were 87.6%, 87.0%, 97.5%, 97.8%, 92.1%, and 92.0%, respectively. Most incorrect identification cases occurred during a subtechnique identification that included a transition and turn event. Identification accuracy can be improved by separately identifying transition and turn events. This system could be used to evaluate each skier’s subtechniques in course conditions. PMID:27049388

  20. Insensitivity of compaction properties of brittle granules to size enlargement by roller compaction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sy-Juen; Sun, Changquan 'Calvin'

    2007-05-01

    Pharmaceutical granules prepared by roller compaction often exhibit significant loss of tabletability, that is, reduction in tensile strength, when compared to virgin powder. This may be attributed to granule size enlargement for highly plastic materials, for example, microcrystalline cellulose. The sensitivity of powder compaction properties on granule size variations impacts the robustness of the dry granulation process. We hypothesize that such sensitivity of compaction properties on granule size is minimum for brittle materials because extensive fracture of brittle granules during compaction minimizes differences in initial granule size. We tested the hypothesis using three common brittle excipients. Results show that the fine (44-106 microm), medium (106-250 microm), and coarse (250-500 microm) granules exhibit essentially identical tabletability below a certain critical compaction pressure, 100, 140, and 100 MPa for spray-dried lactose monohydrate, anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate, and mannitol, respectively. Above respective critical pressure, tabletability lines diverge with smaller granules exhibiting slightly higher tablet tensile strength at identical compaction conditions. Overall, tabletability of brittle granules is insensitive to granule size enlargement. The results provide a scientific basis to the common practice of incorporating brittle filler to a typical tablet formulation processed by roller compaction granulation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.