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Sample records for cercopithecus aethiops

  1. Growth, development, and sexual dimorphism in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) at four sites in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Turner, T R; Anapol, F; Jolly, C J

    1997-05-01

    Body weight and ten body segment measurements were collected from 367 wild-trapped vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) in central and southern Kenya. The animals represent between 70 and 95% of the animals in each of 30 troops at four geographical locations separated by 80 to 380 km. The capture sites differed in altitude, mean annual rainfall and temperature. Two questions are addressed: (1) what are the differences in male and female growth patterns, and (2) what is the relationship between size, climate, and availability of food? Each animal was assigned to an age class based on dental examination. Means for all variables do not diverge for males and females from birth to age class 4 (15-18 months). After this, male and female growth rates diverge. This sexual dimorphism in growth pattern may reflect timing of entry into the reproductive community. A nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to compare sites, groups within sites and individuals within groups. Statistically significant differences between sites in body weight and body segment measurements are found for adult females. Except for tail length, these differences do not follow Bergmann's or Allen's Rules correlating size differences and temperature, but rather may reflect proximity to cultivated areas or tourist lodges with greater access to human food.

  2. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops)

    PubMed Central

    Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Underwood, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas' larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys' basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas. PMID:24187623

  3. Demography and Life Histories of Sympatric Patas Monkeys, Erythrocebus patas, and Vervets, Cercopithecus aethiops, in Laikipia, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Young, Truman P.; Jaffe, Karin Enstam; Carlson, Anne A.; Chancellor, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    Mortality patterns are thought to be strong selective forces on life history traits, with high adult mortality and low immature mortality favoring early and rapid reproduction. Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) have the highest potential rates of population increase for their body size of any haplorhine primate because they reproduce both earlier and more often. We report here 10 yr of comparative demographic data on a population of patas monkeys and a sympatric population of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), a closely related species differing in aspects of social system, ecology, and life history. The data reveal that 1) adult female patas monkeys have significantly higher mortality than adult female vervets; 2) infant mortality in patas monkeys is relatively low compared to the norm for mammals because it is not significantly different from that of adult female patas monkeys; and 3) infant mortality is significantly higher than adult female mortality in vervets. For both species, much of the mortality could be attributed to predation. An epidemic illness was also a major contributor to the mortality of adult female patas monkeys whereas chronic exposure to pathogens in a cold and damp microenvironment may have contributed to the mortality of infant vervets. Both populations experienced large fluctuations during the study period. Our results support the prediction from demographic models of life history evolution that high adult mortality relative to immature mortality selects for early maturation. PMID:20976285

  4. Effects of cassava diet on Cercopithecus aethiops livers: a case for cassava as the cause of both tropical splenomegaly syndrome (TSS) and endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF).

    PubMed

    Sezi, C L

    1996-05-01

    The aetiology of endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) and tropical splenomegaly syndrome (TSS) though speculative, was considered by the author to be the same or related since the two diseases may occur in the same individual and locality. Accordingly, when attempting to prove a hypothesis for the causation of EMF that prolonged ingestion of tuber (cassava/tapioca) associated with extreme deprivation of protein causes EMF; one group of three Cercopithecus aethiops was fed on uncooked cassava while a second group was fed with uncooked bananas and in addition to harvesting the hearts whenever the animal health deteriorated, livers were also harvested for histological changes. While hearts from the animals on cassava revealed changes seen in human EMF the livers from the same animals exhibited Kupffer cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy as well as sinusoidal lymphocytosis, features seen in human TSS thereby confirming that the aetiology of these two diseases is the same. However, the banana diet did not produce such changes.

  5. [Analysis of the biological effect of city smog extract IV. Growth inhibition of kidney cell cultures (cercopithecus aethiops) under the influence of a city smog extract and its polyaromatic fractions (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Seemayer, N; de Ruiter, N; Manojlovic, N; Tomingas, R

    1978-11-01

    The cell growth of exponentially growing kidney cell cultures of Cercopithecus aethiops was determined by estimation of protein content. The effect of city smog extracts and its polyaromatic fractions on cell growth was examined. Based on the benzo(a)pyren-content the crude extract of city smog exerted the strongest inhibition of cell growth, followed by non purified and purified fraction of polyaromates. The inhibition of cell growth was dose dependent. Results indicate, that for cell growth inhibition are of importance concentrations of toxic substances and exposition time.

  6. [Analysis of the biological effect of city smog extract. III. Comparative investigations on the effect of city smog extracts on cell replication and DNA-synthesis of kidney cells in vitro from the primate Cercopithecus aethiops (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Manojlovic, N; Seemayer, N; de Ruiter, N; Weisz, H; Bauer, S

    1978-08-01

    We analysed the cytotoxic effect of city smog extracts from a heavy industrialized area using kidney cell cultures from the primate Cercopithecus aethiops.--Using logarithmically growing cell cultures we determined cell replication and the rate of DNA-synthesis after incorporation of 3H-thymidine.--In presence of city smog extracts we found a dose dependent reduction of cell replication and of DNA-synthesis. In presence of high concentrations (BP-aquivalent 0.25-0.5 microgram/ml) of city smog extract we found no increase in cell number over a period of 72 h. Under the same conditions hardly any DNA-synthesis was detected.--In presence of middle and low concentrations of city smog extract a dose- and time-dependent increase in cell number and rate of DNA-synthesis was detected.

  7. [Analysis of the biological effect of city smog extract. VI. Comparative investigations on the effect of city smog extracts and their fractions on DNA synthesis of hamster kidney and embryonic cells and kidney cells of the primate Cercopithecus aethiops (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Krampitz, G; Seemayer, N

    1980-02-01

    We analyzed the effect of two samples of city smog extracts and their fractions from Duisburg on the rate of DNA synthesis of mammalian cell cultures. - We employed tissue cultures of kidney and embryonic cells from the Syrian golden hamster (Cricetus aureatus) and kidney cells from the African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops). The DNA synthesis was determined autoradiographically after incubation with 3H-thymidine. We found that both city smog extracts exerted a dose-dependent suppression of cellular DNA synthesis. Monkey kidney cells were more sensitive than rodent cells. Analysis of single fractions indicate that the inhibition of DNA synthesis is the result of combined effects of all fractions. At present time it is not possible to correlate the toxic effect of the complete extract special to a single fraction or compound group.

  8. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CEBUS CAPUCINA (THE SOUTH AMERICAN RINGTAIL MONKEY) AND CERCOPITHECUS CEPHUS (THE AFRICAN MUSTACHE MONKEY) TO POLIOMYELITIS VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Joseph L.; Paul, John R.

    1943-01-01

    1. The South American ringtail monkey, Cebus capucina, has been infected with the virus of poliomyelitis as found in ultracentrifuged concentrates from poliomyelitic human stools. 2. This species was also found susceptible to poliomyelitis virus found in rhesus and cynomolgus monkey cords, representing early generations of virus derived from two different human sources and from flies trapped in an epidemic area. 3. The Hartford strain of poliomyelitis has been successfully established in different generations in Cebus capucina monkeys. 4. The African mustache monkey, Cerocopithecus cephus, has been infected with poliomyelitis virus by the intra- and subcutaneous routes as readily as the green African monkey, Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus, and the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. PMID:19871327

  9. Weissella confusa Infection in Primate (Cercopithecus mona)

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Ana I.; Porrero, Concepción; Goyache, Joaquín; Nieto, Ana; Sánchez, Belen; Briones, Víctor; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Domínguez, Lucas

    2003-01-01

    We describe systemic infection by Weissella confusa in a mona monkey (Cercopithecus mona) on the basis of microbiologic, molecular genetic, and histologic data. The same strain of W. confusa, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, was isolated in pure culture from the primate’s brain, liver, spleen, and intestine. Histologic lesions showed inflammatory infiltrates mainly composed of neutrophils, indicating an acute septicemic process. PMID:14626220

  10. Bat Predation by Cercopithecus Monkeys: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission.

    PubMed

    Tapanes, Elizabeth; Detwiler, Kate M; Cords, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between bats and primates, which may contribute to zoonotic disease transmission, is poorly documented. We provide the first behavioral accounts of predation on bats by Cercopithecus monkeys, both of which are known to harbor zoonotic disease. We witnessed 13 bat predation events over 6.5 years in two forests in Kenya and Tanzania. Monkeys sometimes had prolonged contact with the bat carcass, consuming it entirely. All predation events occurred in forest-edge or plantation habitat. Predator-prey relations between bats and primates are little considered by disease ecologists, but may contribute to transmission of zoonotic disease, including Ebolavirus. PMID:27138290

  11. A comparative study of culturally transmitted patterns of feeding habits in the chacma baboon Papio ursinus and the vervet monkey Cercopithecus aethiops.

    PubMed

    Cambefort, J P

    1981-01-01

    Japanese workers have studied social acquisition patterns of new feeding habits in Macaca fuscata which they have termed precultural. The present study investigates the same phenomenon in the chacma baboon and the vervet monkey in their natural habitat. The questions addressed are: (1) How a new feeding habit enters a troop and by which age and sex category, also how it is propagated? (2) When individuals are permitted with a choice between palatable and unpalatable food, can they learn by demonstration only or do they have to pass through a direct learning process? (3) Can the results from the above questions be explained by social parameters such as the social structure of the individual species? It was found that juvenile baboons discover new food and that after the discovery propagation is instantaneous. In vervets discovery is random among the age classes and propagation is slow and takes place through certain 'pivot' individuals. Both species fail to learn about palatability by demonstration but have to go through a direct learning process. This contrasts strongly with the forest baboon Mandrillus sphinx that have been shown to learn by demonstration. Socially, baboon juveniles stay closer to each other than the adults who force them to live at the periphery of the troop. Vervets again forage without precise sub-group formation. The link between social and cultural propagation and social structure is discussed on the basis of these findings.

  12. The genome of the vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Warren, Wesley C; Jasinska, Anna J; García-Pérez, Raquel; Svardal, Hannes; Tomlinson, Chad; Rocchi, Mariano; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Capozzi, Oronzo; Minx, Patrick; Montague, Michael J; Kyung, Kim; Hillier, LaDeana W; Kremitzki, Milinn; Graves, Tina; Chiang, Colby; Hughes, Jennifer; Tran, Nam; Huang, Yu; Ramensky, Vasily; Choi, Oi-Wa; Jung, Yoon J; Schmitt, Christopher A; Juretic, Nikoleta; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Turner, Trudy R; Wiseman, Roger W; Tuscher, Jennifer J; Karl, Julie A; Schmitz, Jörn E; Zahn, Roland; O'Connor, David H; Redmond, Eugene; Nisbett, Alex; Jacquelin, Béatrice; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C; Brenchley, Jason M; Dione, Michel; Antonio, Martin; Schroth, Gary P; Kaplan, Jay R; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Thomas, Gregg W C; Hahn, Matthew W; Raney, Brian J; Aken, Bronwen; Nag, Rishi; Schmitz, Juergen; Churakov, Gennady; Noll, Angela; Stanyon, Roscoe; Webb, David; Thibaud-Nissen, Francoise; Nordborg, Magnus; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Dewar, Ken; Weinstock, George M; Wilson, Richard K; Freimer, Nelson B

    2015-12-01

    We describe a genome reference of the African green monkey or vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops). This member of the Old World monkey (OWM) superfamily is uniquely valuable for genetic investigations of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), for which it is the most abundant natural host species, and of a wide range of health-related phenotypes assessed in Caribbean vervets (C. a. sabaeus), whose numbers have expanded dramatically since Europeans introduced small numbers of their ancestors from West Africa during the colonial era. We use the reference to characterize the genomic relationship between vervets and other primates, the intra-generic phylogeny of vervet subspecies, and genome-wide structural variations of a pedigreed C. a. sabaeus population. Through comparative analyses with human and rhesus macaque, we characterize at high resolution the unique chromosomal fission events that differentiate the vervets and their close relatives from most other catarrhine primates, in whom karyotype is highly conserved. We also provide a summary of transposable elements and contrast these with the rhesus macaque and human. Analysis of sequenced genomes representing each of the main vervet subspecies supports previously hypothesized relationships between these populations, which range across most of sub-Saharan Africa, while uncovering high levels of genetic diversity within each. Sequence-based analyses of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms reveal extremely low diversity in Caribbean C. a. sabaeus vervets, compared to vervets from putatively ancestral West African regions. In the C. a. sabaeus research population, we discover the first structural variations that are, in some cases, predicted to have a deleterious effect; future studies will determine the phenotypic impact of these variations. PMID:26377836

  13. The genome of the vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Wesley C.; Jasinska, Anna J.; García-Pérez, Raquel; Svardal, Hannes; Tomlinson, Chad; Rocchi, Mariano; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Capozzi, Oronzo; Minx, Patrick; Montague, Michael J.; Kyung, Kim; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Kremitzki, Milinn; Graves, Tina; Chiang, Colby; Hughes, Jennifer; Tran, Nam; Huang, Yu; Ramensky, Vasily; Choi, Oi-wa; Jung, Yoon J.; Schmitt, Christopher A.; Juretic, Nikoleta; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Turner, Trudy R.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Karl, Julie A.; Schmitz, Jörn E.; Zahn, Roland; O'Connor, David H.; Redmond, Eugene; Nisbett, Alex; Jacquelin, Béatrice; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Brenchley, Jason M.; Dione, Michel; Antonio, Martin; Schroth, Gary P.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Raney, Brian J.; Aken, Bronwen; Nag, Rishi; Schmitz, Juergen; Churakov, Gennady; Noll, Angela; Stanyon, Roscoe; Webb, David; Thibaud-Nissen, Francoise; Nordborg, Magnus; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Dewar, Ken; Weinstock, George M.; Wilson, Richard K.; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a genome reference of the African green monkey or vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops). This member of the Old World monkey (OWM) superfamily is uniquely valuable for genetic investigations of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), for which it is the most abundant natural host species, and of a wide range of health-related phenotypes assessed in Caribbean vervets (C. a. sabaeus), whose numbers have expanded dramatically since Europeans introduced small numbers of their ancestors from West Africa during the colonial era. We use the reference to characterize the genomic relationship between vervets and other primates, the intra-generic phylogeny of vervet subspecies, and genome-wide structural variations of a pedigreed C. a. sabaeus population. Through comparative analyses with human and rhesus macaque, we characterize at high resolution the unique chromosomal fission events that differentiate the vervets and their close relatives from most other catarrhine primates, in whom karyotype is highly conserved. We also provide a summary of transposable elements and contrast these with the rhesus macaque and human. Analysis of sequenced genomes representing each of the main vervet subspecies supports previously hypothesized relationships between these populations, which range across most of sub-Saharan Africa, while uncovering high levels of genetic diversity within each. Sequence-based analyses of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms reveal extremely low diversity in Caribbean C. a. sabaeus vervets, compared to vervets from putatively ancestral West African regions. In the C. a. sabaeus research population, we discover the first structural variations that are, in some cases, predicted to have a deleterious effect; future studies will determine the phenotypic impact of these variations. PMID:26377836

  14. An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica in a captive colony of African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in the Caribbean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic gram-negative pathogen that causes mesenteric lymphadenitis, terminal ileitis, acute gastroenteritis, and septicemia in domestic animals and primates. In 2012, 46 captive African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) died during an outbreak of acutely fat...

  15. Ependymal cyst in the cerebrum of an African green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Chang, K-S; Lee, S-R; Kim, S-W; Cho, Z-H; Son, H-Y; Kim, D; Chang, K-T

    2011-01-01

    A focal lesion was detected by magnetic resonance imaging in the right caudal occipital lobe of the cerebrum in an African green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops). Neurological signs were not observed in this animal. At necropsy examination, an 8mm wedge-shaped intracranial cavity was found, which apparently did not communicate with the ventricles. Microscopically, the inner surface of the cavity was lined by ciliated cuboidal epithelium with positive immunoreactivity for S100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein and cytokeratin. Based on the gross, microscopical and immunohistochemical findings the lesion was classified as an ependymal cyst. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an ependymal cyst in an African green monkey.

  16. Some gastro-intestinal tract parasites in wild De Brazza's monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus) in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Karere, G M; Munene, E

    2002-12-11

    Fresh faecal droppings of wild group of De Brazza's monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus), earmarked for translocation, were collected between January and July 1998. The samples were analysed using direct smears, ether-sedimentation and the Harada-Mori culture techniques for gastro-intestinal tract parasites (GIT). Two species of helminths and three of protozoa were detected. Entamoeba coli was found in all 40 samples screened from 11 monkeys. Entamoeba histolytica was detected in 71.8% of the total samples screened, Streptopharagus spp. in 12.8% and Strongyloides spp. and Balantidium coli each in 7.7% of the samples. E. histolytica and Streptopharagus spp. were most prevalent in faecal samples of juveniles while Strongyloides spp. and B. coli were mostly found in adult females. This, to our knowledge, is the first report of GIT parasites in a wild population of De Brazza's monkeys and our results are baseline. PMID:12446101

  17. Variation in vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops) hair cortisol concentrations reflects ecological disturbance by humans.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Nicolaas H; Turner, Trudy R; Brown, Janine L; Pampush, James D; Lorenz, Joseph G; Bernstein, Robin M

    2015-10-01

    Vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) often live in close proximity to humans. Vervets are known to raid crops, homes and gardens in suburban areas leading to human-vervet conflict. In general, primate groups with access to human foods experience increased population densities and intra-group aggression. This suggests high stress loads for vervets living in environments with high levels of human habitat disturbance and close proximity to humans. We tested the hypothesis that populations characterized by high levels of human impact are more physiologically stressed than low human impact populations, and that this increased stress would be reflected in higher concentrations of hair cortisol. We predicted that because females would be less likely to engage in high risk foraging activities, and hence keep more distance from humans than males, their hair cortisol levels should be lower than those in males. We quantified cortisol in the hair of wild caught individuals from populations that experienced different degrees of human habitat disturbance and differences in access to human food. We found that males in high human impact groups had significantly higher hair cortisol concentrations than those in low human impact groups, although this difference was not observed in female vervets. Human impacts on vervet behavioral ecology appear to be a significant source of stress for male animals in particular. PMID:26318176

  18. Do females pay attention to secondary sexual coloration in vervet monkeys ( Chlorocebus aethiops)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerald, Melissa S.; Ayala, James; Ruíz-Lambides, Angelina; Waitt, Corri; Weiss, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Several primate species show sexual dichromatism with males displaying conspicuous coloration of the pelage or skin. Studies of scrotal coloration in male vervet monkeys ( Chlorocebus aethiops) suggest that it is an important intrasexual signal, with relatively dark, colourful males dominating paler males. To date, no studies have examined the influence of male colour on intersexual social interactions in vervet monkeys. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate whether female vervet monkeys attend to male coloration. We experimentally introduced females, housed with either “pale” or “dark” males, to stimulus males whose scrota were pale, dark, or pale but painted to look dark. Overall, during introductions, females did not differ in time spent directing affiliative behaviour toward pale, dark, and painted males; however, females, permanently housed with dark males, spent significantly more time directing affiliative behaviour toward pale than painted males. When the stimulus male was pale, affiliative exchanges between males and females were longer than when the stimulus male was painted. Home male colour was not related to female-initiated aggression. Home male colour was also not related to male-initiated aggression, although painted stimulus males were more likely to initiate aggression than pale stimulus males. These findings lead us to conclude that females pay attention to male coloration, but do not bias their interactions toward males solely on the basis of natural male coloration.

  19. Associative learning in ants: conditioning of the maxilla-labium extension response in Camponotus aethiops.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, Fernando J; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Associative learning has been studied in many vertebrates and invertebrates. In social insects, the proboscis extension response conditioning of honey bees has been widely used for several decades. However, a similar paradigm has not been developed for ants, which are advanced social insects showing different morphological castes and a plethora of life histories. Here we present a novel conditioning protocol using Camponotus aethiops. When the antennae of a harnessed ant are stimulated with sucrose solution, the ant extends its maxilla-labium to absorb the sucrose. We term this the "maxilla-labium extension response" (MaLER). MaLER could be conditioned by forward pairing an odour (conditioned stimulus) with sucrose (unconditioned stimulus) in the course of six conditioning trials (absolute conditioning). In non-rewarded tests following conditioning, ants gave significantly higher specific responses to the conditioned stimulus than to a novel odour. When trained for differential conditioning, ants discriminated between the odour forward-paired with sucrose and an odour forward-paired with quinine (a putative aversive stimulus). In both absolute and differential conditioning, memory lasted for at least 1h. MaLER conditioning allows full control of the stimulation sequence, inter-stimulus and inter-trial intervals and satiety, which is crucial for any further study on associative learning in ants.

  20. Examining deep litter as environmental enrichment for a family group of Wolf's guenons, Cercopithecus wolfi.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Grace; Sadowski, Leslie; Cassella, Christine; Lukas, Kristen E

    2010-01-01

    Manipulable substrates promote species-typical behavior and decrease abnormal behavior in a variety of primate species. However, the effects of providing litter to arboreal primates are not as well studied, and there is little information specifically concerning enrichment for guenons. To inform the captive management of an under-studied species, we evaluated deep litter substrate as environmental enrichment for a family group of Wolf's guenons, Cercopithecus wolfi. We expected it to promote species-typical behavior and to act as an intervention by reducing aggressive behaviors targeted toward a juvenile group member by his parents. We compared the guenons' behavior during baseline periods in which normal husbandry routines were followed to periods when the entire floor of their enclosure was covered with 30 cm of straw or wood wool. We then evaluated the group's preference between litters by comparing their relative use. The guenons spent more time feeding and were more active during both litter conditions, but relative to their respective baselines, they spent more time examining straw and less time examining wood wool. Straw, but not wood wool, promoted some affiliative behavior as well as greater tolerance of the juvenile's social proximity to others. However, the addition of deep litter did not ameliorate patterns of agonistic behavior among our subjects. Our results suggest that straw conferred greater behavioral benefits than wood wool as a deep litter substrate for this guenon group and may constitute a form of environmental enrichment for this species.

  1. Identifying preferred habitats of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis, erythrarchus) through patch use.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Sara E; Brown, Joel S

    2013-10-26

    To examine habitat preferences of two groups of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis erythrarchus) in the Soutpansberg, South Africa, we used experimental food patches in fragments of tall forest and in bordering secondary growth short forest. Additionally, to test for the impacts of group cohesion and movement on habitat use, we tested for the interaction of space and time in our analyses of foraging intensity in the experimental food patches placed throughout the home ranges of the two groups. We expected the monkeys to harvest the most from patches in tall forest habitats and the least from patches in short forest. Further, because the monkeys move through their habitats in groups, we expected to see group cohesion effects illustrated by daily spatial variation in the monkeys' use of widespread foraging grids. In the forest height experiments, the two groups differed in their foraging responses, with 8% greater foraging overall for one group. However, forest height did not significantly impact foraging in either group, meaning that, given feeding opportunities, samango monkeys are able to utilize secondary growth forest. For one group, missed opportunity costs of staying with the group appeared through the statistical interaction of day with foraging location (the monkeys did not always spread out to take advantage of all available food patches). In several subsequent experiments in widespread grids, significant daily spatial variation in foraging occurred, pointing to spatial cohesion during group movement as likely being an important predictor of habitat use. For an individual social forager, staying with the group may be more important than habitat type in driving habitat selection. PMID:24513301

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM GENAVENSE IN A DIANA MONKEY (CERCOPITHECUS DIANA) BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kathleen M; Wack, Allison N; Bradway, Dan; Simons, Brian W; Bronson, Ellen; Osterhout, Gerard; Parrish, Nicole M; Montali, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    A 25-yr-old Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana) with a 1.5-yr history of chronic colitis and diarrhea was found to have disseminated granulomatous disease with intralesional acid fast bacilli. Bacilli were identified as Mycobacterium genavense by polymerase chain reaction, sequencing of the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer (ITS) gene, and mycolic acid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mycobacterium genavense is a common cause of mycobacteriosis in free-ranging and captive birds. In addition, recognition of opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients is increasing. Disease manifestations of M. genavense are similar to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and include fever, wasting, and diarrhea with disseminated disease. Similar clinical signs and lesions were observed in this monkey. Mycobacterium genavense should be considered as a differential for disseminated mycobacterial disease in nonhuman primates as this agent can mimic MAC and related mycobacteria.

  3. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaobo; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Weise, Anja; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Tanomtong, Alongkoad; Pinthong, Krit; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Grothmann, Pierre; Liehr, Thomas; Oliveira, Edivaldo H C de

    2015-11-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs) using human multicolor banding (MCB) probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM) species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA), Callithrix jacchus (CJA), Cebus apella (CAP), Saimiri sciureus (SSC), and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE), respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs) among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107) NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99) NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA) and 66.3% (71/107) NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS). Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  4. Red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) hunt green pigeons (Treron calva) in the Kalinzu Forest in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Furuichi, Takeshi

    2006-04-01

    Red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) were observed hunting green pigeons (Treron calva) in the Kalinzu Forest in Uganda. During 2 h 39 min, I observed two cases of successful hunting and one case of unsuccessful hunting in a Ficus saussureana tree. Red-tailed monkeys stalked the pigeons until they were within 2-3 m, and then jumped and caught them. In both successful cases, blue monkeys (C. mitis) ran to the hunting site from adjacent trees in order to poach the prey, and the red-tailed monkeys fled. One of these red-tailed monkeys dropped the pigeon while fleeing, and the blue monkey climbed down from the tree to search for it. This is the first record of cercopithecoid monkeys hunting birds that are outside of the nest and moving freely, and also the first record of red-tailed monkeys hunting vertebrates. However rare it may be, the repeated hunting attempts using similar techniques and the immediate attempt of blue monkeys to poach the prey suggest that this type of hunting was not a one-time event that happened by chance. Blue monkeys and an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in and around the fig tree did not attempt to hunt. The hunting of volant birds may be enabled by the small body size and the quick movements of red-tailed monkeys. PMID:16467957

  5. Validation of an auditory sensory reinforcement paradigm: Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) do not prefer consonant over dissonant sounds.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hiroki; Basile, Muriel; Olivier, Marion; Remeuf, Kevin; Nagumo, Sumiharu; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Lemasson, Alban

    2013-08-01

    The central position and universality of music in human societies raises the question of its phylogenetic origin. One of the most important properties of music involves harmonic musical intervals, in response to which humans show a spontaneous preference for consonant over dissonant sounds starting from early human infancy. Comparative studies conducted with organisms at different levels of the primate lineage are needed to understand the evolutionary scenario under which this phenomenon emerged. Although previous research found no preference for consonance in a New World monkey species, the question remained opened for Old World monkeys. We used an experimental paradigm based on a sensory reinforcement procedure to test auditory preferences for consonant sounds in Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli campbelli), an Old World monkey species. Although a systematic preference for soft (70 dB) over loud (90 dB) control white noise was found, Campbell's monkeys showed no preference for either consonant or dissonant sounds. The preference for soft white noise validates our noninvasive experimental paradigm, which can be easily reused in any captive facility to test for auditory preferences. This would suggest that human preference for consonant sounds is not systematically shared with New and Old World monkeys. The sensitivity for harmonic musical intervals emerged probably very late in the primate lineage. PMID:23566027

  6. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) from Sun-Tailed Monkeys (Cercopithecus solatus): Evidence for Host-Dependent Evolution of SIV within the C. lhoesti Superspecies

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Brigitte E.; Bailes, Elizabeth; Goeken, Robert; Dapolito, George; Coulibaly, Cheik; Norley, Stephen G.; Kurth, Reinhard; Gautier, Jean-Pierre; Gautier-Hion, Annie; Vallet, Dominique; Sharp, Paul M.; Hirsch, Vanessa M.

    1999-01-01

    Recently we reported the characterization of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVlhoest) from a central African l’hoest monkey (Cercopithecus lhoesti lhoesti) that revealed a distant relationship to SIV isolated from a mandrill (SIVmnd). The present report describes a novel SIV (SIVsun) isolated from a healthy, wild-caught sun-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus lhoesti solatus), another member of the l’hoest superspecies. SIVsun replicated in a variety of human T-cell lines and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of macaques (Macaca spp.) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). A full-length infectious clone of SIVsun was derived, and genetic analysis revealed that SIVsun was most closely related to SIVlhoest, with an amino acid identity of 71% in Gag, 73% in Pol, and 67% in Env. This degree of similarity is reminiscent of that observed between SIVagm isolates from vervet, grivet, and tantalus species of African green monkeys. The close relationship between SIVsun and SIVlhoest, despite their geographically distinct habitats, is consistent with evolution from a common ancestor, providing further evidence for the ancient nature of the primate lentivirus family. In addition, this observation leads us to suggest that the SIVmnd lineage should be designated the SIVlhoest lineage. PMID:10438863

  7. Calosoma aethiops (Jeannel, 1940) as a new synonym of Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, a new status of Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927, and a revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabini)

    PubMed Central

    Häckel, Martin; Farkač, Jan; Sehnal, Rostislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Calosoma aethiops (Jeannel, 1940) as a new synonym of Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, a new status of Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927, and a revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Carabini). Conducted is a taxonomic revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012. Placed in the group sensu stricto are four species: Calosoma planicolle Chaudoir, 1869, Calosoma scabrosum Chaudoir, 1843, Calosoma senegalense Dejean, 1831, and Ctenosta strandi Breuning, 1934. Calosoma aethiops Jeannel, 1940 is synonymized with Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, and Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927 is newly regarded as a subspecies of Calosoma scabrosum. The taxonomic conclusions are based on morphometry of the holotypes and 10 male and 10 female specimens of each taxon, and on morphology of the aedeagus including inflated endophalus. PMID:27563269

  8. Calosoma aethiops (Jeannel, 1940) as a new synonym of Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, a new status of Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927, and a revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabini).

    PubMed

    Häckel, Martin; Farkač, Jan; Sehnal, Rostislav

    2016-01-01

    Calosoma aethiops (Jeannel, 1940) as a new synonym of Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, a new status of Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927, and a revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Carabini). Conducted is a taxonomic revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012. Placed in the group sensu stricto are four species: Calosoma planicolle Chaudoir, 1869, Calosoma scabrosum Chaudoir, 1843, Calosoma senegalense Dejean, 1831, and Ctenosta strandi Breuning, 1934. Calosoma aethiops Jeannel, 1940 is synonymized with Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, and Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927 is newly regarded as a subspecies of Calosoma scabrosum. The taxonomic conclusions are based on morphometry of the holotypes and 10 male and 10 female specimens of each taxon, and on morphology of the aedeagus including inflated endophalus. PMID:27563269

  9. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-07-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  10. Planum temporale grey matter asymmetries in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus), rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and bonnet (Macaca radiata) monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lyn, Heidi; Pierre, Peter; Bennett, Allyson J; Fears, Scott; Woods, Roger; Hopkins, William D

    2011-06-01

    Brain asymmetries, particularly asymmetries within regions associated with language, have been suggested as a key difference between humans and our nearest ancestors. These regions include the planum temporale (PT) - the bank of tissue that lies posterior to Heschl's gyrus and encompasses Wernicke's area, an important brain region involved in language and speech in the human brain. In the human brain, both the surface area and the grey matter volume of the PT are larger in the left compared to right hemisphere, particularly among right-handed individuals. Here we compared the grey matter volume and asymmetry of the PT in chimpanzees and three other species of nonhuman primate in two Genera including vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). We show that the three monkey species do not show population-level asymmetries in this region whereas the chimpanzees do, suggesting that the evolutionary brain development that gave rise to PT asymmetry occurred after our split with the monkey species, but before our split with the chimpanzees.

  11. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-07-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions.

  12. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  13. Degree of terrestrial activity of the elusive sun-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus solatus) in Gabon: Comparative study of behavior and postcranial morphometric data.

    PubMed

    Motsch, Peggy; Le Flohic, Guillaume; Dilger, Carole; Delahaye, Alexia; Chateau-Smith, Carmela; Couette, Sebastien

    2015-10-01

    We carried out a multidisciplinary study linking behavioral and morphological data from a little-known guenon species, Cercopithecus solatus, endemic to Gabon. Over a period of 9 months, we documented the pattern of stratum use associated with postural and locomotor behavior by direct observation (650 hrs) of a semi-free-ranging breeding colony. We also conducted a morphometric analysis of the humerus and limb proportions of 90 adult specimens from 16 guenon species, including C. solatus. Field observations indicated that C. solatus monkeys spent a third of their time on the ground, similar to semi-terrestrial guenon species. We detected two patterns of stratum use: at ground level, and in trees, at a height of 3-10 m. The monkeys spent more time on the ground during the dry season than the wet season, feeding mainly at ground level, while resting, and social behaviors occurred more frequently in the tree strata. Our study of humerus size and shape, together with the analysis of limb proportions, indicated morphofunctional adaptation of C. solatus to greater terrestriality than previously thought. We therefore characterize C. solatus as a semi-terrestrial guenon, and propose a new hypothesis for the ancestral condition. By combining behavioral and morphological results, we provide new information about the adaptive strategies of the species, and the evolutionary history of guenons, thus contributing to the conservation of the sun-tailed monkey in the wild.

  14. Lesula: A New Species of Cercopithecus Monkey Endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and Implications for Conservation of Congo’s Central Basin

    PubMed Central

    Hart, John A.; Detwiler, Kate M.; Gilbert, Christopher C.; Burrell, Andrew S.; Fuller, James L.; Emetshu, Maurice; Hart, Terese B.; Vosper, Ashley; Sargis, Eric J.; Tosi, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2007, a previously undescribed monkey known locally as “lesula” was found in the forests of the middle Lomami Basin in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We describe this new species as Cercopithecus lomamiensis sp. nov., and provide data on its distribution, morphology, genetics, ecology and behavior. C. lomamiensis is restricted to the lowland rain forests of central DRC between the middle Lomami and the upper Tshuapa Rivers. Morphological and molecular data confirm that C. lomamiensis is distinct from its nearest congener, C. hamlyni, from which it is separated geographically by both the Congo (Lualaba) and the Lomami Rivers. C. lomamiensis, like C. hamlyni, is semi-terrestrial with a diet containing terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. The discovery of C. lomamiensis highlights the biogeographic significance and importance for conservation of central Congo’s interfluvial TL2 region, defined from the upper Tshuapa River through the Lomami Basin to the Congo (Lualaba) River. The TL2 region has been found to contain a high diversity of anthropoid primates including three forms, in addition to C. lomamiensis, that are endemic to the area. We recommend the common name, lesula, for this new species, as it is the vernacular name used over most of its known range. PMID:22984482

  15. Effects of a Western-type diet on plasma lipids and other cardiometabolic risk factors in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Matthew J; Aycock, S Tyler; Clarkson, Thomas B; Kaplan, Jay R

    2013-07-01

    Our goal was to assess a nonhuman primate diet that mimicked the Western-type diet of humans with regard to palatability and the diet's effects on plasma lipid concentrations and other cardiometabolic risk factors. We evaluated male (n = 8) and female (n = 11) African green monkeys (vervets; Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) that initially were fed a standard diet. Each cohort then was divided into 2 groups, which received either standard chow or the Western diet. Food consumption and fecal quality were measured weekly. Body weight, waist circumference, and body-mass index were measured every 2 wk. CBC and clinical chemistry analyses were performed at baseline and 4 wk after the diet change. Plasma lipid concentrations, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and fructosamine were measured at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 wk after the diet change. Isoflavones were measured in the male monkeys at 6 wk after diet change, and lipid particle size was measured in the female monkeys at the 12-wk point. Green monkeys readily ate the Western diet and maintained baseline body weight and morphometric measures, with no adverse effects on fecal quality or clinical measures. Total plasma cholesterol was higher in monkeys fed the Western diet compared with standard chow. Isoflavones were higher in male monkeys fed standard chow compared with the Western diet, but lipid particle size did not differ by diet in female monkeys. Our data indicate that the Western diet led to changes in various biomedical risk factors of green monkeys to become similar to those of humans in the United States.

  16. First detection of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in two species of nonhuman primates raised in a zoo: a fatal case in Cercopithecus diana and a strongly suspected case of spontaneous recovery in Macaca nigra.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Kimiaki; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Uraguchi, Kohji; Mukai, Takeshi; Shibata, Chikako; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Takaesu, Noboru; Ito, Masaki; Makino, Yoshinori; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi; Yagi, Kinpei

    2014-08-01

    The causative parasite of alveolar echinococcosis, Echinococcus multilocularis, maintains its life cycle between red foxes (Vulpes vulples, the definitive hosts) and voles (the intermediate hosts) in Hokkaido, Japan. Primates, including humans, and some other mammal species can be infected by the accidental ingestion of eggs in the feces of red foxes. In August 2011, a 6-year-old zoo-raised female Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana) died from alveolar echinococcosis. E. multilocularis infection was confirmed by histopathological examination and detection of the E. multilocularis DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A field survey in the zoo showed that fox intrusion was common, and serodiagnosis of various nonhuman primates using western blotting detected a case of a 14-year-old female Celebes crested macaque (Macaca nigra) that was weakly positive for E. multilocularis. Computed tomography revealed only one small calcified lesion (approximately 8mm) in the macaque's liver, and both western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed a gradual decline of antibody titer. These findings strongly suggest that the animal had recovered spontaneously. Until this study, spontaneous recovery from E. multilocularis infection in a nonhuman primate had never been reported.

  17. Adaptation of hepatitis A virus to high titre growth in diploid and permanent cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, J P; Mehdi, S; Mauler, R

    1988-01-01

    A hepatitis A virus isolate originally obtained from the feces of a clinically ill patient and passaged in diploid human embryonic kidney and lung cells was adapted to grow in MRC-5, Cercopithecus aethiops muscle and in Vero cells. Three different adaptation methods were applied. Either method proved to be suitable to finally give high virus titres of cell-bound as well as cell-free virus in the supernatant of infected cultures during 10 to 15 passages. An easily performable immunoperoxidase staining method was used for the titration of hepatitis A virus in microtitre plates. Cytopathogenic changes in MRC-5 cell cultures infected with fully adapted virus are described.

  18. Structural colouration of mammalian skin: convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays.

    PubMed

    Prum, Richard O; Torres, Rodolfo H

    2004-05-01

    For more than a century, the blue structural colours of mammalian skin have been hypothesized to be produced by incoherent, Rayleigh or Tyndall scattering. We investigated the colour, anatomy, nanostructure and biophysics of structurally coloured skin from two species of primates - mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) and vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) - and two species of marsupials - mouse opossum (Marmosa mexicana) and wooly opossum (Caluromys derbianus). We used two-dimensional (2-D) Fourier analysis of transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) of the collagen arrays in the primate tissues to test whether these structural colours are produced by incoherent or coherent scattering (i.e. constructive interference). The structural colours in Mandrillus rump and facial skin and Cercopithecus scrotum are produced by coherent scattering by quasi-ordered arrays of parallel dermal collagen fibres. The 2-D Fourier power spectra of the collagen arrays from Mandrillus and Cercopithecus reveal ring-shaped distributions of Fourier power at intermediate spatial frequencies, demonstrating a substantial nanostructure of the appropriate spatial frequency to produce the observed blue hues by coherent scattering alone. The Fourier power spectra and the observed reflectance spectra falsify assumptions and predictions of the incoherent, Rayleigh scattering hypothesis. Samples of blue Marmosa and Caluromys scrotum conform generally to the anatomy seen in Mandrillus and Cercopithecus but were not sufficiently well preserved to conduct numerical analyses. Colour-producing collagen arrays in mammals have evolved multiple times independently within the two clades of mammals known to have trichromatic colour vision. Mammalian colour-producing collagen arrays are anatomically and mechanistically identical to structures that have evolved convergently in the dermis of many lineages of birds, the tapetum of some mammals and the cornea of some fishes. These collagen arrays constitute quasi

  19. Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Ruvolo, M.; Disotell, T.R.; Allard, M.W. ); Brown, W.M. ); Honeycutt, R.L. )

    1991-02-15

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. Comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial genome for the separation of the African ape trichotomy into two evolutionary lineages, one leading to gorillas and the other to humans and chimpanzees. Several different tree-building methods support this same phylogenetic tree topology. The comparisons also yield trees in which a substantial length separates the divergence point of gorillas from that of humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that the lineage most immediately ancestral to humans and chimpanzees may have been in existence for a relatively long time.

  20. [Residual neurovirulence of the chimera of Langat and Denge-4 flaviviruses in intracerebral infection of monkeys].

    PubMed

    Karganova, G G; Pripuzova, N S; Tereshkina, N V; Gmyl', L V; Dzhivanian, T I; Rumiantsev, A A; Lashkevich, V A

    2005-01-01

    The residual neurovirulence of the previously obtained chimeric virus Tp21/DEN4, containing the RNA region encoding the pre M and E structural enzymes, strain Tp21, virus Langat, and the remaining part of the genome from the Denge 4 virus, was studied in experiments with monkeys Cercopithecus aethiops involving the intracerebral administration of the virus. The tick-borne encephalitis virus, strain Absettarov, was used as positive control. A comparative analysis of the experimental and published data showed the chimeric virus to be less virulent by its degree of morphological affection in the CNS zones, its spread into the CNS and by a percentage share of animals with viremia versus the Tp21 parent strain and Elantsev strain of the Langat virus.

  1. [Analysis of the biological effect of city smog extract. V. Comparative investigations on the effect of city smog extracts on DNA synthesis of Syrian hamster kidney and embryonic cells and of African green monkey kidney cells in vitro (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Krampitz, G; Seemayer, N

    1979-01-01

    We analysed the effect of two samples of city smog extract from Bochum and Duisburg on DNA synthesis of mammalian cells in vitro. As a test system we used tissue cultures of kidney and embryonic cells from the Syrian golden hamster and monkey kidney cells from Cercopithecus aethiops. DNA synthesis of cells was measured by autoradiography using 3H-Thymidine. Both samples of city smog extract exerted a dose-dependent decrease of the rate of DNA synthesis in tissue culture cells. These alterations of nucleic acid metabolism were expressed by a reduction of DNA-synthesizing cells and by a delay of entrance of cells in DNA synthesis. High concentrations of city smog extracts induced a large number of cell necroses. Monkey kidney cells were more sensitive to the toxic action than hamster cells. Furthermore the city smog extract from Duisburg showed a stronger toxic effect than the extract from Bochum.

  2. A Web-based Brain Atlas of the Vervet Monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Roger P.; Fears, Scott C.; Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Fairbanks, Lynn A.; Toga, Arthur W.; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2010-01-01

    Vervet monkeys are a frequently studied animal model in neuroscience research. Although equally distantly related to humans, the ancestors of vervets diverged from those of macaques and baboons more than eleven million years ago, antedating the divergence of the ancestors of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas. To facilitate anatomic localization in the vervet brain, two linked on-line electronic atlases are described, one based on registered MRI scans from hundreds of vervets (http://www.loni.ucla.edu/Research/Atlases/Data/vervet/vervetmratlas/vervetmratlas.html) and the other based on a high-resolution cryomacrotome study of a single vervet (http://www.loni.ucla.edu/Research/Atlases/Data/vervet/vervetatlas/vervetatlas.html). The averaged MRI atlas is also available as a volume in Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative format. In the cryomacrotome atlas, various sulcal and subcortical structures have been anatomically labeled and surface rendered views are provided along the primary planes of section. Both atlases simultaneously provide views in all three primary planes of section, rapid navigation by clicking on the displayed images, and stereotaxic coordinates in the averaged MRI atlas space. Despite the extended time period since their divergence, the major sulcal and subcortical landmarks in vervets are highly conserved relative to those described in macaques. PMID:20923706

  3. The effect of housing and environmental enrichment on stereotyped behavior of adult vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Seier, Jürgen; de Villiers, Charon; van Heerden, Joritha; Laubscher, Ria

    2011-06-21

    Little information is available on the response of vervet monkeys to different housing conditions or on the suitability of enrichment devices or methods for vervet monkeys. In this study, the authors evaluated the occurrence of stereotyped behavior in adult vervet monkeys under various conditions of housing and enrichment. The variables included cage size, cage level (upper or lower), enrichment with a foraging log, enrichment with an exercise cage and presence of a mate. The authors first determined the incidence of stereotyped behavior in captive-bred, singly housed adult female and male vervet monkeys. They then exposed monkeys to different housing and enrichment situations and compared the incidence of stereotyped behavior among the monkeys. The authors found that more females than males engaged in stereotyped behavior and that females, on average, engaged in such behavior for longer periods of time than males. Stereotyped behavior was most often associated with a small, single cage. The average amount of observed stereotyped activity in monkeys housed in a small cage was significantly lower when the monkeys had access to either a foraging log or an exercise cage. Stereotyped behavior was also lower in female monkeys that were housed (either with a male or without a male) in a larger cage. The least amount of abnormal behavior was associated with the largest, most complex and enriched housing situation. Males and females housed in cages on the lower level of two-level housing engaged in more stereotyped behavior than did monkeys housed in the upper level, regardless of the presence or type of enrichment provided.

  4. Preliminary lack of evidence for simian odour preferences of savanna populations of Anopheles gambiae and other malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Costantini, C; Diallo, M

    2001-12-01

    The behavioural response to several culicine and anopheline mosquitoes to the odour of alternative hosts (human vs monkey) arranged in a choice set-up using odour-baited entry traps (OBETs) was assessed in a field experiment in south-eastern Senegal. The experimental protocol followed procedures analogous to those adopted in olfactometer laboratory tests. Two adult Cercopithecus aethiops and a child of similar mass slept inside separate tents and their odours were drawn to each one of two paired OBETs so that approaching mosquitoes could experience both odour-laden streams before "choosing" to fly against one of the two air currents and into the trap. The traps were set up in a riverine forest clearing near the town of Kedougou, where primates (Papio papio, Cercopithecus aethiops, and Erythrocebus patas) are common. A total of 192 mosquitoes belonging to 4 genera was captured during 8 trap nights. All major human malaria vectors including Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, An. funestus, and An. nili, which constituted the bulk of the trap catch (N = 153), clearly expressed a preference for human odour, with > 90% of captured mosquitoes caught in the human-baited trap. A sub-sample of specimens belonging to the An. gambiae complex caught in both traps was identified by rDNA-PCR and RFLP as An. gambiae sensu stricto molecular form S (7/10), and An. arabiensis (3/10). The only species that did not show a preference for the alternative odour-laden air streams, among those caught in significant numbers, were mosquitoes of the genus Mansonia, with both Ma. uniformis and Ma. africana weakly preferring human odour, but not at a statistically significant level. These results are in accordance with the hypothesis that the strongly anthropophilic feeding preferences of An. gambiae did not evolve from an ancestral association with non-human primates.

  5. Social familiarity affects Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana diana) alarm call responses in habitat-specific ways.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Claudia; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Male Diana monkeys produce loud and acoustically distinct alarm calls to leopards and eagles that propagate over long distances, much beyond the immediate group. Calling is often contagious, with neighbouring males responding to each other's calls, indicating that harem males communicate both to local group members and distant competitors. Here, we tested whether male Diana monkeys responding to each other's alarm calls discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers in two populations in Taï Forest (Ivory Coast) and on Tiwai Island (Sierra Leone). At both sites, we found specific acoustic markers in male alarm call responses that discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers, but response patterns were site-specific. On Tiwai Island, males responded to familiar males' eagle alarms with 'standard' eagle alarm calls, whereas unfamiliar males triggered acoustically atypical eagle alarms. The opposite was found in Taï Forest where males responded to unfamiliar males' eagle alarm calls with 'standard' eagle alarms, and with atypical eagle alarms to familiar males' calls. Moreover, only Taï, but not Tiwai, males also marked familiarity with the caller in their leopard-induced alarms. We concluded that male Diana monkeys encode not only predator type but also signaller familiarity in their alarm calls, although in population-specific ways. We explain these inter-site differences in vocal behaviour in terms of differences in predation pressure and population density. We discuss the adaptive function and implications of this behaviour for the origins of acoustic flexibility in primate communication. PMID:26998336

  6. Social familiarity affects Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana diana) alarm call responses in habitat-specific ways

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Claudia; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Male Diana monkeys produce loud and acoustically distinct alarm calls to leopards and eagles that propagate over long distances, much beyond the immediate group. Calling is often contagious, with neighbouring males responding to each other’s calls, indicating that harem males communicate both to local group members and distant competitors. Here, we tested whether male Diana monkeys responding to each other’s alarm calls discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers in two populations in Taï Forest (Ivory Coast) and on Tiwai Island (Sierra Leone). At both sites, we found specific acoustic markers in male alarm call responses that discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers, but response patterns were site-specific. On Tiwai Island, males responded to familiar males’ eagle alarms with ‘standard’ eagle alarm calls, whereas unfamiliar males triggered acoustically atypical eagle alarms. The opposite was found in Taï Forest where males responded to unfamiliar males’ eagle alarm calls with ‘standard’ eagle alarms, and with atypical eagle alarms to familiar males’ calls. Moreover, only Taï, but not Tiwai, males also marked familiarity with the caller in their leopard-induced alarms. We concluded that male Diana monkeys encode not only predator type but also signaller familiarity in their alarm calls, although in population-specific ways. We explain these inter-site differences in vocal behaviour in terms of differences in predation pressure and population density. We discuss the adaptive function and implications of this behaviour for the origins of acoustic flexibility in primate communication. PMID:26998336

  7. Parasitology of five primates in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kooriyama, Takanori; Hasegawa, Hideo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio; Nishida, Toshisada; Iwaki, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Parasitological surveillance in primates has been performed using coprological observation and identification of specimens from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania (Mahale). In this study, we conducted coprological surveillance to identify the fauna of parasite infection in five primate species in Mahale: red colobus (Procolobus badius tephrosceles), red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti), vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), and chimpanzees. Fecal samples were examined microscopically, and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, larvae, and adult worms. Three nematodes (Oesophagostomum spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris sp.), Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba spp. were found in all five primate species. The following infections were identified: Bertiella studeri was found in chimpanzees and yellow baboons; Balantidium coli was found in yellow baboons; three nematodes (Streptopharagus, Primasubulura, an undetermined genus of Spirurina) and Dicrocoeliidae gen. sp. were found in red-tailed monkeys, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons; Chitwoodspirura sp. was newly identified in red colobus and red-tailed monkeys; Probstmayria gombensis and Troglocorys cava were newly identified in chimpanzees, together with Troglodytella abrassarti; and Enterobius sp. was newly identified in red colobus. The parasitological data reported for red colobus, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons in Mahale are the first reports for these species. PMID:22661394

  8. Some gastro-intestinal parasites of zoonotic (public health) importance commonly observed in old world non-human primates in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muriuki, S M; Murugu, R K; Munene, E; Karere, G M; Chai, D C

    1998-08-15

    A study was undertaken to categorise some gastro-intestinal (GIT) parasites commonly observed in Kenyan non-human primates (NHPs) on the basis of their health implications for humans. Six species of locally available non-human primates, namely olive baboons (Papio cyanocephalus anubis), Vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), Sykes monkey (Cercopithecus mitis), Black and white colobus (Colobus abyssinicus), Debrazzas monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus) and Grey and Black mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus and Cercocebus albigena) which were imported from Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo) were sampled. Simple laboratory methods involving microscopic examination of stained faecal smears were used. Wet faecal smears stained with iodine and unstained controls were used for conventional parasites while acid fast staining was employed to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts. Both helminths and protozoan parasites were detected in varying rates in all primate species. Trichuris sp. was the most frequent helminth followed by Strongyloides fulleborni, Strongyles sp. and Schistosoma mansoni in that order. Entamoeba coli was the most common protozoan followed, respectively, by Balantidiun coli and Entamoeba histolytica. All primate species examined were infected with all the parasites listed except the black and white colobus. Cryptosporidium was found in both clinically normal and diarrhoeic baboons and vervets. Most taxa of parasites observed could prejudice human welfare directly through infection and causation of illness and indirectly through increased cost of livestock production and decreased availability of animal proteins. The potential of some of the agents to cause opportunistic infections in immuno-compromised persons was suggested as a likely threat to man's well-being. This would warrant such person's exemption from high risk operations at primate and other animal facilities in developing countries. Further, specific studies are needed to provide data on the epidemiology

  9. Pathology of inhalational Francisella tularensis spp. tularensis SCHU S4 infection in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Twenhafel, N A; Alves, D A; Purcell, B K

    2009-07-01

    Tularemia, caused by Francisella tularensis, is a sporadic zoonotic disease with the potential to be an agent of biowarfare or bioterrorism. We describe here the gross, histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings in a group of 5 African green monkeys (AGMs) that received an average inhaled dose of 729 colony-forming units of F. tularensis and died or were euthanatized between days 7 and 11 post infection. Clinical changes were evident by 48 hours post infection, and key physiologic abnormalities included increases in body temperature, heart rate, peak cardiac pressure, and mean blood pressure. Prominent gross changes in all cases included numerous pinpoint to 1-cm, well-demarcated, necrotic foci present consistently in the lungs, mediastinal lymph nodes, and spleen but also seen in the heart, mediastinum, diaphragm, liver, urinary bladder, urethra, and mesentery. The lungs, mediastinal lymph nodes, and spleen were most severely affected, with as much as 50% of the tissue replaced by necrotic foci. Histologic changes in all tissues consisted of well-delineated foci of necrosis and neutrophilic and histiocytic inflammation, with varying amounts of hemorrhage, edema, fibrin, and vasculitis. Some lesions were immature pyogranulomas. Strong immunoreactivity was identified primarily within macrophages. Ultrastructurally, bacteria were present within cytoplasmic vacuoles of alveolar macrophages, many of which were degenerate. In summary, AGMs infected with F. tularensis by aerosol develop lethal multisystemic disease that particularly targets the lungs and lymphoid tissues. Thus, AGMs should serve as a suitable and reliable animal model for further studies of tularemia.

  10. Effects of short-term niacin treatment on plasma lipoprotein concentrations in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Chauke, Chesa G; Arieff, Zainunisha; Kaur, Mandeep; Seier, Jurgen V

    2014-02-01

    Niacin is the most effective drug available for raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To evaluate its effects on plasma lipid concentrations, the authors administered a low dose of niacin to healthy, adult, female African green monkeys for 3 months. In the treated monkeys, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 43% from baseline, whereas concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I increased by 49% and 34%, respectively. The results suggest that in this primate model, a low dose of niacin can effectively increase concentrations of HDL cholesterol.

  11. Intracellular distribution of estradiol and estrogen binding sites in the uterus and oviducts of the green monkey (cercopithecus griseus)

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseeva, M.L.; Fanchenko, N.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Shchedrina, R.N.

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes a comparative investigation of changes in estradoil (E/sub 2/) and progesterone (P) concentrations in the blood plasma and concentrations of E/sub 2/ and estrogen binding sites (EBS) in the uterus and oviducts of C. griseus in the course of the menstrual cycle. A 0.25 aqueous solution of sucrose, 10mM Tris-HC1 buffer containing 1.5 mM EDTA, a 0.1M phosphate buffer containing 0.01% and 0.1% gelatin, antisera against E/sub 2/-17beta and P, labeled 3 /SUB H/ -E/sub 2/-17beta and /sup 3/H-P (specific radioactivity 104 and 96 Ci/nmole respectively), and their unlabeled analogs, 0.5, 1, and 5% suspensions of activated charcoal in buffer with the addition of 0.1% gelatin, and scintillation fluid consisting of 0.5% PPO and 0.05% POPOP in toluene were used. Indirect evidence shows the absence of any additional intracellular mechanisms affecting translocation of activated cytoplasmic estrogenreceptor complexes into the nucleus.

  12. A comparative study of basal metabolism and thermoregulation in a folivorous (Colobus guereza) and an omnivorous (Cercopithecus mitis) primate species.

    PubMed

    Müller, E F; Kamau, J M; Maloiy, G M

    1983-01-01

    1. Abdominal temperatures (Tab) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured in two males each of colobus and Sykes monkeys. 2. Tab in both species had the same range (36 38.5 C), but there were marked differences in the daily rhythms. 3. Low ambient temperatures (Ta) had little effect on Tab; at Ta = 33.5 35.5 C. however, Tab rose quickly to above 40 C. 4. The thermoneutral zone (TNZ) extended from about 5 to 28 C in both species. 5. In the colobus monkeys the basal metabolic rate (BMR) was considerably lower than in the Sykes monkeys: 85% vs 113% of the value predicted from body mass.

  13. Social and emotional values of sounds influence human (Homo sapiens) and non-human primate (Cercopithecus campbelli) auditory laterality.

    PubMed

    Basile, Muriel; Lemasson, Alban; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The last decades evidenced auditory laterality in vertebrates, offering new important insights for the understanding of the origin of human language. Factors such as the social (e.g. specificity, familiarity) and emotional value of sounds have been proved to influence hemispheric specialization. However, little is known about the crossed effect of these two factors in animals. In addition, human-animal comparative studies, using the same methodology, are rare. In our study, we adapted the head turn paradigm, a widely used non invasive method, on 8-9-year-old schoolgirls and on adult female Campbell's monkeys, by focusing on head and/or eye orientations in response to sound playbacks. We broadcast communicative signals (monkeys: calls, humans: speech) emitted by familiar individuals presenting distinct degrees of social value (female monkeys: conspecific group members vs heterospecific neighbours, human girls: from the same vs different classroom) and emotional value (monkeys: contact vs threat calls; humans: friendly vs aggressive intonation). We evidenced a crossed-categorical effect of social and emotional values in both species since only "negative" voices from same class/group members elicited a significant auditory laterality (Wilcoxon tests: monkeys, T = 0 p = 0.03; girls: T = 4.5 p = 0.03). Moreover, we found differences between species as a left and right hemisphere preference was found respectively in humans and monkeys. Furthermore while monkeys almost exclusively responded by turning their head, girls sometimes also just moved their eyes. This study supports theories defending differential roles played by the two hemispheres in primates' auditory laterality and evidenced that more systematic species comparisons are needed before raising evolutionary scenario. Moreover, the choice of sound stimuli and behavioural measures in such studies should be the focus of careful attention.

  14. Acyclovir treatment of experimental simian varicella infection of monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Soike, K F; Felsenfeld, A D; Gerone, P J

    1981-01-01

    Replication of simian varicella virus (SVV) in Vero cell cultures was inhibited by acyclovir, 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine (ACV), at a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml in culture medium. Intravenous administration of ACV at 10 mg/kg twice a day for 10 days or 15 mg/kg three times a day for 5 days to patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) beginning 48 h after SVV inoculation blocked the appearance of rash and other clinical symptoms but did not affect viremia. ACV treatment of African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) at 10 mg/kg twice a day by intravenous injection beginning 24 or 72 h after SVV inoculation and continuing for 10 days had no effect on clinical symptoms, including the development of rash, or on the appearance of viremia. The minimal therapeutic results could be due to the observation that doses of 10 or 15 mg/kg produced plasma levels of ACV which were lower than 5 micrograms/ml, the concentration that inhibited SVV multiplication in vitro, and decayed rapidly. PMID:7305319

  15. Activity of 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil against simian varicella virus infections in African green monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Soike, K F; Cantrell, C; Gerone, P J

    1986-01-01

    The fluorinated pyrimidines 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil (FIAU) and 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil (FMAU) are highly effective inhibitors of herpesvirus infections in vitro and in vivo. This report is concerned with an evaluation of their activities in African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) infected with simian varicella virus, a herpesvirus closely related to human varicella-zoster virus. Oral or intravenous administration of FIAU at 50 mg/kg per day as divided doses beginning 48 h after virus inoculation prevented the development of evidences of clinical infection. Oral treatment with FIAU at 30 mg/kg per day deferred as late as 7 days after virus inoculation modified the course of the disease. When treatment was started 48 h after virus inoculation, daily doses of FIAU as small as 1 mg/kg inhibited development of infections; daily doses of 0.2 mg/kg were ineffective. At the latter dose FMAU prevented development of clinical disease, suggesting that it was more active than FIAU. No signs of FIAU toxicity were observed, with the single exception of an early but transitory elevation in aspartate aminotransferase activity in serum. PMID:3729332

  16. Conservation challenge: human-herbivore conflict in Chebera Churchura National Park, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Datiko, Demeke; Bekele, Afework

    2013-12-01

    An investigation on human-herbivore conflict was carried out in CCNP between 2011 and 2012 in seven randomly selected villages (Chebera, Serri, Yora, Shita, Delba, Chuchra, Chewda) around the Park. A total of 312 household samples were identified for interview. Group discussion and field observation were also carried out. Among the respondents, the majority (83.9%) faced crop damage. African elephant (Loxodonta africana), Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibious), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Desert warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), Wild pig (Sus scrofa), Porcupine (Hystrix cristata), Vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) and Anubis baboon (Papio anubis) were identified as the most problematic animals in the area. However, buffalo, monkey and warthog were considered as the notorious pest. Crop damage and threats to human safety were the major problems encountered resulting in conflict between human and wildlife. Most respondents had a negative attitude towards the problem-posing animals. This will lead to a change in public attitude from one that supports wildlife conservation to sees wild herbivores as a threat and a potential negative consequence for wildlife conservation. Active measures have to be implemented to solve the problems and safeguard the future of the wildlife management in the park. PMID:24506044

  17. Antigenic comparison of Yuli and Vnukovo-32 virus strains in monkeys: specific protection by commercial antirabies preparations.

    PubMed

    Klueva, E V; Selimov, M A; Frolova, M P; Kulikova, L G; Krapivina, M N

    1991-09-01

    A combined vaccination schedule using commercial antirabies immunoglobulin G and experimental vaccine from strains Vnukovo-32 or Yuli beginning 2 hr before intracerebral (i.c.) challenge with a high dose of Yuli virus conferred no protection to Cercopithecus aethiops monkeys. In monkeys inoculated into lip with a middle dose of Yuli virus, administration of large amounts of antirabic IgG (up to 5000 national units, NU/kg) had a clearcut effect. The disease in Yuli virus-infected monkeys showed typical signs of acute encephalitis with lethal outcome, although one animal which developed typical encephalitis recovered as evidenced by increased virus-neutralizing antibodies in its serum. Inflammatory and degenerative lesions developed in the CNS of animals with signs of acute encephalomyelitis; their intensity was less prominent in those monkeys which underwent the combined treatment. In the cytoplasm of brain neurons of monkeys infected with Yuli virus relatively small Babes-Negri bodies with more or less apparent internal structure were detected. PMID:1688075

  18. Conservation challenge: human-herbivore conflict in Chebera Churchura National Park, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Datiko, Demeke; Bekele, Afework

    2013-12-01

    An investigation on human-herbivore conflict was carried out in CCNP between 2011 and 2012 in seven randomly selected villages (Chebera, Serri, Yora, Shita, Delba, Chuchra, Chewda) around the Park. A total of 312 household samples were identified for interview. Group discussion and field observation were also carried out. Among the respondents, the majority (83.9%) faced crop damage. African elephant (Loxodonta africana), Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibious), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Desert warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), Wild pig (Sus scrofa), Porcupine (Hystrix cristata), Vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) and Anubis baboon (Papio anubis) were identified as the most problematic animals in the area. However, buffalo, monkey and warthog were considered as the notorious pest. Crop damage and threats to human safety were the major problems encountered resulting in conflict between human and wildlife. Most respondents had a negative attitude towards the problem-posing animals. This will lead to a change in public attitude from one that supports wildlife conservation to sees wild herbivores as a threat and a potential negative consequence for wildlife conservation. Active measures have to be implemented to solve the problems and safeguard the future of the wildlife management in the park.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of MPTP-treated nonhuman parkinsonian primates in the HALLWAY task.

    PubMed

    Campos-Romo, Aurelio; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Moreno-Briseño, Pablo; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2009-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. An experimental model of this disease is produced in nonhuman primates by the administration of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In this work, we put forward a new quantitative evaluation method that uses video recordings to measure the displacement, gate, gross and fine motor performance of freely moving subjects. Four Vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) were trained in a behavioral observation hallway while being recorded with digital video cameras from four different angles. After MPTP intoxication the animals were tested without any drug and after 30 and 90 min of Levodopa/Carbidopa administration. Using a personal computer the following behaviors were measured and evaluated from the video recordings: displacement time across the hallway, reaching time towards rewards, ingestion time, number of attempts to obtain rewards, number of rewards obtained, and level of the highest shelf reached for rewards. Our results show that there was an overall behavioral deterioration after MPTP administration and an overall improvement after Levodopa/Carbidopa treatment. This demonstrates that the HALLWAY task is a sensitive and objective method that allows detailed behavioral evaluation of freely moving monkeys in the MPTP Parkinson's disease model.

  20. The African green monkey as an alternate primate host for studying Machupo virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wagner, F S; Eddy, G A; Brand, O M

    1977-01-01

    African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) are highly susceptible to Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF). Six monkeys were inoculated with 1,000 plague-forming units of Machupo virus, the etiologic agent of BHF. They were observed and monitored for clinical signs, body temperature, viremia, hematologic changes, and virus neutralizing antibody. Onset of fever, anorexia, and depression was noted on days 3 to 6 postinoculation. These and other signs increased in severity and all monkeys died: 5 of 6 died by day 13 and one survived until day 24. The median time to death for the group was 12.5 days. The mean value for hematocrit determinations gradually decreased to 30 on day 10 but subsequently increased. Mean neutrophil and lymphocyte values increased slightly until day 3, and then decreased to minimal values of 3,000 and 2,000, respectively, on day 10. Four monkeys were viremic by day 7 and all were viremic on day 10. The monkey that survived until day 24 had a neutralizing antibody titer of 1:32 on day 14 and appeared to recover from the initial acute illness by day 16. It died following onset of severe neurologic signs on day 23. BHF in the African green monkey is similar to the disease described in two species of macaques.

  1. Chemical synthesis, characterisation, and biocompatibility of nanometre scale porous anodic aluminium oxide membranes for use as a cell culture substrate for the vero cell line: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Le, Xuan Thi; O'Dea, Mark; Becker, Thomas; Fawcett, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In this preliminary study we investigate for the first time the biomedical potential of using porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes as a cell substrate for culturing the Cercopithecus aethiops (African green monkey) Kidney (Vero) epithelial cell line. One advantage of using the inorganic AAO membrane is the presence of nanometre scale pore channels that allow the exchange of molecules and nutrients across the membrane. The size of the pore channels can be preselected by adjusting the controlling parameters of a temperature controlled two-step anodization process. The cellular interaction and response of the Vero cell line with an in-house synthesised AAO membrane, a commercially available membrane, and a glass control were assessed by investigating cell adhesion, morphology, and proliferation over a 72 h period. The number of viable cells proliferating over the respective membrane surfaces revealed that the locally produced in-house AAO membrane had cells numbers similar to the glass control. The study revealed evidence of focal adhesion sites over the surface of the nanoporous membranes and the penetration of cellular extensions into the pore structure as well. The outcome of the study has revealed that nanometre scale porous AAO membranes have the potential to become practical cell culture scaffold substrates with the capability to enhance adhesion and proliferation of Vero cells. PMID:24579077

  2. A comparison of adult body size between captive and wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) on the island of St. Kitts.

    PubMed

    Turner, Trudy R; Cramer, Jennifer Danzy; Nisbett, Alexis; Patrick Gray, J

    2016-04-01

    Weight and 34 morphological measurements were obtained from 103 vervet monkeys living either in the wild or in captive colonies derived from the wild populations on the island of St. Kitts in the Eastern Caribbean. All measures were taken during the same week, eliminating bias that might result from changing seasonal environmental conditions. Vervets on St. Kitts are all descended from a small number of individuals brought to the island approximately 400 years ago from West Africa, thus eliminating bias that might result from subspecific size differences. We conducted a principal components analysis (PCA) and compared individual traits between captive and wild adult animals. Morphological measures such as body, arm, and leg length did not differ significantly between animals living in the wild and animals in captivity. Weight and measures indicating condition-including body mass index (BMI), chest, thigh, and upper arm girth were all higher for animals living in captivity. More consistent available food is probably the cause of differences in measures reflecting condition. PMID:26801341

  3. Subchronic toxicity of chlorine dioxide and related compounds in drinking water in the nonhuman primate.

    PubMed Central

    Bercz, J P; Jones, L; Garner, L; Murray, D; Ludwig, D A; Boston, J

    1982-01-01

    Subchronic toxicities of ClO2, NaClO2, NaClO3 and NH2Cl were studied in the African Green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). The chemicals were administered in drinking water during 30-60 days subchronic rising dose protocols. The only unexpected and significant toxic effect was elicited by ClO2; this chemical inhibited thyroid metabolism in the animals at a dose of ca. 9.0 mg/kg/day. A statistically significant decrease of serum thyroxine occurred after the fourth week of exposure to 100 mg/l.concentration. The extent of thyroid suppression was dose dependent in each individual monkey, and was reversible after cessation of exposure. NaClO2 and NaClO3 failed to elicit similar effects in doses up to ca. 60 mg/kg/day. Also, NaClO4 or NH2Cl did not cause T-4 suppression in doses of 10 mg/kg/day. The selective thyroid effect of ClO2 was unexplained and it appeared to be paradoxical since ClO2 was rapidly reduced by the oral and gastric secretions to nonoxidizing species (presumably Cl-). No evidence of thyroid effects were detected in the serum of human volunteers who ingested approximately 1 mg/l. of ClO2 in drinking water as a result of routine use in the community water treatment process. Sodium chlorite induced dose-dependent oxidative stress on hematopoesis, causing decreased hemoglobin and red cell count and increased methemoglobin content. At the same time, serum transaminase (SGPT) levels showed significant subclinical elevation. The hematologic effects of NaClO2 rebounded during exposure indicating compensatory hemopoietic activity taking effect during oxidative stress. Sodium chlorate and chloramine did not induce detectable hematologic changes in the animals. PMID:7151767

  4. Acid and reduction stimulated logic "and"-type combinational release mode achieved in DOX-loaded superparamagnetic nanogel.

    PubMed

    Song, Meifang; Xue, Yanan; Chen, Lidi; Xia, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Lei; Yu, Bo; Long, Sihui; Huang, Shiwen; Yu, Faquan

    2016-08-01

    A superparamagnetic nanogel featured with a logic "and"-type pH/reduction combinational stimulated release mode was fabricated as a drug delivery system by virtue of parallel crosslinking. The disulfide bond and electrostatic interaction between thiolated alginate (SA-SH) and thiolated/aminated iron oxide nanoparticles (SH-MION-NH2) were employed to achieve the mechanism. The obtained DOX-loaded magnetic nanogel is 122.7±20.3nm in size with superparamagnetism. The combinational conditions of pH5.0/10mM glutathione (GSH) stimulated a significantly high accumulative release. However, either pH7.4/10mM (GSH) or pH5.0 alone induced much low release. This verified the typical logic "and"-type combinationally stimulated release mode. In vitro cytotoxicity tests clearly illustrated the effective selectivity of killing the human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) with IC50 of 1.01μg/mL and the human hepatoma cells (HepG2) with IC50 of 1.57μg/mL but significantly low cytotoxicity to the cercopithecus aethiops kidney cells (Vero). CLSM presented the internationalization of the nanogel into cytoplasm and nuclei with time. In vivo investigation revealed that the selective intratumoral accumulation and antitumor efficacy were considerably advantageous over free DOX whereas low systemic toxicity exhibited up-regulated security as compared to free DOX. Overall, the DOX-loaded magnetic nanogel with enhanced antitumor efficacy and down-regulated adverse effect was a promising nanoplatform for the clinical chemotherapy of malignancy. PMID:27157762

  5. Symbols are not uniquely human.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sidarta; Loula, Angelo; de Araújo, Ivan; Gudwin, Ricardo; Queiroz, João

    2007-01-01

    Modern semiotics is a branch of logics that formally defines symbol-based communication. In recent years, the semiotic classification of signs has been invoked to support the notion that symbols are uniquely human. Here we show that alarm-calls such as those used by African vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), logically satisfy the semiotic definition of symbol. We also show that the acquisition of vocal symbols in vervet monkeys can be successfully simulated by a computer program based on minimal semiotic and neurobiological constraints. The simulations indicate that learning depends on the tutor-predator ratio, and that apprentice-generated auditory mistakes in vocal symbol interpretation have little effect on the learning rates of apprentices (up to 80% of mistakes are tolerated). In contrast, just 10% of apprentice-generated visual mistakes in predator identification will prevent any vocal symbol to be correctly associated with a predator call in a stable manner. Tutor unreliability was also deleterious to vocal symbol learning: a mere 5% of "lying" tutors were able to completely disrupt symbol learning, invariably leading to the acquisition of incorrect associations by apprentices. Our investigation corroborates the existence of vocal symbols in a non-human species, and indicates that symbolic competence emerges spontaneously from classical associative learning mechanisms when the conditioned stimuli are self-generated, arbitrary and socially efficacious. We propose that more exclusive properties of human language, such as syntax, may derive from the evolution of higher-order domains for neural association, more removed from both the sensory input and the motor output, able to support the gradual complexification of grammatical categories into syntax.

  6. Toxicity of culture material of Fusarium verticillioides strain MRC 826 to nonhuman primates.

    PubMed Central

    Gelderblom, W C; Seier, J V; Snijman, P W; Van Schalkwyk, D J; Shephard, G S; Marasas, W F

    2001-01-01

    We conducted a chronic feeding study in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) over 13.5 years. The experimental design consisted of two dietary treatment groups, each including males and females, fed varying levels of culture material of Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg (= F. moniliforme Sheldon) strain MRC 826 mixed into their daily food ration. Two females were included as treatment controls. We conducted blood chemical analyses bimonthly and recorded all clinical signs during the course of the experiment. We took liver biopsies at various stages during the initial phase of the experiment. Several monkeys were terminated in extremis during the experiment. Detailed feed intake profiles were determined 5 years after the experiment began, and the fumonisin B (FB) mycotoxin content of the feed was determined during the final stages of the experiment. The apparent FB consumption patterns were related to changes observed in the biochemical parameters in the blood and urine, including the liver function enzymes and creatinine clearance as well as differential blood counts and sphingolipid levels in the serum and urine. An apparent no-effect threshold for kidney and liver damage is estimated to be between 0.11 and 0.18 mg FB/kg body weight (bw)/day, which corresponds to a feed contamination level of between 8.21 and 13.25 mg FB/kg bw diet. Apart from the effects on the liver and kidney, a wide variety of parameters, including cholesterol and creatine kinase, were also adversely affected. Several blood parameters, including white and red blood cells, also significantly decreased in the treated animals. The serum sphinganine level and the sphingosine/sphinganine ratio, monitored toward the end of the experiment, significantly increased in both the low-dose and high-dose animals. The present study provides important information about the diversity of lesions induced by culture material of F. verticillioides in vervet monkeys and the dosage levels of fumonisins

  7. Low concentrations of bisphenol a suppress thyroid hormone receptor transcription through a nongenomic mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo; Tang, Yuan; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Yuan, Ye; Zhao, Bao-Quan; Chao, Xi-Juan; Zhu, Ben-Zhan

    2012-02-15

    Bisphenol (BPA) is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Various rodent and in vitro studies have shown that thyroid hormone (TH) function can be impaired by BPA. However, it is still unknown if low concentrations of BPA can suppress the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) transcription. The present study aims to investigate the possible suppressing effects of low concentrations of BPA on TR transcription and the involved mechanism(s) in CV-1 cells derived from cercopithecus aethiops monkey kidneys. Using gene reporter assays, BPA at concentrations as low as 10{sup −9} M suppresses TR or steroid receptor coactivator-1(SRC-1)-enhanced TR transcription, but not reducing TR/SRC-1 interaction in mammalian two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pull-down studies. It has been further shown that both nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) and silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) are recruited to the TR-β1 by BPA in the presence of physiologic concentrations of T3 or T4. However, the overexpression of β3 integrin or c-Src significantly reduces BPA-induced recruitment of N-CoR/SMRT to TR or suppression of TR transcription. Furthermore, BPA inhibits the T3/T4-mediated interassociation of the β3 integrin/c-Src/MAPK/TR-β1 pathways by the co-immunoprecipitation. These results indicate that low concentrations of BPA suppress the TR transcription by disrupting physiologic concentrations of T3/T4-mediated β3 integrin/c-Src/MAPK/TR-β1 pathways, followed by recruiting N-CoR/SMRT to TR-β1, providing a novel insight regarding the TH disruption effects of low concentration BPA. -- Highlights: ► Environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA suppress TR transcription. ► BPA recruits the N-CoR/SMRT to TR under the physiologic concentrations of T3/T4. ► BPA disrupts T3/T4-mediated β3 integrin/c-Src/MAPK/TR-β1 pathways.

  8. Regional variability in secondary remodeling within long bone cortices of catarrhine primates: the influence of bone growth history.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Shannon C; Terranova, Carl J; Zihlman, Adrienne L; Enlow, Donald H; Bromage, Timothy G

    2008-09-01

    Secondary intracortical remodeling of bone varies considerably among and within vertebrate skeletons. Although prior research has shed important light on its biomechanical significance, factors accounting for this variability remain poorly understood. We examined regional patterning of secondary osteonal bone in an ontogenetic series of wild-collected primates, at the midshaft femur and humerus of Chlorocebus (Cercopithecus) aethiops (n = 32) and Hylobates lar (n = 28), and the midshaft femur of Pan troglodytes (n = 12). Our major objectives were: 1) to determine whether secondary osteonal bone exhibits significant regional patterning across inner, mid-cortical and outer circumferential cortical rings within cross-sections; and if so, 2) to consider the manner in which this regional patterning may reflect the influence of relative tissue age and other circumstances of bone growth. Using same field-of-view images of 100-microm-thick cross-sections acquired in brightfield and circularly polarized light microscopy, we quantified the percent area of secondary osteonal bone (%HAV) for whole cross-sections and across the three circumferential rings within cross-sections. We expected bone areas with inner and middle rings to exhibit higher %HAV than the outer cortical ring within cross-sections, the latter comprising tissues of more recent depositional history. Observations of primary bone microstructural development provided an additional context in which to evaluate regional patterning of intracortical remodeling. Results demonstrated significant regional variability in %HAV within all skeletal sites. As predicted,%HAV was usually lowest in the outer cortical ring within cross-sections. However, regional patterning across inner vs. mid-cortical rings showed a more variable pattern across taxa, age classes, and skeletal sites examined. Observations of primary bone microstructure revealed that the distribution of endosteally deposited bone had an important influence on

  9. Exceptional Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Diversity in a Wild African Primate Community

    PubMed Central

    Lauck, Michael; Sibley, Samuel D.; Hyeroba, David; Tumukunde, Alex; Weny, Geoffrey; Chapman, Colin A.; Ting, Nelson; Switzer, William M.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Friedrich, Thomas C.; O'Connor, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) is an arterivirus that causes severe disease in captive macaques. We describe two new SHFV variants subclinically infecting wild African red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius). Both variants are highly divergent from the prototype virus and variants infecting sympatric red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus). All known SHFV variants are monophyletic and share three open reading frames not present in other arteriviruses. Our data suggest a need to modify the current arterivirus classification. PMID:23077302

  10. Revision of the species of Centris (Xanthemisia) Moure, 1945 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini) from the Caribbean island.

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    A revision of the species of Centris subgenus Xanthemisia Moure from the Caribbean islands is presented. The species identified are C. aethiops Cresson, C. domingensis Dalla Torre nom. rev. and C. caymanensis, a new species from the Cayman Islands, Lesser Antilles. Figures, morphological characters of both sexes and the description of the male of C. domingensis are given. New distribution records and an identification key for the three species of the subgenus that occur in the Caribbean islands are also provided.

  11. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d'Ivoire's Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  12. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N’goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d’Ivoire’s Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  13. Plant-ants use symbiotic fungi as a food source: new insight into the nutritional ecology of ant-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Mondolot, Laurence; La Fisca, Philippe; Voglmayr, Hermann; McKey, Doyle

    2012-10-01

    Usually studied as pairwise interactions, mutualisms often involve networks of interacting species. Numerous tropical arboreal ants are specialist inhabitants of myrmecophytes (plants bearing domatia, i.e. hollow structures specialized to host ants) and are thought to rely almost exclusively on resources derived from the host plant. Recent studies, following up on century-old reports, have shown that fungi of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales live in symbiosis with plant-ants within domatia. We tested the hypothesis that ants use domatia-inhabiting fungi as food in three ant-plant symbioses: Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana, Tetraponera aethiops/Barteria fistulosa and Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. Labelling domatia fungal patches in the field with either a fluorescent dye or (15)N showed that larvae ingested domatia fungi. Furthermore, when the natural fungal patch was replaced with a piece of a (15)N-labelled pure culture of either of two Chaetothyriales strains isolated from T. aethiops colonies, these fungi were also consumed. These two fungi often co-occur in the same ant colony. Interestingly, T. aethiops workers and larvae ingested preferentially one of the two strains. Our results add a new piece in the puzzle of the nutritional ecology of plant-ants. PMID:22859596

  14. Genetic heterogeneity and phylogeny of Trichuris spp. from captive non-human primates based on ribosomal DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, Serena; De Liberato, Claudio; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cave, David; Masella, Valentina; D'Amelio, Stefano; Berrilli, Federica

    2015-08-01

    Nematodes of the genus Trichuris, known as whipworms, are recognized to infect numerous mammalian species including humans and non-human primates. Several Trichuris spp. have been described and species designation/identification is traditionally based on host-affiliation, although cross-infection and hybridization events may complicate species boundaries. The main aims of the present study were to genetically characterize adult Trichuris specimens from captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and grivets (Chlorocebus aethiops), using the ribosomal DNA (ITS) as molecular marker and to investigate the phylogeny and the extent of genetic variation also by comparison with data on isolates from other humans, non-human primates and other hosts. The phylogenetic analysis of Trichuris sequences from M. fuscata and C. aethiops provided evidences of distinct clades and subclades thus advocating the existence of additional separated taxa. Neighbor Joining and Bayesian trees suggest that specimens from M. fuscata may be distinct from, but related to Trichuris trichiura, while a close relationship is suggested between the subclade formed by the specimens from C. aethiops and the subclade formed by T. suis. The tendency to associate Trichuris sp. to host species can lead to misleading taxonomic interpretations (i.e. whipworms found in primates are identified as T. trichiura). The results here obtained confirm previous evidences suggesting the existence of Trichuris spp. other than T. trichiura infecting non-human living primates.

  15. Plant-ants use symbiotic fungi as a food source: new insight into the nutritional ecology of ant-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Mondolot, Laurence; La Fisca, Philippe; Voglmayr, Hermann; McKey, Doyle

    2012-10-01

    Usually studied as pairwise interactions, mutualisms often involve networks of interacting species. Numerous tropical arboreal ants are specialist inhabitants of myrmecophytes (plants bearing domatia, i.e. hollow structures specialized to host ants) and are thought to rely almost exclusively on resources derived from the host plant. Recent studies, following up on century-old reports, have shown that fungi of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales live in symbiosis with plant-ants within domatia. We tested the hypothesis that ants use domatia-inhabiting fungi as food in three ant-plant symbioses: Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana, Tetraponera aethiops/Barteria fistulosa and Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. Labelling domatia fungal patches in the field with either a fluorescent dye or (15)N showed that larvae ingested domatia fungi. Furthermore, when the natural fungal patch was replaced with a piece of a (15)N-labelled pure culture of either of two Chaetothyriales strains isolated from T. aethiops colonies, these fungi were also consumed. These two fungi often co-occur in the same ant colony. Interestingly, T. aethiops workers and larvae ingested preferentially one of the two strains. Our results add a new piece in the puzzle of the nutritional ecology of plant-ants.

  16. Extensive survey on the prevalence and genetic diversity of SIVs in primate bushmeat provides insights into risks for potential new cross-species transmissions.

    PubMed

    Aghokeng, Avelin F; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Loul, Severin; Liegeois, Florian; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the risk of cross-species transmissions of SIVs from non-human primates to humans at the primate/hunter interface, a total of 2586 samples, derived from primate bushmeat representing 11 different primate species, were collected at 6 distinct remote forest sites in southeastern Cameroon and in Yaoundé, the capital city. SIV prevalences were estimated with an updated SIV lineage specific gp41 peptide ELISA covering the major part of the SIV diversity. SIV positive samples were confirmed by PCR and sequence analysis of partial pol fragments. The updated SIV ELISA showed good performance with overall sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 97.5% respectively. The overall SIV seroprevalence was low, 2.93% (76/2586) and ranged between 0.0% and 5.7% at forest sites, and reached up to 10.3% in Yaoundé. SIV infection was documented in 8 of the 11 species with significantly different prevalence rates per species: 9/859 (1.0%) in Cercopithecus nictitans, 9/864 (1.0%) Cercopithecus cephus, 10/60 (16.7%) Miopithecus ogouensis, 14/78 (17.9%) Colobus guereza, 15/37 (40.5%) Cercopithecus neglectus, 10/27 (33.3%) Mandrillus sphinx, 6/12 (50%) Cercocebus torquatus, and 3/6 (50%) Chlorocebus tantalus. No SIV infection was identified in Cercopithecus pogonias (n=293), Lophocebus albigena (n=168) and Cercocebus agilis (n=182). The SIV prevalences also seem to vary within species according to the sampling site, but most importantly, the highest SIV prevalences are observed in the primate species which represent only 8.5% of the overall primate bushmeat. The phylogenetic tree of partial pol sequences illustrates the high genetic diversity of SIVs between and within different primate species. The tree also showed some interesting features within the SIVdeb lineage suggesting phylogeographic clusters. Overall, the risk for additional cross-species transmissions is not equal throughout southern Cameroon and depends on the hunted species and SIV prevalences in each species

  17. Collection and Utilization of Animal Carcasses Associated with zoonotic Disease in Tshuapa District, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Benjamin P; Doty, Jeffrey B; Moses, Cynthia; Ibata, Saturnin; Reynolds, Mary; Carroll, Darin

    2015-07-01

    The collection and consumption of animal carcasses is a common activity in forested areas of the Congo River basin and creates sustainability, conservation, and health concerns. Residents of the Tshuapa District reported collecting the remains of 5,878 animals from >30 species when surveyed about their wildlife consumption habits. Carcasses were discovered in varying degrees of decomposition and were often consumed at home or sold in local markets. The most commonly collected animals were Cricetomys gambianus (Northern giant pouched rat), Cercopithecus ascanius (red-tailed monkey), and Heliosciurus rufobrachium (red-legged sun squirrel). Many of the species recorded may be hosts of zoonotic pathogens, creating concern for spillover events.

  18. Secnidazole vs. paromomycin: comparative antiprotozoan treatment in captive primates.

    PubMed

    Gracenea, M; Gómez, M S; Fernández, J; Feliu, C

    1998-02-01

    The antiprotozoan activity of secnidazole was studied in Cercocebus t. torquatus, Cercopithecus campbelli, Erythrocebus patas (Cercopithecidae), and Gorilla gorilla (Pongidae) compared with that of paromomycin in Cercocebus t. lunulatus (Cercopithecidae), E. patas, and G. gorilla (Pongidae) by coprological analysis. The antiprotozoan activity of both drugs depended on the parasite species and the host species. The drugs acted in a similar way on Entamoeba coli parasitising C. t. torquatus, and E. patas. This activity was different from that observed on I. buestchlii from the same host species. Nevertheless, E. coli parasitising cercopithecids and pongids responded to drugs differently. PMID:9606042

  19. Suffixation influences receivers' behaviour in non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Coye, Camille; Ouattara, Karim; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lemasson, Alban

    2015-01-01

    Compared to humans, non-human primates have very little control over their vocal production. Nonetheless, some primates produce various call combinations, which may partially offset their lack of acoustic flexibility. A relevant example is male Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli), which give one call type (‘Krak’) to leopards, while the suffixed version of the same call stem (‘Krak-oo’) is given to unspecific danger. To test whether recipients attend to this suffixation pattern, we carried out a playback experiment in which we broadcast naturally and artificially modified suffixed and unsuffixed ‘Krak’ calls of male Campbell's monkeys to 42 wild groups of Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana diana). The two species form mixed-species groups and respond to each other's vocalizations. We analysed the vocal response of male and female Diana monkeys and overall found significantly stronger vocal responses to unsuffixed (leopard) than suffixed (unspecific danger) calls. Although the acoustic structure of the ‘Krak’ stem of the calls has some additional effects, subject responses were mainly determined by the presence or the absence of the suffix. This study indicates that suffixation is an evolved function in primate communication in contexts where adaptive responses are particularly important. PMID:25925101

  20. Falsification of a single species hypothesis using the coefficient of variation: a simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Cope, D A; Lacy, M G

    1992-11-01

    Dental variation remains an important criterion for assessing whether a morphologically homogeneous fossil primate sample includes more than one species. The Coefficient of Variation (CV) has commonly been used to compare variation in a fossil sample of unknown taxonomic composition with that of extant single-species samples, in order to determine whether more than one species might be present. However, statistical tests for differences between fossil and single species reference sample CVs often lack power, because fossil samples are usually small and confidence limits of the CV are consequently large. The present study presents a new methodology for using the CV to test the hypothesis that a sample represents only one species. Simulated sampling distributions of single-species and pooled-species CVs are generated based on variation observed in dental samples of extant Cercopithecus species. These simulated distributions are used to test a single-species hypothesis for 13 different combinations of two or three sympatric Cercopithecus species across four dental characteristics at different sample sizes. Two different ways to generate the reference value of the CV are used. Results show the proposed methodology has substantially greater power than previous methods for detecting multiple-species composition, while maintaining an acceptable Type I error rate. Results are also presented concerning the dependence of power on sample size and on the average difference between means in a pooled-species combination.

  1. The formation of red colobus-diana monkey associations under predation pressure from chimpanzees.

    PubMed Central

    Noë, R; Bshary, R

    1997-01-01

    It is generally assumed that most primates live in monospecific or polyspecific groups because group living provides protection against predation, but hard evidence is scarce. We tested the antipredation hypothesis with observational and experimental data on mixed-species groups of red colobus (Procolobus badius) and diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) in the Taï National Park, Ivory Coast. Red colobus, but not diana monkeys, are frequently killed by cooperatively hunting chimpanzees. Association rates peaked during the chimpanzees' hunting season, as a result of changes in the behaviour of the red colobus. In addition, playbacks of recordings of chimpanzee sounds induced the formation of new associations and extended the duration of existing associations. No such effects were observed in reaction to control experiments and playbacks of leopard recordings. PMID:9061972

  2. Sick ants become unsociable.

    PubMed

    Bos, N; Lefèvre, T; Jensen, A B; d'Ettorre, P

    2012-02-01

    Parasites represent a severe threat to social insects, which form high-density colonies of related individuals, and selection should favour host traits that reduce infection risk. Here, using a carpenter ant (Camponotus aethiops) and a generalist insect pathogenic fungus (Metarhizium brunneum), we show that infected ants radically change their behaviour over time to reduce the risk of colony infection. Infected individuals (i) performed less social interactions than their uninfected counterparts, (ii) did not interact with brood anymore and (iii) spent most of their time outside the nest from day 3 post-infection until death. Furthermore, infected ants displayed an increased aggressiveness towards non-nestmates. Finally, infected ants did not alter their cuticular chemical profile, suggesting that infected individuals do not signal their physiological status to nestmates. Our results provide evidence for the evolution of unsociability following pathogen infection in a social animal and suggest an important role of inclusive fitness in driving such evolution.

  3. BrainMaps.org - Interactive High-Resolution Digital Brain Atlases and Virtual Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mikula, Shawn; Stone, James M; Jones, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    BrainMaps.org is an interactive high-resolution digital brain atlas and virtual microscope that is based on over 20 million megapixels of scanned images of serial sections of both primate and non-primate brains and that is integrated with a high-speed database for querying and retrieving data about brain structure and function over the internet. Complete brain datasets for various species, including Homo sapiens, Macaca mulatta, Chlorocebus aethiops, Felis catus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, and Tyto alba, are accessible online. The methods and tools we describe are useful for both research and teaching, and can be replicated by labs seeking to increase accessibility and sharing of neuroanatomical data. These tools offer the possibility of visualizing and exploring completely digitized sections of brains at a sub-neuronal level, and can facilitate large-scale connectional tracing, histochemical and stereological analyses. PMID:19129928

  4. Sick ants become unsociable.

    PubMed

    Bos, N; Lefèvre, T; Jensen, A B; d'Ettorre, P

    2012-02-01

    Parasites represent a severe threat to social insects, which form high-density colonies of related individuals, and selection should favour host traits that reduce infection risk. Here, using a carpenter ant (Camponotus aethiops) and a generalist insect pathogenic fungus (Metarhizium brunneum), we show that infected ants radically change their behaviour over time to reduce the risk of colony infection. Infected individuals (i) performed less social interactions than their uninfected counterparts, (ii) did not interact with brood anymore and (iii) spent most of their time outside the nest from day 3 post-infection until death. Furthermore, infected ants displayed an increased aggressiveness towards non-nestmates. Finally, infected ants did not alter their cuticular chemical profile, suggesting that infected individuals do not signal their physiological status to nestmates. Our results provide evidence for the evolution of unsociability following pathogen infection in a social animal and suggest an important role of inclusive fitness in driving such evolution. PMID:22122288

  5. Sucrose responsiveness, learning success, and task specialization in ants.

    PubMed

    Perez, Margot; Rolland, Uther; Giurfa, Martin; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2013-07-16

    Social insects possess remarkable learning capabilities, which are crucial for their ecological success. They also exhibit interindividual differences in responsiveness to environmental stimuli, which underlie task specialization and division of labor. Here we investigated for the first time the relationships between sucrose responsiveness, behavioral specialization, and appetitive olfactory learning in ants, including reproductive castes. We show that castes of the ant Camponotus aethiops differ in their responsiveness to sucrose and in their learning success in olfactory conditioning experiments in which sucrose is used as reward. Olfactory learning was better in foragers than in nurses, in agreement with their higher sucrose responsiveness. Interindividual variation in stimulus responsiveness and in learning may be, therefore, a crucial factor for division of labor in social insects.

  6. X-chromosomal window into the evolutionary history of the guenons (Primates: Cercopithecini).

    PubMed

    Tosi, Anthony J; Detwiler, Kate M; Disotell, Todd R

    2005-07-01

    Molecular studies of the guenons suggest that the arboreal Cercopithecus species form a monophyletic group within the tribe Cercopithecini. However, the evolutionary relationships among these arboreal congeners remain poorly resolved. The present work marks the first attempt to reconstruct the history of this group through the phylogenetic analysis of long nuclear sequences. We surveyed 19 guenons and seven outgroup taxa for a approximately 9.3kb fragment of X-chromosomal DNA homologous to a portion of human Xq13.3. Parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of these sequences consistently recover two strongly-supported patterns within the arboreal Cercopithecus clade: (1) a clustering of members of the cephus and mitis species groups, and (2) a monophyletic aggregate including the mona, neglectus, and diana species groups. Although guenons occasionally hybridize in the wild, interbreeding forms of different species groups do not cluster together as sister-taxa in the X-chromosomal tree, suggesting that the two clades inferred here are not reticulate patterns due to recent gene flow. These clades are most likely the result of either ancestral hybridization or true phylogenetic history. We advocate the latter explanation because the same two aggregates (cephus/mitis and mona/neglectus/diana) are recovered, albeit with weak support, by a number of earlier analyses. Finally, X-chromosomal divergence dates are estimated for a number of nodes in the guenon radiation. The divergence of guenon and papionin lineages at 11.5 (+/-1.3) MYA appears to be a particularly robust estimate since it is inferred from both mitochondrial and X-chromosomal studies, each using different fossil calibration points.

  7. Co-infection and cross-species transmission of divergent Hepatocystis lineages in a wild African primate community★

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Mary I.; Ghai, Ria R.; Hyeroba, Hyeroba; Weny, Geoffrey; Tumukunde, Alex; Chapman, Colin A.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Dinis, Jorge; Steeil, James; Greiner, Ellis C.; Friedrich, Thomas C.; O’Connor, David H.; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2013-01-01

    Hemoparasites of the apicomplexan family Plasmodiidae include the etiological agents of malaria, as well as a suite of non-human primate parasites from which the human malaria agents evolved. Despite the significance of these parasites for global health, little information is available about their ecology in multi-host communities. Primates were investigated in Kibale National Park, Uganda, where ecological relationships among host species are well characterized. Blood samples were examined for parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Hepatocystis using microscopy and PCR targeting the parasite mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, followed by Sanger sequencing. To assess co-infection, “deep sequencing” of a variable region within cytochrome b was performed. Out of nine black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza), one blue guenon (Cercopithecus mitis), five grey-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena), 23 olive baboons (Papio anubis), 52 red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus) and 12 red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius), 79 infections (77.5%) were found, all of which were Hepatocystis spp. Sanger sequencing revealed 25 different parasite haplotypes that sorted phylogenetically into six species-specific but morphologically similar lineages. “Deep sequencing” revealed mixed-lineage co-infections in baboons and red colobus (41.7% and 64.7% of individuals, respectively) but not in other host species. One lineage infecting red colobus also infected baboons, but always as the minor variant, suggesting directional cross-species transmission. Hepatocystis parasites in this primate community are a diverse assemblage of cryptic lineages, some of which co-infect hosts and at least one of which can cross primate species barriers. PMID:23603520

  8. Co-infection and cross-species transmission of divergent Hepatocystis lineages in a wild African primate community.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Mary I; Ghai, Ria R; Hyeroba, David; Weny, Geoffrey; Tumukunde, Alex; Chapman, Colin A; Wiseman, Roger W; Dinis, Jorge; Steeil, James; Greiner, Ellis C; Friedrich, Thomas C; O'Connor, David H; Goldberg, Tony L

    2013-07-01

    Hemoparasites of the apicomplexan family Plasmodiidae include the etiological agents of malaria, as well as a suite of non-human primate parasites from which the human malaria agents evolved. Despite the significance of these parasites for global health, little information is available about their ecology in multi-host communities. Primates were investigated in Kibale National Park, Uganda, where ecological relationships among host species are well characterized. Blood samples were examined for parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Hepatocystis using microscopy and PCR targeting the parasite mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, followed by Sanger sequencing. To assess co-infection, "deep sequencing" of a variable region within cytochrome b was performed. Out of nine black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza), one blue guenon (Cercopithecus mitis), five grey-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena), 23 olive baboons (Papio anubis), 52 red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus) and 12 red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius), 79 infections (77.5%) were found, all of which were Hepatocystis spp. Sanger sequencing revealed 25 different parasite haplotypes that sorted phylogenetically into six species-specific but morphologically similar lineages. "Deep sequencing" revealed mixed-lineage co-infections in baboons and red colobus (41.7% and 64.7% of individuals, respectively) but not in other host species. One lineage infecting red colobus also infected baboons, but always as the minor variant, suggesting directional cross-species transmission. Hepatocystis parasites in this primate community are a diverse assemblage of cryptic lineages, some of which co-infect hosts and at least one of which can cross primate species barriers. PMID:23603520

  9. Prevalence of antibodies to alphaviruses and flaviviruses in free-ranging game animals and nonhuman primates in the greater Congo basin.

    PubMed

    Kading, Rebekah C; Borland, Erin M; Cranfield, Mike; Powers, Ann M

    2013-07-01

    Vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens have comprised a significant proportion of the emerging infectious diseases in humans in recent decades. The role of many wildlife species as reservoirs for arthropod-borne viral pathogens is poorly understood. We investigated the exposure history of various African wildlife species from the Congo basin to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphaviruses by testing archived serum samples. Sera from 24 African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), 34 African elephants (Loxodonta africana), 40 duikers (Cephalophus and Philantomba spp.), 25 mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), 32 mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), five Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri), two L'Hoest's monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti), two golden monkeys (Cercopithecus kandti), and three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) sampled between 1991 and 2009 were tested for antibodies against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), and yellow fever virus (YFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test. Specific neutralizing antibodies against ONNV were found in African forest buffalo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Gabon, duikers in the DRC, and mandrills in Gabon, providing novel evidence of enzootic circulation of ONNV in these countries. African forest buffalo in the DRC and Gabon also demonstrated evidence of exposure to CHIKV, WNV, and DENV-2, while mandrills in Gabon were antibody positive for CHIKV, DENV-2, WNV, and YFV. All of the elephants tested had a strong neutralizing antibody response to WNV. We also document results from a survey of gorillas for arboviruses, of which 4/32 (13%) had antibody to an alphavirus or flavivirus. Overall, our results demonstrate a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against multiple arboviruses in wildlife in equatorial Africa. PMID:23778608

  10. Social complexity parallels vocal complexity: a comparison of three non-human primate species

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet, Hélène; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Lemasson, Alban

    2013-01-01

    Social factors play a key role in the structuring of vocal repertoires at the individual level, notably in non-human primates. Some authors suggested that, at the species level too, social life may have driven the evolution of communicative complexity, but this has rarely been empirically tested. Here, we use a comparative approach to address this issue. We investigated vocal variability, at both the call type and the repertoire levels, in three forest-dwelling species of Cercopithecinae presenting striking differences in their social systems, in terms of social organization as well as social structure. We collected female call recordings from twelve De Brazza's monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus), six Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) and seven red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) housed in similar conditions. First, we noted that the level of acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness found in several call types was related to their importance in social functioning. Contact calls, essential to intra-group cohesion, were the most individually distinctive regardless of the species, while threat calls were more structurally variable in mangabeys, the most “despotic” of our three species. Second, we found a parallel between the degree of complexity of the species' social structure and the size, diversity, and usage of its vocal repertoire. Mangabeys (most complex social structure) called twice as often as guenons and displayed the largest and most complex repertoire. De Brazza's monkeys (simplest social structure) displayed the smallest and simplest repertoire. Campbell's monkeys displayed an intermediate pattern. Providing evidence of higher levels of vocal variability in species presenting a more complex social system, our results are in line with the theory of a social-vocal coevolution of communicative abilities, opening new perspectives for comparative research on the evolution of communication systems in different animal taxa. PMID

  11. Prevalence of antibodies to alphaviruses and flaviviruses in free-ranging game animals and nonhuman primates in the greater Congo basin.

    PubMed

    Kading, Rebekah C; Borland, Erin M; Cranfield, Mike; Powers, Ann M

    2013-07-01

    Vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens have comprised a significant proportion of the emerging infectious diseases in humans in recent decades. The role of many wildlife species as reservoirs for arthropod-borne viral pathogens is poorly understood. We investigated the exposure history of various African wildlife species from the Congo basin to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphaviruses by testing archived serum samples. Sera from 24 African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), 34 African elephants (Loxodonta africana), 40 duikers (Cephalophus and Philantomba spp.), 25 mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), 32 mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), five Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri), two L'Hoest's monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti), two golden monkeys (Cercopithecus kandti), and three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) sampled between 1991 and 2009 were tested for antibodies against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), and yellow fever virus (YFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test. Specific neutralizing antibodies against ONNV were found in African forest buffalo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Gabon, duikers in the DRC, and mandrills in Gabon, providing novel evidence of enzootic circulation of ONNV in these countries. African forest buffalo in the DRC and Gabon also demonstrated evidence of exposure to CHIKV, WNV, and DENV-2, while mandrills in Gabon were antibody positive for CHIKV, DENV-2, WNV, and YFV. All of the elephants tested had a strong neutralizing antibody response to WNV. We also document results from a survey of gorillas for arboviruses, of which 4/32 (13%) had antibody to an alphavirus or flavivirus. Overall, our results demonstrate a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against multiple arboviruses in wildlife in equatorial Africa.

  12. Facing the Heat: Thermoregulation and Behaviour of Lowland Species of a Cold-Dwelling Butterfly Genus, Erebia.

    PubMed

    Kleckova, Irena; Klecka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the potential of animals to immediately respond to changing temperatures is imperative for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Ectothermic animals, such as insects, use behavioural thermoregulation to keep their body temperature within suitable limits. It may be particularly important at warm margins of species occurrence, where populations are sensitive to increasing air temperatures. In the field, we studied thermal requirements and behavioural thermoregulation in low-altitude populations of the Satyrinae butterflies Erebia aethiops, E. euryale and E. medusa. We compared the relationship of individual body temperature with air and microhabitat temperatures for the low-altitude Erebia species to our data on seven mountain species, including a high-altitude population of E. euryale, studied in the Alps. We found that the grassland butterfly E. medusa was well adapted to the warm lowland climate and it was active under the highest air temperatures and kept the highest body temperature of all species. Contrarily, the woodland species, E. aethiops and a low-altitude population of E. euryale, kept lower body temperatures and did not search for warm microclimates as much as other species. Furthermore, temperature-dependence of daily activities also differed between the three low-altitude and the mountain species. Lastly, the different responses to ambient temperature between the low- and high-altitude populations of E. euryale suggest possible local adaptations to different climates. We highlight the importance of habitat heterogeneity for long-term species survival, because it is expected to buffer climate change consequences by providing a variety of microclimates, which can be actively explored by adults. Alpine species can take advantage of warm microclimates, while low-altitude grassland species may retreat to colder microhabitats to escape heat, if needed. However, we conclude that lowland populations of woodland species may be

  13. Facing the Heat: Thermoregulation and Behaviour of Lowland Species of a Cold-Dwelling Butterfly Genus, Erebia

    PubMed Central

    Kleckova, Irena; Klecka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the potential of animals to immediately respond to changing temperatures is imperative for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Ectothermic animals, such as insects, use behavioural thermoregulation to keep their body temperature within suitable limits. It may be particularly important at warm margins of species occurrence, where populations are sensitive to increasing air temperatures. In the field, we studied thermal requirements and behavioural thermoregulation in low-altitude populations of the Satyrinae butterflies Erebia aethiops, E. euryale and E. medusa. We compared the relationship of individual body temperature with air and microhabitat temperatures for the low-altitude Erebia species to our data on seven mountain species, including a high-altitude population of E. euryale, studied in the Alps. We found that the grassland butterfly E. medusa was well adapted to the warm lowland climate and it was active under the highest air temperatures and kept the highest body temperature of all species. Contrarily, the woodland species, E. aethiops and a low-altitude population of E. euryale, kept lower body temperatures and did not search for warm microclimates as much as other species. Furthermore, temperature-dependence of daily activities also differed between the three low-altitude and the mountain species. Lastly, the different responses to ambient temperature between the low- and high-altitude populations of E. euryale suggest possible local adaptations to different climates. We highlight the importance of habitat heterogeneity for long-term species survival, because it is expected to buffer climate change consequences by providing a variety of microclimates, which can be actively explored by adults. Alpine species can take advantage of warm microclimates, while low-altitude grassland species may retreat to colder microhabitats to escape heat, if needed. However, we conclude that lowland populations of woodland species may be

  14. Facing the Heat: Thermoregulation and Behaviour of Lowland Species of a Cold-Dwelling Butterfly Genus, Erebia.

    PubMed

    Kleckova, Irena; Klecka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the potential of animals to immediately respond to changing temperatures is imperative for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Ectothermic animals, such as insects, use behavioural thermoregulation to keep their body temperature within suitable limits. It may be particularly important at warm margins of species occurrence, where populations are sensitive to increasing air temperatures. In the field, we studied thermal requirements and behavioural thermoregulation in low-altitude populations of the Satyrinae butterflies Erebia aethiops, E. euryale and E. medusa. We compared the relationship of individual body temperature with air and microhabitat temperatures for the low-altitude Erebia species to our data on seven mountain species, including a high-altitude population of E. euryale, studied in the Alps. We found that the grassland butterfly E. medusa was well adapted to the warm lowland climate and it was active under the highest air temperatures and kept the highest body temperature of all species. Contrarily, the woodland species, E. aethiops and a low-altitude population of E. euryale, kept lower body temperatures and did not search for warm microclimates as much as other species. Furthermore, temperature-dependence of daily activities also differed between the three low-altitude and the mountain species. Lastly, the different responses to ambient temperature between the low- and high-altitude populations of E. euryale suggest possible local adaptations to different climates. We highlight the importance of habitat heterogeneity for long-term species survival, because it is expected to buffer climate change consequences by providing a variety of microclimates, which can be actively explored by adults. Alpine species can take advantage of warm microclimates, while low-altitude grassland species may retreat to colder microhabitats to escape heat, if needed. However, we conclude that lowland populations of woodland species may be

  15. Analysis of the probability of multiple taxa in a combined sample of Swartkrans and Kromdraai dental material.

    PubMed

    Fuller, K

    1996-11-01

    It has been argued (Grine, [1988] Evolutionary History of the "Robust" Australopithecines [New York. Aldine de Gruyter], pp. 223-243) that the australopithecine material from Swartkrans and Kromdraai represents distinct species. In an attempt to test the validity of separate taxa at Swartkrans and Kromdraai, Cope's (Cope [1989] Systematic Variation in Cercopithecus Dental Samples [Austin: University of Texas]) method of analysis was adapted and utilized. This procedure includes an analysis of the coefficients of variation (CVs) of the individual posterior teeth (buccal-lingual breadth) of a combined fossil sample compared with the CVs of several known single taxon reference groups. The Cope and Lacy (Cope and Lacy [1992] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 89:359-378) stimulation technique was also employed in the analysis. Based on these analyses, there is no justification for a taxonomic separation between the australopithecine material from Swartkrans and Kromdraai. Therefore, the assertion that the Swartkrans and Kromdraai material represent two distinct species is not indicated by the available dental metric evidence. PMID:8922186

  16. New Insights into Samango Monkey Speciation in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Desiré L.; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S. W.; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M. Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study. PMID:25798604

  17. INCOMPLETE SIMIAN PAPOVAVIRUS SV40

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Joseph L.; Stinebaugh, Sara E.; Rapp, Fred

    1964-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of 5-fluorouracil (FU) and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUDR) on the replication of the simian papovavirus SV40 in cercopithecus monkey kidney cells and on the production of virus antigen by these cells. Both drugs markedly suppressed the production of new infectious virus by SV40-infected cells. Synthesis of viral protein was also markedly suppressed by FUDR, but not by FU. In the presence of FU, infected cells produced large amounts of viral protein which were detected by the fluorescent antibody technique. The antigen was not distributed in a particulate fashion as in untreated cells. Diffuse virus antigen was observed in the nuclei of FU-treated cells, resembling the distribution of antigen near the end of the eclipse period in untreated, infected cultures. This stage of antigen production presumably preceded viral assembly. Virus particles with or without cores were rarely seen with the electron microscope in infected FU-treated cells, although large numbers of SV40 particles were readily visualized in untreated, infected cells. It appears that at least one antigenic protein of this papovavirus is synthesized abundantly in FU-treated cells, but is not assembled into virus shells in the presence of the inhibitor. PMID:14164485

  18. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in primate bushmeat and pets in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Pourrut, X; Diffo, J L D; Somo, R M; Bilong Bilong, C F; Delaporte, E; LeBreton, M; Gonzalez, J P

    2011-01-10

    To document the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Cameroonian monkeys and to assess the risk of transmission to humans, we sampled 125 primates belonging to 15 species, of which 78 had been captured for bushmeat in the wild, and 47 were pets kept in urban areas. Seven nematode species, one trematode, one cestode and three protozoa were detected. Eight different parasite species were found in Cercopithecus nictitans and six in C. neglectus, C. pogonias and Cercocebus agilis. Helminths were found in 77% of monkeys, and protozoa in 36%. Trichuris sp. and Entamoeba coli were the most frequent parasites, being found in 54% and 36% of animals, respectively. Helminths were more frequent in adults than in juveniles, while the prevalence of protozoa was not age-related. No significant gender difference was found. Bushmeat monkeys had a significantly higher prevalence of helminth infection than pets (92% versus 51%), whereas there was no significant difference in the prevalence of protozoa (32% versus 43%). Among helminth species, Strongyloides fulleborni was more prevalent in bushmeat monkeys than in pets (55% versus 15%), as were Ancylostoma spp. (62% versus 9%). As these parasites are transmitted transcutaneously by infectious larva, they have a high potential for transmission to humans, during butchering. One pet monkey kept in an urban household in Yaoundé was infected by Schistosoma mansoni. The potential public health implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Public health significance of zoonotic bacterial pathogens from bushmeat sold in urban markets of Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Bachand, Nicholas; Ravel, André; Onanga, Richard; Arsenault, Julie; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2012-07-01

    Wild animal meat represents an important source of protein for many people in central Africa. Also known as bushmeat, this meat commodity is derived from wild animals hunted under uncontrolled conditions, transported to distant markets under rudimentary or no hygienic methods, and often eviscerated >24 hr after death. Considering the plausible role of wildlife as a reservoir for bacterial zoonotic pathogens, bushmeat may be an important public health risk in Central Africa. This cross-sectional survey served to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella in the muscle tissue of 128 wild animal carcasses from several hunted wildlife species (guenons [Cercopithecus spp.], collared mangabeys [Cercocebus torquatus], gray-cheeked mangabeys [Lophocebus albigena], African crested porcupines [Atherurus africanus], duikers [Cephalophus spp.], and red river hogs [Potamocherus porcus]) sold in two markets of Port-Gentil, Gabon, in July and August 2010. Salmonella was detected from one carcass; no Campylobacter or Shigella was detected. If Campylobacter and Shigella were present, the maximum expected prevalence was estimated at 6% and 1%, respectively. In light of such very low apparent muscle contamination levels, bushmeat likely does not represent a health risk per se with respect to Campylobacter, Salmonella, or Shigella. However, because carcass evisceration and skinning can take place within households prior to consumption, consumers should follow strict hygiene and food safety practices to avoid potential health hazards associated with the handling, preparation, or consumption of bushmeat.

  20. An immunohistochemical study of the middle ear muscles of some carnivores and primates, with special reference to the IIM and slow-tonic fibre types.

    PubMed Central

    Mascarello, F; Veggetti, A; Cerpenè, E; Rowlerson, A

    1983-01-01

    The middle ear muscles of several species of carnivores (cat, dog, fox, ferret and stone-marten) and some New World monkeys (Callithrix, Saimiri) and Old World monkeys (Cercopithecus, Macaca) were examined. The fibre type compositions of these muscles were determined by a combination of the standard histochemical myofibrillar ATPase method, and immunohistochemical techniques using myosintype-specific antisera. Immunohistochemically slow-tonic fibres were found in the stapedius muscles of only two carnivores, the ferret and stone-marten. In all the carnivores and the New World monkeys, tensor tympani muscle contained IIM, slow-tonic and slow-twitch fibres, but in the Old World monkeys it resembled stapedius muscle, and contained only Type I (slow-twitch) and IIA fibres. Thus, because all the species examined had IIM fibres in the jaw-closer muscles, this means that the common embryological origin of tensor tympani muscle and the jaw-closers does not necessarily result in tensor tympani muscle containing this fibre type even though IIM fibres occur only in first branchial arch muscles. This fact, together with other species differences in the fibre type composition of these muscles, shows that there is no typical composition of middle ear muscles in general, and suggests that the differences are related to very different functional requirements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6415024

  1. Mammals consumed by bonobos (Pan paniscus): new data from the Iyondji forest, Tshuapa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Tetsuya; Maloueki, Ulrich; Bakaa, Batuafe; Bongoli, Lingomo; Kasalevo, Phila; Terada, Saeko; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    Findings of regional variations in the behavioral patterns of non-human primates have led to the vigorous study of animal traditions (or culture), which contribute to a biological understanding of diversity in human cultures. Although our knowledge of behavioral variations of the bonobo (Pan paniscus) is limited compared with its sister species, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes), variations in the prey of this species have been reported across study sites. This study describes evidence of mammals consumed by bonobos in the Iyondji site, which was established in 2010. We found evidence that Iyondji bonobos consumed duikers (Cephalophus dorsalis, C. monticola) and diurnal monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius), which is notable because only anomalures (Anomalurus spp.) are consumed by bonobos in Wamba, a long-term study site established in 1973, located in an area adjacent to Iyondji. Moreover, bonobos do not transfer between the two populations due to the river between the sites. According to our census of duikers and diurnal monkeys, Iyondji bonobos appeared to encounter diurnal monkeys more frequently than did Wamba bonobos. Although humans have apparently had a more pronounced impact on the habitats in Wamba than on those in Iyondji, it remains unclear how such environmental conditions may have contributed to the differences in the prey consumed by bonobos in different sites. Our findings suggest that additional research at various sites could reveal the nature of the variations in the behavior of bonobos.

  2. Scapular Morphology and Forelimb Use during Foraging in Four Sympatric Cercopithecids.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Noah T; Kane, Erin E; McGraw, W Scott

    2015-01-01

    Most investigations of primate scapular morphology use differences in locomotion to explain variation; less is known about how scapular geometry covaries with nonlocomotor behavior. We examined forelimb use during foraging in 4 cercopithecids ranging throughout the Ivory Coast's Tai Forest. During 5-min feeding bouts, we recorded the frequency individuals of Piliocolobus badius, Colobus polykomos, Cercocebus atys and Cercopithecus diana performed 5 forelimb behaviors involved in the acquisition and introduction of food to the oral cavity. Scapulae from these populations were examined to determine whether differences in forelimb use were reflected in features known to correspond with varying degrees of arm flexion, abduction and elevation. Our results reveal that the species differ markedly in forelimb use and that these differences are interpretable via their scapular morphology. For example, P. badius engages in more frequent flexion, abduction and elevation of the arm above the head relative to C. polykomos, and red colobus scapulae are longer craniocaudally and have larger, more cranially directed supraspinous fossae than those of closely related black-and-white colobus. Our attempt to explore how nonlocomotor behavior covaries with skeletal morphology should provide for more informed interpretations of the primate fossil record. PMID:26745141

  3. Mammals consumed by bonobos (Pan paniscus): new data from the Iyondji forest, Tshuapa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Tetsuya; Maloueki, Ulrich; Bakaa, Batuafe; Bongoli, Lingomo; Kasalevo, Phila; Terada, Saeko; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    Findings of regional variations in the behavioral patterns of non-human primates have led to the vigorous study of animal traditions (or culture), which contribute to a biological understanding of diversity in human cultures. Although our knowledge of behavioral variations of the bonobo (Pan paniscus) is limited compared with its sister species, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes), variations in the prey of this species have been reported across study sites. This study describes evidence of mammals consumed by bonobos in the Iyondji site, which was established in 2010. We found evidence that Iyondji bonobos consumed duikers (Cephalophus dorsalis, C. monticola) and diurnal monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius), which is notable because only anomalures (Anomalurus spp.) are consumed by bonobos in Wamba, a long-term study site established in 1973, located in an area adjacent to Iyondji. Moreover, bonobos do not transfer between the two populations due to the river between the sites. According to our census of duikers and diurnal monkeys, Iyondji bonobos appeared to encounter diurnal monkeys more frequently than did Wamba bonobos. Although humans have apparently had a more pronounced impact on the habitats in Wamba than on those in Iyondji, it remains unclear how such environmental conditions may have contributed to the differences in the prey consumed by bonobos in different sites. Our findings suggest that additional research at various sites could reveal the nature of the variations in the behavior of bonobos. PMID:26968409

  4. Significance of color, calories, and climate to the visual ecology of catarrhines.

    PubMed

    Dominy, Nathaniel J; Lucas, Peter W

    2004-03-01

    Here we describe correlations among visual ecology and the physiochemical properties of fruits and leaves consumed by four species of catarrhine primate: Cercopithecus ascanius, Colobus guereza, Pan troglodytes, and Piliocolobus badius. Collectively, their diet was diverse, with each species relying on fruits and leaves to different extents. The mean chromaticity of both foods, as perceived by the green-red and yellow-blue signals that catarrhines decode, was distinct from background foliage. However, selection on the basis of color was evident only for leaves. Primates consumed leaves with higher green-red values than the leaves they avoided-sensory mechanism that correlated with key nutritional variables, such as increased protein and reduced toughness. Moreover, the monkeys ingested leaves near dusk, when reddish targets may be more salient. Similar patterns were never observed with respect to edible fruits, the chromaticities of which did not differ from unconsumed fruits or correlate with nutritional properties. We also found that primate biomass is higher in seasonal sites. We conclude that these findings are consistent with the notion that routine trichromatic vision evolved in a context where seasonal folivory was pivotal to survival. PMID:15027092

  5. Ascaridoid nematodes of South American mammals, with a definition of a new genus.

    PubMed

    Sprent, J F

    1982-09-01

    Ascaridoid nematodes occurring in South American mammals are divided into categories based on their possible origin. The affinities are discussed of five species so far known only from the Neotropical Region. Toxocara alienata (Rudolphi 1819) is reported from Nasua rufa socialis, Procyon cancrivorus, and Tayassus torquatus. The specimens from T. torquatus are described and found most closely to resemble Toxocara mackerrasae from south-east Asian and Austrialian rodents. Anisakis insignis from Inia geoffrensis is transferred back to Peritrachelius Diesing, 1851, on account of the structure of the lips and spicules. P. insignis is shown to exhibit remarkable convergence of lip structure with Lagochilascaris turgida from Didelphis marsupialis. Galeiceps longispiculum (Freitas & Lent, 1941) from Pteronura brasiliensis is confirmed as a species distinct from G. cucullus (Linstow, 1899) and G. spinicollis (Baylis, 1923), but G. simiae (Mosgovoy, 1951) is considered to be a synonym of G. spinicollis. An error in the host record of G. spinicollis is corrected from Cercopithecus leucampyx kandti to Lutra maculicollis kivuana. Ascaris dasypodina Baylis, 1922 from armadillos, including Cabassous unicinctus and Tolypeutes matacos, is redescribed and placed in a new genus Bairdascaris. The question is raised as to whether some species in Lagochilascaris, Galeiceps, and Toxocara may have crossed directly by sea from Africa to South America, rather than entering via North America.

  6. Associations between the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) and sympatric monkeys in Korup National Park, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Astaras, Christos; Krause, Stefan; Mattner, Lutz; Rehse, Christoph; Waltert, Matthias

    2011-02-01

    Studies of polyspecific associations among African forest primates have primarily focused on arboreal Cercopithecus and Procolobus/Colobus species. We examined the association frequency of the terrestrial drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) with six sympatric monkey species in Korup National Park, Cameroon, testing reports that Mandrillus associations are infrequent and transient. We conducted 3,284 km of trail walks for 12 months (February-June 2006; July 2007 to January 2008), recording species composition in 612 primate clusters. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo test, we compared the observed frequency of dyadic associations against null models of "no association." A novel conservative statistical approach which addresses possible dependence of observations close in time was also used, further strengthening confidence in our findings. Drills associated with all monkeys throughout the study period, and were with at least one other species (range 1-5) in half of the encounters. The association frequency of drills with red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) was greater than expected by chance, which is interesting given the morphological adaptation of the Mandrillus-Cercocebus clade for the exploitation of the same dietary niche, hard seeds. The difference we observed in the use of forest strata by drills and mangabeys may reflect a strategy to reduce food competition while in association. The nature and duration of observed drill associations varied. Although some associations seemed to be chance encounters, others lasted for hours with the involved species foraging together.

  7. Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species

    PubMed Central

    Bronikowski, Anne M.; Cords, Marina; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Strier, Karen B.; Morris, William F.

    2016-01-01

    We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes. In all species, our survival estimates for the dispersing sex are affected by heavy censoring. We also calculated reproductive value, life expectancy, and mortality hazards for females. We used bootstrapping to place confidence intervals on life-table summary metrics (R0, the net reproductive rate; λ, the population growth rate; and G, the generation time). These data have high potential for reuse; they derive from continuous population monitoring of long-lived organisms and will be invaluable for addressing questions about comparative demography, primate conservation and human evolution. PMID:26928014

  8. Reductions in primate abundance and diversity in a multiuse protected area: synergistic impacts of hunting and logging in a congo basin forest.

    PubMed

    Remis, Melissa J; Jost Robinson, Carolyn A

    2012-07-01

    This article explores spatial and temporal changes in diurnal primate abundance and behavior in response to hunting, logging, and conservation at the Dzanga Sangha Dense Forest Reserve (RDS), Central African Republic over time. We use a combination of line-transect surveys in 2002 and 2009 (N = 540 km) and ethnographic interviews (N = 210) to investigate changes in the status of cercopithecines and colobines at RDS, with additional comparisons to earlier work. This protected area was lightly logged in the 1970s and the park was gazetted in 1990, with multiple-use reserve sectors allocated. Since the park's inception, hunting and the trade of primates have increased, along with human migration, greater accessibility of arms, and reduction of preferred ungulate prey. Primates have declined in both the park and reserve sectors. Our data further suggest that at RDS hunting has had a greater impact on primate diversity and abundance than logging. We have identified changes in species-specific vulnerability to hunting over time, with Cercopithecus nictitans and Lophocebus albigena initially having appeared to be relatively resistant to hunting pressure in 2002. However, subsequently as gun hunting has increased at RDS, these species have become vulnerable. Although monkeys at RDS have been responding behaviorally to increased gun hunting, they are not able to keep pace with changing hunting practices. This study allows us to begin to understand synergistic impacts of hunting and logging, necessary if we are to recommend strategies to better secure the future of primates in multiuse protected areas. PMID:22644576

  9. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    PubMed

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites.

  10. Redtail and red colobus monkeys show intersite urinary cortisol concentration variation in Kibale National Park, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Aronsen, Gary P.; Beuerlein, Melanie M.; Watts, David P.; Bribiescas, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive measurement of urinary cortisol is a proven method of evaluating the impact of environmental stressors on wild primates. Variation in cortisol concentrations can reflect physiological stress, and prolonged elevation of circulating cortisol can significantly affect individual and population-level health. In a previous study, we found that urinary cortisol concentrations in grey-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena) were higher at a highly disturbed site (Mainaro) in Kibale National Park, Uganda compared with a minimally disturbed site (Ngogo) in the same habitat. Here, we expand on this research, reporting on cortisol concentrations in two other cercopithecid monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius and Piliocolobus rufomitratus) at the same two sites. We hypothesized that C. ascanius would show no difference between sites, given its preference for secondary forests, while P. rufomitratus would have higher cortisol concentrations at the disturbed site. Contrary to expectations, both species exhibited significantly higher cortisol concentrations at Ngogo (minimally disturbed) compared with Mainaro (disturbed). We suggest that these results may be caused by inter- or intragroup social dynamics, intersite differences in predation rate, fruit/food availability and chemistry, or a combination of these factors. These initial evaluations of urinary cortisol concentrations provide testable hypotheses on habitat disturbance and Kibale primate ecophysiology. PMID:27293691

  11. Discovery and Characterization of Distinct Simian Pegiviruses in Three Wild African Old World Monkey Species

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Samuel D.; Lauck, Michael; Bailey, Adam L.; Hyeroba, David; Tumukunde, Alex; Weny, Geoffrey; Chapman, Colin A.; O’Connor, David H.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Friedrich, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Within the Flaviviridae, the recently designated genus Pegivirus has expanded greatly due to new discoveries in bats, horses, and rodents. Here we report the discovery and characterization of three simian pegiviruses (SPgV) that resemble human pegivirus (HPgV) and infect red colobus monkeys (Procolobus tephrosceles), red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius) and an olive baboon (Papio anubis). We have designated these viruses SPgVkrc, SPgVkrtg and SPgVkbab, reflecting their host species’ common names, which include reference to their location of origin in Kibale National Park, Uganda. SPgVkrc and SPgVkrtg were detected in 47% (28/60) of red colobus and 42% (5/12) red-tailed guenons, respectively, while SPgVkbab infection was observed in 1 of 23 olive baboons tested. Infections were not associated with any apparent disease, despite the generally high viral loads observed for each variant. These viruses were monophyletic and equally divergent from HPgV and pegiviruses previously identified in chimpanzees (SPgVcpz). Overall, the high degree of conservation of genetic features among the novel SPgVs, HPgV and SPgVcpz suggests conservation of function among these closely related viruses. Our study describes the first primate pegiviruses detected in Old World monkeys, expanding the known genetic diversity and host range of pegiviruses and providing insight into the natural history of this genus. PMID:24918769

  12. Anatomy of the hand and arm in Daubentonia madagascariensis : a functional and phylogenetic outlook.

    PubMed

    Soligo, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    The aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is easily the most enigmatic of living primates. It sports a unique combination of derived characters, including continuously growing incisors, functional claws, the largest hand of any primate and a highly modified middle finger. The specialised middle finger is no longer used in locomotion and serves as a probe-like instrument for investigating, locating and extracting xylophagous (wood-boring) larvae as well as other food items. Its phalanges can be moved both at great speed and independently of each other. The present study reports on dissections of the forelimbs of two individuals of D. madagascariensis and one specimen each of Lemur catta and Cercopithecus cephus. Derived characters of the forelimb musculature in Daubentonia are interpreted within the context of its distinct locomotor and foraging adaptations. The primary adaptations underlying speed and mobility in the third manual digit of Daubentonia are found in the intrinsic hand musculature and notably in the arrangement of the dorsal aponeurosis. Implications for the interpretation of suggested convergences between the aye-aye, the diprotodont marsupial Dactylopsila palpator and the early Tertiary apatemyid genus Heterohyus are discussed. PMID:16230860

  13. Public health significance of zoonotic bacterial pathogens from bushmeat sold in urban markets of Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Bachand, Nicholas; Ravel, André; Onanga, Richard; Arsenault, Julie; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2012-07-01

    Wild animal meat represents an important source of protein for many people in central Africa. Also known as bushmeat, this meat commodity is derived from wild animals hunted under uncontrolled conditions, transported to distant markets under rudimentary or no hygienic methods, and often eviscerated >24 hr after death. Considering the plausible role of wildlife as a reservoir for bacterial zoonotic pathogens, bushmeat may be an important public health risk in Central Africa. This cross-sectional survey served to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella in the muscle tissue of 128 wild animal carcasses from several hunted wildlife species (guenons [Cercopithecus spp.], collared mangabeys [Cercocebus torquatus], gray-cheeked mangabeys [Lophocebus albigena], African crested porcupines [Atherurus africanus], duikers [Cephalophus spp.], and red river hogs [Potamocherus porcus]) sold in two markets of Port-Gentil, Gabon, in July and August 2010. Salmonella was detected from one carcass; no Campylobacter or Shigella was detected. If Campylobacter and Shigella were present, the maximum expected prevalence was estimated at 6% and 1%, respectively. In light of such very low apparent muscle contamination levels, bushmeat likely does not represent a health risk per se with respect to Campylobacter, Salmonella, or Shigella. However, because carcass evisceration and skinning can take place within households prior to consumption, consumers should follow strict hygiene and food safety practices to avoid potential health hazards associated with the handling, preparation, or consumption of bushmeat. PMID:22740547

  14. Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species.

    PubMed

    Bronikowski, Anne M; Cords, Marina; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K; Fedigan, Linda M; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Strier, Karen B; Morris, William F

    2016-01-01

    We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes. In all species, our survival estimates for the dispersing sex are affected by heavy censoring. We also calculated reproductive value, life expectancy, and mortality hazards for females. We used bootstrapping to place confidence intervals on life-table summary metrics (R0, the net reproductive rate; λ, the population growth rate; and G, the generation time). These data have high potential for reuse; they derive from continuous population monitoring of long-lived organisms and will be invaluable for addressing questions about comparative demography, primate conservation and human evolution. PMID:26928014

  15. Prenatal dexamethasone exposure induces changes in nonhuman primate offspring cardiometabolic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Annick; Holmes, Megan C.; Heijnis, Areke; Seier, Jürgen V.; Heerden, Joritha; Louw, Johan; Wolfe-Coote, Sonia; Meaney, Michael J.; Levitt, Naomi S.; Seckl, Jonathan R.

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal stress or glucocorticoid administration has persisting “programming” effects on offspring in rodents and other model species. Multiple doses of glucocorticoids are in widespread use in obstetric practice. To examine the clinical relevance of glucocorticoid programming, we gave 50, 120, or 200 μg/kg/d of dexamethasone (dex50, dex120, or dex200) orally from mid-term to a singleton-bearing nonhuman primate, Chlorocebus aethiops (African vervet). Dexamethasone dose-dependently reduced maternal cortisol levels without effecting maternal blood pressure, glucose, electrolytes, or weight gain. Birth weight was unaffected by any dexamethasone dose, although postnatal growth was attenuated after dex120 and dex200. At 8 months of age, dex120 and dex200 offspring showed impaired glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia, with reduced (approximately 25%) pancreatic β cell number at 12 months. Dex120 and dex200 offspring had increased systolic and diastolic blood pressures at 12 months. Mild stress produced an exaggerated cortisol response in dex200 offspring, implying hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis programming. The data are compatible with the extrapolation of the glucocorticoid programming hypothesis to primates and indicate that repeated glucocorticoid therapy and perhaps chronic stress in humans may have long-term effects. PMID:17380204

  16. A quantitative trait locus for variation in dopamine metabolism mapped in a primate model using reference sequences from related species

    PubMed Central

    Freimer, Nelson B.; Service, Susan K.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Jasinska, Anna J.; McKee, Kevin; Villeneuve, Amelie; Belisle, Alexandre; Bailey, Julia N.; Breidenthal, Sherry E.; Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Mann, J. John; Cantor, Rita M.; Dewar, Ken; Fairbanks, Lynn A.

    2007-01-01

    Non-human primates (NHP) provide crucial research models. Their strong similarities to humans make them particularly valuable for understanding complex behavioral traits and brain structure and function. We report here the genetic mapping of an NHP nervous system biologic trait, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), in an extended inbred vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) pedigree. CSF HVA is an index of CNS dopamine activity, which is hypothesized to contribute substantially to behavioral variations in NHP and humans. For quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, we carried out a two-stage procedure. We first scanned the genome using a first-generation genetic map of short tandem repeat markers. Subsequently, using >100 SNPs within the most promising region identified by the genome scan, we mapped a QTL for CSF HVA at a genome-wide level of significance (peak logarithm of odds score >4) to a narrow well delineated interval (<10 Mb). The SNP discovery exploited conserved segments between human and rhesus macaque reference genome sequences. Our findings demonstrate the potential of using existing primate reference genome sequences for designing high-resolution genetic analyses applicable across a wide range of NHP species, including the many for which full genome sequences are not yet available. Leveraging genomic information from sequenced to nonsequenced species should enable the utilization of the full range of NHP diversity in behavior and disease susceptibility to determine the genetic basis of specific biological and behavioral traits. PMID:17884980

  17. Low CA1 spine synapse density is further reduced by castration in male non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Leranth, Csaba; Prange-Kiel, Janine; Frick, Karyn M; Horvath, Tamas L

    2004-05-01

    The hippocampus plays a major role in learning and memory and its morphology and function are readily affected by gonadal hormones in female non-human primates. We sought to determine whether the gonads also affect pyramidal cell spine synapse density in the CA1 hippocampal area of male primates. Unbiased electron microscopic stereological calculations were performed to determine the volumetric density of pyramidal cell spine synapses and semiquantitative analyses on the surface density of glial fibrillary acidic protein-containing glia processes and the diameter of pyramidal cell apical dendrites in the CA1 area of intact and orchidectomized (1 month) St Kitts vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus). The volumetric density (number of spine synapse/ micro m(3)) of spine synapses was significantly lower (40%) in the gonadectomized animals than in control monkeys; conversely, the density of glia processes was significantly higher (15%) and the diameter of dendritic shafts located in this area was also larger (30%) in the orchidectomized animals than in the controls. Strikingly, when compared to female values, intact male primates had lower spine synapse densities than either intact or ovariectomized females. Since the primate hippocampus is very similar to that of a human's, the present observations suggest that physiological levels of circulating androgen hormones are necessary to support normal spine synapse density in the CA1 stratum radiatum of human male hippocampus.

  18. Effects of heated hydrotherapy on muscle HSP70 and glucose metabolism in old and young vervet monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Davis, Ashely T; Jenkins, Kurt A; Flynn, D Mickey

    2016-07-01

    Increasing heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in aged and/or insulin-resistant animal models confers benefits to healthspan and lifespan. Heat application to increase core temperature induces HSPs in metabolically important tissues, and preliminary human and animal data suggest that heated hydrotherapy is an effective method to achieve increased HSPs. However, safety concerns exist, particularly in geriatric medicine where organ and cardiovascular disease commonly will preexist. We evaluated young vervet monkeys compared to old, insulin-resistant vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in their core temperatures, glucose tolerance, muscle HSP70 level, and selected safety biomarkers after 10 sessions of hot water immersions administered twice weekly. Hot water immersion robustly induced the heat shock response in muscles. We observed that heat-treated old and young monkeys have significantly higher muscle HSP70 than control monkeys and treatment was without significant adverse effects on organ or cardiovascular health. Heat therapy improved pancreatic responses to glucose challenge and tended to normalize glucose excursions. A trend for worsened blood pressure and glucose values in the control monkeys and improved values in heat-treated monkeys were seen to support further investigation into the safety and efficacy of this intervention for metabolic syndrome or diabetes in young or old persons unable to exercise.

  19. Effects of heated hydrotherapy on muscle HSP70 and glucose metabolism in old and young vervet monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Davis, Ashely T; Jenkins, Kurt A; Flynn, D Mickey

    2016-07-01

    Increasing heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in aged and/or insulin-resistant animal models confers benefits to healthspan and lifespan. Heat application to increase core temperature induces HSPs in metabolically important tissues, and preliminary human and animal data suggest that heated hydrotherapy is an effective method to achieve increased HSPs. However, safety concerns exist, particularly in geriatric medicine where organ and cardiovascular disease commonly will preexist. We evaluated young vervet monkeys compared to old, insulin-resistant vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in their core temperatures, glucose tolerance, muscle HSP70 level, and selected safety biomarkers after 10 sessions of hot water immersions administered twice weekly. Hot water immersion robustly induced the heat shock response in muscles. We observed that heat-treated old and young monkeys have significantly higher muscle HSP70 than control monkeys and treatment was without significant adverse effects on organ or cardiovascular health. Heat therapy improved pancreatic responses to glucose challenge and tended to normalize glucose excursions. A trend for worsened blood pressure and glucose values in the control monkeys and improved values in heat-treated monkeys were seen to support further investigation into the safety and efficacy of this intervention for metabolic syndrome or diabetes in young or old persons unable to exercise. PMID:27188431

  20. Control of communicable disease; foreign--requirements for importers of nonhuman primates (NHP). Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-02-15

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), located within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), is amending regulations for the importation of live nonhuman primates (NHPs) by extending existing requirements for the importation of Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus), Chlorocebus aethiops (African green), and Macaca mulatta (rhesus) monkeys to all NHPs with the exception of the filovirus testing requirement. Filovirus testing will only be required for Old World NHPs in quarantine that have illness consistent with filovirus infection or that die for any reason other than trauma during quarantine. HHS/CDC is also finalizing a provision to reduce the frequency at which importers of cynomolgus, African green, and rhesus monkeys are required to renew their special permits (from every 180 days to every 2 years). HHS/CDC is incorporating existing guidelines into the regulations and adding new provisions to address the following: NHPs imported as part of an animal act; NHPs imported or transferred by zoological societies; the transfer of NHPs from approved laboratories; and non-live imported NHP products. Finally, HHS/CDC is also requiring that all NHPs be imported only through ports of entry where a HHS/CDC quarantine station is located.

  1. Asymmetry in olfactory generalization and the inclusion criterion in ants.

    PubMed

    Bos, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Animals constantly face the challenge of extracting important information out of their environment, and for many animals much of this information is chemical in nature. The ability to discriminate and generalize between chemical stimuli is extremely important and is commonly thought to depend mostly on the structural similarity between the different stimuli. However, we previously provided evidence that in the carpenter ant Camponotus aethiops, generalization not only depends on structural similarity, but also on the animal's previous training experience. When individual ants were conditioned to substance A, they generalized toward a mixture of A and B. However, when trained to substance B, they did not generalize toward this mixture, resulting in asymmetrical generalization. This asymmetry followed an inclusion criterion, where the ants consistently generalized from a molecule with a long carbon chain to molecules with a shorter chain, but not the other way around. Here I will review the evidence for the inclusion criterion, describe possible proximate mechanisms underlying this phenomenon as well as discuss its potential adaptive significance.

  2. Disentangling environmental and heritable nestmate recognition cues in a carpenter ant.

    PubMed

    van Zweden, Jelle S; Dreier, Stephanie; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-02-01

    Discriminating between group members and strangers is a key feature of social life. Nestmate recognition is very effective in social insects and is manifested by aggression and rejection of alien individuals, which are prohibited to enter the nest. Nestmate recognition is based on the quantitative variation in cuticular hydrocarbons, which can include heritable cues from the workers, as well as acquired cues from the environment or queen-derived cues. We tracked the profile of six colonies of the ant Camponotus aethiops for a year under homogeneous laboratory conditions. We performed chemical and behavioral analyses. We show that nestmate recognition was not impaired by constant environment, even though cuticular hydrocarbon profiles changed over time and were slightly converging among colonies. Linear hydrocarbons increased over time, especially in queenless colonies, but appeared to have weak diagnostic power between colonies. The presence of a queen had little influence on nestmate discrimination abilities. Our results suggest that heritable cues of workers are the dominant factor influencing nestmate discrimination in these carpenter ants and highlight the importance of colony kin structure for the evolution of eusociality.

  3. Wasps robbing food from ants: a frequent behavior?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapierre, Louis; Hespenheide, Henry; Dejean, Alain

    2007-12-01

    Food robbing, or cleptobiosis, has been well documented throughout the animal kingdom. For insects, intrafamilial food robbing is known among ants, but social wasps (Vespidae; Polistinae) taking food from ants has, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported. In this paper, we present two cases involving social wasps robbing food from ants associated with myrmecophytes. (1) Polybioides tabida F. (Ropalidiini) rob pieces of prey from Tetraponera aethiops Smith (Formicidae; Pseudomyrmecinae) specifically associated with Barteria fistulosa Mast. (Passifloraceae). (2) Charterginus spp. (Epiponini) rob food bodies from myrmecophytic Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) exploited by their Azteca mutualists (Formicidae; Dolichoderinae) or by opportunistic ants (that also attack cleptobiotic wasps). We note here that wasps gather food bodies (1) when ants are not yet active; (2) when ants are active, but avoiding any contact with them by flying off when attacked; and (3) through the coordinated efforts of two to five wasps, wherein one of them prevents the ants from leaving their nest, while the other wasps freely gather the food bodies. We suggest that these interactions are more common than previously thought.

  4. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2011-30 September 2011.

    PubMed

    A'Hara, S W; Amouroux, P; Argo, Emily E; Avand-Faghih, A; Barat, Ashoktaru; Barbieri, Luiz; Bert, Theresa M; Blatrix, R; Blin, Aurélie; Bouktila, D; Broome, A; Burban, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Casse, N; Chandra, Suresh; Cho, Kyung Jin; Cottrell, J E; Crawford, Charles R; Davis, Michelle C; Delatte, H; Desneux, Nicolas; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; El-Mergawy, R A A M; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Garcia, M; Gardiner, Mary M; Guillemaud, Thomas; Haye, P A; Hellemans, B; Hinrichsen, P; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kerdelhué, C; Kharrat, I; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Yong Yul; Kwan, Ye-Seul; Labbe, Ellen M; LaHood, Eric; Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Wan-Ok; Lee, Yat-Hung; Legoff, Isabelle; Li, H; Lin, Chung-Ping; Liu, S S; Liu, Y G; Long, D; Maes, G E; Magnoux, E; Mahanta, Prabin Chandra; Makni, H; Makni, M; Malausa, Thibaut; Matura, Rakesh; McKey, D; McMillen-Jackson, Anne L; Méndez, M A; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M; Michel, Andy P; Paul, Moran; Muriel-Cunha, Janice; Nibouche, S; Normand, F; Palkovacs, Eric P; Pande, Veena; Parmentier, K; Peccoud, J; Piatscheck, F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Ramos, R; Ravest, G; Richner, Heinz; Robbens, J; Rochat, D; Rousselet, J; Saladin, Verena; Sauve, M; Schlei, Ora; Schultz, Thomas F; Scobie, A R; Segovia, N I; Seyoum, Seifu; Silvain, J-F; Tabone, Elisabeth; Van Houdt, J K J; Vandamme, S G; Volckaert, F A M; Wenburg, John; Willis, Theodore V; Won, Yong-Jin; Ye, N H; Zhang, W; Zhang, Y X

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontarinia mangiferae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus rhombus, Tetraponera aethiops, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Tuta absoluta and Ugni molinae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barilius bendelisis, Chiromantes haematocheir, Eriocheir sinensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalix, Eucalyptus globulus, Garra litaninsis vishwanath, Garra para lissorhynchus, Guindilla trinervis, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Luma chequen. Guayaba, Myrceugenia colchagüensis, Myrceugenia correifolia, Myrceugenia exsucca, Parasesarma plicatum, Parus major, Portunus pelagicus, Psidium guayaba, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus maximus, Tetraponera latifrons, Thaumetopoea bonjeani, Thaumetopoea ispartensis, Thaumetopoea libanotica, Thaumetopoea pinivora, Thaumetopoea pityocampa ena clade, Thaumetopoea solitaria, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni and Tor putitora. This article also documents the addition of nine EPIC primer pairs for Euphaea decorata, Euphaea formosa, Euphaea ornata and Euphaea yayeyamana.

  5. The multibasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) avian influenza virus acts as a virulence factor in a host-specific manner in mammals.

    PubMed

    Suguitan, Amorsolo L; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Lau, Yuk-Fai; Santos, Celia P; Vogel, Leatrice; Cheng, Lily I; Orandle, Marlene; Subbarao, Kanta

    2012-03-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes typically possess multiple basic amino acids around the cleavage site (MBS) of their hemagglutinin (HA) protein, a recognized virulence motif in poultry. To determine the importance of the H5 HA MBS as a virulence factor in mammals, recombinant wild-type HPAI A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) viruses that possessed (H5N1) or lacked (ΔH5N1) the H5 HA MBS were generated and evaluated for their virulence in BALB/c mice, ferrets, and African green monkeys (AGMs) (Chlorocebus aethiops). The presence of the H5 HA MBS was associated with lethality, significantly higher virus titers in the respiratory tract, virus dissemination to extrapulmonary organs, lymphopenia, significantly elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and inflammation in the lungs of mice and ferrets. In AGMs, neither H5N1 nor ΔH5N1 virus was lethal and neither caused clinical symptoms. The H5 HA MBS was associated with mild enhancement of replication and delayed virus clearance. Thus, the contribution of H5 HA MBS to the virulence of the HPAI H5N1 virus varies among mammalian hosts and is most significant in mice and ferrets and less remarkable in nonhuman primates. PMID:22205751

  6. Social Behaviours and Networks of Vervet Monkeys Are Influenced by Gastrointestinal Parasites.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Colin A; Friant, Sagan; Godfrey, Kathleen; Liu, Cynthia; Sakar, Dipto; Schoof, Valérie A M; Sengupta, Raja; Twinomugisha, Dennis; Valenta, Kim; Goldberg, Tony L

    2016-01-01

    Substantial research has shown that while some parasite infections can be fatal to hosts, most infections are sub-clinical and non-lethal. Such sub-clinical infections can nonetheless have negative consequences for the long-term fitness of the host such as reducing juvenile growth and the host's ability to compete for food and mates. With such effects, infected individuals are expected to exhibit behavioural changes. Here we use a parasite removal experiment to quantify how gastrointestinal parasite infections affect the behaviour of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) at Lake Nabugabo, Uganda. Behavioural profiles and the structure of nearest neighbour relationships varied significantly. As predicted, after deworming the duration of the resting events decreased, which is consistent with the idea that parasite infections are energetically costly. In contrast to what was predicted, we could not reject the null hypothesis and we observed no change in either the frequency or duration of grooming, but we found that the duration of travel events increased. A network analysis revealed that after deworming, individuals tended to have more nearest neighbours and hence probably more frequent interactions, with this effect being particularly marked for juveniles. The heightened response by juveniles may indicate that they are avoiding infected individuals more than other age classes because it is too costly to move energy away from growth. We consider that populations with high parasite burden may have difficulties developing social networks and behaviours that could have cascading effects that impact the population in general. PMID:27580121

  7. Social Behaviours and Networks of Vervet Monkeys Are Influenced by Gastrointestinal Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Friant, Sagan; Godfrey, Kathleen; Liu, Cynthia; Sakar, Dipto; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Sengupta, Raja; Twinomugisha, Dennis; Valenta, Kim; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2016-01-01

    Substantial research has shown that while some parasite infections can be fatal to hosts, most infections are sub-clinical and non-lethal. Such sub-clinical infections can nonetheless have negative consequences for the long-term fitness of the host such as reducing juvenile growth and the host’s ability to compete for food and mates. With such effects, infected individuals are expected to exhibit behavioural changes. Here we use a parasite removal experiment to quantify how gastrointestinal parasite infections affect the behaviour of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) at Lake Nabugabo, Uganda. Behavioural profiles and the structure of nearest neighbour relationships varied significantly. As predicted, after deworming the duration of the resting events decreased, which is consistent with the idea that parasite infections are energetically costly. In contrast to what was predicted, we could not reject the null hypothesis and we observed no change in either the frequency or duration of grooming, but we found that the duration of travel events increased. A network analysis revealed that after deworming, individuals tended to have more nearest neighbours and hence probably more frequent interactions, with this effect being particularly marked for juveniles. The heightened response by juveniles may indicate that they are avoiding infected individuals more than other age classes because it is too costly to move energy away from growth. We consider that populations with high parasite burden may have difficulties developing social networks and behaviours that could have cascading effects that impact the population in general. PMID:27580121

  8. Male food defence as a by-product of intersexual cooperation in a non-human primate

    PubMed Central

    Arseneau-Robar, T. Jean M.; Müller, Eliane; Taucher, Anouk L.; van Schaik, Carel P.; Willems, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Males in a number of group-living species fight in intergroup conflicts to defend access to food resources, a seemingly paradoxical behaviour, given that this resource does not usually limit male fitness directly. We investigated the mechanism(s) driving apparent male food defence in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops pygerythrus) by testing the effect that female resource access, and female audience size and activity had on the response of focal males during simulated intergroup encounters. Males do not appear to defend food to increase the reproductive success of female group members because their response was not influenced by the presence of provisioning boxes that only females could access. Female audience size was also unimportant, suggesting males do not participate in intergroup encounters to advertise their quality to potential mates. However, focal males almost always followed/supported female group members who initiated an approach towards simulated intruders, supporting that male participation largely functions to gain status as a cooperative group member, and that apparent male food defence in this species arises as a by-product of intersexual cooperation. Our study highlights that considering audience composition and activity can reveal the presence of social incentives and illuminate the evolutionary mechanism(s) promoting joint action in intergroup aggression. PMID:27775042

  9. Asymmetry in olfactory generalization and the inclusion criterion in ants.

    PubMed

    Bos, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Animals constantly face the challenge of extracting important information out of their environment, and for many animals much of this information is chemical in nature. The ability to discriminate and generalize between chemical stimuli is extremely important and is commonly thought to depend mostly on the structural similarity between the different stimuli. However, we previously provided evidence that in the carpenter ant Camponotus aethiops, generalization not only depends on structural similarity, but also on the animal's previous training experience. When individual ants were conditioned to substance A, they generalized toward a mixture of A and B. However, when trained to substance B, they did not generalize toward this mixture, resulting in asymmetrical generalization. This asymmetry followed an inclusion criterion, where the ants consistently generalized from a molecule with a long carbon chain to molecules with a shorter chain, but not the other way around. Here I will review the evidence for the inclusion criterion, describe possible proximate mechanisms underlying this phenomenon as well as discuss its potential adaptive significance. PMID:25346797

  10. Disentangling environmental and heritable nestmate recognition cues in a carpenter ant.

    PubMed

    van Zweden, Jelle S; Dreier, Stephanie; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-02-01

    Discriminating between group members and strangers is a key feature of social life. Nestmate recognition is very effective in social insects and is manifested by aggression and rejection of alien individuals, which are prohibited to enter the nest. Nestmate recognition is based on the quantitative variation in cuticular hydrocarbons, which can include heritable cues from the workers, as well as acquired cues from the environment or queen-derived cues. We tracked the profile of six colonies of the ant Camponotus aethiops for a year under homogeneous laboratory conditions. We performed chemical and behavioral analyses. We show that nestmate recognition was not impaired by constant environment, even though cuticular hydrocarbon profiles changed over time and were slightly converging among colonies. Linear hydrocarbons increased over time, especially in queenless colonies, but appeared to have weak diagnostic power between colonies. The presence of a queen had little influence on nestmate discrimination abilities. Our results suggest that heritable cues of workers are the dominant factor influencing nestmate discrimination in these carpenter ants and highlight the importance of colony kin structure for the evolution of eusociality. PMID:19041322

  11. [Data on intestinal parasites of lower monkeys in the Adler apery].

    PubMed

    Egorova, T P

    2010-01-01

    Under captive conditions, a parasite fauna connected with the changes in ecological conditions, feeding, and mode of life is usually formed in monkeys. Species composition of the intestinal parasites has been investigated in six species of the monkeys (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. nemestrina, Ceropithecus aethiops, Papio hamadryas, and P. anubis), which were born in the Adler apery and live there for a long time. A comparison with similar investigations carried out in the Sukhumi apery, where the climatic and keeping conditions are practically identical with those in the Adler apery, was conducted. Parasite fauna of monkeys in the Adler apery was found to include three species of Nematoda (Ascaris sp., Trichocephalus sp., and Strongyloides sp.) and two species of Protozoa (Balantidium coli and Lamblia intestinalis). In our material, Trichocephalus sp. is the dominant parasite species among helminthes, and Balantidium coli is the most frequent species of Protozoa. The commonness in the transmission of these parasites and similarity in their life cycles contribute to the forming of polyinvasions in monkeys. PMID:21061593

  12. Genetically engineered Mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Backues, K A; Hill, M; Palmenberg, A C; Miller, C; Soike, K F; Aguilar, R

    1999-04-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. The Audubon Park Zoo, (New Orleans, Louisiana, USA) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed EMCV vaccine with mixed results. This paper reports an attempt at vaccination against EMCV using a genetically engineered, live attenuated Mengo virus (vMC0) at the Audubon Park Zoo and Miami Metro Zoo, (Miami, Florida, USA) from December 1996 to June 1997. Several species of animals were vaccinated with vMC0, which is serologically indistinguishable from the field strain of EMCV. Serum samples were taken at the time of vaccination and again 21 days later, then submitted for serum neutralization titers against EMCV. The vaccinate species included red capped mangebey (Cercocebus torquatus), colobus (Colobus guereza), angolan colobus (Colobus angolensis), ruffed lemur (Lemur variegatus ruber and Lemur variegatus variegatus), back lemur (Lemur macaco), ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), diana guenon (Cercopithicus diana), spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), talapoin monkey (Cercopithecus talapoin), Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), gerenuk (Litocranius walleri), guanaco (Lama glama guanicoe), black duiker (Cephalophus niger), Vietnamese potbellied pig (Sus scrofa), babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa), collard peccary (Tayass tajacu), and African crested porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis). The vaccine response was variable, with high virus neutralizing antibody titer responses in some primate species and mixed to poor responses for other species. No ill effects were seen with vaccination. PMID:10231768

  13. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  14. Genetic Characterization of Simian Foamy Viruses Infecting Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rua, Réjane; Betsem, Edouard; Calattini, Sara; Saib, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses that are widespread among nonhuman primates (NHPs). SFVs actively replicate in their oral cavity and can be transmitted to humans after NHP bites, giving rise to a persistent infection even decades after primary infection. Very few data on the genetic structure of such SFVs found in humans are available. In the framework of ongoing studies searching for SFV-infected humans in south Cameroon rainforest villages, we studied 38 SFV-infected hunters whose times of infection had presumably been determined. By long-term cocultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with BHK-21 cells, we isolated five new SFV strains and obtained complete genomes of SFV strains from chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes; strains BAD327 and AG15), monkey (Cercopithecus nictitans; strain AG16), and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla; strains BAK74 and BAD468). These zoonotic strains share a very high degree of similarity with their NHP counterparts and have a high degree of conservation of the genetic elements important for viral replication. Interestingly, analysis of FV DNA sequences obtained before cultivation revealed variants with deletions in both the U3 region and tas that may correlate with in vivo chronicity in humans. Genomic changes in bet (a premature stop codon) and gag were also observed. To determine if such changes were specific to zoonotic strains, we studied local SFV-infected chimpanzees and found the same genomic changes. Our study reveals that natural polymorphism of SFV strains does exist at both the intersubspecies level (gag, bet) and the intrasubspecies (U3, tas) levels but does not seem to reflect a viral adaptation specific to zoonotic SFV strains. PMID:23015714

  15. [Ecology of stomoxyine fulies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Gabon. II. Blood meals analysis a nd epidemiologic consequences].

    PubMed

    Mavoungou, J F; Simo, G; Gilles, J; De Stordeur, E; Duvallet, G

    2008-12-01

    To determine the origin of stomoxyine fly bloodmeals (Diptera: Muscidae) in Gabon, 1,021 flies belonging to seven different species of Stomoxys were captured and dissected in the area of Makokou. In total, 798 were not blood-fed and 223 bloodmeals could be gathered on filter paper. The identification of the origin of these meals was made by amplification of mitochondrial Cytb gene, then heteroduplex technique by using the Gambian rat (Cricetomys gambianus) as driver. Samples of fauna, collected on the local market, consisted of 24 mammal and two reptile blood and muscle samples, to which it is necessary to add human samples (27 potential hosts). 19 meals could not be amplified for technical reasons, 65 were amplified, but the acquired patterns corresponded to none of the tested potential hosts. On the 139 identified meals, 55% were taken on the black-fronted duiker (Cephalophus nigrifrons) and 19% on pig. Stomoxys transvittatus, the most abundant species in Makokou, is very opportunistic: 68 % of meals were taken on six different hosts, among whom 48% on the black-fronted duiker and 32% were not identified using the panel of tested hosts. S. xanthomelas took 50% of its meals on the moustached monkey (Cercopithecus cephus) and 7% on human beings. S. calcitrans, species of anthropised areas, took 33% of its meals on human beings. These three species can therefore take bloodmeals on wild fauna and human beings. They could potentially play an important role in the emergence of zoonotic diseases. The four other species took their bloodmeals only on wild fauna and pig, the only example of domestic fauna in this study. This preliminary study must be followed up using a larger number of specimens and by increasing the diversity of the tested potential hosts. PMID:19202770

  16. Contrasts in livelihoods and protein intake between commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunters in two villages on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Vega, María Grande; Carpinetti, Bruno; Duarte, Jesús; Fa, John E

    2013-06-01

    Across West and Central Africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. We investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. One village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. We tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and greater access to wild-animal protein. We conducted bushmeat-offtake surveys in both villages (captures by hunters and carcasses arriving to each village). Mammals (including threatened primates: black colobus [Colobus satanas], Preussi's guenon [Allochrocebus preussi], and russet-eared guenon [Cercopithecus erythrotis]), birds, and reptiles were hunted. The blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), giant pouched rat (Cricetomys emini), and brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) contributed almost all the animal biomass hunted, consumed, or sold in both villages. Monkeys and Ogilbyi's duikers (Cephalophus ogilbyi) were hunted only by commercial hunters. Commercial hunters generated a mean of US$2000/year from bushmeat sales. Households with commercial hunters were on average wealthier, generated more income, spent more money on nonessential goods, and bought more products they did not grow. By contrast, households with subsistence hunters spent less on market items, spent more on essential products, and grew more of their own food. Despite these differences, average consumption of vegetable protein and domestic meat and bushmeat protein did not differ between villages. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and nutritional context of commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunting to correctly interpret ways of reducing their effects on threatened species and to enable the sustainable offtake of more productive taxa.

  17. Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

    2011-11-01

    We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed

  18. Adrenal Androgen Production in Catarrhine Primates and the Evolution of Adrenarche

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Robin M.; Sterner, Kirstin N.; Wildman, Derek E.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenarche is a developmental event involving differentiation of the adrenal gland and production of adrenal androgens, and has been hypothesized to play a role in the extension of the preadolescent phase of human ontogeny. It remains unclear whether any nonhuman primate species shows a similar suite of endocrine, biochemical, and morphological changes as are encompassed by human adrenarche. Here, we report serum concentrations of the adrenal androgens dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) measured in 698 cross-sectional and mixed longitudinal serum samples from catarrhine primates ranging from 0.6 to 47 years of age. DHEAS in Pan is most similar to that of humans in both age-related pattern and absolute levels, and a transient early increase appears to be present in Gorilla. DHEA levels are highest in Cercocebus, Cercopithecus, and Macaca. We also tested for evidence of adaptive evolution in six genes that code for proteins involved in DHEA/S synthesis. Our genetic analyses demonstrate the protein-coding regions of these genes are highly conserved among sampled primates. We describe a tandem gene duplication event probably mediated by a retro-transposon that resulted in two 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-Delta 4 genes (HSD3B1 and HSD3B2) with tissue specific functions in catarrhines. In humans, HSD3B2 is expressed primarily in the adrenals, ovary, and testis, while HSD3B1 is expressed in the placenta. Taken together, our findings suggest that while adrenarche has been suggested to be unique to hominoids, the evolutionary roots for this developmental stage are more ancient. PMID:22271526

  19. Nodule Worm Infection in Humans and Wild Primates in Uganda: Cryptic Species in a Newly Identified Region of Human Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Ria R.; Chapman, Colin A.; Omeja, Patrick A.; Davies, T. Jonathan; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are a major health concern in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Oesophagostomum infection is considered endemic to West Africa but has also been identified in Uganda, East Africa, among primates (including humans). However, the taxonomy and ecology of Oesophagostomum in Uganda have not been studied, except for in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), which are infected by both O. bifurcum and O. stephanostomum. Methods and Findings We studied Oesophagostomum in Uganda in a community of non-human primates that live in close proximity to humans. Prevalence estimates based on microscopy were lower than those based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR), indicating greater sensitivity of PCR. Prevalence varied among host species, with humans and red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus) infected at lowest prevalence (25% and 41% by PCR, respectively), and chimpanzees, olive baboons (Papio anubis), and l'hoest monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti) infected at highest prevalence (100% by PCR in all three species). Phylogenetic regression showed that primates travelling further and in smaller groups are at greatest risk of infection. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed three cryptic clades of Oesophagostomum that were not distinguishable based on morphological characteristics of their eggs. Of these, the clade with the greatest host range had not previously been described genetically. This novel clade infects humans, as well as five other species of primates. Conclusions Multiple cryptic forms of Oesophagostomum circulate in the people and primates of western Uganda, and parasite clades differ in host range and cross-species transmission potential. Our results expand knowledge about human Oesophagostomum infection beyond the West African countries of Togo and Ghana, where the parasite is a known public health concern. Oesophagostomum infection in humans may be common throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, and the transmission of this neglected

  20. Fecal Microbiomes of Non-Human Primates in Western Uganda Reveal Species-Specific Communities Largely Resistant to Habitat Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    McCORD, ALEIA I.; CHAPMAN, COLIN A.; WENY, GEOFFREY; TUMUKUNDE, ALEX; HYEROBA, DAVID; KLOTZ, KELLY; KOBLINGS, AVERY S.; MBORA, DAVID N.M.; CREGGER, MELISSA; WHITE, BRYAN A.; LEIGH, STEVEN R.; GOLDBERG, TONY L.

    2014-01-01

    Primate gastrointestinal microbial communities are becoming increasingly appreciated for their relevance to comparative medicine and conservation, but the factors that structure primate “microbiomes” remain controversial. This study examined a community of primates in Kibale National Park, Uganda, to assess the relative importance of host species and location in structuring gastrointestinal microbiomes. Fecal samples were collected from primates in intact forest and from primates in highly disturbed forest fragments. People and livestock living nearby were also included, as was a geographically distant population of related red colobus in Kenya. A culture-free microbial community fingerprinting technique was used to analyze fecal microbiomes from 124 individual red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus), 100 individual black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza), 111 individual red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius), 578 human volunteers, and 364 domestic animals, including cattle (Bos indicus and B. indicus × B. taurus crosses), goats (Caprus hircus), sheep (Ovis aries), and pigs (Sus scrofa). Microbiomes sorted strongly by host species, and forest fragmentation did not alter this pattern. Microbiomes of Kenyan red colobus sorted distinctly from microbiomes of Ugandan red colobus, but microbiomes from these two red colobus populations clustered more closely with each other than with any other species. Microbiomes from red colobus and black-and-white colobus were more differentiated than would be predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness of these two species, perhaps reflecting heretofore underappreciated differences in digestive physiology between the species. Within Kibale, social group membership influenced intra-specific variation among microbiomes. However, intra-specific variation was higher among primates in forest fragments than among primates in intact forest, perhaps reflecting the physical separation of fragments. These results suggest that, in this

  1. Fecal microbiomes of non-human primates in Western Uganda reveal species-specific communities largely resistant to habitat perturbation.

    PubMed

    McCord, Aleia I; Chapman, Colin A; Weny, Geoffrey; Tumukunde, Alex; Hyeroba, David; Klotz, Kelly; Koblings, Avery S; Mbora, David N M; Cregger, Melissa; White, Bryan A; Leigh, Steven R; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-04-01

    Primate gastrointestinal microbial communities are becoming increasingly appreciated for their relevance to comparative medicine and conservation, but the factors that structure primate "microbiomes" remain controversial. This study examined a community of primates in Kibale National Park, Uganda, to assess the relative importance of host species and location in structuring gastrointestinal microbiomes. Fecal samples were collected from primates in intact forest and from primates in highly disturbed forest fragments. People and livestock living nearby were also included, as was a geographically distant population of related red colobus in Kenya. A culture-free microbial community fingerprinting technique was used to analyze fecal microbiomes from 124 individual red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus), 100 individual black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza), 111 individual red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius), 578 human volunteers, and 364 domestic animals, including cattle (Bos indicus and B. indicus × B. taurus crosses), goats (Caprus hircus), sheep (Ovis aries), and pigs (Sus scrofa). Microbiomes sorted strongly by host species, and forest fragmentation did not alter this pattern. Microbiomes of Kenyan red colobus sorted distinctly from microbiomes of Ugandan red colobus, but microbiomes from these two red colobus populations clustered more closely with each other than with any other species. Microbiomes from red colobus and black-and-white colobus were more differentiated than would be predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness of these two species, perhaps reflecting heretofore underappreciated differences in digestive physiology between the species. Within Kibale, social group membership influenced intra-specific variation among microbiomes. However, intra-specific variation was higher among primates in forest fragments than among primates in intact forest, perhaps reflecting the physical separation of fragments. These results suggest that, in this

  2. Seasonal energetic stress in a tropical forest primate: proximate causes and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Steffen; Cords, Marina; Monfort, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    Animals facing seasonal variation in food availability experience selective pressures that favor behavioral adjustments such as migration, changes in activity, or shifts in diet. Eclectic omnivores such as many primates can process low-quality fallback food when preferred food is unavailable. Such dietary flexibility, however, may be insufficient to eliminate constraints on reproduction even for species that live in relatively permissive environments, such as moist tropical forests. Focusing on a forest-dwelling primate with a flexible diet (Cercopithecus mitis) we investigated whether females experience seasonal energetic stress and how it may relate to reproductive seasonality. We used fecal glucocorticoids (fGCs) as an indicator of energetic stress, controlling for the potentially confounding effects of social interactions and reproductive state. We modeled within-female fGC variation with General Linear Mixed Models, evaluating changes in feeding behavior and food availability as main effects. Regardless of reproductive state, fGCs increased when females shifted their diet towards fallback foods (mature leaves and other non-preferred items) and when they spent more time feeding, while fGCs decreased with feeding time on preferred items (insects, fruits, young leaves) and with the availability of young leaves. Changes in fruit availability had no general effects on fGCs, likely because fruits were sought out regardless of availability. As predicted, females in the energetically demanding stages of late pregnancy and early lactation showed greater increases in fGCs between periods of low versus high availability of fruits and young leaves than females in other reproductive states. Potential social stressors had no measurable effects on fGCs. Preliminary evidence suggests that seasonal energetic stress may affect the timing of infant independence from mothers and contribute to unusually long inter-birth intervals compared to closely related species of similar body

  3. Contrasts in livelihoods and protein intake between commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunters in two villages on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Vega, María Grande; Carpinetti, Bruno; Duarte, Jesús; Fa, John E

    2013-06-01

    Across West and Central Africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. We investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. One village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. We tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and greater access to wild-animal protein. We conducted bushmeat-offtake surveys in both villages (captures by hunters and carcasses arriving to each village). Mammals (including threatened primates: black colobus [Colobus satanas], Preussi's guenon [Allochrocebus preussi], and russet-eared guenon [Cercopithecus erythrotis]), birds, and reptiles were hunted. The blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), giant pouched rat (Cricetomys emini), and brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) contributed almost all the animal biomass hunted, consumed, or sold in both villages. Monkeys and Ogilbyi's duikers (Cephalophus ogilbyi) were hunted only by commercial hunters. Commercial hunters generated a mean of US$2000/year from bushmeat sales. Households with commercial hunters were on average wealthier, generated more income, spent more money on nonessential goods, and bought more products they did not grow. By contrast, households with subsistence hunters spent less on market items, spent more on essential products, and grew more of their own food. Despite these differences, average consumption of vegetable protein and domestic meat and bushmeat protein did not differ between villages. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and nutritional context of commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunting to correctly interpret ways of reducing their effects on threatened species and to enable the sustainable offtake of more productive taxa. PMID:23692021

  4. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  5. Characterization of cellular immune response and innate immune signaling in human and nonhuman primate primary mononuclear cells exposed to Burkholderia mallei.

    PubMed

    Alam, Shahabuddin; Amemiya, Kei; Bernhards, Robert C; Ulrich, Robert G; Waag, David M; Saikh, Kamal U

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei infection causes melioidosis and is often characterized by severe sepsis. Although rare in humans, Burkholderia mallei has caused infections in laboratory workers, and the early innate cellular response to B. mallei in human and nonhuman primates has not been characterized. In this study, we examined the primary cellular immune response to B. mallei in PBMC cultures of non-human primates (NHPs), Chlorocebus aethiops (African Green Monkeys), Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque), and Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque) and humans. Our results demonstrated that B. mallei elicited strong primary pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) equivalent to the levels of B. pseudomallei in primary PBMC cultures of NHPs and humans. When we examined IL-1β and other cytokine responses by comparison to Escherichia coli LPS, African Green Monkeys appears to be most responsive to B. mallei than Cynomolgus or Rhesus. Characterization of the immune signaling mechanism for cellular response was conducted by using a ligand induced cell-based reporter assay, and our results demonstrated that MyD88 mediated signaling contributed to the B. mallei and B. pseudomallei induced pro-inflammatory responses. Notably, the induced reporter activity with B. mallei, B. pseudomallei, or purified LPS from these pathogens was inhibited and cytokine production was attenuated by a MyD88 inhibitor. Together, these results show that in the scenario of severe hyper-inflammatory responses to B. mallei infection, MyD88 targeted therapeutic intervention may be a successful strategy for therapy.

  6. A Comparison of the Pathogenesis of Marburg Virus Disease in Humans and Nonhuman Primates and Evaluation of the Suitability of These Animal Models for Predicting Clinical Efficacy under the 'Animal Rule'.

    PubMed

    Glaze, Elizabeth R; Roy, Michael J; Dalrymple, Lonnie W; Lanning, Lynda L

    2015-06-01

    Marburg virus outbreaks are sporadic, infrequent, brief, and relatively small in terms of numbers of subjects affected. In addition, outbreaks most likely will occur in remote regions where clinical trials are not feasible; therefore, definitive, well-controlled human efficacy studies to test the effectiveness of a drug or biologic product are not feasible. Healthy human volunteers cannot ethically be deliberately exposed to a lethal agent such as Marburg virus in order to test the efficacy of a therapy or preventive prior to licensure. When human efficacy studies are neither ethical nor feasible, the US Food and Drug Administration may grant marketing approval of a drug or biologic product under the 'Animal Rule,' through which demonstration of the efficacy of a product can be 'based on adequate and well-controlled animal efficacy studies when the results of those studies establish that the drug is reasonably likely to produce clinical benefit in humans.' This process requires that the pathogenic determinants of the disease in the animal model are similar to those that have been identified in humans. After reviewing primarily English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles, we here summarize the clinical manifestations of Marburg virus disease and the results of studies in NHP showing the characteristics and progression of the disease. We also include a detailed comparison of the characteristics of the human disease relative to those for NHP. This review reveals that the disease characteristics of Marburg virus disease are generally similar for humans and 3 NHP species: cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). PMID:26141449

  7. Interaction of non-human primate complement and antibodies with hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Marchi, Sylvia; Beierschmitt, Amy; Kearney, Michael; Francis, Stewart; VanNess, Kimberly; Vandenplas, Michel; Thrall, MaryAnna; Palmour, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Emergent hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotypes of Klebsiella pneumoniae have been associated with increased invasiveness and pathogenicity in primates. In this study, we investigated the interaction of African green monkeys (AGM) (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) complement and antibody with HMV and non-HMV isolates as in vitro models of primate infection. Significantly greater survival of HMV isolates was evident after incubation in normal serum or whole blood (p < 0.05) of AGM donors when compared to non-HMV strains. Greater survival of HMV strains (p < 0.05) was found after incubation in whole blood and serum from seropositive donors when compared to seronegative donor samples. Additionally, significantly greater amounts of K. pneumoniae were phagocytozed by AGM leukocytes when complement was active (p < 0.05), but no difference in uptake was observed when serum from seropositive or seronegative animals was used in challenged cells utilizing flow cytometry. Results demonstrate that interaction of cellular and humoral immune elements play a role in the in vitro killing of K. pneumoniae, particularly HMV isolates. Neither AGM serum, nor washed whole blood effectively killed HMV isolates; however, assays using heparinized whole blood of seronegative donors significantly reduced viability of HMV and non-HMV strains. The lack of bacterial killing observed in seropositive donors treatments could be at least partially associated with low IgG2 present in these animals. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of klebsiellosis in primates and host immune response is necessary to identify surface molecules that can induce both opsonizing and bactericidal antibody facilitating killing of Klebsiella, and the development of vaccines in human and animals. PMID:26951091

  8. Flightless Notaris (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Brachycerinae: Erirhinini) in Southwest China: monophyly, mtDNA phylogeography and evolution of habitat associations.

    PubMed

    Grebennikov, Vasily V; Kolov, Sergey V

    2016-04-26

    This paper reports the recent discovery of flightless populations of weevils of the genus Notaris in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China. Specimens were found in the middle or high altitude mountains (2440-4195 m), by either sifting leaf litter in the deciduous forest and among alpine Rhododendron shrubs, or by turning rocks in the alpine zone. These finds extend southwards the Asian range of this Holarctic genus and report its highest altitudinal records. DNA barcodes of 127 specimens were phylogenetically analysed, of them 42 are those of newly discovered Notaris from Southwest China. The genera Notaris and Tournotaris consistently formed a clade, with Tournotaris nested inside Notaris in Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) analysis. The newly discovered flightless Notaris from Southwest China were either monophyletic (MP) or paraphyletic with respect to volant Holarctic N. aethiops (ML); the latter placement being likely an artefact. A strict linear molecular clock approach suggests a pre-Pliocene separation of Notaris populations in Southwest China. Habitat associations of these high-altitude flightless Notaris contrast sharply with that of the predominantly volant lowland riparian Notaris and other Erirhinini. We hypothesis that evolution of habitat selection in Notaris went from lowland riparian, to high altitude (via uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions of Central Asia), and then to forest leaf litter (via subsequent erosions of isolated mountains such as Emei Shan in Sichuan losing the alpine zone and forcing Notaris into the forest floor). Taxonomic uncertainty of Asian Notaris is addressed and remains unresolved due to uninformative morphology and conflicting DNA signal. Identities of two obscure and likely closely related species, Notaroides brevirostris and Notaris kozlovi from nearby SE Qinghai and NW Sichuan, respectively, are discussed and illustrated. Pending further research, all reported flightless Notaris from

  9. Primate vaginal microbiomes exhibit species specificity without universal Lactobacillus dominance

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Suleyman; Yeoman, Carl J; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Thomas, Susan M; Ho, Mengfei; Leigh, Steven R; Consortium, Primate Microbiome; White, Bryan A; Wilson, Brenda A; Stumpf, Rebecca M

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial communities colonizing the reproductive tracts of primates (including humans) impact the health, survival and fitness of the host, and thereby the evolution of the host species. Despite their importance, we currently have a poor understanding of primate microbiomes. The composition and structure of microbial communities vary considerably depending on the host and environmental factors. We conducted comparative analyses of the primate vaginal microbiome using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of a phylogenetically broad range of primates to test for factors affecting the diversity of primate vaginal ecosystems. The nine primate species included: humans (Homo sapiens), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), olive baboons (Papio anubis), lemurs (Propithecus diadema), howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus), vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops), mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Our results indicated that all primates exhibited host-specific vaginal microbiota and that humans were distinct from other primates in both microbiome composition and diversity. In contrast to the gut microbiome, the vaginal microbiome showed limited congruence with host phylogeny, and neither captivity nor diet elicited substantial effects on the vaginal microbiomes of primates. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance and Wilcoxon tests revealed correlations among vaginal microbiota and host species-specific socioecological factors, particularly related to sexuality, including: female promiscuity, baculum length, gestation time, mating group size and neonatal birth weight. The proportion of unclassified taxa observed in nonhuman primate samples increased with phylogenetic distance from humans, indicative of the existence of previously unrecognized microbial taxa. These findings contribute to our understanding of host–microbe variation and coevolution, microbial biogeography, and disease risk, and have important

  10. Red-green color vision in three catarrhine primates.

    PubMed

    Fornalé, Francesca; Vaglio, Stefano; Spiezio, Caterina; Previde, Emanuela Prato

    2012-11-01

    The evolution of the red-green visual subsystem in trichromatic primates has been linked to foraging advantages, specifically the detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves amid mature foliage, and to the intraspecific socio-sexual communication, namely the signal of the male rank, the mate choice and the reproductive strategies in females. New data should be added to the debate regarding the evolution of trichromatic color vision. Three catarrhine primates were observed to achieve this goal. The research was performed on captive groups of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops), pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed at Parco Natura Viva - Garda Zoological Park (Italy). Using pairs of red-green bags containing the same hidden reward in comparable outdoor enclosures, we recorded the choices by observed individuals (n = 25) to investigate the role of color cues in choosing an object. The results indicate that chimpanzees used red color as cue to choose an object that contains food by showing a preference toward red objects; in contrast, vervet monkeys and pig-tailed macaques do not demonstrate a clear choice based on the color of the object. Our findings highlight the importance of the foraging hypothesis but not rule out the potential role of the intraspecific socio-sexual communication and may serve to add useful information to the debate regarding the adaptive value of the evolution of color vision in order to fill a phylogenetic gap from Old World monkeys to humans. Future studies should address the role of socio-sexual communication, such as the selection of the reproductive partner of both high genetic quality and with compatible genes, to determine how this influenced the evolution of color vision in non-human primates. PMID:23336029

  11. Joint MiRNA/mRNA expression profiling reveals changes consistent with development of dysfunctional corpus luteum after weight gain.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Andrew P; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C; May, Margaret C; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu; Appt, Susan E; Polotsky, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7-9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  12. Red-green color vision in three catarrhine primates.

    PubMed

    Fornalé, Francesca; Vaglio, Stefano; Spiezio, Caterina; Previde, Emanuela Prato

    2012-11-01

    The evolution of the red-green visual subsystem in trichromatic primates has been linked to foraging advantages, specifically the detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves amid mature foliage, and to the intraspecific socio-sexual communication, namely the signal of the male rank, the mate choice and the reproductive strategies in females. New data should be added to the debate regarding the evolution of trichromatic color vision. Three catarrhine primates were observed to achieve this goal. The research was performed on captive groups of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops), pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed at Parco Natura Viva - Garda Zoological Park (Italy). Using pairs of red-green bags containing the same hidden reward in comparable outdoor enclosures, we recorded the choices by observed individuals (n = 25) to investigate the role of color cues in choosing an object. The results indicate that chimpanzees used red color as cue to choose an object that contains food by showing a preference toward red objects; in contrast, vervet monkeys and pig-tailed macaques do not demonstrate a clear choice based on the color of the object. Our findings highlight the importance of the foraging hypothesis but not rule out the potential role of the intraspecific socio-sexual communication and may serve to add useful information to the debate regarding the adaptive value of the evolution of color vision in order to fill a phylogenetic gap from Old World monkeys to humans. Future studies should address the role of socio-sexual communication, such as the selection of the reproductive partner of both high genetic quality and with compatible genes, to determine how this influenced the evolution of color vision in non-human primates.

  13. Identification of brain transcriptional variation reproduced in peripheral blood: an approach for mapping brain expression traits

    PubMed Central

    Jasinska, Anna J.; Service, Susan; Choi, Oi-wa; DeYoung, Joseph; Grujic, Olivera; Kong, Sit-yee; Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Bailey, Julia; Breidenthal, Sherry; Fairbanks, Lynn A.; Woods, Roger P.; Jentsch, J. David; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide gene expression studies may provide substantial insight into gene activities and biological pathways differing between tissues and individuals. We investigated such gene expression variation by analyzing expression profiles in brain tissues derived from eight different brain regions and from blood in 12 monkeys from a biomedically important non-human primate model, the vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus). We characterized brain regional differences in gene expression, focusing on transcripts for which inter-individual variation of expression in brain correlates well with variation in blood from the same individuals. Using stringent criteria, we identified 29 transcripts whose expression is measurable, stable, replicable, variable between individuals, relevant to brain function and heritable. Polymorphisms identified in probe regions could, in a minority of transcripts, confound the interpretation of the observed inter-individual variation. The high heritability of levels of these transcripts in a large vervet pedigree validated our approach of focusing on transcripts that showed higher inter-individual compared with intra-individual variation. These selected transcripts are candidate expression Quantitative Trait Loci, differentially regulating transcript levels in the brain among individuals. Given the high degree of conservation of tissue expression profiles between vervets and humans, our findings may facilitate the understanding of regional and individual transcriptional variation and its genetic mechanisms in humans. The approach employed here—utilizing higher quality tissue and more precise dissection of brain regions than is usually possible in humans—may therefore provide a powerful means to investigate variation in gene expression relevant to complex brain related traits, including human neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:19692348

  14. Joint MiRNA/mRNA expression profiling reveals changes consistent with development of dysfunctional corpus luteum after weight gain.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Andrew P; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C; May, Margaret C; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu; Appt, Susan E; Polotsky, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7-9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26258540

  15. Joint MiRNA/mRNA Expression Profiling Reveals Changes Consistent with Development of Dysfunctional Corpus Luteum after Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Andrew P.; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C.; May, Margaret C.; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7–9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26258540

  16. Interaction of non-human primate complement and antibodies with hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Marchi, Sylvia; Beierschmitt, Amy; Kearney, Michael; Francis, Stewart; VanNess, Kimberly; Vandenplas, Michel; Thrall, MaryAnna; Palmour, Roberta

    2016-03-08

    Emergent hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotypes of Klebsiella pneumoniae have been associated with increased invasiveness and pathogenicity in primates. In this study, we investigated the interaction of African green monkeys (AGM) (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) complement and antibody with HMV and non-HMV isolates as in vitro models of primate infection. Significantly greater survival of HMV isolates was evident after incubation in normal serum or whole blood (p < 0.05) of AGM donors when compared to non-HMV strains. Greater survival of HMV strains (p < 0.05) was found after incubation in whole blood and serum from seropositive donors when compared to seronegative donor samples. Additionally, significantly greater amounts of K. pneumoniae were phagocytozed by AGM leukocytes when complement was active (p < 0.05), but no difference in uptake was observed when serum from seropositive or seronegative animals was used in challenged cells utilizing flow cytometry. Results demonstrate that interaction of cellular and humoral immune elements play a role in the in vitro killing of K. pneumoniae, particularly HMV isolates. Neither AGM serum, nor washed whole blood effectively killed HMV isolates; however, assays using heparinized whole blood of seronegative donors significantly reduced viability of HMV and non-HMV strains. The lack of bacterial killing observed in seropositive donors treatments could be at least partially associated with low IgG2 present in these animals. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of klebsiellosis in primates and host immune response is necessary to identify surface molecules that can induce both opsonizing and bactericidal antibody facilitating killing of Klebsiella, and the development of vaccines in human and animals.

  17. Rapid Decision-Making with Side-Specific Perceptual Discrimination in Ants

    PubMed Central

    Stroeymeyt, Nathalie; Guerrieri, Fernando J.; van Zweden, Jelle S.; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Background Timely decision making is crucial for survival and reproduction. Organisms often face a speed-accuracy trade-off, as fully informed, accurate decisions require time-consuming gathering and treatment of information. Optimal strategies for decision-making should therefore vary depending on the context. In mammals, there is mounting evidence that multiple systems of perceptual discrimination based on different neural circuits emphasize either fast responses or accurate treatment of stimuli depending on the context. Methodology/Principal Findings We used the ant Camponotus aethiops to test the prediction that fast information processing achieved through direct neural pathways should be favored in situations where quick reactions are adaptive. Social insects discriminate readily between harmless group-members and dangerous strangers using easily accessible cuticular hydrocarbons as nestmate recognition cues. We show that i) tethered ants display rapid aggressive reactions upon presentation of non-nestmate odor (120 to 160 ms); ii) ants' aggressiveness towards non-nestmates can be specifically reduced by exposure to non-nestmate odor only, showing that social interactions are not required to alter responses towards non-nestmates; iii) decision-making by ants does not require information transfer between brain hemispheres, but relies on side-specific decision rules. Conclusions/Significance Our results strongly suggest that first-order olfactory processing centers (up to the antennal lobes) are likely to play a key role in ant nestmate recognition. We hypothesize that the coarse level of discrimination achieved in the antennal lobes early in odor processing provides enough information to determine appropriate behavioral responses towards non-nestmates. This asks for a reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying social recognition in insects. PMID:20808782

  18. A Comparison of the Pathogenesis of Marburg Virus Disease in Humans and Nonhuman Primates and Evaluation of the Suitability of These Animal Models for Predicting Clinical Efficacy under the ‘Animal Rule’

    PubMed Central

    Glaze, Elizabeth R; Roy, Michael J; Dalrymple, Lonnie W; Lanning, Lynda L

    2015-01-01

    Marburg virus outbreaks are sporadic, infrequent, brief, and relatively small in terms of numbers of subjects affected. In addition, outbreaks most likely will occur in remote regions where clinical trials are not feasible; therefore, definitive, well-controlled human efficacy studies to test the effectiveness of a drug or biologic product are not feasible. Healthy human volunteers cannot ethically be deliberately exposed to a lethal agent such as Marburg virus in order to test the efficacy of a therapy or preventive prior to licensure. When human efficacy studies are neither ethical nor feasible, the US Food and Drug Administration may grant marketing approval of a drug or biologic product under the ‘Animal Rule,’ through which demonstration of the efficacy of a product can be ‘based on adequate and well-controlled animal efficacy studies when the results of those studies establish that the drug is reasonably likely to produce clinical benefit in humans.’ This process requires that the pathogenic determinants of the disease in the animal model are similar to those that have been identified in humans. After reviewing primarily English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles, we here summarize the clinical manifestations of Marburg virus disease and the results of studies in NHP showing the characteristics and progression of the disease. We also include a detailed comparison of the characteristics of the human disease relative to those for NHP. This review reveals that the disease characteristics of Marburg virus disease are generally similar for humans and 3 NHP species: cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). PMID:26141449

  19. Flightless Notaris (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Brachycerinae: Erirhinini) in Southwest China: monophyly, mtDNA phylogeography and evolution of habitat associations.

    PubMed

    Grebennikov, Vasily V; Kolov, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the recent discovery of flightless populations of weevils of the genus Notaris in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China. Specimens were found in the middle or high altitude mountains (2440-4195 m), by either sifting leaf litter in the deciduous forest and among alpine Rhododendron shrubs, or by turning rocks in the alpine zone. These finds extend southwards the Asian range of this Holarctic genus and report its highest altitudinal records. DNA barcodes of 127 specimens were phylogenetically analysed, of them 42 are those of newly discovered Notaris from Southwest China. The genera Notaris and Tournotaris consistently formed a clade, with Tournotaris nested inside Notaris in Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) analysis. The newly discovered flightless Notaris from Southwest China were either monophyletic (MP) or paraphyletic with respect to volant Holarctic N. aethiops (ML); the latter placement being likely an artefact. A strict linear molecular clock approach suggests a pre-Pliocene separation of Notaris populations in Southwest China. Habitat associations of these high-altitude flightless Notaris contrast sharply with that of the predominantly volant lowland riparian Notaris and other Erirhinini. We hypothesis that evolution of habitat selection in Notaris went from lowland riparian, to high altitude (via uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions of Central Asia), and then to forest leaf litter (via subsequent erosions of isolated mountains such as Emei Shan in Sichuan losing the alpine zone and forcing Notaris into the forest floor). Taxonomic uncertainty of Asian Notaris is addressed and remains unresolved due to uninformative morphology and conflicting DNA signal. Identities of two obscure and likely closely related species, Notaroides brevirostris and Notaris kozlovi from nearby SE Qinghai and NW Sichuan, respectively, are discussed and illustrated. Pending further research, all reported flightless Notaris from

  20. Multi-Atlas Library for Eliminating Normalization Failures in Non-Human Primates.

    PubMed

    Maldjian, Joseph A; Shively, Carol A; Nader, Michael A; Friedman, David P; Whitlow, Christopher T

    2016-04-01

    Current tools for automated skull stripping, normalization, and segmentation of non-human primate (NHP) brain MRI studies typically demonstrate high failure rates. Many of these failures are due to a poor initial estimate for the affine component of the transformation. The purpose of this study is to introduce a multi-atlas approach to overcome these limitations and drive the failure rate to near zero. A library of study-specific templates (SST) spanning three Old World primate species (Macaca fascicularis, M. mulatta, Chlorocebus aethiops) was created using a previously described unbiased automated approach. Several modifications were introduced to the methodology to improve initial affine estimation at the study-specific template level, and at the individual subject level. These involve performing multiple separate normalizations to a multi-atlas library of templates and selecting the best performing template on the basis of a covariance similarity metric. This template was then used as an initialization for the affine component of subsequent skull stripping and normalization procedures. Normalization failure rate for SST generation and individual-subject segmentation on a set of 150 NHP was evaluated on the basis of visual inspection. The previous automated template creation procedure results in excellent skull stripping, segmentation, and atlas labeling across species. Failure rate at the individual-subject level was approximately 1%, however at the SST generation level it was 17%. Using the new multi-atlas approach, failure rate was further reduced to zero for both SST generation and individual subject processing. We describe a multi-atlas library registration approach for driving normalization failures in NHP to zero. It is straightforward to implement, and can have application to a wide variety of existing tools, as well as in difficult populations including neonates and the elderly. This approach is also an important step towards developing fully automated

  1. Simian T-cell leukemia virus (STLV) infection in wild primate populations in Cameroon: evidence for dual STLV type 1 and type 3 infection in agile mangabeys (Cercocebus agilis).

    PubMed

    Courgnaud, Valerie; Van Dooren, Sonia; Liegeois, Florian; Pourrut, Xavier; Abela, Bernadette; Loul, Severin; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Vandamme, Annemieke; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2004-05-01

    Three types of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-simian T-cell leukemia virus (STLV) (collectively called primate T-cell leukemia viruses [PTLVs]) have been characterized, with evidence for zoonotic origin from primates for HTLV type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 in Africa. To assess human exposure to STLVs in western Central Africa, we screened for STLV infection in primates hunted in the rain forests of Cameroon. Blood was obtained from 524 animals representing 18 different species. All the animals were wild caught between 1999 and 2002; 328 animals were sampled as bush meat and 196 were pets. Overall, 59 (11.2%) of the primates had antibodies cross-reacting with HTLV-1 and/or HTLV-2 antigens; HTLV-1 infection was confirmed in 37 animals, HTLV-2 infection was confirmed in 9, dual HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection was confirmed in 10, and results for 3 animals were indeterminate. Prevalences of infection were significantly lower in pets than in bush meat, 1.5 versus 17.0%, respectively. Discriminatory PCRs identified STLV-1, STLV-3, and STLV-1 and STLV-3 in HTLV-1-, HTLV-2-, and HTLV-1- and HTLV-2-cross-reactive samples, respectively. We identified for the first time STLV-1 sequences in mustached monkeys (Cercopithecus cephus), talapoins (Miopithecus ogouensis), and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and confirmed STLV-1 infection in mandrills, African green monkeys, agile mangabeys, and crested mona and greater spot-nosed monkeys. STLV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and env sequences revealed that the strains belonged to different PTLV-1 subtypes. A high prevalence of PTLV infection was observed among agile mangabeys (Cercocebus agilis); 89% of bush meat was infected with STLV. Cocirculation of STLV-1 and STLV-3 and STLV-1-STLV-3 coinfections were identified among the agile mangabeys. Phylogenetic analyses of partial LTR sequences indicated that the agile mangabey STLV-3 strains were more related to the STLV-3 CTO604 strain isolated from a red-capped mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus

  2. Molecular Ecology and Natural History of Simian Foamy Virus Infection in Wild-Living Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weimin; Worobey, Michael; Li, Yingying; Keele, Brandon F.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Guo, Yuanyuan; Goepfert, Paul A.; Santiago, Mario L.; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Neel, Cecile; Clifford, Stephen L.; Sanz, Crickette; Kamenya, Shadrack; Wilson, Michael L.; Pusey, Anne E.; Gross-Camp, Nicole; Boesch, Christophe; Smith, Vince; Zamma, Koichiro; Huffman, Michael A.; Mitani, John C.; Watts, David P.; Peeters, Martine; Shaw, George M.; Switzer, William M.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying microbial pathogens with zoonotic potential in wild-living primates can be important to human health, as evidenced by human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and Ebola virus. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are ancient retroviruses that infect Old and New World monkeys and apes. Although not known to cause disease, these viruses are of public health interest because they have the potential to infect humans and thus provide a more general indication of zoonotic exposure risks. Surprisingly, no information exists concerning the prevalence, geographic distribution, and genetic diversity of SFVs in wild-living monkeys and apes. Here, we report the first comprehensive survey of SFVcpz infection in free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using newly developed, fecal-based assays. Chimpanzee fecal samples (n = 724) were collected at 25 field sites throughout equatorial Africa and tested for SFVcpz-specific antibodies (n = 706) or viral nucleic acids (n = 392). SFVcpz infection was documented at all field sites, with prevalence rates ranging from 44% to 100%. In two habituated communities, adult chimpanzees had significantly higher SFVcpz infection rates than infants and juveniles, indicating predominantly horizontal rather than vertical transmission routes. Some chimpanzees were co-infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz); however, there was no evidence that SFVcpz and SIVcpz were epidemiologically linked. SFVcpz nucleic acids were recovered from 177 fecal samples, all of which contained SFVcpz RNA and not DNA. Phylogenetic analysis of partial gag (616 bp), pol-RT (717 bp), and pol-IN (425 bp) sequences identified a diverse group of viruses, which could be subdivided into four distinct SFVcpz lineages according to their chimpanzee subspecies of origin. Within these lineages, there was evidence of frequent superinfection and viral recombination. One chimpanzee was infected by a foamy virus from a Cercopithecus

  3. Distribution, population density, and status of sympatric cercopithecids in the Campo-Ma'an area, Southwestern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Adele; Matthews, Andreas

    2002-07-01

    A study on species composition, distribution, and population density of cercopithecids in the Campo-Ma'an area, Southwestern Cameroon, was undertaken from December 1997 until August 2000. A total of 665.5 km of line transects was used for the census. Thirteen diurnal primate species including five endangered species (Gorilla g. gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Mandrillus sphinx, Colobus satanas, Cercocebus torquatus) were recorded in the Campo Forest, the greatest part of which is a logging concession. Cercopithecus nictitans (1.43 groups/km2), C. cephus (1.13 groups/km2), C. pogonias (0.81 groups/km2), and C. torquatus (0.51 groups/km2) occurred at medium frequencies compared to figures from other Central African study sites. Mandrill densities estimated (0.27 groups/km2) show that the area is very important for the conservation of this rare species. Guenon densities found inside areas with a high level of human activities did not differ significantly from densities estimated in areas with a lower level of human activities. C. torquatus densities were significantly higher in the areas with a low level of human disturbance and encounter rates with Lophocebus albigena also indicate a preference of less disturbed areas. Mangabeys are thus likely to be adversely affected by human activities in the area. In the Ma'an Forest, which has not been logged yet, ten species were confirmed. The population densities of two guenons (C. nictitans and C. cephus) were estimated to be twice as high in the unlogged forest area as compared to the logged forest of Campo. Other species are rarer in the Ma'an Forest than in the Campo Forest. Although mangabeys are adversely affected by human activities, the results still indicate that selective logging may be compatible with the conservation of cercopithecids, if a reduced damage logging concept and antipoaching measures are implemented. Increased hunting activities following logging operations will definitely have a negative longterm impact on

  4. The perception of vocal signals by blue monkeys and grey-cheeked mangabeys.

    PubMed

    Brown, C H

    1986-01-01

    Old World forest primates may need to signal vocally over long distances in noisy habitats. Perceptual experiments focused on the audibility of signals in noise were conducted in the laboratory using standard psychoacoustical methods. Six human listeners, two blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), and two grey-cheeked mangabeys (Cercocebus albigena) served as subjects. Based upon measurements of East African rain forests (Brown and Waser 1984) testing was conducted in the presence of simulated rain forest noise, or in the quiet. Signals consisted of pure tones 2-seconds in duration ranging in frequency from 63 Hz to 32 kHz, or recordings of vocalizations. Test vocal signals for monkey subjects were the blue monkey chirp, pyow, trill, ka, ka-train, grunt and boom calls; the mangabey chorused grunt, soft grunt, gobble and staccato bark calls. Human listeners were tested with the consonant-vowel stop consonants: ba, pa, da, ta, ga, ka; the two-syllable words: baseball, lifeguard, vessel and leisure; and the sentence "Can you hear me?" The results showed that mangabeys exhibit an audibility function nearly indistinguishable from that for blue monkeys (Brown and Waser 1984). Compared to terrestrial open country monkeys, these arboreal rain forest monkeys possess enhanced low-frequency sensitivity which coupled with mechanisms specialized for low-frequency vocal production may function as a long-distance communication system. Testing with vocalizations in the presence of a masking noise revealed that monkey calls were about 10 dB more audible in noise than were human speech sounds. No differences were found between the audibility of graded or discrete calls. Testing for species-specific abilities was conducted with a subsample of six calls. While differences were not found when testing was conducted in the quiet, in the presence of forest noise, monkeys were about 3.4 dB more sensitive to the calls of conspecifics than to the calls of sympatric species. These findings

  5. The sweet taste quality is linked to a cluster of taste fibers in primates: lactisole diminishes preference and responses to sweet in S fibers (sweet best) chorda tympani fibers of M. fascicularis monkey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiwen; Danilova, Vicktoria; Cragin, Tiffany; Roberts, Thomas W; Koposov, Alexey; Hellekant, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Background Psychophysically, sweet and bitter have long been considered separate taste qualities, evident already to the newborn human. The identification of different receptors for sweet and bitter located on separate cells of the taste buds substantiated this separation. However, this finding leads to the next question: is bitter and sweet also kept separated in the next link from the taste buds, the fibers of the taste nerves? Previous studies in non-human primates, P. troglodytes, C. aethiops, M. mulatta, M. fascicularis and C. jacchus, suggest that the sweet and bitter taste qualities are linked to specific groups of fibers called S and Q fibers. In this study we apply a new sweet taste modifier, lactisole, commercially available as a suppressor of the sweetness of sugars on the human tongue, to test our hypothesis that sweet taste is conveyed in S fibers. Results We first ascertained that lactisole exerted similar suppression of sweetness in M. fascicularis, as reported in humans, by recording their preference of sweeteners and non- sweeteners with and without lactisole in two-bottle tests. The addition of lactisole significantly diminished the preference for all sweeteners but had no effect on the intake of non-sweet compounds or the intake of water. We then recorded the response to the same taste stimuli in 40 single chorda tympani nerve fibers. Comparison between single fiber nerve responses to stimuli with and without lactisole showed that lactisole only suppressed the responses to sweeteners in S fibers. It had no effect on the responses to any other stimuli in all other taste fibers. Conclusion In M. fascicularis, lactisole diminishes the attractiveness of compounds, which taste sweet to humans. This behavior is linked to activity of fibers in the S-cluster. Assuming that lactisole blocks the T1R3 monomer of the sweet taste receptor T1R2/R3, these results present further support for the hypothesis that S fibers convey taste from T1R2/R3 receptors, while

  6. Catarrhine primate divergence dates estimated from complete mitochondrial genomes: concordance with fossil and nuclear DNA evidence.

    PubMed

    Raaum, Ryan L; Sterner, Kirstin N; Noviello, Colleen M; Stewart, Caro-Beth; Disotell, Todd R

    2005-03-01

    Accurate divergence date estimates improve scenarios of primate evolutionary history and aid in interpretation of the natural history of disease-causing agents. While molecule-based estimates of divergence dates of taxa within the superfamily Hominoidea (apes and humans) are common in the literature, few such estimates are available for the Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys), the sister taxon of the hominoids in the primate infraorder Catarrhini. To help fill this gap, we have sequenced the entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from a representative of three cercopithecoid tribes, Cercopithecini (Chlorocebus aethiops), Colobini (Colobus guereza), and Presbytini (Trachypithecus obscurus), and analyzed these new data together with other catarrhine mtDNA genomes available in public databases. Molecular divergence date estimates are dependent on calibration points gleaned from the paleontological record. We defined criteria for the selection of good calibration points and identified three points meeting these criteria: Homo-Pan, 6.0 Ma; Pongo-hominines, 14.0 Ma; hominoid/cercopithecoid, 23.0 Ma. Because a uniform molecular clock does not fit the catarrhine mtDNA data, we estimated divergence dates using a penalized likelihood and a Bayesian method, both of which take into account the effects of rate differences on lineages, phylogenetic tree structure, and multiple calibration points. The penalized likelihood method applied to the coding regions of the mtDNA genome yielded the following divergence date estimates, with approximate 95% confidence intervals: cercopithecine-colobine, 16.2 (14.4-17.9) Ma; colobin-presbytin, 10.9 (9.6-12.3) Ma; cercopithecin-papionin, 11.6 (10.3-12.9) Ma; and Macaca-Papio, 9.8 (8.6-10.9) Ma. Within the hominoids, the following dates were inferred: hylobatid-hominid, 16.8 (15.0-18.5) Ma; Gorilla-Homo+Pan, 8.1 (7.1-9.0) Ma; Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus-P. p. abelii, 4.1 (3.5-4.7) Ma; and Pan troglodytes-P. paniscus, 2.4 (2.0-2.7) Ma. These

  7. A revision of the Axylus group of Agraeciini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae) and of some other species formerly included in Nicsara or Anthracites Revision of the Indo-Australian Conocephalinae, Part 3.

    PubMed

    Ingrisch, Sigfrid

    2015-01-01

    . and E. ornata (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov. (from Axylus); Heminicsara excisa (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., H. insulana (Willemse, 1966) comb. nov., H. schlaginhaufeni (Karny, 1912) comb. nov., and H. viridipes (Karny, 1912) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Heminicsara castaneipictus (Willemse, 1966) comb. nov., H. insularis (Willemse, 1942) comb. nov., and H. palauensis (Vickery & Kevan, 1999) comb. nov. (from Spinisternum); Heminicsara decipiens (Karny, 1926) comb. nov. and H. griffinii (Karny, 1911) comb. nov. (from Gonatacanthus); Heminicsara novaeguineae (Willemse, 1966) comb. nov. (from Eucoptaspis); Sulasara aethiops (Karny, 1931) comb. nov., S. karnyi (Willemse, 1932) comb. nov., and Sulasara sarasini (Karny, 1931) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Papuacites nigrifrons (Karny, 1912) comb. nov. and P. nakanaiensis (Naskrecki & Rentz, 2010) comb. nov. (from Anthracites); Paramacroxiphus multispinosa (Bolivar, 1898) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Palaeoagraecia globiceratus Vickery & Kevan, 1999 comb. nov. (from Macroxiphus). Odontocoryphus pullus Karny, 1907 becomes a new synonym of Macroxiphus sumatranus sumatranus (Haan, 1842). 87 species are described as new: nine species in Axylus: A. brachypterus sp. nov., A. dulang sp. nov., A. furcatus sp. nov., A. mengkoka sp. nov., A. montanus sp. nov., A. negros sp. nov. , A. superior sp. nov., A. totop sp. nov. , A. unicolor sp. nov.; six species in Anthracites: A. bilineatus sp. nov., A. flagellatus sp. nov., A. pyramidalis sp. nov., A. romblon sp. nov., A. sinuatus sp. nov., A. unispinus sp. nov.; four species in Euanthracites: E. bispinus sp. nov., E. eboreus sp. nov., E. ile sp. nov., E. uru sp. nov.; six species in Eucoptaspis: E. adonara sp. nov., E. hexamaculatus sp. nov., E. remotus sp. nov., E. stylatus sp. nov., E. trapezoides sp. nov., E. wawo sp. nov.; eight species in Eulobaspis: E. bacan C.Willemse & Ingrisch sp. nov., E. baduri sp. nov., E. buruensis sp. nov., E. ceramica C.Willemse & Ingrisch sp. nov., E. morotai sp. nov., E