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Sample records for ceramic tile industry

  1. [Lead exposure in the ceramic tile industry: time trends and current exposure levels].

    PubMed

    Candela, S; Ferri, F; Olmi, M

    1998-01-01

    There is a high density of industries for the production of ceramic tiles in the District of Scandiano (province of Reggio Emilia, Emilia Romagna region). In this area, since the beginning of 1970s, the time trend of Pb exposure in ceramic tile plants has been evaluated by means of biological monitoring (BM) data collected at the Service of Prevention and Safety in the Work Environment and its associated Toxicology Laboratory. From these data, a clear decreasing time trend of exposure levels is documented, the reduction being more evident during the seventies and in 1985-88. During the seventies BM was introduced systematically in all ceramic tile plants with the determination of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine (ALA-U). As a consequence of the BM programme, hygienic measures for the abatement of pollution inside the plants were implemented, and a reduction, from 20.6% to 2%, of ALA-U values exceeding 10 mg/l, was observed. In 1985, the determination of lead in blood (PbB) replaced that of ALA-U in the BM programmes and highlighted the persistence of high level of exposure to Pb, which could not be outlined by means of ALA-U because of its lower sensitivity. PbB levels were 36.1 micrograms/100 ml and 25.7 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively. These results required the implementation, within the plants, of additional hygienic measures and a significant reduction of PbB was obtained in the following three years. In 1988 PbB levels were 26.0 +/- 10.7 and 21.6 +/- 10.3 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively. In 1993-95 Pb levels were obtained from 1328 male and 771 female workers of 56 plants, accounting for about 40% of the total number of workers in the ceramic industry, in the zones of Sassuolo and Scandiano. Exposure levels are not different from those observed in the preceding years, with PbB levels of 25.3 +/- 11.1 and 19.1 +/- 9.2 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively.

  2. Ceramic tile expansion engine housing

    DOEpatents

    Myers, B.

    1995-04-11

    An expandable ceramic tile housing for a high temperature engine is disclosed wherein each tile is independently supported in place in an interlocking matrix by retention mechanisms which mechanically couple the individual ceramic tiles to an outer metal support housing while maintaining thermal isolation of the metal housing from the ceramic tiles. The ceramic tiles are formed with either an octagonal front face portion and a square shank portion or a square front face portion with an octagonal shank portion. The length of the sides of the octagonal front face portion on one tile is equal to the length of the sides of the square front face portion of adjoining tiles to permit formation of an interlocking matrix. Fibrous ceramic sealing material may be placed between radial and tangential facing surfaces of adjacent tiles to limit radial gas flow there between. Labyrinth-sealed pressure-controlled compartments may be established between the tile housing and the outer metal support housing to control radial gas flow. 8 figures.

  3. Ceramic tile expansion engine housing

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Blake

    1995-01-01

    An expandable ceramic tile housing for a high temperature engine is disclosed wherein each tile is independently supported in place in an interlocking matrix by retention mechanisms which mechanically couple the individual ceramic tiles to an outer metal support housing while maintaining thermal isolation of the metal housing from the ceramic tiles. The ceramic tiles are formed with either an octagonal front face portion and a square shank portion or a square front face portion with an octagonal shank portion. The length of the sides of the octagonal front face portion on one tile is equal to the length of the sides of the square front face portion of adjoining tiles to permit formation of an interlocking matrix. Fibrous ceramic sealing material may be placed between radial and tangential facing surfaces of adjacent tiles to limit radial gas flow therebetween. Labyrinth-sealed pressure-controlled compartments may be established between the tile housing and the outer metal support housing to control radial gas flow.

  4. Interlocking wettable ceramic tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Tabereaux, Jr., Alton T.; Fredrickson, Guy L.; Groat, Eric; Mroz, Thomas; Ulicny, Alan; Walker, Mark F.

    2005-03-08

    An electrolytic cell for the reduction of aluminum having a layer of interlocking cathode tiles positioned on a cathode block. Each tile includes a main body and a vertical restraining member to prevent movement of the tiles away from the cathode block during operation of the cell. The anode of the electrolytic cell may be positioned about 1 inch from the interlocking cathode tiles.

  5. Repairing ceramic insulating tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, B. R.; Laymance, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fused-silica tiles containing large voids or gauges are repaired without adhesives by plug insertion method. Tiles are useful in conduits for high-temperature gases, in furnaces, and in other applications involving heat insulation.

  6. Production Process for Strong, Light Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, G. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Tomer, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Proportions of ingredients and sintering time/temperature schedule changed. Production process for lightweight, high-strength ceramic insulating tiles for Space Shuttle more than just scaled-up version of laboratory process for making small tiles. Boron in aluminum borosilicate fibers allows fusion at points where fibers contact each other during sintering, thereby greatly strengthening tiles structure.

  7. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, James G. R.; Frame, Barbara J.

    2012-01-02

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  8. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-12-14

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  9. Fibrous-Ceramic/Aerogel Composite Insulating Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan M.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Fibrous-ceramic/aerogel composite tiles have been invented to afford combinations of thermal-insulation and mechanical properties superior to those attainable by making tiles of fibrous ceramics alone or aerogels alone. These lightweight tiles can be tailored to a variety of applications that range from insulating cryogenic tanks to protecting spacecraft against re-entry heating. The advantages and disadvantages of fibrous ceramics and aerogels can be summarized as follows: Tiles made of ceramic fibers are known for mechanical strength, toughness, and machinability. Fibrous ceramic tiles are highly effective as thermal insulators in a vacuum. However, undesirably, the porosity of these materials makes them permeable by gases, so that in the presence of air or other gases, convection and gas-phase conduction contribute to the effective thermal conductivity of the tiles. Other disadvantages of the porosity and permeability of fibrous ceramic tiles arise because gases (e.g., water vapor or cryogenic gases) can condense in pores. This condensation contributes to weight, and in the case of cryogenic systems, the heat of condensation undesirably adds to the heat flowing to the objects that one seeks to keep cold. Moreover, there is a risk of explosion associated with vaporization of previously condensed gas upon reheating. Aerogels offer low permeability, low density, and low thermal conductivity, but are mechanically fragile. The basic idea of the present invention is to exploit the best features of fibrous ceramic tiles and aerogels. In a composite tile according to the invention, the fibrous ceramic serves as a matrix that mechanically supports the aerogel, while the aerogel serves as a low-conductivity, low-permeability filling that closes what would otherwise be the open pores of the fibrous ceramic. Because the aerogel eliminates or at least suppresses permeation by gas, gas-phase conduction, and convection, the thermal conductivity of such a composite even at

  10. Shaving Ceramic Tiles To Final Dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Ernest

    1992-01-01

    Combination of template and routing tool cuts ceramic tiles to final dimensions. Template guides router along precisely defined planes to accurately and uniformly shave chamfers on edge of tiles. Legs of template temporarily bonded to workpiece by double-backed adhesive tape. Adaptable to in-situ final machining of other nominally flat, narrow surfaces.

  11. Cutting Symmetrical Recesses In Soft Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesotas, Tony C.; Tyler, Brent

    1989-01-01

    Simple tool cuts hemispherical recesses in soft ceramic tiles. Designed to expose wires of thermocouples embedded in tiles without damaging leads. Creates neat, precise holes around wires. End mill includes axial hole to accommodate thermocouple wires embedded in material to be cut. Wires pass into hole without being bent or broken. Dimensions in inches. Used in place of such tools as dental picks, tweezers, spatulas, and putty knives.

  12. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

    1999-08-10

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

  13. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, James G.; Mathur, Akshay; Simpson, James C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants.

  14. Radioactivity level in Chinese building ceramic tile.

    PubMed

    Xinwei, L

    2004-01-01

    The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K have been determined by gamma ray spectrometry. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 158.3 to 1087.6, 91.7 to 1218.4, and 473.8 to 1031.3 Bq kg(-1) for glaze, and from 63.5 to 131.4, 55.4 to 106.5, and 386.7 to 866.8 Bq kg(-1) for ceramic tile, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the typical world values. The radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), external hazard index (H(ex)) and internal hazard index (H(in)) associated with the radionuclides were calculated. The Ra(eq) values of all ceramic tiles are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). The values of H(ex) and H(in) calculated according to the Chinese criterion for ceramic tiles are less than unity. The Ra(eq) value for the glaze of glazed tile collected from some areas are >370 Bq kg(-1).

  15. Wedge edge ceramic combustor tile

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.; Holsapple, A.C.

    1997-06-10

    A multipiece combustor has a portion thereof being made of a plurality of ceramic segments. Each of the plurality of ceramic segments have an outer surface and an inner surface. Each of the plurality of ceramic segments have a generally cylindrical configuration and including a plurality of joints. The joints define joint portions, a first portion defining a surface being skewed to the outer surface and the inner surface. The joint portions have a second portion defining a surface being skewed to the outer surface and the inner surface. The joint portions further include a shoulder formed intermediate the first portion and the second portion. The joints provide a sealing interlocking joint between corresponding ones of the plurality of ceramic segments. Thus, the multipiece combustor having the plurality of ceramic segment with the plurality of joints reduces the physical size of the individual components and the degradation of the surface of the ceramic components in a tensile stress zone is generally eliminated reducing the possibility of catastrophic failures. 7 figs.

  16. Wedge edge ceramic combustor tile

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.; Holsapple, Allan C.

    1997-01-01

    A multipiece combustor has a portion thereof being made of a plurality of ceramic segments. Each of the plurality of ceramic segments have an outer surface and an inner surface. Each of the plurality of ceramic segments have a generally cylindrical configuration and including a plurality of joints. The joints define joint portions, a first portion defining a surface being skewed to the outer surface and the inner surface. The joint portions have a second portion defining a surface being skewed to the outer surface and the inner surface. The joint portions further include a shoulder formed intermediate the first portion and the second portion. The joints provide a sealing interlocking joint between corresponding ones of the plurality of ceramic segments. Thus, the multipiece combustor having the plurality of ceramic segment with the plurality of joints reduces the physical size of the individual components and the degradation of the surface of the ceramic components in a tensile stress zone is generally eliminated reducing the possibility of catastrophic failures.

  17. Air quality comparison between two European ceramic tile clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Guerra, L.; Busani, G.; Sterni, A.; Querol, X.

    2013-08-01

    The European ceramic tile industry is mostly concentrated in two clusters, one in Castelló (Spain) and another one in Modena (Italy). Industrial clusters may have problems to accomplish the EU air quality regulations because of the concentration of some specific pollutants and, hence, the feasibility of the industrial clusters can be jeopardised. The present work assesses the air quality in these ceramic clusters in 2008, when the new EU emission regulations where put into force. PM10 samples were collected at two sampling sites in the Modena ceramic cluster and one sampling site in the Castelló ceramic cluster. PM10 annual average concentrations were 12-14 μg m-3 higher in Modena than in Castelló, and were close to or exceeded the European limit. Air quality in Modena was mainly influenced by road traffic and, in a lower degree, the metalmechanical industry, as evidenced by the high concentrations of Mn, Cu, Zn, Sn and Sb registered. The stagnant weather conditions from Modena hindering dispersion of pollutants also contributed to the relatively high pollution levels. In Castelló, the influence of the ceramic industry is evidenced by the high concentrations of Ti, Se, Tl and Pb, whereas this influence is not seen in Modena. The difference in the impact of the ceramic industry on the air quality in the two areas was attributed to: better abatement systems in the spray-drier facilities in Modena, higher coverage of the areas for storage and handling of dusty raw materials in Modena, presence of two open air quarries in the Castelló region, low degree of abatement systems in the ceramic tile kilns in Castelló, and abundance of ceramic frit, glaze and pigment manufacture in Castelló as opposed to scarce manufacture of these products in Modena. The necessity of additional measures to fulfil the EU air quality requirements in the Modena region is evidenced, despite the high degree of environmental measures implemented in the ceramic industry. The Principal

  18. Characterization of ceramic roof tile wastes as pozzolanic admixture.

    PubMed

    Lavat, Araceli E; Trezza, Monica A; Poggi, Mónica

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work is to study the recycling of tile wastes in the manufacture of blended cements. Cracked or broken ceramic bodies are not accepted as commercial products and, therefore, the unsold waste of the ceramic industry becomes an environment problem. The use of powdered roof tile in cement production, as pozzolanic addition, is reported. The wastes were classified as nonglazed, natural and black glazed tiles. The mineralogy of the powders was controlled by SEM-EDX microscopy, XRD analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Particle size was checked by laser granulometry. Once the materials were fully characterized, pozzolanic lime consumption tests and Fratini tests were carried out. Different formulations of cement-tile blends were prepared by incorporation of up to 30% weight ratios of recycled waste. The compressive strength of the resulting specimens was measured. The evolution of hydration of the cement-tile blends was analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Vibrational spectroscopy presented accurate evidence of pozzolanic activity. The results of the investigation confirmed the potential use of these waste materials to produce pozzolanic cement. PMID:19124234

  19. Characterization of ceramic roof tile wastes as pozzolanic admixture.

    PubMed

    Lavat, Araceli E; Trezza, Monica A; Poggi, Mónica

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work is to study the recycling of tile wastes in the manufacture of blended cements. Cracked or broken ceramic bodies are not accepted as commercial products and, therefore, the unsold waste of the ceramic industry becomes an environment problem. The use of powdered roof tile in cement production, as pozzolanic addition, is reported. The wastes were classified as nonglazed, natural and black glazed tiles. The mineralogy of the powders was controlled by SEM-EDX microscopy, XRD analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Particle size was checked by laser granulometry. Once the materials were fully characterized, pozzolanic lime consumption tests and Fratini tests were carried out. Different formulations of cement-tile blends were prepared by incorporation of up to 30% weight ratios of recycled waste. The compressive strength of the resulting specimens was measured. The evolution of hydration of the cement-tile blends was analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Vibrational spectroscopy presented accurate evidence of pozzolanic activity. The results of the investigation confirmed the potential use of these waste materials to produce pozzolanic cement.

  20. Firing ceramic tiles in solar energy equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Pasichnyi, V.V.; Berezhetskaya, V.Ya.; Chop, Yu.I.; Kashket, G.I.

    1987-03-01

    In the interest of satisfying the growing demand for glazed ceramic tiles and conserving the natural gas ordinarily used to fire them, the authors assess the feasibility of using a solar kiln for the process. Their design incorporates a parabolic reflector and a tracking system to continuously focus radiant solar energy on the tile. Their energy analysis includes such factors as solar thermal input, radiant heat transfer, and heat flow, the relationship between the firing time and the heat flow density, and the surface quality of the glaze and colorizer. Their results indicate that when the heat flow density rises above a level at which the specific expenditure of heat is no longer dependent on the color of the pigment, this expenditure or input comes to a quarter of what is currently needed using existing technologies and fuels.

  1. Two Views of Islam: Ceramic Tile Design and Miniatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Sara Grove

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project focusing on Islamic art that consists of two parts: (1) ceramic tile design; and (2) Islamic miniatures. Provides background information on Islamic art and step-by-step instructions for designing the Islamic tile and miniature. Includes learning objectives and resources on Islamic tile miniatures. (CMK)

  2. The use of waste ceramic tile in cement production

    SciTech Connect

    Ay, N.; Uenal, M.

    2000-03-01

    In ceramic tile production, because of various reasons, unsold fired products come out. These are waste tiles and only a little part of them are used. Remainings create environmental problems. If these waste tiles are used in cement production, this pollution decreases. In this study, usage of waste tile as pozzolan was studied. Waste tile was added into Portland cement in 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40% weight ratios. Pozzolanic properties of waste tile and setting time, volume stability, particle size, density, specific surface area, and strength of cement including waste tile were investigated. The test results indicated that the waste tiles show pozzolanic properties, and chemical and physical properties of the cement including tile conforms to cement standard up to the addition of 35% waste tile.

  3. Solar-energy treatment of ceramic tile. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.N.; Clayton, M.E.

    1981-12-01

    The 400 kW Advanced Components Test Facility was used to provide a concentrated source of solar energy for firing ceramic wall tile. A domed top cylindrical cavity with a white refractory fiber lining provided diffuse reflection of the concentrated solar beam directly onto the upper surface of the unfired wall tile. The tile were placed directly on the cavity floor in a circular pattern, centered at 45/sup 0/ intervals so that eight tile could be fired at one time. The tile and cavity walls were instrumented with thermocouples, and pyrometric cones were used to determine temperature distribution within the cavity. The glazed and unglazed solar fired tiles were subjected to standard ceramic testing procedures to determine: flatness, modulus of rupture, water absorption, porosity, bulk density, apparent specific gravity, percent linear thermal expansion and crystalline phases present in the fired bodies. These data were compared with the same data for commercial fired tiles from the same batch of raw materials. The glazed tile surfaces were compared with commercially fired tile for reflectance and color match. The major problems encountered were: cracking by thermal shock, and uneven shrinkage and glaze maturity across individual tile. The cavity also failed to provide even heating at all eight tile positions. An alternate air heat exchanger system is recommended to fire the tile by convection rather than direct radiation.

  4. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 2. SHOWING ORIGINAL TILE. CERAMIC ACCESSORIES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 2. SHOWING ORIGINAL TILE. CERAMIC ACCESSORIES, AND MARBLE THRESHOLD. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type G, 205 Seventh Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  5. Self-glazing ceramic tiles based on acidic igneous glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Merkin, A.P.; Nanazashvili, V.I.

    1988-07-01

    A technology was derived to produce self-glazing ceramic tiles based on single-component systems of acidic igneous (volcanic) glasses. A weakly alkaline solution of NaOH or KOH was used as the sealing water to activate the sintering process. Tests conducted on the self-glazing ceramic tiles showed that their water absorption amounts to 2.5-8%, linear shrinkage is 3.2-7%, and frost resistance amounts to 35-70 cycles. The application of acidic igneous glasses as the main raw material for the production of ceramic facing tiles made it possible to widen the raw material base and simplify the technology for fabricating ceramic facing tiles at lower cost. The use of waste products when processing perlite-bearing rocks, when carrying out mining and cutting of tuffs, slags, and tuff breccia for recovering cut materials was recommended.

  6. Functionalization of ceramic tile surface by sol-gel technique.

    PubMed

    Bondioli, F; Taurino, R; Ferrari, A M

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this investigation was the surface functionalization of industrial ceramic tiles by sol-gel technique to improve at the same time the cleanability of unglazed surfaces. This objective was pursued through the design and preparation of nanostructured coating that was deposited on polished unglazed tiles by air-brushing. In particular TiO(2)-SiO(2) binary film with 1, 2 or 5wt% of titania were prepared by using tetraethoxysilane and titania nanoparticles as precursors. The obtained films were characterized by scratch tests to verify the adhesion of the coatings to the polished tiles. To mainly evaluate the effect of the thermal treatment (temperature range 100-600 degrees C) on the photocatalicity of the coatings, the films were studied under UV exposure by contact angle measurements and cleanability test. Particular attention has been paid to preserve the aesthetical aspect of the final product and the obtained hue variation was evaluated by means of UV-visible spectroscopy and colorimetric analysis.

  7. Ceramic-ceramic shell tile thermal protection system and method thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Smith, Marnell (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Zimmerman, Norman B. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A ceramic reusable, externally applied composite thermal protection system (TPS) is proposed. The system functions by utilizing a ceramic/ceramic upper shell structure which effectively separates its primary functions as a thermal insulator and as a load carrier to transmit loads to the cold structure. The composite tile system also prevents impact damage to the atmospheric entry vehicle thermal protection system. The composite tile comprises a structurally strong upper ceramic/ceramic shell manufactured from ceramic fibers and ceramic matrix meeting the thermal and structural requirements of a tile used on a re-entry aerospace vehicle. In addition, a lightweight high temperature ceramic lower temperature base tile is used. The upper shell and lower tile are attached by means effective to withstand the extreme temperatures (3000 to 3200F) and stress conditions. The composite tile may include one or more layers of variable density rigid or flexible thermal insulation. The assembly of the overall tile is facilitated by two or more locking mechanisms on opposing sides of the overall tile assembly. The assembly may occur subsequent to the installation of the lower shell tile on the spacecraft structural skin.

  8. Installation of Ceramic Tile: Residential Thin-Set Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Sam

    This curriculum guide contains materials for use in teaching a course on residential thin-set methods of tile installation. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: the tile industry; basic math; tools; measurement; safety in tile setting; installation materials and guidelines for their use; floors; counter tops and backsplashes;…

  9. Effect of Workplace Noise on Hearing Ability in Tile and Ceramic Industry Workers in Iran: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Noise as a common physical hazard may lead to noise-induced hearing loss, an irreversible but preventable disorder. Annual audiometric evaluations help detect changes in hearing status before clinically significant hearing loss develops. This study was designed to track hearing threshold changes during 2-year follow-up among tile and ceramic workers. Methods. This follow-up study was conducted on 555 workers (totally 1110 ears). Subjects were divided into four groups according to the level of noise exposure. Hearing threshold in conventional audiometric frequencies was measured and standard threshold shift was calculated for each ear. Results. Hearing threshold was increased during 2 years of follow-up. Increased hearing threshold was most frequently observed at 4000, 6000, and 3000 Hz. Standard threshold shift was observed in 13 (2.34%), 49 (8.83%), 22 (3.96%), and 63 (11.35%) subjects in the first and second years of follow-up in the right and left ears, respectively. Conclusions. This study has documented a high incidence of noise-induced hearing loss in tile and ceramic workers that would put stress on the importance of using hearing protection devices. PMID:24453922

  10. Recycling of Malaysia's electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste into heavy-duty green ceramic tile.

    PubMed

    Teo, Pao-Ter; Anasyida, Abu Seman; Basu, Projjal; Nurulakmal, Mohd Sharif

    2014-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes from industry such as glass waste, fly ash, sewage sludge and slag have been recycled into various value-added products such as ceramic tile. The conventional solutions of dumping the wastes in landfills or incineration, including in Malaysia are getting obsolete as the annual huge amount of the solid wastes would boost-up disposal cost and may cause permanent damage to the flora and fauna. This recent waste recycling approach is much better and greener as it can resolve problems associated with over-limit storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for ceramic tile to continuously sustain the nature. Therefore, in this project, an attempt was made to recycle electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste, obtained from Malaysia's steel making industry, into ceramic tile via conventional powder compaction method. The research work was divided into two stages. The first stage was to evaluate the suitability of EAF slag in ceramic tile by varying weight percentage of EAF slag (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%) and ball clay (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%), with no addition of silica and potash feldspar. In the second stage, the weight percentage of EAF slag was fixed at 40 wt.% and the percentage of ball clay (30 wt.% and 40 wt.%), feldspar (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) and silica (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) added was varied accordingly. Results obtained show that as weight percentage of EAF slag increased up to 60 wt.%, the percentage of apparent porosity and water absorption also rose, with a reduction in tile flexural strength and increased porosity. On the other hand, limiting the weight percentage of EAF slag to 40 wt.% while increasing the weight percentage of ball clay led to a higher total percentage of anorthite and wollastonite minerals, resulting in higher flexural strength. It was found that introduction of silica and feldspar further improved the flexural strength due to optimization of densification process. The highest

  11. Recycling of Malaysia's electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste into heavy-duty green ceramic tile.

    PubMed

    Teo, Pao-Ter; Anasyida, Abu Seman; Basu, Projjal; Nurulakmal, Mohd Sharif

    2014-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes from industry such as glass waste, fly ash, sewage sludge and slag have been recycled into various value-added products such as ceramic tile. The conventional solutions of dumping the wastes in landfills or incineration, including in Malaysia are getting obsolete as the annual huge amount of the solid wastes would boost-up disposal cost and may cause permanent damage to the flora and fauna. This recent waste recycling approach is much better and greener as it can resolve problems associated with over-limit storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for ceramic tile to continuously sustain the nature. Therefore, in this project, an attempt was made to recycle electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste, obtained from Malaysia's steel making industry, into ceramic tile via conventional powder compaction method. The research work was divided into two stages. The first stage was to evaluate the suitability of EAF slag in ceramic tile by varying weight percentage of EAF slag (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%) and ball clay (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%), with no addition of silica and potash feldspar. In the second stage, the weight percentage of EAF slag was fixed at 40 wt.% and the percentage of ball clay (30 wt.% and 40 wt.%), feldspar (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) and silica (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) added was varied accordingly. Results obtained show that as weight percentage of EAF slag increased up to 60 wt.%, the percentage of apparent porosity and water absorption also rose, with a reduction in tile flexural strength and increased porosity. On the other hand, limiting the weight percentage of EAF slag to 40 wt.% while increasing the weight percentage of ball clay led to a higher total percentage of anorthite and wollastonite minerals, resulting in higher flexural strength. It was found that introduction of silica and feldspar further improved the flexural strength due to optimization of densification process. The highest

  12. Contact pressure distribution during the polishing process of ceramic tiles: A laboratory investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, A. S. A.; Sousa, F. J. P.; Hamedon, Z.; Azhari, A.

    2016-02-01

    During the polishing process of porcelain tiles the difference in scratching speed between innermost and peripheral abrasives leads to pressure gradients linearly distributed along the radial direction of the abrasive tool. The aim of this paper is to investigate such pressure gradient in laboratory scale. For this purpose polishing tests were performed on ceramic tiles according to the industrial practices using a custom-made CNC tribometer. Gradual wear on both abrasives and machined surface of the floor tile were measured. The experimental results suggested that the pressure gradient tends to cause an inclination of the abraded surfaces, which becomes stable after a given polishing period. In addition to the wear depth of the machined surface, the highest value of gloss and finest surface finish were observed at the lowest point of the worn out surface of the ceramic floor tile corresponding to the point of highest pressure and lowest scratching speed.

  13. Ceramic tile grout removal & sealing using high power lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.; Li, L.; Spencer, J.T.

    1996-12-31

    Work has been conducted using a Nd:YAG laser, a CO{sub 2} laser and a high power diode laser (HPDL) in order to determine the feasibility of removing contaminated tile grout from the void between adjoining vitrified ceramic tiles, and to seal the void permanently with a material having an impermeable surface glaze. Reported on in the paper are; the basic process phenomena, the process effectiveness, suitable vitrifiable material development, a heat affect study and a morphological and compositional analysis.

  14. Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, A; Bergmann, C P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of mineral coal fly ash as a raw material in the production of ceramic tiles. The samples of fly ash came from Capivari de Baixo, a city situated in the Brazilian Federal State of Santa Catarina. The fly ash and the raw materials were characterized regarding their physical chemical properties, and, based on these results; batches containing fly ash and typical raw materials for ceramic tiles were prepared. The fly ash content in the batches varied between 20 and 80 wt%. Specimens were molded using a uniaxial hydraulic press and were fired. All batches containing ash up to 60 wt% present adequate properties to be classified as several kinds of products in the ISO 13006 standard () regarding its different absorption groups (pressed). The results obtained indicate that fly ash, when mixed with traditional raw materials, has the necessary requirements to be used as a raw material for production of ceramic tiles.

  15. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Builders School, Ceramic Tile Setting 3-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This course, for individualized or group instruction on ceramic tile setting, was developed from military sources for use in vocational education. The course provides students with skills in mortar preparation, surface preparation, tile layout planning, tile setting, tile cutting, and the grouting of tile joints. Both theory and shop assignments…

  16. Modelling the viscoelasticity of ceramic tiles by finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Ana; Fragassa, Cristiano

    2016-05-01

    This research details a numerical method aiming at investigating the viscoelastic behaviour of a specific family of ceramic material, the Grès Porcelain, during an uncommon transformation, known as pyroplasticity, which occurs when a ceramic tile bends under a combination of thermal stress and own weight. In general, the theory of viscoelasticity can be considered extremely large and precise, but its application on real cases is particularly delicate. A time-depending problem, as viscoelasticity naturally is, has to be merged with a temperature-depending situation. This paper investigates how the viscoelastic response of bending ceramic materials can be modelled by commercial Finite Elements codes.

  17. Study of the effect of nano surface morphology on the stain-resistant property of ceramic tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, S. P.; Hung, J. K.; Liu, Y. T.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, six types of commercially available ceramic tiles, including nano-structured ceramic tiles and regular ceramic tiles, were selected to investigate the effect of surface morphology on their stain-resistant property. The stain-resistant efficiencies of various ceramic tiles with nano-size surface were measured in order to determine the appropriate method for testing ceramic tiles with nano-structure surface.

  18. Properties of ceramic tiles made from bio-treated bodies for internal wall tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorova, V.A.; Biryukova, O.V.; Pyatkova, Z.P.; Solnyshkina, T.N.; Vainberg, S.N.

    1986-07-01

    The influence of bio-treatment on the structure and properties of internal wall tiles was tested. Nepheline-dolomite body D-8 was used for the manufacturing of the tiles. At the stage in which the clays and nonplastics are blended in the mixing tank with the slip, a suspension of silicate bacteria was added. It was found that the most marked change begins after three days. Tables show the fluidity of the experimental and control slips and the relationship between the density of the pressed specimens and the pressing force. The viscosity of the slip with the addition of the electrolyte is much lower than the viscosity of the control slip. The introduction of biotechnology in the production of ceramic tiles for internal wall facing will reduce the fuel consumption by 8-10%, reduce the cost of installing rollers made from scarce steels, reduce the amount of loss, and increase the grading of the product.

  19. Analysis of Thick Sandwich Shells with Embedded Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Smith, C.; Lumban-Tobing, F.

    1996-01-01

    The Composite Armored Vehicle (CAV) is an advanced technology demonstrator of an all-composite ground combat vehicle. The CAV upper hull is made of a tough light-weight S2-glass/epoxy laminate with embedded ceramic tiles that serve as armor. The tiles are bonded to a rubber mat with a carefully selected, highly viscoelastic adhesive. The integration of armor and structure offers an efficient combination of ballistic protection and structural performance. The analysis of this anisotropic construction, with its inherent discontinuous and periodic nature, however, poses several challenges. The present paper describes a shell-based 'element-layering' technique that properly accounts for these effects and for the concentrated transverse shear flexibility in the rubber mat. One of the most important advantages of the element-layering technique over advanced higher-order elements is that it is based on conventional elements. This advantage allows the models to be portable to other structural analysis codes, a prerequisite in a program that involves the computational facilities of several manufacturers and government laboratories. The element-layering technique was implemented into an auto-layering program that automatically transforms a conventional shell model into a multi-layered model. The effects of tile layer homogenization, tile placement patterns, and tile gap size on the analysis results are described.

  20. Industrial Ceramics: Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The expanding use of ceramic products in today's world can be seen in the areas of communications, construction, aerospace, textiles, metallurgy, atomic energy, and electronics. The demands of science have brought ceramics from an art to an industry using mass production and automated processes which requires the services of great numbers as the…

  1. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Tile and Ceramic Workers in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Heydari, Mohammad; Samimi, Ehsan; Zohal, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) are among the most important diseases in the world and determination of their risk factors is essential for primary and secondary prevention. This study aimed to evaluate these risk factors in workers of tile and ceramic industry, a main industry in Yazd. Materials and Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 1075 tile and ceramic workers were selected by simple sampling method. BMI, blood pressure, FBS, and lipid profile were measured and compared to international standards. Results. 731 individuals (68%) had at least one risk factor, and 52%, 12%, 3%, and 0.7% had one, two, three, and four risk factors, respectively. The most common risk factor was abnormal BMI (49.6%); low HDL (48.4%) and high TG (14.1%) were in the second and third orders. Conclusion. This study showed a relatively high prevalence for CVD risk factors among tile and ceramic workers. Low HDL, high TG, and overweight were the most frequent risk factors in this population. PMID:24967143

  2. Kaolin processing waste applied in the manufacturing of ceramic tiles and mullite bodies.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Romualdo R; Farias, Felipe F; Oliveira, Maurício F; Santana, Lisiane N L; Neves, Gelmires A; Lira, Helio L; Ferreira, Heber C

    2009-02-01

    In the last few years, mineral extraction and processing industries have been identified as sources of environmental contamination and pollution. The kaolin processing industry around the world generates large amounts of waste materials. The present study evaluated the suitability of kaolin processing waste as an alternative source of ceramic raw material for the production of ceramic tiles and dense mullite bodies. Several formulations were prepared and sintered at different temperatures. The sintered samples were characterized to determine their porosity, water absorption, firing shrinkage and mechanical strength. The fired samples were microstructurally analysed by X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that ceramic tile formulations containing up to 60% of waste could be used for the production of tiles with low water absorption (approximately 0.5%) and low sintering temperature (1150 degrees C). Mullite formulations with more than 40% of kaolin waste could be used in the production of bodies with high strength, of about 75 MPa, which can be used as refractory materials. PMID:19220996

  3. Kaolin processing waste applied in the manufacturing of ceramic tiles and mullite bodies.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Romualdo R; Farias, Felipe F; Oliveira, Maurício F; Santana, Lisiane N L; Neves, Gelmires A; Lira, Helio L; Ferreira, Heber C

    2009-02-01

    In the last few years, mineral extraction and processing industries have been identified as sources of environmental contamination and pollution. The kaolin processing industry around the world generates large amounts of waste materials. The present study evaluated the suitability of kaolin processing waste as an alternative source of ceramic raw material for the production of ceramic tiles and dense mullite bodies. Several formulations were prepared and sintered at different temperatures. The sintered samples were characterized to determine their porosity, water absorption, firing shrinkage and mechanical strength. The fired samples were microstructurally analysed by X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that ceramic tile formulations containing up to 60% of waste could be used for the production of tiles with low water absorption (approximately 0.5%) and low sintering temperature (1150 degrees C). Mullite formulations with more than 40% of kaolin waste could be used in the production of bodies with high strength, of about 75 MPa, which can be used as refractory materials.

  4. Slipping properties of ceramic tiles / Quantification of slip resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terjek, Anita

    2013-12-01

    Regarding the research and application of ceramic tiles there is a great importance of defining precisely the interaction and friction between surfaces. Measuring slip resistance of floor coverings is a complex problem; slipperiness is always interpreted relatively. In the lack of a consistent and clear EU standard, it is practical to use more method in combination. It is necessary to examine the structure of materials in order to get adequate correlation. That is why measuring techniques of surface roughness, an important contributor to slip resistance and cleaning, is fundamental in the research. By comparing the obtained test results, relationship between individual methods of analysis and values may be determined and based on these information recommendations shall be prepared concerning the selection and application of tiles.

  5. Tiles made from slag sitall based on chemical industry slag

    SciTech Connect

    Batalin, B.S.; Moskalets, N.B.; Klyuchnik, I.A.; Golius, T.E.

    1987-11-01

    The authors establish the feasibility of obtaining ceramic silicate-based facing tiles from fluoroamphibole slag sitall wastes from the hydropyrolytic production of hydrogen fluoride. The recovered ceramic is tested by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy for its crystallization behavior, structure, workability, corrosion resistance, phase composition, impact strength, and other properties.

  6. Biofilm formation on the surface of ceramic tiles.

    PubMed

    Sessa, R; Di Pietro, M; Zamparelli, M; Schiavoni, G; Del Piano, M

    2000-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the formation of biofilm on the surface of ceramic tiles, widely present in public and private buildings, using six parallel flow chambers. Our flow system was conceived and made to compare biofilm results by parallel distributed rectangular tiles. The tiles, divided into two identical A and B sections, were placed within the flow chambers. Biofilm formation was performed after 72 h and was quantified by viable counts of bacteria. Average viable counts ranged from 1.1x10(7) to 7.3x10(7) cfu cm(-2) and from 1.1x10(7) to 5.8x10(7) cfu cm(-2) respectively for biofilm A and B sections. As statistical analysis does not show significant differences, we can conclude that biofilms obtained were so similar to each other that they confirmed the system reproducibility. Our next step will be to use our system to study Legionella pneumophila and to evaluate the efficacy of antibacterial agents.

  7. Laser ultrasonics for bulk-density distribution measurement on green ceramic tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, G. M.; Cavuto, A.; Pandarese, G.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper a Laser Ultrasonics (LUT) system is developed and applied to measure bulk density distribution of green ceramic tiles, which are porous materials with low heat conductivity. Bulk density of green ceramic bodies is a fundamental parameter to be kept under control in the industrial production of ceramic tiles. The LUT system proposed is based on a Nd:YAG pulsed laser for excitation and an air-coupled electro-capacitive transducer for detection. The paper reports experimental apparent bulk-density measurements on white ceramic bodies after a calibration procedures. The performances observed are better than those previously achieved by authors using air-coupled ultrasonic probes for both emission and detection, allowing to reduce average uncertainty down to about ±6 kg/m3 (±0.3%), thanks to the increase in excitation efficiency and lateral resolution, while maintaining potential flexibility for on-line application. The laser ultrasonic procedure proposed is available for both on-line and off-line application. In this last case it is possible to obtain bulk density maps with high spatial resolution by a 2D scan without interrupting the production process.

  8. Process-generated nanoparticles from ceramic tile sintering: Emissions, exposure and environmental release.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, A S; Maragkidou, A; Viana, M; Querol, X; Hämeri, K; de Francisco, I; Estepa, C; Borrell, C; Lennikov, V; de la Fuente, G F

    2016-09-15

    The ceramic industry is an industrial sector in need of significant process changes, which may benefit from innovative technologies such as laser sintering of ceramic tiles. Such innovations result in a considerable research gap within exposure assessment studies for process-generated ultrafine and nanoparticles. This study addresses this issue aiming to characterise particle formation, release mechanisms and their impact on personal exposure during a tile sintering activity in an industrial-scale pilot plant, as a follow-up of a previous study in a laboratory-scale plant. In addition, possible particle transformations in the exhaust system, the potential for particle release to the outdoor environment, and the effectiveness of the filtration system were also assessed. For this purpose, a tiered measurement strategy was conducted. The main findings evidence that nanoparticle emission patterns were strongly linked to temperature and tile chemical composition, and mainly independent of the laser treatment. Also, new particle formation (from gaseous precursors) events were detected, with nanoparticles <30nm in diameter being formed during the thermal treatment. In addition, ultrafine and nano-sized airborne particles were generated and emitted into workplace air during sintering process on a statistically significant level. These results evidence the risk of occupational exposure to ultrafine and nanoparticles during tile sintering activity since workers would be exposed to concentrations above the nano reference value (NRV; 4×10(4)cm(-3)), with 8-hour time weighted average concentrations in the range of 1.4×10(5)cm(-3) and 5.3×10(5)cm(-3). A potential risk for nanoparticle and ultrafine particle release to the environment was also identified, despite the fact that the efficiency of the filtration system was successfully tested and evidenced a >87% efficiency in particle number concentrations removal.

  9. Parametric Weight Comparison of Advanced Metallic, Ceramic Tile, and Ceramic Blanket Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, David E.; Martin, Carl J.; Blosser, Max L.

    2000-01-01

    A parametric weight assessment of advanced metallic panel, ceramic blanket, and ceramic tile thermal protection systems (TPS) was conducted using an implicit, one-dimensional (I-D) finite element sizing code. This sizing code contained models to account for coatings fasteners, adhesives, and strain isolation pads. Atmospheric entry heating profiles for two vehicles, the Access to Space (ATS) vehicle and a proposed Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), were used to ensure that the trends were not unique to a certain trajectory. Ten TPS concepts were compared for a range of applied heat loads and substructural heat capacities to identify general trends. This study found the blanket TPS concepts have the lightest weights over the majority of their applicable ranges, and current technology ceramic tiles and metallic TPS concepts have similar weights. A proposed, state-of-the-art metallic system which uses a higher temperature alloy and efficient multilayer insulation was predicted to be significantly lighter than the ceramic tile stems and approaches blanket TPS weights for higher integrated heat loads.

  10. Zeo-pigment for traditional ceramic industry

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, J.J.P.; Rodriguez, A.V.; Caraballo, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    In the present work the possibility of using natural zeolites mixed with soluble salts for ceramic pigment elaboration (further named zeo-pigment) is studied. The mixture of zeolite with salts is thermally treated to produce the pigment, this procedure was followed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The obtained zeo-pigments were used to colour the porcelanized ceramic stoneware tiles at the experimental production. As it is known, it is possible to prepare a wide range of colours in these type of tiles by adding specific stains to the mixture of raw materials during grinding in the amount of 0.5 to 5 %, in this way any product called marbleized, mottled, granite, etc. ware is obtained. It is important to remember that when stains are added to the basic white body in order to produce one-color porcelanized ceramic stoneware, this does not involve great problems for the production. The physical properties of experimental produced ceramics, coloured by zeo-pigments, were studied according to European standard test. The present work is intended to be useful from the point of view of pollution prevention and waste minimization, regarding the utilization of soluble salts contained in some industrial wastes for the elaboration of ceramic pigments.

  11. Computational modeling of thin ceramic tiles backed by thin substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.D.; Anderson, C.E. Jr.; Cox, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    Building on the work of Wilkins, Eulerian hydrocode calculations were performed with ceramic models to examine the behavior of thin ceramic tiles backed by a thin substrate. In order to match ballistic limit data it was necessary to include a pressure dependent flow stress for failed ceramic. Reasonable agreement is found between the modified model and ballistic limit data for a simulated armor piercing round impacting an AD-85 alumina/6061T6 aluminum laminate. Based upon this success, the modified model was used to examine the performance of a SiC/6061T6 aluminum laminate when impacted by an M80 ball round (7.62 mm) at muzzle velocity. The projectile undergoes large deformation, as does the aluminum backing sheet. The computational results indicate, for the M80 projectile impacting at muzzle velocity, that the ballistic limit thickness for the SiC/aluminum laminate should weigh 10% less than the ballistic limit thickness for steel. The talk will include a video tape of calculations.

  12. High-Strength, Low-Shrinkage Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, W. H.; Creedon, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    Addition of refractory fibers and whiskers to insulating tiles composed primarily of fibrous silica, such as those used on the skin of Space Shuttle orbiter, greatly improves properties. New composition suitable for lightweight, thermally-stable mirror blanks and as furnace and kiln insulation. Improved tiles made with current tile-fabrication processes. For given density, tiles containing silicon carbide and boron additives stronger in flexure than tiles made from silica alone. In addition, tiles with additives nearly immune to heat distortion, whereas pure-silica tiles shrink and become severely distorted.

  13. Porosity Detection in Ceramic Armor Tiles via Ultrasonic Time-Of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nathaniel; Jensen, Terrence

    2011-06-01

    Some multilayer armor panels contain ceramic tiles as one constituent, and porosity in the tiles can affect armor performance. It is well known that porosity in ceramic materials leads to a decrease in ultrasonic velocity. We report on a feasibility study exploring the use of ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) to locate and characterize porous regions in armor tiles. The tiles in question typically have well-controlled thickness, thus simplifying the translation of TOF data into velocity data. By combining UT velocity measurements and X-ray absorption measurements on selected specimens, one can construct a calibration curve relating velocity to porosity. That relationship can then be used to translate typical ultrasonic C-scans of TOF-versus-position into C-scans of porosity-versus-position. This procedure is demonstrated for pulse/echo, focused-transducer inspections of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic tiles.

  14. Porosity detection in ceramic armor tiles via ultrasonic time-of-flight

    SciTech Connect

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nathaniel; Jensen, Terrence

    2011-06-23

    Some multilayer armor panels contain ceramic tiles as one constituent, and porosity in the tiles can affect armor performance. It is well known that porosity in ceramic materials leads to a decrease in ultrasonic velocity. We report on a feasibility study exploring the use of ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) to locate and characterize porous regions in armor tiles. The tiles in question typically have well-controlled thickness, thus simplifying the translation of TOF data into velocity data. By combining UT velocity measurements and X-ray absorption measurements on selected specimens, one can construct a calibration curve relating velocity to porosity. That relationship can then be used to translate typical ultrasonic C-scans of TOF-versus-position into C-scans of porosity-versus-position. This procedure is demonstrated for pulse/echo, focused-transducer inspections of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic tiles.

  15. Effect of biological treatment of the ceramic mass on the drying and firing of facing tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, V.V.; Sidorova, V.A.; Skripnik, V.P.; Solnyshkina, T.N.; Vainberg, S.N.; Vlasov, A.S.; Yashchenko, O.I.

    1985-12-01

    The authors studied the ceramic masses of the Minsk Building Materials Production complex (MZSM) and the Kishinev FinishingMaterials Plant (KZOM) having the following compositions: MZSM--48% Vesejovsk VGP clay, 22% nepheline concentrate, 17% quartz sand, 8% dolomite, 5% title scrap, and above 100% 3% bentonite, 0.1% soda ash, and 0.28% liquid glass; KZOM-48% Veselovsk VGP clay, 28% nepheline-syenite, 8% limestone filings (scrap), 16% title scrap, and, above 100%, 1% bentonite and 3% sodium tripolyphosphate. Improving the quality of ceramic tiles and reducing the mineral and fuel-energy consumption in their production are among the practical industrial problems. This paper discusses a method of solving them by improving the drying and firing processes of the products.

  16. Optimal Non-Invasive Fault Classification Model for Packaged Ceramic Tile Quality Monitoring Using MMW Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Smriti; Singh, Dharmendra

    2016-04-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) frequency has emerged as an efficient tool for different stand-off imaging applications. In this paper, we have dealt with a novel MMW imaging application, i.e., non-invasive packaged goods quality estimation for industrial quality monitoring applications. An active MMW imaging radar operating at 60 GHz has been ingeniously designed for concealed fault estimation. Ceramic tiles covered with commonly used packaging cardboard were used as concealed targets for undercover fault classification. A comparison of computer vision-based state-of-the-art feature extraction techniques, viz, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), wavelet transform (WT), principal component analysis (PCA), gray level co-occurrence texture (GLCM), and histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) has been done with respect to their efficient and differentiable feature vector generation capability for undercover target fault classification. An extensive number of experiments were performed with different ceramic tile fault configurations, viz., vertical crack, horizontal crack, random crack, diagonal crack along with the non-faulty tiles. Further, an independent algorithm validation was done demonstrating classification accuracy: 80, 86.67, 73.33, and 93.33 % for DFT, WT, PCA, GLCM, and HOG feature-based artificial neural network (ANN) classifier models, respectively. Classification results show good capability for HOG feature extraction technique towards non-destructive quality inspection with appreciably low false alarm as compared to other techniques. Thereby, a robust and optimal image feature-based neural network classification model has been proposed for non-invasive, automatic fault monitoring for a financially and commercially competent industrial growth.

  17. Thermal insulation attaching means. [adhesive bonding of felt vibration insulators under ceramic tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved isolation system is provided for attaching ceramic tiles of insulating material to the surface of a structure to be protected against extreme temperatures of the nature expected to be encountered by the space shuttle orbiter. This system isolates the fragile ceramic tiles from thermally and mechanically induced vehicle structural strains. The insulating tiles are affixed to a felt isolation pad formed of closely arranged and randomly oriented fibers by means of a flexible adhesive and in turn the felt pad is affixed to the metallic vehicle structure by an additional layer of flexible adhesive.

  18. Microwave energy versus convected hot air for rapidly drying ceramic tile

    SciTech Connect

    Earl, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine if microwave energy could provide advantages over the conventional hot air method currently used for rapidly drying ceramic tile. Tiles consisting of a typical fast-fire body formula were dried to 0.5% moisture using a 2.45 GHz, 950W microwave oven and a natural gas-fired roller dryer. Statistical methods were employed to develop equations for predicting microwave energy consumption, tile % moisture and surface temperature given drying time, tile volume and % relative humidity. Microwave drying was found to require 36% less energy than hot air drying. Moisture was removed and surface temperature elevated at faster rates using microwave energy.

  19. Sewage sludge ash characteristics and potential for use in bricks, tiles and glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Ciarán J; Dhir, Ravindra K; Ghataora, Gurmel S

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of sewage sludge ash (SSA) and its use in ceramic applications pertaining to bricks, tiles and glass ceramics have been assessed using the globally published literature in the English medium. It is shown that SSA possesses similar chemical characteristics to established ceramic materials and under heat treatment achieves the targeted densification, strength increases and absorption reductions. In brick and tile applications, technical requirements relating to strength, absorption and durability are achievable, with merely manageable performance reductions with SSA as a partial clay replacement. Fluxing properties of SSA facilitate lower firing temperatures during ceramics production, although reductions in mix plasticity leads to higher forming water requirements. SSA glass ceramics attained strengths in excess of natural materials such as granite and marble and displayed strong durability properties. The thermal treatment and nature of ceramic products also effectively restricted heavy metal leaching to low levels. Case studies, predominantly in bricks applications, reinforce confidence in the material with suitable technical performances achieved in practical conditions.

  20. Ceramization of inorganic ion exchangers loaded with nuclear waste into red clay tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Lehto, J.; Heinonen, O.J.; Miettinen, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    A new method to ceramize inorganic ion exchangers loaded with nuclear waste has been developed. It is simpler and cheaper than methods used previously, e.g., hot pressing. The inorganic ion exchangers, sodium titanate and ZrO/sub 2/, were turned into final ceramic waste form by mixing them with a Finish red clay in weight ratio 1:4 at maximum. The tiles moulded from the wet, bakeable mixture were ceramized at 1020 to 1060/sup 0/C. The leach rates of Sr, Cs and Co from the tiles determined by a dynamic ISO-test were after six months of leaching 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -7/ g/cm/sup 2//d, in decreasing order. Mechanically the tiles are very durable: flexural strengths were in the range of 20 to 45 meganewtons per square meter.

  1. Electrospun SiO2 "necklaces" on unglazed ceramic tiles: a planarizing strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, Alessandro; Fragalà, Maria Elena

    2015-05-01

    Silica based nanofibres have been deposited on unglazed ceramic tiles by combining electrospinning and sol-gel processes. Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) alcoholic solutions and commercial spin on glass (Accuglass) mixtures have been used to obtain composite fibrous non-woven mats totally converted, after thermal annealing at 600 °C, to SiO2 microsphere "necklaces". The possibility to get an uniform fibres coverage onto the tile surface confirms the validity of electrospinning (easily scalable to large surface samples) as coating strategy to cover the macroscopic defects typical of the polished unglazed tile surface and improve surface planarization.

  2. Hydrothermally prepared inorganic siliceous wastes: Hydrothermal reaction of calcareous and steatite ceramic tile wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Maenami, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Takeyuki; Ishida, Hideki

    1996-12-31

    Possibility of solidification of various ceramic wastes by hydrothermal processing was investigated. The starting materials were feldspathic porcelain tile waste, steatite ceramic tile waste, and calcareous ceramic tile waste. These were mixed with CaO so as to obtain a Ca/Si molar ratio of 0.5. After forming, they were cured for 2 to 20 h under the saturated steam pressure at 200{degrees}C. Although the SiO{sub 2} content of these ceramic wastes was about 70 mass% and they contain various alkaline ions and alkaline earth ions, solidified specimens with flexural strength up to 35MPa were obtained. This is within the range of strengths when quartz or fused silica is used as pure SiO{sub 2} sources. Formation of tobermorite, which was detected in all systems after 2 h of curing, was considered to affect the increase of the strength. It was found that there is a possibility of aluminum and alkali ions being included in the structure of the formed tobermorite. In the case of using steatite ceramic tile waste containing Mg, magnesium silicate hydrates were also formed. The modal pore diameter shifted to 0.01 {mu} m with the formation of these hydrates and there was correlation between the flexural strength and the pore size distribution.

  3. Thermo Physical Characteristics of Vitrified Tile Polishing Waste for Use in Traditional Ceramics-An Initiative of Cgcri, Naroda Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, S. N.; Machhoya, B. B.; Savsani, R. M.

    This paper reports the thermo physical characteristics of Vitrified tile polishing waste materials. As such growing production of vitrified tiles in the country generate large volume of this waste obtained during processing, polishing and cutting of the vitrified tiles to the tune of nearly 10-15 tonnes per day from each plant. The characteristic features of these materials are being studied and investigated to develop suitable technology for finding its gainful use especially in the traditional ceramics. It is known that ceramic as such building materials industry could be a large raw materials consumer and being heterogeneous and thus could utilize this vast quantity as the raw materials. However, the main problem would be it's firing nature as it showed thermal deformation after a particular temperature. Interestingly, the production process of most of the traditional ceramics follows a similar pattern starting from the raw materials processing up to a level of firing. Hence, to suggest suitable utility in the traditional ceramics as raw materials, it was the prime requisite that these waste must be thoroughly studied w. r. t various thermo physical characteristics to make use in this sectors. Hence, the present paper interestingly gone up to various study such as raw materials nature, particle size distribution, chemistry, XRD and DTA study for understanding typical physico chemical properties, and finally thermal properties to make it suitable for use in traditional ceramic industries. The higher fineness of the waste materials indicates its usefulness without extra grinding. The chemistry of typical sludge shows contamination from abrasive particles, sorrel cement bonding materials etc. originated from the polishing wheel and needs special precaution while suggesting use in the ceramic sectors. The firing characteristics of the sludge materials produces a foamy and spongy shapes and this could be the main guiding parameters in selecting the end use of the

  4. Evaluation of angle dependence in spectral emissivity of ceramic tiles measured by FT-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, C.; Ogasawara, N.; Yamada, H.; Yamada, S.; Kikuchi, T.

    2015-05-01

    Ceramic tiles are widely used for building walls. False detections are caused in inspections by infrared thermography because of the infrared reflection and angle dependence of emissivity. As the first problem, ceramic tile walls are influenced from backgrounds reflection. As the second problem, in inspection for tall buildings, the camera angles are changed against the height. Thus, to reveal the relation between the emissivity and angles is needed. However, there is very little data about it. It is impossible to decrease the false detection on ceramic tile walls without resolving these problems; background reflection and angle dependence of emissivity. In this study, the angle problem was investigated. The purpose is to establish a revision method in the angle dependence of the emissivity for infrared thermography. To reveal the relation between the emissivity and angles, the spectral emissivity of a ceramic tile at various angles was measured by FT-IR and infrared thermographic instrument. These two experimental results were compared with the emissivity-angle curves from the theoretical formula. In short wavelength range, the two experimental results showed similar behavior, but they did not agree with the theoretical curve. This will be the subject of further study. In long wavelength range, the both experimental results almost obeyed the theoretical curve. This means that it is possible to revise the angle dependence of spectral emissivity, for long wavelength range.

  5. Removable fastener for insulating tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. N.; Cade, D. H.; Logston, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fastening device that consists of internally threaded silica insert, silica plug, and molded rubber retainer, seals holes in ceramic tiles securely over wide temperature excursions without cracking from thermal stresses. Device proves useful in high-temperature industrial applications.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of lichens on ceramic roofing tiles by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analyses.

    PubMed

    Kiurski, Jelena S; Ranogajec, Jonjaua G; Ujhelji, Agnes L; Radeka, Miroslava M; Bokorov, Milos T

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the actions of some lichens on the quality of ceramic roofing tiles was investigated in view of textural and microstructural changes considering their biocorrosion resistance. Two types (extruded and pressed) of the real ceramic roofing tiles aged 6 to 10 years, as well as the ceramic model systems formed with the additives of the specific chemical composition Cu-slag powder (10 wt%) and CuO powder (1 wt%), treated with various concentrations of oxalic acid (0.01 wt%, 0.1 wt%, and 4 wt%) were investigated. The thalli of lichen (Verrucaria nigrescens) growth on ceramic roofing tile were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Investigation by SEM and EDS gave information regarding the ultrastructure characteristics of the thallus and the lichen-ceramic tile contact zone, allowing the observation of the hyphal penetration and filling up of the fissures and cracks by the lichens' hyphae. The CuO as the raw mixture additive changed the quality of the surface of the ceramic model systems as it has increased resistance to oxalic acid actions. The textural changes in the ceramic model systems and the formation of the identified destructive crystal phase, whewellite, were slowed down. The fundamental interactions between lichens and ceramic materials of the model systems have been identified as physico-chemical processes based on oxalic acid actions, which could cause ceramic matrix deterioration and consequently aging of ceramic roofing tile systems.

  7. Water reservoir as resource of raw material for ceramic industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, M.; Tarhouni, J.

    2015-04-01

    The industries related to the ceramics such as construction bricks, pottery and tile are the important sectors that cover the large part of the working population in Tunisia. The raw materials, clay or silt are excavated from opencast site of limestone clay stratum. The opencast site give the negative impact on landscape and environment, risks of landslide, soil erosion etc. On the other hand, a most serious problem in water resource management, especially in arid land such as Tunisia, is sedimentation in reservoirs. Sediment accumulation in the reservoirs reduces the water storage capacity. The authors proposed the exploitation of the sediment as raw material for the ceramics industries in the previous studies because the sediment in Tunisia is fine silt. In this study, the potential of the water reservoirs in Tunisia as the resource of the raw material for the ceramics industries is estimated from the sedimentation ratio in the water reservoirs.

  8. Sewage sludge ash characteristics and potential for use in bricks, tiles and glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Ciarán J; Dhir, Ravindra K; Ghataora, Gurmel S

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of sewage sludge ash (SSA) and its use in ceramic applications pertaining to bricks, tiles and glass ceramics have been assessed using the globally published literature in the English medium. It is shown that SSA possesses similar chemical characteristics to established ceramic materials and under heat treatment achieves the targeted densification, strength increases and absorption reductions. In brick and tile applications, technical requirements relating to strength, absorption and durability are achievable, with merely manageable performance reductions with SSA as a partial clay replacement. Fluxing properties of SSA facilitate lower firing temperatures during ceramics production, although reductions in mix plasticity leads to higher forming water requirements. SSA glass ceramics attained strengths in excess of natural materials such as granite and marble and displayed strong durability properties. The thermal treatment and nature of ceramic products also effectively restricted heavy metal leaching to low levels. Case studies, predominantly in bricks applications, reinforce confidence in the material with suitable technical performances achieved in practical conditions. PMID:27386979

  9. Characterization of low-temperature cofired ceramic tiles as platforms for gas chromatographic separations.

    PubMed

    Darko, Ernest; Thurbide, Kevin B; Gerhardt, Geoff C; Michienzi, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    A gas chromatography (GC) column is fabricated within a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) tile, and its analytical properties are characterized. By using a dual-spiral design, a 100 μm wide square channel up to 15 m in length is produced within an 11 cm × 5.5 cm LTCC tile. The channel is dynamically coated with an OV-101 stationary phase that is cross-linked with dicumyl peroxide. While the uncoated LTCC tiles were able to separate a mixture of n-alkanes, the peak shapes were broad (base width of ~2 min) and tailing. In contrast to this, the coated LTCC tiles produced sharp (base width of ~8-10 s), symmetrical, well-resolved peaks for the same analytes. By using a 7.5 m long channel, about 15,000 plates were obtained for a dodecane test analyte. Further, the coated LTCC tiles were found to produce plate heights that were about 3-fold smaller than those obtained from a conventional capillary GC column of similar length, dimension, and coating operated under the same conditions. As a result, test analyte separations were slightly improved in the LTCC tiles, and their overall performance fared well. In terms of temperature programming, it was found that a series of n-alkanes separated on the LTCC tile provided a cumulative peak capacity of around 54 peaks when using C₈ to C₁₃ as analyte markers. Results indicate that LTCC tiles provide a viable and useful alternative platform for performing good quality GC separations.

  10. An assessment of the cost of microwave sintering ceramic tiles for armor applications: Phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.

    1995-03-01

    This report documents the findings of the second phase of work to assess the costs of microwave sintering ceramic tiles for armor applications. In the first phase of work, the cost of microwave sintering and preliminary estimates of the total cost of microwave-sintered tiles under two microwave frequencies (i.e., 2.45 GHz and 28 GHz) for alumina and silicon carbide materials were reported. The second phase of work extends to the previous work to include all pre- and post-sintering manufacturing steps and considers process and cost variations in these steps that may result from the adoption of microwave sintering. Two separate models were developed for two different materials. As before, a process-cost approach was utilized within a spreadsheet environment. When compared to conventional sintering, the manufacturing of microwave-sintered alumina armor tiles will require an additional binder removal step prior to microwave sintering. The base-case cost of microwave-sintered alumina tiles is estimated to be $46.80/part and $50.50/part, given the use of 2.45 GHz and 28 GHz microwave power sources, respectively. In the case of microwave sintering of silicon carbide armor tiles, the material preparation step will be significantly different from conventional sintering. Instead of a binder removal step, there will be a green machining step. The base-case cost of microwave-sintered silicon carbide tiles is estimated to be $324.50/part and $327.50/part for 2.45 GHz and 28 GHz microwave power sources, respectively--compared to $235/part for conventionally-sintered tiles. Several sensitivity analyses of the impacts of variations in key economic and technical parameters on the costs of microwave-sintered tiles were conducted. Those analyses indicate that costs are quite sensitive to changes in the quantity of energy required during sintering.

  11. Experimental development of a machining database for the CO{sub 2} laser cutting of ceramic tile

    SciTech Connect

    Livingstone, S.A.J.; Chua, K.L.; Black, I.

    1997-10-01

    This paper covers the cutting of commercially-available ceramic tiles using a CO{sub 2} laser cutting machine, with the object of producing a laser beam machining database which contains the essential parameter information for their successful processing. Various laser cutting parameters were investigated that would generate a cut in ceramic tile which required minimal post-treatment. The effects of various shield gases, multipass cutting and underwater cutting were also examined.

  12. Program-technical complex for sorting ceramic tiles with the method of artificial intellect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliyev, Namik; Aliyev, Elchin

    2001-08-01

    Development of areas of automated systems of management of technological processes and systems of local automation requires the resolving of a set of questions on identification of production operations, working out industrial methods of measuring and control. Program-technical complex containing the systems of artificial vision, integrating device and dynamic expert systems of ready-product quality control in the example of decorative tile are examined at this work. The problem of identification of image can not be fully formalized and solved with the usage of strict algorithmic procedures and mathematical methods. Due to the mentioned fact, the development of intellectual programming methods- expert systems of image identification should provide effectiveness of mathematical methods of processing and heuristic programming with the expert knowledge of characteristics in analyzed systems. Implementation of the proposed complex, spares the specialist from routine job, allows timely spotting of technological process, solves the problem of sorting of ceramic materials in real time frame. In the meantime, the implementation of the system in dialog mode gives suggestions and recommendations.

  13. Laser Treatment of Nanoparticulated Metal Thin Films for Ceramic Tile Decoration.

    PubMed

    Rico, V J; Lahoz, R; Rey-García, F; Yubero, F; Espinós, J P; de la Fuente, G F; González-Elipe, A R

    2016-09-21

    This paper presents a new method for the fabrication of metal-like decorative layers on glazed ceramic tiles. It consists of the laser treatment of Cu thin films prepared by electron-beam evaporation at glancing angles. A thin film of discontinuous Cu nanoparticles was electron-beam-evaporated in an oblique angle configuration onto ceramic tiles and an ample palette of colors obtained by laser treatment both in air and in vacuum. Scanning electron microscopy along with UV-vis-near-IR spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis were used to characterize the differently colored layers. On the basis of these analyses, color development has been accounted for by a simple model considering surface melting phenomena and different microstructural and chemical transformations of the outmost surface layers of the samples.

  14. Simulation of the Evolution of Floor Covering Ceramic Tiles During the Firing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peris-Fajarnés, Guillermo; Defez, Beatriz; Serrano, Ricardo; Ruiz, Oscar E.

    2013-04-01

    Finding the geometry and properties of a ceramic tile after its firing using simulations, is relevant because several defects can occur and the tile can be rejected if the conditions of the firing are inadequate for the geometry and materials of the tile. Previous works present limitations because they do not use a model characteristic of ceramics at high temperatures and they oversimplify the simulations. As a response to such shortcomings, this article presents a simulation with a three-dimensional Norton's model, which is characteristic of ceramics at high temperatures. The results of our simulated experiments show advantages with respect to the identification of the mechanisms that contribute to the final shape of the body. Our work is able to divide the history of temperatures in stages where the evolution of the thermal, elastic, and creep deformations is simplified and meaningful. That is achieved because our work found that curvature is the most descriptive parameter of the simulation. Future work is to be realized in the creation of a model that takes into account that the shrinkage is dependent on the history of temperatures.

  15. Radon exhalation rates and gamma doses from ceramic tiles.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, R S; Aral, H; Peggie, J R

    1998-12-01

    This study was carried out to assess the possible radiological hazard resulting from the use of zircon in glaze applied to tiles used in buildings. The 226Ra content of various stains and glazing compounds was measured using gamma spectroscopy and the 222Rn exhalation rates for these materials were measured using adsorption on activated charcoal. The radon exhalation rates were found to be close to or less than the minimum detectable values for the equipment used. This limit was much lower than the estimated exhalation rates, which were calculated assuming that the parameters controlling the emanation and diffusion of 222Rn in the materials studied were similar to those of soil. This implied that the 222Rn emanation coefficients and/or diffusion coefficients for most of the materials studied were very much lower than expected. Measurements on zircon powders showed that the 222Rn emanation coefficient for zircon was much lower than that for soil, indicating that only a small fraction of the 222Rn produced by the decay of 226Ra was able to escape from the zircon grains. The estimated increase in radon concentration in room air and the estimated external gamma radiation dose resulting from the use of zircon glaze are both much lower than the relevant action level and dose limit.

  16. Neutron activation analysis of ceramic tiles and its component and radon exhalation rate.

    PubMed

    El-Shershaby, A; Sroor, A; Ahmed, F; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Abdel, Z

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of 20 trace elements in several ceramics tiles and ceramic composites used in Egypt were elementally analyzed by neutron activation analysis(NAA) technique. The samples and standard were irradiated with reactor for 4 h (in the Second Research Egyptian Reactor(Et-RR-2)) with thermal neutron flux 5.9 x 10(13) n/(cm2 x s). The gamma-ray spectra obtained were measured for several times by means of the hyper pure germanium detection system(HPGe). Also a solid state nuclear track detector(SSNTD) CR-39, was used to measure the emanation rate of radon for these samples. The radium concentrations were found to vary from 0.39-3.59 ppm and the emanation rates were found to vary from (0.728-5.688) x 10(-4) kg/(m2 x s). The elemental analysis of the ceramic tiles and ceramic composites have a great importance in assigning the physical properties and in turn the quality of the material.

  17. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and exposure to zirconium silicate in a young ceramic tile worker.

    PubMed

    Liippo, K K; Anttila, S L; Taikina-Aho, O; Ruokonen, E L; Toivonen, S T; Tuomi, T

    1993-10-01

    We describe a nonsmoking ceramic tile worker 25 yr of age who developed a worsening dry cough and dyspnea after 3.5 yr as a sorter and glazer of tiles. Open lung biopsy revealed an intense granulomatous interstitial pneumonia with mild fibrosis, compatible with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and numerous very small birefringent crystals around the terminal airways and occasionally in granulomas. Pulmonary particle analysis revealed an inhaled dust burden nearly 100-fold the normal background level, mainly consisting of clay minerals and zirconium silicate. The patient had no history or clinical or laboratory findings suggesting any organic etiologic agent. A sarcoid granulomatosis type of chronic pulmonary hypersensitivity reaction is known after long-term exposure to zirconium, but this case demonstrates that zirconium can also cause an acute and fulminant allergic alveolitislike hypersensitivity reaction.

  18. Whiteness process of tile ceramics: using a synthetic flow as a modifier agent of color firing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, G. R.; Pereira, M. C.; Olzon-Dionysio, M.; de Souza, S. D.; Morelli, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic flow is proposed as a modifier agent of color firing in tile ceramic mass during the sinterization process, turning the red color firing into whiteness. Therefore, the 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to understand how the interaction of the iron element in the mechanism of color firing mass occurs in this system. The results suggest that the change of color firing can be alternatively due to two main factors: (i) diluting the hematite content in the sample because of the use of synthetic flow and (ii) part of the hematite is converted in other uncolored crystal structures, which makes the final color firing lighter.

  19. Surface defect detection in tiling Industries using digital image processing methods: analysis and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohammad H; Asemani, Davud

    2014-05-01

    Ceramic and tile industries should indispensably include a grading stage to quantify the quality of products. Actually, human control systems are often used for grading purposes. An automatic grading system is essential to enhance the quality control and marketing of the products. Since there generally exist six different types of defects originating from various stages of tile manufacturing lines with distinct textures and morphologies, many image processing techniques have been proposed for defect detection. In this paper, a survey has been made on the pattern recognition and image processing algorithms which have been used to detect surface defects. Each method appears to be limited for detecting some subgroup of defects. The detection techniques may be divided into three main groups: statistical pattern recognition, feature vector extraction and texture/image classification. The methods such as wavelet transform, filtering, morphology and contourlet transform are more effective for pre-processing tasks. Others including statistical methods, neural networks and model-based algorithms can be applied to extract the surface defects. Although, statistical methods are often appropriate for identification of large defects such as Spots, but techniques such as wavelet processing provide an acceptable response for detection of small defects such as Pinhole. A thorough survey is made in this paper on the existing algorithms in each subgroup. Also, the evaluation parameters are discussed including supervised and unsupervised parameters. Using various performance parameters, different defect detection algorithms are compared and evaluated.

  20. Surface defect detection in tiling Industries using digital image processing methods: analysis and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohammad H; Asemani, Davud

    2014-05-01

    Ceramic and tile industries should indispensably include a grading stage to quantify the quality of products. Actually, human control systems are often used for grading purposes. An automatic grading system is essential to enhance the quality control and marketing of the products. Since there generally exist six different types of defects originating from various stages of tile manufacturing lines with distinct textures and morphologies, many image processing techniques have been proposed for defect detection. In this paper, a survey has been made on the pattern recognition and image processing algorithms which have been used to detect surface defects. Each method appears to be limited for detecting some subgroup of defects. The detection techniques may be divided into three main groups: statistical pattern recognition, feature vector extraction and texture/image classification. The methods such as wavelet transform, filtering, morphology and contourlet transform are more effective for pre-processing tasks. Others including statistical methods, neural networks and model-based algorithms can be applied to extract the surface defects. Although, statistical methods are often appropriate for identification of large defects such as Spots, but techniques such as wavelet processing provide an acceptable response for detection of small defects such as Pinhole. A thorough survey is made in this paper on the existing algorithms in each subgroup. Also, the evaluation parameters are discussed including supervised and unsupervised parameters. Using various performance parameters, different defect detection algorithms are compared and evaluated. PMID:24502941

  1. Industry turns to ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Constance, J.

    1990-03-01

    Developments in the area of ceramic composites, which can be used to construct stronger, lighter weight, and more fuel-efficient aircraft, are examined. Ceramic composites are applicable aircraft braking systems, hypersonic fuselage skins, engine parts, and missile guidance fins. The production and testing of new ceramic composites are discussed. Consideration is given to the production of ceramic composites of an alumina or aluminum nitride matrix; developing glass ceramic matrix composites and silicon nitride matrix composites; and improving synthesis and processing technology to enhance the reliability of ceramic composites.

  2. Study of dynamic structure and heat and mass transfer of a vertical ceramic tiles dryer using CFD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriaa, Wassim; Bejaoui, Salma; Mhiri, Hatem; Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we developed a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to simulate dynamic structure and heat and mass transfer of a vertical ceramic tiles dryer (EVA 702). The carrier's motion imposed the choice of a dynamic mesh based on two methods: "spring based smoothing" and "local remeshing". The dryer airflow is considered as turbulent ( Re = 1.09 × 105 at the dryer inlet), therefore the Re-Normalization Group model with Enhanced Wall Treatment was used as a turbulence model. The resolution of the governing equation was performed with Fluent 6.3 whose capacities do not allow the direct resolution of drying problems. Thus, a user defined scalar equation was inserted in the CFD code to model moisture content diffusion into tiles. User-defined functions were implemented to define carriers' motion, thermo-physical properties… etc. We adopted also a "two-step" simulation method: in the first step, we follow the heat transfer coefficient evolution (Hc). In the second step, we determine the mass transfer coefficient (Hm) and the features fields of drying air and ceramic tiles. The found results in mixed convection mode (Fr = 5.39 at the dryer inlet) were used to describe dynamic and thermal fields of airflow and heat and mass transfer close to the ceramic tiles. The response of ceramic tiles to heat and mass transfer was studied based on Biot numbers. The evolutions of averages temperature and moisture content of ceramic tiles were analyzed. Lastly, comparison between experimental and numerical results showed a good agreement.

  3. Wind-Resistant Filler for Tile Gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellavia, J.; Quigley, I. A.; Callahan, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    Filler developed for gaps between insulating tiles on Space Shuttle finds application in industries that use tiles for thermal or environmental protection. Filler consists of tight-fitting ceramic tubes and fibrous alumina. Combination resists high wind loads while providing requisite heat protection. Quartz-thread stitching holds envelope together.

  4. Survival of Staphylococcus aureus exposed to UV radiation on the surface of ceramic tiles coated with TiO2.

    PubMed

    Szczawiński, J; Tomaszewski, H; Jackowska-Tracz, A; Szczawińska, M E

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antimicrobial activity of UV radiation of wavelength 253.7 nm (used in typical germicidal lamps) against Staphylococcus aureus on the surfaces of conventionally produced white ceramic wall tiles (matt and shiny) and the same tiles coated with TiO2 using three different methods: RF diode sputtering, atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) and spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD). Results clearly indicate that the bactericidal action of UV radiation is much stronger on the surfaces of tiles coated with TiO2 than on the tiles uncovered. The strongest bactericidal effect of UV radiation was found for film prepared by APCVD. Results of experiments for shiny and matt tiles did not differ statistically. The use of ceramic wall tiles coated with TiO2 films in hospitals, veterinary clinics, laboratories, food processing plants and other places where UV radiation is applied for disinfection should greatly improve the efficiency of this treatment.

  5. Comparison of slime-producing coagulase-negative Staphylococcus colonization rates on vinyl and ceramic tile flooring materials.

    PubMed

    Yazgi, H; Uyanik, M H; Ayyildiz, A

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the colonization of slime-producing coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) in 80 patient wards in Turkey (40 vinyl and 40 ceramic tile floors). A total of 480 samples that included 557 CoNS isolates were obtained. Slime production was investigated with the Christensen method and methicillin-susceptibility was tested by the disk-diffusion method. There was a significant difference in the percentage of slime-producing CoNS isolates on vinyl (12.4%) versus ceramic tile flooring (4.4%). From vinyl flooring, the percentage of slime producing methicillin-resistant CoNS (MRCoNS) (8.9%) was significantly higher than for methicillin-sensitive CoNS (MSCoNS) (3.6%), whereas there was no difference from ceramic tile flooring (2.5% MRCoNS versus 1.8% MSCoNS). The most commonly isolated slime-producing CoNS species was S. epidermidis on both types of flooring. It is concluded that vinyl flooring seems to be a more suitable colonization surface for slime-producing CoNS than ceramic tile floors. Further studies are needed to investigate bacterial strains colonized on flooring materials, which are potential pathogens for nosocomial infections. PMID:19589249

  6. Ceramics, Project Ideas for Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, James R., Ed.

    This book of ceramic project ideas is for teacher or student use in secondary industrial arts courses. It was developed in a workshop by teachers. The content objectives are to provide useful projects and units of instruction and to give direction to ceramics instruction which is in keeping with a changing technology. Forty-one project plans are…

  7. Modelling runoff on ceramic tile roofs using the kinematic wave equations.

    PubMed

    Silveira, A; Abrantes, J R C B; de Lima, J L M P; Lira, L C

    2016-01-01

    Generally, roofs are the best candidates for rainwater harvesting. In this context, the correct evaluation of the quantity and quality of runoff from roofs is essential to effectively design rainwater harvesting systems. This study aims to evaluate the performance of a kinematic wave based numerical model in simulating runoff on sloping roofs, by comparing the numerical results with the ones obtained from laboratory rainfall simulations on a real-scale Lusa ceramic tile roof. For all studied slopes, simulated discharge hydrographs had a good adjust to observed ones. Coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values were close to 1.0. Particularly, peak discharges, times to peak, peak durations and runoff volumes were very well simulated. PMID:27232420

  8. Micro-XRF for characterization of Moroccan glazed ceramics and Portuguese tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilherme, A.; Manso, M.; Pessanha, S.; Zegzouti, A.; Elaatmani, M.; Bendaoud, R.; Coroado, J.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2013-02-01

    A set of enamelled terracotta samples (Zellij) collected from five different monuments in Morocco were object of study. With the aim of characterizing these typically Moroccan artistic objects, X-ray spectroscopic techniques were used as analytical tool to provide elemental and compound information. A lack of information about these types of artistic ceramics is found by the research through international scientific journals, so this investigation is an opportunity to fulfill this gap. For this purpose, micro-Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and wavelength dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were the chosen methods. As complementary information, a comparison with other sort of artistic pottery objects is given, more precisely with Portuguese glazed wall tiles (Azulejos), based in the Islamic pottery traditions. Differences between these two types of decorative pottery were found and presented in this manuscript.

  9. [Description of several cases of preclinical lead poisoning in decorators of ceramic tiles].

    PubMed

    Cornelio, G; De Zotti, R

    1983-05-01

    Tha AA report 10 cases of subclinical lead poisoning in a small ceramic factory for artistic painting of building tiles . The decoration was done by hand, using lead glazes . In spite of the extremely low lead air level, the decorators , whose time of exposure was 6-18 months had on average 1868 (SD: 810) micrograms Pbu EDTA/24h and 18,2 (SD: 14,8) mg ALAu /l. Hematochemical data were within the normal range, all but serum iron (144 +/- 33 micrograms %). The cases are presented as a clear example of working conditions where lead intake occurs mainly by gastrointestinal absorption. The AA emphasize the importance of biological monitoring as essential to complete the data of environmental pollution. Moreover the prevention of lead poisoning, especially in small factories, requires the implementation of those general hygienic measures recommended in the recent EEC directive.

  10. Modelling runoff on ceramic tile roofs using the kinematic wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Alexandre; Abrantes, João; de Lima, João; Lira, Lincoln

    2016-04-01

    Rainwater harvesting is a water saving alternative strategy that presents many advantages and can provide solutions to address major water resources problems, such as fresh water scarcity, urban stream degradation and flooding. In recent years, these problems have become global challenges, due to climatic change, population growth and increasing urbanisation. Generally, roofs are the first to come into contact with rainwater; thus, they are the best candidates for rainwater harvesting. In this context, the correct evaluation of roof runoff quantity and quality is essential to effectively design rainwater harvesting systems. Despite this, many studies usually focus on the qualitative aspects in detriment of the quantitative aspects. Laboratory studies using rainfall simulators have been widely used to investigate rainfall-runoff processes. These studies enabled a detailed exploration and systematic replication of a large range of hydrologic conditions, such as rainfall spatial and temporal characteristics, providing for a fast way to obtain precise and consistent data that can be used to calibrate and validate numerical models. This study aims to evaluate the performance of a kinematic wave based numerical model in simulating runoff on sloping roofs, by comparing the numerical results with the ones obtained from laboratory rainfall simulations on a real-scale ceramic tile roof (Lusa tiles). For all studied slopes, simulated discharge hydrographs had a good adjust to observed ones. Coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values were close to 1.0. Particularly, peak discharges, times to peak and peak durations were very well simulated.

  11. Conditioning film and initial biofilm formation on ceramics tiles in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Siboni, Nachshon; Lidor, Michal; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Kushmaro, Ariel

    2007-09-01

    The formation of biofilm on surfaces in the marine environment is believed to be an important factor driving colonization and recruitment of some sessile invertebrate communities. The present study follows the process of biofilm buildup on unglazed ceramic tiles deployed into the marine environment in the northern Gulf of Eilat. PCR-DGGE of film eluted from the tile surface indicated the presence of bacteria as early as 2 h after deployment. The makeup of the biofilm bacterial community was dynamic. Bacterial presence was apparent microscopically 6 h after deployment, though a developed biofilm was not observed until 24 h following deployment. Total organic carbon (TOC) data suggest that a conditioning film was built within the first four hours following deployment. During this time period TOC reached the highest level possibly due to adhesion of organics (e.g., sugars, proteins and humic substances) from the water column. We suggest that the primary adhering bacteria, whilst still in the reversible stage of adhesion, utilize the conditioning film as food causing the decrease in TOC. Understanding the dynamics between these primary bacterial settlers is of importance, since they may play a role on the succession of invertebrate species settlement onto artificial surfaces.

  12. Use of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass in the production of ceramic tiles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kae-Long

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we employ the following operating conditions: varied pressure (25 kgf/cm(2)), sintering temperature (900-1200 degrees C), sintering time (6h), percentage of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass by weight (0-50%) and temperature rising at a rate of 5 degrees C/min, to fabricate clay tiles. The sintering characteristics of the clay blended with TFT-LCD waste glass tiles are examined to evaluate the feasibility of the reuse of TFT-LCD waste glass. TFT-LCD waste glass contains large amounts of glass. The TCLP leaching concentrations all met the ROC EPAs current regulatory thresholds. The addition of TFT-LCD waste glass to the mixture, increased the apparent weight loss. The incorporation of 50% TFT-LCD waste glass resulted in a significant increase in the porosity ratio of the specimens compared to the porosity ratio of the ceramic tile containing TFT-LCD waste glass. The main constituent in both the clay tile and the clay with TFT-LCD waste glass samples is quartz. Increasing the temperature resulted in an increase in the flexural strength and resistance to abrasion in the tiles. The porosity ratio decreases as shrinkage increases. The relation between the porosity ratio and the hardness of the tiles used in the study is also shown. PMID:17367925

  13. Use of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass in the production of ceramic tiles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kae-Long

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we employ the following operating conditions: varied pressure (25 kgf/cm(2)), sintering temperature (900-1200 degrees C), sintering time (6h), percentage of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass by weight (0-50%) and temperature rising at a rate of 5 degrees C/min, to fabricate clay tiles. The sintering characteristics of the clay blended with TFT-LCD waste glass tiles are examined to evaluate the feasibility of the reuse of TFT-LCD waste glass. TFT-LCD waste glass contains large amounts of glass. The TCLP leaching concentrations all met the ROC EPAs current regulatory thresholds. The addition of TFT-LCD waste glass to the mixture, increased the apparent weight loss. The incorporation of 50% TFT-LCD waste glass resulted in a significant increase in the porosity ratio of the specimens compared to the porosity ratio of the ceramic tile containing TFT-LCD waste glass. The main constituent in both the clay tile and the clay with TFT-LCD waste glass samples is quartz. Increasing the temperature resulted in an increase in the flexural strength and resistance to abrasion in the tiles. The porosity ratio decreases as shrinkage increases. The relation between the porosity ratio and the hardness of the tiles used in the study is also shown.

  14. Possible production of ceramic tiles from marine dredging spoils alone and mixed with other waste materials.

    PubMed

    Baruzzo, Daniela; Minichelli, Dino; Bruckner, Sergio; Fedrizzi, Lorenzo; Bachiorrini, Alessandro; Maschio, Stefano

    2006-06-30

    Dredging spoils, due to their composition could be considered a new potential source for the production of monolithic ceramics. Nevertheless, abundance of coloured oxides in these materials preclude the possibility of obtaining white products, but not that of producing ceramics with a good mechanical behaviour. As goal of the present research we have produced and studied samples using not only dredging spoils alone, but also mixtures with other waste materials such as bottom ashes from an incinerator of municipal solid waste, incinerated seawage sludge from a municipal seawage treatment plant and steelworks slag. Blending of different components was done by attrition milling. Powders were pressed into specimens which were air sintered in a muffle furnace and their shrinkage on firing was determined. Water absorption, density, strength, hardness, fracture toughness, thermal expansion coefficient of the fired bodies were measured; XRD and SEM images were also examined. The fired samples were finally tested in acidic environment in order to evaluate their elution behaviour and consequently their environmental compatibility. It is observed that, although the shrinkage on firing is too high for the production of tiles, in all the compositions studied the sintering procedure leads to fine microstructures, good mechanical properties and to a limitation of the release of many of the most hazardous metals contained in the starting powders. PMID:16343751

  15. Possible production of ceramic tiles from marine dredging spoils alone and mixed with other waste materials.

    PubMed

    Baruzzo, Daniela; Minichelli, Dino; Bruckner, Sergio; Fedrizzi, Lorenzo; Bachiorrini, Alessandro; Maschio, Stefano

    2006-06-30

    Dredging spoils, due to their composition could be considered a new potential source for the production of monolithic ceramics. Nevertheless, abundance of coloured oxides in these materials preclude the possibility of obtaining white products, but not that of producing ceramics with a good mechanical behaviour. As goal of the present research we have produced and studied samples using not only dredging spoils alone, but also mixtures with other waste materials such as bottom ashes from an incinerator of municipal solid waste, incinerated seawage sludge from a municipal seawage treatment plant and steelworks slag. Blending of different components was done by attrition milling. Powders were pressed into specimens which were air sintered in a muffle furnace and their shrinkage on firing was determined. Water absorption, density, strength, hardness, fracture toughness, thermal expansion coefficient of the fired bodies were measured; XRD and SEM images were also examined. The fired samples were finally tested in acidic environment in order to evaluate their elution behaviour and consequently their environmental compatibility. It is observed that, although the shrinkage on firing is too high for the production of tiles, in all the compositions studied the sintering procedure leads to fine microstructures, good mechanical properties and to a limitation of the release of many of the most hazardous metals contained in the starting powders.

  16. Investigation by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray powder diffraction of the chemical composition of white clay ceramic tiles from Veliki Preslav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoev, K.; Grozeva, M.; Malcheva, G.; Neykova, S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and X-ray powder diffraction in assessing the chemical and phase composition of white clay decorative ceramic tiles from the medieval archaeological site of Veliki Preslav, a Bulgarian capital in the period 893-972 AC, well-known for its original ceramic production. Numerous white clay ceramic tiles with highly varied decoration, produced for wall decoration of city's churches and palaces, were found during the archaeological excavations in the old capital. The examination of fourteen ceramic tiles discovered in one of the city's monasteries is aimed at characterization of the chemical profile of the white-clay decorative ceramics produced in Veliki Preslav. Combining different methods and comparing the obtained results provides complementary information regarding the white-clay ceramic production in Veliki Preslav and complete chemical characterization of the examined artefacts.

  17. Nondestructive techniques for detection of delamination in ceramic tile: a laboratory comparison between IR thermal cameras and laser Doppler vibrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Andrade, Roberto M.; Esposito, Enrico; Paone, Nicola; Revel, Gian M.

    1999-02-01

    In ceramic tile industry, delamination is one of the more important and difficult problems to detect. Among all the general non-destructive evaluation methods, optical inspection technique seem to be particularly suitable. A method based on acquisition and processing of IR thermal images is proposed. Measurements have been performed by artificial heating by an IR quartz lamp. The performance of the technique has been evaluated experimentally and results show that the examine defects in the measured samples have been correctly detected. Another proposed technique for detection of delaminations and voids in structures is vibration monitoring by a scanning laser doppler vibrometer (SLDV). The basic idea is that a defected area will show as a higher velocity one. Structure excitation may be performed by acoustic means, thus allowing for a remote contactless measurement system. Our tests put in evidence that IR thermal images provide a very fast defect detection method appropriate for on line applications, while SLDV results show a better geometrical definition of defects shapes.

  18. Compressive Strength and Water Absorption of Pervious Concrete that Using the Fragments of Ceramics and Roof Tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahara, E.; Meilani

    2014-03-01

    Pervious concrete was introduced in America in 2003, popularized by Dan Brown and used as a rigid pavement in the open parking lot. Rigid pavement using pervious concrete can absorb water in the surface to go straight through the concrete to the ground below.This water flow is one of the benefit of using the pervious concrete. Using of wastes such as broken roof and ceramics tiles are not commonly used in Indonesia. Utilization these kind of wastes is predicted lower the compressive strength of pervious concrete as they are used as a substitute for coarse aggregate.In this research, pervious concrete is made using a mixture of the fragment of ceramics and roof tiles.This research using broken ceramics and roof tiles with a grain size that loose from 38 mm sieve, retained on 19 mm sieve and the coarse aggregate from crushed stone that loose 12.5 mm sieve, retained on 9.5 mm sieve. The water cement ratio is 0.3 and to assist the mixing process, the addition of addictive in pervious concrete is used.The size of coarse aggregate used in the mixture affects the strength of pervious concrete. The larger the size of aggregate, the obtained compressive strength becomes smaller. It also affects the density of pervious concrete. The using of mixture of ceramics and roof tiles only reduce 2 MPa of pervious concrete compressive strength so this mixture can be used as a substitute for coarse aggregate with a maximum portion of 30 %. The high porosity of the specimens causes the reduction of pervious concrete density that affect the compressive strength. This high level of porosity can be seen from the high level of water absorption that exceed the required limit of water infiltration.

  19. [Modeling of carbon dioxide measurement and optimization on building ceramic industry].

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun-Xi; Zhao, Yu-Bo; Jiao, Li-Hua; Zeng, Lu; Zheng, Wei-Min

    2012-02-01

    Input-output model and low carbon programming model on building ceramic industry were established. Carbon dioxide emissions of key steps and carbon footprint of products were calculated and predicted using the input-output model. While products planning was optimized using the low carbon programming model. The results showed that CO2 emission in the enterprise reached 182 543.9 t a year and CO2 emission per unit product was 10% more than advanced level in the world. 80% of the total CO2 was emitted during the processes of firing and drying. As a result, we should focus on these two steps in order to reduce carbon dioxide emission of building ceramic industry. Carbon footprint of blank tile, polished tile, and glazed tile were 150.2 t, 168.0 t, 159.6 t respectively. Optimized by the low carbon model, The ceramic enterprise could reduce carbon dioxide emission by 5.4% while not sacrificing any profit, and also could obtain profit 5.6% higher than before while unrise the carbon dioxide emission.

  20. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wójczyk, M.

    2011-10-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6~8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5~6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO2-Al2O3, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  1. Rapid analysis of tile industry gaseous emissions by ion mobility spectrometry and comparison with solid phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, R; Bocchini, P; Pinelli, F; Galletti, G C

    2006-12-01

    The present paper reports on a rapid method for the analysis of gaseous emissions from ceramic industry, based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) as a means for on-site monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during tile baking. IMS was calibrated with a set of reference compounds (i.e. ethyl acetate, ethanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane, 1,3-dioxolane, 1,4-dioxane, benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, acetone, acetic acid) via air-flow permeation. The technique was tested on a laboratory-scale kiln and tiles prepared with selected glycol- and resin-based additives. Finally, the analytical method was applied to emissions from two industries in the Modena (Italy) ceramic area. The results of all experimental phases were compared to those obtained by solid phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS). IMS showed potential as a real-time monitoring device for quality assessment in ceramic industry emissions. IMS spectra, SPME/GC/MS data, relationship between additives/baking conditions and produced VOCs and advantages and limitations of both techniques will be discussed.

  2. Preparation and characterization of novel glass-ceramic tile with microwave absorption properties from iron ore tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Rui; Liao, SongYi; Dai, ChangLu; Liu, YuChen; Chen, XiaoYu; Zheng, Feng

    2015-03-01

    A novel glass-ceramic tile consisting of one glass-ceramic layer (GC) attaining microwave absorption properties atop ceramic substrate was prepared through quench-heat treatment route derived from iron ore tailings (IOTs) and commercial raw materials (purity range 73-99%). X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Physical property measurement system (PPMS) and Vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements were carried out to investigate phase, microstructure, magnetic and microwave absorption aspects of the glass-ceramic layer. Roughly 80.6±1.7 wt% borosilicate glass and 19.4±1.7 wt% spinel ferrite with chemical formula of (Zn2+0.17Fe3+0.83)[Fe3+1.17Fe2+0.06Ni2+0.77]O4 were found among the tested samples. Absorption of Electromagnetic wave by 3 mm thick glass-ceramic layer at frequency of 2-18 GHz reached peak reflection loss (RL) of -17.61 dB (98.27% microwave absorption) at 10.31 GHz. Altering the thickness of the glass-ceramic layer can meet the requirements of different level of microwave absorption.

  3. Maintenance of Vinyl Asbestos and Asphalt Tile Floors in Institutional, Industrial and Commercial Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt and Vinyl Asbestos Tile Inst., New York, NY.

    The claim is made that proper planning and modest outlays of time, labor, and material costs can provide and maintain a high appearance level for floors in institutional, commercial, and industrial buildings. Instructions for four basic steps in maintaining the good looks of vinyl asbestos and asphalt tile floors are treated in the booklet--(1)…

  4. Quality and seasonal variation of rainwater harvested from concrete, asphalt, ceramic tile and green roofs in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Xiaoke; Hou, Peiqiang; Wan, Wuxing; Li, Ruida; Ren, Yufen; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent requirement to examine the quality of harvested rainwater for potable and non-potable purposes, based on the type of roofing material. In this study, we examined the effect on the quality of harvested rainwater of conventional roofing materials (concrete, asphalt and ceramic tile roofs) compared with alternative roofing materials (green roof). The results showed that the ceramic tile roof was the most suitable for rainwater-harvesting applications because of the lower concentrations of leachable pollutants. However, in this study, the green roof was not suitable for rainwater harvesting applications. In addition, seasonal trends in water quality parameters showed that pollutants in roof runoff in summer and autumn were lower than those in winter and spring. This study revealed that the quality of harvested rainwater was significantly affected by the roofing material; therefore, local government and urban planners should develop stricter testing programs and produce more weathering resistant roofing materials to allow the harvesting of rainwater for domestic and public uses. PMID:24316751

  5. Quality and seasonal variation of rainwater harvested from concrete, asphalt, ceramic tile and green roofs in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Xiaoke; Hou, Peiqiang; Wan, Wuxing; Li, Ruida; Ren, Yufen; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent requirement to examine the quality of harvested rainwater for potable and non-potable purposes, based on the type of roofing material. In this study, we examined the effect on the quality of harvested rainwater of conventional roofing materials (concrete, asphalt and ceramic tile roofs) compared with alternative roofing materials (green roof). The results showed that the ceramic tile roof was the most suitable for rainwater-harvesting applications because of the lower concentrations of leachable pollutants. However, in this study, the green roof was not suitable for rainwater harvesting applications. In addition, seasonal trends in water quality parameters showed that pollutants in roof runoff in summer and autumn were lower than those in winter and spring. This study revealed that the quality of harvested rainwater was significantly affected by the roofing material; therefore, local government and urban planners should develop stricter testing programs and produce more weathering resistant roofing materials to allow the harvesting of rainwater for domestic and public uses.

  6. Photocatalytic decolouration of Orange II by ZnO active layers screen-printed on ceramic tiles.

    PubMed

    Marto, J; São Marcos, P; Trindade, T; Labrincha, J A

    2009-04-15

    In this work ZnO layers have been deposited by screen-printing in common ceramic tiles. These layers were characterized and tested for the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye Orange II in aqueous solutions, using a batch photoreactor either under visible light provided by a Philips ML-160 W lamp or under direct exposure to sunlight. For sake of comparison, ZnO suspensions have also been evaluated for similar reacting conditions. The influence of experimental parameters such as (i) firing temperature of the printed layer; (ii) layer thickness; and (iii) operation time have been investigated. Screen-printed ZnO layers obtained in optimal processing conditions showed photocatalytic activity comparable to aqueous ZnO suspensions. The maximal attenuation degree is over 70% and decolourisation rate, assuming that reaction kinetics follows a pseudo-first order rate law, is over 0.015 min(-1). Thus these ZnO-layered ceramic tiles can be regarded as an alternative to photocatalytic suspensions of the same material with the advantage of avoiding the removal of the photocatalyst.

  7. Aerogel: Tile Composites Toughen a Brittle Superinsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan; Rasky, Daniel; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Pure aerogels, though familiar in the laboratory for decades as exotic lightweight insulators with unusual physical properties, have had limited industrial applications due to their low strength and high brittleness. Composites formed of aerogels and the ceramic fiber matrices used as space shuttle tiles bypass the fragility of pure aerogels and can enhance the performance of space shuttle tiles in their harsh operating environment. Using a layer of aerogel embedded in a tile may open up a wide range of applications where thermal insulation, gas convection control and mechanical strength matter.

  8. Aerogel: Tile Composites Toughen a Brittle Superinsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan; Rasky, Daniel; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Pure aerogels, though familiar in the laboratory for decades as exotic lightweight insulators with unusual physical properties, have had limited industrial applications due to their low strength and high brittleness. Composites formed of aerogels and the ceramic fiber matrices like those used as space shuttle tiles bypass the fragility of pure aerogels and can enhance the performance of space shuttle tiles in their harsh operating environment. Using a layer of aerogel embedded in a tile may open up a wide range of applications where thermal insulation, gas convection control and mechanical strength matter.

  9. Effect of ceramic industrial particulate emission control on key components of ambient PM10.

    PubMed

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Monfort, Eliseo; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Celades, Irina; Miró, José Vicente

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM(10) components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits are produced. The PM(10) emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000-2006, taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/EC, leading to a marked decrease in PM(10) emissions. By contrast, emissions from tile manufacture remained relatively constant because of the few changes in the implementation of corrective measures. On the other hand, ambient PM(10) levels and composition measurements were carried out from 2002 to 2006. A high correlation between PM(10) emissions from frit manufacture and ambient levels of Zn, As, Pb and Cs (R(2) from 0.61 to 0.98) was observed. On the basis of these results, the potential impact of the implementation of corrective measures to reduce emissions from tile manufacture was quantified, resulting in a possible decrease of 3-5 microg/m(3) and 2 microg/m(3) in ambient mineral PM(10) (on an annual basis) in urban and suburban areas, respectively. This relatively simple methodology allows us to estimate the direct effect of a reduction in primary particulate emissions on ambient levels of key particulate components, and to make a preliminary quantification of the possibilities of air quality improvement by means of further emission reduction. Therefore, it is a useful tool for developing future air quality plans in the study area and in other industrialised areas.

  10. "Densified" tiles form stronger bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotts, R. L.; Holt, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Application of colloidal silica more than doubles bond strength of ceramic tile/substrate attachments. "Densification" process strengthens surface where tile attaches to felt strain-isolator pad, redistributing stresses and preventing failures at that point. First, isopropyl alcohol is applied to bottom tile surface. Second, aqueous mixture of cementing colloidal silica and reinforcing ball-milled silica particles is painted on tile. Finally, after drying, tile is rewaterproofed by exposure to vapors or methyltrimethoxysilane and acetic acid.

  11. Radiometric analysis of raw materials and end products in the Turkish ceramics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turhan, Ş.; Arıkan, İ. H.; Demirel, H.; Güngör, N.

    2011-05-01

    This study presents the findings of radiometric analysis carried out to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in raw materials (clay, kaolin, quartz, feldspar, dolomite, alumina, bauxite, zirconium minerals, red mud and frit) and end products (glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) in the Turkish ceramics industry. Hundred forty-six samples were obtained from various manufacturers and suppliers throughout the country and analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometer with HPGe detectors. Radiological parameters such as radium equivalent activity, activity concentration index and alpha index were calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant national and international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplaces and industrial buildings in Turkey is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  12. Ceramic heat recuperators for industrial heat recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, J. J.; Gonzalez, J. M.; Kohnken, K. H.; Rebello, W. J.

    1980-08-01

    A cordierite (magnesium aluminum silicate) recuperator was designed for relatively small furnaces with firing rates of 0.3 MM to 0.6 MM Btu/h and with exhaust gas temperatures of 1500 F to 2600 F. Five demonstration programs were performed to determine the heat transfer performance of the device, establish the energy savings by recovery, demonstrate the durability of the ceramic core, determine the operating requirements of the burners and controls with recuperation, and establish the overall system costs and payback period. The recuperator is described and results of tests and measurements, system economics, and cost performance analyses are presented. The methodology is developed and techniques for impact analysis are described. Industrial applications are implied and a process flow diagram for smelting and refining primary copper is shown.

  13. Low-vacuum SEM analyses of ceramic tiles with emphasis on glaze defects characterisation

    SciTech Connect

    Kopar, Tinkara Ducman, Vilma

    2007-11-15

    The behaviour of glazed building ceramics exposed to different environment (weathering, chemicals, etc.) is determined by microstructural features; in many cases structural and surface defects at the micro- or nanometre scale are crucial for the functional properties of products. Many testing methods for materials characterization of a variety of ceramic products, physical and chemical methods, are time-consuming, large quantities of samples are needed, and are usually destructive. This paper illustrates the use of low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM) as fast and almost non-destructive, as only a small amount of sample is needed. Examples are given of various surface and structural properties of building ceramics, for the identification of the material deterioration process as a result of environmental impact.

  14. Characterization of the Ain Khemouda halloysite (western Tunisia) for ceramic industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben M'barek Jemaï, Moufida; Sdiri, Ali; Errais, Emna; Duplay, Joelle; Ben Saleh, Imed; Zagrarni, Mohamed Faouzi; Bouaziz, Samir

    2015-11-01

    White clays of Ain Khemouda (Western Tunisia), filling the post-Miocene palaeokarsts cavities dug in the intermediate limestones bed of the Douleb formation (Senonian system), were used as raw materials for the preparation of ceramic bodies. Natural clay samples, collected from the Ain Khemouda palaekarsts to the North of Jebel Semmama (Kasserine, Tunisia), were characterized by different techniques. Chemical and mineralogical analyses were carried out by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Thermal analysis was also performed by thermogravimetry (TG-DTA), dilatometry and Bigot's curve. Chemical analysis indicated that the studied clay was composed of silica and alumina as major elements with the ratio SiO2/(Al2O3 + Fe2O3) close to 2. Significant amounts of zinc and iron oxides subordinated the main alumino-silicates minerals. Mineralogical analysis showed that Ain Khemouda white clay consisted of halloysite and meta-halloysite mixture. Characteristic peaks of halloysite occurred near 10 Å and 7 Å. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed rolled wafers, characterizing the tubular shape of halloysite. From these results, it could be concluded that Ain Khemouda clay was Zn-aluminous hydrated halloysite (10 Å). In addition, cation exchange capacity (CEC) was relatively low (18 mEq/100 g), indicating insufficient edge valences. Industrial ceramic tests performed at the laboratory scale indicated that the Ain Khemouda clays have the required technical specifications to be used as raw materials for ceramic tiles and refractory ceramic manufacturing.

  15. Bridging Gaps Between Refractory Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, J. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Excessively large gaps between tiles on Space Shuttle eliminated without time-consuming and costly procedure of removing and replacing tiles. Ceramic tile silver is bonded in gap. Bonded silver prevents airframe under gap from getting too hot during reentry and presents aerodynamically smooth exterior surface.

  16. Modeling and investigation of the diffusion kinetics of combustion of carbon during the firing of fuel-containing ceramic under industrial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kulbekov, M.K.

    1992-07-10

    Physicochemical processes of the firing of fuel-containing ceramic materials primarily take place in the diffusion region. In this case the limiting process of firing of a fuel-containing ceramic is the burning of carbon (residues of coal) present in the greenware (the unfired intermediate; after firing - the product) in the form of finely ground particles. Some results of a study of the diffusion kinetics of the burning of carbon in ceramic samples (plate, cylinder, ball) using a model analogous to the process of solid-phase reactions limited by the rate of diffusion of a moving reactant through a layer of reaction product are given. The authors have made an attempt to model to some degree the industrial temperature regime of firing and to investigate under these conditions the diffusion kinetics of the physico-chemical conversions that occur in fuel-containing construction ceramic materials (ceramic brick, blocks, tiles, etc.). 4 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Foundry waste recycling in moulding operations and in the ceramic industry.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Fiore, Silvia

    2003-06-01

    An industrial treatment was performed by the Sasil plant of Brusnengo (Biella, Northern Italy), which is part of the Gruppo Minerali S.p.A. (Novara, Northern Italy), to consider the reclamation of bentonite bonded moulding sands obtained from the Teksid Italia S.p.A. cast iron foundry plant in Crescentino (Vercelli, Northern Italy). An evaluation of the fine particles produced by the wet-mechanical regeneration treatment was made with the purpose of proposing their recycling as binding agents in moulding operations in the cast iron foundry and for the production of tiles in the ceramic industry. The pre-mixed product sold by bentonite suppliers (35% coal dust and 65% bentonite, 0.15 Euro/kg) could be made from the recovered fine fraction below 0.025 mm with the addition of active clay and coal dust, thus obtaining a product that will have physico-chemical properties similar to those of calcic bentonite. The improvements due to the addition of the fine particles to the usually employed clay for tile production were also underlined from the results of several baking tests. The recovery and recycling of sands and fine particles obtained from the reclamation of bentonite moulding sands will lead to a saving of raw materials and landfill space, with economic and environmental advantages.

  18. Foundry waste recycling in moulding operations and in the ceramic industry.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Fiore, Silvia

    2003-06-01

    An industrial treatment was performed by the Sasil plant of Brusnengo (Biella, Northern Italy), which is part of the Gruppo Minerali S.p.A. (Novara, Northern Italy), to consider the reclamation of bentonite bonded moulding sands obtained from the Teksid Italia S.p.A. cast iron foundry plant in Crescentino (Vercelli, Northern Italy). An evaluation of the fine particles produced by the wet-mechanical regeneration treatment was made with the purpose of proposing their recycling as binding agents in moulding operations in the cast iron foundry and for the production of tiles in the ceramic industry. The pre-mixed product sold by bentonite suppliers (35% coal dust and 65% bentonite, 0.15 Euro/kg) could be made from the recovered fine fraction below 0.025 mm with the addition of active clay and coal dust, thus obtaining a product that will have physico-chemical properties similar to those of calcic bentonite. The improvements due to the addition of the fine particles to the usually employed clay for tile production were also underlined from the results of several baking tests. The recovery and recycling of sands and fine particles obtained from the reclamation of bentonite moulding sands will lead to a saving of raw materials and landfill space, with economic and environmental advantages. PMID:12870643

  19. Studies on Various Functional Properties of Titania Thin Film Developed on Glazed Ceramic Wall Tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anil, Asha; Darshana R, Bangoria; Misra, S. N.

    A sol-gel based TiO2 thin film was applied on glazed wall tiles for studying its various functional properties. Thin film was deposited by spin coating on the substrate and subjected to curing at different temperatures such as 600°C, 650, 700°C, 750°C and 800°C with 10 minutes soaking. The gel powder was characterized by FTIR, DTA/TG and XRD. Microstructure of thin film was analyzed by FESEM and EDX. Surface properties of the coatings such as gloss, colour difference, stain resistance, mineral hardness and wettability were extensively studied. The antibacterial activity of the surface of coated substrate against E. coli was also examined. The durability of the coated substrate in comparison to the uncoated was tested against alkali in accordance with ISO: 10545 (Part 13):1995 standard. FESEM images showed that thin films are dense and homogeneous. Coated substrates after firing results in lustre with high gloss, which increased from 330 to 420 GU as the curing temperature increases compared to that of uncoated one (72 GU). Coated substrate cured at 800°C shows higher mineral hardness (5 Mohs’) compared to uncoated one (4 Mohs’) and films cured at all temperatures showed stain resistance. The experimental results showed that the resistance towards alkali attack increase with increase in curing temperature and alkali resistance of sample cured at 800 °C was found to be superior compared to uncoated substrate. Contact angle of water on coated surface of substrates decreased with increase in temperature. Bacterial reduction percentages of the coated surface was 97% for sample cured at 700°C and it decreased from 97% to 87% as the curing temperature increased to 800 °C when treated with E. coli bacteria.

  20. Ceramic colorant from untreated iron ore residue.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Oscar Costa; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2012-09-30

    This work deals with the development of a ceramic colorant for glazes from an untreated iron ore residue. 6 mass% of the residue was added in suspensions (1.80 g/cm(3) density and 30s viscosity) of white, transparent and matte glazes, which were applied as thin layers (0.5mm) on engobeb and not fired ceramic tiles. The tiles were fired in laboratory roller kiln in a cycle of 35 min and maximum temperatures between 1050 and 1180°C. The residue and glazes were characterized by chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA and optical dilatometry) analyses, and the glazed tiles by colorimetric and XRD analyses. The results showed that the colorant embedded in the transparent glaze results in a reddish glaze (like pine nut) suitable for the ceramic roof tile industry. For the matte and white glazes, the residue has changed the color of the tiles with temperature. PMID:22795839

  1. Ceramic colorant from untreated iron ore residue.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Oscar Costa; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2012-09-30

    This work deals with the development of a ceramic colorant for glazes from an untreated iron ore residue. 6 mass% of the residue was added in suspensions (1.80 g/cm(3) density and 30s viscosity) of white, transparent and matte glazes, which were applied as thin layers (0.5mm) on engobeb and not fired ceramic tiles. The tiles were fired in laboratory roller kiln in a cycle of 35 min and maximum temperatures between 1050 and 1180°C. The residue and glazes were characterized by chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA and optical dilatometry) analyses, and the glazed tiles by colorimetric and XRD analyses. The results showed that the colorant embedded in the transparent glaze results in a reddish glaze (like pine nut) suitable for the ceramic roof tile industry. For the matte and white glazes, the residue has changed the color of the tiles with temperature.

  2. The Ceramic Manufacturability Center: A new partnership with US industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tennery, V.J.; Morris, T.O.

    1993-12-01

    The Ceramic Manufacturability Center (CMC) is a new facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) established as a direct response to current US industry needs. It was created as part of a highly integrated program jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Defense Programs, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and Energy Research divisions. The CMC is staffed by personnel from ORNL and the Y-12 Plant, both managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). Its mission is to improve the technology needed to manufacture high-precision ceramic components inexpensively and reliably. This mission can be accomplished by strengthening the US machine tool industry and by joining with ceramic material suppliers and end users to provide a path to commercialization of these ceramic components.

  3. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1 SHOWING THE MOSAICPATTERN TILE FLOOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1 SHOWING THE MOSAIC-PATTERN TILE FLOOR. CERAMIC TILE WAINSCOT, AND CERAMIC ACCESSORIES. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type H, 208 Sixth Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Evaluation of the current risk of lead poisoning in the ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, E; Toffolo, D; Sigon, M; Brighenti, F; Gori, G P; Bartolucci, G B

    1983-12-01

    Evaluation of the current risk of lead poisoning in the ceramics industry. Scand j work environ health 9 (1983) 463-469. The authors evaluate the current possibility of lead poisoning in the production of ceramic tiles, an industrial sector which has always been considered dangerous due to the use of lead-rich glazes. The study was conducted in nine plants, four of which were repeatedly monitored (five checks on 94 exposed subjects). The other five plants (for a total of 221 exposed subjects) were only checked once. An analysis of all the results showed a clear reduction in mean blood lead levels, which the authors believe was due to the use of glazes with less lead. The results obtained were generally satisfactory; they indicated a definite improvement in the situation with respect to the authors' previous investigations, even for jobs in which workers were more frequently exposed. The data overlap those observed in the production of artistic pottery, which has always been considered less dangerous.

  5. Biomonitoring of the environmental genotoxic potential of emissions from a complex of ceramic industries in Monte Carmelo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using Tradescantia pallida.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos Fernando; Júnior, Edimar Olegário de Campos; Souto, Henrique Nazareth; Sousa, Eduardo de Freitas; Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The micronucleus (MN) test and analysis of heavy metal biological accumulation in Tradescantia pallida (T. pallida) were bioassays used to assess the genotoxic potential of emissions from a complex of ceramic industries into the atmosphere in a city in Brazil that is considered a national reference source for roof tile production. The ceramic industry emission-exposed T. pallida plants were biomonitored during the dry season, in June, July, and August 2013. In addition to the contaminated monitoring site, a reference site in a peri-urban area was utilized, for comparative purposes. Genotoxicity assessments were determined monthly, while heavy metal bioaccumulation was measured at the end of the total exposure period. The MN frequency was significantly greater in T. pallida plants exposed in the ceramic industry emission monitored area compared to the reference site, and highest MN rates were observed in July and August. With respect to heavy metal bioaccumulation in T. pallida leaves, cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were significantly higher in plants at the ceramic industry emission monitoring site. Thus, in relation to the parameters assessed, T. pallida was found to be sensitive to atmospheric contamination by heavy metals attributed to ceramic products emissions generated by the ceramic industry, confirming that this plant species may be employed as a reference organism in biomonitoring studies. PMID:26818189

  6. Portfolio: Ceramics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes eight art activities using ceramics. Elementary students created ceramic tiles to depict ancient Egyptian and medieval European art, made ceramic cookie stamps, traced bisque plates on sketch paper, constructed clay room-tableaus, and designed clay relief masks. Secondary students pit-fired ceramic pots and designed ceramic Victorian…

  7. The Role of Ceramics in a Resurgent Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J

    2006-02-28

    With fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs and worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, there is growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Ceramic materials have long played a very important part in the commercial nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, ceramic materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, ceramic processes are also being applied to fuel reprocessing operations. Ceramic materials continue to provide a vital contribution in ''closing the fuel cycle'' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable grout, ceramics, and glass. In the next five years, programs that are currently in the conceptual phase will begin laboratory- and engineering-scale demonstrations. This will require production-scale demonstrations of several ceramic technologies from fuel form development to advanced stabilization methods. Within the next five to ten years, these demonstrations will move to even larger scales and will also include radioactive demonstrations of these advanced technologies. These radioactive demonstrations are critical to program success and will require advances in ceramic materials associated with nuclear energy applications.

  8. Improving Emittance of High-Temperature Insulating Tile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gzowski, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Simple addition to ceramic insulating tiles provides backup properties that minimize transfer of heat through tiles when their surfaces become damaged. Addition of 3 percent by weight of 320- or 600-grit silicon carbide powder to ceramic during production results in impregnated tile material that resists overheating. Silicon carbide increases emittance and decreases transmittance of ceramic.

  9. FT-IR characterization of articulated ceramic bricks with wastes from ceramic industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmala, G.; Viruthagiri, G.

    The 30 ceramic test samples with the kaolinitic clay and ceramic rejects (in the as-received state and sintered at temperatures 900-1200 °C) were investigated through spectral studies in order to elucidate the possibility of recycling the wastes from the government ceramic industry of Vriddhachalam, Tamilnadu state, South India. A detailed attribution of all the spectroscopic frequencies in the spectra recorded in the 4000-400 cm-1 region was attempted and their assignment to different minerals was accomplished. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to demonstrate the reliability of IR attributions. The indication of well-ordered kaolinite is by the band at 1115 cm-1 in the raw samples which tends to shift towards 1095 cm-1 in all the fired samples. The peaks at 563 cm-1 and 795 cm-1 can be assigned to anorthite and dickite respectively. The presence of quartz and anorthite is confirmed both by XRD and FTIR. The microstructural observations were done through the SEM images which visualized the vitrification of the fired bricks at higher temperatures. The refractory properties of the samples found through the XRF analysis are also appreciable. The present work suggests that the incorporation of the rejects into the clay mixture will be a valid route for the ceramic industries to reduce the costs of the ceramic process.

  10. FT-IR characterization of articulated ceramic bricks with wastes from ceramic industries.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, G; Viruthagiri, G

    2014-05-21

    The 30 ceramic test samples with the kaolinitic clay and ceramic rejects (in the as-received state and sintered at temperatures 900-1200°C) were investigated through spectral studies in order to elucidate the possibility of recycling the wastes from the government ceramic industry of Vriddhachalam, Tamilnadu state, South India. A detailed attribution of all the spectroscopic frequencies in the spectra recorded in the 4000-400cm(-1) region was attempted and their assignment to different minerals was accomplished. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to demonstrate the reliability of IR attributions. The indication of well-ordered kaolinite is by the band at 1115cm(-1) in the raw samples which tends to shift towards 1095cm(-1) in all the fired samples. The peaks at 563cm(-1) and 795cm(-1) can be assigned to anorthite and dickite respectively. The presence of quartz and anorthite is confirmed both by XRD and FTIR. The microstructural observations were done through the SEM images which visualized the vitrification of the fired bricks at higher temperatures. The refractory properties of the samples found through the XRF analysis are also appreciable. The present work suggests that the incorporation of the rejects into the clay mixture will be a valid route for the ceramic industries to reduce the costs of the ceramic process.

  11. Detecting Filler Spaces Under Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, Paul; Shinkevich, David; Scheuer, John

    1991-01-01

    Eddy-current probe nondestructively and indirectly indicates whether screed present under ceramic tile on aluminum substrate. Transducer coil excites eddy currents in aluminum substrate material. Response appears on oscilloscope or meter. Changes in response indicate spatially abrupt changes in substrate. Intended for use on insulating tiles on Space Shuttle, potential terrestrial applications in nondestructive testing.

  12. Texture and color features for tile classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldrich, Ramon; Vanrell, Maria; Villanueva, Juan J.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper we present the results of a preliminary computer vision system to classify the production of a ceramic tile industry. We focus on the classification of a specific type of tiles whose production can be affected by external factors, such as humidity, temperature, origin of clays and pigments. Variations on these uncontrolled factors provoke small differences in the color and the texture of the tiles that force to classify all the production. A constant and non- subjective classification would allow avoiding devolution from customers and unnecessary stock fragmentation. The aim of this work is to simulate the human behavior on this classification task by extracting a set of features from tile images. These features are induced by definitions from experts. To compute them we need to mix color and texture information and to define global and local measures. In this work, we do not seek a general texture-color representation, we only deal with textures formed by non-oriented colored-blobs randomly distributed. New samples are classified using Discriminant Analysis functions derived from known class tile samples. The last part of the paper is devoted to explain the correction of acquired images in order to avoid time and geometry illumination changes.

  13. Industrial operating experience of the GTE ceramic recuperator

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, J.M.; Ferri, J.L. ); Rebello, W.J. )

    1990-06-01

    GTE Products Corporation, under a jointly funded program with the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed a compact ceramic high temperature recuperator that could recover heat from a relatively clean exhaust gases at temperatures up to of 2500{degree}F. The DOE program was very successful in that it allowed GTE to improve the technical and economic characteristics of the recuperator and stimulate industrial acceptance of the recuperator as an energy- saving technology. The success of the DOE Program was measured by the fact that from January 1981 to December 1984, 561 recuperators were installed by GTE on new or retrofitted furnaces. One objective of this contract was to conduct a telephone survey of the industrial plants that use the recuperator to determine their operating experience, present status, and common problems, and thus to complete the historical picture. Additionally, recuperators were returned to GTE after operating on industrial furnaces, and a post mortem'' analysis was undertaken with a goal of identifying the potential reason(s) for premature failure of the ceramic matrix. When contamination of the matrix was evident, historical data and spectrographic analysis were used to identify the type of contaminant, and its source. This effort has shown the type of degradation that occurs and has identified system design techniques that can be used to maximize the ceramic recuperator life cycle. 12 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Measuring Fracture Times Of Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J.; Bister, Leo; Bickler, Donald G.

    1989-01-01

    Electrical measurements complement or replace fast cinematography. Electronic system measures microsecond time intervals between impacts of projectiles on ceramic tiles and fracture tiles. Used in research on ceramics and ceramic-based composite materials such as armor. Hardness and low density of ceramics enable them to disintegrate projectiles more efficiently than metals. Projectile approaches ceramic tile specimen. Penetrating foil squares of triggering device activate display and recording instruments. As ceramic and resistive film break oscilloscope plots increase in electrical resistance of film.

  15. Ceramic heat recuperators for industrial heat recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, J.J.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Kohnken, K.H.

    1980-08-01

    Development of a GTE ceramic recuperator, designed for relatively small furnaces with firing rates of 0.3 to 0.6 MM Btu/h and with exhaust gas temperatures of 1500 to 2600 F, is described. The ceramic selected as the material of construction is cordierite, a magnesium aluminum silicate. Details of the ceramic recuperator design are presented in Chapter 2. Also results of tests and measurements, system economics, and cost performance analyses are presented. Five demonstration programs were performed to determine the heat transfer performance of the recuperator, establish the energy savings by recuperation, demonstrate minimum maintenance requirements in typical furnace operation, determine the durability of the ceramic core, determine the operating requirements of the burners and controls with recuperation, and establish the overall system costs and payback period. Demonstration programs and results of the Bliss Mill Furnace, Tungsten Reduction Furnace, Glass Tank, Pilot Plant US Smelting Furnace, and Rotary Calciner Furnace are given in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 develops the methodology and shows how an impact analysis may be performed. Industrial applications are implied and a process flow diagram for smelting and refining primary copper is shown. Concluding chapters present conclusions and recommendations, a bibliography, and additional information in appendices. (MCW)

  16. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1. SHOWING ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN TILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1. SHOWING ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN TILE FLOOR, TILE WAINSCOT AND SHOWER SURROUND, AND CERAMIC ACCESSORIES. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type J, 701 Beard Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  17. High Temperature Filler for Tile Gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, J. W.; Wang, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    Gaps between ceramic tiles filled with ceramic-coated fabric that withstands temperatures as high as 2,000 degrees F (1,300 degrees C). Reusable high-temperature gap filler is made of fabric coated with ceramic slurry and bonded in place with room-temperature-vulcanized adhesive. Procedure used in kilns and furnaces.

  18. Tiling phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jie; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2014-12-23

    We present a scheme to categorize the structure of different layered phosphorene allotropes by mapping their nonplanar atomic structure onto a two-color 2D triangular tiling pattern. In the buckled structure of a phosphorene monolayer, we assign atoms in "top" positions to dark tiles and atoms in "bottom" positions to light tiles. Optimum sp3 bonding is maintained throughout the structure when each triangular tile is surrounded by the same number N of like-colored tiles, with 0≤N≤2. Our ab initio density functional calculations indicate that both the relative stability and electronic properties depend primarily on the structural index N. The proposed mapping approach may also be applied to phosphorene structures with nonhexagonal rings and 2D quasicrystals with no translational symmetry, which we predict to be nearly as stable as the hexagonal network.

  19. Fast Glazing of Alumina/Silica Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creedon, J. F.; Gzowski, E. R.; Wheeler, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    Technique for applying ceramic coating to fibrous silica/alumina insulation tiles prevents cracks and substantially reduces firing time. To reduce thermal stresses in tile being coated, high-temperature, shorttime firing schedule implemented. Such schedule allows coating to mature while substrate remains at relatively low temperature, reducing stress differential between coating and substrate. Technique used to repair tiles with damaged coatings and possibly used in heat-treating objects made of materials having different thermal-expansion coefficients.

  20. The Sad Case of the Columbine Tiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes free-speech challenge to school district's guidelines for acceptable expressions on ceramic tiles painted by Columbine High School students to express their feelings about the massacre. Tenth Circuit found that tile painting constituted school-sponsored speech and thus district had the constitutional authority under "Hazelwood School…

  1. Application of ultrasonics to space shuttle tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.M.; Hogenson, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of discrete sized ceramic tiles bonded to the outer skin of space vehicles are used for the thermal protection of the Space Shuttle during reentry. Failure of any one of the more than 30,000 tiles on the Space Shuttle could have significant effects. Ultrasonic testing to establish the soundness of the Space Shuttle tiles was evaluated and found to be a viable and valuable method. The method is simple, quick, and has a statistical basis. The testing method involves comparing the measured velocities of finished tiles to velocity-tensile strength relationships obtained for coupons. Acceptance criteria can be developed for the computerized data collection and the status of the tile determined automatically. The method was instituted after many tiles were in existence. It is planned that the method be used to determine tile material quality before any machining or finishing is done in an effort to make the system more efficient. (LCL)

  2. The Shuttle tile story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, P. A.; Holloway, P. F.

    1981-01-01

    The structural problems associated with the reusable thermal protection system (TPS) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter are assessed. The ceramic insulation was placed on the aluminum in the form of about 30,000 tiles over approximately 70% of the Orbiter's exterior. The tiles were bonded to felt pads, and then the tile-pad structure was attached to the aluminum skin. As Orbiter design progressed, it was discovered that the TPS would have to withstand loads greater than initially predicted. The group tensile strength was less than that of the individual components. This was the primary factor contributing to the delay of the first flight. Values are given for Orbiter isotherms during a normal flight as well as the corresponding TPS distribution. The complete TPS assemblage is shown schematically, noting the sequence of assembling the tile components into a testing specimen. It is noted that tensile loads are applied to the strain-isolation path at discrete regions along transverse fiber bundles, causing a 50% reduction in system tensile strength. Procedures for strengthening the interface between the insulation and strain-isolation path are discussed and flight-simulation tests are outlined.

  3. [Evaluation of long-term occupational exposure to dust and its effect on health during production of ceramic tiles].

    PubMed

    Gielec, L; Izycki, J; Woźniak, H

    1992-01-01

    A medical examination has been carried out of 500 workers (290 men and 210 women) of a ceramic plates plant. Also, the measurements of dust concentrations were made at some standard work places . In the materials used for manufacturing the plates crystalline phases and the content of free crystalline silica were determined using the X-ray diffraction method. In the animal experiments the fibrogenic activity of all materials used in the plant was examined and compared to the fibrogenic activity of standard quartz. As a result of the medical examination 64 cases of pneumoconiosis were diagnosed (13% of the subjects). The incidence rate of pneumoconiosis was similar for men and women. The radiological changes characteristic of pneumoconiosis took approximately 24 years of the workers tenure to develop. Type q changes were most frequent (69%), types p and r were observed in 14% of workers (mostly women). In 31% of workers tuberous changes of size B were observed. In 43.8% of the subjects restrictive disorders of ventilation were found. In 30% of workers chronic bronchitis was diagnosed. Dust concentrations at 11 work places were measured using the individual dosimetry method. Total dust concentrations ranged from 0.6 mg/m3 at the electricians posts to 60.1 mg/m3 at the workposts where the furnace truck restorers worked. Dust concentrations exceeded the MACs at 7 workposts. The respirable fraction concentrations ranged from 0.1 mg/m3 to 8.4 mg/m3. During the replacement of asbestos ropes and asbestos board used for insulating the furnace trucks mineral fibres (0.1-0.5 fibre/cm3) were found in the air. The following crystalline phases were determined in the materials: kaolinite, illite, quartz, orthoclase and microline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Further industrial tests of ceramic thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Levine, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center made technical assistance arrangements (contracts) with several commercial organizations under which Lewis designed plasma-sprayed thermal-barrier coatings (TBC) for their products. Lewis was then furnished with the test conditions and evaluations of coating usefulness. The coating systems were developed and sprayed at Lewis. All of the systems incorporated a two-layer, ceramic-bond coating concept. Coating thickness and chemical composition were varied to fit three applications: the leading edges of first-stage turbine vanes for an advanced gas turbine engine; the flame impingement surfaces of a combustor transition section; and diesel engine valves and head surfaces. The TBC incorporated yytria-stabilized zirconia, which lowered metal temperatures, protected metal parts, and increased metal part life. In some cases metal burning, melting, and warping were eliminated. Additional benefits were realized from these endeavors: hands-on experience with thermal-barrier coatings was provided to industry; the success of these endeavors encourages these and other organizations to accelerate the implementation of TBC technology.

  5. Association of soil cadmium contamination with ceramic industry: a case study in a Chinese town.

    PubMed

    Liao, Q Lin; Liu, Cong; Wu, H Yun; Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Zhu, B Wan; Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination is attributable to many sources, among which the ceramic industry is probably an important contributor whose relationship will be explored in this study. Upon studying a town in southeastern China that is quite famous for its ceramics, we observed that the soil Cd distribution agreed with the local ceramic industry's distribution in space and time from 2004 to 2014. Ceramic and pigment samples from a typical factory were selected in a case study, and a sediment core from a nearby river was collected. First, an application of the geo-accumulation index suggested that the sediment was very strongly polluted by Cd (mean 1874 mg/kg). Second, sediment dating indicated that the Cd concentration surge and the establishment of the factory were proximate in time (2002-2004). Third, principal component analysis showed high loading of Cd (0.947) solely, suggesting that the factory was most likely responsible for the Cd pollution found in the sediments of a nearby river. Finally, we infer that the soil cadmium pollution in the whole area may be related to the region's prosperous ceramic industry. Local government should reinforce controls of the ceramic industry and implement effective countermeasures. PMID:25659302

  6. Association of soil cadmium contamination with ceramic industry: a case study in a Chinese town.

    PubMed

    Liao, Q Lin; Liu, Cong; Wu, H Yun; Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Zhu, B Wan; Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination is attributable to many sources, among which the ceramic industry is probably an important contributor whose relationship will be explored in this study. Upon studying a town in southeastern China that is quite famous for its ceramics, we observed that the soil Cd distribution agreed with the local ceramic industry's distribution in space and time from 2004 to 2014. Ceramic and pigment samples from a typical factory were selected in a case study, and a sediment core from a nearby river was collected. First, an application of the geo-accumulation index suggested that the sediment was very strongly polluted by Cd (mean 1874 mg/kg). Second, sediment dating indicated that the Cd concentration surge and the establishment of the factory were proximate in time (2002-2004). Third, principal component analysis showed high loading of Cd (0.947) solely, suggesting that the factory was most likely responsible for the Cd pollution found in the sediments of a nearby river. Finally, we infer that the soil cadmium pollution in the whole area may be related to the region's prosperous ceramic industry. Local government should reinforce controls of the ceramic industry and implement effective countermeasures.

  7. US Department of Energy`s continuous fiber ceramic composite program - components for industrial use

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkouski, J.

    1997-12-31

    U.S. industry has a critical need for materials that are light, strong, corrosion resistant, and capable of performing in high temperature environments. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composite (CFCC) Program is addressing this critical industrial need. Although many traditional ceramics perform well at high temperature, they typically fail in a catastrophic manner in industrial service. CFCCs are the solution to this problem. A CFCC is made by placing a ceramic matrix around reinforcing continuous fibers that have been placed or woven into a preform. The resulting CFCC is a high temperature resistant material that exhibits tough behavior with better in-service reliability. Various CFCC components and sub-elements are being fabricated and tested in simulated and/or actual service environments during Phase II of this program.

  8. CO2 laser photoacoustic detection of ammonia emitted by ceramic industries.

    PubMed

    Sthel, M S; Schramm, D U; Lima, G R; Carneiro, L; Faria, R T; Castro, M P P; Alexandre, J; Toledo, R; Silva, M G; Vargas, H

    2011-01-01

    A homemade photoacoustic spectrometer has been constructed for monitoring gas emission from several sources. Numerous air pollutant gases are emitted exhaust of industries, vehicles and power plants. The photoacoustic technique is extremely sensitive and selective in detecting various gases. This work focuses on the gas emitted by the ceramic industry in northern Rio de Janeiro State in Brazil, the ceramic industry plays a remarkable role in the economy activity of this region, in recent years, this region developed into a significant red ceramic complex. The potential impact on the atmospheric environment of the region due to gaseous pollutant emissions from these anthropogenic sources needs to be evaluated. In this work we identified NH3 present in the samples collected in the kiln of a ceramic plant, in the concentration range of 33-52 ppmV. The ammonia gas present in our collected samples might come from the excess nitrogen in the manure soil from where the ceramic material was extracted. This soil was used for the sugarcane culture which is another important economic activity of this region.

  9. CO 2 laser photoacoustic detection of ammonia emitted by ceramic industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sthel, M. S.; Schramm, D. U.; Lima, G. R.; Carneiro, L.; Faria, R. T., Jr.; Castro, M. P. P.; Alexandre, J.; Toledo, R.; Silva, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2011-01-01

    A homemade photoacoustic spectrometer has been constructed for monitoring gas emission from several sources. Numerous air pollutant gases are emitted exhaust of industries, vehicles and power plants. The photoacoustic technique is extremely sensitive and selective in detecting various gases. This work focuses on the gas emitted by the ceramic industry in northern Rio de Janeiro State in Brazil, the ceramic industry plays a remarkable role in the economy activity of this region, in recent years, this region developed into a significant red ceramic complex. The potential impact on the atmospheric environment of the region due to gaseous pollutant emissions from these anthropogenic sources needs to be evaluated. In this work we identified NH 3 present in the samples collected in the kiln of a ceramic plant, in the concentration range of 33-52 ppmV. The ammonia gas present in our collected samples might come from the excess nitrogen in the manure soil from where the ceramic material was extracted. This soil was used for the sugarcane culture which is another important economic activity of this region.

  10. Design of self-cleaning TiO2 coating on clay roofing tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadnadjev, Milica; Ranogajec, Jonjaua; Petrovic, Snezana; Markov, Sinisa; Ducman, Vilma; Marinkovic-Neducin, Radmila

    2010-07-01

    The phenomenon of heterogeneous photocatalysis takes place in the degradation process of many organic contaminants on solid surfaces. Photocatalysis is based on the excitation of the semiconductor by irradiation with supraband gap photons and the migration of electron-hole pairs to the surface of the photocatalysts, leading to the reaction of the holes with adsorbed H2O and OH- to form hydroxyl radicals. Due to the stability and photosensitivity of TiO2 semiconductors, this system is well studied and is of great interest from an ecological and industrial point of view for use in the field of building materials. Clay roofing tiles, due to their long-term exploitation, are subject to physical, chemical and biological degradation that leads to deterioration. Ceramic systems have a high percentage of total porosity and considering their non-tolerance of organic coating, the use of surface active materials (SAM) that induce porosity in TiO2 coatings is of vital significance. Photocatalytic coatings applied on clay roofing tiles under industrial conditions were designed by varying the quantity of TiO2 (mass/cm2) on the tile surface (thin and thick TiO2 layer). The positive changes in specific surface area and mesopore structure of the designed coatings were made by the addition of PEG 600 as a surface active material. It was shown that a thin photocatalytic layer (0.399 mg suspension/cm2 tile surface), applied onto ceramic tiles under industrial conditions, had better photocatalytic activity in methylene blue decomposition, hydrophilicity and antimicrobial activity than a thick photocatalytic coating (0.885 mg suspension/cm2).

  11. Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.

    PubMed

    Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

    2009-07-01

    Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were

  12. Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.

    PubMed

    Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

    2009-07-01

    Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were

  13. Tantalum-Based Ceramics for Refractory Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Leiser, Daniel; DiFiore, Robert; Kalvala, Victor

    2006-01-01

    A family of tantalum-based ceramics has been invented as ingredients of high-temperature composite insulating tiles. These materials are suitable for coating and/or permeating the outer layers of rigid porous (foam-like or fibrous) ceramic substrates to (1) render the resulting composite ceramic tiles impervious to hot gases and (2) enable the tiles to survive high heat fluxes at temperatures that can exceed 3,000 F ( 1,600 C).

  14. Fibrous ceramic insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H. E.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the reusable heat shielding materials used to protect the Space Shuttles, their manufacturing processes, properties, and applications are discussed. Emphases is upon ceramic materials. Space Shuttle Orbiter tiles are discussed.

  15. Fibrous ceramic insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.E.

    1982-11-01

    Some of the reusable heat shielding materials used to protect the Space Shuttles, their manufacturing processes, properties, and applications are discussed. Emphasis is upon ceramic materials. Space Shuttle Orbiter tiles are discussed.

  16. Preassembly Of Insulating Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izu, Y. D.; Yoshioka, E. N.; Rosario, T.

    1988-01-01

    Concept for preassembling high-temperature insulating tiles speeds and simplifies installation and repair and reduces damage from handling. Preassembly concept facilitates placement of tiles on gently contoured surfaces as well as on flat ones. Tiles bonded to nylon mesh with room-temperature-vulcanizing silicon rubber. Spacing between tiles is 0.03 in. Applications include boilers, kilns, and furnaces.

  17. Advanced ceramic coating development for industrial/utility gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogan, J. W.; Stetson, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    A program was conducted with the objective of developing advanced thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. Coating application was by plasma spray. Duplex, triplex and graded coatings were tested. Coating systems incorporated both NiCrAly and CoCrAly bond coats. Four ceramic overlays were tested: ZrO2.82O3; CaO.TiO2; 2CaO.SiO2; and MgO.Al2O3. The best overall results were obtained with a CaO.TiO2 coating applied to a NiCrAly bond coat. This coating was less sensitive than the ZrO2.8Y2O3 coating to process variables and part geometry. Testing with fuels contaminated with compounds containing sulfur, phosphorus and alkali metals showed the zirconia coatings were destabilized. The calcium titanate coatings were not affected by these contaminants. However, when fuels were used containing 50 ppm of vanadium and 150 ppm of magnesium, heavy deposits were formed on the test specimens and combustor components that required frequent cleaning of the test rig. During the program Mars engine first-stage turbine blades were coated and installed for an engine cyclic endurance run with the zirconia, calcium titanate, and calcium silicate coatings. Heavy spalling developed with the calcium silicate system. The zirconia and calcium titanate systems survived the full test duration. It was concluded that these two TBC's showed potential for application in gas turbines.

  18. Ceramic Processing

    SciTech Connect

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  19. Hot corrosion of ceramic-coating materials for industrial/utility gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Barkalow, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Furnace hot corrosion tests of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and other candidate ceramic coating materials were run under combinations of temperature, salt deposits, and gaseous environments know to cause severe hot corrosion of state-of-the-art metallic coatings for industrial/utility gas turbines. Specimens were free-standing ceramic coupons and ceramic-coated IN 792. X-ray fluorescence and diffraction data on free-standing YSZ coupons showed surface yttrium loss and cubic-to-monoclinic transformation as a result of exposure to liquid salt and SO/sub 3/. Greater destabilization was observed at the lower of two test temperatures (704 and 982/sup 0/C), and destabilization increased with increasing SO/sub 3/ pressure and V-containing salt deposits. The data suggest that hot corrosion of YSZ can occur by a type of acidic dissolution of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ from the ZrO/sub 2/ solid solution. In spite of the greater surface destabilization at 704/sup 0/C, the bond coat and substrate of YSZ-coated IN 792 were not attacked at 704/sup 0/C but severely corroded at 982/sup 0/C. These results show that degradation of ceramic-coated metallic components can be more strongly influenced by the porosity of the microstructure and fluidity of the liquid salt than by the chemical stability of the ceramic coating material in the reactive environment. Other ceramic materials (SiO/sub 2/, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, ZrSiO/sub 2/, and mullite), concurrently exposed to the same conditions which produced significant destabilization of YSZ, showed no evidence of reaction at 704/sup 0/C but noticeable corrosion at 982/sup 0/C. Also, the high temperature corrosion was greater in air than in SO/sub 3/-containing gases. These trends suggest that hot corrosion of the silicon-containing ceramics was basic in nature, and such materials have potential for good resistance to chemical decomposition under the acidic conditions characteristics of industrial/utility gas turbines.

  20. Investigation on emission characteristics of metal-ceramic cathode applied to industrial X-ray diode.

    PubMed

    Xun, Ma; Jianqiang, Yuan; Hongwei, Liu; Hongtao, Li; Lingyun, Wang; Ping, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    The industrial x-ray diode with high impedance configuration is usually adopted to generate repetitive x-ray, but its performance would be worsened due to lower electric field on the cathode of diode when a voltage of several hundreds of kV is applied. To improve its performance, a novel metal-ceramic cathode is proposed in this paper. Key factors (width, relative permittivity of ceramic, and so on) affecting electric field distribution on triple points are analyzed by electrostatic field calculation program, so as to optimize the design of this novel cathode. Experiments are done to study the characteristics including emission current of cathode, diode voltage duration, diode mean dynamic impedance, and diode impedance drop velocity within diode power duration. The results show that metal-ceramic cathode could improve diode performance by enhancing emission current and stabling impedance; the impedance drop velocity of diode with spoke-shaped metal-ceramic cathode was reduced to -5 Ω ns(-1) within diode power duration, comparing to -15 Ω ns(-1) with metal foil cathode. PMID:27370441

  1. Investigation on emission characteristics of metal-ceramic cathode applied to industrial X-ray diode.

    PubMed

    Xun, Ma; Jianqiang, Yuan; Hongwei, Liu; Hongtao, Li; Lingyun, Wang; Ping, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    The industrial x-ray diode with high impedance configuration is usually adopted to generate repetitive x-ray, but its performance would be worsened due to lower electric field on the cathode of diode when a voltage of several hundreds of kV is applied. To improve its performance, a novel metal-ceramic cathode is proposed in this paper. Key factors (width, relative permittivity of ceramic, and so on) affecting electric field distribution on triple points are analyzed by electrostatic field calculation program, so as to optimize the design of this novel cathode. Experiments are done to study the characteristics including emission current of cathode, diode voltage duration, diode mean dynamic impedance, and diode impedance drop velocity within diode power duration. The results show that metal-ceramic cathode could improve diode performance by enhancing emission current and stabling impedance; the impedance drop velocity of diode with spoke-shaped metal-ceramic cathode was reduced to -5 Ω ns(-1) within diode power duration, comparing to -15 Ω ns(-1) with metal foil cathode.

  2. Geopolymers as potential repair material in tiles conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Catarina F. M.; Lima, Augusta M.; Delgado-Rodrigues, José; Mimoso, João Manuel; Pereira, Sílvia R. M.

    2016-03-01

    The restoration materials currently used to fill gaps in historical architectural tiles (e.g. lime or organic resin pastes) usually show serious drawbacks in terms of compatibility, effectiveness or durability. The existing solutions do not fully protect Portuguese faïence tiles ( azulejos) in outdoor conditions and frequently result in further deterioration. Geopolymers can be a potential solution for tile lacunae infill, given the chemical-mineralogical similitude to the ceramic body, and also the durability and versatile range of physical properties that can be obtained through the manipulation of their formulation and curing conditions. This work presents and discusses the viability of the use of geopolymeric pastes to fill lacunae in tiles or to act as "cold" cast ceramic tile surrogates reproducing missing tile fragments. The formulation of geopolymers, namely the type of activators, the alumino-silicate source, the quantity of water required for adequate workability and curing conditions, was studied. The need for post-curing desalination was also considered envisaging their application in the restoration of outdoor historical architectural tiles frequently exposed to adverse environmental conditions. The possible advantages and disadvantages of the use of geopolymers in the conservation of tiles are also discussed. The results obtained reveal that geopolymers pastes are a promising material for the restoration of tiles, when compared to other solutions currently in use.

  3. Thermal Characterization of TPS Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kacmar, C. J.; LaCivita, K. J.; Jata, K. V.; Sathish, S.

    2006-03-06

    The Thermal Protection System (TPS) used on space shuttles protects the metallic structure from the large amounts of heat created during travel through the atmosphere, both on takeoff and reentry. The shuttle experiences high thermo-acoustic loading and impact damage from micro-meteorites, which can cause disbonds, delaminations, chips, cracks, and other defects to the TPS system. To enhance durability and damage tolerance, new TPS tiles with an added protective ceramic-matrix-composite layer are being developed. This paper explores the use of pulsed thermography as a quick, diverse, non-destructive technique, to characterize the TPS system. The pulsed thermography images obtained are presented and analyzed.

  4. Thermal Characterization of TPS Tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacmar, C. J.; LaCivita, K. J.; Jata, K. V.; Sathish, S.

    2006-03-01

    The Thermal Protection System (TPS) used on space shuttles protects the metallic structure from the large amounts of heat created during travel through the atmosphere, both on takeoff and reentry. The shuttle experiences high thermo-acoustic loading and impact damage from micro-meteorites, which can cause disbonds, delaminations, chips, cracks, and other defects to the TPS system. To enhance durability and damage tolerance, new TPS tiles with an added protective ceramic-matrix-composite layer are being developed. This paper explores the use of pulsed thermography as a quick, diverse, non-destructive technique, to characterize the TPS system. The pulsed thermography images obtained are presented and analyzed.

  5. Task 4 supporting technology. Part 1: Detailed test plan for leading edge tile development. Leading edge material development and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogenson, P. A.; Staszak, Paul; Hinkle, Karrie

    1995-05-01

    This task develops two alternative candidate tile materials for leading edge applications: coated alumina enhanced thermal barrier (AETB) tile and silicone impregnated reusable ceramic ablator (SIRCA) tile. Upon reentry of the X-33/RLV space vehicle, the leading edges experience the highest heating rates and temperatures. The wing leading edge and nose cap experience peak temperatures in the range 2000 to 2700 F. Replacing reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) with tile-based thermal protection system (TPS) materials is the primary objective. Weight, complexity, coating impact damage, and repairability are among the problems that this tile technology development addresses. The following subtasks will be performed in this development effort: tile coating development; SIRCA tile development; robustness testing of tiles; tile repair development; tile operations/processing; tile leading edge configuration; and life cycle testing.

  6. Task 4 supporting technology. Part 1: Detailed test plan for leading edge tile development. Leading edge material development and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogenson, P. A.; Staszak, Paul; Hinkle, Karrie

    1995-01-01

    This task develops two alternative candidate tile materials for leading edge applications: coated alumina enhanced thermal barrier (AETB) tile and silicone impregnated reusable ceramic ablator (SIRCA) tile. Upon reentry of the X-33/RLV space vehicle, the leading edges experience the highest heating rates and temperatures. The wing leading edge and nose cap experience peak temperatures in the range 2000 to 2700 F. Replacing reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) with tile-based thermal protection system (TPS) materials is the primary objective. Weight, complexity, coating impact damage, and repairability are among the problems that this tile technology development addresses. The following subtasks will be performed in this development effort: tile coating development; SIRCA tile development; robustness testing of tiles; tile repair development; tile operations/processing; tile leading edge configuration; and life cycle testing.

  7. Recycling non-hazardous industrial wastes and petroleum contaminated soils into structural clay ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    MacRunnels, Z.D.; Miller, H.B. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Cherokee Environmental Group (CEG)--a subsidiary of the Cherokee Sanford Group, Inc. (CSG)--has developed a system to beneficially reuse non-hazardous industrial wastes and petroleum contaminated soils into the recycling process of CSG`s structural clay ceramics manufacturing operation. The wastes and soils are processed, screened, and blended with brickmaking raw materials. The resulting material is formed and fired in such a way that the bricks still exceed American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) quality standards. Prior to usage, recycled materials are rigorously tested for ceramic compatibility and environmental compliance. Ceramic testing includes strength, shrinkage, and aesthetics. Environmental compliance is insured by testing for both organic and inorganic constituents. This recycling process has been fully permitted by all required state regulatory agencies in North Carolina, Maryland, and South Carolina where facilities are located. This inter-industrial synergy has eliminated landfill reliance and liability for many companies and property owners. The recycling volume of wastes and soils is high because CSG is one of the largest brick manufacturers in the nation. Together, CEG and CSG have eliminated more than 1 billion pounds of material from landfills by beneficially reusing the non-hazardous wastes.

  8. Light-weight ceramic insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Ultra-high temperature, light-weight, ceramic insulation such as ceramic tile is obtained by pyrolyzing a siloxane gel derived from the reaction of at least one organo dialkoxy silane and at least one tetralkoxy silane in an acid or base liquid medium. The reaction mixture of the tetra- and dialkoxy silanes may contain also an effective amount of a mono- or trialkoxy silane to obtain the siloxane gel. The siloxane gel is dried at ambient pressures to form a siloxane ceramic precursor without significant shrinkage. The siloxane ceramic precursor is subsequently pyrolyzed, in an inert atmosphere, to form the black ceramic insulation comprising atoms of silicon, carbon and oxygen. The ceramic insulation, can be characterized as a porous, uniform ceramic tile resistant to oxidation at temperatures ranging as high as 1700.degree. C. and is particularly useful as lightweight tiles for spacecraft and other high-temperature insulation applications.

  9. Industry tests of NASA ceramic thermal barrier coating. [for gas turbine engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Stepka, F. S.

    1979-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) system was tested by industrial and governmental organizations for a variety of aeronautical, marine, and ground-based gas turbine engine applications. This TBC is a two-layer system with a bond coating of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (Ni-16Cr-6Al-0.6Y, in wt. percent) and a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-12Y2O3, in wt. percent). Seven tests evaluated the system's thermal protection and durability. Five other tests determined thermal conductivity, vibratory fatigue characteristics, and corrosion resistance of the system. The information presented includes test results and photographs of the coated parts. Recommendations are made for improving the coating procedures.

  10. Evaluation of Occupational Exposure of Glazers of a Ceramic Industry to Cobalt Blue Dye

    PubMed Central

    KARGAR, Fatemeh; SHAHTAHERI, Seyed Jamaleddin; GOLBABAEI, Farideh; BARKHORDARI, Abolfazl; RAHIMI-FROUSHANI, Abbas; KHADEM, Monireh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cobalt is one of the most important constituent present in ceramic industries. Glazers are the relevant workers when they are producing blue colored ceramic, causing occupational exposure to such metal. Through this study, urinary cobalt was determined in glazers in a ceramic industry when they were producing blue-colored ceramic glazes. Methods: In this case-control study, spot urine samples were collected from 49 glazers at the start and end of work shifts (totally 98 samples) in 2011. Control group were well matched for age, height, and weight. A solid phase extraction system was used for separation and preconcentration of samples followed by analysis by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). All participants filled out a self administered questionnaire comprises questions about duration of exposure, work shift, use of mask, skin dermatitis, kind of job, ventilation system, overtime work, age, weight, and height. The lung function tests were performed on each control and cobalt exposed subjects. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the obtained results. Results: Urinary levels of cobalt were significantly higher in the glazers compared to the control group. There were significant differences at urinary concentration of cobalt at the start and end of the work shift in glazers. Spirometric parameters were significantly lower in the glazers compared to the control group. Among the variables used in questionnaire the significant variables were dermatitis skin, mask, ventilation, and overtime work. Conclusion: This study verified existence of cobalt in the urine glazers, showing lower amount than the ACGIH standard. PMID:26056641

  11. Handmade Tile Mosaics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Just like the classroom, children's outdoor environments should be filled with artistic creations that add sparkle and imagination to the space. One of the author's favorite ways to add art to the outdoors is by installing a mosaic mural of child-made tiles. The process of making the tiles is fun for all; each tile is a charming work of art in…

  12. Receptor models application to multi-year ambient PM 10 measurements in an industrialized ceramic area: Comparison of source apportionment results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandolfi, M.; Viana, M.; Minguillón, M. C.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Amato, F.; Celades, I.; Escrig, A.; Monfort, E.

    Ambient PM 10 data collected in one of the largest industrialized ceramic areas of Europe were used to study similarities and differences in the source apportionment results from three widespread receptor models: chemical mass balance (CMB), positive matrix factorization (PMF) and principal component analysis (PCA). Particulate emissions were collected from a variety of sources including soil dust and different mixed raw materials used for the manufacture of ceramic tiles in the area. The chemical profiles of these emission sources are presented in this work. The analysis of the PMF scaled residuals was used as a diagnostic tool for adjusting species uncertainties and to assess the PMF model fit by comparison with the robust CMB results. The Q robust value, the degree of correlation between the predicted and measured species concentrations, the sample-by-sample correlation of the PMF source contributions compared with the CMB improved after the new error structure was used within the PMF model. The robustness of the CMB analysis used for the comparison with the PMF analysis was inspected by means of the CMB performances parameters as well as by comparing the results with a previous CMB analysis performed on the same database but with different speciated source profiles. Moreover, the results showed that PMF and PCA models were not able to distinguish between the two most important sources of crustal material in the selected area (one natural and one anthropogenic). With the CMB model a contribution from both sources was calculated without observing collinearity between the profiles. However, high correlation was found by adding the two crustal contributions from CMB and comparing the results with the single crustal factor from PCA and PMF. Low correlation was observed between the contribution values of the vehicular source for each model pairs. The lack of a local vehicular experimental profile for the CMB analysis and the non-specific chemical speciation performed

  13. New ceramics incorporated with industrial by-products as pore formers for sorption of toxic chromium from aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domopoulou, Asimina; Spiliotis, Xenofon; Baklavaridis, Apostolos; Papapolymerou, George; Karayannis, Vayos

    2015-04-01

    The incorporation of secondary resources including various industrial wastes as pore-forming agents into clayey raw material mixtures for the development of tailored porous ceramic microstructures is currently of increasing interest. In the present research, sintered ceramic compacts were developed incorporated with industrial solid by-products as pore formers, and then used as new sorbents for chromium removal from aqueous media. The microstructures obtained were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sorption potential of chromium from synthetic solutions on the porous ceramics was studied by static adsorption experiments as a function of the pore-former percentage in the ceramic matrix as well as the initial heavy metal (chromium) concentration, solution pH and temperature. Kinetic studies were conducted and adsorption isotherms of chromium were determined using the Langmuir equation. Preliminary experimental results concerning the adsorption characteristics of chromium on the ceramic materials produced appear encouraging for their possible beneficial use as new sorbents for the removal of toxic chromium from aqueous media. Keywords: sorbents, ceramics, industrial solid by-products, pore former, chromium. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program ARCHIMEDES III: Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  14. New ceramics incorporated with industrial by-products as pore formers for sorption of toxic chromium from aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domopoulou, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    The incorporation of secondary resources including various industrial wastes as pore-forming agents into clayey raw material mixtures for the development of tailored porous ceramic microstructures is currently of increasing interest. In the present research, sintered ceramic compacts were developed incorporated with industrial solid by-products as pore formers, and then used as new sorbents for chromium removal from aqueous media. The microstructures obtained were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sorption potential of chromium from synthetic solutions on the porous ceramics was studied by static adsorption experiments as a function of the pore-former percentage in the ceramic matrix as well as the initial heavy metal (chromium) concentration, solution pH and temperature. Kinetic studies were conducted and adsorption isotherms of chromium were determined using the Langmuir equation. Preliminary experimental results concerning the adsorption characteristics of chromium on the ceramic materials produced appear encouraging for their possible beneficial use as new sorbents for the removal of toxic chromium from aqueous media. Keywords: sorbents, ceramics, industrial solid by-products, pore-former, chromium. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program ARCHIMEDES III: Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  15. Energy Saving Method of Manufacturing Ceramic Products from Fiber Glass Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Haun

    2005-07-15

    The U.S. fiber glass industry disposes of more than 260,000 tons of industrial fiber glass waste in landfills annually. New technology is needed to reprocess this industrial waste into useful products. A low-cost energy-saving method of manufacturing ceramic tile from fiber glass waste was developed. The technology is based on sintering fiber glass waste at 700-900 degrees C to produce products which traditionally require firing temperatures of >1200 degrees C, or glass-melting temperatures >1500 degrees C. The process also eliminates other energy intensive processing steps, including mining and transportation of raw materials, spray-drying to produce granulated powder, drying pressed tile, and glazing. The technology completely transforms fiber glass waste into a dense ceramic product, so that all future environmental problems in the handling and disposal of the fibers is eliminated. The processing steps were developed and optimized to produce glossy and matte surface finishes for wall and floor tile applications. High-quality prototype tile samples were processed for demonstration and tile standards testing. A Market Assessment confirmed the market potential for tile products produced by the technology. Manufacturing equipment trials were successfully conducted for each step of the process. An industrial demonstration plant was designed, including equipment and operating cost analysis. A fiber glass manufacturer was selected as an industrial partner to commercialize the technology. A technology development and licensing agreement was completed with the industrial partner. Haun labs will continue working to transfer the technology and assist the industrial partner with commercialization beyond the DOE project.

  16. Recycling of porcelain tile polishing residue in portland cement: hydration efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pelisser, Fernando; Steiner, Luiz Renato; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2012-02-21

    Ceramic tiles are widely used by the construction industry, and the manufacturing process of ceramic tiles generates as a major residue mud derived from the polishing step. This residue is too impure to be reused in the ceramic process and is usually discarded as waste in landfills. But the analysis of the particle size and concentration of silica of this residue shows a potential use in the manufacture of building materials based on portland cement. Tests were conducted on cement pastes and mortars using the addition of 10% and 20% (mass) of the residue. The results of compressive strength in mortars made up to 56 days showed a significant increase in compressive strength greater than 50%. The result of thermogravimetry shows that portlandite is consumed by the cement formed by the silica present in the residue in order to form calcium silicate hydrate and featuring a pozzolanic reaction. This effect improves the performance of cement, contributes to research and application of supplementary cementitious materials, and optimizes the use of portland cement, reducing the environmental impacts of carbon dioxide emissions from its production.

  17. Hypervelocity impact testing of Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Ortega, Javier

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from a series of 22 hypervelocity impact tests carried out on the thermal protection system (TPS) for the Shuttle Orbiter. Both coated and uncoated low-density (0.14 g/cu cm) LI-900 and high-density (0.35 g/cu cm) LI-2200 tiles were tested. The results are used to develop the penetration and damage correlations which can be used in meteoroid and debris hazard analyses for spacecraft with a ceramic tile TPS. It is shown that tile coatings act as a 'bumper' to fragment the impacting projectile, with thicker coating providing increased protection.

  18. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composites for Shrouds and Combustor Liners of Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra; Jill Jonkowski; Joseph Mavec; Paul Bakke; Debbie Haught; Merrill Smith

    2011-01-07

    This report covers work performed under the Advanced Materials for Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines (AMAIGT) program by GE Global Research and its collaborators from 2000 through 2010. A first stage shroud for a 7FA-class gas turbine engine utilizing HiPerComp{reg_sign}* ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material was developed. The design, fabrication, rig testing and engine testing of this shroud system are described. Through two field engine tests, the latter of which is still in progress at a Jacksonville Electric Authority generating station, the robustness of the CMC material and the shroud system in general were demonstrated, with shrouds having accumulated nearly 7,000 hours of field engine testing at the conclusion of the program. During the latter test the engine performance benefits from utilizing CMC shrouds were verified. Similar development of a CMC combustor liner design for a 7FA-class engine is also described. The feasibility of using the HiPerComp{reg_sign} CMC material for combustor liner applications was demonstrated in a Solar Turbines Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine (CSGT) engine test where the liner performed without incident for 12,822 hours. The deposition processes for applying environmental barrier coatings to the CMC components were also developed, and the performance of the coatings in the rig and engine tests is described.

  19. Interface porcelain tile/PVA modified mortar: a novel nanostructure approach.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Alexandra Ancelmo Piscitelli; Mansur, Herman Sander

    2009-02-01

    In ceramic tile systems, the overall result of adherence between porcelain tiles and polymer modified mortars could be explained based on the nano-order structure that is developed at the interface. Based on pull-off tests, Scanning Electron Microscopy images, and Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments a nanostructured approach for interface tile/PVA modified mortar was built. The increase of adhesion between tile and mortar due to poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, addition can be explained by the formation of a hybrid ceramic-polymer-ceramic interface by hydrogen bonds between PVA hydroxyl groups and silanol from tile surface and water from nanostructured C-S-H gel interlayer.

  20. Rewaterproofing Silica Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lleger, L. J.; Wade, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Waterproofing agent, vaporized in bubbler transported by gas flowing in system and deposits in pores of tiles. Vapor carried through hole of approximately 1/16 inch (1.6.mm) diameter made in tile coating. Technique used to waterproof buildups (concrete and brick) and possibly fabrics.

  1. Tile densification with TEOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecord, G. M.; Schomburg, C.

    1981-01-01

    Densification process uses brushed or sprayed coating of tetraethyl orthosilicate. Liquid is applied and cured in three steps; tile weight increase averages 0.15 g per square centimeter. TEOS liquid is prepared by mixing TEOS with hydrochloric acid and adding marking dye. TEOS application provides variable stiffness, strength, and penetration. Surface of tile shows no buidup and is more durable for additional coatings.

  2. Biological monitoring of glazers exposed to lead in the ceramics industry in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shouroki, Fatemeh Kargar; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Golbabaei, Farideh; Barkhordari, Abolfazle; Rahimi-Froushani, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to heavy metals, particularly lead, takes place in the ceramics industry. Lead is used in glaze to produce smooth and brilliant surfaces; thus, there is a likelihood of occupational adverse effects on humans. Urine samples were collected from 49 glazers at the start and end of the work shifts (98 samples). Solid phase extraction was used for separation and pre-concentration of the analyte. Samples were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Lung function tests were performed on both control and lead exposed subjects. Statistical analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the data obtained. The concentration of lead in glazers was 6.37 times higher than in the control group. Lung functions were significantly lower in the glazers compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Results showed that poor ventilation systems, overtime work and work history are effective determinants of high exposure levels. PMID:26327150

  3. Biological monitoring of glazers exposed to lead in the ceramics industry in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shouroki, Fatemeh Kargar; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Golbabaei, Farideh; Barkhordari, Abolfazle; Rahimi-Froushani, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to heavy metals, particularly lead, takes place in the ceramics industry. Lead is used in glaze to produce smooth and brilliant surfaces; thus, there is a likelihood of occupational adverse effects on humans. Urine samples were collected from 49 glazers at the start and end of the work shifts (98 samples). Solid phase extraction was used for separation and pre-concentration of the analyte. Samples were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Lung function tests were performed on both control and lead exposed subjects. Statistical analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the data obtained. The concentration of lead in glazers was 6.37 times higher than in the control group. Lung functions were significantly lower in the glazers compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Results showed that poor ventilation systems, overtime work and work history are effective determinants of high exposure levels.

  4. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  5. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  6. Grammar Tiles: An Opportunity for Manipulatives in the Language Arts Classroom (Middle Ground).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlee, Marilyn; Hardin, Linda Friddle

    1995-01-01

    Presents 2 articles concentrating on middle-school teaching: 1 that describes how a teacher, using 12 zip-lock sandwich bags and 300 small ceramic tiles, may create "grammar tiles," a method for teaching the parts of speech; and another that describes several innovative ways in which students have learned to work with language while manipulating…

  7. Life considerations of the shuttle orbiter densified-tile thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, P. A.; Sawyer, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle orbiter themal protection system (TPS) incorporates ceramic reusable surface insulation tiles bonded to the orbiter substructure through a strain isolation pad. Densification of the bonding surface of the tiles increases the static strength of the tiles. The densification proces does not, however, necessarily lead to an equivalent increase in fatigue strength. Investigation of the expected lifetime of densified tile TPS under both sinusoidal loading and random loading simulating flight conditions indicates that the strain isolation pads are the weakest components of the TPS under fatigue loading. The felt pads loosen under repetitive loading and, in highly loaded regions, could possibly cause excessive step heights between tiles causing burning of the protective insulation between tiles. A method of improving the operational lifetime of the TPS by using a strain isolation pad with increased stiffness is presented as is the consequence of the effect of increased stiffness on the tile inplane strains and transverse stresses.

  8. Nutrient and Pesticide Removal From Laboratory Simulated Tile Drainage Discharge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess nutrient and pesticide transport through subsurface tile drainage is well documented. One approach receiving consideration for reducing the amount of nutrients and pesticides in subsurface drainage waters is end-of-tile filters. The filters are often comprised of industrial wastes or by-produ...

  9. Assessment of dust-control technology for selected ceramic production processes

    SciTech Connect

    Godbey, F.W.; Caplan, P.E.; Cooper, T.C.; McKinnery, W.N.; Mahon, R.D.

    1984-07-01

    Surveys of dust-control technology for selected ceramic industrial processes at four facilities were conducted. The first site involved crushing and grinding of pyrophyllite ore to production specifications for wall and floor tiles. Exposures to dust were maintained below OSHA standards by isolation of major dust-producing operations, enclosure and ventilation of processing and transfer equipment, and good-housekeeping practices. The second site involved crushing of ball clay and shale for the quarry wall and floor tile industry. Personal samples averaged 106% of the OSHA standard for respirable dust and 361% for total dust. Inadequate planning and maintenance of local-ventilation systems were considered responsible for the high dust concentrations. The third site involved finish grading of tile in the quarry wall and floor-tile industry. Dust exposures were held below OSHA standards by the use of local exhaust ventilation on all grinding machinery. The fourth site involved batching, mixing, and packaging of ceramic materials. Dust exposures were kept below OSHA standards by enclosure and ventilation, good housekeeping, and a personal protective-equipment program.

  10. Ceramic fibers and other respiratory hazards during the renewal of the refractory lining in a large industrial furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Bergen, E.A. van den; Rocchi, P.S.J.; Boogaard, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Man-made mineral fibers (MMMFs), especially refractory ceramic fibers, show excellent thermal stability and insulating properties and can nowadays be found in many industrial facilities such as furnaces, incinerators, and stacks. Exposure to high concentrations of ceramic fibers has shown carcinogenic potential in laboratory rodents. Consequently, authorities in the Netherlands currently recommend that occupational exposures to ceramic fibers should be kept as low as possible and must not exceed 1 respirable fiber/cc (8-hour time-weighted average). Data published recently in the United States indicate that potential exposure to higher concentrations of fibers occurred inside industrial furnaces during the manual removal of ceramic insulation. This article presents the results of a monitoring program for ceramic fibers and other respiratory hazards (dust, quartz, nickel, and chromium), carried out during the renewal of the refractory lining inside a large furnace at the Shell Rotterdam refinery. Measured air concentrations of up to 50 respirable fibers/cc, 54 mg/m{sup 3} of respirable dust, and 0.81 mg/m{sup 3} of quartz confirmed that the potential exposures of workers could be high and in excess of occupational exposure limits. Organizational measures and personal protection provided to keep the actual exposures of workers as low as possible are reviewed. The removal of ceramic fibers by specially trained workers, prior to any other activities, offered the opportunity to introduce optimal control measures. In this way, the number of potentially exposed workers as well the amount of fiber-contaminated waste were kept minimal. Other preventive measures like fixing the fibers with a coating and applying local extract ventilation are investigated. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Penrose tilings as model sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutov, A. V.; Maleev, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    The Baake construction, based on generating a set of vertices of Penrose tilings as a model set, is refined. An algorithm and a corresponding computer program for constructing an uncountable set of locally indistinguishable Penrose tilings are developed proceeding from this refined construction. Based on an analysis of the parameters of tiling vertices, 62 versions of rhomb combinations at the tiling center are determined. The combinatorial structure of Penrose tiling worms is established. A concept of flip transformations of tilings is introduced that makes it possible to construct Penrose tilings that cannot be implemented in the Baake construction.

  12. Repairing Thermal Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, C. R., Jr.; Feiler, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    Small chips and depression in surfaces of surface insulation tiles repaired using Ludox colloidal silica solution and silica powder. No waiting time necessary between mixing filler and using it. Patch cures quickly without heat being applied.

  13. Color machine vision system for process control in the ceramics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penaranda Marques, Jose A.; Briones, Leoncio; Florez, Julian

    1997-08-01

    This paper is focused on the design of a machine vision system to solve a problem found in the manufacturing process of high quality polished porcelain tiles. This consists of sorting the tiles according to the criteria 'same appearance to the human eye' or in other words, by color and visual texture. In 1994 this problem was tackled and led to a prototype which became fully operational at production scale in a manufacturing plant, named Porcelanatto, S.A. The system has evolved and has been adapted to meet the particular needs of this manufacturing company. Among the main issues that have been improved, it is worth pointing out: (1) improvement to discern subtle variations in color or texture, which are the main features of the visual appearance; (2) inspection time reduction, as a result of algorithm optimization and the increasing computing power. Thus, 100 percent of the production can be inspected, reaching a maximum of 120 tiles/sec.; (3) adaptation to the different types and models of tiles manufactured. The tiles vary not only in their visible patterns but also in dimensions, formats, thickness and allowances. In this sense, one major problem has been reaching an optimal compromise: The system must be sensitive enough to discern subtle variations in color, but at the same time insensitive thickness variations in the tiles. The following parts have been used to build the system: RGB color line scan camera, 12 bits per channel, PCI frame grabber, PC, fiber optic based illumination and the algorithm which will be explained in section 4.

  14. Reduction of CO2 diffuse emissions from the traditional ceramic industry by the addition of Si-Al raw material.

    PubMed

    González, I; Barba-Brioso, C; Campos, P; Romero, A; Galán, E

    2016-09-15

    The fabrication of ceramics can produce the emission of several gases, denominated exhaust gases, and also vapours resulting from firing processes, which usually contain metals and toxic substances affecting the environment and the health of workers. Especially harmful are the diffuse emissions of CO2, fluorine, chlorine and sulphur from the ceramics industry, which, in highly industrialized areas, can suppose an important emission focus of dangerous effects. Concerning CO2, factories that use carbonate-rich raw materials (>30% carbonates) can emit high concentrations of CO2 to the atmosphere. Thus, carbonate reduction or substitution with other raw materials would reduce the emissions. In this contribution, we propose the addition of Al-shales to the carbonated ceramic materials (marls) for CO2 emission reduction, also improving the quality of the products. The employed shales are inexpensive materials of large reserves in SW-Spain. The ceramic bodies prepared with the addition of selected Al-shale to marls in variable proportions resulted in a 40%-65% CO2 emission reduction. In addition, this research underlines at the same time that the use of a low-price raw material can also contribute to obtaining products with higher added value.

  15. Contribution to the sustainable management of resources by novel combination of industrial solid residues into red ceramics.

    PubMed

    Karayannis, V; Spiliotis, X; Papastergiadis, E; Ntampegliotis, K; Papapolymerou, G; Samaras, P

    2015-03-01

    Limited amounts of industrial residues are recycled while the remaining huge quantities are stockpiled or disposed of, thus frequently leading to soil contamination. The utilization of industrial residues as valuable secondary resources into ceramics can contribute to efficient waste management and substitution for massive amounts of natural resources (clayey minerals) demanded for ceramic production. The low cost of these residues and even possible energy savings during mixture firing may also be beneficial. In the present study, the innovative combination of lignite fly ash with steel-making dust into clay-based red ceramics is undertaken, to contribute both to sustainable use of resources and prevention of soil contamination. Brick specimens were shaped by extrusion and fired, their microstructure was examined and the effect of the mixture composition and firing temperature on physico-mechanical properties was determined. Ceramic microstructures were successfully obtained by a suitable combination of fly ash with steel dust (5 + 5 wt%) into clays. Properties can be predicted and tailored to meet the needs for specific applications by appropriately adjusting the mixture composition and sintering temperature.

  16. Increasing the frost resistance of facade glazed tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Egerev, V.M.; Zotov, S.N.; Romanova, G.P.

    1986-09-01

    The authors investigate the protective properties of a coating of boron oxides and zirconium oxides applied as a glaze to ceramic tiles by conducting a series of tests to determine the frost resistance, the propensity to absorb water, the moisture expansion coefficient, the fracture behavior, and the effect of thermal cycling on the oxides. Results are graphed and tabulated.

  17. Beryllium disease screening in the ceramics industry. Blood lymphocyte test performance and exposure-disease relations.

    PubMed

    Kreiss, K; Wasserman, S; Mroz, M M; Newman, L S

    1993-03-01

    We identified nine new cases of biopsy-confirmed chronic beryllium disease among 505 employees and ex-employees in a company that had manufactured beryllia ceramics from 1958 through 1975. Of tests commonly used in medical surveillance, only a confirmed blood beryllium lymphocyte transformation test had a high positive predictive value for beryllium disease (100%). However, two beryllium disease cases had either a normal or inconsistently abnormal blood test and were identified for diagnostic workup by abnormal chest radiograph. The only risk factor for beryllium disease was beryllium exposure; smoking or allergic history did not affect risk. Degree of beryllium exposure was associated with disease rates, which ranged from 2.9% to 15.8% for beryllia-exposed subgroups. One case of beryllium disease occurred in a "dust-disturber" who did not report past beryllium exposure and who began employment 8 years after commercial beryllia production had stopped. Our data support efforts to prevent beryllium disease by lowering beryllium exposures and to identify subclinical and early disease by broad-based medical surveillance using the blood beryllium lymphocyte test and chest radiograph in beryllium-using industries.

  18. Tiling Motion Patches.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Kyunglyul; Kim, Manmyung; Hwang, Youngseok; Lee, Jehee

    2013-05-01

    Simulating multiple character interaction is challenging because character actions must be carefully coordinated to align their spatial locations and synchronized with each other. We present an algorithm to create a dense crowd of virtual characters interacting with each other. The interaction may involve physical contacts, such as hand shaking, hugging, and carrying a heavy object collaboratively. We address the problem by collecting deformable motion patches, each of which describes an episode of multiple interacting characters, and tiling them spatially and temporally. The tiling of motion patches generates a seamless simulation of virtual characters interacting with each other in a non-trivial manner. Our tiling algorithm uses a combination of stochastic sampling and deterministic search to address the discrete and continuous aspects of the tiling problem. Our tiling algorithm made it possible to automatically generate highly-complex animation of multiple interacting characters. We achieved the level of complexity far beyond the current state-of-the-art animation techniques could generate, in terms of the diversity of human behaviors and the spatial/temporal density of interpersonal interactions. PMID:23669532

  19. Tiling motion patches.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Kyunglyul; Kim, Manmyung; Hwang, Youngseok; Lee, Jehee

    2013-11-01

    Simulating multiple character interaction is challenging because character actions must be carefully coordinated to align their spatial locations and synchronized with each other. We present an algorithm to create a dense crowd of virtual characters interacting with each other. The interaction may involve physical contacts, such as hand shaking, hugging, and carrying a heavy object collaboratively. We address the problem by collecting deformable motion patches, each of which describes an episode of multiple interacting characters, and tiling them spatially and temporally. The tiling of motion patches generates a seamless simulation of virtual characters interacting with each other in a nontrivial manner. Our tiling algorithm uses a combination of stochastic sampling and deterministic search to address the discrete and continuous aspects of the tiling problem. Our tiling algorithm made it possible to automatically generate highly complex animation of multiple interacting characters. We achieve the level of interaction complexity far beyond the current state of the art that animation techniques could generate, in terms of the diversity of human behaviors and the spatial/temporal density of interpersonal interactions. PMID:24029911

  20. Refractory Oxidative-Resistant Ceramic Carbon Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    High-temperature, lightweight, ceramic carbon insulation is prepared by coating or impregnating a porous carbon substrate with a siloxane gel derived from the reaction of an organodialkoxy silane and an organotrialkoxy silane in an acid or base medium in the presence of the carbon substrate. The siloxane gel is subsequently dried on the carbon substrate to form a ceramic carbon precursor. The carbon precursor is pyrolyzed, in an inert atmosphere, to form the ceramic insulation containing carbon, silicon, and oxygen. The carbon insulation is characterized as a porous, fibrous, carbon ceramic tile which is particularly useful as lightweight tiles for spacecraft.

  1. Seamless tiled display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor); Larson, Brent D. (Inventor); Kolosowsky, Aleksandra (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A modular and scalable seamless tiled display apparatus includes multiple display devices, a screen, and multiple lens assemblies. Each display device is subdivided into multiple sections, and each section is configured to display a sectional image. One of the lens assemblies is optically coupled to each of the sections of each of the display devices to project the sectional image displayed on that section onto the screen. The multiple lens assemblies are configured to merge the projected sectional images to form a single tiled image. The projected sectional images may be merged on the screen by magnifying and shifting the images in an appropriate manner. The magnification and shifting of these images eliminates any visual effect on the tiled display that may result from dead-band regions defined between each pair of adjacent sections on each display device, and due to gaps between multiple display devices.

  2. Filler bar heating due to stepped tiles in the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, D. H.; Smith, D. M.; Edwards, C. L. W.; Patten, A. B.; Hamilton, H. H., II

    1983-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to investigate the excessive heating in the tile to tile gaps of the Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System due to stepped tiles. The excessive heating was evidence by visible discoloration and charring of the filler bar and strain isolation pad that is used in the attachment of tiles to the aluminum substrate. Two tile locations on the Shuttle orbiter were considered, one on the lower surface of the fuselage and one on the lower surface of the wing. The gap heating analysis involved the calculation of external and internal gas pressures and temperatures, internal mass flow rates, and the transient thermal response of the thermal protection system. The results of the analysis are presented for the fuselage and wing location for several step heights. The results of a study to determine the effectiveness of a half height ceramic fiber gap filler in preventing hot gas flow in the tile gaps are also presented.

  3. Tiling Microarray Analysis Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, Davis Austin

    2005-05-04

    TiMAT is a package of 23 command line Java applications for use in the analysis of Affymetrix tiled genomic microarray data. TiMAT enables: 1) Rebuilding the genome annotation for entire tiled arrays (repeat filtering, chromosomal coordinate assignment). 2) Post processing of oligo intensity values (quantile normalization, median scaling, PMMM transformation), 3) Significance testing (Wilcoxon rank sum and signed rank tests, intensity difference and ratio tests) and Interval refinement (filtering based on multiple statistics, overlap comparisons), 4) Data visualization (detailed thumbnail/zoomed view with Interval Plots and data export to Affymetrix's Integrated Genome Browser) and Data reports (spreadsheet summaries and detailed profiles)

  4. Sintering of advanced ceramics using a 30-GHz, 10-kW, CW industrial gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Link, G.; Feher, L.; Boehme, R.; Weisenburger, A. ); Thumm, M. Univ. of Karlsruhe . Inst. of Microwaves and Electronics); Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, H.J. )

    1999-04-01

    At the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, a compact gyrotron system was established in 1994 to investigate technological applications in the field of high-temperature materials processing by means of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) radiation. Besides the improvement of the system design, research activities are mainly engaged in studies on debindering and sintering of various types of advanced structural and functional ceramics. Due to volumetric heating and enhanced sintering kinetics, the application of microwaves allows one to shorten the processing rime and therefore reduce energy consumption. Besides these effects, microwave technology gives the unique possibility of influencing the microstructure and physical properties of the ceramic materials. This paper will discuss the benefits of the mm-wave technology with respect to sintering of structural ceramics, such as TiO[sub 2]-ZrO[sub 2]-MgO multicomponent ceramics, nanocrystalline oxide ceramics, and Si[sub 3]N[sub 4], as well as lead-zirconate-titanate piezoceramics as one of the most interesting classes of functional ceramics.

  5. The effect of manufacturing variables on radiation doses from porcelain tiles.

    PubMed

    Selby, J H; Strydom, R

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the radiological properties of glazed ceramic tiles. This study was conducted to describe the radiological properties of porcelain tiles and how they were affected by variations in the manufacturing parameters. The data showed that the majority of the uranium in the tiles was attributable to the addition of zircon while less than half of the thorium in the tile was attributable to the added zircon, and the remainder came from other minerals in the formulation. The effects of firing temperatures and compressive strengths of the tiles are presented and show that higher firing temperatures increase radon emanation, while higher compressive strengths reduce radon emanation. The study also described how the addition of zircon to the tile formulation affected the radiological exposures that could be received by a member of the public from the use of such porcelain tiles. A dose assessment was conducted based on 23 different types of tile formulation. Screening procedures for building materials have been described in European Commission documents, and these limit the addition of zircon in a porcelain tile to approximately 9% by mass. The dose assessment reported in this study showed that 20% zircon could be added to a porcelain tile without exceeding the prescribed dose limits.

  6. Latin-Square Tiling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gridgeman, N. T.

    1971-01-01

    The author presents a variation of a tiling problem where each row or column contains a complete set of elements, each diagonal is free of contiguous like elements, and at least one partition exists. These restrictions limit the number of solutions considerably, and methods of solution are subsequently discussed. (CT)

  7. Microwave thermal inertisation of asbestos containing waste and its recycling in traditional ceramics.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, C; Veronesi, P; Boccaccini, D N; Rivasi, M R; Barbieri, L; Andreola, F; Lancellotti, I; Rabitti, D; Pellacani, G C

    2006-07-31

    Asbestos was widely used as a building material prior to the 1970's. It is well known that asbestos is a health hazard and its progressive elimination is a priority for pollution prevention. Asbestos can be transformed to non-hazardous silicate phases by microwave thermal treatment. The aim of this investigation is to describe the microwave inertization process of asbestos containing waste (ACW) and its recycling in porcelain stoneware tiles, porous single-fired wall tiles and ceramic bricks following industrial manufacture procedure. Inertised asbestos powder was added in the percentages of 1, 3, and 5 wt.% to commercially available compositions and then fired following industrial thermal cycles. Water absorption and linear shrinkage of the obtained industrial products do not present significant variations with additions up to 5 wt.% of microwave inertised ACW.

  8. Molecular random tilings as glasses

    PubMed Central

    Garrahan, Juan P.; Stannard, Andrew; Blunt, Matthew O.; Beton, Peter H.

    2009-01-01

    We have recently shown that p-terphenyl-3,5,3′,5′-tetracarboxylic acid adsorbed on graphite self-assembles into a two-dimensional rhombus random tiling. This tiling is close to ideal, displaying long-range correlations punctuated by sparse localized tiling defects. In this article we explore the analogy between dynamic arrest in this type of random tilings and that of structural glasses. We show that the structural relaxation of these systems is via the propagation–reaction of tiling defects, giving rise to dynamic heterogeneity. We study the scaling properties of the dynamics and discuss connections with kinetically constrained models of glasses. PMID:19720990

  9. Alumina polymorphs affect the metal immobilization effect when beneficially using copper-bearing industrial sludge for ceramics.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Xiuqing; Shih, Kaimin

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of recycling copper-bearing industrial sludge as a part of ceramic raw materials was evaluated through thermal interaction of sludge with aluminum-rich precursors. To observe copper incorporation mechanism, mixtures of copper-bearing sludge with alumina polymorphs (γ-Al2O3 and α-Al2O3) were fired between 750 and 1250°C. Different copper-hosting phases were identified by X-ray diffraction, and CuAl2O4 was found to be the predominant phase throughout the reactions. The experimental results indicate different CuAl2O4 initiating temperatures for two alumina materials, and the optimal temperature for CuAl2O4 formation is around 1100°C. To monitor the stabilization effect, prolonged leaching tests were carried out to leach sintered products for up to 20d. The results clearly demonstrate a substantial decrease in copper leachability for products with higher CuAl2O4 content formed from both alumina precursors despite their different sintering behavior. Meanwhile, the leachability of aluminum was much lower than that of copper, and it decreased by more than fourfold through the formation of CuAl2O4 spinel in γ-Al2O3 system. This study clearly indicates spinel formation as the most crucial metal stabilization mechanism when sintering multiphase copper-bearing industrial sludge with aluminum-rich ceramic raw materials, and suggests a promising and reliable technique for reusing industrial sludge.

  10. Preparation of ceramic-corrosion-cell fillers and application for cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment in electrobath reactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Gao, Yue; Xu, Yunyun; Gao, Fan; Yu, Huan; Lu, Yue; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Jinze

    2011-11-30

    As new media, ceramic-corrosion-cell fillers (Cathode Ceramic-corrosion-cell Fillers - CCF, and Anode Ceramic-corrosion-cell Fillers - ACF) employed in electrobath were investigated for cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment. 60.0 wt% of dried sewage sludge and 40.0 wt% of clay, 40.0 wt% of scrap iron and 60.0 wt% of clay were utilized as raw materials for the preparation of raw CCF and ACF, respectively. The raw CCF and ACF were respectively sintered at 400°C for 20 min in anoxic conditions. The physical properties (bulk density, grain density and water absorption), structural and morphological characters and toxic metal leaching contents were tested. The influences of pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the media height on removal of COD(Cr) and cyclohexanone were studied. The results showed that the bulk density and grain density of CCF and ACF were 869.0 kg m(-3) and 936.3 kg m(-3), 1245.0 kg m(-3) and 1420.0 kg m(-3), respectively. The contents of toxic metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ba, Ni and As) were all below the detection limit. When pH of 3-4, HRT of 6h and the media height of 60 cm were applied, about 90% of COD(cr) and cyclohexanone were removed.

  11. Tiling Microarray Analysis Tools

    2005-05-04

    TiMAT is a package of 23 command line Java applications for use in the analysis of Affymetrix tiled genomic microarray data. TiMAT enables: 1) Rebuilding the genome annotation for entire tiled arrays (repeat filtering, chromosomal coordinate assignment). 2) Post processing of oligo intensity values (quantile normalization, median scaling, PMMM transformation), 3) Significance testing (Wilcoxon rank sum and signed rank tests, intensity difference and ratio tests) and Interval refinement (filtering based on multiple statistics, overlap comparisons),more » 4) Data visualization (detailed thumbnail/zoomed view with Interval Plots and data export to Affymetrix's Integrated Genome Browser) and Data reports (spreadsheet summaries and detailed profiles)« less

  12. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a 'green' product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  13. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Facio, Dario S.; Mosquera, Maria J.

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  14. Industrial Arts Test Development Book 2: Resource Items for Ceramics, Graphic Arts, Metals, Plastics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Industrial Arts Education.

    This publication encompasses questions for Ceramics, Graphic Arts, Metals, and Plastics for the second of a series. The use of this publication and the previously published (1973) book containing resource items for Drawing, Electricity/Electronics, Power Mechanics, and Woods (ED 109 457) will provide complete coverage of the basic series courses…

  15. Demonstration of a full-scale plant using an UASB followed by a ceramic MBR for the reclamation of industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Terutake; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takase, Osamu; Kekre, Kiran A; Ang, Wui Seng; Tao, Guihe; Seah, Harry; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    This study comprehensively evaluated the performance of a full-scale plant (4550m(3)d(-1)) using a UASB reactor followed by a ceramic MBR for the reclamation and reuse of mixed industrial wastewater containing many inorganics, chemical, oil and greases. This plant was demonstrated as the first full-scale system to reclaim the mixed industrial wastewater in the world. During 395days of operation, influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) fluctuated widely, but this system achieved COD removal rate of 91% and the ceramic MBR have operated flux of 21-25LMH stably. This means that this system adsorbed the feed water fluctuation and properly treated the water. Energy consumption of this plant was achieved 0.76kWhmm(-3) and this value is same range of domestic sewage MBR system. The combination of an UASB reactor and ceramic MBR is the most economical and feasible solution for water reclamation of mixed industrial wastewater. PMID:27344242

  16. Demonstration of a full-scale plant using an UASB followed by a ceramic MBR for the reclamation of industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Terutake; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takase, Osamu; Kekre, Kiran A; Ang, Wui Seng; Tao, Guihe; Seah, Harry; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    This study comprehensively evaluated the performance of a full-scale plant (4550m(3)d(-1)) using a UASB reactor followed by a ceramic MBR for the reclamation and reuse of mixed industrial wastewater containing many inorganics, chemical, oil and greases. This plant was demonstrated as the first full-scale system to reclaim the mixed industrial wastewater in the world. During 395days of operation, influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) fluctuated widely, but this system achieved COD removal rate of 91% and the ceramic MBR have operated flux of 21-25LMH stably. This means that this system adsorbed the feed water fluctuation and properly treated the water. Energy consumption of this plant was achieved 0.76kWhmm(-3) and this value is same range of domestic sewage MBR system. The combination of an UASB reactor and ceramic MBR is the most economical and feasible solution for water reclamation of mixed industrial wastewater.

  17. Use of municipal incinerator bottom ash as sintering promoter in industrial ceramics.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, L; Corradi, A; Lancellotti, I; Manfredini, T

    2002-01-01

    The use of glassy frits obtained from municipal incinerator bottom ash and glass cullet, as sintering promoters in the production process of porcelainized stoneware, was investigated. The emphasis was on studying the similarities and differences with respect to the standard body. The characterization involved the application of several techniques: chemical analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, linear shrinkage during firing, water absorption, bending strength and spot resistance test. The results show that, the addition of these glassy frits in the body improve the characteristics of water absorption and spot resistance which is related to the absence of surface porosity originated by the glassy phase. Moreover, addition of glassy frits to the porcelanized stoneware body does not change significantly its bending strength. In the firing conditions used there is a slight worsening in the tiles planarity, while there is a significant modification of the color, which becomes darker with respect to the base body.

  18. Microwave versus conventional sintering of silicon carbide tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, M.D.; Caughman, J.B.O.; Forrester, S.C.; Akerman, A.

    1997-05-07

    Silicon carbide is being evaluated as an armor material because of its lightweight, high-hardness, and excellent armor efficiency. However, one of the problems associated with silicon carbide is the high cost associated with achieving fully dense tiles. Full density requires either hot pressing and sintering or reaction bonding. Past efforts have shown that hot pressed tiles have a higher armor efficiency than those produced by reaction bonded sintering. An earlier stuy showed that the acoustic properties of fully-dense silicon carbide tiles were enhanced through the use of post-sintered microwave heat treatments. One of the least expensive forming techniques is to isostatically press-and-sinter. In this study, the authors have used microwave energy to densify silicon carbide green bodies. Microwave sintering has been demonstrated to be a very quick way to sinter ceramics such as alumina to exceptionally high densities. Previous work has shown that microwave post treatment of fully-dense reaction bonded silicon carbide tiles significantly improves the acoustic properties of the tiles. These properties include Poisson`s ratio, Young`s modulus, shear modulus, and bulk modulus.

  19. Characterization of clay from northern of Morocco for their industrial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ouahabi, Meriam; Fagel, Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Clays are a natural resource used for millennia. Currently applications such as industrial minerals are diversified. In this context, our goal is to estimate the potential of the many clay deposits in northern of Morocco. The choice of this region is justified by the particular abundance of clay deposits used to manufacture building materials (brick, ceramic and refractories) and pottery. This study focuses on the mineralogical, chemical and geotechnical characterization tests carried out on Tangier-Tetouan and Meknes clays from northern of Morocco. The suitability of raw clay material from those regions in order to produce ceramic and brick has not been tested yet. The results revealed that the studied samples are diversified, kaolinite and illite (Tetouan clay) and kaolinite and illite and smectite and vermiculite (Tangier and Meknes clay) based materials. There were no major differences in grain-size distribution, whereas Meknes clay was more plastic than Tetouan-Tangier clay. The cation exchange capacity show that Meknes and Tangier clay were more important than Tetouan clay. Specific surface area and thermal analaysis complete this caracterization. It was found that almost all technological properties of the Meknes clay deposit are led to the manufacture of ceramic floor tile, and Tetouan-Tangier clay provide opportunities to making brick and ceramic floor. The Tetouan-Tangier and Meknes clay are a potential ceramic raw material for growing Morrocan ceramic tile and brick industries.

  20. Perspectives of mid-infrared optical coherence tomography for inspection and micrometrology of industrial ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Su, Rong; Kirillin, Mikhail; Chang, Ernest W.; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Yun, Seok H.; Mattsson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising tool for detecting micro channels, metal prints, defects and delaminations embedded in alumina and zirconia ceramic layers at hundreds of micrometers beneath surfaces. The effect of surface roughness and scattering of probing radiation within sample on OCT inspection is analyzed from the experimental and simulated OCT images of the ceramic samples with varying surface roughnesses and operating wavelengths. By Monte Carlo simulations of the OCT images in the mid-IR the optimal operating wavelength is found to be 4 µm for the alumina samples and 2 µm for the zirconia samples for achieving sufficient probing depth of about 1 mm. The effects of rough surfaces and dispersion on the detection of the embedded boundaries are discussed. Two types of image artefacts are found in OCT images due to multiple reflections between neighboring boundaries and inhomogeneity of refractive index. PMID:24977838

  1. Perspectives of mid-infrared optical coherence tomography for inspection and micrometrology of industrial ceramics.

    PubMed

    Su, Rong; Kirillin, Mikhail; Chang, Ernest W; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Yun, Seok H; Mattsson, Lars

    2014-06-30

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising tool for detecting micro channels, metal prints, defects and delaminations embedded in alumina and zirconia ceramic layers at hundreds of micrometers beneath surfaces. The effect of surface roughness and scattering of probing radiation within sample on OCT inspection is analyzed from the experimental and simulated OCT images of the ceramic samples with varying surface roughnesses and operating wavelengths. By Monte Carlo simulations of the OCT images in the mid-IR the optimal operating wavelength is found to be 4 µm for the alumina samples and 2 µm for the zirconia samples for achieving sufficient probing depth of about 1 mm. The effects of rough surfaces and dispersion on the detection of the embedded boundaries are discussed. Two types of image artefacts are found in OCT images due to multiple reflections between neighboring boundaries and inhomogeneity of refractive index. PMID:24977838

  2. Geochemical and technological characterization of clays of Corumbataí Formation, Paraná Basin, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil for the application in the ceramic industry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christofoletti, Sergio Ricardo; Torres Moreno, Maria Margarita; Batezelli, Alessandro; Zanardo, Antenor

    2014-05-01

    The Corumbataí Formation is a geological unit of the Paraná Basin comprises a range of predominantly argillaceous facies. These clays are important from an economic point of view, because they represent important mineral deposits suppliers of raw materials for the ceramic industry in the production of ceramic tiles.The study presents preliminary results of a research that aims to study the clays municipalities Tambaú, Ferreira and Santa Rosa of Viterbo in the State of São Paulo for their application and diversification of ceramic products. The methodology used was based on a detailed description of facies using the methodology in principles of analysis of Basin Miall (1984), followed by mineralogical identification by X-ray Diffraction, chemical analysis of major elements by X-ray Fluorescence and technological tests ceramic. According to the geological surveys of mines studied through columnar sections were identified the following lithofacies from base to top: Massive, Laminated, Intercalated and Altered. The mineralogy present on these lithofacies is composed by minerals: quartz, microclineo, albite, calcite, dolomite and hematite and by clay minerals illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The quartz represents the mineral more present in diffraction and occurs with d001 of 3.33Å in all lithofacies studied. The illite clay mineral represents the most frequent in studied samples presenting d 001 10Å in three conditions (natural, heated and treated with ethylene glycol) in which the blade was subjected to the analysis of X-ray diffraction, the presence of kaolinite or montmorillonite occurs or not in samples. It was observed a increased frequency of some minerals in the lithofacies studied, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), hematite and feldspar occurring in the intermediate portions of the profile with a predominance in lithofacies Intercalated. The illita clay mineral occurs throughout the profile, but with greater frequency in the lithofacies Massive and

  3. Ceramic MEMS Designed for Wireless Pressure Monitoring in the Industrial Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pavlin, Marko; Belavic, Darko; Novak, Franc

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless pressure-monitoring system for harsh-environment applications. Two types of ceramic pressure sensors made with a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) were considered. The first type is a piezoresistive strain gauge pressure sensor. The second type is a capacitive pressure sensor, which is based on changes of the capacitance values between two electrodes: one electrode is fixed and the other is movable under an applied pressure. The design was primarily focused on low power consumption. Reliable operation in the presence of disturbances, like electromagnetic interference, parasitic capacitances, etc., proved to be contradictory constraints. A piezoresistive ceramic pressure sensor with a high bridge impedance was chosen for use in a wireless pressure-monitoring system and an acceptable solution using energy-harvesting techniques has been achieved. The described solution allows for the integration of a sensor element with an energy harvester that has a printed thick-film battery and complete electronics in a single substrate packaged inside a compact housing. PMID:22368471

  4. Applications in the Nuclear Industry for Thermal Spray Amorphous Metal and Ceramic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J; Choi, J; Farmer, J

    2007-07-09

    Amorphous metal and ceramic thermal spray coatings have been developed that can be used to enhance the corrosion resistance of containers for the transportation, aging and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes. Iron-based amorphous metal formulations with chromium, molybdenum and tungsten have shown the corrosion resistance believed to be necessary for such applications. Rare earth additions enable very low critical cooling rates to be achieved. The boron content of these materials, and their stability at high neutron doses, enable them to serve as high efficiency neutron absorbers for criticality control. Ceramic coatings may provide even greater corrosion resistance for container applications, though the boron-containing amorphous metals are still favored for criticality control applications. These amorphous metal and ceramic materials have been produced as gas atomized powders and applied as near full density, non-porous coatings with the high-velocity oxy-fuel process. This paper summarizes the performance of these coatings as corrosion-resistant barriers, and as neutron absorbers. Relevant corrosion models are also discussed, as well as a cost model to quantify the economic benefits possible with these new materials.

  5. Advanced ceramic coating development for industrial/utility gas turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersson, C. A.; Lau, S. K.; Bratton, R. J.; Lee, S. Y.; Rieke, K. L.; Allen, J.; Munson, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of ceramic coatings on the lifetimes of metal turbine components and on the performance of a utility turbine, as well as of the turbine operational cycle on the ceramic coatings were determined. When operating the turbine under conditions of constant cooling flow, the first row blades run 55K cooler, and as a result, have 10 times the creep rupture life, 10 times the low cycle fatigue life and twice the corrosion life with only slight decreases in both specific power and efficiency. When operating the turbine at constant metal temperature and reduced cooling flow, both specific power and efficiency increases, with no change in component lifetime. The most severe thermal transient of the turbine causes the coating bond stresses to approach 60% of the bond strengths. Ceramic coating failures was studied. Analytic models based on fracture mechanics theories, combined with measured properties quantitatively assessed both single and multiple thermal cycle failures which allowed the prediction of coating lifetime. Qualitative models for corrosion failures are also presented.

  6. Covering the Plane with Rep-Tiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosnaugh, Linda S.; Harrell, Marvin E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students use geometric figures, rep-tiles, to design a tile floor. Rep-tiles are geometric figures of which copies can fit together to form a larger similar figure. Includes reproducible student worksheet. (MKR)

  7. Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

    2011-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible.

  8. Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

    2011-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible. PMID:21733619

  9. Sludge valorization from wastewater treatment plant to its application on the ceramic industry.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, C; Eliche-Quesada, D; Pérez-Villarejo, L; Iglesias-Godino, F J; Corpas-Iglesias, F A

    2012-03-01

    The main aim of this study is to assess the effect of incorporating waste sludge on the properties and microstructure of clay used for bricks manufacturing. Wastewater treatment plants produce annually a great volume of sludge. Replacing clay in a ceramic body with different proportions of sludge can reduce the cost due to the utilization of waste and, at the same time, it can help to solve an environmental problem. Compositions were prepared with additions of 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 15% wt% waste sludge in body clay. In order to determine the technological properties, such as bulk density, linear shrinkage, water suction, water absorption and compressive strength, press-moulded bodies were fired at 950 °C for coherently bonding particles in order to enhance the strength and the other engineering properties of the compacted particles. Thermal heating destroys organic remainder and stabilizes inorganic materials and metals by incorporating oxides from the elemental constituent into a ceramic-like material. Results have shown that incorporating up to 5 wt% of sludge is beneficial for clay bricks. By contrast, the incorporation of sludge amounts over 5 wt% causes deterioration on the mechanical properties, therefore producing low-quality bricks.

  10. Treatment of copper industry waste and production of sintered glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Coruh, Semra; Ergun, Osman Nuri; Cheng, Ta-Wui

    2006-06-01

    Copper waste is iron-rich hazardous waste containing heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Co, Pb. The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the Turkish and EPA regulatory limits. Consequently, this waste cannot be disposed of in its present form and therefore requires treatment to stabilize it or make it inert prior to disposal. Vitrification was selected as the technology for the treatment of the toxic waste under investigation. During the vitrification process significant amounts of the toxic organic and inorganic chemical compounds could be destroyed, and at the same time, the metal species are immobilized as they become an integral part of the glass matrix. The copper flotation waste samples used in this research were obtained from the Black Sea Copper Works of Samsun, Turkey. The samples were vitrified after being mixed with other inorganic waste and materials. The copper flotation waste and their glass-ceramic products were characterized by X-ray analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test. The products showed very good chemical durability. The glass-ceramics fabricated at 850 degrees C/2 h have a large application potential especially as construction and building materials. PMID:16784166

  11. Tile Patterns with LOGO--Part II: Tile Patterns from Rep Tiles Using LOGO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clason, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a recursive LOGO method for dissecting polygons into congruent parts (rep tiles) similar to the original polygon, thereby producing unexpected patterns. A list of descriptions for such dissections is included along with suggestions for modifications that allow extended student explorations into tile patterns. (JJK)

  12. A new Energy Saving method of manufacturing ceramic products from waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Haun Labs

    2002-07-05

    This final report summarizes the activities of the DOE Inventions and Innovations sponsored project, ''A New Energy Saving Method of Manufacturing Ceramic Products from Waste Glass.'' The project involved an innovative method of lowering energy costs of manufacturing ceramic products by substituting traditional raw materials with waste glass. The processing method is based on sintering of glass powder at {approx}750 C to produce products which traditionally require firing temperatures of >1200 C, or glass-melting temperatures >1500 C. The key to the new method is the elimination of previous processing problems, which have greatly limited the use of recycled glass as a ceramic raw material. The technology is aligned with the DOE-OIT Glass Industry Vision and Roadmap, and offers significant energy savings and environmental benefits compared to current technologies. A U.S. patent (No. 6,340,650) covering the technology was issued on January 22, 2002. An international PCT Patent Application is pending with designations made for all PCT regions and countries. The goal of the project was to provide the basis for the design and construction of an energy-efficient manufacturing plant that can convert large volumes of waste glass into high-quality ceramic tile. The main objectives of the project were to complete process development and optimization; construct and test prototype samples; and conduct market analysis and commercialization planning. Two types of ceramic tile products were targeted by the project. The first type was developed during the first year (Phase I) to have a glazed-like finish for applications where slip resistance is not critical, such as wall tile. The processing method optimized in Phase I produces a glossy surface with a translucent appearance, without the extra glazing steps required in traditional tile manufacturing. The second type of product was developed during the second year (Phase II). This product was designed to have an unglazed appearance

  13. Secondary polymer layered impregnated tile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy K. (Inventor); Rasky, Daniel J. (Inventor); Szalai, Christine E. (Inventor); Carroll, Joseph A. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-ta S. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A low density organic polymer impregnated preformed fibrous ceramic article includes a plurality of layers. A front layer includes ceramic fibers or carbon fibers or combinations of ceramic fibers and carbon fibers, and is impregnated with an effective amount of at least one organic polymer. A middle layer includes polymer impregnated ceramic fibers. A back layer includes ceramic fibers or carbon fibers or combinations of ceramic fibers and carbon fibers, and is impregnated with an effective amount of at least one low temperature pyrolyzing organic polymer capable of decomposing without depositing residues.

  14. Use of glazed ceramic waste as additive in mortar and the mathematical modelling of its strength.

    PubMed

    Altin, Zehra Gulten; Erturan, Seyfettin; Tepecik, Abdulkadir

    2008-04-01

    This study investigated the reusability of waste material from the tile manufacturing industry as an alternative material to natural pozzolan trass. Yield strength values of mortar made from Portland cement (CEM 142.5), were measured by adding glazed ceramic waste and trass at various weight ratios (5 to 40%). The test results proved that the strength values at 2, 7, and 28 days gave good results for concentrations of waste materials less than 5-10% in the cement. A decrease in strength was observed at higher concentrations. Mathematical modelling results showed a logarithmic correlation between the mortar strength and weight fraction of cement.

  15. Use of glazed ceramic waste as additive in mortar and the mathematical modelling of its strength.

    PubMed

    Altin, Zehra Gulten; Erturan, Seyfettin; Tepecik, Abdulkadir

    2008-04-01

    This study investigated the reusability of waste material from the tile manufacturing industry as an alternative material to natural pozzolan trass. Yield strength values of mortar made from Portland cement (CEM 142.5), were measured by adding glazed ceramic waste and trass at various weight ratios (5 to 40%). The test results proved that the strength values at 2, 7, and 28 days gave good results for concentrations of waste materials less than 5-10% in the cement. A decrease in strength was observed at higher concentrations. Mathematical modelling results showed a logarithmic correlation between the mortar strength and weight fraction of cement. PMID:18578160

  16. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, T G

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near background to about four orders of magnitude higher. Almost every nuclide identification test demonstrated some radioactivity content from one or more of the naturally occurring radionuclide series of thorium or uranium. The glazes seemed to contribute most of the activity, although a sample of unglazed pottery greenware showed some activity. Samples of glazing paints and samples of deliberately doped glass from the World War II era were included in the test, as was a section of foam filled poster board. A glass disc with known (232)Th radioactivity concentration was cast for use as a calibration source. The results from the two assay methods are compared, and a projection of sensitivity from larger electret ion chamber devices is presented.

  17. How We Used NASA Lunar Set in Planetary Material Science Analog Studies on Lunar Basalts and Breccias with Industrial Materials of Steels and Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berczi, S.; Cech, V.; Jozsa, S.; Szakmany, G.; Fabriczy, A.; Foldi, T.; Varga, T.

    2005-01-01

    Analog studies play important role in space materials education. Various aspects of analogies are used in our courses. In this year two main rock types of NASA Lunar Set were used in analog studies in respect of processes and textures with selected industrial material samples. For breccias and basalts on the lunar side, ceramics and steels were found as analogs on the industrial side. Their processing steps were identified on the basis of their textures both in lunar and in industrial groups of materials.

  18. Lozenge Tilings and Hurwitz Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    We give a new proof of the fact that, near a turning point of the frozen boundary, the vertical tiles in a uniformly random lozenge tiling of a large sawtooth domain are distributed like the eigenvalues of a GUE random matrix. Our argument uses none of the standard tools of integrable probability. In their place, it uses a combinatorial interpretation of the Harish-Chandra/Itzykson-Zuber integral as a generating function for desymmetrized Hurwitz numbers.

  19. Criticality-Control Applications in the Nuclear Industry for Thermal Spray Amorphous Metal and Ceramic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J; Choi, J

    2007-07-18

    Amorphous metal and ceramic thermal spray coatings have been developed that can be used to enhance the corrosion resistance of containers for the transportation, aging and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes. Iron-based amorphous metal formulations with chromium, molybdenum and tungsten have shown the corrosion resistance believed to be necessary for such applications. Rare earth additions enable very low critical cooling rates to be achieved. The boron content of these materials, and their stability at high neutron doses, enable them to serve as high efficiency neutron absorbers for criticality control. The high boron content of Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} (SAM2X5) makes it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. Average measured values of the neutron absorption cross section in transmission ({Sigma}{sub t}) for Type 316L stainless steel, Alloy C-22, borated stainless steel, a Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloy, and SAM2X5 have been determined to be approximately 1.1, 1.3, 2.3, 3.8 and 7.1 cm{sup -1}, respectively.

  20. Fluorescence of ceramic color standards.

    PubMed

    Koo, Annette; Clare, John F; Nield, Kathryn M; Deadman, Andrew; Usadi, Eric

    2010-04-20

    Fluorescence has been found in color standards available for use in calibration and verification of color measuring instruments. The fluorescence is excited at wavelengths below about 600?nm and emitted above 700?nm, within the response range of silicon photodiodes, but at the edge of the response of most photomultipliers and outside the range commonly scanned in commercial colorimeters. The degree of fluorescence on two of a set of 12 glossy ceramic tiles is enough to introduce significant error when those tiles have been calibrated in one mode of measurement and are used in another. We report the nature of the fluorescence and the implications for color measurement.

  1. Fluorescence of ceramic color standards

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Annette; Clare, John F.; Nield, Kathryn M.; Deadman, Andrew; Usadi, Eric

    2010-04-20

    Fluorescence has been found in color standards available for use in calibration and verification of color measuring instruments. The fluorescence is excited at wavelengths below about 600 nm and emitted above 700 nm, within the response range of silicon photodiodes, but at the edge of the response of most photomultipliers and outside the range commonly scanned in commercial colorimeters. The degree of fluorescence on two of a set of 12 glossy ceramic tiles is enough to introduce significant error when those tiles have been calibrated in one mode of measurement and are used in another. We report the nature of the fluorescence and the implications for color measurement.

  2. Light-weight black ceramic insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Ultra-high temperature, light-weight, black ceramic insulation having a density ranging from about 0.12 g/cc. to 0.6 g/cc. such as ceramic tile is obtained by pyrolyzing siloxane gels derived from the reaction of at least one organo dialkoxy silane and at least one tetralkoxy silane in an acid or base liquid medium. The reaction mixture of the tetra- and dialkoxy silanes also may contain an effective amount of a mono- or trialkoxy silane to obtain the siloxane gels. The siloxane gels are dried at ambient temperatures and pressures to form siloxane ceramic precursors without significant shrinkage. The siloxane ceramic precursors are subsequently pyrolyzed, in an inert atmosphere, to form the black ceramic insulation comprising atoms of silicon, carbon and oxygen. The ceramic insulation can be characterized as a porous, uniform ceramic tile resistant to oxidation at temperatures ranging as high as 1700.degree. C., and particularly useful as lightweight tiles for spacecraft and other high-temperature insulation applications.

  3. Ceramic Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Ceramic Technology Project was developed by the USDOE Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the USDOE and NASA advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. These programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. A five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. In July 1990 the original plan was updated through the estimated completion of development in 1993. The objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities.

  4. Ceramic-Fibrous-Insulation Thermal-Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel; Churchward, Rex; Katvala, Victor; Stewart, David; Balter, Aliza

    1992-01-01

    New composite thermal-protection system developed in which glass-ceramic impregnated into surface of fibrous insulation. Called TUFI for toughened unipiece fibrous insulation developed as replacement for tiles with reaction-cured-glass (RCG) coating. Impregnation of glass-ceramic results in thermal protection system with insulating properties comparable to existing system but with 20 to 100 times more resistance to impact.

  5. Image Composition Engine for Tiles

    2011-08-22

    The Image Composition Engine for Tiles (lceT) is a high-performance sort-last parallel rendering library. It is designed to be used in parallel applications requiring rendering. The primary purpose of IceT is to be integrated into parallel visualization applications such as ParaView to provide parallel rendering capabilities. The Image Composition Engine for Tiles (lceT) is a high-performance sort-last parallel rendering library. IceT uses a "sort-Iasf' approach to rendering. Each process in a parallel application independently rendersmore » a local piece of geometry. The resulting images are given to IceT, and IceT combines the images together to form a single cohesive image. Ice T is also capable of driving tiled displays, largeformat displays comprising an array of smaller displays. To this end IceT can collect the smaller tile images and organize them such that the entire tiled display can be driven. Ice T takes advantage of spatial coherence in geometry by identifying empty regions of the display and reducing the overall required work.« less

  6. Image Composition Engine for Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Moreland, Kenneth

    2011-08-22

    The Image Composition Engine for Tiles (lceT) is a high-performance sort-last parallel rendering library. It is designed to be used in parallel applications requiring rendering. The primary purpose of IceT is to be integrated into parallel visualization applications such as ParaView to provide parallel rendering capabilities. The Image Composition Engine for Tiles (lceT) is a high-performance sort-last parallel rendering library. IceT uses a "sort-Iasf' approach to rendering. Each process in a parallel application independently renders a local piece of geometry. The resulting images are given to IceT, and IceT combines the images together to form a single cohesive image. Ice T is also capable of driving tiled displays, largeformat displays comprising an array of smaller displays. To this end IceT can collect the smaller tile images and organize them such that the entire tiled display can be driven. Ice T takes advantage of spatial coherence in geometry by identifying empty regions of the display and reducing the overall required work.

  7. Ceramic materials for solar collectors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankeny, A.E.

    1982-09-29

    The purpose of this project was to identify ceramic materials which exhibit solar absorption properties which are appropriate for flat plate solar collectors. To accomplish this, various glaze formulations and clay combinations were produced and evaluated for their potential as solar absorbers. For purposes of comparison a black coated copper sheet was also tested concurrently with the ceramic materials. Thirty-five different coatings were prepared on fifty-six tiles. Two different clays, a porcelain and a stoneware clay, were used to make the tiles. From the tiles prepared, thirty of the most promising coatings were chosen for evaluation. The test apparatus consisted of a wooden frame which enclosed four mini-collectors. Each mini-collector was a rectangular ceramic heat exchanger on which a test tile could be mounted. The working fluid, water, was circulated into the collector, passed under the test tile where it gained heat, and then was discharged out of the collector. Thermometers were installed in the inlet and discharge areas to indicate the temperature increase of the water. The quantity of heat absorbed was determined by measuring the water flow (pounds per minute) and multiplying it by the temperature increase (/sup 0/F). The control sample, a copper wheet painted flat black, provided a base by which to compare the performance of the test tiles installed in the other three mini-collectors. Testing was conducted on various days during August and September, 1982. The test results indicate that coatings with very satisfactory solar absorbing properties can be made with ceramic materials. The results suggest that an economically viable ceramic solar collector could be constructed if engineered to minimize the effects of relatively low thermal conductivity of clay.

  8. Refractory ceramic fiber composites and high emissivity materials for energy savings in the industry: A state-of-the-art review

    SciTech Connect

    Palco, S.; Rigaud, M.

    1995-10-01

    Due to a series of continuous improvements in the manufacturing know-how of ceramic fiber, effective composition compounds, use of protective and high emissivity coatings, and innovative anchoring methods for lining, utilization of ceramic fiber products is nowadays extremely diversified. The advantages of all-fiber linings for industrial furnaces can be briefly summarized as: short heating-up and cooling-down periods, low energy consumption, high production capacity, optimum temperature balance, and more uniform quality of finished products. The major disadvantage is that the use of fiber is questionable with the production of aggressive fuel gases and/or glaze vapors. This is because the fibrous materials are less resistant to the attack of aggressive environment than the other insulating products, and thus quickly lose their properties. The application of high emissivity ceramic coatings on the working surface of fibrous insulating lining can improve the resistance of these materials against the aggressive environment. And as a result of increasing the radiating efficiency of the refractory lining, more energy is directed to the work load, thus requiring less fuel to be fired. Ceramic fiber products is a perfect example of what composite materials are.

  9. New group of ceramic pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepanov, E.S.; Grum-Grzhimailo, O.S.; Belostotskaya, N.S.; Bibilashvili, M.S.

    1987-03-01

    The authors assess the corrosion resistance, crystal structure, chemical composition and color properties of a variety of zircon-based materials used as pigments and protective coatings for ceramic tiles. The constituents of these materials include, apart from zircon, iron oxides, vanadium oxides, and the sulfides, selenides and tellurides of cadmium. The effects of these constituents on the structural behavior of the zirconium silicate are investigated.

  10. Reusable Surface Insulation Tile Thermal Protection Materials: Past, Present and the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Stewart, David A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silica (LI-900) Reusable Surface Insulation (RSI) tile have been used on the majority of the Shuttle since its initial flight. Its overall performance with Reaction Cured Glass (RCG) coating applied will be reviewed. Improvements in insulations, Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation (FRCI-12) and Alumina Enhanced Thermal Barrier (AETB-8) and coatings/surface treatments such as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI) have been developed and successfully applied. The performance of these enhancements on the Shuttle Orbiters over the past few years along with the next version of tile materials, High Efficiency Tantalum-based Ceramic (HETC) with even broader applicability will also be discussed.

  11. Ceramic Fabric Coated With Silicon Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Smith, M.; Goldstein, H.; Zimmerman, N.

    1988-01-01

    Material used as high-temperature shell. Ceramic fabric coated with silicon carbide (SiC) serves as tough, heat-resistant covering for other refractory materials. Developed to protect reusable insulating tiles on advanced space transportation systems. New covering makes protective glaze unnecessary. Used on furnace bricks or on insulation for engines.

  12. PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS IN FLOOR TILES FOR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas C. Hittle

    2002-10-01

    Passive solar systems integrated into residential structures significantly reduce heating energy consumption. Taking advantage of latent heat storage has further increased energy savings. This is accomplished by the incorporation of phase change materials into building materials used in passive applications. Trombe walls, ceilings and floors can all be enhanced with phase change materials. Increasing the thermal storage of floor tile by the addition of encapsulated paraffin wax is the proposed topic of research. Latent heat storage of a phase change material (PCM) is obtained during a change in phase. Typical materials use the latent heat released when the material changes from a liquid to a solid. Paraffin wax and salt hydrates are examples of such materials. Other PCMs that have been recently investigated undergo a phase transition from one solid form to another. During this process they will release heat. These are known as solid-state phase change materials. All have large latent heats, which makes them ideal for passive solar applications. Easy incorporation into various building materials is must for these materials. This proposal will address the advantages and disadvantages of using these materials in floor tile. Prototype tile will be made from a mixture of quartz, binder and phase change material. The thermal and structural properties of the prototype tiles will be tested fully. It is expected that with the addition of the phase change material the structural properties will be compromised to some extent. The ratio of phase change material in the tile will have to be varied to determine the best mixture to provide significant thermal storage, while maintaining structural properties that meet the industry standards for floor tile.

  13. Kinetics of the clay roofing tile convection drying

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S. . Faculty of Food Technology); Skansi, D. . Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology); Sokele, M. . Telecommunications Center)

    1993-01-01

    Kinetics of the convection drying process of flat tile has been investigated experimentally in an industrial tunnel dryer. Several velocities of wet tile movement through the dryer were tested to obtain maximum allowable drying rate curve. As there are various models to describe the kinetics of convection drying, finding a model that would fairly well approximate the kinetics of the whole drying process was part of the research. Especially the polynomial and exponential models were tested. It was found that exponential model of the type: B(t) = (a[minus]B[sub e])[center dot]EXP([minus]bt[sup 2])+B[sub e], ([minus]dB(t)/dt) = 2bt(B(t)[minus]B[sub e]) significantly correlates the kinetics of the whole tile drying process. Applying the maximum allowable drying rate curve obtained for flat tile in the first period of drying, a grapho-analytic model for the optimal conducting of the process has been developed.

  14. Developing tiled projection display systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Judson, I. R.; Paris, J.; Stevens, R. L.

    2000-06-08

    Tiled displays are an emerging technology for constructing high-resolution semi-immersive visualization environments capable of presenting high-resolution images from scientific simulation [EVL, PowerWall]. In this way, they complement other technologies such as the CAVE [Cruz-Niera92] or ImmersaDesk, [Czernuszenko97], which by design give up pure resolution in favor of width of view and stereo. However, the largest impact may well be in using large-format tiled displays as one of possibly multiple displays in building ''information'' or ''active'' spaces that surround the user with diverse ways of interacting with data and multimedia information flows [IPSI, Childers00, Raskar98, ROME, Stanford, UNC]. These environments may prove to be the ultimate successor of the desktop metaphor for information technology work.

  15. Characterisation of the sintering behaviour of Waelz slag from electric arc furnace (EAF) dust recycling for use in the clay ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Quijorna, N; de Pedro, M; Romero, M; Andrés, A

    2014-01-01

    Waelz slag is an industrial by-product from the recovery of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust which is mainly sent to landfills. Despite the different chemical and mineralogical compositions of Waelz slag compared to traditional clays, previous experiments have demonstrated its potential use as a clay substitute in ceramic processes. Indeed, clayey products containing Waelz slag could improve mechanical and environmental performance, fixing most of the metallic species and moreover decreasing the release of some potential pollutants during firing. However, a deeper understanding of the complex phase transformations during its thermal treatment and the connection of this behaviour with the end properties is desirable in order to explain the role that is played by the Waelz slag and its potential contribution to the ceramic process. For this purpose, in the present study, the chemical, mineralogical, thermal and environmental behaviour of both (i) unfired powdered samples, and (ii) pressed specimen of Waelz slag fired up to different temperatures within the typical range of clay based ceramic production, has been studied. The effect of the heating temperature on the end properties of the fired samples has been assessed. In general, an increase of the firing temperature promotes sintering and densification of the products and decreases the open porosity and water absorption which also contributes to the fixation of heavy metals. On the contrary, an increase in the leaching of Pb, Cr and Mo from the fired specimens is observed. This can be attributed to the creation of Fe and Ca molybdates and chromates that are weakly retained in the alkali matrix. On the other side, at temperature above 950 °C a weight gain related to the emission of evolved gases is observed. In conclusion, the firing temperature of the ceramic process is a key parameter that affects not only the technical properties but also strongly affects the leaching behaviour and the process emissions.

  16. Development of high-density ceramic composites for ballistic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rupert, N.L.; Burkins, M.S.; Gooch, W.A.; Walz, M.J.; Levoy, N.F.; Washchilla, E.P.

    1993-12-31

    The application of ceramic composites for ballistic application has been generally developed with ceramics of low density, between 2.5 and 4.5 g/cm{sup 2}. These materials have offered good performance in defeating small-caliber penetrators, but can suffer time-dependent degradation effects when thicker ceramic tiles are needed to defeat modem, longer, heavy metal penetrators that erode rather than break up. This paper addresses the ongoing development, fabrication procedures, analysis, and ballistic evaluation of thinner, denser ceramics for use in armor applications. Nuclear Metals Incorporated (NMI) developed a process for the manufacture of depleted uranium (DU) ceramics. Samples of the ceramics have been supplied to the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) as part of an unfunded cooperative study agreement. The fabrication processes used, characterization of the ceramic, and a ballistic comparison between the DU-based ceramic with baseline Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} will be presented.

  17. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products.

    PubMed

    Viruthagiri, G; Rajamannan, B; Suresh Jawahar, K

    2013-12-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  18. Analysis of gap heating due to stepped tiles in the shuttle thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, D. H.; Smith, D. M.; Edwards, C. L. W.; Carlson, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical methods used to investigate entry gap heating in the Shuttle orbiter thermal protection system are described. Analytical results are given for a fuselage lower-surface location and a wing lower-surface location. These are locations where excessive gap heating occurred on the first flight of the Shuttle. The results of a study to determine the effectiveness of a half-height ceramic fiber gap filler in preventing hot-gas flow in the tile gaps are also given.

  19. Water Detection and Removal From Shuttle Tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Current methods for detecting and removing water from the Space Shuttle tiles have proved inadequate in cases of excessive water exposure. This paper describes two new tools that are currently being introduced to Shuttle processing to supplement the existing methods. A capacitive device has been developed to augment the IR camera method of detecting water in the tiles and a vacuum pump system is being tested as a likely replacement to the heat lamps currently used to dry wet tiles.

  20. Ceramic Foams for TPS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockpoole, Mairead

    2003-01-01

    Ceramic foams have potential in many areas of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) including acreage and tile leading edges as well as being suitable as a repair approach for re-entry vehicles. NASA Ames is conducting ongoing research in developing lower-density foams from pre-ceramic polymer routes. One of the key factors to investigate, when developing new materials for re-entry applications, is their oxidation behavior in the appropriate re-entry environment which can be simulated using ground based arc jet (plasma jet) testing. Arc jet testing is required to provide the appropriate conditions (stagnation pressures, heat fluxes, enthalpies, heat loads and atmospheres) encountered during flight. This work looks at the response of ceramic foams (Si systems) exposed to simulated reentry environments and investigates the influence of microstructure and composition on the material? response. Other foam properties (mechanical and thermal) will also be presented.

  1. Task 6.4 - the use of coal ash in ceramics. Topical report, July--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Previous empirical tests at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) have indicated that coal combustion by-products are a viable starting material for the production of a variety of ceramic products, including brick, tile, and high-flexural-strength ceramics. The EERC has focused on high-temperature properties of coal ashes and has provided valuable insight into ash transformations, fouling, and stagging for the utility industry. It is proposed to utilize the information generated in these past projects to develop material selection criteria and product manufacturing techniques based on scientific and engineering characteristics of the ash. Commercialization of the use of coal combustion by-products in ceramics is more likely to become viable if a quality-assured product can be made, and predictive materials selection is a key component of a quality-assured product. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the development and production of a ceramic material utilizing coal ash as a key component. Chemical and high-temperature properties of ash were carefully determined with the objective of identifying criteria for materials selection and manufacturing options for ceramic production.

  2. Global Swath and Gridded Data Tiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Charles K.

    2012-01-01

    This software generates cylindrically projected tiles of swath-based or gridded satellite data for the purpose of dynamically generating high-resolution global images covering various time periods, scaling ranges, and colors called "tiles." It reconstructs a global image given a set of tiles covering a particular time range, scaling values, and a color table. The program is configurable in terms of tile size, spatial resolution, format of input data, location of input data (local or distributed), number of processes run in parallel, and data conditioning.

  3. Multilayer Impregnated Fibrous Thermal Insulation Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy K.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Szalai, Christine e.; Hsu, Ming-ta; Carroll, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    The term "secondary polymer layered impregnated tile" ("SPLIT") denotes a type of ablative composite-material thermal- insulation tiles having engineered, spatially non-uniform compositions. The term "secondary" refers to the fact that each tile contains at least two polymer layers wherein endothermic reactions absorb considerable amounts of heat, thereby helping to prevent overheating of an underlying structure. These tiles were invented to afford lighter-weight alternatives to the reusable thermal-insulation materials heretofore variously used or considered for use in protecting the space shuttles and other spacecraft from intense atmospheric-entry heating.

  4. Recycling and reuse of industrial wastes in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wei, M S; Huang, K H

    2001-01-01

    Eighteen million metric tons of industrial wastes are produced every year in Taiwan. In order to properly handle the industrial wastes, the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) has set up strategic programs that include establishment of storage, treatment, and final disposal systems, establishment of a management center for industrial wastes, and promotion of recycling and reuse of industrial wastes. The Taiwan EPA has been actively promoting the recycling and reuse of industrial wastes over the years. In July 1995 the Taiwan EPA amended and promulgated the Criteria for the Industrial Waste Storage, Collection and Processing Facility, July, 1995 that added articles related to general industrial waste recycling and reuse. In June 1996 the Taiwan EPA promulgated the Non-listed General Industrial Waste Reuse Application Procedures, June, 1996, followed by the Regulations Governing the Permitting of Hazardous Industrial Waste Reuse, June 1996, setting up a full regulatory framework for governing industrial waste reuse. To broaden the recycling and reuse of general industrial wastes, the Taiwan EPA has listed 14 industrial waste items for recycling and reuse, including waste paper, waste iron, coal ash, tempered high furnace bricks (cinder), high furnace bricks (cinder), furnace transfer bricks (cinder), sweetening dregs, wood (whole/part), glass (whole/part), bleaching earth, ceramics (pottery, brick, tile and cast sand), individual metal scraps (copper, zinc, aluminum and tin), distillery grain (dregs) and plastics. As of June 1999, 99 applications for reuse of industrial wastes had been approved with 1.97 million metric tons of industrial wastes being reused.

  5. TRANSFER EFFICIENCES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD CERAMIC TILE TO FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional assessments of pesticide exposure through diet have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of total exposure to infants and children ...

  6. Functionally Graded Materials using Plasma Spray with Nano Structured Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioh, E. L.; Tok, A. I. Y.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, nano structured FGM was fabricated using DC plasma spray technique. Nano structured and micro structured powder were used as the feeding powder with steel substrate. The spray parameters was optimized and characterisation of nano-ceramic FGM and micro-ceramic FGM were done using bending test and micro-hardness test. Experimental results have shown that the nano-structured FGM exhibit 20% improvement flexure strength and 10% in hardness. A comparison was made between sintered micro ceramic tile and nano ceramic FGM using simple drop test method.

  7. Ceramic applications in the advanced Stirling automotive engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.; Cairelli, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements of the ideal Stirling cycle, as well as basic types of practical engines are described. Advantages, disadvantages, and problem areas of these Stirling engines are discussed. The potential for ceramic components is also considered. Currently ceramics are used in only two areas, the air preheater and insulating tiles between the burner and the heater head. For the advanced Stirling engine to achieve high efficiency and low cost, the principal components are expected to be made from ceramic materials, including the heater head, air preheater, regenerator, the burner and the power piston. Supporting research and technology programs for ceramic component development are briefly described.

  8. Parametric Multi-Level Tiling of Imperfectly Nested Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Hartono, Albert; Baskaran, Muthu M.; Bastoul, Cedric; Cohen, Albert; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Norris, Boyana; Ramanujam, J.; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2009-05-18

    Tiling is a critical loop transformation for generating high-performance code on modern architectures. Efficient generation of multilevel tiled code is essential to exploit several levels of parallelism and/or to maximize data reuse in deep memory hierarchies. Tiled loops with parameterized tile sizes (not compile time constants) facilitate runtime feedback and dynamic optimizations used in iterative compilation and automatic tuning. The existing parametric multilevel tiling approach has focused on transformation for perfectly nested loops, where all assignment statements are contained inside the innermost loop of a loop nest. Previous solutions to tiling for imperfect loop nests are limited to the case where tile sizes are fixed. In this paper, we present an approach to parameterized multilevel tiling for imperfectly nested loops. Our tiling algorithm generates loops that iterate over full rectangular tiles that are amenable for potential compiler optimizations such as register tiling. Experimental results using a number of computational benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our tiling approach.

  9. Lightweight Ceramic Composition of Carbon Silicon Oxygen and Boron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Lightweight, monolithic ceramics resistant to oxidation in air at high temperatures are made by impregnating a porous carbon preform with a sol which contains a mixture of tetraethoxysilane, dimethyldiethoxysilane and trimethyl borate. The sol is gelled and dried on the carbon preform to form a ceramic precursor. The precursor is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to form the ceramic which is made of carbon, silicon, oxygen and boron. The carbon of the preform reacts with the dried gel during the pyrolysis to form a component of the resulting ceramic. The ceramic is of the same size, shape and form as the carbon precursor. Thus, using a porous, fibrous carbon precursor, such as a carbon felt, results in a porous, fibrous ceramic. Ceramics of the invention are useful as lightweight tiles for a reentry spacecraft.

  10. Bonding Heat-Resistant Fabric to Tile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, J. W.; Smiser, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    Acid etching, densification, and silica cement ensure strong bond. Key step in preparation for bonding to glazed tile is etching quartz fabric and tile with acid. This increases adhesion of silica cement used to form bond. Procedures use high-temperature materials exclusively and therefore suitable for securing flexible seals and heat barriers around doors and viewing ports in furnaces and kilns.

  11. Fibonacci words, hyperbolic tilings and grossone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margenstern, Maurice

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we study the contribution of the theory of grossone to the study of infinite Fibonacci words, combining this tool with the help of a particular tiling of the hyperbolic plane: the tiling { 7, 3 } , called the heptagrid. With the help of the numeral system based on grossone, we obtain a richer family of infinite Fibonacci words compared with the traditional approach.

  12. Performance of the Tile PreProcessor Demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrió, F.; Moreno, P.; Valero, A.

    2016-03-01

    The Tile Calorimeter PreProcessor demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Demonstrator project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the back-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived to receive and process the data coming from the front-end electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as to configure it. Moreover, the TilePPr demonstrator handles the communication with the Detector Control System to monitor and control the front-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator represents 1/8 of the final TilePPr that will be designed and installed into the detector for the ATLAS Phase II Upgrade.

  13. Consistency and derangements in brane tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Jejjala, Vishnu; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2016-09-01

    Brane tilings describe Lagrangians (vector multiplets, chiral multiplets, and the superpotential) of four-dimensional { N }=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. These theories, written in terms of a bipartite graph on a torus, correspond to worldvolume theories on N D3-branes probing a toric Calabi–Yau threefold singularity. A pair of permutations compactly encapsulates the data necessary to specify a brane tiling. We show that geometric consistency for brane tilings, which ensures that the corresponding quantum field theories are well behaved, imposes constraints on the pair of permutations, restricting certain products constructed from the pair to have no one-cycles. Permutations without one-cycles are known as derangements. We illustrate this formulation of consistency with known brane tilings. Counting formulas for consistent brane tilings with an arbitrary number of chiral bifundamental fields are written down in terms of delta functions over symmetric groups.

  14. Consistency and derangements in brane tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Jejjala, Vishnu; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2016-09-01

    Brane tilings describe Lagrangians (vector multiplets, chiral multiplets, and the superpotential) of four-dimensional { N }=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. These theories, written in terms of a bipartite graph on a torus, correspond to worldvolume theories on N D3-branes probing a toric Calabi-Yau threefold singularity. A pair of permutations compactly encapsulates the data necessary to specify a brane tiling. We show that geometric consistency for brane tilings, which ensures that the corresponding quantum field theories are well behaved, imposes constraints on the pair of permutations, restricting certain products constructed from the pair to have no one-cycles. Permutations without one-cycles are known as derangements. We illustrate this formulation of consistency with known brane tilings. Counting formulas for consistent brane tilings with an arbitrary number of chiral bifundamental fields are written down in terms of delta functions over symmetric groups.

  15. Robotic end-effector for rewaterproofing shuttle tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manouchehri, Davoud; Hansen, Joseph M.; Wu, Cheng M.; Yamamoto, Brian S.; Graham, Todd

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes work by Rockwell International's Space Systems Division's Robotics Group at Downey, California. The work is part of a NASA-led team effort to automate Space Shuttle rewaterproofing in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center and the ferry facility at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. Rockwell's effort focuses on the rewaterproofing end-effector, whose function is to inject hazardous dimethylethyloxysilane into thousands of ceramic tiles on the underside of the orbiter after each flight. The paper has five sections. First, it presents background on the present manual process. Second, end-effector requirements are presented, including safety and interface control. Third, a design is presented for the five end-effector systems: positioning, delivery, containment, data management, and command and control. Fourth, end-effector testing and integrating to the total system are described. Lastly, future applications for this technology are discussed.

  16. [First results of an epidemiological survey on abortion in the "Ceramic District" and in other areas of Emilia (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, R

    1981-01-01

    This research sought to determine whether a connection exists between atmospheric pollution and abortion frequency in a particular situation created in the Ceramic District. Industries specializing in the production of ceramic tiles have proliferated since 1950 in an area comprising 15 urban areas in northeast Italy. The use of pollutant raw materials (clay, lead, and dusts transported by smoke) as well as the heavy concentration of industry have caused an intense and harmful atmospheric pollution inside and outside the factories. In particular, the longstanding and widespread use of lead, which gives the tiles the technical and aesthetic properties which render them highly competitive in international markets, has been suspected of causing chromosomal alterations and abortion; this despite contradictions present in the literature. The epidemiological survey includes all women entering hospital for abortion and delivery with stillbirths and livebirths in the Ceramic District from October 24, 1968-October 24, 1975. The survey has been extended to other areas subject to normal pollutants with similar or different socioeconomic structures with respect to the Ceramic District; this 2nd survey considers all hospitalizations for abortion and a systematic sample of delivery in the 3 communal hospitals. A total of 20,925 cases were examined. The issue of each pregnancy was classified according to the woman's area of residence. 4 groups corresponding to the areas taken into consideration were examined: the 1st comprises the Ceramic District; the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th comprise the areas of Carpi, Vignola, and Pavullo. The following assumptions were made: 1) that women opt for local hospital care, 2) that hospital care may have been sought in the case of induced abortion, and 3) that the frequency of induced abortion corresponded with the condition of proportional parity in each group. A comparison of the abortion rate (i.e., the number of abortions/100 pregnancies) in the 4

  17. Microbial deterioration of artistic tiles from the façade of the Grande Albergo Ausonia & Hungaria (Venice, Italy).

    PubMed

    Giacomucci, Lucia; Bertoncello, Renzo; Salvadori, Ornella; Martini, Ilaria; Favaro, Monica; Villa, Federica; Sorlini, Claudia; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2011-08-01

    The Grande Albergo Ausonia & Hungaria (Venice Lido, Italy) has an Art Nouveau polychrome ceramic coating on its façade, which was restored in 2007. Soon after the conservation treatment, many tiles of the façade decoration showed coloured alterations putatively attributed to the presence of microbial communities. To confirm the presence of the biological deposit and the stratigraphy of the Hungaria tiles, stereomicroscope, optical and environmental scanning electron microscope observations were made. The characterisation of the microbial community was performed using a PCR-DGGE approach. This study reported the first use of a culture-independent approach to identify the total community present in biodeteriorated artistic tiles. The case study examined here reveals that the coloured alterations on the tiles were mainly due to the presence of cryptoendolithic cyanobacteria. In addition, we proved that the microflora present on the tiles was generally greatly influenced by the environment of the Hungaria hotel. We found several microorganisms related to the alkaline environment, which is in the range of the tile pH, and related to the aquatic environment, the presence of the acrylic resin Paraloid B72® used during the 2007 treatment and the pollutants of the Venice lagoon.

  18. Evaluation of Ceramic Honeycomb Core Compression Behavior at Room Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, Richard K.; Lapointe, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature flatwise compression tests were conducted on two varieties of ceramic honeycomb core specimens that have potential for high-temperature structural applications. One set of specimens was fabricated using strips of a commercially-available thin-gage "ceramic paper" sheet molded into a hexagonal core configuration. The other set was fabricated by machining honeycomb core directly from a commercially available rigid insulation tile material. This paper summarizes the results from these tests.

  19. Structural characteristics of the shuttle orbiter ceramic thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal protection system (TPS) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter is described as well as the results of dynamic reponse studies conducted in support of the efforts to certify the TPS for flight. The ceramic Thermal Protection System consists of ceramic tiles bonded to felt pads which are in turn bonded to the Orbiter substructure to protect the aluminum substructure from the heat of reentry.

  20. Transport pathways of nitrogen and phosphorus in tile-drained cranberry farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, C. D.; Alversion, N.; Jeranyama, P.; DeMoranville, C.; Sandler, H.; Caruso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid, controlled drainage of cranberry farms is critical to optimizing production in Massachusetts, where approximately 1/3 of the industry's crop is produced. Relatively new to cranberry farming, tile drainage has been billed as a low-cost drainage management option for reducing crop disease and weed infestations. Despite its well documented agronomic benefits, tile drainage may exacerbate nutrient loss and promote eutrophication in nearby ponds receiving cranberry drainage waters. In this study, a monitoring program was established on a Massachusetts cranberry bed to quantify (1) mass loss of nitrogen and phosphorous via tile drainage to a perimeter ditch surrounding the cranberry bed, (2) the attenuation of N and P in the ditch prior to discharge from the cranberry bed, and (3) and the component contributions of preferential vs. matrix transport of N and P in tile drainage. A combination of compound weirs, acoustic-velocity meters, propeller-driven flow meters, and rain gauges were installed to quantify drainage management characteristics of the cranberry bed. Automatic samplers were also installed to collect water samples at each monitoring site (i.e., four tile drains, an irrigation pond, and a flume used to control ditch height) for analysis of N and P concentrations and hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios to estimate nutrient loss and transport pathways. These data will be used to develop a mechanistic synthesis of nutrient cycling in tile-drained cranberry beds.

  1. Lozenge Tilings with Free Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, Greta

    2015-11-01

    We study lozenge tilings of a domain with partially free boundary. In particular, we consider a trapezoidal domain (half-hexagon), s.t. the horizontal lozenges on the long side can intersect it anywhere to protrude halfway across. We show that the positions of the horizontal lozenges near the opposite flat vertical boundary have the same joint distribution as the eigenvalues from a Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (the GUE-corners/minors process). We also prove the existence of a limit shape of the height function, which is also a vertically symmetric plane partition. Both behaviors are shown to coincide with those of the corresponding doubled fixed boundary hexagonal domain. We also consider domains where the different sides converge to {∞} at different rates and recover again the GUE-corners process near the boundary.

  2. Seamless stitching of tile scan microscope images.

    PubMed

    Legesse, F B; Chernavskaia, O; Heuke, S; Bocklitz, T; Meyer, T; Popp, J; Heintzmann, R

    2015-06-01

    For diagnostic purposes, optical imaging techniques need to obtain high-resolution images of extended biological specimens in reasonable time. The field of view of an objective lens, however, is often smaller than the sample size. To image the whole sample, laser scanning microscopes acquire tile scans that are stitched into larger mosaics. The appearance of such image mosaics is affected by visible edge artefacts that arise from various optical aberrations which manifest in grey level jumps across tile boundaries. In this contribution, a technique for stitching tiles into a seamless mosaic is presented. The stitching algorithm operates by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at corners to a common value. The corrected image mosaics appear to be free from stitching artefacts and are, therefore, suited for further image analysis procedures. The contribution presents a novel method to seamlessly stitch tiles captured by a laser scanning microscope into a large mosaic. The motivation for the work is the failure of currently existing methods for stitching nonlinear, multimodal images captured by our microscopic setups. Our method eliminates the visible edge artefacts that appear between neighbouring tiles by taking into account the overall illumination differences among tiles in such mosaics. The algorithm first corrects the nonuniform brightness that exists within each of the tiles. It then compensates for grey level differences across tile boundaries by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at the corners to a common value. After these artefacts have been removed further image analysis procedures can be applied on the microscopic images. Even though the solution presented here is tailored for the aforementioned specific case, it could be easily adapted to other contexts where image tiles are assembled into mosaics such as in astronomical or satellite photos.

  3. Task 8.9 - Advanced ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-30

    Advanced ceramic materials such as Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites (CFCCs) have had promising results on the companion program entitled ``Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine`` (CSGT). In particular, CFCCs have outperformed monolithic tiles in structural integrity as a combustor liner. Also, CFCCs have provided the higher temperature operation and improved emissions performance that is required for the ATS combustor. The demonstrated advantages on CSGT justified work to explore the use of advanced ceramic composite materials in other gas turbine components. Sub-tasks include development of a practical, cost effective component fabrication process, development of finite element stress analysis to assure 30,000 hours of component life, and fabrication of a demonstration article.

  4. Remotely replaceable tokamak plasma limiter tiles

    DOEpatents

    Gallix, R.

    1987-12-09

    U-shaped tiles placed end-to-end over a pair of parallel runners have two rods which engage L-shaped slots. A sliding bar between the runners has grooves with clips to retain the rods pressed into receiving legs of the L-shaped slots in the runners. Sliding the bar in the direction of retaining legs of the L-shaped slots latches the tiles in place over the wall. Resilient contact strips under the parallel sides of the U-shaped tile assure thermal and electrical contact with the wall. 6 figs.

  5. Recycling and utilisation of industrial solid waste: an explorative study on gold deposit tailings of ductile shear zone type in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Huang, Fei; Du, Runxiang; Zhao, Chunming; Li, Yongli; Yu, Haoran

    2015-06-01

    Tailings are solid waste arising from mineral processing. This type of waste can cause severe damage to the environment during stockpiling as a result of the leaching of something harmful into the ecosystem. Gold deposit of ductile shear zone type is an important type of gold deposit, and the recycling of its tailings has been challenging researchers for a long time. In this article, the characteristics of this type of tailings were systematically studied by using modern technical means. Considering the characteristics of the tailings, clay was selected to make up for the shortcomings of the tailings and improve their performance. Water and raw materials were mixed to produce green bodies, which are subsequently sintered into ceramic bodies at 980 °C~1020 °C (sintering temperature). The results showed that some new kinds of mineral phases, such as mullite, anorthite and orthoclase, appear in ceramic bodies. Furthermore, the ceramic bodies have a surface hardness of 5 to 6 (Mohs scale), and their water absorption and modulus of rupture can meet some technical requirements of ceramic materials described in ISO 13006-2012 and GB 5001-1985. These gold mine tailings can be made into ceramic tiles, domestic ceramic bodies, and other kinds of ceramic bodies for commercial and industrial purposes after further improvements.

  6. On Ceramics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents four ceramics activities for secondary-level art classes. Included are directions for primitive kiln construction and glaze making. Two ceramics design activities are described in which students make bizarrely-shaped lidded jars, feet, and footwear. (AM)

  7. The challenging scales of the bird: Shuttle tile structural integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, W. C.; Miller, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    The principal design issues, tests, and analyses required to solve the tile integrity problem on the space shuttle orbiters are addressed. Proof testing of installed tiles is discussed along with an airflow test of special tiles. Orbiter windshield tiles are considered in terms of changes necessary to ensure acceptable margins of safety for flight.

  8. 2. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, 1908 Duluth main workhouse, ceramic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, 1908 Duluth main workhouse, ceramic tile and brick dryer building between workhouse and annex, south wall shipping side. - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, Workhouse, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  9. Structural Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of abstracts and slides of papers presented at the NASA Lewis Structural Ceramics Workshop. Collectively, these papers depict the scope of NASA Lewis' structural ceramics program. The technical areas include monolithic SiC and Si3N4 development, ceramic matrix composites, tribology, design methodology, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), fracture mechanics, and corrosion.

  10. [Raman spectroscopic study of Ming Dynasty bar-tile from Heijing of Lufeng].

    PubMed

    Yi-lin, Wang; Qun, Yang; Li, Chao-zhen

    2004-07-01

    Ming dynasty bar-tile from the archaeological site of Heijing (Lufeng of Yunnan Province, China) was analyzed by Raman microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron probe microscopy (EPMA). It was found that the major components of the tile are SiO2, besides moonstone(KAlSi3O8 var. of K-orthoclase), Na-orthoclase(NaAlSi3 O8 )and an unknown mineral (Al, Fe)3(PO4,VO4)2(OH)3.8H2O etc. The studies revealed that the agglomerant temperature of the bar-tile reached up to 1500 degrees C, indicating that the agglomerant technology of ceramics of Yunnan in the Ming dynasty (before 17 century) already attained a high level. Raman microscopyproves especially excellent in studing antiques. The results show that the facility and reliability of Raman spectroscopy, as anon-destructive unique technique, are suitable for the discrimination between moonstone and K-orthoclase within tile. No other technique tried was successful in its identification. This research demonstrates that only by combining several complementary techniques is possible to conduct comprehensive research on antiques.

  11. Structural tests on a tile/strain isolation pad thermal protection system. [space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The aluminum skin of the space shuttle is covered by a thermal protection system (TPS) consisting of a low density ceramic tile bonded to a matted-felt material called strain insulation pad (SIP). The structural characteristics of the TPS were studied experimentally under selected extreme load conditions. Three basic types of loads were imposed: tension, eccentrically applied tension, and combined in-plane force and transverse pressure. For some tests, transverse pressure was applied rapidly to simulate a transient shock wave passing over the tile. The failure mode for all specimens involved separation of the tile from the SIP at the silicone rubber bond interface. An eccentrically applied tension load caused the tile to separate from the SIP at loads lower than experienced at failure for pure tension loading. Moderate in-plane as well as shock loading did not cause a measurable reduction in the TPS ultimate failure strength. A strong coupling, however, was exhibited between in-plane and transverse loads and displacements.

  12. Lessons learned from the development and manufacture of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials for the space shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banas, R. P.; Elgin, D. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Nickel, K. N.; Gzowski, E. R.; Aguiler, L.

    1983-01-01

    Three ceramic, reusable surface insulation materials and two borosilicate glass coatings were used in the fabrication of tiles for the Space Shuttle orbiters. Approximately 77,000 tiles were made from these materials for the first three orbiters, Columbia, Challenger, and Discovery. Lessons learned in the development, scale up to production and manufacturing phases of these materials will benefit future production of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials. Processing of raw materials into tile blanks and coating slurries; programming and machining of tiles using numerical controlled milling machines; preparing and spraying tiles with the two coatings; and controlling material shrinkage during the high temperature (2100-2275 F) coating glazing cycles are among the topics discussed.

  13. Applied physics: The virtues of tiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratzl, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A cracked metal film on an elastic substrate has been shown to provide ultrahigh sensitivity in detecting mechanical vibrations. The result draws inspiration from principles of tiling that apply to many biological systems. See Letter p.222

  14. Reprocessing of metallurgical slag into materials for the building industry

    SciTech Connect

    Pioro, L.S.; Pioro, I.L

    2004-07-01

    Several methods of reprocessing metallurgical (blast furnace) slag into materials for the building industry, based on melting aggregates with submerged combustion, were developed and tested. The first method involves melting hot slag with some additives directly in a slag ladle with a submerged gas-air burner, with the objective of producing stabilized slag or glass-ceramic. The second method involves direct draining of melted slag from a ladle into the slag receiver, with subsequent control of the slag draining into the converter where special charging materials are added to the melt, with the objective of producing glass-ceramic. A third method involves melting cold slag with some additives inside a melting converter with submerged gas-air burners, with the objective of producing glass-ceramic fillers for use in road construction. Specific to the melting process is the use of a gas-air mixture with direct combustion inside the melt. This feature provides melt bubbling to help achieve maximum heat transfer from combustion products to the melt, improve mixing (and therefore homogeneity of the melt), and increases the rate of chemical reactions. The experimental data for different aspects of the proposed methods are presented. The reprocessed blast-furnace slag in the form of granules can be used as fillers for concretes, asphalts, and as additives in the production of cement, bricks and other building materials. As well, reprocessed blast-furnace slag can be poured into forms for the production of glass-ceramic tiles.

  15. Reprocessing of metallurgical slag into materials for the building industry.

    PubMed

    Pioro, L S; Pioro, I L

    2004-01-01

    Several methods of reprocessing metallurgical (blast furnace) slag into materials for the building industry, based on melting aggregates with submerged combustion, were developed and tested. The first method involves melting hot slag with some additives directly in a slag ladle with a submerged gas-air burner, with the objective of producing stabilized slag or glass-ceramic. The second method involves direct draining of melted slag from a ladle into the slag receiver, with subsequent control of the slag draining into the converter where special charging materials are added to the melt, with the objective of producing glass-ceramic. A third method involves melting cold slag with some additives inside a melting converter with submerged gas-air burners, with the objective of producing glass-ceramic fillers for use in road construction. Specific to the melting process is the use of a gas-air mixture with direct combustion inside the melt. This feature provides melt bubbling to help achieve maximum heat transfer from combustion products to the melt, improve mixing (and therefore homogeneity of the melt), and increases the rate of chemical reactions. The experimental data for different aspects of the proposed methods are presented. The reprocessed blast-furnace slag in the form of granules can be used as fillers for concretes, asphalts, and as additives in the production of cement, bricks and other building materials. As well, reprocessed blast-furnace slag can be poured into forms for the production of glass-ceramic tiles.

  16. Quasicrystalline tilings with nematic colloidal platelets

    PubMed Central

    Dontabhaktuni, Jayasri; Ravnik, Miha; Žumer, Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Complex nematic fluids have the remarkable capability for self-assembling regular colloidal structures of various symmetries and dimensionality according to their micromolecular orientational order. Colloidal chains, clusters, and crystals were demonstrated recently, exhibiting soft-matter functionalities of robust binding, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, entanglement, shape-driven and topological driven assembly, and even memory imprinting. However, no quasicrystalline structures were found. Here, we show with numerical modeling that quasicrystalline colloidal lattices can be achieved in the form of original Penrose P1 tiling by using pentagonal colloidal platelets in layers of nematic liquid crystals. The tilings are energetically stabilized with binding energies up to 2500 kBT for micrometer-sized platelets and further allow for hierarchical substitution tiling, i.e., hierarchical pentagulation. Quasicrystalline structures are constructed bottom-up by assembling the boat, rhombus, and star maximum density clusters, thus avoiding other (nonquasicrystalline) stable or metastable configurations of platelets. Central to our design of the quasicrystalline tilings is the symmetry breaking imposed by the platelet shape and the surface anchoring conditions at the colloidal platelets, which are misaligning and asymmetric over two perpendicular mirror planes. Finally, the design of the quasicrystalline tilings as platelets in nematic liquid crystals is inherently capable of a continuous variety of length scales of the tiling, ranging over three orders of magnitude in the typical length (from to ), which could allow for the design of quasicrystalline photonics at multiple frequency ranges. PMID:24550269

  17. Properties of ceramics prepared using dry discharged waste to energy bottom ash dust.

    PubMed

    Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Vandeperre, Luc; Grimes, Sue; Themelis, Nicolas; Koralewska, Ralf; Cheeseman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The fine dust of incinerator bottom ash generated from dry discharge systems can be transformed into an inert material suitable for the production of hard, dense ceramics. Processing involves the addition of glass, ball milling and calcining to remove volatile components from the incinerator bottom ash. This transforms the major crystalline phases present in fine incinerator bottom ash dust from quartz (SiO(2)), calcite (CaCO(3)), gehlenite (Ca(2)Al(2)SiO(7)) and hematite (Fe(2)O(3)), to the pyroxene group minerals diopside (CaMgSi(2)O(6)), clinoenstatite (MgSi(2)O(6)), wollastonite (CaSiO(3)) together with some albite (NaAlSi(3)O(8)) and andradite (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)). Processed powders show minimal leaching and can be pressed and sintered to form dense (>2.5 g cm(-3)), hard ceramics that exhibit low firing shrinkage (<7%) and zero water absorption. The research demonstrates the potential to beneficially up-cycle the fine incinerator bottom ash dust from dry discharge technology into a raw material suitable for the production of ceramic tiles that have potential for use in a range of industrial applications.

  18. Properties of ceramics prepared using dry discharged waste to energy bottom ash dust.

    PubMed

    Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Vandeperre, Luc; Grimes, Sue; Themelis, Nicolas; Koralewska, Ralf; Cheeseman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The fine dust of incinerator bottom ash generated from dry discharge systems can be transformed into an inert material suitable for the production of hard, dense ceramics. Processing involves the addition of glass, ball milling and calcining to remove volatile components from the incinerator bottom ash. This transforms the major crystalline phases present in fine incinerator bottom ash dust from quartz (SiO(2)), calcite (CaCO(3)), gehlenite (Ca(2)Al(2)SiO(7)) and hematite (Fe(2)O(3)), to the pyroxene group minerals diopside (CaMgSi(2)O(6)), clinoenstatite (MgSi(2)O(6)), wollastonite (CaSiO(3)) together with some albite (NaAlSi(3)O(8)) and andradite (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)). Processed powders show minimal leaching and can be pressed and sintered to form dense (>2.5 g cm(-3)), hard ceramics that exhibit low firing shrinkage (<7%) and zero water absorption. The research demonstrates the potential to beneficially up-cycle the fine incinerator bottom ash dust from dry discharge technology into a raw material suitable for the production of ceramic tiles that have potential for use in a range of industrial applications. PMID:26060195

  19. Gneiss wastes as secondary raw material for the ceramic industry: an example from the Verbano Cusio Ossola district (Piedmont, north-western Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The Verbano Cusio Ossola province (VCO, Piedmont, north-western Italy) is one of the most important Italian quarrying districts, due to the peculiarity and variety of its exploited rock types, mainly orthogneisses such as Serizzo and Beola, and subordinately granites, marbles and other rocks. The most important and extensively exploited ornamental stone from the VCO province is surely the Serizzo, commercialized in four main varieties, and representing about 70% of all the stone production from the VCO area. The protholith of the Serizzo is a Permian granite - granodiorite metamorphosed during the alpine events, and the rock-forming minerals are mainly quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase (andesine), biotite, with variable amounts of muscovite and epidote (allanite). The other important ornamental stone of the VCO province is the Beola, a series of heterogeneous materials (mainly orthogneisses) with marked (mylonitic) foliation and strong mineralogical lineation, occurring in the median Ossola Valley; its production (15% of the whole stones of the VCO) is subordinated with respect to that of Serizzo. The mineralogical composition of the Beola varieties is similar to Serizzo, consisting of quite homogeneous quartz, K-feldspar (orthoclase or microcline), plagioclase, biotite and muscovite. The main differences relate to the grain size, the rock fabric (generally mylonitic) and to the presence of accessory/secondary minerals. Recent regulatory developments and the growing environmental awareness, require an increasing reuse of wastes deriving from the extraction and processing of dimension stones (up to 50 % of the extracted gross volume). Granite wastes from the VCO (Baveno pink granite and Montorfano white granite), after specific industrial treatments (crushing, sieving, drying, magnetic separation of biotite and hornblende), are used successfully as quartz-feldspars mix in the ceramic industry, with very low FeOtot content. On the other hand, other quartzose

  20. Using mixture design of experiments to assess the environmental impact of clay-based structural ceramics containing foundry wastes.

    PubMed

    Coronado, M; Segadães, A M; Andrés, A

    2015-12-15

    This work describes the leaching behavior of potentially hazardous metals from three different clay-based industrial ceramic products (wall bricks, roof tiles, and face bricks) containing foundry sand dust and Waelz slag as alternative raw materials. For each product, ten mixtures were defined by mixture design of experiments and the leaching of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn was evaluated in pressed specimens fired simulating the three industrial ceramic processes. The results showed that, despite the chemical, mineralogical and processing differences, only chrome and molybdenum were not fully immobilized during ceramic processing. Their leaching was modeled as polynomial equations, functions of the raw materials contents, and plotted as response surfaces. This brought to evidence that Cr and Mo leaching from the fired products is not only dependent on the corresponding contents and the basicity of the initial mixtures, but is also clearly related with the mineralogical composition of the fired products, namely the amount of the glassy phase, which depends on both the major oxides contents and the firing temperature.

  1. Using mixture design of experiments to assess the environmental impact of clay-based structural ceramics containing foundry wastes.

    PubMed

    Coronado, M; Segadães, A M; Andrés, A

    2015-12-15

    This work describes the leaching behavior of potentially hazardous metals from three different clay-based industrial ceramic products (wall bricks, roof tiles, and face bricks) containing foundry sand dust and Waelz slag as alternative raw materials. For each product, ten mixtures were defined by mixture design of experiments and the leaching of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn was evaluated in pressed specimens fired simulating the three industrial ceramic processes. The results showed that, despite the chemical, mineralogical and processing differences, only chrome and molybdenum were not fully immobilized during ceramic processing. Their leaching was modeled as polynomial equations, functions of the raw materials contents, and plotted as response surfaces. This brought to evidence that Cr and Mo leaching from the fired products is not only dependent on the corresponding contents and the basicity of the initial mixtures, but is also clearly related with the mineralogical composition of the fired products, namely the amount of the glassy phase, which depends on both the major oxides contents and the firing temperature. PMID:26252997

  2. Ceramic technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1991-07-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and database and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. This project is managed by ORNL for the Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Transportation Materials, and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DOD, and industry.

  3. Tile drainage as karst: Conduit flow and diffuse flow in a tile-drained watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Helmers, M.

    2008-01-01

    The similarity of tiled-drained watersheds to karst drainage basins can be used to improve understanding of watershed-scale nutrient losses from subsurface tile drainage networks. In this study, short-term variations in discharge and chemistry were examined from a tile outlet collecting subsurface tile flow from a 963 ha agricultural watershed. Study objectives were to apply analytical techniques from karst springs to tile discharge to evaluate water sources and estimate the loads of agricultural pollutants discharged from the tile with conduit, intermediate and diffuse flow regimes. A two-member mixing model using nitrate, chloride and specific conductance was used to distinguish rainwater versus groundwater inputs. Results indicated that groundwater comprised 75% of the discharge for a three-day storm period and rainwater was primarily concentrated during the hydrograph peak. A contrasting pattern of solute concentrations and export loads was observed in tile flow. During base flow periods, tile flow consisted of diffuse flow from groundwater sources and contained elevated levels of nitrate, chloride and specific conductance. During storm events, suspended solids and pollutants adhered to soil surfaces (phosphorus, ammonium and organic nitrogen) were concentrated and discharged during the rapid, conduit flow portion of the hydrograph. During a three-day period, conduit flow occurred for 5.6% of the time but accounted for 16.5% of the total flow. Nitrate and chloride were delivered primarily with diffuse flow (more than 70%), whereas 80-94% of total suspended sediment, phosphorus and ammonium were exported with conduit and intermediate flow regimes. Understanding the water sources contributing to tile drainage and the manner by which pollutant discharge occurs from these systems (conduit, intermediate or diffuse flow) may be useful for designing, implementing and evaluating non-point source reduction strategies in tile-drained landscapes. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. Symmetry groups associated with tilings on a flat torus.

    PubMed

    Loyola, Mark L; De Las Peñas, Ma Louise Antonette N; Estrada, Grace M; Santoso, Eko Budi

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates symmetry and color symmetry properties of Kepler, Heesch and Laves tilings embedded on a flat torus and their geometric realizations as tilings on a round torus in Euclidean 3-space. The symmetry group of the tiling on the round torus is determined by analyzing relevant symmetries of the planar tiling that are transformed to axial symmetries of the three-dimensional tiling. The focus on studying tilings on a round torus is motivated by applications in the geometric modeling of nanotori and the determination of their symmetry groups.

  5. In-flight investigation of shuttle tile pressure orifice installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    To determine shuttle orbiter wing loads during ascent, wing load instrumentation was added to Columbia (OV-102). This instrumentation included strain gages and pressure orifices on the wing. The loads derived from wing pressure measurements taken during STS 61-C did not agree with those derived from strain gage measurements or with the loads predicted from the aerodynamic database. Anomalies in the surface immediately surrounding the pressure orifices in the thermal protection system (TPS) tiles were one possible cause of errors in the loads derived from wing pressure measurements. These surface anomalies were caused by a ceramic filler material which was installed around the pressure tubing. The filler material allowed slight movement of the TPS tile and pressure tube as the airframe flexed and bent under aerodynamic loads during ascent and descent. Postflight inspection revealed that this filler material had protruded from or receeded beneath the surface, causing the orifice to lose its flushness. Flight tests were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center Dryden Flight Research Facility to determine the effects of any anomaly in surface flushness of the orifice installation on the measured pressures at Mach numbers between 0.6 and 1.4. An F-104 aircraft with a flight test fixture mounted beneath the fuselage was used for these flights. Surface flushness anomalies typical of those on the orbiter after flight (STA 61-C) were tested. Also, cases with excessive protrusion and recession of the filler material were tested. This report shows that the anomalies in STS 61-C orifice installations adversely affected the pressure measurements. But the magnitude of the affect was not great enough to account for the discrepancies with the strain gage measurements and the aerodynamic predictions.

  6. Ceramic joining

    SciTech Connect

    Loehman, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the relation between reactions at ceramic-metal interfaces and the development of strong interfacial bonds in ceramic joining. Studies on a number of systems are described, including silicon nitrides, aluminium nitrides, mullite, and aluminium oxides. Joints can be weakened by stresses such as thermal expansion mismatch. Ceramic joining is used in a variety of applications such as solid oxide fuel cells.

  7. Ceramic burner

    SciTech Connect

    Laux, W.; Hebel, R.; Artelt, P.; Esfeld, G.; Jacob, A.

    1981-03-31

    Improvements in the mixing body and supporting structure of a molded-ceramic-brick burner enable the burner to withstand the vibrations induced during its operation. Designed for the combustion chambers of air heaters, the burner has a mixing body composed of layers of shaped ceramic bricks that interlock and are held together vertically by a ceramic holding bar. The mixing body is shaped like a mushroom - the upper layers have a larger radius than the lower ones.

  8. Approximation of virus structure by icosahedral tilings.

    PubMed

    Salthouse, D G; Indelicato, G; Cermelli, P; Keef, T; Twarock, R

    2015-07-01

    Viruses are remarkable examples of order at the nanoscale, exhibiting protein containers that in the vast majority of cases are organized with icosahedral symmetry. Janner used lattice theory to provide blueprints for the organization of material in viruses. An alternative approach is provided here in terms of icosahedral tilings, motivated by the fact that icosahedral symmetry is non-crystallographic in three dimensions. In particular, a numerical procedure is developed to approximate the capsid of icosahedral viruses by icosahedral tiles via projection of high-dimensional tiles based on the cut-and-project scheme for the construction of three-dimensional quasicrystals. The goodness of fit of our approximation is assessed using techniques related to the theory of polygonal approximation of curves. The approach is applied to a number of viral capsids and it is shown that detailed features of the capsid surface can indeed be satisfactorily described by icosahedral tilings. This work complements previous studies in which the geometry of the capsid is described by point sets generated as orbits of extensions of the icosahedral group, as such point sets are by construction related to the vertex sets of icosahedral tilings. The approximations of virus geometry derived here can serve as coarse-grained models of viral capsids as a basis for the study of virus assembly and structural transitions of viral capsids, and also provide a new perspective on the design of protein containers for nanotechnology applications. PMID:26131897

  9. Structural testing of hollow clay tile units

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D. ); Bennett, R.M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1992-08-05

    This report presents the results of laboratory testing of hollow clay tile masonry units. The testing is part of an ongoing natural phenomena evaluation program of Hollow Clay Tile Wall (HCTW) facilities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary purpose of these tests is to determine structural properties of unit tiles of the same lot to be used in large-scale laboratory testing of HCTW structures. Light red (terra cotta) clay masonry units, taken from the construction supply yard of were sampled and tested in accordance with applicable ASTM standards. Measurement of size, measurement of void area, initial rate of absorption, compressive strength, and splitting tensile strength procedures were performed. Evaluation of the test results along with comparison to other published clay tile data is provided. Volume 1 of this document contains a description of the testing, a summary of the results, comparison to other published clay tile data, and conclusion drawn from the results. Volume 2 contains the unreduced test data, data reduction software, and quality assurance aspects of the testing.

  10. Tiled WMS/KML Server V2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2012-01-01

    This software is a higher-performance implementation of tiled WMS, with integral support for KML and time-varying data. This software is compliant with the Open Geospatial WMS standard, and supports KML natively as a WMS return type, including support for the time attribute. Regionated KML wrappers are generated that match the existing tiled WMS dataset. Ping and JPG formats are supported, and the software is implemented as an Apache 2.0 module that supports a threading execution model that is capable of supporting very high request rates. The module intercepts and responds to WMS requests that match certain patterns and returns the existing tiles. If a KML format that matches an existing pyramid and tile dataset is requested, regionated KML is generated and returned to the requesting application. In addition, KML requests that do not match the existing tile datasets generate a KML response that includes the corresponding JPG WMS request, effectively adding KML support to a backing WMS server.

  11. Ceramic filters

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Filters were formed from ceramic fibers, organic fibers, and a ceramic bond phase using a papermaking technique. The distribution of particulate ceramic bond phase was determined using a model silicon carbide system. As the ceramic fiber increased in length and diameter the distance between particles decreased. The calculated number of particles per area showed good agreement with the observed value. After firing, the papers were characterized using a biaxial load test. The strength of papers was proportional to the amount of bond phase included in the paper. All samples exhibited strain-tolerant behavior.

  12. Remotely replaceable tokamak plasma limiter tiles

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, Simon , Langford, Alison A.

    1989-01-01

    U-shaped limiter tiles placed end-to-end over a pair of parallel runners secured to a wall have two rods which engage L-shaped slots in the runners. The short receiving legs of the L-shaped slots are perpendicular to the wall and open away from the wall, while long retaining legs are parallel to and adjacent the wall. A sliding bar between the runners has grooves with clips to retain the rods pressed into receiving legs of the L-shaped slots in the runners. Sliding the bar in the direction of retaining legs of the L-shaped slots latches the tiles in place over the runners. Resilient contact strips between the parallel arms of the U-shaped tiles and the wall assure thermal and electrical contact with the wall.

  13. Crosslinking in viral capsids via tiling theory.

    PubMed

    Twarock, R; Hendrix, R W

    2006-06-01

    A vital part of a virus is its protein shell, called the viral capsid, that encapsulates and hence protects the viral genome. It has been shown in Twarock [2004. A tiling approach to vius capsids assembly explaining a structural puzzle in virology. J. Theor. Biol. 226, 477-482] that the surface structures of viruses with icosahedrally symmetric capsids can be modelled in terms of tilings that encode the locations of the protein subunits. This theory is extended here to multi-level tilings in order to model crosslinking structures. The new framework is demonstrated for the case of bacteriophage HK97, and it is shown, how the theory can be used in general to decide if crosslinking, and what type of crosslinking, is compatible from a mathematical point of view with the geometrical surface structure of a virus.

  14. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory... manufacture of asbestos floor tile....

  15. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory... manufacture of asbestos floor tile....

  16. Ceramic membrane development in NGK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Kiyoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi

    2011-05-01

    NGK Insulators, Ltd. was established in 1919 to manufacture the electric porcelain insulators for power transmission lines. Since then, our business has grown as one of the world-leading ceramics manufacturing companies and currently supply with the various environmentally-benign ceramic products to worldwide. In this paper, ceramic membrane development in NGK is described in detail. We have been selling ceramic microfiltration (MF) membranes and ultra-filtration (UF) membranes for many years to be used for solid/liquid separation in various fields such as pharmaceutical, chemical, food and semiconductor industries. In Corporate R&D, new ceramic membranes with sub-nanometer sized pores, which are fabricated on top of the membrane filters as support, are under development for gas and liquid/liquid separation processes.

  17. Nondestructive characterization of as-fabricated composite ceramic panels

    SciTech Connect

    Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E.

    2011-06-23

    Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

  18. Glass-ceramic frits from fly ash in terracotta production.

    PubMed

    Karamanova, Emilia; Karamanov, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation into the possible use of glass-ceramic frits from fly ash and glass cullet in terracotta (stoneware) tile manufacture are reported. Two new ceramics were studied and compared with a plant composition, containing 45 wt.% sodium feldspar. In the first ceramic batch 20% of the feldspar was substituted by frits and in the second the whole amount of feldspar was eliminated and replaced by 35% frits and 10% refractory waste. It was found that the addition of low viscous glass-ceramic frits decreased the sintering temperature by 50-100 degrees C. At the same time, due to formation of an additional crystal phase (i.e. pyroxene or anorthite) the new ceramics showed an improvement of 25-50% in bending strength.

  19. Nondestructive Characterization of As-Fabricated Composite Ceramic Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E.

    2011-06-01

    Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

  20. Testing of clay tile infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Burdette, E.G.; Goodpasture, D.W.

    1992-08-21

    Several large-scale static tests of clay tile infilled frames were recently conducted. For in-plane racking tests, the effects of cyclic loading, varying frame stiffness, varying infill size, infill offset from frame centerline, and single and double wythe infill construction were investigated. Out-of-plane tests examined infilled frame response to inertial loadings and inter-story drift loadings. Multiple loadings were performed to determine in-plane strength and stiffness degradation from both out-of-plane loadings. To determine constitutive properties of the infills, prism compression, mortar compression and various unit tile tests were performed.

  1. Dynamical implications of Viral Tiling Theory.

    PubMed

    ElSawy, K M; Taormina, A; Twarock, R; Vaughan, L

    2008-05-21

    The Caspar-Klug classification of viruses whose protein shell, called viral capsid, exhibits icosahedral symmetry, has recently been extended to incorporate viruses whose capsid proteins are exclusively organised in pentamers. The approach, named 'Viral Tiling Theory', is inspired by the theory of quasicrystals, where aperiodic Penrose tilings enjoy 5-fold and 10-fold local symmetries. This paper analyses the extent to which this classification approach informs dynamical properties of the viral capsids, in particular the pattern of Raman active modes of vibrations, which can be observed experimentally. PMID:18353372

  2. 2. MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS, VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS, VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST. INDIAN HOUSE WING AT THE LEFT. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  3. Small form factor full parallax tiled light field display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpaslan, Zahir Y.; El-Ghoroury, Hussein S.

    2015-03-01

    With the recent introduction of Ostendo's Quantum Photonic Imager (QPI) display technology, a very small pixel pitch, emissive display with high brightness and low power consumption became available. We used QPI's to create a high performance light field display tiles with a very small form factor. Using 8 of these QPI light field displays tiled in a 4x2 array we created a tiled full parallax light field display. Each individual light field display tile combines custom designed micro lens array layers with monochrome green QPIs. Each of the light field display tiles can address 1000 x 800 pixels placed under an array of 20 x 16 lenslets with 500 μm diameters. The light field display tiles are placed with small gaps to create a tiled display of approximately 46 mm (W) x 17 mm (H) x 2 mm (D) in mechanical dimensions. The prototype tiled full parallax light field display demonstrates small form factor, high resolution and focus cues.

  4. Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The Ceramic Technology For Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Advanced Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DOD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The objective of the project is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic hearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  5. Ceramic regenerator systems development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucinari, C. A.; Rahnke, C. J.; Rao, V. D. N.; Vallance, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE/NASA Ceramic Regenerator Design and Reliability Program aims to develop ceramic regenerator cores that can be used in passenger car and industrial/truck gas turbine engines. The major cause of failure of early gas turbine regenerators was found to be chemical attack of the ceramic material. Improved materials and design concepts aimed at reducing or eliminating chemical attack were placed on durability test in Ford 707 industrial gas turbine engines late in 1974. Results of 53,065 hours of turbine engine durability testing are described. Two materials, aluminum silicate and magnesium aluminum silicate, show promise. Five aluminum silicate cores attained the durability objective of 10,000 hours at 800 C (1472 F). Another aluminum silicate core shows minimal evidence of chemical attack after 8071 hours at 982 C (1800 F). Results obtained in ceramic material screening tests, aerothermodynamic performance tests, stress analysis, cost studies, and material specifications are included.

  6. Investigation on Ballistic Performance of Armor Ceramics against Long-Rod Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Feng-Lei; Zhang, Lian-Sheng

    2007-12-01

    A series of depth-of-penetration (DOF) tests are carried out to investigate the ballistic performance of armor ceramics. Based on the experimental results, an improved differential efficiency factor (DEF) is presented, which demonstrates that the general ballistic efficiency index is independent of the ceramic thickness. It is also shown that the density, internal friction, and compression strength of ceramics are crucial factors that affect the ballistic performance of ceramics significantly through the interaction between the long-rod projectiles and thick-tile armor.

  7. Production and characterization of glazed tiles containing incinerated sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin, D F; Chang, W C; Yuan, C; Luo, H L

    2008-01-01

    In this article, glaze with different colorants was applied to tile specimens manufactured by incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and clay. Improvements using different amounts of colorants, and glaze components and concentrations on tile bodies were investigated. Four different proportions of clay (by weight ratio) were replaced by ISSA. Tiles of size 12 cm x 6 cm x 1 cm were made and left in an electric furnace to make biscuit tiles at 800 degrees C. Afterwards, four colorants, Fe2O3 (red), V2O5 (yellow), CoCO3 (blue), and MnO2 (purple), and four different glaze concentrations were applied on biscuit tile specimens. These specimens were later sintered into glazed tiles at 1050 degrees C. The study shows that replacement of clay by sludge ash had adverse effects on properties of tiles. Water absorption increased and bending strength reduced with increased amounts of ash. However, both water absorption and bending strength improved for glazed ash tiles. Abrasion of grazed tiles reduced noticeably from 0.001 to 0.002 g. This implies glaze can enhance abrasion resistance of tiles. Effects like lightfastness and acid-alkali resistance improved as different glazes were applied on tiles. In general, red glazed tiles showed the most stable performance, followed by blue, yellow, and purple.

  8. 90. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF THE INDIAN HOUSE. THE RELIEF BROCADE TILES ILLUSTRATE SCENES OF NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE, AND THE EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-21. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  9. 21. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF THE INDIAN HOUSE. THE RELIEF BROCADE TILES ILLUSTRATE SCENES OF NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE, AND THE EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  10. Numerical methods for analysis of clay tile infills

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Tenbus, M.A.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-10-20

    Recent Department of Energy requirements have led to a comprehensive evaluation of the industrial facilities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The structures consist of simply connected steel frames infilled with structural clay tile walls. The objective of the evaluation was to determine the stability of the unreinforced infills, and whether they provide the lateral capacity necessary to resist the moderate seismic hazard at the site. Due to lack of information on the behavior of structural clay tile infills, various large-scale tests were performed to investigate the in-plane, out-of-plane and combined in-plane and out-of-plane behavior. The results of these tests are briefly summarized, and the development of analytical guidelines based on these tests is given. Little interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane loads was observed, both in terms of stiffness and strength. Out-of-plane stability can be examined panel by panel based on arching action. Inter-story drift does not appear to present a stability problem for the type of infill construction investigated. In-plane behavior may be adequately modeled with a nonlinear compression strut. A typical building is chosen for an illustrative application. The methodology and results of the seismic analysis are presented for this structure.

  11. CFD-Predicted Tile Heating Bump Factors Due to Tile Overlay Repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessard, Victor R.

    2006-01-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamics investigation of the Orbiter's Tile Overlay Repair (TOR) is performed to assess the aeroheating Damage Assessment Team's (DAT) existing heating correlation method for protuberance interference heating on the surrounding thermal protection system. Aerothermodynamic heating analyses are performed for TORs at the design reference damage locations body points 1800 and 1075 for a Mach 17.9 and a=39deg STS-107 flight trajectory point with laminar flow. Six different cases are considered. The computed peak heating bump factor on the surrounding tiles are below the DAT's heating bump factor values for smooth tile cases. However, for the uneven tiles cases the peak interference heating is shown to be considerably higher than the existing correlation prediction.

  12. Jagged Tiling for Intra-tile Parallelism and Fine-Grain Multithreading

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Sunil; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John T.; Gao, Guang R.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we have developed a novel methodology that takes into consideration multithreaded many-core designs to better utilize memory/processing resources and improve memory residence on tileable applications. It takes advantage of polyhedral analysis and transformation in the form of PLUTO, combined with a highly optimized finegrain tile runtime to exploit parallelism at all levels. The main contributions of this paper include the introduction of multi-hierarchical tiling techniques that increases intra tile parallelism; and a data-flow inspired runtime library that allows the expression of parallel tiles with an efficient synchronization registry. Our current implementation shows performance improvements on an Intel Xeon Phi board up to 32.25% against instances produced by state-of-the-art compiler frameworks for selected stencil applications.

  13. Lozenge Tilings, Glauber Dynamics and Macroscopic Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslier, Benoît; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio

    2015-09-01

    We study the Glauber dynamics on the set of tilings of a finite domain of the plane with lozenges of side 1/ L. Under the invariant measure of the process (the uniform measure over all tilings), it is well known (Cohn et al. J Am Math Soc 14:297-346, 2001) that the random height function associated to the tiling converges in probability, in the scaling limit , to a non-trivial macroscopic shape minimizing a certain surface tension functional. According to the boundary conditions, the macroscopic shape can be either analytic or contain "frozen regions" (Arctic Circle phenomenon Cohn et al. N Y J Math 4:137-165, 1998; Jockusch et al. Random domino tilings and the arctic circle theorem, arXiv:math/9801068, 1998). It is widely conjectured, on the basis of theoretical considerations (Henley J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997; Spohn J Stat Phys 71:1081-1132, 1993), partial mathematical results (Caputo et al. Commun Math Phys 311:157-189, 2012; Wilson Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004) and numerical simulations for similar models (Destainville Phys Rev Lett 88:030601, 2002; cf. also the bibliography in Henley (J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997) and Wilson (Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004), that the Glauber dynamics approaches the equilibrium macroscopic shape in a time of order L 2+ o(1). In this work we prove this conjecture, under the assumption that the macroscopic equilibrium shape contains no "frozen region".

  14. L-Tromino Tiling of Multilated Chessboards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An "n" x "n" chessboard is called deficient if one square is missing from any spot on the board. Can all deficient boards with a number of cells divisible by 3 be tiled by bent (or L-shaped) trominoes? The answer is yes, with exception of the order-5 board. This paper deals with the general problem plus numerous related puzzles and proofs…

  15. Computer-controlled optical scanning tile microscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Shumyatsky, P; Zeng, F; Zevallos, M; Alfano, R R

    2006-02-20

    A new type of computer-controlled optical scanning, high-magnification imaging system with a large field of view is described that overcomes the commonly believed incompatibility of achieving both high magnification and a large field of view. The new system incorporates galvanometer scanners, a CCD camera, and a high-brightness LED source for the fast acquisition of a large number of a high-resolution segmented tile images with a magnification of 800x for each tile. The captured segmented tile images are combined to create an effective enlarged view of a target totaling 1.6 mm x 1.2 mm in area. The speed and sensitivity of the system make it suitable for high-resolution imaging and monitoring of a small segmented area of 320 microm x 240 microm with 4 microm resolution. Each tile segment of the target can be zoomed up without loss of the high resolution. This new microscope imaging system gives both high magnification and a large field of view. This microscope can be utilized in medicine, biology, semiconductor inspection, device analysis, and quality control. PMID:16523776

  16. TILE at Iowa: Adoption and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florman, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces a University of Iowa effort to enhance and support active learning pedagogies in technology-enhanced (TILE) classrooms and three elements that proved essential to the campus-wide adoption of those pedagogies. It then describes the impact of those professional development efforts on the curricula and cultures of three…

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heelan, Louise; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design requirements and it has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results. In addition, the data quality procedures used during the LHC data-taking are described and the outcome of the detector consolidation in the maintenance period is also presented.

  18. Lacunae infills for in situ treatment of historic glazed tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Marta T.; Esteves, Lurdes; Ferreira, Teresa A.; Candeias, António; Tennent, Norman H.; Rodrigues, José Delgado; Pereira, Sílvia R. M.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of current conservation materials and methods together with those adopted in the past is essential to aid research and improve or develop better conservation options. The infill and painting of tile lacunae are subjected to special requirements mainly when used in outdoor settings. A selection of the most commonly used materials was undertaken and performed based on inquiries to practitioners working in the field. The infill pastes comprised organic (epoxy, polyester), inorganic (slaked lime, hydraulic lime and zinc hydroxychloride) and mixed organic-inorganic (slaked lime mixed with a vinylic resin) binders. The selected aggregates were those most commonly used or those already present in the commercially formulated products. The infill pastes were characterised by SEM, MIP, open porosity, water absorption by capillarity, water vapour permeability, thermal and hydric expansibilities and adhesion to the ceramic body. Their performance was assessed after curing, artificial ageing (salt ageing and UV-Temp-RH cycles) and natural ageing. The results were interpreted in terms of their significance as indicators of effectiveness, compatibility and durability.

  19. Tile-based Level of Detail for the Parallel Age

    SciTech Connect

    Niski, K; Cohen, J D

    2007-08-15

    Today's PCs incorporate multiple CPUs and GPUs and are easily arranged in clusters for high-performance, interactive graphics. We present an approach based on hierarchical, screen-space tiles to parallelizing rendering with level of detail. Adapt tiles, render tiles, and machine tiles are associated with CPUs, GPUs, and PCs, respectively, to efficiently parallelize the workload with good resource utilization. Adaptive tile sizes provide load balancing while our level of detail system allows total and independent management of the load on CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate our approach on parallel configurations consisting of both single PCs and a cluster of PCs.

  20. Quantitative measurement of natural radioactivity in some roofing tile materials used in upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Uosif, M A M

    2013-09-01

    The quantitative measurement of radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in some roofing tile materials (granite, alabaster, marble, traditional and advanced ceramic) used in Upper Egypt is presented in this paper. Measurements were done by using gamma spectrometry (NaI (Tl) 3" × 3"). The values of concentration of natural radionuclides were in the following ranges: 12-78.9 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 8.4-113.1 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 94.9-509 Bq kg(-1)for (40)K. The activity concentration index (I), the specific dose rates indoors ( ) and the annual effective dose (DE) due to gamma radiation were calculated for each investigated sample. The lowest value of I is 0.19 for alabaster, while the highest one is 0.88 for traditional and advanced ceramic. The ranges of DE are between 0.03 and 0.13 mSv, it is below the maximal permitted values, so that the examined materials could be used as roofing tiles in the construction of new buildings. PMID:23516266

  1. Quantitative measurement of natural radioactivity in some roofing tile materials used in upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Uosif, M A M

    2013-09-01

    The quantitative measurement of radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in some roofing tile materials (granite, alabaster, marble, traditional and advanced ceramic) used in Upper Egypt is presented in this paper. Measurements were done by using gamma spectrometry (NaI (Tl) 3" × 3"). The values of concentration of natural radionuclides were in the following ranges: 12-78.9 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 8.4-113.1 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 94.9-509 Bq kg(-1)for (40)K. The activity concentration index (I), the specific dose rates indoors ( ) and the annual effective dose (DE) due to gamma radiation were calculated for each investigated sample. The lowest value of I is 0.19 for alabaster, while the highest one is 0.88 for traditional and advanced ceramic. The ranges of DE are between 0.03 and 0.13 mSv, it is below the maximal permitted values, so that the examined materials could be used as roofing tiles in the construction of new buildings.

  2. Verification of Ceramic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar-Lafenetre, Stephanie; Cornillon, Laurence; Rancurel, Michael; De Graaf, Dennis; Hartmann, Peter; Coe, Graham; Laine, Benoit

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the “Mechanical Design and Verification Methodologies for Ceramic Structures” contract [1] awarded by ESA, Thales Alenia Space has investigated literature and practices in affiliated industries to propose a methodological guideline for verification of ceramic spacecraft and instrument structures. It has been written in order to be applicable to most types of ceramic or glass-ceramic materials - typically Cesic®, HBCesic®, Silicon Nitride, Silicon Carbide and ZERODUR®. The proposed guideline describes the activities to be performed at material level in order to cover all the specific aspects of ceramics (Weibull distribution, brittle behaviour, sub-critical crack growth). Elementary tests and their post-processing methods are described, and recommendations for optimization of the test plan are given in order to have a consistent database. The application of this method is shown on an example in a dedicated article [7]. Then the verification activities to be performed at system level are described. This includes classical verification activities based on relevant standard (ECSS Verification [4]), plus specific analytical, testing and inspection features. The analysis methodology takes into account the specific behaviour of ceramic materials, especially the statistical distribution of failures (Weibull) and the method to transfer it from elementary data to a full-scale structure. The demonstration of the efficiency of this method is described in a dedicated article [8]. The verification is completed by classical full-scale testing activities. Indications about proof testing, case of use and implementation are given and specific inspection and protection measures are described. These additional activities are necessary to ensure the required reliability. The aim of the guideline is to describe how to reach the same reliability level as for structures made of more classical materials (metals, composites).

  3. Covering shapes with tiles: Primary students' visualisation and drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Kay; Outhred, Lynne

    1998-12-01

    Students' early area concepts were investigated by an analysis of responses to a worksheet of items that involved visualising the tiling of given figures. Students in Years 2 and 4 in four schools attempted the items on three occasions and some of the students completed ten classroom spatial activities. Half the students had difficulty visualising the tiling of shapes, but students who participated in spatial activities were generally more successful in determining the number of tiles that would cover a shape. Students' drawings indicated a varying awareness of structural features such as alignment and tile size. Students who drew the tilings were more likely to be successful on the items involving trapezia. The tiling items were part of a test of spatial thinking, Thinking About 2D Shapes, and scores on the overall test were very highly correlated with results for the tiling items.

  4. Beautiful Math, Part 5: Colorful Archimedean Tilings from Dynamical Systems.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Peichang; Zhao, Weiguo; Huang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    The art of tiling originated very early in the history of civilization. Almost every known human society has made use of tilings in some form or another. In particular, tilings using only regular polygons have great visual appeal. Decorated regular tilings with continuous and symmetrical patterns were widely used in decoration field, such as mosaics, pavements, and brick walls. In science, these tilings provide inspiration for synthetic organic chemistry. Building on previous CG&A “Beautiful Math” articles, the authors propose an invariant mapping method to create colorful patterns on Archimedean tilings (1-uniform tilings). The resulting patterns simultaneously have global crystallographic symmetry and local cyclic or dihedral symmetry.

  5. Structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Douglas F.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation gives a brief history of the field of materials sciences and goes on to expound the advantages of the fastest growing area in that field, namely ceramics. Since ceramics are moving to fill the demand for lighter, stronger, more corrosion resistant materials, advancements will rely more on processing and modeling from the atomic scale up which is made possible by advanced analytical, computer, and processing techniques. All information is presented in viewgraph format.

  6. Automation of Shuttle Tile Inspection - Engineering methodology for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M. J.; Mollakarimi, C.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Systems Integration and Operations Research Applications (SIORA) Program was initiated in late 1986 as a cooperative applications research effort between Stanford University, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Lockheed Space Operations Company. One of the major initial SIORA tasks was the application of automation and robotics technology to all aspects of the Shuttle tile processing and inspection system. This effort has adopted a systems engineering approach consisting of an integrated set of rapid prototyping testbeds in which a government/university/industry team of users, technologists, and engineers test and evaluate new concepts and technologies within the operational world of Shuttle. These integrated testbeds include speech recognition and synthesis, laser imaging inspection systems, distributed Ada programming environments, distributed relational database architectures, distributed computer network architectures, multimedia workbenches, and human factors considerations.

  7. DOP test evaluation of the ballistic performance of armor ceramics against long rod penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenglei, Huang

    2005-07-01

    A series of DOP tests with lateral confinement has been carried out and a linear relation between the residual penetration in RHA and the alumina thickness been obtained. The rod configuration and the initial transient impact are thought to be responsible for the gradual decrease of differential efficiency factor (DEF) with the increase of ceramic thickness in literature DOP tests. A new revised DEF definition is proposed to more accurately characterize the thick tile ceramic ballistic performance on a more physically based analysis.

  8. DOP Test Evaluation of the Ballistic Performance of Armor Ceramics against Long Rod Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fenglei; Zhang, Liansheng

    2006-07-01

    A series of DOP tests with lateral confinement have been carried out and a linear relation between the residual penetration in RHA and the alumina thickness has been obtained. The rod configuration and the initial transient impact are the two factors that cause the gradual decrease of the differential efficiency factor (DEF) when the ceramic thickness is increased in literature. A new improved DEF definition is proposed to characterize the thick tile ceramic ballistic performance based on a more physical analysis.

  9. DOP Test Evaluation of the Ballistic Performance of Armor Ceramics against Long Rod Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Fenglei; Zhang Liansheng

    2006-07-28

    A series of DOP tests with lateral confinement have been carried out and a linear relation between the residual penetration in RHA and the alumina thickness has been obtained. The rod configuration and the initial transient impact are the two factors that cause the gradual decrease of the differential efficiency factor (DEF) when the ceramic thickness is increased in literature. A new improved DEF definition is proposed to characterize the thick tile ceramic ballistic performance based on a more physical analysis.

  10. Structural Ceramics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

  11. Nano-sized ceramic inks for drop-on-demand ink-jet printing in quadrichromy.

    PubMed

    Gardini, Davide; Dondi, Michele; Costa, Anna Luisa; Matteucci, Francesco; Blosi, Magda; Galassi, Carmen; Baldi, Giovanni; Cinotti, Elenia

    2008-04-01

    Nano-sized ceramic inks suitable for ink-jet printing have been developed for the four-colours CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black) process. Nano-inks of different pigment composition (Co(1-x)O, Au(0), Ti(1-x-y)Sb(x)Cr(y)O2, CoFe2O4) have been prepared with various solid loadings and their chemicophysical properties (particle size, viscosity, surface tension, zeta-potential) were tailored for the ink-jet application. The pigment particle size is in the 20-80 nm range. All these nano-suspensions are stable for long time (i.e., several months) due to either electrostatic (high zeta-potential values) or steric stabilization mechanisms. Both nanometric size and high stability avoid problems of nozzle clogging from particles agglomeration and settling. Nano-inks have a Newtonian behaviour with relatively low viscosities at room temperature. More concentrated inks fulfil the viscosity requirement of ink-jet applications (i.e., < 35 mPa x s) for printing temperatures in between 30 and 70 degrees C. Surface tension constraints for ink-jet printing are fulfilled by nano-inks, being in the 35-45 mN x m(-1) range. The nano-sized inks investigated behave satisfactorily in preliminary printing tests on several unfired industrial ceramic tiles, developing saturated colours in a wide range of firing temperatures (1000-1200 degrees C).

  12. Degenerate polygonal tilings in simple animal tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hočevar, A.; Ziherl, P.

    2009-07-01

    The salient feature of one-cell-thick epithelia is their en face view, which reveals the polygonal cross section of the close-packed prismatic cells. The physical mechanisms that shape these tissues were hitherto explored using theories based on cell proliferation, which were either entirely topological or included certain morphogenetic forces. But mitosis itself may not be instrumental in molding the tissue. We show that the structure of simple epithelia can be explained by an equilibrium model where energy-degenerate polygons in an entropy-maximizing tiling are described by a single geometric parameter encoding their inflatedness. The two types of tilings found numerically—ordered and disordered—closely reproduce the patterns observed in Drosophila, Hydra, and Xenopus and they generalize earlier theoretical results. Free of a specific cell self-energy, cell-cell interaction, and cell division kinetics, our model provides an insight into the universality of living and inanimate two-dimensional cellular structures.

  13. Anosov Diffeomorphisms and {γ}-Tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, João P.; Pinto, Alberto A.

    2016-07-01

    We consider a toral Anosov automorphism {G_γ:{mathbb{T}}_γto{mathbb{T}}_γ} given by {G_γ(x,y)=(ax+y,x)} in the { < v,w > } base, where {ainmathbb{N} backslash\\{1\\}}, {γ=1/(a+1/(a+1/ldots))}, {v=(γ,1)} and {w=(-1,γ)} in the canonical base of {{mathbb{R}}^2} and {{mathbb{T}}_γ={mathbb{R}}^2/(v{mathbb{Z}} × w{mathbb{Z}})}. We introduce the notion of {γ}-tilings to prove the existence of a one-to-one correspondence between (i) marked smooth conjugacy classes of Anosov diffeomorphisms, with invariant measures absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure, that are in the isotopy class of {G_γ}; (ii) affine classes of {γ}-tilings; and (iii) {γ}-solenoid functions. Solenoid functions provide a parametrization of the infinite dimensional space of the mathematical objects described in these equivalences.

  14. Boeing's High Voltage Solar Tile Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian J.; Harden, David E.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.

    2002-01-01

    Real concerns of spacecraft charging and experience with solar array augmented electrostatic discharge arcs on spacecraft have minimized the use of high voltages on large solar arrays despite numerous vehicle system mass and efficiency advantages. Boeing's solar tile (patent pending) allows high voltage to be generated at the array without the mass and efficiency losses of electronic conversion. Direct drive electric propulsion and higher power payloads (lower spacecraft weight) will benefit from this design. As future power demand grows, spacecraft designers must use higher voltage to minimize transmission loss and power cable mass for very large area arrays. This paper will describe the design and discuss the successful test of Boeing's 500-Volt Solar Tile in NASA Glenn's Tenney chamber in the Space Plasma Interaction Facility. The work was sponsored by NASA's Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Program and will result in updated high voltage solar array design guidelines being published.

  15. Ceramic regenerator systems development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, J. A.; Fucinari, C. A.; Lingscheit, J. N.; Rahnke, C. J.; Rao, V. D.

    1978-01-01

    Ceramic regenerator cores are considered that can be used in passenger car gas turbine engines, Stirling engines, and industrial/truck gas turbine engines. Improved materials and design concepts aimed at reducing or eliminating chemical attack were placed on durability tests/in industrial gas turbine engines. A regenerator core made from aluminum silicate shows minimal evidence of chemical attack damage after 7804 hours of engine test at 800 C and another showed little distress after 4983 hours at 982 C. The results obtained in ceramic material screening tests, aerothermodynamic performance tests, stress analysis, cost studies, and material specifications are also included.

  16. NASA TileWorld Simulator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philips, Andrew; Bresina, John; Drummond, Mark

    1993-01-01

    NASA TileWorld (NTW) computer program formulated to further research on planning, scheduling, and control problems. Designed to focus on three particular attributes of real-world problems: exogenous events, uncertain outcomes of actions, and metric time. Written specifically for use by NASA, NTW modified easily to act as software base for other simulated environments. Written in Allegro Common Lisp for Sun-3-(TM) and Sun-4-series(TM) computers running SunOS(TM).

  17. Laser printing of enamels on tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Pradas, J. M.; Restrepo, J. W.; Gómez, M. A.; Serra, P.; Morenza, J. L.

    2007-07-01

    A Nd:YAG laser beam is used as a tool to print patterns of coloured enamels on tile substrates. For this, the laser beam is scanned over a layer of raw enamel previously sprayed on the tile surface. The possibility to focus the laser energy to heat a small zone without affecting the rest of the piece presents some advantages in front of traditional furnace techniques in which the whole piece has to be heated; among them, energy saving and the possibility to apply enamels with higher melting temperatures than those of the substrate. In this work, we study the effects of laser irradiation of a green enamel, based in chromium oxide pigment and lead frit, deposited on a white tile substrate. Lines obtained with different combinations of laser beam power and scan speeds were investigated with the aim to optimize the process from the point of view of the quality of the patterns. For this purpose, the morphology of the lines and their cross-sections is studied. The results show that lines with good visual properties can be printed with the laser. The characteristics of the marked lines were found to be directly related with the accumulated energy density delivered. Moreover, there is a linear relationship between the accumulated energy density and the volume of melted material. A minimum accumulated energy density is required to melt a shallow zone of the glazed substrate to allow the adhesion of the enamelled lines.

  18. Foam-on-Tile Damage Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koharchik, Michael; Murphy, Lindsay; Parker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    An impact model was developed to predict how three specific foam types would damage the Space Shuttle Orbiter insulating tiles. The inputs needed for the model are the foam type, the foam mass, the foam impact velocity, the foam impact incident angle, the type being impacted, and whether the tile is new or aged (has flown at least one mission). The model will determine if the foam impact will cause damage to the tile. If it can cause damage, the model will output the damage cavity dimensions (length, depth, entry angle, exit angle, and sidewall angles). It makes the calculations as soon as the inputs are entered (less than 1 second). The model allows for the rapid calculation of numerous scenarios in a short time. The model was developed from engineering principles coupled with significant impact testing (over 800 foam impact tests). This model is applicable to masses ranging from 0.0002 up to 0.4 pound (0.09 up to 181 g). A prior tool performed a similar function, but was limited to the assessment of a small range of masses and did not have the large test database for verification. In addition, the prior model did not provide outputs of the cavity damage length, entry angle, exit angle, or sidewall angles.

  19. Zeta potential in ceramic industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecuit, M.

    1984-01-01

    Deflocculation, electrical conductivity and zeta potential (ZP) are studied for the addition of 0 to 10000 ppm Na2SiO3 deflocculator to slips obtained from three argillaceous materials (kaolin d'Arvor, ball clay Hyplas 64, and/or Granger Clay No. 10). The quantity of Na2SO3 required to deflocculate a slip is independent of the density but differes for each clay. The ZP is directly related to the density of the slip. The higher the ZP the more stable a slip is; the value of the ZP of a mixture does not follow a simple law but the electrical resistance of a mixture does follow a simple additive law. The ZP appears to have linear relation with the specific surface of the argillaceous material.

  20. Disposal of heavy metal waste sludges in ceramic products

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, T.D.

    1990-06-01

    The report gives the results of a laboratory investigation of the feasibility of incorporating heavy metal waste sludges into ceramic products. Samples were fabricated by combining heavy metal waste sludges with bricks, roof tile, or vitrified clay pipe. The samples were then tested, using standard leaching tests. Test methods and results are presented and large scale process details are given. Detailed cost data were given for using waste and not using waste in the process to enable a comparison.

  1. The evaluation of ceramic turbine stators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, E. A.; Trela, W.

    1979-01-01

    A ceramic turbine stator evaluation program administered by the NASA Lewis Research Center and supported by the Department of Energy is outlined. The objectives of the program are to evaluate the durability of ceramic stators over a highly dynamic automotive gas turbine duty cycle and to assess the capability of current ceramic design methodology to predict the durability of the stators over the selected duty cycle for times in excess of 200 hours. The program also provides an assessment of the ability of the ceramic industry to fabricate complex geometry monolithic stators by near-net-shape forming processes. A summary of results obtained to date is presented and future plans are discussed.

  2. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  3. Interference Lattice-based Loop Nest Tilings for Stencil Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Frumkin, Michael

    2000-01-01

    A common method for improving performance of stencil operations on structured multi-dimensional discretization grids is loop tiling. Tile shapes and sizes are usually determined heuristically, based on the size of the primary data cache. We provide a lower bound on the numbers of cache misses that must be incurred by any tiling, and a close achievable bound using a particular tiling based on the grid interference lattice. The latter tiling is used to derive highly efficient loop orderings. The total number of cache misses of a code is the sum of (necessary) cold misses and misses caused by elements being dropped from the cache between successive loads (replacement misses). Maximizing temporal locality is equivalent to minimizing replacement misses. Temporal locality of loop nests implementing stencil operations is optimized by tilings that avoid data conflicts. We divide the loop nest iteration space into conflict-free tiles, derived from the cache miss equation. The tiling involves the definition of the grid interference lattice an equivalence class of grid points whose images in main memory map to the same location in the cache-and the construction of a special basis for the lattice. Conflicts only occur on the boundaries of the tiles, unless the tiles are too thin. We show that the surface area of the tiles is bounded for grids of any dimensionality, and for caches of any associativity, provided the eccentricity of the fundamental parallelepiped (the tile spanned by the basis) of the lattice is bounded. Eccentricity is determined by two factors, aspect ratio and skewness. The aspect ratio of the parallelepiped can be bounded by appropriate array padding. The skewness can be bounded by the choice of a proper basis. Combining these two strategies ensures that pathologically thin tiles are avoided. They do not, however, minimize replacement misses per se. The reason is that tile visitation order influences the number of data conflicts on the tile boundaries. If two

  4. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roode, M. van

    1995-10-01

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  5. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roode, M. van

    1995-12-31

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  6. Ceramic tubesheet design analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, R.H.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1996-06-01

    A transport combustor is being commissioned at the Southern Services facility in Wilsonville, Alabama to provide a gaseous product for the assessment of hot-gas filtering systems. One of the barrier filters incorporates a ceramic tubesheet to support candle filters. The ceramic tubesheet, designed and manufactured by Industrial Filter and Pump Manufacturing Company (EF&PM), is unique and offers distinct advantages over metallic systems in terms of density, resistance to corrosion, and resistance to creep at operating temperatures above 815{degrees}C (1500{degrees}F). Nevertheless, the operational requirements of the ceramic tubesheet are severe. The tubesheet is almost 1.5 m in (55 in.) in diameter, has many penetrations, and must support the weight of the ceramic filters, coal ash accumulation, and a pressure drop (one atmosphere). Further, thermal stresses related to steady state and transient conditions will occur. To gain a better understanding of the structural performance limitations, a contract was placed with Mallett Technology, Inc. to perform a thermal and structural analysis of the tubesheet design. The design analysis specification and a preliminary design analysis were completed in the early part of 1995. The analyses indicated that modifications to the design were necessary to reduce thermal stress, and it was necessary to complete the redesign before the final thermal/mechanical analysis could be undertaken. The preliminary analysis identified the need to confirm that the physical and mechanical properties data used in the design were representative of the material in the tubesheet. Subsequently, few exploratory tests were performed at ORNL to evaluate the ceramic structural material.

  7. Design, fabrication, and tests of a metallic shell tile thermal protection system for space transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, Ian O.; Kelly, H. Neale

    1989-01-01

    A thermal protection tile for earth-to-orbit transports is described. The tiles consist of a rigid external shell filled with a flexible insulation. The tiles tend to be thicker than the current Shuttle rigidized silica tiles for the same entry heat load but are projected to be more durable and lighter. The tiles were thermally tested for several simulated entry trajectories.

  8. The influence of clay fineness upon sludge recycling in a ceramic matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szőke, A. M.; Muntean, M.; Sándor, M.; Brotea, L.

    2016-04-01

    The feasibility of sludge recycling in the ceramic manufacture was evaluated through laboratory testing. Such residues have similar chemical and mineralogical composition with the raw mixture of the green ceramic body used in construction. Several ceramic masses with clay and various proportion of sludge have been synthesized and then characterized by their physical-mechanical properties. The fineness of the clay, the main component of the green ceramic body, has been considered for every raw mixture. The proportion of the sludge waste addition depends on the clay fineness and the sintering capacity also, increases with the clay fineness. The ceramic properties, particularly, the open porosity, and mechanical properties, in presence of small sludge proportion (7, 20%) shows small modification. The introduction of such waste into building ceramic matrix (bricks, tiles, and plates) has a very good perspective.

  9. Laser in Ceramics Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Bajrang; Jain, Pankaj

    LASER, an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation have unique properties, Which make it differ from ordinary light such as it is highly coherent, monochromatic, negligible divergence and scattering loss and a intense beam of electromagnetic radiation or light. It also occur in a wide range of wavelength/frequency (from Ultraviolet to Infrared), energy/power and beam-mode/configurations ; Due to these unique properties, it have use in wide application of ceramic processing for industrial manufacturing, fabrication of electronic circuit such as marking, serializing, engraving, cutting, micro-structuring because laser only produces localized heating, without any contact and thermal stress on the any part during processing. So there is no risk of fracturing that occurs during mechanical sawing and also reduce Cost of processing. The discussion in this paper highlight the application of laser in ceramics processing.

  10. Design optimization methods for genomic DNA tiling arrays.

    PubMed

    Bertone, Paul; Trifonov, Valery; Rozowsky, Joel S; Schubert, Falk; Emanuelsson, Olof; Karro, John; Kao, Ming-Yang; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark

    2006-02-01

    A recent development in microarray research entails the unbiased coverage, or tiling, of genomic DNA for the large-scale identification of transcribed sequences and regulatory elements. A central issue in designing tiling arrays is that of arriving at a single-copy tile path, as significant sequence cross-hybridization can result from the presence of non-unique probes on the array. Due to the fragmentation of genomic DNA caused by the widespread distribution of repetitive elements, the problem of obtaining adequate sequence coverage increases with the sizes of subsequence tiles that are to be included in the design. This becomes increasingly problematic when considering complex eukaryotic genomes that contain many thousands of interspersed repeats. The general problem of sequence tiling can be framed as finding an optimal partitioning of non-repetitive subsequences over a prescribed range of tile sizes, on a DNA sequence comprising repetitive and non-repetitive regions. Exact solutions to the tiling problem become computationally infeasible when applied to large genomes, but successive optimizations are developed that allow their practical implementation. These include an efficient method for determining the degree of similarity of many oligonucleotide sequences over large genomes, and two algorithms for finding an optimal tile path composed of longer sequence tiles. The first algorithm, a dynamic programming approach, finds an optimal tiling in linear time and space; the second applies a heuristic search to reduce the space complexity to a constant requirement. A Web resource has also been developed, accessible at http://tiling.gersteinlab.org, to generate optimal tile paths from user-provided DNA sequences.

  11. 55. QUARRY TILE CUTTERS, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING. WORKERS PRESSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. QUARRY TILE CUTTERS, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING. WORKERS PRESSED THE CUTTERS INTO SLABS OF CLAY, LIFTED THEM ONTO DRYING BOARDS AND PRESSED THE PLUNGERS TO RELEASE THE CUT TILES. REPRODUCTIONS CUTTERS ARE NOT USED IN PRODUCTION. WOODEN FORMS FOR PRODUCING CLAY SLABS WITH ROLLING PINS REST AGAINST THE WALL. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  12. Intrinsic DNA curvature of double-crossover tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seungjae; Kim, Junghoon; Qian, Pengfei; Shin, Jihoon; Amin, Rashid; Ahn, Sang Jung; LaBean, Thomas H.; Kim, Moon Ki; Park, Sung Ha

    2011-06-01

    A theoretical model which takes into account the structural distortion of double-crossover DNA tiles has been studied to investigate its effect on lattice formation sizes. It has been found that a single vector appropriately describes the curvature of the tiles, of which a higher magnitude hinders lattice growth. In conjunction with these calculations, normal mode analysis reveals that tiles with relative higher frequencies have an analogous effect. All the theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with experimental data.

  13. On the perturbation of a uniform tiling with resistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owaidat, M. Q.; Asad, J. H.; Tan, Zhi-Zhong

    2016-06-01

    The perturbation of a uniformly tiled resistor network by adding an edge (a resistor) to the network is considered. The two-point resistance on the perturbed tiling in terms of that on the perfect tiling is obtained using Green’s function. Some theoretical results are presented for an infinite modified square lattice. These results are confirmed experimentally by constructing an actual resistor lattice of size 13 × 13.

  14. The Optical Characterization of Aerogel Tiles for Cherenkov Detectors at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the scattering and absorption lengths of aerogel tiles of refractive indices ranging from 1.03 to 1.01 produced by Matsushita Electric Works and Japanese Fine Ceramics Center which are used in the Cherenkov detectors at Jefferson Lab. Cerenkov detectors use Cherenkov radiation to detect and identify particles traveling though them. Since light traveling through aerogel is integral to their use as Cherenkov counters, knowledge of aerogel's optical properties is essential. The optical properties measured were the likelihood of a photon being absorbed or scattered as it passed through aerogel. Both properties were tested by shining a collimated beam of light 470 nm LED light through different thicknesses of aerogel: up to 20 tiles each about 1 cm thick. The change in intensity was measured with a 5-inch photomultiplier tube. Scattering has a great effect over large distances and absorption has a very small effect over shorter distances. Scattering was measured first, at aerogel thicknesses of 1-5 cm, absorption measured at distances of 10-20 cm, taking into account the previously calculated scattering. This presentation will consist of the results on the scattering and absorption length of aerogel for use in Jlab's Cherenkov detectors. The purpose of this project is to determine the scattering and absorption lengths of aerogel tiles of refractive indices ranging from 1.03 to 1.01 produced by Matsushita Electric Works and Japanese Fine Ceramics Center which are used in the Cherenkov detectors at Jefferson Lab. Cerenkov detectors use Cherenkov radiation to detect and identify particles traveling though them. Since light traveling through aerogel is integral to their use as Cherenkov counters, knowledge of aerogel's optical properties is essential. The optical properties measured were the likelihood of a photon being absorbed or scattered as it passed through aerogel. Both properties were tested by shining a collimated beam of

  15. Process for making ceramic insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Akash, Akash; Balakrishnan, G. Nair

    2009-12-08

    A method is provided for producing insulation materials and insulation for high temperature applications using novel castable and powder-based ceramics. The ceramic components produced using the proposed process offers (i) a fine porosity (from nano-to micro scale); (ii) a superior strength-to-weight ratio; and (iii) flexibility in designing multilayered features offering multifunctionality which will increase the service lifetime of insulation and refractory components used in the solid oxide fuel cell, direct carbon fuel cell, furnace, metal melting, glass, chemical, paper/pulp, automobile, industrial heating, coal, and power generation industries. Further, the ceramic components made using this method may have net-shape and/or net-size advantages with minimum post machining requirements.

  16. Tritium in the DIII-D carbon tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.L.; Kellman, A.G.; Lee, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    The amount of tritium in the carbon tiles used as a first wall in the DIII-D tokamak was measured recently when the tiles were removed and cleaned. The measurements were made as part of the task of developing the appropriate safety procedures for processing of the tiles. The surface tritium concentration on the carbon tiles was surveyed and the total tritium released from tile samples was measured in test bakes. The total tritium in all the carbon tiles at the time the tiles were removed for cleaning is estimated to be 15 mCi and the fraction of tritium retained in the tiles from DIII-D operations has a lower bound of 10%. The tritium was found to be concentrated in a narrow surface layer on the plasma facing side of the tile, was fully released when baked to 1,000{degree}C, and was released in the form of tritiated gas (DT) as opposed to tritiated water (DTO) when baked.

  17. NASA TileWorld manual (system version 2.2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philips, Andrew B.; Bresina, John L.

    1991-01-01

    The commands are documented of the NASA TileWorld simulator, as well as providing information about how to run it and extend it. The simulator, implemented in Common Lisp with Common Windows, encodes a particular range in a spectrum of domains, for controllable research experiments. TileWorld consists of a two dimensional grid of cells, a set of polygonal tiles, and a single agent which can grasp and move tiles. In addition to agent executable actions, there is an external event over which the agent has not control; this event correspond to a 'gust of wind'.

  18. FOREWORD: Focus on Advanced Ceramics Focus on Advanced Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Naoki

    2011-06-01

    Much research has been devoted recently to developing technologies for renewable energy and improving the efficiency of the processes and devices used in industry and everyday life. Efficient solutions have been found using novel materials such as platinum and palladium-based catalysts for car exhaust systems, samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets for electrical motors, and so on. However, their realization has resulted in an increasing demand for rare elements and in their deficit, the development of new materials based on more abundant elements and new functionalities of traditional materials. Moreover, increasing environmental and health concerns demand substitution of toxic or hazardous substances with nature-friendly alternatives. In this context, this focus issue on advanced ceramics aims to review current trends in ceramics science and technology. It is related to the International Conference on Science and Technology of Advanced Ceramics (STAC) held annually to discuss the emerging issues in the field of ceramics. An important direction of ceramic science is the collaboration between experimental and theoretical sciences. Recent developments in density functional theory and computer technology have enabled the prediction of physical and chemical properties of ceramics, thereby assisting the design of new materials. Therefore, this focus issue includes articles devoted to theory and advanced characterization techniques. As mentioned above, the potential shortage of rare elements is becoming critical to the industry and has resulted in a Japanese government initiative called the 'Ubiquitous Element Strategy'. This focus issue also includes articles related to this strategy and to the associated topics of energy conversion, such as phosphors for high-efficiency lighting and photocatalysts for solar-energy harvesting. We hope that this focus issue will provide a timely overview of current trends and problems in ceramics science and

  19. Complex tiling patterns in liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Tschierske, C.; Nürnberger, C.; Ebert, H.; Glettner, B.; Prehm, M.; Liu, F.; Zeng, X.-B.; Ungar, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this account recent progress in enhancing the complexity of liquid crystal self-assembly is highlighted. The discussed superstructures are formed mainly by polyphilic T-shaped and X-shaped molecules composed of a rod-like core, tethered with glycerol units at both ends and flexible non-polar chain(s) in lateral position, but also related inverted molecular structures are considered. A series of honeycomb phases composed of polygonal cylinders ranging from triangular to hexagonal, followed by giant cylinder honeycombs is observed for ternary T-shaped polyphiles on increasing the size of the lateral chain(s). Increasing the chain size further leads to new modes of lamellar organization followed by three-dimensional and two-dimensional structures incorporating branched and non-branched axial rod-bundles. Grafting incompatible chains to opposite sides of the rod-like core leads to quaternary X-shaped polyphiles. These form liquid crystalline honeycombs where different cells are filled with different material. Projected on an Euclidian plane, all honeycomb phases can be described either by uniformly coloured Archimedean and Laves tiling patterns (T-shaped polyphiles) or as multi-colour tiling patterns (X-shaped polyphiles). It is shown that geometric frustration, combined with the tendency to segregate incompatible chains into different compartments and the need to find a periodic tiling pattern, leads to a significant increase in the complexity of soft self-assembly. Mixing of different chains greatly enhances the number of possible ‘colours’ and in this way, periodic structures comprising up to seven distinct compartments can be generated. Relations to biological self-assembly are discussed shortly. PMID:24098852

  20. Tile Percolation: An OpenMP Tile Aware Parallelization Technique for the Cyclops-64 Multicore Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Ge; Wang, Xu; Manzano, Joseph; Gao, Guang R.

    Programming a multicore processor is difficult. It is even more difficult if the processor has software-managed memory hierarchy, e.g. the IBM Cyclops-64 (C64). A widely accepted parallel programming solution for multicore processor is OpenMP. Currently, all OpenMP directives are only used to decompose computation code (such as loop iterations, tasks, code sections, etc.). None of them can be used to control data movement, which is crucial for the C64 performance. In this paper, we propose a technique called tile percolation. This method provides the programmer with a set of OpenMP pragma directives. The programmer can use these directives to annotate their program to specify where and how to perform data movement. The compiler will then generate the required code accordingly. Our method is a semi-automatic code generation approach intended to simplify a programmer’s work. The paper provides (a) an exploration of the possibility of developing pragma directives for semi-automatic data movement code generation in OpenMP; (b) an introduction of techniques used to implement tile percolation including the programming API, the code generation in compiler, and the required runtime support routines; (c) and an evaluation of tile percolation with a set of benchmarks. Our experimental results show that tile percolation can make the OpenMP programs run on the C64 chip more efficiently.

  1. Joining NZP ceramics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklas, K.D.; Richey, M.W.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Santella, M.L.

    1995-09-26

    Objective was to assess techniques for joining NZP ceramics, a new family of ceramic materials that have low coefficient of thermal expansion, low thermal conductivity, and excellent thermal-shock resistance. Initially, the authors evaluated laser-beam welding over volatile fluxing agents (ferric oxide, copper oxide, boric acid, and boron nitride). They also examined other laser, arc-welding, brazing, and cold joining techniques. The NZP materials were capable of sustaining the thermal stresses associated with these joining processes without substantial cracking. Of the volatile fluxes, only the copper oxide promoted weld fusion. Efforts to accomplish fusion by laser-beam welding over copper, titanium, stainless steel, yttrium barium copper oxide, fused silica glass, and mullite/alumina were unsuccessful. Gas-tungsten arc welding accompanied by porosity, irregularities, and cracking was achieved on copper sheet sandwiched between NZP tiles. Attempts at conventional oxy-acetylene welding and torch brazing were unproductive. Silica-based oxide mixtures and copper oxide-based materials show potential for development into filler materials for furnace brazing, and phosphate-based cements show promise as a means of cold joining.

  2. Symmetries and color symmetries of a family of tilings with a singular point.

    PubMed

    Evidente, Imogene F; Felix, Rene P; Loquias, Manuel Joseph C

    2015-11-01

    Tilings with a singular point are obtained by applying conformal maps on regular tilings of the Euclidean plane and their symmetries are determined. The resulting tilings are then symmetrically colored by applying the same conformal maps on colorings of regular tilings arising from sublattice colorings of the centers of the tiles. In addition, conditions are determined in order that the coloring of a tiling with singularity that is obtained in this manner is perfect. PMID:26522407

  3. Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal Protection Systems to 9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Joshua E.; Bohl, William E.; Foreman, Cory D.; Christiansen, Eric C.; Davis, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components and sensitive components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. These materials are also highly exposed to solid particle space environment hazards. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9.65 km/s on ceramic tiles similar to those used on the Orbiter. These tiles are a porous-ceramic insulator of nominally 8 lb/ft(exp 3) alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) coated with a damage-resistant, toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation/reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG).

  4. Synthesis of crystalline ceramics for actinide immobilisation

    SciTech Connect

    Burakov, B.; Gribova, V.; Kitsay, A.; Ojovan, M.; Hyatt, N.C.; Stennett, M.C.

    2007-07-01

    Methods for the synthesis of ceramic wasteforms for the immobilization of actinides are common to those for non-radioactive ceramics: hot uniaxial pressing (HUP); hot isostatic pressing (HIP); cold pressing followed by sintering; melting (for some specific ceramics, such as garnet/perovskite composites). Synthesis of ceramics doped with radionuclides is characterized with some important considerations: all the radionuclides should be incorporated into crystalline structure of durable host-phases in the form of solid solutions and no separate phases of radionuclides should be present in the matrix of final ceramic wasteform; all procedures of starting precursor preparation and ceramic synthesis should follow safety requirements of nuclear industry. Synthesis methods that avoid the use of very high temperatures and pressures and are easily accomplished within the environment of a glove-box or hot cell are preferable. Knowledge transfer between the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI, Russia) and Immobilisation Science Laboratory (ISL, UK) was facilitated in the framework of a joint project supported by UK Royal Society. In order to introduce methods of precursor preparation and ceramic synthesis we selected well-known procedures readily deployable in radiochemical processing plants. We accounted that training should include main types of ceramic wasteforms which are currently discussed for industrial applications. (authors)

  5. Computerized Machine for Cutting Space Shuttle Thermal Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Luis E.; Reuter, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    A report presents the concept of a machine aboard the space shuttle that would cut oversized thermal-tile blanks to precise sizes and shapes needed to replace tiles that were damaged or lost during ascent to orbit. The machine would include a computer-controlled jigsaw enclosed in a clear acrylic shell that would prevent escape of cutting debris. A vacuum motor would collect the debris into a reservoir and would hold a tile blank securely in place. A database stored in the computer would contain the unique shape and dimensions of every tile. Once a broken or missing tile was identified, its identification number would be entered into the computer, wherein the cutting pattern associated with that number would be retrieved from the database. A tile blank would be locked into a crib in the machine, the shell would be closed (proximity sensors would prevent activation of the machine while the shell was open), and a "cut" command would be sent from the computer. A blade would be moved around the crib like a plotter, cutting the tile to the required size and shape. Once the tile was cut, an astronaut would take a space walk for installation.

  6. METHOD FOR EVALUATING MOLD GROWTH ON CEILING TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method to extract mold spores from porous ceiling tiles was developed using a masticator blender. Ceiling tiles were inoculated and analyzed using four species of mold. Statistical analysis comparing results obtained by masticator extraction and the swab method was performed. T...

  7. Highly Symmetric and Congruently Tiled Meshes for Shells and Domes

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Muhibur; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2016-01-01

    We describe the generation of all possible shell and dome shapes that can be uniquely meshed (tiled) using a single type of mesh face (tile), and following a single meshing (tiling) rule that governs the mesh (tile) arrangement with maximal vertex, edge and face symmetries. Such tiling arrangements or congruently tiled meshed shapes, are frequently found in chemical forms (fullerenes or Bucky balls, crystals, quasi-crystals, virus nano shells or capsids), and synthetic shapes (cages, sports domes, modern architectural facades). Congruently tiled meshes are both aesthetic and complete, as they support maximal mesh symmetries with minimal complexity and possess simple generation rules. Here, we generate congruent tilings and meshed shape layouts that satisfy these optimality conditions. Further, the congruent meshes are uniquely mappable to an almost regular 3D polyhedron (or its dual polyhedron) and which exhibits face-transitive (and edge-transitive) congruency with at most two types of vertices (each type transitive to the other). The family of all such congruently meshed polyhedra create a new class of meshed shapes, beyond the well-studied regular, semi-regular and quasi-regular classes, and their duals (platonic, Catalan and Johnson). While our new mesh class is infinite, we prove that there exists a unique mesh parametrization, where each member of the class can be represented by two integer lattice variables, and moreover efficiently constructable. PMID:27563368

  8. Improving Efficiency of 3-SAT-Solving Tile Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Yuriy

    The tile assembly model has allowed the study of the nature's process of self-assembly and the development of self-assembling systems for solving complex computational problems. Research into this model has led to progress in two distinct classes of computational systems: Internet-sized distributed computation, such as software architectures for computational grids, and molecular computation, such as DNA computing. The design of large complex tile systems that emulate Turing machines has shown that the tile assembly model is Turing universal, while the design of small tile systems that implement simple algorithms has shown that tile assembly can be used to build private, fault-tolerant, and scalable distributed software systems and robust molecular machines. However, in order for these types of systems to compete with traditional computing devices, we must demonstrate that fairly simple tile systems can implement complex and intricate algorithms for important problems. The state of the art, however, requires vastly complex tile systems with large tile sets to implement such algorithms.

  9. Glazed tiles manufactured from incinerated sewage sludge ash and clay.

    PubMed

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Luo, Huan-Lin; Sheen, Yeong-Nain

    2005-02-01

    Sewage sludge incineration is applied extensively in highly populated cities as a final sludge treatment. In this study, incinerated ash was utilized as an additive to clay to manufacture glaze tiles. Four different amounts of ash (0, 15, 30, and 45%) were added, and five glaze concentrations (0.03, 0.06, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 g/cm2) were applied on the surface of biscuit tiles to study the effects of ash additive and glaze concentration on properties of fired samples. Sewage sludge was dehydrated and incinerated into ash at 800 degrees C. Subsequently, tile specimens were manufactured and fired at 800 degrees C to make biscuit tiles. Fritted glazes and iron oxide were used as the fundamental glaze and colorant, respectively. Finally, glaze was applied on the surface of biscuit tiles and then fired at 1050 degrees C to sinter them into glazed tile specimens. Tests were performed to analyze properties, including water absorption, firing shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, abrasion resistance, bending resistance, acid-alkali resistance, and aging resistance on specimens of glaze tile. To further understand more about the microstructural behavior of glazed tile specimens, analysis of energy dispersive spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray were carried out in this study.

  10. New SWAT tile drain equations: Modifications, Calibration, Validation, and Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drainage is a commonly used agricultural practice to enhance crop yield in poorly drained but highly productive soils in many other regions of the world. However, the presence of subsurface tile drainage systems also expedites the transport of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and other chemi...

  11. 81. MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS, VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS, VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST. INDIAN HOUSE WING AT THE LEFT. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-2. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  12. 80. KILN AT FIRST MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. KILN AT FIRST MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS AT ALDIE, 1901. PHOTOGRAPH PUBLISHED IN HOUSE AND GARDEN. AUGUST 1901, p. 19. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  13. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  14. Creative Tiling: A Story of 1000-and-1 Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Darwish, Nasir

    2012-01-01

    We describe a procedure that utilizes symmetric curves for building artistic tiles. One particular curve was found to mesh nicely with hundreds other curves, resulting in eye-catching tiling designs. The results of our work serve as a good example of using ideas from 2-D graphics and algorithms in a practical web-based application.

  15. Low-Density, Aerogel-Filled Thermal-Insulation Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santos, Maryann; Heng, Vann; Barney, Andrea; Oka, Kris; Droege, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Aerogel fillings have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop low-density thermal-insulation tiles that, relative to prior such tiles, have greater dimensional stability (especially less shrinkage), equal or lower thermal conductivity, and greater strength and durability. In preparation for laboratory tests of dimensional and thermal stability, prototypes of aerogel-filled versions of recently developed low-density tiles have been fabricated by impregnating such tiles to various depths with aerogel formations ranging in density from 1.5 to 5.6 lb/ft3 (about 53 to 200 kg/cu m). Results available at the time of reporting the information for this article showed that the thermal-insulation properties of the partially or fully aerogel- impregnated tiles were equivalent or superior to those of the corresponding non-impregnated tiles and that the partially impregnated tiles exhibited minimal (<1.5 percent) shrinkage after multiple exposures at a temperature of 2,300 F (1,260 C). Latest developments have shown that tiles containing aerogels at the higher end of the density range are stable after multiple exposures at the said temperature.

  16. Initial Examination of Low Velocity Sphere Impact of Glass Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Fox, Ethan E; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Ferber, Mattison K

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) sphere impact testing of two materials from the lithium aluminosilicate family reinforced with different amounts of ceramic particulate, i.e., glass-ceramic materials, SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-G1 and SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-L. Both materials are provided by SCHOTT Glass (Duryea, PA). This work is a follow-up to similar sphere impact studies completed by the authors on PPG's Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass and SCHOTT BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. A gas gun or a sphere-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) spheres against the glass ceramic tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the glass-ceramics were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between sphere and target material. Quasistatic spherical indentation was also performed on both glass ceramics and their contact damage responses were compared to those of soda-lime silicate and borosilicate glasses. Lastly, variability of contact damage response was assessed by performing spherical indentation testing across the area of an entire glass ceramic tile. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Resistan{trademark}-L glass ceramic required the highest velocity of sphere impact for damage to initiate. Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass was second best, then Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and then BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (2) Glass-ceramic Resistan{trademark}-L also required the largest force to initiate ring crack from quasi-static indentation. That ranking was followed, in descending order, by Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass, Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (3

  17. Properties of structural clay load-bearing wall tile

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Butala, M.B.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-02-02

    Structural clay tile has been produced in the United States and used in load-bearing walls for over a century. While the fundamentals of the manufacturing process have not changed significantly, specific fabrication details and material additives have led to increased strength and economy of current products. Red burned clay masonry units were sampled and tested in accordance with applicable ASTM standards. Objective of the tests was to compare tiles used in the original construction of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (1940s) to tiles being used in current large scale laboratory tests and wall repairs. Results of the tests are compared to other contemporary and historic clay tile data. The effects of the evolution of clay tile manufacturing on engineering properties is also examined.

  18. Buffet loads on shuttle thermal-protection-system tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    Results of wind-tunnel and acoustic tests to investigate buffet loads on Shuttle Thermal-Protection-System (TPS) tiles are given. Also described is the application of these results to the prediction of tile buffet loads for the first shuttle flight into orbit. The wind-tunnel tests of tiles were conducted at transonic and supersonic Mach numbers simulating flow regions on the Orbiter where shock waves and boundary-layer separations occur. The acoustic tests were conducted in a progressive wave tube at an overall sound pressure level (OASPL) approximately equal to the maximum OASPL measured during the wind-tunnel tests in a region of flow separation. The STS-1 buffet load predictions yielded peak tile stresses due to buffeting that were as much as 20 percent of the total stress for the design-load case when a shock wave was on a tile.

  19. Milestone 5 test report. Task 5, subtask 5.2: Tile to foam strength tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes work that has been performed to date on the strength of a cryotank insulation system using Rohacell foam and TUFI-coated AETB-12 ceramic tiles directly bonded to a simulated graphite-epoxy tank wall. Testing utilized a custom specimen design which consists of a long tensile specimen with eccentric loading to induce curvature similar to the curvature expected due to 'pillowing' of the tank when pressurized. A finite element model was constructed to predict the specific element strains in the test article, and to assist with design of the test specimen to meet the specific goals of curvature and laminate strain. The results indicate that the heat treated 3.25-pcf density Rohacell foam does not provide sufficient strength for the induced stresses due to curvature and stress concentration at the RTV bondline to the TUFI tile. The test was repeated using higher density non-heat treated Rohacell foam (6.9 pcf) without foam failure. The finite element model was shown to predict specimen behavior, and validation of the model was successful. It is pertinent to mention that the analyses described herein accurately predicted the failure of the heat treated foams and based on this analysis method it is expected that the untreated 3.25 pcf Rohacell foam will be successful.

  20. Milestone 5 test report. Task 5, subtask 5.2: Tile to foam strength tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-12-01

    This report summarizes work that has been performed to date on the strength of a cryotank insulation system using Rohacell foam and TUFI-coated AETB-12 ceramic tiles directly bonded to a simulated graphite-epoxy tank wall. Testing utilized a custom specimen design which consists of a long tensile specimen with eccentric loading to induce curvature similar to the curvature expected due to 'pillowing' of the tank when pressurized. A finite element model was constructed to predict the specific element strains in the test article, and to assist with design of the test specimen to meet the specific goals of curvature and laminate strain. The results indicate that the heat treated 3.25-pcf density Rohacell foam does not provide sufficient strength for the induced stresses due to curvature and stress concentration at the RTV bondline to the TUFI tile. The test was repeated using higher density non-heat treated Rohacell foam (6.9 pcf) without foam failure. The finite element model was shown to predict specimen behavior, and validation of the model was successful. It is pertinent to mention that the analyses described herein accurately predicted the failure of the heat treated foams and based on this analysis method it is expected that the untreated 3.25 pcf Rohacell foam will be successful.

  1. Behavior of W-SiC/SiC dual layer tiles under LHD plasma exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrez, Waleed A.; Kishimoto, Hirotatsu; Kohno, Yutaka; Hirotaki, S.; Kohyama, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Towards the early realization of fusion power reactors, high performance first wall and plasma facing components (PFCs) are essentially required. As one of the biggest challenges for this, high heat flux component (HHFC) design and R & D has been emphasized. This report provides the high performance HHFC materials R & D status and the first plasma exposure test result from large helical device (LHD). W-SiC/SiC dual layer tiles (hereafter, W-SiC/SiC) were developed by applied NITE process. This is the realistic concept of tungsten armor with ceramic composite substrates for fusion power reactors. The dual layer tiles were fabricated and tested their survival under the LHD divertor plasma exposure (Nominally 10 MW/m2 maximum heat load for 6 s operation cycle). The microstructure evolution, including crack and pore formation, was analyzed, besides the behavior of bonding layer between tungsten and SiC/SiC was evaluated by C-scanning images of ultrasonic method and Electron probe Micro-analyzer (EPMA). Thermal analysis was conducted by finite element method, where ANSYS code release 13.0 was used.

  2. Development of BEM for ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, D. P.; Banerjee, P. K.; Dargush, G. F.

    1991-01-01

    It is evident that for proper micromechanical analysis of ceramic composites, one needs to use a numerical method that is capable of idealizing the individual fibers or individual bundles of fibers embedded within a three-dimensional ceramic matrix. The analysis must be able to account for high stress or temperature gradients from diffusion of stress or temperature from the fiber to the ceramic matrix and allow for interaction between the fibers through the ceramic matrix. The analysis must be sophisticated enough to deal with the failure of fibers described by a series of increasingly sophisticated constitutive models. Finally, the analysis must deal with micromechanical modeling of the composite under nonlinear thermal and dynamic loading. This report details progress made towards the development of a boundary element code designed for the micromechanical studies of an advanced ceramic composite. Additional effort has been made in generalizing the implementation to allow the program to be applicable to real problems in the aerospace industry.

  3. Metallographic preparation techniques for ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Saenz, N.T.

    1990-10-01

    With the increasing use of ceramic materials in many industrial areas, applied metallographic sample preparation techniques are used to produce true microstructural detail in ceramic materials. Due to the extreme hardness, porosity and brittleness of ceramic materials, improper ceramic preparation techniques tend to cause intergranular relief, grain plucking, grain fracturing, or other undesirable effects. Because of these inherent characteristics, care must be taken in the preparation of ceramic material. For example, defects such as cracking of the specimen can be initiated during the sectioning step and can also occur if improper mounting procedures are used. Pullout of grains which result from improper sectioning or a grinding technique that is too severe can also cause problems in later stages of preparation. To minimize any defects or a false microstructure, the metallographer must not only preform each step of sample preparation accurately, but must also have a clear understanding of the intended purpose for each specific sequence of preparation steps. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Use of x-ray fluorescence and diffraction techniques in studying ancient ceramics of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunaratne, B. S. B.

    2012-07-01

    Ceramics were produced for centuries in Sri Lanka for various purposes. Ancient ceramic articles such as pottery, bricks, tiles, sewer pipes, etc, were made from naturally occurring raw materials. Use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in characterizing of two ancient ceramic samples from two different archaeological sites in Sri Lanka is presented. The information obtained in this manner is used to figure out the ancient ceramic technology, particularly to learn about the raw materials used, the source of raw materials, processing parameters such as firing temperature or binders used in ceramic production. This information then can be used to explore the archaeometric background such as the nature and extent of cultural and technological interaction between different periods of history in Sri Lanka.

  5. Design of an experimental configuration for studying the dynamic fragmentation of ceramics under impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinszner, J.-L.; Forquin, P.; Rossiquet, G.

    2012-05-01

    To characterize the penetration resistance of a ceramic target during impact, it is necessary to take into consideration the mechanical behaviour of the fragmented ceramic. In the present work, a series of numerical simulations have been performed to design an experimental configuration named the "normal impact test". The aim of this configuration is to generate a strong fragmentation of the ceramic tile and to prevent any ejection of debris in order to analyse the fragmentation properties of the impacted ceramic. An anisotropic damage model has been used to perform these computations. The Weibull parameters that constitute input data of this model have been identified from four-point flexural tests performed on the so-called Hexoloy® silicon carbide. Finally, the numerical predictions are compared to the failure pattern of the fragmented ceramic.

  6. Tile-in-ONE: A web platform which integrates Tile Calorimeter data quality and calibration assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivolella, A.; Ferreira, F.; Maidantchik, C.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Burghgrave, B.; Smirnov, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter collaboration assesses the quality of calibration data in order to ensure its proper operation. A number of tasks is then performed by executing several tools and accessing web systems, which were independently developed to meet distinct collaboration's requirements and do not necessarily are connected with each other. Thus, to attend the collaboration needs, several programs are usually implemented without a global perspective of the detector, requiring basic software features. In addition, functionalities may overlap in their objectives and frequently replicate resources retrieval mechanisms. Tile-in-ONE is a designed and implemented platform that assembles various web systems used by the calorimeter community through a single framework and a standard technology. It provides an infrastructure to support the code implementation, avoiding duplication of work while integrating with an overall view of the detector status. Database connectors smooth the process of information access since developers do not need to be aware of where records are placed and how to extract them. Within the environment, a dashboard stands for a particular Tile operation aspect and gets together plug-ins, i.e. software components that add specific features to an existing application. A server contains the platform core, which represents the basic environment to deal with the configuration, manage user settings and load plug-ins at runtime. A web middleware assists users to develop their own plug-ins, perform tests and integrate them into the platform as a whole. Backends are employed to allow that any type of application is interpreted and displayed in a uniform way. This paper describes Tile-in-ONE web platform.

  7. Geological study of sedimentary clayey materials of the Bomkoul area in the Douala region (Douala sub-basin, Cameroon) for the ceramic industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngon Ngon, Gilbert François; Etame, Jacques; Ntamak-Nida, Marie Joseph; Mbog, Michel Bertrand; Mpondo, Anne Maureen Maliengoue; Gérard, Martine; Yongue-Fouateu, Rose; Bilong, Paul

    2012-06-01

    A geological study carried out in the Bomkoul area (Douala sub-basin, Cameroon) has revealed the presence of heterogeneous clayey materials on hills (80-120 m altitude). The clay deposits are thick at the upper slope where sandstones and sandy-clay overlying clay layers, and thin at the middle and lower slopes where weathered clays overlying clay layers. Clayey materials identified are grey, dark-grey and mottled in color, with sandy-clay, clayey-silt, silty-clay and clay textures. Raw materials are mostly made up of fine particles ranging from 52 to 82% clay and silt in the mottled clayey material, 50 to 82% clay and silt in the dark-grey clayey material and 70 to 85% in the grey clayey material. Their chemical composition is characterized by silica (< 70% SiO2), alumina (< 32% Al2O3) and iron (1 to 16% Fe2O3). The main clay minerals are disorganized and poorly crystallized kaolinite and few smectite. The physical, mineralogical and geochemical properties of these materials presented and discussed in this work show that the clayey raw materials of the Bomkoul area have a good potential for pottery as well as brick, tile and soil sandstone manufacture.

  8. Floor tile and mastic removal project report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    A test program was developed and coordinated with State and Federal Regulators and carried out at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. This program was carefully designed to create the worst conditions in order to evaluate whether asbestos fibers are released when asbestos containing floor tile and mastic are removed. There were over 1,000 samples taken and analyzed during the execution of the program. The conclusions reached were based upon analysis of the critical samples using the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) technology. Additionally, the TEM procedures were used to evaluate personnel samples to determine whether those fibers found were asbestos or other materials. Most of the (TEM) samples were analyzed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio.

  9. Local growth of icosahedral quasicrystalline tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hann, Connor T.; Socolar, Joshua E. S.; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2016-07-01

    Icosahedral quasicrystals (IQCs) with extremely high degrees of translational order have been produced in the laboratory and found in naturally occurring minerals, yet questions remain about how IQCs form. In particular, the fundamental question of how locally determined additions to a growing cluster can lead to the intricate long-range correlations in IQCs remains open. In answer to this question, we have developed an algorithm that is capable of producing a perfectly ordered IQC yet relies exclusively on local rules for sequential, face-to-face addition of tiles to a cluster. When the algorithm is seeded with a special type of cluster containing a defect, we find that growth is forced to infinity with high probability and that the resultant IQC has a vanishing density of defects. The geometric features underlying this algorithm can inform analyses of experimental systems and numerical models that generate highly ordered quasicrystals.

  10. Colorimetric and microscopic study of the thermal behavior of new ceramic pigments.

    PubMed

    Saviuc-Paval, Ana Mihaela; Victor Sandu, Andrei; Marcel Popa, Ionel; Anca Sandu, Irina Crina; Petru Bertea, Andrei; Sandu, Ion

    2013-06-01

    The article studies thermal resistance variation by analyzing the colorimetric parameters correlated with the optical microscopy data of two groups of ceramic pigments obtained by co-precipitation in aqueous medium of phosphate anion and of a mixture of chromium phosphate with various chromophore cations. This research enabled us to reveal the thermal thresholds/domains within which significant color changes occur, thus allowing the choice of pigments compatible with the thermal varnishing-glazing processes involved in the manufacture of tesserae for mosaic and stained glass and of colored materials for floor tiles, wall tiles and painted porcelain. PMID:23495175

  11. Penetration of tungsten-alloy rods into composite ceramic targets: Experiments and 2-D simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Z.; Dekel, E.; Hohler, V.; Stilp, A. J.; Weber, K.

    1998-07-10

    A series of terminal ballistics experiments, with scaled tungsten-alloy penetrators, was performed on composite targets consisting of ceramic tiles glued to thick steel backing plates. Tiles of silicon-carbide, aluminum nitride, titanium-dibroide and boron-carbide were 20-80 mm thick, and impact velocity was 1.7 km/s. 2-D numerical simulations, using the PISCES code, were performed in order to simulate these shots. It is shown that a simplified version of the Johnson-Holmquist failure model can account for the penetration depths of the rods but is not enough to capture the effect of lateral release waves on these penetrations.

  12. Colorimetric and microscopic study of the thermal behavior of new ceramic pigments.

    PubMed

    Saviuc-Paval, Ana Mihaela; Victor Sandu, Andrei; Marcel Popa, Ionel; Anca Sandu, Irina Crina; Petru Bertea, Andrei; Sandu, Ion

    2013-06-01

    The article studies thermal resistance variation by analyzing the colorimetric parameters correlated with the optical microscopy data of two groups of ceramic pigments obtained by co-precipitation in aqueous medium of phosphate anion and of a mixture of chromium phosphate with various chromophore cations. This research enabled us to reveal the thermal thresholds/domains within which significant color changes occur, thus allowing the choice of pigments compatible with the thermal varnishing-glazing processes involved in the manufacture of tesserae for mosaic and stained glass and of colored materials for floor tiles, wall tiles and painted porcelain.

  13. Spectral response data for development of cool coloured tile coverings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libbra, Antonio; Tarozzi, Luca; Muscio, Alberto; Corticelli, Mauro A.

    2011-03-01

    Most ancient or traditional buildings in Italy show steep-slope roofs covered by red clay tiles. As the rooms immediately below the roof are often inhabited in historical or densely urbanized centres, the combination of low solar reflectance of tile coverings and low thermal inertia of either wooden roof structures or sub-tile insulation panels makes summer overheating a major problem. The problem can be mitigated by using tiles coated with cool colours, that is colours with the same spectral response of clay tiles in the visible, but highly reflecting in the near infrared range, which includes more than half of solar radiation. Cool colours can yield the same visible aspect of common building surfaces, but higher solar reflectance. Studies aimed at developing cool colour tile coverings for traditional Italian buildings have been started. A few coating solutions with the typical red terracotta colour have been produced and tested in the laboratory, using easily available materials. The spectral response and the solar reflectance have been measured and compared with that of standard tiles.

  14. Coal fly ash utilization: low temperature sintering of wall tiles.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Navin; Sharma, Priya; Pashkov, G L; Voskresenskaya, E N; Amritphale, S S; Baghel, Narendra S

    2008-01-01

    We present here a study of the sintering of fly ash and its mixture with low alkali pyrophyllite in the presence of sodium hexa meta phosphate (SHMP), a complex activator of sintering, for the purpose of wall tile manufacturing. The sintering of fly ash with SHMP in the temperature range 925-1050 degrees C produces tiles with low impact strength; however, the incremental addition of low alkali pyrophyllite improves impact strength. The impact strength of composites with >or=40% (w/w) pyrophyllite in the fly ash-pyrophyllite mix satisfies the acceptable limit (19.6 J/m) set by the Indian Standards Institute for wall tiles. Increasing the pyrophyllite content results in an increase in the apparent density of tiles, while shrinkage and water absorption decrease. The strength of fly ash tiles is attributed to the formation of a silicophosphate phase; in pyrophyllite rich tiles, it is attributed to the formation of a tridymite-structured T-AlPO(4) phase. Scanning electron micrographs show that the reinforcing rod shaped T-AlPO(4) crystals become more prominent as the pyrophyllite content increases in the sintered tiles.

  15. A performance measure based on principal component analysis for ceramic armor integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, D. K., Sr.; Stiehl, C. K.; Kotz, K.; Beverlin, L.; Brasche, L.

    2012-05-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been applied to thru-transmission ultrasound data taken on ceramic armor. PCA will help find and accentuate differences within the tile, making it easier to find differences. First, the thru-transmission ultrasound data was analyzed. As the ultrasound transducer moves along the surface of the tile, the signal from the sound wave is measured as it reaches the receiver, giving a time signal at each tile location. The information from this time signal is dissected into ten equal segments, and the maximum peak is measured within each segment, or gate. This gives ten measurements at each tile location that correspond to tile depth An image can be made for each of the ten gate measurements. PCA was applied to this data for all of the tile samples, and a performance measure was developed from the loading information. A performance measure was developed and tested on six samples from each of the panels. When these performance measures are compared to the results of the ballistics tests, it can be seen that the performance measure correlates well to the penetration velocities found from the ballistics tests.

  16. THz imaging of majolica tiles and biological attached marble fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Devices exploiting waves in the frequency range from 0.1 THz to 10 THz (corresponding to a free-space wavelength ranging from 30 μm to 3 mm) deserve attention as diagnostic technologies for cultural heritage. THz waves are, indeed, non-ionizing radiations capable of penetrating into non-metallic materials, which are opaque to both visible and infrared waves, without implying long term risks to the molecular stability of the exposed objects and humans. Moreover, THz surveys involve low poewr probing waves, are performed without contact with the object and, thanks to the recent developments, which have allowed the commercialization of compact, flexible and portable systems, maybe performed in loco (i.e. in the place where the artworks are usually located). On the other hand, THz devices can be considered as the youngest among the sensing and imaging electromagnetic techniques and their actual potentialities in terms of characterization of artworks is an ongoing research activity. As a contribution within this context, we have performed time of flight THz imaging [1,2] on ceramic and marble objects. In particular, we surveyed majolica tiles produced by Neapolitan ceramists in the 18th and 19th centuries with the aim to gather information on their structure, constructive technique and conservation state. Moreover, we investigated a Marmo di Candoglia fragment in order to characterize the biological attach affecting it. All the surveys were carried out by using the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System (FICO) developed by Z-Omega and available at the Institute of Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA). This system is equipped with fiber optic coupled transmitting and receiving probes and with an automatic positioning system enabling to scan a 150 mm x 150 mm area under a reflection measurement configuration. Based on the obtained results we can state that the use of THz waves allows: - the reconstruction of the object topography; - the geometrical

  17. Monolithic ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, Thomas P.; Sanders, William A.

    1992-01-01

    A development history and current development status evaluation are presented for SiC and Si3N4 monolithic ceramics. In the absence of widely sought improvements in these materials' toughness, and associated reliability in structural applications, uses will remain restricted to components in noncritical, nonman-rated aerospace applications such as cruise missile and drone gas turbine engine components. In such high temperature engine-section components, projected costs lie below those associated with superalloy-based short-life/expendable engines. Advancements are required in processing technology for the sake of fewer and smaller microstructural flaws.

  18. 57. ORIGINAL TILE PRESS AND EXPERIMENTAL DENTAL KILN, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. ORIGINAL TILE PRESS AND EXPERIMENTAL DENTAL KILN, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING, HENRY MERCER USED THE KILN FOR HIS EARLIEST GLAZE TESTS. THE PRESS WAS DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH METAL CASED MOLDS. SINCE ONLY THE EARLIEST TILE DESIGNS ARE IN METAL CASES. THIS TECHNIQUE WAS PROBABLY DISCONTINUED. THIS PRESS WAS, THEREFORE, PROBABLY NOT USED EXTENSIVELY AT THIS SITE. THE UPPER PART OF GLAZE KILN No. 2 IS AT THE LEFT REAR. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  19. Intrinsic DNA curvature of double-crossover tiles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungjae; Kim, Junghoon; Qian, Pengfei; Shin, Jihoon; Amin, Rashid; Ahn, Sang Jung; LaBean, Thomas H; Kim, Moon Ki; Park, Sung Ha

    2011-06-17

    A theoretical model which takes into account the structural distortion of double-crossover DNA tiles has been studied to investigate its effect on lattice formation sizes. It has been found that a single vector appropriately describes the curvature of the tiles, of which a higher magnitude hinders lattice growth. In conjunction with these calculations, normal mode analysis reveals that tiles with relative higher frequencies have an analogous effect. All the theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with experimental data. PMID:21543827

  20. Ceramic HEPA Filter Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M A; Bergman, W; Haslam, J; Brown, E P; Sawyer, S; Beaulieu, R; Althouse, P; Meike, A

    2012-04-30

    Potential benefits of ceramic filters in nuclear facilities: (1) Short term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) CalPoly HTTU provides unique testing capability to answer questions for DOE - High temperature testing of materials, components, filter, (b) Several DNFSB correspondences and presentations by DNFSB members have highlighted the need for HEPA filter R and D - DNFSB Recommendation 2009-2 highlighted a nuclear facility response to an evaluation basis earthquake followed by a fire (aka shake-n-bake) and CalPoly has capability for a shake-n-bake test; (2) Intermediate term benefit for DOE and industry - (a) Filtration for specialty applications, e.g., explosive applications at Nevada, (b) Spin-off technologies applicable to other commercial industries; and (3) Long term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) Across industry, strong desire for better performance filter, (b) Engineering solution to safety problem will improve facility safety and decrease dependence on associated support systems, (c) Large potential life-cycle cost savings, and (d) Facilitates development and deployment of LLNL process innovations to allow continuous ventilation system operation during a fire.

  1. Crack resistance of a constructional ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Pisarenko, G.S.; Gogotsi, G.A.; Zavada, V.P.

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this article is the development and substantiation of methods of determination of crack resistance and the investigation of features of fracture of a machine building ceramic intended for use at high temperatures. Studied were a silicon nitride base reaction-sintered ceramic, designated NKKKM, and self-bonded silicon carbide produced by industry. Electrical porcelain and sodium glass were used as model materials in the development and testing of the methods.

  2. Using glass cullet in electrical ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrikova, L.P.; Konerskii, V.D.; Maslennikova, G.N.; Beshentsev, V.D.

    1988-03-01

    The possibility was studied of using glass cullet from the electric lamp and electric vacuum components industries for making electrical ceramics and porcelains for low-voltage insulation uses. The use of waste instead of feldspathic materials was considered. Compositions and properties for ceramics prepared from pegmatites and from glass cullets were determined and compared. Petrographic studies were conducted. Fuel conservation achievements resulting from lower requisite firing temperatures were assessed.

  3. Extensive lead exposure in children living in an area with production of lead-glazed tiles in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    PubMed

    Vahter, M; Counter, S A; Laurell, G; Buchanan, L H; Ortega, F; Schütz, A; Skerfving, S

    1997-01-01

    We have determined the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) in the blood of children living in two Andean villages in Ecuador with many family-owned cottage-type industries using Pb from discarded car batteries and occasionally, utility batteries containing Cd and Hg for the production of glazed tiles. The battery metals are ground together with water to a suspension, which is applied manually onto the tiles and then fused at about 1,200 degrees C in sawdust-fired kilns. Children aged 4-15 years were recruited from the schools with the assistance of the school-teachers. Children from homes with and without tile-glazing activities were to be included. Blood metal concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The children had extremely high blood lead concentrations (B-Pb), which ranged between 100 and 1,100 micrograms/l (median 510 micrograms/l, n = 82). Children from families engaged in tile-glazing production had significantly higher B-Pb (median 600 micrograms/l) than those living in homes with no such activity (median 210 micrograms/l), although the B-Pb of the latter were nonetheless clearly elevated. B-Cd and B-Hg were low (medians 0.25 microgram Cd/l and 1.6 micrograms Hg/l, respectively), indicating that the exposure from utility batteries containing Cd and Hg was low. The blood hemoglobin concentrations decreased significantly with rising B-Pb, indicating an effect on the heme synthesis. This was supported by a marked increase in the blood concentration of protoporphyrins with increasing B-Pb. It can be concluded that children from families with cottage industries producing glazed tiles are at risk for severe health effects due to high lead exposure.

  4. Environmental durability of ceramics and ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Dennis S.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of the current understanding of the environmental durability of both monolithic ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites, with a view to the prospective development of methods for the characterization, prediction, and improvement of ceramics' environmental durability. Attention is given to the environmental degradation behaviors of SiC, Si3N4, Al2O3, and glass-ceramic matrix compositions. The focus of corrosion prevention in Si-based ceramics such as SiC and Si3N4 is on the high and low sulfur fuel combustion-product effects encountered in heat engine applications of these ceramics; sintering additives and raw material impurities are noted to play a decisive role in ceramics' high temperature environmental response.

  5. Ceramic Technology Project semiannual progress report, April 1992--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1993-07-01

    This project was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the DOE Office of Transportation Systems` automotive technology programs. Significant progress in fabricating ceramic components for DOE, NASA, and DOE advanced heat engine programs show that operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engines is feasible; however, addition research is needed in materials and processing, design, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base for producing reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. A 5-yr project plan was developed, with focus on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  6. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) is a method for joining high temperature- resistant ceramic pieces together, establishing joints that are strong, and allowing joining to be done in the field. This new way of joining allows complex shapes to be formed by joining together geometrically simple shapes. The joining technology at NASA is one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon-carbide-based ceramic and composite components in demanding and high-temperature applications. The technology is being developed and tested for high-temperature propulsion parts for aerospace use. Commercially, it can be used for joining ceramic pieces used for high temperature applications in the power-generating and chemical industries, as well as in the microelectronics industry. This innovation could yield big payoffs for not only the power-generating industry but also the Silicon Valley chipmakers. This technology, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center by Dr. Mrityunjay Singh, is a two-step process involving first using a paste to join together ceramic pieces and bonding them by heating the joint to 110 to 120 C for between 10 and 20 min. This makes the joint strong enough to be handled for the final joining. Then, a silicon-based substance is applied to the joint and heated to 1400 C for 10 to 15 min. The resulting joint is as strong as the original ceramic material and can withstand the same high temperatures.

  7. Ceramic Technology Project. Semiannual progress report, April 1991--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Ceramic Technology Project was developed by the USDOE Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS`s Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS`s automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the USDOE and NASA advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. These programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. A five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. In July 1990 the original plan was updated through the estimated completion of development in 1993. The objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities.

  8. 35. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF TILE DECORATION ON WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF TILE DECORATION ON WALL OF POWERHOUSE #1 ON LEVEL +55; THE WINDOWS LOOK OUT ON DISCHARGE CHANNEL DOWNSTREAM FROM POWERHOUSE. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  9. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  10. South front, west part, showing wrought iron gates and tiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South front, west part, showing wrought iron gates and tiling at the former main entrance. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. 44. Everett Weinreb, photographer DETAIL, CEMENT TILE PATTERN, FROM LOGGIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Everett Weinreb, photographer DETAIL, CEMENT TILE PATTERN, FROM LOGGIA LOOKING EAST ACROSS RECEPTION HALL - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Tracks & Shed, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 45. Everett, Weinreb, photographer DETAIL, CEMENT TILE PATTERN FROM RECEPTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Everett, Weinreb, photographer DETAIL, CEMENT TILE PATTERN FROM RECEPTION HALL LOOKING EAST ACROSS ARRIVAL LOBBY FLOOR - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Tracks & Shed, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 24. DETAIL VIEW OF TILE GAUGE IN INTERMEDIATE LOCK WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL VIEW OF TILE GAUGE IN INTERMEDIATE LOCK WALL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. NOTE STEEL WALL ARMOR EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE. - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26, Alton, Madison County, IL

  14. VIEW OF COMPASS ROSE TILE INLAY IN FLOOR OF LOBBY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF COMPASS ROSE TILE INLAY IN FLOOR OF LOBBY, BUILDING 1, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Roosevelt Base, Administration & Brig Building, Bounded by Nevada & Colorado Streets, Reeves & Richardson Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Detail of first floor of loading dock showing composition tile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of first floor of loading dock showing composition tile over wood floor/basement ceiling - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. Interference Heating to Cavities Between Simulated RSI Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.

    1973-01-01

    Test results for full scale simulated surface insulation tiles on both the tunnel wall and in the free stream, for in-line and staggered tile orientations, are summarized as follows: (1) The staggered tile orientation has heating on the forward face which is a factor of 4.5 times higher than the heating to the forward face of the in-line tile orientation; (2) the longitudinal gap heating was the highest for the 0.3175 cm gap and the lowest for the 0.1587 cm gap; and (3) there was an order of magnitude decrease in the heating on the forward face of a spanwise gap when the gap size was decreased from 0.3175 cm to 0.1587 cm.

  17. Measurement of Tritium Surface Distribution on TFTR Bumper Limiter Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    K. Sugiyama; T. Tanabe; C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile

    2004-06-28

    The tritium surface distribution on graphite tiles used in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter and exposed to TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) discharges from 1993 to 1997 was measured by the Tritium Imaging Plate Technique (TIPT). The TFTR bumper limiter shows both re-/co-deposition and erosion. The tritium images for all tiles measured are strongly correlated with erosion and deposition patterns, and long-term tritium retention was found in the re-/co-depositions and flakes. The CFC tiles located at erosion dominated areas clearly showed their woven structure in their tritium images owing to different erosion yields between fibers and matrix. Significantly high tritium retention was observed on all sides of the erosion tiles, indicating carbon transport via repetition of local erosion/deposition cycles.

  18. Influence of microwave-annealing on the mechanical properties of alumina tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, M.D.; Akerman, M.A.; Baity, F.W. Jr.; Lowden, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Fully dense alumina armor tiles were annealed at 1400{degrees}C for one hour using microwave radiation at 28 GHz. Ultrasonic measurements showed that the acoustic impedances, and Young`s moduli of the post-annealed tiles were higher than for unannealed tiles. The post-annealed tiles also exhibited higher hardness values and improved armor performance. Microstructure analysis indicated that the grain boundary regions of the tiles were affected by the microwave heating.

  19. 56. ORIGINAL MOLDS. THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS HAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. ORIGINAL MOLDS. THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS HAS APPROXIMATELY 6,000 PLASTER MOLDS OF VARIOUS TYPES, INCLUDING THE DEEP CAVITY MOLDS IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE MOLDS PRODUCED ALLEGORICAL FIGURES TO BE INSTALLED AROUND THE CORNICES OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  20. No inherent glassiness in a Penrose tiling quasicrystal

    SciTech Connect

    Strandburg, K.J.; Dressel, P.R.

    1988-11-01

    Consideration of the structure of the Penrose pattern has led to speculation that a system with a Penrose tiling ground state might be subject to inherent glassy behavior. Monte Carol simulations show, using a simple model of the energetics, that there is no inherent glassiness in the Penrose tiling. Thermodynamic quantities measured are completely reversible, displaying no observable hysterisis, and the system may be easily cooled from a highly disordered configuration into its lowest energy state. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Dynamic and Static High Temperature Resistant Ceramic Seals for X- 38 re-Entry Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handrick, Karin E.; Curry, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    In a highly successful partnership, NAS A, ESA, DLR (German Space Agency) and European industry are building the X-38, V201 re-entry spacecraft, the prototype of the International Space Station's Crew Return Vehicle (CRV). This vehicle would serve both as an ambulance for medical emergencies and as an evacuation vehicle for the Space Station. The development of essential systems and technologies for a reusable re-entry vehicle is a first for Europe, and sharing the development of an advanced re-entry spacecraft with foreign partners is a first for NASA. NASA, in addition to its subsystem responsibilities, is performing overall X-38 vehicle system engineering and integration, will launch V201 on the Space Shuttle, deliver flight data for post-flight analysis and assessment and is responsible for development and manufacture of structural vehicle components and thermal protection (TPS) tiles. The major European objective for cooperation with NASA on X-38 was to establish a clear path through which key technologies needed for future space transportation systems could be developed and validated at affordable cost and with controlled risk. Europe has taken the responsibility to design and manufacture hot control surfaces like metallic rudders and ceramic matrix composites (CMC) body flaps, thermal protection systems such as CMC leading edges, the CMC nose cap and -skirt, insulation, landing gears and elements of the V201 primary structure. Especially hot control surfaces require extremely high temperature resistant seals to limit hot gas ingestion and transfer of heat to underlying low-temperature structures to prevent overheating of these structures and possible loss of the vehicle. Complex seal interfaces, which have to fulfill various, tight mission- and vehicle-related requirements exist between the moveable ceramic body flaps and the bottom surface of the vehicle, between the rudder and fin structure and the ceramic leading edge panel and TPS tiles. While NASA

  2. Spatial chaos of Wang tiles with two symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin-Yu; Chen, Yu-Jie; Hu, Wen-Guei; Lin, Song-Sun

    2016-02-01

    This investigation completely classifies the spatial chaos problem in plane edge coloring (Wang tiles) with two symbols. For a set of Wang tiles B , spatial chaos occurs when the spatial entropy h ( B ) is positive. B is called a minimal cycle generator if P ( B ) ≠ 0̸ and P ( B ' ) = 0̸ whenever B ' ⫋ B , where P ( B ) is the set of all periodic patterns on ℤ2 generated by B . Given a set of Wang tiles B , write B = C 1 ∪ C 2 ∪ ⋯ ∪ C k ∪ N , where Cj, 1 ≤ j ≤ k, are minimal cycle generators and B contains no minimal cycle generator except those contained in C1∪C2∪⋯∪Ck. Then, the positivity of spatial entropy h ( B ) is completely determined by C1∪C2∪⋯∪Ck. Furthermore, there are 39 equivalence classes of marginal positive-entropy sets of Wang tiles and 18 equivalence classes of saturated zero-entropy sets of Wang tiles. For a set of Wang tiles B , h ( B ) is positive if and only if B contains a MPE set, and h ( B ) is zero if and only if B is a subset of a SZE set.

  3. Chemical durability of glaze on Zsolnay architectural ceramics (Budapest, Hungary) in acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baricza, Ágnes; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; May, Zoltán; Tóth, Mária; Szabó, Csaba

    2015-04-01

    Zsolnay glazed architectural ceramics are among the most famous Hungarian ceramics, however, there is no profound knowledge about the deterioration of these building materials. The present study aims to reveal the influence of acidic solutions in the deterioration of Zsolnay ceramics. The studied ceramics are glazed roof tiles, which originate from two buildings in Budapest: one is located in the densely built-up city centre with high traffic rate and another one is in a city quarter with moderate traffic and more open space. The roof tiles represent the construction and the renovation periods of the buildings. The ceramics were mainly covered by lead glazes in the construction period and mainly alkali glazes in the renovation periods. The glaze of the tiles were coloured with iron (for yellow glaze) or chromium/copper/iron (for green glazes) in the case of the building located in the city centre, whereas cobalt was used as colorant and tin oxide as opacifier for the blue glaze of the ceramics of the other building. Six tiles were selected from each building. Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) solutions of pH2 and pH4 were used to measure the durability of the glazes up to 14 days at room temperature. The surfaces of the glazed ceramics after the treatment were measured by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDS techniques to determine the precipitated phases on the surface of the glaze. Electron microprobe analysis was used to quantitatively characterise phases found and to determine the chemical composition of the treated glaze. The recovered sulphuric acid solutions were measured with ICP-OES technique in order to quantify the extent of the ion exchange between the glaze and the solutions. There is a significant difference in the dissolution rates in the treatments with sulphuric acid solutions of pH2 and pH4, respectively. The solution of pH2 induced greater ion exchange (approx. 7-10 times) from the glaze compared to the solution of pH4. Alkali and alkali earth

  4. Energy conservation in industry

    SciTech Connect

    Strub, A.S.; Ehringer, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses combustion and heat recovery, engines and batteries, and applications and technologies. Some of the topics covered include: energy-saving technologies; heat exchangers, fluidized bed exchangers, industrial heat pumps; fluidized bed combustion; waste heat recovery; orc machines and cascading; engines and flywheels; new types of engines; advanced batteries; fuel cell; chemical industry and catalysis; metallurgy; textile industry; food industry; microwave applications; and cement and glass ceramic industry.

  5. Ultrasonic sensor based defect detection and characterisation of ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kesharaju, Manasa; Nagarajah, Romesh; Zhang, Tonzhua; Crouch, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic tiles, used in body armour systems, are currently inspected visually offline using an X-ray technique that is both time consuming and very expensive. The aim of this research is to develop a methodology to detect, locate and classify various manufacturing defects in Reaction Sintered Silicon Carbide (RSSC) ceramic tiles, using an ultrasonic sensing technique. Defects such as free silicon, un-sintered silicon carbide material and conventional porosity are often difficult to detect using conventional X-radiography. An alternative inspection system was developed to detect defects in ceramic components using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based signal processing technique. The inspection methodology proposed focuses on pre-processing of signals, de-noising, wavelet decomposition, feature extraction and post-processing of the signals for classification purposes. This research contributes to developing an on-line inspection system that would be far more cost effective than present methods and, moreover, assist manufacturers in checking the location of high density areas, defects and enable real time quality control, including the implementation of accept/reject criteria.

  6. Utilization of by-products from western (US) coal combustion in the manufacture of mineral wool and other ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, O.E.

    1984-07-01

    The ash by-products from combustion or gasification of western US coals have chemical and mineralogical characteristics that lend themselves to utilisation in ceramic materials. Laboratory and pilot-scale fabrication of four such materials has been studied. Cyclone slag from four lignite-fired power plants and a dry scrubber ash has been fabricated into mineral wool insulation in a pilot-scale cupola. Extended and fired mixtures of fly ash, clay and ground glass have produced ceramics with very high flexural strength. Ceramic glazed wall tiles utilising fly ash in place of clay have been prepared and shown to meet most specifications for fired clay tile. Both fired and unfired dry-pressed brick containing 100% western fly ash have met ASTM specifications for fired clay brick.

  7. Tiling solutions for optimal biological sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2015-10-01

    Biological systems, from cells to organisms, must respond to the ever-changing environment in order to survive and function. This is not a simple task given the often random nature of the signals they receive, as well as the intrinsically stochastic, many-body and often self-organized nature of the processes that control their sensing and response and limited resources. Despite a wide range of scales and functions that can be observed in the living world, some common principles that govern the behavior of biological systems emerge. Here I review two examples of very different biological problems: information transmission in gene regulatory networks and diversity of adaptive immune receptor repertoires that protect us from pathogens. I discuss the trade-offs that physical laws impose on these systems and show that the optimal designs of both immune repertoires and gene regulatory networks display similar discrete tiling structures. These solutions rely on locally non-overlapping placements of the responding elements (genes and receptors) that, overall, cover space nearly uniformly. xml:lang="fr"

  8. Did we push dental ceramics too far? A brief history of ceramic dental implants.

    PubMed

    Haubenreich, James E; Robinson, Fonda G; West, Karen P; Frazer, Robert Q

    2005-01-01

    Humankind has developed and used ceramics throughout history. It currently has widespread industrial applications. Dental ceramics are used for fabricating highly esthetic prosthetic denture teeth, crowns, and inlays. However, ceramic's biocompatibility and compressive strength are offset by its hardness and brittleness. Nonetheless, a single crystal sapphire aluminum oxide endosseous implant was developed in 1972 as an alternative to metal. It was more esthetic than its metallic counterparts and was eventually produced in a variety of shapes and sizes. Clinical studies demonstrated its excellent soft and hard tissue biocompatibility, yet the range of problems included fractures during surgery, fractures after loading, mobility, infection, pain, bone loss, and lack of osseointegration. Ultimately, single crystal sapphire implants fell into irredeemable disfavor because of its poor impact strength, and dentists and surgeons eventually turned to other implant materials. However, bioactive ceramic coatings on metal implants have kept ceramics as a key component in dental implantology.

  9. Foam on Tile Impact Modeling for the STS-107 Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.; Robinson, J. H.; Richardson, S.; Evans, S. W.; Stallworth, R.; Hovater, M.

    2004-01-01

    Following the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia during reentry a NASA/Contractor investigation team was formed to examine the probable damage inflicted on Orbiter Thermal Protection System elements by impact of External Tank insulating foam projectiles. The authors formed a working subgroup within the larger team to apply the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics code SPHC to the damage estimation problem. Numerical models of the Orbiter's tiles and of the Tank's foam were constructed and used as inputs into the code. Material properties needed to properly model the tiles and foam were obtained from other working subgroups who performed tests on these items for this purpose. Two- and three-dimensional models of the tiles were constructed, including the glass outer layer, the main body of LI-900 insulation, the densified lower layer of LI-900, the Nomex felt mounting layer, and the Aluminum 2024 vehicle skin. A model for the BX-250 foam including porous compression, elastic rebound, and surface erosion was developed. Code results for the tile damage and foam behavior were extensively validated through comparison with Southwest Research Institute foam-on-tile impact experiments carried out in 1999. These tests involved small projectiles striking individual tiles and small tile arrays. Following code and model validation we simulated impacts of larger foam projectiles on the examples of tile systems used on the Orbiter. Results for impacts on the main landing gear door are presented in this paper, including effects of impacts at several angles, and of rapidly rotating projectiles. General results suggest that foam impacts on tiles at about 500 mph could cause appreciable damage if the impact angle is greater than about 20 degrees. Some variations of the foam properties, such as increased brittleness or increased density could increase damage in some cases. Rotation up to 17 rps failed to increase the damage for the two cases considered. This does not rule out other cases

  10. Dental ceramics: An update.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Arvind; Shenoy, Nina

    2010-10-01

    In the last few decades, there have been tremendous advances in the mechanical properties and methods of fabrication of ceramic materials. While porcelain-based materials are still a major component of the market, there have been moves to replace metal ceramics systems with all ceramic systems. Advances in bonding techniques have increased the range and scope for use of ceramics in dentistry. In this brief review, we will discuss advances in ceramic materials and fabrication techniques. Examples of the microstructure property relationships for these ceramic materials will also be addressed.

  11. Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Paul KT Liu

    2005-01-13

    This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

  12. Ballistic Performance of Porous Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems at 9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Joshua E.; Bohl, W. E.; Foreman, C. D.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal-protection-systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components and sensitive electronic components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, these materials are also highly exposed to space environmental hazards like meteoroid and orbital debris impacts. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9 km/s on ceramic tiles similar to those used on the Orbiter. These tiles have a porous-batting of nominally 8 lb/cubic ft alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) insulating material coated with a damage-resistant, toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation (TUFI) layer.

  13. Hollow clay tile wall program summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D.

    1995-07-30

    Many of the Y-12 Plant buildings, constructed during the 1940s and 1950s, consist of steel ed concrete framing infilled with hollow clay tile (HCT). The infill was intended to provide for building enclosure and was not designed to have vertical or lateral load-carrying capacity. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, seismic and wind evaluations were performed on many of these buildings in conjunction with the preparation of a site-wide safety analysis report. This analytical work, based on the best available methodology, considered lateral load-carrying capacity of the HCT infill on the basis of building code allowable shear values. In parallel with the analysis effort, DOE initiated a program to develop natural phenomena capacity and performance criteria for existing buildings, but these criteria did not specify guidelines for determining the lateral force capacity of frames infilled with HCT. The evaluation of infills was, therefore, based on the provisions for the design of unreinforced masonry as outlined in standard masonry codes. When the results of the seismic and wind evaluations were compared with the new criteria, the projected building capacities fell short of the requirements. Apparently, if the buildings were to meet the new criteria, many millions of dollars would be required for building upgrades. Because the upgrade costs were significant, the assumptions and approaches used in the analyses were reevaluated. Four issues were identified: (1) Once the infilled walls cracked, what capacity (nonlinear response), if any, would the walls have to resist earthquake or wind loads applied in the plane of the infill (in-plane)? (2) Would the infilled walls remain within the steel or reinforced concrete framing when subjected to earthquake or high wind loads applied perpendicular to the infill (out-of-plane)? (3) What was the actual shear capacity of the HCT infill? (4) Was modeling the HCT infill as a shear wall the best approach?

  14. Ceramic turbochargers: a case study of a near-term application of high-strength ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.P.; Johnson, L.R.

    1984-08-01

    The most likely near-term, high-volume application of structural ceramics in heat engines is in turbocharger rotors. These will be the first mass-produced ceramic components applicable to both gasoline and diesel engines. The principal objective of this study is to estimate relative costs of ceramic turbocharger rotors vs conventional metal rotors. Thus the focus is on the economics, manufacturing, marketing strategies, and benefits related to the introduction and use of ceramic turbochargers, rather than on the detailed technical issues surrounding the microstructure and processing aspects of the new ceramic technologies. The use of ceramics first in rotors and later in other turbocharger components will have significant impacts on cost, size, performance, and overall market growth of turbos. The Japanese appear to have the lead in developing and producing ceramic turbo components, and the implications for continued US competitiveness are clear: the nation that attains the ultimate lead will dominate in the worldwide development and production of advanced ceramics for many industrial and commercial applications.

  15. Recycling of the product of thermal inertization of cement-asbestos for various industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Sardisco, Lorenza; Saraceno, Michele; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Cavenati, Cinzia; Zanatto, Ivano

    2011-01-01

    Recycling of secondary raw materials is a priority of waste handling in the countries of the European community. A potentially important secondary raw material is the product of the thermal transformation of cement-asbestos, produced by prolonged annealing at 1200-1300 °C. The product is chemically comparable to a Mg-rich clinker. Previous work has assured the reliability of the transformation process. The current challenge is to find potential applications as secondary raw material. Recycling of thermally treated asbestos-containing material (named KRY·AS) in traditional ceramics has already been studied with successful results. The results presented here are the outcome of a long termed project started in 2005 and devoted to the recycling of this secondary raw materials in various industrial applications. KRY·AS can be added in medium-high percentages (10-40 wt%) to commercial mixtures for the production of clay bricks, rock-wool glasses for insulation as well as Ca-based frits and glass-ceramics for the production of ceramic tiles. The secondary raw material was also used for the synthesis of two ceramic pigments; a green uvarovite-based pigment [Ca(3)Cr(2)(SiO(4))(3)] and a pink malayaite-based pigment [Ca(Sn,Cr)SiO(5)]. The latter is especially interesting as a substitute for cadmium-based pigments. This work also shows that KRY·AS can replace standard fillers in polypropylene plastics without altering the properties of the final product. For each application, a description and relevant results are presented and discussed.

  16. Recycling of the product of thermal inertization of cement-asbestos for various industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F.; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Sardisco, Lorenza; Saraceno, Michele; Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena; Cavenati, Cinzia; Zanatto, Ivano

    2011-01-15

    Recycling of secondary raw materials is a priority of waste handling in the countries of the European community. A potentially important secondary raw material is the product of the thermal transformation of cement-asbestos, produced by prolonged annealing at 1200-1300 {sup o}C. The product is chemically comparable to a Mg-rich clinker. Previous work has assured the reliability of the transformation process. The current challenge is to find potential applications as secondary raw material. Recycling of thermally treated asbestos-containing material (named KRY.AS) in traditional ceramics has already been studied with successful results. The results presented here are the outcome of a long termed project started in 2005 and devoted to the recycling of this secondary raw materials in various industrial applications. KRY.AS can be added in medium-high percentages (10-40 wt%) to commercial mixtures for the production of clay bricks, rock-wool glasses for insulation as well as Ca-based frits and glass-ceramics for the production of ceramic tiles. The secondary raw material was also used for the synthesis of two ceramic pigments; a green uvarovite-based pigment [Ca{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}] and a pink malayaite-based pigment [Ca(Sn,Cr)SiO{sub 5}]. The latter is especially interesting as a substitute for cadmium-based pigments. This work also shows that KRY.AS can replace standard fillers in polypropylene plastics without altering the properties of the final product. For each application, a description and relevant results are presented and discussed.

  17. Epidemiology of Accidents in Tile Factories of Mangalore City in Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S Ganesh; Rathnakar, UP; Harsha Kumar, HN

    2010-01-01

    Background: Occupational accidents are a major point of concern in industries. The academic community should take the first step to address the long-neglected concerns of occupational safety. Objective: To assess the prevalence and pattern of occupational accidents. Materials and Methods: A record-based, cross-sectional study was done in three tile factories of Mangalore city, in Karnataka. A total of 416 workers were analyzed for the year 2004, and data regarding age, sex, job duration, type and nature of injury, body parts involved, and time of injury were collected in a prestructured proforma. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Chi-square test, Univariate and Multivariate analysis. Results: The overall prevalence rate of accidents was found to be 18.5%. It was found that almost around 86% of the accidents had affected the limbs (upper limb 24.7%, lower limb 61%), around half (52%) of the injuries were contributed by superficial injuries, 40% of accidents were due to stepping/striking against objects and while handling. Hand tools and machinery in motion contributed to around 20% of the accidents. Accidents were more common among the younger age group and less-experienced workers. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the age group of 30-39 years had an independent significant association with accidents (OR = 0.21, P = 0.04). Conclusion: Accidents in tile industries are an important occupational health problem in this area of the country. There is a need for proper safety training of the workers. PMID:20606926

  18. Ceramic fiber insulation impregnated with an infra-red retardant coating and method for production thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinn, Alfred A. (Inventor); Tarkanian, Ryan Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invented insulation is a ceramic fiber insulation wherein the ceramic fibers are treated with a coating which contains transition metal oxides. The invented process for coating the insulation is a process of applying the transition metal oxide coating to the fibers of the insulation after the fibers have been formed into a tile or other porous body. The coating of transition metal oxide lowers the transmittance of radiation through the insulation thereby lowering the temperature of the backface of the insulation and better protecting the structure that underlies the insulation.

  19. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  20. Construction of 2D quasi-periodic Rauzy tiling by similarity transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravlev, V. G.; Maleev, A. V.

    2009-05-15

    A new approach to constructing self-similar fractal tilings is proposed based on the construction of semigroups generated by a finite set of similarity transformations. The Rauzy tiling-a 2D analog of 1D Fibonacci tiling generated by the golden mean-is used as an example to illustrate this approach. It is shown that the Rauzy torus development and the elementary fractal boundary of Rauzy tiling can be constructed in the form of a set of centers of similarity semigroups generated by two and three similarity transformations, respectively. A centrosymmetric tiling, locally dual to the Rauzy tiling, is constructed for the first time and its parameterization is developed.

  1. Ceramic electrolyte coating methods

    DOEpatents

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2004-10-12

    Processes for preparing aqueous suspensions of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material such as yttrium-stabilized zirconia. The invention also includes a process for preparing an aqueous coating slurry of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material. The invention further includes a process for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material on pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  2. Investigation of registration algorithms for the automatic tile processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamir, Dan E.

    1995-01-01

    The Robotic Tile Inspection System (RTPS), under development in NASA-KSC, is expected to automate the processes of post-flight re-water-proofing and the process of inspection of the Shuttle heat absorbing tiles. An important task of the robot vision sub-system is to register the 'real-world' coordinates with the coordinates of the robot model of the Shuttle tiles. The model coordinates relate to a tile data-base and pre-flight tile-images. In the registration process, current (post-flight) images are aligned with pre-flight images to detect the rotation and translation displacement required for the coordinate systems rectification. The research activities performed this summer included study and evaluation of the registration algorithm that is currently implemented by the RTPS, as well as, investigation of the utility of other registration algorithms. It has been found that the current algorithm is not robust enough. This algorithm has a success rate of less than 80% and is, therefore, not suitable for complying with the requirements of the RTPS. Modifications to the current algorithm has been developed and tested. These modifications can improve the performance of the registration algorithm in a significant way. However, this improvement is not sufficient to satisfy system requirements. A new algorithm for registration has been developed and tested. This algorithm presented very high degree of robustness with success rate of 96%.

  3. Structural testing of hollow clay tile units. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.

    1992-08-05

    This report presents the results of laboratory testing of hollow clay tile masonry units. The testing is part of an ongoing natural phenomena evaluation program of Hollow Clay Tile Wall (HCTW) facilities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary purpose of these tests is to determine structural properties of unit tiles of the same lot to be used in large-scale laboratory testing of HCTW structures. Light red (terra cotta) clay masonry units, taken from the construction supply yard of were sampled and tested in accordance with applicable ASTM standards. Measurement of size, measurement of void area, initial rate of absorption, compressive strength, and splitting tensile strength procedures were performed. Evaluation of the test results along with comparison to other published clay tile data is provided. Volume 1 of this document contains a description of the testing, a summary of the results, comparison to other published clay tile data, and conclusion drawn from the results. Volume 2 contains the unreduced test data, data reduction software, and quality assurance aspects of the testing.

  4. The ATLAS tile calorimeter performance at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, R.

    2011-07-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the read out system exploiting different signal sources: laser light, charge injection and a radioactive source. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons and more importantly LHC collision events. The results presented here assess the absolute energy scale calibration precision, the energy and timing uniformity and the synchronization precision. The ensemble of the results demonstrates a very good understanding of the performance of the Tile Calorimeter that is proved to be well within the design expectations. (authors)

  5. Leaching of dissolved phosphorus from tile-drained agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Andersen, H E; Windolf, J; Kronvang, B

    2016-01-01

    We investigated leaching of dissolved phosphorus (P) from 45 tile-drains representing animal husbandry farms in all regions of Denmark. Leaching of P via tile-drains exhibits a high degree of spatial heterogeneity with a low concentration in the majority of tile-drains and few tile-drains (15% in our investigation) having high to very high concentration of dissolved P. The share of dissolved organic P (DOP) was high (up to 96%). Leaching of DOP has hitherto been a somewhat overlooked P loss pathway in Danish soils and the mechanisms of mobilization and transport of DOP needs more investigation. We found a high correlation between Olsen-P and water extractable P. Water extractable P is regarded as an indicator of risk of loss of dissolved P. Our findings indicate that Olsen-P, which is measured routinely in Danish agricultural soils, may be a useful proxy for the P leaching potential of soils. However, we found no straight-forward correlation between leaching potential of the top soil layer (expressed as either degree of P saturation, Olsen-P or water extractable P) and the measured concentration of dissolved P in the tile-drain. This underlines that not only the source of P but also the P loss pathway must be taken into account when evaluating the risk of P loss. PMID:27332841

  6. PHOTOGRAPHER BY KSC ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL TECHNICIANS MOUNT SOME OF THE NEARLY 8,000 CERAMIC-COATED

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    PHOTOGRAPHER BY KSC ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL TECHNICIANS MOUNT SOME OF THE NEARLY 8,000 CERAMIC-COATED TILES THAT REMAIN TO BE INSTALLED ON THE EXTERNAL SURFACES OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER COLUMBIA TO COMPLETE THE THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM THAT WILL ABSORB THE INTENSE HEAT OF REENTERING THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE AFTER A MISSION IN SPACE. TILE INSTALLATION IS DONE ON AN AROUND-THE-CLOCK BASIS IN THE ORBITER PROCESSING FACILITY WHERE COLUMBIA, THE FIRST IN A NEW BREED OF MANNED, REUSABLE SPACECRAFT, IS BEING READIED FOR THE FIRST LAUNCH OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE LATER THIS YEAR.

  7. Ceramic to metal seal

    DOEpatents

    Snow, Gary S.; Wilcox, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Providing a high strength, hermetic ceramic to metal seal by essentially heating a wire-like metal gasket and a ceramic member, which have been chemically cleaned, while simultaneously deforming from about 50 to 95 percent the metal gasket against the ceramic member at a temperature of about 30 to 75 percent of the melting temperature of the metal gasket.

  8. Brittleness of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroupa, F.

    1984-01-01

    The main characteristics of mechanical properties of ceramics are summarized and the causes of their brittleness, especially the limited mobility of dislocations, are discussed. The possibility of improving the fracture toughness of ceramics and the basic research needs relating to technology, structure and mechanical properties of ceramics are stressed in connection with their possible applications in engineering at high temperature.

  9. Monte Carlo estimation of the number of tatami tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Kenji; Higuchi, Saburo

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by the way Japanese tatami mats are placed on the floor, we consider domino tilings with a constraint and estimate the number of such tilings of plane regions. We map the system onto a monomer-dimer model with a novel local interaction on the dual lattice. We make use of a variant of the Hamiltonian replica exchange Monte Carlo method where data for ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic models are combined to make a single family of histograms. The properties of the density of states is studied beyond exact enumeration and combinatorial methods. The logarithm of the number of the tilings is linear in the boundary length of the region for all the regions studied.

  10. Web system to support analysis of the Tile Calorimeter commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidantchik, C.; Faria, A.; Grael, F. F.; Ferreira, F. G.; Galvão, K. K.; Dotti, A.; Solans, C.; Price, L.

    2008-07-01

    This article describes the set of computer systems that support the data analysis and quality control during the Tile Calorimeter commissioning phase. The Tile Commissioning Web System (TCWS) encapsulates the steps to retrieve information, execute programs, access the outcomes, register statements and verify the equipment status. TCWS integrates different applications, each one presenting a particular view of the commissioning process. The TileComm Analysis stores plots and analysis results, provides equipment-oriented visualization, collects information regarding the equipment performance, and outlines its status in each test. The Timeline application provides the equipment status history in a chronological way. The Web Interface for Shifters supports monitoring tasks by managing test parameters, graphical views of the detector's performance, and information status of all equipment that was used in each test. The DCS Web System provides a standard way to verify the behaviour of power sources and the cooling system.

  11. Flow and heat transfer in space vehicle tile gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garimella, S. V.; Shollenberger, K. A.; Eibeck, P. A.; White, S.

    1992-01-01

    The flow patterns and the characteristics of the convective heat transfer in intersecting tile gaps on space vehicles were experimentally investigated using a water channel flow facility for simulating flow conditions in the tile gaps on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle. It was found that penetration of external flow into the perpendicular gap was limited in most cases to roughly two gap widths, while greater entrainment occurred in the parallel gap. Heat transfer in the bulk of the perpendicular gap occurred by natural convection. The Reynolds number and the relative tile-height differences had the strongest influence on heat transfer and affected both the magnitude and the symmetry of the temperature and the flow fields.

  12. Flutter Analysis of the Shuttle Tile Overlay Repair Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Kim S.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Waters, William A.; Chen, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle tile overlay repair concept, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is designed for on-orbit installation over an area of damaged tile to permit safe re-entry. The thin flexible plate is placed over the damaged area and secured to tile at discreet points around its perimeter. A series of flutter analyses were performed to determine if the onset of flutter met the required safety margins. Normal vibration modes of the panel, obtained from a simplified structural analysis of the installed concept, were combined with a series of aerodynamic analyses of increasing levels of fidelity in terms of modeling the flow physics to determine the onset of flutter. Results from these analyses indicate that it is unlikely that the overlay installed at body point 1800 will flutter during re-entry.

  13. Mechanical construction and installation of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, J.; Adragna, P.; Alexa, C.; Alves, R.; Amaral, P.; Ananiev, A.; Anderson, K.; Andresen, X.; Antonaki, A.; Batusov, V.; Bednar, P.; Behrens, A.; Bergeaas, E.; Biscarat, C.; Blanch, O.; Blanchot, G.; Blocki, J.; Bohm, C.; Boldea, V.; Bosi, F.; Bosman, M.; Bromberg, C.; Brunel, B.; Budagov, J.; Calderón, D.; Calvet, D.; Cardeira, C.; Carli, T.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castillo, M. V.; Costello, J.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Clement, C.; Cobal, M.; Cogswell, F.; Constantinescu, S.; Costanzo, D.; Da Silva, P.; David, M.; Davidek, T.; Dawson, J.; De, K.; Del Prete, T.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dotti, A.; Downing, R.; Drake, G.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Farbin, A.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feng, E.; Fenyuk, A.; Ferdi, C.; Ferreira, B. C.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, J.; Flaminio, V.; Flix, J.; Francavilla, P.; Fullana, E.; Garde, V.; Gayde, J. C.; Gellerstedt, K.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gildemeister, O.; Gilewsky, V.; Giokaris, N.; Gollub, N.; Gomes, A.; Gonzalez, V.; Gouveia, J.; Grenier, P.; Gris, P.; Grudzinski, J.; Guarino, V.; Guicheney, C.; Gupta, A.; Hakobyan, H.; Haney, M.; Hellman, S.; Henriques, A.; Higon, E.; Hill, N.; Holmgren, S.; Hruska, I.; Hurwitz, M.; Huston, J.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jon-And, K.; Junk, T.; Karyukhin, A.; Khubua, J.; Klereborn, J.; Kopikov, S.; Korolkov, I.; Krivkova, P.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kurochkin, Y.; Kuzhir, P.; Lapin, V.; Lasseur, C.; LeCompte, T.; Lefevre, R.; Leitner, R.; Li, J.; Lyablin, M.; Lim, H.; Lokajicek, M.; Lomakin, Y.; Lourtie, P.; Lovas, L.; Lupi, A.; Maidantchik, C.; Maio, A.; Maliukov, S.; Manousakis, A.; Marques, C.; Marroquim, F.; Martin, F.; Mazzoni, E.; Mergelkuhl, D.; Merritt, F.; Miagkov, A.; Miller, R.; Minashvili, I.; Miralles, L.; Montarou, G.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M.; Nikitine, I.; Nodulman, L.; Norniella, O.; Nyman, T.; Onofre, A.; Oreglia, M.; Palan, B.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Pereira, A.; Pilcher, J.; Pina, J.; Pinhão, J.; Pod, E.; Podlyski, F.; Portell, X.; Poveda, J.; Pribyl, L.; Price, L. E.; Proudfoot, J.; Ramalho, M.; Ramstedt, M.; Raposeiro, L.; Reis, J.; Richards, R.; Roda, C.; Romanov, V.; Rose-Dulcina, L.; Rosnet, P.; Roy, P.; Ruiz, A.; Rumiantsau, V.; Russakovich, N.; da Costa, J. Sa; Salto, O.; Salvachua, B.; Sanchis, E.; Sanders, H.; Santoni, C.; Santos, J.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarri, F.; Says, L.-P.; Schlager, G.; Schlereth, J.; Seixas, J. M.; Selldèn, B.; Shalanda, N.; Shchelchkov, A.; Shevtsov, P.; Shochet, M.; Silva, J.; Simaitis, V.; Simonyan, M.; Sissakian, A.; Sjoelin, J.; Skrzecz, F.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Sorokina, J.; Sosebee, M.; Spano, F.; Speckmeyer, P.; Stanek, R.; Starchenko, E.; Starovoitov, P.; Suk, M.; Sykora, I.; Tang, F.; Tas, P.; Teuscher, R.; Tokar, S.; Topilin, N.; Torres, J.; Underwood, D.; Usai, G.; Utkin, V.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valls, J. A.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazeille, F.; Vellidis, C.; Ventura, F.; Vichou, I.; Vivarelli, I.; Volpi, M.; White, A.; Wood, K.; Zaitsev, A.; Zenin, A.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zilka, B.

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarises the mechanical construction and installation of the Tile Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN, Switzerland. The Tile Calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter using scintillator as the sensitive detector and steel as the absorber and covers the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities ±1.7. The mechanical construction of the Tile Calorimeter occurred over a period of about 10 years beginning in 1995 with the completion of the Technical Design Report and ending in 2006 with the installation of the final module in the ATLAS cavern. During this period approximately 2600 metric tons of steel were transformed into a laminated structure to form the absorber of the sampling calorimeter. Following instrumentation and testing, which is described elsewhere, the modules were installed in the ATLAS cavern with a remarkable accuracy for a structure of this size and weight.

  14. Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same

    DOEpatents

    Hanoka, Jack I.; Real, Markus

    1999-11-16

    A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

  15. NASA/CARES dual-use ceramic technology spinoff applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Lynn M.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Nemeth, Noel N.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has developed software that enables American industry to establish the reliability and life of ceramic structures in a wide variety of 21st Century applications. Designing ceramic components to survive at higher temperatures than the capability of most metals and in severe loading environments involves the disciplines of statistics and fracture mechanics. Successful application of advanced ceramics material properties and the use of a probabilistic brittle material design methodology. The NASA program, known as CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures), is a comprehensive general purpose design tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. The latest version of this software, CARESALIFE, is coupled to several commercially available finite element analysis programs (ANSYS, MSC/NASTRAN, ABAQUS, COSMOS/N4, MARC), resulting in an advanced integrated design tool which is adapted to the computing environment of the user. The NASA-developed CARES software has been successfully used by industrial, government, and academic organizations to design and optimize ceramic components for many demanding applications. Industrial sectors impacted by this program include aerospace, automotive, electronic, medical, and energy applications. Dual-use applications include engine components, graphite and ceramic high temperature valves, TV picture tubes, ceramic bearings, electronic chips, glass building panels, infrared windows, radiant heater tubes, heat exchangers, and artificial hips, knee caps, and teeth.

  16. Creation of a ceramics handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    A group of common ceramic materials (alumina, magnesium oxide, silicon nitride, and silicon carbide) were characterized through literature searches according to their physical properties. The files used were the NASA file, DDC/GRA File, Engineering Index File and standard library searches. The results of these searches are arranged by material properties including mechanical, electrical, electromagnetic, where applicable, and fracture; and the entries are arranged in chronological order by candidate. A list, by author, follows where tabular information including charts and figures of results is given along with a brief statement of the results and conclusions. In both cases, information on the independent variables along with their range is given. The results of an extensive industry survey asking for names of other candidates on which information is lacking and also what type of service, if any, is desired in keeping a current information file on general ceramic materials.

  17. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  18. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    DOEpatents

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  19. Forming of superplastic ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Wadsworth, J.; Nieh, T.G.

    1994-05-01

    Superplasticity in ceramics has now advanced to the stage that technologically viable superplastic deformation processing can be performed. In this paper, examples of superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of ceramic components are given. Recent work in biaxial gas-pressure forming of several ceramics is provided. These include yttria-stabilized, tetragonal zirconia (YTZP), a 20% alumina/YTZP composite, and silicon. In addition, the concurrent superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of a hybrid ceramic-metal structure are presented. These forming processes offer technological advantages of greater dimensional control and increased variety and complexity of shapes than is possible with conventional ceramic shaping technology.

  20. High-Performance Tiled WMS and KML Web Server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This software is an Apache 2.0 module implementing a high-performance map server to support interactive map viewers and virtual planet client software. It can be used in applications that require access to very-high-resolution geolocated images, such as GIS, virtual planet applications, and flight simulators. It serves Web Map Service (WMS) requests that comply with a given request grid from an existing tile dataset. It also generates the KML super-overlay configuration files required to access the WMS image tiles.

  1. Tony Rollins fashions a new tile for the Space Shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Tile Fabrication Shop, Tony Rollins, with United Space Alliance, holds down a curtain while making a test sample of tile on a block 5-axis computerized numerical control milling machine. About 70 percent of a Space Shuttle orbiter's external surface is shielded from heat by a network of more than 24,000 tiles formed from a silica fiber compound. They are known as High-Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles and Low-Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (LRSI) tiles. Most HRSI tiles are 6 inches square, but may be as large as 12 inches in some areas, and 1 to 5 inches thick. LRSI tiles are generally 8 inches square, ranging from 0.2- to 1-inch thick. More advanced materials such as Flexible Insulation Blankets have replaced tiles on some upper surfaces of the orbiter.

  2. An automated data management/analysis system for space shuttle orbiter tiles. [stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.; Ballas, M.

    1982-01-01

    An engineering data management system was combined with a nonlinear stress analysis program to provide a capability for analyzing a large number of tiles on the space shuttle orbiter. Tile geometry data and all data necessary of define the tile loads environment accessed automatically as needed for the analysis of a particular tile or a set of tiles. User documentation provided includes: (1) description of computer programs and data files contained in the system; (2) definitions of all engineering data stored in the data base; (3) characteristics of the tile anaytical model; (4) instructions for preparation of user input; and (5) a sample problem to illustrate use of the system. Description of data, computer programs, and analytical models of the tile are sufficiently detailed to guide extension of the system to include additional zones of tiles and/or additional types of analyses

  3. Ceramics manufacturing contributes to ambient silica air pollution and burden of lung disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chung-Min; Wu, Bo-Chun; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; You, Shu-Han; Lin, Yi-Jun; Hsieh, Nan-Hung

    2015-10-01

    Inhalation of silica (SiO2) in occupational exposures can cause pulmonary fibrosis (silicosis), lung function deficits, pulmonary inflammation, and lung cancer. Current risk assessment models, however, cannot fully explain the magnitude of silica-induced pulmonary disease risk. The purpose of this study was to assess human health risk exposed to airborne silica dust in Taiwan ceramics manufacturing. We conducted measurements to characterize workplace-specific airborne silica dust in tile and commodity ceramic factories and used physiologically based alveolar exposure model to estimate exposure dose. We constructed dose-response models for describing relationships between exposure dose and inflammatory responses, by which health risks among workers can be assessed. We found that silica contents were 0.22-33.04 % with mean concentration ranges of 0.11-5.48 and 0.46-1763.30 μg m(-3), respectively, in commodity and tile ceramic factories. We showed that granulation workers in tile ceramic factory had the highest total SiO2 lung burden (∼1000 mg) with cumulative SiO2 lung burden of ∼4 × 10(4) mg-year. The threshold estimates with an effect on human lung inflammation and fibrosis are 407.31 ± 277.10 (mean ± sd) and 505.91 ± 231.69 mg, respectively. For granulation workers, long-term exposure to airborne silica dust for 30-45 years was likely to pose severe adverse health risks of inflammation and fibrosis. We provide integrated assessment algorithms required to implement the analyses and maintain resulting concentration of silica dust at safety threshold level in the hope that they will stimulate further analyses and interpretation. We suggest that decision-makers take action to implement platforms for effective risk management to prevent the related long-term occupational disease in ceramics manufacturing. PMID:26002365

  4. Ceramics manufacturing contributes to ambient silica air pollution and burden of lung disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chung-Min; Wu, Bo-Chun; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; You, Shu-Han; Lin, Yi-Jun; Hsieh, Nan-Hung

    2015-10-01

    Inhalation of silica (SiO2) in occupational exposures can cause pulmonary fibrosis (silicosis), lung function deficits, pulmonary inflammation, and lung cancer. Current risk assessment models, however, cannot fully explain the magnitude of silica-induced pulmonary disease risk. The purpose of this study was to assess human health risk exposed to airborne silica dust in Taiwan ceramics manufacturing. We conducted measurements to characterize workplace-specific airborne silica dust in tile and commodity ceramic factories and used physiologically based alveolar exposure model to estimate exposure dose. We constructed dose-response models for describing relationships between exposure dose and inflammatory responses, by which health risks among workers can be assessed. We found that silica contents were 0.22-33.04 % with mean concentration ranges of 0.11-5.48 and 0.46-1763.30 μg m(-3), respectively, in commodity and tile ceramic factories. We showed that granulation workers in tile ceramic factory had the highest total SiO2 lung burden (∼1000 mg) with cumulative SiO2 lung burden of ∼4 × 10(4) mg-year. The threshold estimates with an effect on human lung inflammation and fibrosis are 407.31 ± 277.10 (mean ± sd) and 505.91 ± 231.69 mg, respectively. For granulation workers, long-term exposure to airborne silica dust for 30-45 years was likely to pose severe adverse health risks of inflammation and fibrosis. We provide integrated assessment algorithms required to implement the analyses and maintain resulting concentration of silica dust at safety threshold level in the hope that they will stimulate further analyses and interpretation. We suggest that decision-makers take action to implement platforms for effective risk management to prevent the related long-term occupational disease in ceramics manufacturing.

  5. Foam on Tile Impact Modeling for the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.; Robinson, J. H.; Richardson, S.; Evans, S. W.; Stallworth, R.; Hovater, M.

    2003-01-01

    Following the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia during reentry a NASA-wide investigation team was formed to examine the probable damage inflicted on Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) elements by impact of External Tank insulating foam projectiles. Our team was to apply rigorous, physics-based analysis techniques to help determine parameters of interest for an experimental test program, utilize validated codes to investigate the full range of impact scenarios, and use analysis derived models to predict aero-thermal-structural responses to entry conditions. We were to operate on a non-interference basis with the j Team, and were to supply significant findings to that team and to the Orbiter Vehicle Engineering Working Group, being responsive to any solicitations for support from these entities. The authors formed a working sub-group within the larger team to apply the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics code SPHC to the damage estimation problem. Numerical models of the LI-900 TPS tiles and of the BX-250 foam were constructed and used as inputs into the code. Material properties needed to properly model the tiles and foam were obtained from other working sub-groups who performed tests on these items for this purpose. Two- and three- dimensional models of the tiles were constructed, including the glass outer layer, the densified lower layer of LI-900 insulation, the Nomex felt Strain Isolation Pad (SIP) mounting layer, and the underlying aluminum 2024 vehicle skin. A model for the BX-250 foam including porous compression, elastic rebound, and surface erosion was developed. Code results for the tile damage and foam behavior were extensively validated through comparison with the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) foam-on-tile impact experiments carried out in 1999. These tests involved small projectiles striking individual tiles and small tile arrays. Following code and model validation we simulated impacts of larger ET foam projectiles on the TPS tile systems used

  6. Influence of raw materials composition on firing shrinkage, porosity, heat conductivity and microstructure of ceramic tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurovics, E.; Buzimov, A. Y.; Gömze, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    In this work some new raw material compositions from alumina, conventional brick-clays and sawdust were mixed, compacted and heat treated by the authors. Depending on raw material compositions and firing temperatures the specimens were examined on shrinkage, water absorption, heat conductivity and microstructures. The real raised experiments have shown the important role of firing temperature and raw material composition on color, heat conductivity and microstructure of the final product.

  7. Steep-Slope Assembly Testing of Clay and Concrete Tile With and Without Cool Pigmented Colors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A

    2005-11-01

    Cool color pigments and sub-tile venting of clay and concrete tile roofs significantly impact the heat flow crossing the roof deck of a steep-slope roof. Field measures for the tile roofs revealed a 70% drop in the peak heat flow crossing the deck as compared to a direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and its affiliate members are keenly interested in documenting the magnitude of the drop for obtaining solar reflectance credits with state and federal "cool roof" building efficiency standards. Tile roofs are direct-nailed or are attached to a deck with batten or batten and counter-batten construction. S-Misson clay and concrete tile roofs, a medium-profile concrete tile roof, and a flat slate tile roof were installed on fully nstrumented attic test assemblies. Temperature measures of the roof, deck, attic, and ceiling, heat flows, solar reflectance, thermal emittance, and the ambient weather were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and directnailed asphalt shingle roof. ORNL measured the tile's underside temperature and the bulk air temperature and heat flows just underneath the tile for batten and counter-batten tile systems and compared the results to the conventional asphalt shingle.

  8. GROWTH EVALUATION OF FUNGI (PENICILLIUM AND ASPERGILLUS SPP.) ON CEILING TILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of the potential for fungal growth on four different ceiling tiles in static chambers. It was found that even new ceiling tiles supported fungal growth under favorable conditions. Used ceiling tiles appeared to be more susceptible to funga...

  9. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pujari, V.K.

    2001-04-05

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration. A high-power diesel engine valve for the DDC Series 149 engine was chosen as the demonstration part for this program. This was determined to be an ideal component type to demonstrate cost-effective process enhancements, the beneficial impact of advanced ceramics on transportation systems, and near-term commercialization potential. The baseline valve material was NAC's NT451 SiAION. It was replaced, later in the program, by an alternate silicon nitride composition (NT551), which utilized a lower cost raw material and a simplified powder-processing approach. The material specifications were defined based on DDC's engine requirements, and the initial and final component design tasks were completed.

  10. EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH (PENICILLIUM GLABRUM) ON A CEILING TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. Amplification of the mold, Penicillium glabrum, occurred at R...

  11. Tiled architecture of a CNN-mostly IP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaanenburg, Lambert; Malki, Suleyman

    2009-05-01

    Multi-core architectures have been popularized with the advent of the IBM CELL. On a finer grain the problems in scheduling multi-cores have already existed in the tiled architectures, such as the EPIC and Da Vinci. It is not easy to evaluate the performance of a schedule on such architecture as historical data are not available. One solution is to compile algorithms for which an optimal schedule is known by analysis. A typical example is an algorithm that is already defined in terms of many collaborating simple nodes, such as a Cellular Neural Network (CNN). A simple node with a local register stack together with a 'rotating wheel' internal communication mechanism has been proposed. Though the basic CNN allows for a tiled implementation of a tiled algorithm on a tiled structure, a practical CNN system will have to disturb this regularity by the additional need for arithmetical and logical operations. Arithmetic operations are needed for instance to accommodate for low-level image processing, while logical operations are needed to fork and merge different data streams without use of the external memory. It is found that the 'rotating wheel' internal communication mechanism still handles such mechanisms without the need for global control. Overall the CNN system provides for a practical network size as implemented on a FPGA, can be easily used as embedded IP and provides a clear benchmark for a multi-core compiler.

  12. A novel surface defect inspection algorithm for magnetic tile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Luofeng; Lin, Lijun; Yin, Ming; Meng, Lintao; Yin, Guofu

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a defect extraction method for magnetic tile images based on the shearlet transform. The shearlet transform is a method of multi-scale geometric analysis. Compared with similar methods, the shearlet transform offers higher directional sensitivity and this is useful to accurately extract geometric characteristics from data. In general, a magnetic tile image captured by CCD camera mainly consists of target area, background. Our strategy for extracting the surface defects of magnetic tile comprises two steps: image preprocessing and defect extraction. Both steps are critical. After preprocessing the image, we extract the target area. Due to the low contrast in the magnetic tile image, we apply the discrete shearlet transform to enhance the contrast between the defect area and the normal area. Next, we apply a threshold method to generate a binary image. To validate our algorithm, we compare our experimental results with Otsu method, the curvelet transform and the nonsubsampled contourlet transform. Results show that our algorithm outperforms the other methods considered and can very effectively extract defects.

  13. Contributions of systematic tile drainage to watershed scale phosphorus transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) transport from agricultural fields continues be a focal point for addressing harmful algal blooms (HABs) and nuisance algae in freshwater systems throughout the world. In humid, poorly drained regions, attention has turned to P delivery through subsurface tile drainage. Research on th...

  14. Phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  15. Direct readout of gaseous detectors with tiled CMOS circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visschers, J. L.; Blanco Carballo, V.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; van der Graaf, H.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.; Timmermans, J.

    2007-03-01

    A coordinated design effort is underway, exploring the three-dimensional direct readout of gaseous detectors by an anode plate equipped with a tiled array of many CMOS pixel readout ASICs, having amplification grids integrated on their topsides and being contacted on their backside.

  16. The friction and wear of ceramic/ceramic and ceramic/metal combinations in sliding contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    The tribological characteristics of ceramics sliding on ceramics are compared to those of ceramics sliding on a nickel based turbine alloy. The friction and wear of oxide ceramics and silicon-based ceramics in air at temperatures from room ambient to 900 C (in a few cases to 1200 C) were measured for a hemispherically-tipped pin on a flat sliding contact geometry. In general, especially at high temperature, friction and wear were lower for ceramic/metal combinations than for ceramic/ceramic combinations. The better tribological performance for ceramic/metal combinations is attributed primarily to the lubricious nature of the oxidized surface of the metal.

  17. Application of μ-XAFS for the determination of the crystallization ratio in a series of vitro-ceramic materials containing industrial waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinakidou, F.; Katsikini, M.; Paloura, E. C.; Kavouras, P.; Komninou, Ph.; Karakostas, Th.; Erko, A.

    2006-05-01

    The distribution and microstructure of Fe in a series of vitrified Pb- and Fe-rich industrial waste samples is studied by means of X-ray fluorescence mapping (XRF), conventional and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (μ-XAFS and XAFS) spectroscopies. The under study samples contain toxic ash, that is vitrified with appropriate quantities of vitrifying (SiO 2) and flux (Na 2O) agents and are studied in the as-casted state as well as after annealing. XRF mapping in combination with μ-XAFS applied to samples containing 50% and 60% ash, demonstrated that annealing at temperatures above 600 °C induces loss of homogeneity and formation of Fe-rich microcrystalline islands. By appropriate fitting of the EXAFS spectra it is found that X% (where X depends on the sample composition and annealing temperature) of the Fe atoms form Fe-rich islands where Fe is octahedrally coordinated in FeO 6 polyhedra ( RFe-O = 0.193 nm). Contrary to that, (100 - X)% of the Fe atoms are incorporated in the vitreous matrix (which has a lower Fe content), and are coordinated in FeO 4 tetrahedra ( RFe-O = 0.188 nm). The crystallization ratio X/(100 - X) is found to increase with the annealing temperature and the loss of homogeneity becomes more extensive.

  18. Development of a nondestructive method for underglaze painted tiles--demonstrated by the analysis of Persian objects from the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Reiche, Ina; Röhrs, Stefan; Salomon, Joseph; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Höhn, Yvonne; Malzer, Wolfgang; Voigt, Friederike

    2009-02-01

    The paper presents an analytical method developed for the nondestructive study of nineteenth-century Persian polychrome underglaze painted tiles. As an example, 9 tiles from French and German museum collections were investigated. Before this work was undertaken little was known about the materials used in pottery at that time, although the broad range of colors and shades, together with their brilliant glazes, made these objects stand out when compared with Iranian ceramics of the preceding periods and suggested the use of new pigments, colorants, and glaze compositions. These materials are thought to be related to provenance and as such appropriate criteria for art-historical attribution. The analytical method is based on the combination of different nondestructive spectroscopic techniques using microfocused beams such as proton-induced X-ray emission/proton-induced gamma-ray emission, X-ray fluorescence, 3D X-ray absorption near edge structure, and confocal Raman spectroscopy and also visible spectroscopy. It was established to address the specific difficulties these objects and the technique of underglaze painting raise. The exact definition of the colors observed on the tiles using the Natural Color System helped to attribute them to different colorants. It was possible to establish the presence of Cr- and U-based colorants as new materials in nineteenth-century Persian tilemaking. The difference in glaze composition (Pb, Sn, Na, and K contents) as well as the use of B and Sn were identified as a potential marker for different workshops. PMID:19030848

  19. Development of a nondestructive method for underglaze painted tiles--demonstrated by the analysis of Persian objects from the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Reiche, Ina; Röhrs, Stefan; Salomon, Joseph; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Höhn, Yvonne; Malzer, Wolfgang; Voigt, Friederike

    2009-02-01

    The paper presents an analytical method developed for the nondestructive study of nineteenth-century Persian polychrome underglaze painted tiles. As an example, 9 tiles from French and German museum collections were investigated. Before this work was undertaken little was known about the materials used in pottery at that time, although the broad range of colors and shades, together with their brilliant glazes, made these objects stand out when compared with Iranian ceramics of the preceding periods and suggested the use of new pigments, colorants, and glaze compositions. These materials are thought to be related to provenance and as such appropriate criteria for art-historical attribution. The analytical method is based on the combination of different nondestructive spectroscopic techniques using microfocused beams such as proton-induced X-ray emission/proton-induced gamma-ray emission, X-ray fluorescence, 3D X-ray absorption near edge structure, and confocal Raman spectroscopy and also visible spectroscopy. It was established to address the specific difficulties these objects and the technique of underglaze painting raise. The exact definition of the colors observed on the tiles using the Natural Color System helped to attribute them to different colorants. It was possible to establish the presence of Cr- and U-based colorants as new materials in nineteenth-century Persian tilemaking. The difference in glaze composition (Pb, Sn, Na, and K contents) as well as the use of B and Sn were identified as a potential marker for different workshops.

  20. Characterization of the glaze and in-glaze pigments of the nineteenth-century relief tiles from the Pena National Palace, Sintra, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, M. L.; Veiga, J. P.; Alves, L. C.; Mirão, J.; Dias, L.; Lima, A. M.; Muralha, V. S.; Macedo, M. F.

    2016-07-01

    The glaze and in-glaze pigments of the historical nineteenth-century glazed tiles from the Pena National Palace (Sintra, Portugal) were characterized using a multi-analytical approach. Chemical composition and microstructural characterization were ascertained by µ-PIXE, µ-Raman, optical microscopy and VP-SEM-EDS. The manufacturing technique and colour palette in these tiles were found to be close to the ceramic pigments used in traditional majolica. The blue and purple colours derive from cobalt oxide and manganese oxide, respectively. A mixture of Pb-Sn-Sb yellow with cobalt oxide and iron oxide was used for green and dark yellow, respectively, while grey tonalities consist of a complex mixture of cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and Pb-Sn-Sb yellow in different proportions. Results obtained allowed the determination of the oxides and elements used in pigments as well as production techniques, resorting to traditional majolica manufacture, although the tiles were produced by the end of the nineteenth century.