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Sample records for cerebral integrity track

  1. Analyses of Disruption of Cerebral White Matter Integrity in Schizophrenia with MR Diffusion Tensor Fiber Tracking Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Utako; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Kito, Shinsuke; Koga, Yoshihiko

    We have analyzed cerebral white matter using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) to measure the diffusion anisotropy of water molecules. The goal of this study is the quantitative evaluation of schizophrenia. Diffusion tensor images are acquired for patients with schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects, group-matched for age, sex, and handedness. Fiber tracking is performed on the superior longitudinal fasciculus for the comparison between the patient and comparison groups. We have analysed and compared the cross-sectional area on the starting coronal plane and the mean and standard deviation of the fractional anisotropy and the apparent diffusion coefficient along fibers in the right and left hemispheres. In the right hemisphere, the cross-sectional areas in patient group are significantly smaller than those in the comparison group. Furthermore, in the comparison group, the cross-sectional areas in the right hemisphere are significantly larger than those in the left hemisphere, whereas there is no significant difference in the patient group. These results suggest that we may evaluate the disruption in white matter integrity in schizophrenic patients quantitatively by comparing the cross-sectional area of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in the right and left hemispheres.

  2. A tracking approach to parcellation of the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Chris; Johnston, Leigh; Inder, Terrie; Rees, Sandra; Mareels, Iven; Egan, Gary

    2005-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is composed of regions with distinct laminar structure. Functional neuroimaging results are often reported with respect to these regions, usually by means of a brain "atlas". Motivated by the need for more precise atlases, and the lack of model-based approaches in prior work in the field, this paper introduces a novel approach to parcellating the cortex into regions of distinct laminar structure, based on the theory of target tracking. The cortical layers are modelled by hidden Markov models and are tracked to determine the Bayesian evidence of layer hypotheses. This model-based parcellation method, evaluated here on a set of histological images of the cortex, is extensible to 3-D images.

  3. Intelligent Human Tracking Based on Multimodal Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Nakadai, Kazuhiro; Asano, Futoshi; Nakajima, Hirofumi; Ince, Gökhan

    Localization and tracking of humans are essential research topics in robotics. In particular, Sound Source Localization (SSL) has been of great interest. Despite the numerous reported methods, SSL in a real environment had mainly three issues; robustness against noise with high power, no framework for selective listening to sound sources, and tracking of inactive and/or noisy sound sources. For the first issue, we extended Multiple SIgnal Classification by incorporating Generalized Eigen Value Decomposition (GEVD-MUSIC) so that it can deal with high power noise and can select target sound sources. For the second issue, we proposed Sound Source Identification (SSI) based on hierarchical Gaussian mixture models and integrated it with GEVD-MUSIC to realize a function to listen to a specific sound source according to the sort of the sound source. For the third issue, auditory and visual human tracking were integrated using particle filtering. These three techniques are integrated into an intelligent human tracking system. Experimental results showed that integration of SSL and SSI successfully achieved human tracking only by audition, and the audio-visual integration showed considerable improvement in tracking by compensating the loss of auditory or visual information.

  4. Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking

    PubMed Central

    Lamoureux, Aaron; Lee, Kyusang; Shlian, Matthew; Forrest, Stephen R.; Shtein, Max

    2015-01-01

    Optical tracking is often combined with conventional flat panel solar cells to maximize electrical power generation over the course of a day. However, conventional trackers are complex and often require costly and cumbersome structural components to support system weight. Here we use kirigami (the art of paper cutting) to realize novel solar cells where tracking is integral to the structure at the substrate level. Specifically, an elegant cut pattern is made in thin-film gallium arsenide solar cells, which are then stretched to produce an array of tilted surface elements which can be controlled to within ±1°. We analyze the combined optical and mechanical properties of the tracking system, and demonstrate a mechanically robust system with optical tracking efficiencies matching conventional trackers. This design suggests a pathway towards enabling new applications for solar tracking, as well as inspiring a broader range of optoelectronic and mechanical devices. PMID:26348820

  5. Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamoureux, Aaron; Lee, Kyusang; Shlian, Matthew; Forrest, Stephen R.; Shtein, Max

    2015-09-01

    Optical tracking is often combined with conventional flat panel solar cells to maximize electrical power generation over the course of a day. However, conventional trackers are complex and often require costly and cumbersome structural components to support system weight. Here we use kirigami (the art of paper cutting) to realize novel solar cells where tracking is integral to the structure at the substrate level. Specifically, an elegant cut pattern is made in thin-film gallium arsenide solar cells, which are then stretched to produce an array of tilted surface elements which can be controlled to within +/-1°. We analyze the combined optical and mechanical properties of the tracking system, and demonstrate a mechanically robust system with optical tracking efficiencies matching conventional trackers. This design suggests a pathway towards enabling new applications for solar tracking, as well as inspiring a broader range of optoelectronic and mechanical devices.

  6. Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking.

    PubMed

    Lamoureux, Aaron; Lee, Kyusang; Shlian, Matthew; Forrest, Stephen R; Shtein, Max

    2015-09-08

    Optical tracking is often combined with conventional flat panel solar cells to maximize electrical power generation over the course of a day. However, conventional trackers are complex and often require costly and cumbersome structural components to support system weight. Here we use kirigami (the art of paper cutting) to realize novel solar cells where tracking is integral to the structure at the substrate level. Specifically, an elegant cut pattern is made in thin-film gallium arsenide solar cells, which are then stretched to produce an array of tilted surface elements which can be controlled to within ±1°. We analyze the combined optical and mechanical properties of the tracking system, and demonstrate a mechanically robust system with optical tracking efficiencies matching conventional trackers. This design suggests a pathway towards enabling new applications for solar tracking, as well as inspiring a broader range of optoelectronic and mechanical devices.

  7. Transverse Diffusivity of Cerebral Parenchyma Predicts Visual Tracking Performance in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warlop, Nele P.; Achten, Eric; Fieremans, Els; Debruyne, Jan; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between cerebral damage related to multiple sclerosis (MS) and cognitive decline as determined by two classical mental tracking tests. Cerebral damage in 15 relapsing-remitting MS patients was measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fractional anisotropy, longitudinal and transverse diffusivity were defined…

  8. Transverse Diffusivity of Cerebral Parenchyma Predicts Visual Tracking Performance in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warlop, Nele P.; Achten, Eric; Fieremans, Els; Debruyne, Jan; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between cerebral damage related to multiple sclerosis (MS) and cognitive decline as determined by two classical mental tracking tests. Cerebral damage in 15 relapsing-remitting MS patients was measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fractional anisotropy, longitudinal and transverse diffusivity were defined…

  9. Tracking-integrated systems for concentrating photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Stefancich, Marco; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems, which use optical elements to focus light onto small-area solar cells, have the potential to minimize the costs, while improving efficiency, of photovoltaic technology. However, CPV is limited by the need to track the apparent motion of the Sun. This is typically accomplished using high-precision mechanical trackers that rotate the entire module to maintain normal light incidence. These machines are large, heavy and expensive to build and maintain, deterring commercial interest and excluding CPV from the residential market. To avoid this issue, some attention has recently been devoted to the development of tracking-integrated systems, in which tracking is performed inside the CPV module itself. This creates a compact system geometry that could be less expensive and more suitable for rooftop installation than existing CPV trackers. We review the basic tracking principles and concepts exploited in these systems, describe and categorize the existing designs, and discuss the potential impact of tracking integration on CPV cost models and commercial potential.

  10. NucliTrack: An integrated nuclei tracking application.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Sam; Barr, Alexis R; Glen, Robert; Bakal, Chris

    2017-06-20

    Live imaging studies give unparalleled insight into dynamic single cell behaviours and fate decisions. However, the challenge of reliably tracking single cells over long periods of time limits both the throughput and ease with which such studies can be performed. Here, we present NucliTrack, a cross platform solution for automatically segmenting, tracking and extracting features from fluorescently-labelled nuclei. NucliTrack performs similarly to other state-of-the-art cell tracking algorithms, but NucliTrack's interactive, graphical interface makes it significantly more user friendly. NucliTrack is available as a free, cross platform application, and open source Python package. Installation details and documentation are at: http://nuclitrack.readthedocs.io/en/latest / A video guide can be viewed online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J6e0D9F-qSU Source code is available through Github: https://github.com/samocooper/nuclitrack . A Matlab toolbox is also available at: https://uk.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/61479-samocooper-nuclitrack-matlab. sam@socooper.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. Tracking-integrated optics: applications in solar concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelwright, Brian M.; Angel, Roger; Coughenour, Blake

    2014-12-01

    Conventional concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems track the sun with high precision dual-axis trackers. The emergent field of tracking-integrated optics has the potential to simplify the mechanics of CPV systems by loosening or eliminating the need for dual-axis tracking. In a tracking-integrated scheme, external module tracking is complemented or entirely replaced by miniature tracking within the module. This internal tracking-integration may take the form of active small-motion translation, rotation of arrayed optics, or by passive material property changes induced by the concentrated light. These methods are briefly reviewed. An insolation weighting model is presented which will aid in the design of tracking-integrated optics by quantifying the tradeoff between angular operation range and annual sunlight collection. We demonstrate that when tracking-integrated optics are used to complement external module tracking about a horizontal, North-South oriented axis, truncating the operational range may be advantageous. At Tucson AZ latitude (32.2°N), 15.6% of the angular range may be truncated while only sacrificing 3.6% of the annual insolation. We show that modules tracked about a polar-aligned axis are poorly-suited for truncation.

  12. Integral -tracking extreme radiation across the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    the four instruments is about 2 tonnes, roughly half the launch weight of Integral. Integral's orbit and operations After launch, Integral will follow an elliptical orbit that is inclined by 51.6° to the Earth’s equator. In this orbit, it will cycle between 9000 kilometres and 153 000 kilometres above Earth, completing one revolution of the Earth every 72 hours. This eccentric orbit is necessary because there are ‘radiation belts’ that surround the Earth and these would interfere with Integral’s ability to see gamma rays. It is important for Integral to be outside these belts. Its elliptical orbit is designed to keep it outside the radiation belts for 90% of its trajectory around Earth. Once Integral is in orbit, it must communicate with Earth to download its scientific data and to receive commands. Communicating with and controlling Integral is a task spread over a number of different sites. Firstly, astronomers submit proposals for observations to the Integral Science Operations Centre (ISOC) at Noordwijk, The Netherlands. Experts at ISOC evaluate the proposals and draw up a list of targets and detailed observation schedules for Integral. The schedules are sent to the Mission Operations Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany. There everything is transformed into commands that Integral will understand. Signals to and from Integral go through two tracking stations, one at Redu in Belgium, the second at Goldstone in California, United States. The MOC also ensures the correct performance of the spacecraft. After Integral has collected observations, the raw science data is forwarded to the Integral Science Data Centre (ISDC) in Versoix near Geneva, Switzerland. There it is converted into usable data files, archived, and distributed to the astronomical community. A worldwide network of space science institutes and observatories will receive the data very quickly. This is essential especially when sudden and short

  13. Proton spin tracking with symplectic integration of orbit motion

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Dutheil, Y.; Huang, H.; Meot, F.; Ranjbar, V.

    2015-05-03

    Symplectic integration had been adopted for orbital motion tracking in code SimTrack. SimTrack has been extensively used for dynamic aperture calculation with beam-beam interaction for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Recently proton spin tracking has been implemented on top of symplectic orbital motion in this code. In this article, we will explain the implementation of spin motion based on Thomas-BMT equation, and the benchmarking with other spin tracking codes currently used for RHIC. Examples to calculate spin closed orbit and spin tunes are presented too.

  14. Advanced fiber tracking in early acquired brain injury causing cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, F; Holmström, L; Eliasson, A-C; Flodmark, O; Forssberg, H; Tournier, J-D; Vollmer, B

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and fiber tractography can be used to investigate alterations in white matter tracts in patients with early acquired brain lesions and cerebral palsy. Most existing studies have used diffusion tensor tractography, which is limited in areas of complex fiber structures or pathologic processes. We explored a combined normalization and probabilistic fiber-tracking method for more realistic fiber tractography in this patient group. This cross-sectional study included 17 children with unilateral cerebral palsy and 24 typically developing controls. DWI data were collected at 1.5T (45 directions, b=1000 s/mm(2)). Regions of interest were defined on a study-specific fractional anisotropy template and mapped onto subjects for fiber tracking. Probabilistic fiber tracking of the corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex was performed by using constrained spherical deconvolution. Tracts were qualitatively assessed, and DTI parameters were extracted close to and distant from lesions and compared between groups. The corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex were realistically reconstructed in both groups. Structural changes to tracts were seen in the cerebral palsy group and included splits, dislocations, compaction of the tracts, or failure to delineate the tract and were associated with underlying pathology seen on conventional MR imaging. Comparisons of DTI parameters indicated primary and secondary neurodegeneration along the corticospinal tract. Corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex showed dissimilarities in both structural changes and DTI parameters. Our proposed method offers a sensitive means to explore alterations in WM tracts to further understand pathophysiologic changes following early acquired brain injury. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  15. A fast numerical integrator for relativistic charged particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we report on a fast second-order numerical integrator to solve the Lorentz force equations of a relativistic charged particle in electromagnetic fields. This numerical integrator shows less numerical error than the popular Boris algorithm in tracking the relativistic particle subject to electric and magnetic space-charge fields and requires less number of operations than another recently proposed relativistic integrator.

  16. Learning a Tracking and Estimation Integrated Graphical Model for Human Pose Tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Gao, Xinbo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the tracking of 2-D human poses in a video stream to determine the spatial configuration of body parts in each frame, but this is not a trivial task because people may wear different kinds of clothing and may move very quickly and unpredictably. The technology of pose estimation is typically applied, but it ignores the temporal context and cannot provide smooth, reliable tracking results. Therefore, we develop a tracking and estimation integrated model (TEIM) to fully exploit temporal information by integrating pose estimation with visual tracking. However, joint parsing of multiple articulated parts over time is difficult, because a full model with edges capturing all pairwise relationships within and between frames is loopy and intractable. In previous models, approximate inference was usually resorted to, but it cannot promise good results and the computational cost is large. We overcome these problems by exploring the idea of divide and conquer, which decomposes the full model into two much simpler tractable submodels. In addition, a novel two-step iteration strategy is proposed to efficiently conquer the joint parsing problem. Algorithmically, we design TEIM very carefully so that: 1) it enables pose estimation and visual tracking to compensate for each other to achieve desirable tracking results; 2) it is able to deal with the problem of tracking loss; and 3) it only needs past information and is capable of tracking online. Experiments are conducted on two public data sets in the wild with ground truth layout annotations, and the experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed TEIM framework.

  17. Physical Activity Among Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Koldoff, Elizabeth A; Holtzclaw, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is necessary for optimum physical and psychosocial health in the general population. It is even more important for adolescents who struggle with impairments that limit motor function. Recommendations for best practice are needed as adolescents transition into adulthood. An integrative review was performed to determine the state of the science regarding 1) what factors impact physical activity in adolescents with cerebral palsy, and 2) how the needs of this population have been addressed regarding physical activity. A literature search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PubMed was conducted using the terms cerebral palsy, mobility or activity, and adolescents. Exclusion criteria were surgical or pharmacological interventions. Descriptive and intervention studies were included and evaluated for purpose, design, and key findings. Correcting the decline of physical activity in adolescents with CP may carry benefits over into adulthood. There are few studies that adapt physical activity to age and level of impairment. Several studies support approaching physical activity from a social model, focusing on participation of the person in the context of environment. There is a lack of research incorporating family-centered care. Many study designs are shallow and lack the proper instruments for assessing outcomes. Home and community based interventions need to be developed that are individualized. More studies are needed with stronger research designs and better instruments in order to generalize results for practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Wireless handheld scanners integrated with waste tracking

    SciTech Connect

    R. S. Anderson

    2000-07-23

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has embraced mobile wireless technology to help the disposition of hazardous and mixed radiological waste. The following paper describes one application the INEEL developed to increase the data accuracy and near-real time reporting requirements for waste management. With the continuous operational demands at the ''site'', it was difficult to sustain an accurate, up-to-date database required for regulatory compliance audits and reporting. Incorporating wireless mobile technology, the INEEL was able to increase the accuracy while reducing the data delay times previously encountered. Installation issues prolonged the project along with obstacles encountered with operations personnel. However, the success of this project was found in persistence and management support as well as the technology itself. Future wireless, mobile computing will continue at the INEEL for years to come based on a successful project that was able to integrate new technology to an existing waste management system with proven, increased data accuracy.

  19. Wireless Handheld Scanners Integrated with Waste Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert Stephen

    2000-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has embraced mobile wireless technology to help the disposition of hazardous and mixed radiological waste. The following paper describes one application the INEEL developed to increase the data accuracy and near-real time reporting requirements for waste management. With the continuous operational demands at the "site", it was difficult to sustain an accurate, up-to-date database required for regulatory compliance audits and reporting. Incorporating wireless mobile technology, the INEEL was able to increase the accuracy while reducing the data delay times previously encountered. Installation issues prolonged the project along with obstacles encountered with operations personnel. However, the success of this project was found in persistence and management support as well as the technology itself. Future wireless, mobile computing will continue at the INEEL for years to come based on a successful project that was able to integrate new technology to an existing waste management system with proven, increased data accuracy.

  20. Tracking integration in concentrating photovoltaics using laterally moving optics.

    PubMed

    Duerr, Fabian; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2011-05-09

    In this work the concept of tracking-integrated concentrating photovoltaics is studied and its capabilities are quantitatively analyzed. The design strategy desists from ideal concentration performance to reduce the external mechanical solar tracking effort in favor of a compact installation, possibly resulting in lower overall cost. The proposed optical design is based on an extended Simultaneous Multiple Surface (SMS) algorithm and uses two laterally moving plano-convex lenses to achieve high concentration over a wide angular range of ±24°. It achieves 500× concentration, outperforming its conventional concentrating photovoltaic counterparts on a polar aligned single axis tracker.

  1. Cerebral mechanisms of prosodic integration: evidence from connected speech.

    PubMed

    Hesling, Isabelle; Clément, Sylvain; Bordessoules, Martine; Allard, Michèle

    2005-02-15

    Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and long connected speech stimuli, we addressed the question of neuronal networks involved in prosodic integration by comparing (1) differences in brain activity when hearing connected speech stimuli with high and low degrees of prosodic expression; (2) differences in brain activity in two different diotic listening conditions (normal speech delivery to both ears, i.e., NN; and low-pass-filtered speech delivery to both ears, i.e., FF); and (3) effects of high and low degrees of prosodic information in the NN and FF conditions. Twelve right-handed French men listened passively to the stimuli. Each stimulus induced a specific cerebral network, the flat one weakening activations, which were mainly reduced to the bilateral STG for both listening conditions. High degrees of prosodic information were found to trigger right specific activations in a wider neuronal network involved in speech integration (such as BA44, BA21-22 and BA39-40) than low degrees of prosodic information did. More precisely, the right BA44 was found to be specifically involved in the process of F(0) modulations, which are the main acoustic correlate of prosody. Not only do the results achieved in the present experiment using 30-s-long connected speech stimuli show the involvement of a bilateral neuronal network but they also strongly suggest that high degrees of prosodic information elicit activations in a wider neuronal network involved in speech perception than low degrees of prosodic information do.

  2. Sensor and tracking data integration into a common operating picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Mark E.

    2003-09-01

    With rapid technological developments, a new innovative range of possibilities can be actualized in mainstreaming a network with checks and balances to provide sensor and tracking data integration/information to a wider Department of Defense (DoD) audience or group of agencies. As technologies are developed, methods to display the data are required. Multiple diverse tracking devices and sensors need to be displayed on a common operating picture. Sensors and tracking devices are used to monitor an area or object for movement or boundary penetration. Tracking devices in turn determine transit patterns of humans, animals and/or vehicles. In consortium these devices can have dual applications for military requirements and for other general purposes. The DoD Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office (CDTDPO) has designed a system to distribute sensor and tracking data to multiple users in separate agencies. This information can be displayed in whole or in part as to the specific needs of the user. It is with this purpose that the Data Distribution Network (DDN) was created to disseminate information to a collective group or to a select audience.

  3. A novel linear tracking integrator with integral compensation and its application.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xingling; Liu, Jun; Wang, Honglun; Cao, Zhibin

    2017-09-27

    A novel linear tracking integrator (LTI) with integral compensation is proposed for efficient integral estimation from a contaminated measurement with a constant or time-varying bias. The limitation of finite-time convergent integral observer (FTCIO) in ruling out the integral drift is firstly revealed via describing function method. Subsequently, by the utilization of integral action in the feedback path, a simple but effective linear tracking integrator is established to provide a practical solution in achieving a drift-free integral estimate. The highlight is that the proposed LTI can simultaneously give the accurate integral and tracking estimates from a noisy measurement without relying on the condition of observability. In addition, frequency-domain analysis of LTI is investigated to give a viable guideline of parameter tuning. Illustrative simulations and comparison with Kalman filter are included to demonstrate the superiority of LTI in accomplishing precise integral tracking in the presence of constant or time-varying bias. Finally, the effectiveness of LTI is also confirmed by an application on autopilot design for aircraft. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Schisandrin B enhances cerebral mitochondrial antioxidant status and structural integrity, and protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Chiu, Po Yee; Ko, Kam Ming

    2008-07-01

    Schisandrin B (Sch B), a dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, has been shown to enhance mitochondrial antioxidant status in liver, heart and brain tissues in rodents. Whether or not long-term Sch B treatment can protect against oxidative stress-induced cerebral damage remains unclear. In the present study, the effect of long-term Sch B treatment (1-30 mg/kg/dx15) on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was examined in rats. Sch B treatment protected against I/R-induced cerebral damage, as evidenced by the significant increase in the percentage of 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC)-stained tissues in representative brain slices, when compared with the Sch B-untreated and I/R control. The cerebroprotection was associated with an enhancement in cerebral mitochondrial antioxidant status, as assessed by the level/activity of reduced glutathione, alpha-tocopherol and Mn-superoxide dismutase, as well as the improvement/preservation of mitochondrial structural integrity, as assessed by the extents of malondialdehyde production, Ca(2+) loading and cytochrome c release, as well as the sensitivity to Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition, in control and I/R-challenged rats. In conclusion, long-term Sch B treatment could enhance cerebral mitochondrial antioxidant status as well as improve mitochondrial structural integrity, thereby protecting against I/R injury.

  5. The Integrated Waste Tracking System - A Flexible Waste Management Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert Stephen

    2001-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has fully embraced a flexible, computer-based tool to help increase waste management efficiency and integrate multiple operational functions from waste generation through waste disposition while reducing cost. The Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS)provides comprehensive information management for containerized waste during generation,storage, treatment, transport, and disposal. The IWTS provides all information necessary for facilities to properly manage and demonstrate regulatory compliance. As a platformindependent, client-server and Web-based inventory and compliance system, the IWTS has proven to be a successful tracking, characterization, compliance, and reporting tool that meets the needs of both operations and management while providing a high level of management flexibility.

  6. Integrated tracking of components by engineering and logistics utilizing logistics asset tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renfroe, Michael B.; Mcdonald, Edward J.; Bradshaw, Kimberly

    1988-01-01

    The Logistics Asset Tracking System (LATS) devised by NASA contains data on Space Shuttle LRUs that are daily updated to reflect such LRU status changes as repair due to failure or modification due to changing engineering requirements. The implementation of LATS has substantially increased personnel responsiveness, preventing costly delays in Space Shuttle processing and obviating hardware cannibalization. An evaluation is presented of LATS achievements in the direction of an integrated logistical support posture.

  7. An Integrated Navigation Approach for Ship Track Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    integral heading compensation ( PI control ) to the autopilot, as required. Switches 1 End 2 provide a means of indicating the application status of the...0.1 nautical mile or less. The autopilot heading correction, ship’s distance cross track and PI control law •aphs, provided in Figures 4, 5, and 6...theoretical PI control law correctin exceeded the maximum 2 degree per increment applied correction limitation. In Figure 4, the size of an increment is

  8. A middleware approach to integrate referent tracking in EHR systems.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Shahid; Ceusters, Werner M; Rudnicki, Ron

    2007-10-11

    The purpose of a Referent Tracking System (RTS) is to manage the representation of particulars in a database and to share this information with Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems. We describe how an implementation of such a RTS can be integrated in an EHR system using middleware technology based on web services. We describe the functional and technical requirements of such an approach and document our experiences with MedtuityEMR, an EHR system that stores patient data in XML.

  9. Integrated long-range UAV/UGV collaborative target tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Mark B.; Grocholsky, Benjamin P.; Cheung, Carol; Singh, Sanjiv

    2009-05-01

    Coordinated operations between unmanned air and ground assets allow leveraging of multi-domain sensing and increase opportunities for improving line of sight communications. While numerous military missions would benefit from coordinated UAV-UGV operations, foundational capabilities that integrate stove-piped tactical systems and share available sensor data are required and not yet available. iRobot, AeroVironment, and Carnegie Mellon University are working together, partially SBIR-funded through ARDEC's small unit network lethality initiative, to develop collaborative capabilities for surveillance, targeting, and improved communications based on PackBot UGV and Raven UAV platforms. We integrate newly available technologies into computational, vision, and communications payloads and develop sensing algorithms to support vision-based target tracking. We first simulated and then applied onto real tactical platforms an implementation of Decentralized Data Fusion, a novel technique for fusing track estimates from PackBot and Raven platforms for a moving target in an open environment. In addition, system integration with AeroVironment's Digital Data Link onto both air and ground platforms has extended our capabilities in communications range to operate the PackBot as well as in increased video and data throughput. The system is brought together through a unified Operator Control Unit (OCU) for the PackBot and Raven that provides simultaneous waypoint navigation and traditional teleoperation. We also present several recent capability accomplishments toward PackBot-Raven coordinated operations, including single OCU display design and operation, early target track results, and Digital Data Link integration efforts, as well as our near-term capability goals.

  10. EEG and Eye Tracking Demonstrate Vigilance Enhancement with Challenge Integration.

    PubMed

    Bodala, Indu P; Li, Junhua; Thakor, Nitish V; Al-Nashash, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining vigilance is possibly the first requirement for surveillance tasks where personnel are faced with monotonous yet intensive monitoring tasks. Decrement in vigilance in such situations could result in dangerous consequences such as accidents, loss of life and system failure. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to enhance vigilance or sustained attention using "challenge integration," a strategy that integrates a primary task with challenging stimuli. A primary surveillance task (identifying an intruder in a simulated factory environment) and a challenge stimulus (periods of rain obscuring the surveillance scene) were employed to test the changes in vigilance levels. The effect of integrating challenging events (resulting from artificially simulated rain) into the task were compared to the initial monotonous phase. EEG and eye tracking data is collected and analyzed for n = 12 subjects. Frontal midline theta power and frontal theta to parietal alpha power ratio which are used as measures of engagement and attention allocation show an increase due to challenge integration (p < 0.05 in each case). Relative delta band power of EEG also shows statistically significant suppression on the frontoparietal and occipital cortices due to challenge integration (p < 0.05). Saccade amplitude, saccade velocity and blink rate obtained from eye tracking data exhibit statistically significant changes during the challenge phase of the experiment (p < 0.05 in each case). From the correlation analysis between the statistically significant measures of eye tracking and EEG, we infer that saccade amplitude and saccade velocity decrease with vigilance decrement along with frontal midline theta and frontal theta to parietal alpha ratio. Conversely, blink rate and relative delta power increase with vigilance decrement. However, these measures exhibit a reverse trend when challenge stimulus appears in the task suggesting vigilance enhancement. Moreover, the mean reaction

  11. EEG and Eye Tracking Demonstrate Vigilance Enhancement with Challenge Integration

    PubMed Central

    Bodala, Indu P.; Li, Junhua; Thakor, Nitish V.; Al-Nashash, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining vigilance is possibly the first requirement for surveillance tasks where personnel are faced with monotonous yet intensive monitoring tasks. Decrement in vigilance in such situations could result in dangerous consequences such as accidents, loss of life and system failure. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to enhance vigilance or sustained attention using “challenge integration,” a strategy that integrates a primary task with challenging stimuli. A primary surveillance task (identifying an intruder in a simulated factory environment) and a challenge stimulus (periods of rain obscuring the surveillance scene) were employed to test the changes in vigilance levels. The effect of integrating challenging events (resulting from artificially simulated rain) into the task were compared to the initial monotonous phase. EEG and eye tracking data is collected and analyzed for n = 12 subjects. Frontal midline theta power and frontal theta to parietal alpha power ratio which are used as measures of engagement and attention allocation show an increase due to challenge integration (p < 0.05 in each case). Relative delta band power of EEG also shows statistically significant suppression on the frontoparietal and occipital cortices due to challenge integration (p < 0.05). Saccade amplitude, saccade velocity and blink rate obtained from eye tracking data exhibit statistically significant changes during the challenge phase of the experiment (p < 0.05 in each case). From the correlation analysis between the statistically significant measures of eye tracking and EEG, we infer that saccade amplitude and saccade velocity decrease with vigilance decrement along with frontal midline theta and frontal theta to parietal alpha ratio. Conversely, blink rate and relative delta power increase with vigilance decrement. However, these measures exhibit a reverse trend when challenge stimulus appears in the task suggesting vigilance enhancement. Moreover, the mean

  12. Gait changes following myofascial structural integration (Rolfing) observed in 2 children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Alexis B; Price, Karen S; Loi, Elizabeth C; Buysse, Christina A; Jaramillo, Theresa M; Pico, Elaine L; Feldman, Heidi M

    2014-10-01

    Children with spastic cerebral palsy experience difficulty with ambulation. Structural changes in muscle and fascia may play a role in abnormal gait. Myofascial structural integration (Rolfing) is a manual therapy that manipulates muscle and soft tissues to loosen fascia layers, reposition muscles, and facilitate alignment. This study aimed to document (1) gait characteristics of 2 children with cerebral palsy and (2) effects of myofascial structural integration on their gait. Children received 3 months of weekly therapy sessions by an experienced practitioner. Gait parameters were recorded at baseline and after treatment using an electronic walkway. Children with cerebral palsy demonstrated abnormal velocity and cadence, decreased step length and single support times, and increased double support time. After treatment, both children demonstrated improvement for 3 months in cadence and double support time. The objective gait analyses demonstrated temporary improvements after myofascial structural integration in children with spastic cerebral palsy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Sleep disorders in children with cerebral palsy: An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Lélis, Ana Luíza P A; Cardoso, Maria Vera L M; Hall, Wendy A

    2016-12-01

    Sleep disorders are more prevalent in children with cerebral palsy. The review aimed to identify and synthesize information about the nature of sleep disorders and their related factors in children with cerebral palsy. We performed an electronic search by using the search terms sleep/child*, and sleep/cerebral palsy in the following databases: Latin American literature on health sciences, SCOPUS, medical publications, cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature, psycinfo, worldcat, web of science, and the Cochrane library. The selection criteria were studies: available in Portuguese, English or Spanish and published between 2004 and 2014, with results addressing sleep disorders in children (ages 0-18 y) with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy. 36,361 abstracts were identified. Of those, 37 papers were selected, and 25 excluded. Twelve papers were incorporated in the study sample: eight quantitative studies, three reviews, and one case study. Eleven types of sleep disorders were identified, such as difficult morning awakening, insomnia, nightmares, difficulties in initiating and maintaining nighttime sleep (night waking), and sleep anxiety. Twenty-one factors were linked to sleep disorders, which we classified as intrinsic factors associated with common comorbidities accompanying cerebral palsy, and extrinsic aspects, specifically environmental and socio-familial variables, and clinical-surgical and pharmacological interventions.

  14. Integrating eye tracking and motion sensor on mobile phone for interactive 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu-Wei; Chiang, Chen-Kuo; Lai, Shang-Hong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an eye tracking and gaze estimation system for mobile phone. We integrate an eye detector, cornereye center and iso-center to improve pupil detection. The optical flow information is used for eye tracking. We develop a robust eye tracking system that integrates eye detection and optical-flow based image tracking. In addition, we further incorporate the orientation sensor information from the mobile phone to improve the eye tracking for accurate gaze estimation. We demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed eye tracking and gaze estimation system through experiments on some public video sequences as well as videos acquired directly from mobile phone.

  15. Physical activity is related to the structural integrity of cerebral white matter.

    PubMed

    Gons, Rob A R; Tuladhar, Anil M; de Laat, Karlijn F; van Norden, Anouk G W; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Norris, David G; Zwiers, Marcel P; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2013-09-10

    To investigate the relation between physical exercise and the microstructural integrity of cerebral white matter. Four hundred forty individuals with cerebral small-vessel disease, aged between 50 and 85 years, without dementia, were included and underwent MRI scanning. Physical exercise was assessed with a structured questionnaire. The cross-sectional relation between physical exercise and the microstructural integrity of the white matter was assessed by applying Tract-Based Spatial Statistics to diffusion tensor imaging parameters. Being more physically active was negatively related to the mean, axial, and radial diffusivity in numerous regions of the white matter, indicative of higher white matter integrity. These data indicate an association between physical activity and the integrity of the cerebral white matter's microstructure. Prospective studies are required to investigate a possible causal association between physical activity and cognitive decline.

  16. Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Costello, Matthew C.; Bucur, Barbara; White, Leonard E.; Cabeza, Roberto; Davis, Simon W.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Provenzale, James M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white…

  17. Phototropic solar tracking in sunflower plants: an integrative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Briggs, Winslow R.

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the best-known plant movements, phototropic solar tracking in sunflower (Helianthus annuus), has not yet been fully characterized. Two questions are still a matter of debate. (1) Is the adaptive significance solely an optimization of photosynthesis via the exposure of the leaves to the sun? (2) Is shade avoidance involved in this process? In this study, these concepts are discussed from a historical perspective and novel insights are provided. Scope and Methods Results from the primary literature on heliotropic growth movements led to the conclusion that these responses cease before anthesis, so that the flowering heads point to the East. Based on observations on 10-week-old plants, the diurnal East–West oscillations of the upper fifth of the growing stem and leaves in relation to the position of the sun (inclusive of nocturnal re-orientation) were documented, and photon fluence rates on the leaf surfaces on clear, cloudy and rainy days were determined. In addition, the light–response curve of net CO2 assimilation was determined on the upper leaves of the same batch of plants, and evidence for the occurrence of shade-avoidance responses in growing sunflower plants is summarized. Conclusions. Only elongating, vegetative sunflower shoots and the upper leaves perform phototropic solar tracking. Photon fluence response and CO2 assimilation measurements cast doubt on the ‘photosynthesis-optimization hypothesis’ as the sole explanation for the evolution of these plant movements. We suggest that the shade-avoidance response, which maximizes light-driven CO2 assimilation, plays a major role in solar tracking populations of competing sunflower plants, and an integrative scheme of these growth movements is provided. PMID:26420201

  18. Phototropic solar tracking in sunflower plants: an integrative perspective.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Briggs, Winslow R

    2016-01-01

    One of the best-known plant movements, phototropic solar tracking in sunflower (Helianthus annuus), has not yet been fully characterized. Two questions are still a matter of debate. (1) Is the adaptive significance solely an optimization of photosynthesis via the exposure of the leaves to the sun? (2) Is shade avoidance involved in this process? In this study, these concepts are discussed from a historical perspective and novel insights are provided. Results from the primary literature on heliotropic growth movements led to the conclusion that these responses cease before anthesis, so that the flowering heads point to the East. Based on observations on 10-week-old plants, the diurnal East-West oscillations of the upper fifth of the growing stem and leaves in relation to the position of the sun (inclusive of nocturnal re-orientation) were documented, and photon fluence rates on the leaf surfaces on clear, cloudy and rainy days were determined. In addition, the light-response curve of net CO2 assimilation was determined on the upper leaves of the same batch of plants, and evidence for the occurrence of shade-avoidance responses in growing sunflower plants is summarized. Only elongating, vegetative sunflower shoots and the upper leaves perform phototropic solar tracking. Photon fluence response and CO2 assimilation measurements cast doubt on the 'photosynthesis-optimization hypothesis' as the sole explanation for the evolution of these plant movements. We suggest that the shade-avoidance response, which maximizes light-driven CO2 assimilation, plays a major role in solar tracking populations of competing sunflower plants, and an integrative scheme of these growth movements is provided. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Integrated laser/radar satellite ranging and tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.

    1974-01-01

    A laser satellite ranging system that is mounted upon and integrated with a microwave tracking radar is reported. The 1-pulse/sec ruby laser transmitter is attached directly to the radar's elevation axis and radiates through a new opening in the radar's parabolic dish. The laser photomultiplier tube receiver utilizes the radar's existing 20-cm diam f/11 boresight telescope and observes through a similar symmetrically located opening in the dish. The laser system possesses separate ranging system electronics but shares the radar's timing, computer, and data handling/recording systems. The basic concept of the laser/radar is outlined together with a listing of the numerous advantages over present singular laser range-finding systems. The developmental laser hardware is described along with preliminary range-finding results and expectations.

  20. Emotion and pain: a functional cerebral systems integration.

    PubMed

    Mollet, Gina A; Harrison, David W

    2006-09-01

    Emotion and pain are psychological constructs that have received extensive attention in neuropsychological research. However, neuropsychological models of emotional processing have made more progress in describing how brain regions interact to process emotion. Theories of emotional processing can describe inter-hemispheric and intra-hemispheric interactions during emotional processing. Due to similarities between emotion and pain, it is thought that emotional models can be applied to pain. The following review examines the neuropsychology of emotion and pain using a functional cerebral systems approach. Specific comparisons are made between pain and anger. Attention is given to differences in cerebral function and physiology that may contribute to the processing of emotion and pain. Suggestions for future research in emotion and pain are given.

  1. Integrated laser/radar satellite ranging and tracking system.

    PubMed

    Hoge, F E

    1974-10-01

    A laser satellite ranging system that is mounted upon and integrated with a microwave tracking radar is reported. The 1-pulse sec/ruby laser transmitter is attached directly to the radar's elevation axis and radiates through a new opening in the radar's parabolic dish. The laser photomultiplier tube receiver utilizes the radar's existing 20-cm diam f11 boresight telescope and observes through a similar symmetrically located opening in the dish. The laser system possesses separate ranging system electronics but shares the radar's timing, computer, and data handling[equation]recording systems. The basic concept of the laser[equation]radar is outlined together with a listing of the numerous advantages over present singular laser rangefinding systems. The developmental laser hardware is described along with preliminary rangefinding results and expectations. The prototype system was assembled to investigate the feasibility of such systems and aid in the development of detailed specifications for an operational system. Both the feasibility and desirability of such systems integrations have been adequately demonstrated.

  2. IMPACT: Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, J.; Brennan, S.; Godinez, H. C.; Higdon, D. M.; Klimenko, A.; Larsen, B.; Lawrence, E.; Linares, R.; McLaughlin, C. A.; Mehta, P. M.; Palmer, D.; Ridley, A. J.; Shoemaker, M.; Sutton, E.; Thompson, D.; Walker, A.; Wohlberg, B.

    2013-12-01

    Low-Earth orbiting satellites suffer from atmospheric drag due to thermospheric density which changes on the order of several magnitudes especially during space weather events. Solar flares, precipitating particles and ionospheric currents cause the upper atmosphere to heat up, redistribute, and cool again. These processes are intrinsically included in empirical models, e.g. MSIS and Jacchia-Bowman type models. However, sensitivity analysis has shown that atmospheric drag has the highest influence on satellite conjunction analysis and empirical model still do not adequately represent a desired accuracy. Space debris and collision avoidance have become an increasingly operational reality. It is paramount to accurately predict satellite orbits and include drag effect driven by space weather. The IMPACT project (Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking), funded with over $5 Million by the Los Alamos Laboratory Directed Research and Development office, has the goal to develop an integrated system of atmospheric drag modeling, orbit propagation, and conjunction analysis with detailed uncertainty quantification to address the space debris and collision avoidance problem. Now with over two years into the project, we have developed an integrated solution combining physics-based density modeling of the upper atmosphere between 120-700 km altitude, satellite drag forecasting for quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions, and conjunction analysis with non-Gaussian uncertainty quantification. We are employing several novel approaches including a unique observational sensor developed at Los Alamos; machine learning with a support-vector machine approach of the coupling between solar drivers of the upper atmosphere and satellite drag; rigorous data assimilative modeling using a physics-based approach instead of empirical modeling of the thermosphere; and a computed-tomography method for extracting temporal maps of thermospheric densities

  3. Integrated Eye Tracking and Neural Monitoring for Enhanced Assessment of Mild TBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    validate a combined EEG and eye tracking system aimed at assessing compromised cognitive function stemming from mild traumatic brain injury (mild TBI...which cognitive assessment is relevant. Validation of the integrated EEG and eye tracking system will include evaluation of these measures based on...measurements to provide an objective basis for cross-validating the EEG and eye tracking system. Both the EEG and eye tracking data will be collected in

  4. Switching modes in corticogenesis: mechanisms of neuronal subtype transitions and integration in the cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Toma, Kenichi; Hanashima, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Information processing in the cerebral cortex requires the activation of diverse neurons across layers and columns, which are established through the coordinated production of distinct neuronal subtypes and their placement along the three-dimensional axis. Over recent years, our knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of the specification and integration of neuronal subtypes in the cerebral cortex has progressed rapidly. In this review, we address how the unique cytoarchitecture of the neocortex is established from a limited number of progenitors featuring neuronal identity transitions during development. We further illuminate the molecular mechanisms of the subtype-specific integration of these neurons into the cerebral cortex along the radial and tangential axis, and we discuss these key features to exemplify how neocortical circuit formation accomplishes economical connectivity while maintaining plasticity and evolvability to adapt to environmental changes. PMID:26321900

  5. Effect of propofol post-treatment on blood-brain barrier integrity and cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Cui, Hui Song; Shin, Seo Kyung; Kim, Jeong Min; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Jong Eun; Koo, Bon-Nyeo

    2013-11-01

    Although propofol has been reported to offer neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia injury, its impact on cerebral edema following ischemia is not clear. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the effects of propofol post-treatment on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia and its mechanism of action, focusing on modulation of aquaporins (AQPs), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Cerebral ischemia was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 78) by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 1 h. For post-treatment with propofol, 1 mg kg(-1) min(-1) of propofol was administered for 1 h from the start of reperfusion. Nineteen rats undergoing sham surgery were also included in the investigation. Edema and BBB integrity were assessed by quantification of cerebral water content and extravasation of Evans blue, respectively, following 24 h of reperfusion. In addition, the expression of AQP-1, AQP-4, MMP-2, and MMP-9 was determined 24 h after reperfusion and the expression of HIF-1α was determined 8 h after reperfusion. Propofol post-treatment significantly reduced cerebral edema (P < 0.05) and BBB disruption (P < 0.05) compared with the saline-treated control. The expression of AQP-1, AQP-4, MMP-2, and MMP-9 at 24 h and of HIF-1α at 8 h following ischemia/reperfusion was significantly suppressed in the propofol post-treatment group (P < 0.05). Propofol post-treatment attenuated cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia, in association with reduced expression of AQP-1, AQP-4, MMP-2, and MMP-9. The decreased expression of AQPs and MMPs after propofol post-treatment might result from suppression of HIF-1α expression.

  6. Integrating optical finger motion tracking with surface touch events.

    PubMed

    MacRitchie, Jennifer; McPherson, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of integrating two contrasting sensor systems for studying human interaction with a mechanical system, using piano performance as the case study. Piano technique requires both precise small-scale motion of fingers on the key surfaces and planned large-scale movement of the hands and arms. Where studies of performance often focus on one of these scales in isolation, this paper investigates the relationship between them. Two sensor systems were installed on an acoustic grand piano: a monocular high-speed camera tracking the position of painted markers on the hands, and capacitive touch sensors attach to the key surfaces which measure the location of finger-key contacts. This paper highlights a method of fusing the data from these systems, including temporal and spatial alignment, segmentation into notes and automatic fingering annotation. Three case studies demonstrate the utility of the multi-sensor data: analysis of finger flexion or extension based on touch and camera marker location, timing analysis of finger-key contact preceding and following key presses, and characterization of individual finger movements in the transitions between successive key presses. Piano performance is the focus of this paper, but the sensor method could equally apply to other fine motor control scenarios, with applications to human-computer interaction.

  7. Integrating optical finger motion tracking with surface touch events

    PubMed Central

    MacRitchie, Jennifer; McPherson, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of integrating two contrasting sensor systems for studying human interaction with a mechanical system, using piano performance as the case study. Piano technique requires both precise small-scale motion of fingers on the key surfaces and planned large-scale movement of the hands and arms. Where studies of performance often focus on one of these scales in isolation, this paper investigates the relationship between them. Two sensor systems were installed on an acoustic grand piano: a monocular high-speed camera tracking the position of painted markers on the hands, and capacitive touch sensors attach to the key surfaces which measure the location of finger-key contacts. This paper highlights a method of fusing the data from these systems, including temporal and spatial alignment, segmentation into notes and automatic fingering annotation. Three case studies demonstrate the utility of the multi-sensor data: analysis of finger flexion or extension based on touch and camera marker location, timing analysis of finger-key contact preceding and following key presses, and characterization of individual finger movements in the transitions between successive key presses. Piano performance is the focus of this paper, but the sensor method could equally apply to other fine motor control scenarios, with applications to human-computer interaction. PMID:26082732

  8. CPV for the rooftop market: novel approaches to tracking integration in photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Stefancich, Marco; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-03-01

    Concentrated photovoltaics (CPV) has long been recognized as an effective approach to enabling the use of high cost, high-efficiency solar cells for enhanced solar energy conversion, but is excluded from the domestic rooftop market due to the requirement that solar concentrators track the sun. This market may be opened up by integrating of the tracking mechanism into the module itself. Tracking integration may take the form of a miniaturization of a conventional tracking apparatus, or optical tracking, in which tracking is achieved through variation of optical properties such as refractive index or transparency rather than mechanical movement of the receiver. We have demonstrated a simple system using a heat-responsive transparency switching material to create a moving aperture that tracks the position of a moving light spot. We use this behavior to create a concentrating light trap with a moving aperture that reactively tracks the sun. Taking the other approach, we have fabricated 3D-printed parabolic mini-concentrators which can track the sun using small motors in a low-profile geometry. We characterize the performance of the concentrators and consider the impact of tracking integration on the broader PV market.

  9. Rosiglitazone Promotes White Matter Integrity and Long-Term Functional Recovery After Focal Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijuan; Cai, Wei; Mao, Leilei; Liu, Jia; Li, Peiying; Leak, Rehana K; Xu, Yun; Hu, Xiaoming; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Oligodendrogenesis is essential for white matter repair after stroke. Although agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ confer neuroprotection in models of cerebral ischemia, it is not known whether this effect extends to white matter protection. This study tested the hypothesis that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ agonist rosiglitazone enhances oligodendrogenesis and improves long-term white matter integrity after ischemia/reperfusion. Male adult C57/BL6 mice (25-30 g) were subjected to 60-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. Rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally once daily for 14 days beginning 2 hours after reperfusion. Sensorimotor and cognitive functions were evaluated ≤21 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Immunostaining was used to assess infarct volume, myelin loss, and microglial activation. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected for measurements of proliferating NG2(+) oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and newly generated adenomatous polyposis coli(+) oligodendrocytes. Mixed glial cultures were used to confirm the effect of rosiglitazone on oligodendrocyte differentiation and microglial polarization. Rosiglitazone significantly reduced brain tissue loss, ameliorated white matter injury, and improved sensorimotor and cognitive functions for at least 21 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Rosiglitazone enhanced OPC proliferation and increased the numbers of newly generated mature oligodendrocytes after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Rosiglitazone treatment also reduced the numbers of Iba1(+)/CD16(+) M1 microglia and increased the numbers of Iba1(+)/CD206(+) M2 microglia after stroke. Glial culture experiments confirmed that rosiglitazone promoted oligodendrocyte differentiation, perhaps by promoting microglial M2 polarization. Rosiglitazone treatment improves long-term white matter integrity after cerebral ischemia, at least, in part, by promoting

  10. Tracking time-varying cerebral autoregulation in response to changes in respiratory PaCO2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Simpson, M David; Yan, Jingyu; Allen, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Cerebral autoregulation has been studied by linear filter systems, with arterial blood pressure (ABP) as the input and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV-from transcranial Doppler Ultrasound) as the output. The current work extends this by using adaptive filters to investigate the dynamics of time-varying cerebral autoregulation during step-wise changes in arterial PaCO(2). Cerebral autoregulation was transiently impaired in 11 normal adult volunteers, by switching inspiratory air to a CO(2)/air mixture (5% CO(2), 30% O(2) and 65% N(2)) for approximately 2 min and then back to the ambient air, causing step-wise changes in end-tidal CO(2) (EtCO(2)). Simultaneously, ABP and CBFV were recorded continuously. Simulated data corresponding to the same protocol were also generated using an established physiological model, in order to refine the signal analysis methods. Autoregulation was quantified by the time-varying phase lead, estimated from the adaptive filter model. The adaptive filter was able to follow rapid changes in autoregulation, as was confirmed in the simulated data. In the recorded signals, there was a slow decrease in autoregulatory function following the step-wise increase in PaCO(2) (but this did not reach a steady state within approximately 2 min of recording), with a more rapid change in autoregulation on return to normocapnia. Adaptive filter modelling was thus able to demonstrate time-varying autoregulation. It was further noted that impairment and recovery of autoregulation during transient increases in EtCO(2) occur in an asymmetric manner, which should be taken into account when designing experimental protocols for the study of autoregulation.

  11. A Promising Approach to Integrally Evaluate the Disease Outcome of Cerebral Ischemic Rats Based on Multiple-Biomarker Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yixuan; Wei, Chunxiang; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Haidong; He, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The study was designed to evaluate the disease outcome based on multiple biomarkers related to cerebral ischemia. Methods Rats were randomly divided into sham, permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, and edaravone-treated groups. Cerebral ischemia was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery in rats. To form a simplified crosstalk network, the related multiple biomarkers were chosen as S100β, HIF-1α, IL-1β, PGI2, TXA2, and GSH-Px. The levels or activities of these biomarkers in plasma were detected before and after ischemia. Concurrently, neurological deficit scores and cerebral infarct volumes were assessed. Based on a mathematic model, network balance maps and three integral disruption parameters (k, φ, and u) of the simplified crosstalk network were achieved. Results The levels or activities of the related biomarkers and neurological deficit scores were significantly impacted by cerebral ischemia. The balance maps intuitively displayed the network disruption, and the integral disruption parameters quantitatively depicted the disruption state of the simplified network after cerebral ischemia. The integral disruption parameter u values correlated significantly with neurological deficit scores and infarct volumes. Conclusion Our results indicate that the approach based on crosstalk network may provide a new promising way to integrally evaluate the outcome of cerebral ischemia. PMID:28630527

  12. 3D-printed concentrators for tracking-integrated CPV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Leland, Julian; Chiesa, Matteo; Stefancich, Marco

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate 3D-printed nonimaging concentrators and propose a tracking integration scheme to reduce the external tracking requirements of CPV modules. In the proposed system, internal sun tracking is achieved by rotation of the mini-concentrators inside the module by small motors. We discuss the design principles employed in the development of the system, experimentally evaluate the performance of the concentrator prototypes, and propose practical modifications that may be made to improve on-site performance of the devices.

  13. Sensor Ontology Integration for the Knowledge Management for Distributed-Tracking (KMDT) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    sors, STANAG 4420, symbols, tracking 1. Introduction Knowledge Management for Distributed-Tracking (KMDT) is a U.S. Navy program to explore methods ...Communication Engineers Transactions on Communications, E84-B(10), pp. 2781-2785, Oct., 2001. 2. M.N. Kamel and M.G. Ceruti, “ Knowledge Discovery in...Sensor Ontology Integration for the Knowledge Management for Distributed-Tracking (KMDT) Program Marion G. Ceruti, Code 246206 and

  14. An Integral Model for Target Tracking Based on the Use of a WSN

    PubMed Central

    Calafate, Carlos T.; Lino, Carlos; Diaz-Ramirez, Arnoldo; Cano, Juan-Carlos; Manzoni, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) in tracking applications is growing at a fast pace. In these applications, the sensor nodes discover, monitor and track an event or target object. A significant number of proposals relating the use of WSNs for target tracking have been published to date. However, they either focus on the tracking algorithm or on the communication protocol, and none of them address the problem integrally. In this paper, a comprehensive proposal for target detection and tracking is discussed. We introduce a tracking algorithm to detect and estimate a target location. Moreover, we introduce a low-overhead routing protocol to be used along with our tracking algorithm. The proposed algorithm has low computational complexity and has been designed considering the use of a mobile sink while generating minimal delay and packet loss. We also discuss the results of the evaluation of the proposed algorithms. PMID:23736849

  15. An integral model for target tracking based on the use of a WSN.

    PubMed

    Calafate, Carlos T; Lino, Carlos; Diaz-Ramirez, Arnoldo; Cano, Juan-Carlos; Manzoni, Pietro

    2013-06-03

    The use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) in tracking applications is growing at a fast pace. In these applications, the sensor nodes discover, monitor and track an event or target object. A significant number of proposals relating the use of WSNs for target tracking have been published to date. However, they either focus on the tracking algorithm or on the communication protocol, and none of them address the problem integrally. In this paper, a comprehensive proposal for target detection and tracking is discussed. We introduce a tracking algorithm to detect and estimate a target location. Moreover, we introduce a low-overhead routing protocol to be used along with our tracking algorithm. The proposed algorithm has low computational complexity and has been designed considering the use of a mobile sink while generating minimal delay and packet loss. We also discuss the results of the evaluation of the proposed algorithms.

  16. Cerebral white matter integrity during primary HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Wright, Patrick W; Vaida, Florin F; Fernández, Ricardo J; Rutlin, Jerrel; Price, Richard W; Lee, Evelyn; Peterson, Julia; Fuchs, Dietmar; Shimony, Joshua S; Robertson, Kevin R; Walter, Rudolph; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Spudich, Serena; Ances, Beau M

    2015-02-20

    Inflammation and infection within the central nervous system is initiated during primary HIV infection (PHI), but the association of these processes with the integrity of brain white matter during PHI is unknown. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in this prospective cross-sectional neuroimaging study to determine the extent of white matter involvement in early HIV infection. Antiretroviral-naive PHI (defined as <1 year after infection, n = 62), chronic HIV infection (CHI, n = 16), and HIV-uninfected (n = 19) participants had DTI, laboratory, and neuropsychometric performance assessments. DTI metrics were examined using region of interest and whole brain voxelwise analyses. Linear mixed-effects models assessed correlations between DTI measures and laboratory and neuropsychometric performance values. PHI participants were assessed at a median 4.1 months after estimated infection, and had median CD4 cell count of 573 cells/μl, and HIV-1 RNA viral load of 4.5 log10 copies/ml in plasma and 2.6 log10 copies/ml in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). DTI metrics in PHI individuals were similar to HIV- participants and correlated with disruptions in the blood-brain barrier (indicated by CSF/plasma albumin ratio and CSF protein). CHI participants had significant loss of white matter integrity that correlated with biomarkers of infection and inflammation (blood viral load, CD4 T-cell count, and neopterin, and CSF white blood cell). Within the PHI group, DTI metrics inversely correlated with increasing days since infection. In individuals assessed during PHI, group DTI measures suggested relative preservation of white matter microstructural integrity, but were associated with disruption of the blood-brain barrier and estimated duration of infection.

  17. Cerebral white matter integrity during primary HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Patrick W.; Vaida, Florin F.; Fernández, Ricardo J.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Price, Richard W.; Lee, Evelyn; Peterson, Julia; Fuchs, Dietmar; Shimony, Joshua S.; Robertson, Kevin R.; Walter, Rudolph; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Spudich, Serena; Ances, Beau M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Inflammation and infection within the central nervous system is initiated during primary HIV infection (PHI), but the association of these processes with the integrity of brain white matter during PHI is unknown. Design We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in this prospective cross-sectional neuroimaging study to determine the extent of white matter involvement in early HIV infection. Methods Antiretroviral-naive PHI (defined as <1 year after infection, n = 62), chronic HIV infection (CHI, n = 16), and HIV-uninfected (n = 19) participants had DTI, laboratory, and neuropsychometric performance assessments. DTI metrics were examined using region of interest and whole brain voxelwise analyses. Linear mixed-effects models assessed correlations between DTI measures and laboratory and neuropsychometric performance values. Results PHI participants were assessed at a median 4.1 months after estimated infection, and had median CD4+ cell count of 573 cells/µl, and HIV-1 RNA viral load of 4.5 log10 copies/ml in plasma and 2.6 log10 copies/ml in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). DTI metrics in PHI individuals were similar to HIV— participants and correlated with disruptions in the blood-brain barrier (indicated by CSF/plasma albumin ratio and CSF protein). CHI participants had significant loss of white matter integrity that correlated with biomarkers of infection and inflammation (blood viral load, CD4+ T-cell count, and neopterin, and CSF white blood cell). Within the PHI group, DTI metrics inversely correlated with increasing days since infection. Conclusion In individuals assessed during PHI, group DTI measures suggested relative preservation of white matter microstructural integrity, but were associated with disruption of the blood-brain barrier and estimated duration of infection. PMID:25513818

  18. Optical performance analysis of a novel tracking-integrated concentrator through ray tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voarino, Philippe; Domínguez, César; Bijl, Roy; Penning, Peter

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an optical performance analysis of a novel concentrator with integrated tracking developed by Suncycle. This system uses 2 optical stages that rotate independently to track the sun with a geometrical concentration factor of 870X. A Fresnel prism and a concentrator mirror associated to a refractive secondary optics enable to define a 25% efficiency target. This analysis is carried out using ray tracing Monte-Carlo simulations, providing irradiance and angular distribution maps as well as optical efficiency estimations for each optical stage. This study allows evaluating and defining specifications for each of the optical components of this novel tracking-integrated concentrator.

  19. Cerebral White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Aging: Contributions from Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Madden, David J.; Bennett, Ilana J.; Song, Allen W.

    2009-01-01

    The integrity of cerebral white matter is critical for efficient cognitive functioning, but little is known regarding the role of white matter integrity in age-related differences in cognition. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures the directional displacement of molecular water and as a result can characterize the properties of white matter that combine to restrict diffusivity in a spatially coherent manner. This review considers DTI studies of aging and their implications for understanding adult age differences in cognitive performance. Decline in white matter integrity contributes to a disconnection among distributed neural systems, with a consistent effect on perceptual speed and executive functioning. The relation between white matter integrity and cognition varies across brain regions, with some evidence suggesting that age-related effects exhibit an anterior-posterior gradient. With continued improvements in spatial resolution and integration with functional brain imaging, DTI holds considerable promise, both for theories of cognitive aging and for translational application. PMID:19705281

  20. Integrated cerebral perfusion for hypothermic circulatory arrest during transverse aortic arch repairs.

    PubMed

    Estrera, Anthony L; Miller, Charles C; Lee, Taek-Yeon; Shah, Pallav; Irani, Adel D; Ganim, Nidal; Abdullah, Saad; Safi, Hazim J

    2010-09-01

    Antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) during hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) for ascending/transverse arch repair is used for cerebral protection. This study evaluates ACP in combination with retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) during extended HCA and compares it to RCP-only. Between January 2005 and April 2007, we performed 64 consecutive arch repairs requiring extended HCA (>40 min). RCP-only was used with 34 patients and ACP with brief RCP ('integrated') was used with 30 patients. Mean HCA time was 51 + or - 13 min. Mean RCP-only time was 47 + or - 9.6 min; in the integrated group, mean ACP time was 42 + or - 14.4 min with an added RCP time of 10.8 + or - 7.6 min. For the entire cohort, 95% (61/64) underwent total arch repair, and 67% (43/64) had elephant trunk reconstruction. Variables predictive of mortality and neurological outcomes were analysed prospectively, but technique selection was non-randomised. Preoperative and operative variables did not differ between the RCP-only and the integrated groups except for aortic valve replacement, which was more frequently performed in the integrated group (33% (10/30) vs 12% (4/34), P=0.05), and preoperative renal dysfunction, which was more frequent in the RCP group (26% (9/34) vs 7% (2/30), P=0.04). No significant difference was observed in outcomes between the groups; however, the integrated group had higher mortality, stroke and temporary neurological deficit than RCP-only. The observed trends in actual outcomes were a cause for concern. ACP combined with a short period of RCP did not provide better outcomes than RCP-only. The use of RCP remains warranted in our experience. Copyright 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrating mind and brain: Warren S. McCulloch, cerebral localization, and experimental epistemology.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Tara H

    2003-03-01

    Recently, historians have focused on Warren S. McCulloch's role in the cybernetics movement during the 1940s and 1950s, and his contributions to the development of computer science and communication theory. What has received less attention is McCulloch's early work in neurophysiology, and its relationship to his philosophical quest for an 'experimental epistemology' - a physiological theory of knowledge. McCulloch's early laboratory work during the 1930s addressed the problem of cerebral localization: localizing aspects of behaviour in the cerebral cortex of the brain. Most of this research was done with the Dutch neurophysiologist J.G. Dusser de Barenne at Yale University. The connection between McCulloch's philosophical interests and his experimental work can be expressed as a search for a physiological a priori, an integrated mechanism of sensation.

  2. It is time to integrate: the temporal dynamics of object motion and texture motion integration in multiple object tracking.

    PubMed

    Huff, Markus; Papenmeier, Frank

    2013-01-14

    In multiple-object tracking, participants can track several moving objects among identical distractors. It has recently been shown that the human visual system uses motion information in order to keep track of targets (St. Clair et al., Journal of Vision, 10(4), 1-13). Texture on the surface of an object that moved in the opposite direction to the object itself impaired tracking performance. In this study, we examined the temporal interval at which texture motion and object motion is integrated in dynamic scenes. In two multiple-object tracking experiments, we manipulated the texture motion on the objects: The texture either moved in the same direction as the objects, in the opposite direction, or alternated between the same and opposite direction at varying intervals. In Experiment 1, we show that the integration of object motion and texture motion can take place at intervals as short as 100 ms. In Experiment 2, we show that there is a linear relationship between the proportion of opposite texture motion and tracking performance. We suggest that texture motion might cause shifts in perceived object locations, thus influencing tracking performance.

  3. On tracking the course of cerebral oxygen saturation and pilot performance during gravity-induced loss of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Lloyd D; Warm, Joel S; Matthews, Gerald; Chiu, Peter Y; Bracken, R Bruce

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to track the course of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) and pilot performance during an episode of gravity-induced loss of consciousness (GLOC). GLOC, a major problem facing pilots of high-performance aircraft, is brought about by a sudden reduction in rSO2 as a result of increased +Gz force. It consists of 24 s of complete functional impairment followed by a prolonged period of performance recovery. This study tested the hypothesis that delayed recovery in GLOC is caused by a slow return of rSO2 following removal of the g-force that induced the episode. GLOC was induced in U.S. Air Force personnel via a centrifuge with math and tracking tasks emulating flight performance. A near-infrared spectroscopy unit provided the rSO2 measure. Declines in rSO2 from baseline pinpointed when pilots would cease active flight control and when GLOC would set in. Counter to expectation, rSO2 returned to baseline levels shortly after the centrifuge came to a complete stop following GLOC onset. Nevertheless, performance deficits continued for 49.45 s thereafter. The prolonged performance recovery time in GLOC cannot be attributed to delays in the return of rSO2. This finding explains why previous ergonomic efforts to shorten the duration of GLOC episodes by increasing the rate of return of rSO2 have not been fruitful. Evidently, another approach is needed. Such an approach might use the close linkage between loss of rSO2, performance deterioration, and GLOC onset to develop a warning system that would permit pilots to take effective action to avoid GLOC incapacitation.

  4. Differenced Range Versus Integrated Doppler (DRVID) ionospheric analysis of metric tracking in the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radomski, M. S.; Doll, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    The Differenced Range (DR) Versus Integrated Doppler (ID) (DRVID) method exploits the opposition of high-frequency signal versus phase retardation by plasma media to obtain information about the plasma's corruption of simultaneous range and Doppler spacecraft tracking measurements. Thus, DR Plus ID (DRPID) is an observable independent of plasma refraction, while actual DRVID (DR minus ID) measures the time variation of the path electron content independently of spacecraft motion. The DRVID principle has been known since 1961. It has been used to observe interplanetary plasmas, is implemented in Deep Space Network tracking hardware, and has recently been applied to single-frequency Global Positioning System user navigation This paper discusses exploration at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of DRVID synthesized from simultaneous two-way range and Doppler tracking for low Earth-orbiting missions supported by the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) The paper presents comparisons of actual DR and ID residuals and relates those comparisons to predictions of the Bent model. The complications due to the pilot tone influence on relayed Doppler measurements are considered. Further use of DRVID to evaluate ionospheric models is discussed, as is use of DRPID in reducing dependence on ionospheric modeling in orbit determination.

  5. Motor practice effects and sensorimotor integration in adults who stutter: Evidence from visuomotor tracking performance.

    PubMed

    Tumanova, Victoria; Zebrowski, Patricia M; Goodman, Shawn S; Arenas, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize a visuomotor tracking task, with both the jaw and hand, to add to the literature regarding non-speech motor practice and sensorimotor integration (outside of auditory-motor integration domain) in adults who do (PWS) and do not (PWNS) stutter. Participants were 15 PWS (14 males, mean age = 27.0) and 15 PWNS (14 males, mean age = 27.2). Participants tracked both predictable and unpredictable moving targets separately with their jaw and their dominant hand, and accuracy was assessed by calculating phase and amplitude difference between the participant and the target. Motor practice effect was examined by comparing group performance over consecutive tracking trials of predictable conditions as well as within the first trial of same conditions. Results showed that compared to PWNS, PWS were not significantly different in matching either the phase (timing) or the amplitude of the target in both jaw and hand tracking of predictable and unpredictable targets. Further, there were no significant between-group differences in motor practice effects for either jaw or hand tracking. Both groups showed improved tracking accuracy within and between the trials. Our findings revealed no statistically significant differences in non-speech motor practice effects and integration of sensorimotor feedback between PWS and PWNS, at least in the context of the visuomotor tracking tasks employed in the study. In general, both talker groups exhibited practice effects (i.e., increased accuracy over time) within and between tracking trials during both jaw and hand tracking. Implications for these results are discussed. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the importance of motor learning and sensory-motor integration for speech, (b) summarize past research on PWS's performance during speech and nonspeech motor tasks, and (c) describe the relation between different aspects of speech and non-speech motor control and stuttering. Copyright © 2015

  6. Motor Practice Effects and Sensorimotor Integration in Adults who Stutter: Evidence from Visuomotor Tracking Performance

    PubMed Central

    Tumanova, Victoria; Zebrowski, Patricia M.; Goodman, Shawn S.; Arenas, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to utilize a visuomotor tracking task, with both the jaw and hand, to add to the literature regarding non-speech motor practice and sensorimotor integration (outside of auditory-motor integration domain) in adults who do (PWS) and do not (PWNS) stutter. Method Participants were 15 PWS (14 males, mean age = 27.0) and 15 PWNS (14 males, mean age = 27.2). Participants tracked both predictable and unpredictable moving targets separately with their jaw and their dominant hand, and accuracy was assessed by calculating phase and amplitude difference between the participant and the target. Motor practice effect was examined by comparing group performance over consecutive tracking trials of predictable conditions as well as within the first trial of same conditions. Results Results showed that compared to PWNS, PWS were not significantly different in matching either the phase (timing) or the amplitude of the target in both jaw and hand tracking of predictable and unpredictable targets. Further, there were no significant between-group differences in motor practice effects for either jaw or hand tracking. Both groups showed improved tracking accuracy within and between the trials. Conclusion Our findings revealed no statistically significant differences in non-speech motor practice effects and integration of sensorimotor feedback between PWS and PWNS, at least in the context of the visuomotor tracking tasks employed in the study. In general, both talker groups exhibited practice effects (i.e., increased accuracy over time) within and between tracking trials during both jaw and hand tracking. Implications for these results are discussed. PMID:25990027

  7. Integrated Eye Tracking and Neural Monitoring for Enhanced Assessment of Mild TBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    9 Supporting Data……………………………………………………………....……...…..10 4 Introduction The objective of this project is to validate a combined EEG and eye...assessment tool that can be used in a broad range of contexts in which cognitive assessment is relevant. Validation of the integrated EEG and eye tracking...fMRI and DTI will provide an objective basis for cross-validating the EEG and eye tracking system. Both the EEG and eye tracking data will be

  8. Feasibility study of an integrated optic switching center. [satellite tracking application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design of a high data rate switching center for a satellite tracking station is discussed. The feasibility of a switching network using an integrated switching matrix is assessed. The preferred integrated optical switching scheme was found to be an electro-optic Bragg diffraction switch. To ascertain the advantages of the integrated optics switching center, its properties are compared to those of opto-electronic and to electronics switching networks.

  9. Multimodality image guidance system integrating X-ray fluoroscopy and ultrasound image streams with electromagnetic tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Luis F.; Shechter, Guy; Stanton, Douglas; Dalal, Sandeep; Elgort, Daniel; Manzke, Robert; Chan, Raymond C.; Zagorchev, Lyubomir

    2007-03-01

    This work presents an integrated system for multimodality image guidance of minimally invasive medical procedures. This software and hardware system offers real-time integration and registration of multiple image streams with localization data from navigation systems. All system components communicate over a local area Ethernet network, enabling rapid and flexible deployment configurations. As a representative configuration, we use X-ray fluoroscopy (XF) and ultrasound (US) imaging. The XF imaging system serves as the world coordinate system, with gantry geometry derived from the imaging system, and patient table position tracked with a custom-built measurement device using linear encoders. An electromagnetic (EM) tracking system is registered to the XF space using a custom imaging phantom that is also tracked by the EM system. The RMS fiducial registration error for the EM to X-ray registration was 2.19 mm, and the RMS target registration error measured with an EM-tracked catheter was 8.81 mm. The US image stream is subsequently registered to the XF coordinate system using EM tracking of the probe, following a calibration of the US image within the EM coordinate system. We present qualitative results of the system in operation, demonstrating the integration of live ultrasound imaging spatially registered to X-ray fluoroscopy with catheter localization using electromagnetic tracking.

  10. Disconnected Aging: Cerebral White Matter Integrity and Age-Related Differences in Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Ilana J.; Madden, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Cognition arises as a result of coordinated processing among distributed brain regions and disruptions to communication within these neural networks can result in cognitive dysfunction. Cortical disconnection may thus contribute to the declines in some aspects of cognitive functioning observed in healthy aging. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is ideally suited for the study of cortical disconnection as it provides indices of structural integrity within interconnected neural networks. The current review summarizes results of previous DTI aging research with the aim of identifying consistent patterns of age-related differences in white matter integrity, and of relationships between measures of white matter integrity and behavioral performance as a function of adult age. We outline a number of future directions that will broaden our current understanding of these brain-behavior relationships in aging. Specifically, future research should aim to (1) investigate multiple models of age-brain-behavior relationships; (2) determine the tract-specificity versus global effect of aging on white matter integrity; (3) assess the relative contribution of normal variation in white matter integrity versus white matter lesions to age-related differences in cognition; (4) improve the definition of specific aspects of cognitive functioning related to age-related differences in white matter integrity using information processing tasks; and (5) combine multiple imaging modalities (e.g., resting-state and task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging; fMRI) with DTI to clarify the role of cerebral white matter integrity in cognitive aging. PMID:24280637

  11. Dissemination and tracking of Salmonella spp. in integrated broiler operation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aeran; Kang, Min Su; Kwag, Sang Ick; Cho, Jae Keun

    2007-01-01

    Controlling Salmonella in integrated broiler operation is complicated because there are numerous potential sources of Salmonella contamination, including chicks, feed, rodents, wild poultry operations, and the processing plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of Salmonella through all phases of two integrated broiler operations and to determine the key areas related to the control of all known sources of infection. Two different Salmonella serotypes were observed at integrated broiler chicken company A. S. enteritidis, the predominant company A isolate, was consistently found in the breeder farm, hatcheries, broiler farms, and chicken slaughterhouse. At company B, a total of six different serotypes, S. heidelberg, S. senftenberg, S. enteritidis, S. blockley, S. gallinarum, and S. virchow, were detected. Although S. heidelberg was not found in the broiler farms, it was consistently found in the breeder farm, hatcheries, and chicken slaughterhouse. In addition, S. enteritidis was found in the hatcheries, broiler farm, and chicken slaughterhouse. In order to obtain the genetic clonality, 22 S. enteritidis isolates were digested with XbaI and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrohporesis (PFGE). A difference in the PFGE pattern was found to be related to the origin of the integrated broiler operation. These data support the critical need to control Salmonella in breeder farms and hatcheries, and demonstrate important points related to the control of infection in large-scale poultry operations of Korea. PMID:17519569

  12. Proposal of the patient location tracking and query (PLQ) of IHE integration profile for the better patient tracking.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yutaka; Mukai, Masami; Otake, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Seki, Masayoshi; Oka, Masatoshi; Kota, Torikai; Abe, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Location Tracking Query (PLQ) is the IHE integration profile in order to find the location of patient only in a hospital, not for cross-referencing between multiple hospitals. In Japan, it is common for elderly patients to consult multiple departments in one hospital visit. To find the location of patients quickly is very important for productivity and use of resources in a hospital. We analyzed the workflow of patients and defined three actors and two transactions for PLQ integration profile. In order to collect the location of patients, multiple systems must provide the location into central management system. We proposed PLQ for the better patient care in hospitals. We believe that by using this PLQ profile hospital staffs are able to utilize the resource more efficiently.

  13. Statistical integration of tracking and vessel survey data to incorporate life history differences in habitat models.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Hazen, Elliott L; Nishizawa, Bungo; Sasaki, Hiroko; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    Habitat use is often examined at a species or population level, but patterns likely differ within a species, as a function of the sex, breeding colony, and current breeding status of individuals. Hence, within-species differences should be considered in habitat models when analyzing and predicting species distributions, such as predicted responses to expected climate change scenarios. Also, species' distribution data obtained by different methods (vessel-survey and individual tracking) are often analyzed separately rather than integrated to improve predictions. Here, we eventually fit generalized additive models for Streaked Shearwaters Calonectris leuconelas using tracking data from two different breeding colonies in the Northwestern Pacific and visual observer data collected during a research cruise off the coast of western Japan. The tracking-based models showed differences among patterns of relative density distribution as a function of life history category (colony, sex, and breeding conditions). The integrated tracking-based and vessel-based bird count model incorporated ecological states rather than predicting a single surface for the entire species. This study highlights both the importance of including ecological and life history data and integrating multiple data types (tag-based tracking and vessel count) when examining species-environment relationships, ultimately advancing the capabilities of species distribution models.

  14. Integration of Off-Track Sonic Boom Analysis in Conceptual Design of Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    A highly desired capability for the conceptual design of aircraft is the ability to rapidly and accurately evaluate new concepts to avoid adverse trade decisions that may hinder the development process in the later stages of design. Evaluating the robustness of new low-boom concepts is important for the conceptual design of supersonic aircraft. Here, robustness means that the aircraft configuration has a low-boom ground signature at both under- and off-track locations. An integrated process for off-track boom analysis is developed to facilitate the design of robust low-boom supersonic aircraft. The integrated off-track analysis can also be used to study the sonic boom impact and to plan future flight trajectories where flight conditions and ground elevation might have a significant effect on ground signatures. The key enabler for off-track sonic boom analysis is accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions for off-body pressure distributions. To ensure the numerical accuracy of the off-body pressure distributions, a mesh study is performed with Cart3D to determine the mesh requirements for off- body CFD analysis and comparisons are made between the Cart3D and USM3D results. The variations in ground signatures that result from changes in the initial location of the near-field waveform are also examined. Finally, a complete under- and off-track sonic boom analysis is presented for two distinct supersonic concepts to demonstrate the capability of the integrated analysis process.

  15. Characterization of multiple-bit errors from single-ion tracks in integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Edmonds, L. D.; Smith, L. S.

    1989-01-01

    The spread of charge induced by an ion track in an integrated circuit and its subsequent collection at sensitive nodal junctions can cause multiple-bit errors. The authors have experimentally and analytically investigated this phenomenon using a 256-kb dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). The effects of different charge-transport mechanisms are illustrated, and two classes of ion-track multiple-bit error clusters are identified. It is demonstrated that ion tracks that hit a junction can affect the lateral spread of charge, depending on the nature of the pull-up load on the junction being hit. Ion tracks that do not hit a junction allow the nearly uninhibited lateral spread of charge.

  16. Electrochemical Motion Tracking of Microorganisms Using a Large-Scale-Integration-Based Amperometric Device.

    PubMed

    Ino, Kosuke; Kanno, Yusuke; Inoue, Kumi Y; Suda, Atsushi; Kunikata, Ryota; Matsudaira, Masahki; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2017-06-06

    Motion tracking of microorganisms is useful to investigate the effects of chemical or physical stimulation on their biological functions. Herein, we describe a novel electrochemical imaging method for motion tracking of microorganisms using a large-scale integration (LSI)-based amperometric device. The device consists of 400 electrochemical sensors with a pitch of 250 μm. A convection flow caused by the motion of microorganisms supplies redox species to the sensors and increases their electrochemical responses. Thus, the flow is converted to electrochemical signals, enabling the electrochemical motion tracking of the microorganisms. As a proof of concept, capillary vibration was monitored. Finally, the method was applied to monitoring the motion of Daphnia magna. The motions of these microorganisms were clearly tracked based on the electrochemical oxidation of [Fe(CN)6 ](4-) and reduction of O2 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Proportional plus integral MIMO controller for regulation and tracking with anti-wind-up features

    SciTech Connect

    Puleston, P.F.; Mantz, R.J. . Facultad de Ingenieria)

    1993-11-01

    A proportional plus integral matrix control structure for MIMO systems is proposed. Based on a standard optimal control structure with integral action, it permits a greater degree of independence of the design and tuning of the regulating and tracking features, without considerably increasing the controller complexity. Fast recovery from load disturbances is achieved, while large overshoots associated with set-point changes and reset wind-up problems can be reduced. A simple effective procedure for practical tuning is introduced.

  18. Information Technology: Making It All Fit. Track II: Managing Technologies Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Nine papers from the 1988 CAUSE conference's Track II, Managing Technologies Integration, are presented. They include: "Computing in the '90s--Will We Be Ready for the Applications Needed?" (Stephen Patrick); "Glasnost, The Era of 'Openness'" (Bernard W. Gleason); "Academic and Administrative Computing: Are They Really…

  19. Sight-Reading Expertise: Cross-Modality Integration Investigated Using Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drai-Zerbib, Veronique; Baccino, Thierry; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    It is often said that experienced musicians are capable of hearing what they read (and vice versa). This suggests that they are able to process and to integrate multimodal information. The present study investigates this issue with an eye-tracking technique. Two groups of musicians chosen on the basis of their level of expertise (experts,…

  20. Integration of an On-Axis General Sun-Tracking Formula in the Algorithm of an Open-Loop Sun-Tracking System

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Kok-Keong; Wong, Chee-Woon; Siaw, Fei-Lu; Yew, Tiong-Keat; Ng, See-Seng; Liang, Meng-Suan; Lim, Yun-Seng; Lau, Sing-Liong

    2009-01-01

    A novel on-axis general sun-tracking formula has been integrated in the algorithm of an open-loop sun-tracking system in order to track the sun accurately and cost effectively. Sun-tracking errors due to installation defects of the 25 m2 prototype solar concentrator have been analyzed from recorded solar images with the use of a CCD camera. With the recorded data, misaligned angles from ideal azimuth-elevation axes have been determined and corrected by a straightforward changing of the parameters' values in the general formula of the tracking algorithm to improve the tracking accuracy to 2.99 mrad, which falls below the encoder resolution limit of 4.13 mrad. PMID:22408483

  1. Integrated design and management of complex and fast track projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Dario

    2003-02-01

    Modern scientific and technological projects are increasingly in competition over scientific aims, technological innovation, performance, time and cost. They require a dedicated and innovative organization able to satisfy contemporarily various technical and logistic constraints imposed by the final user, and guarantee the satisfaction of technical specifications, identified on the basis of scientific aims. In order to satisfy all the above, the management has to be strategically innovative and intuitive, by removing, first of all, the bottlenecks that are pointed out, usually only at the end of the projects, as the causes of general dissatisfaction. More than 30 years spent working on complex multidisciplinary systems and 20 years of formative experience in managing contemporarily both scientific, technological and industrial projects have given the author the possibility to study, test and validate strategies for parallel project management and integrated design, merged in a sort of unique optimized task, using the newly-coined word "Technomethodology". The paper highlights useful information to be taken into consideration during project organization to minimize the program deviations from the expected goals and describe some of the basic meanings of this new advanced method that is the key for parallel successful management of multiple and interdisciplinary activities.

  2. Integrated system for point cloud reconstruction and simulated brain shift validation using tracked surgical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Clements, Logan W.; Luo, Ma; Narasimhan, Saramati; Thompson, Reid C.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Miga, Michael I.

    2017-03-01

    Intra-operative soft tissue deformation, referred to as brain shift, compromises the application of current imageguided surgery (IGS) navigation systems in neurosurgery. A computational model driven by sparse data has been used as a cost effective method to compensate for cortical surface and volumetric displacements. Stereoscopic microscopes and laser range scanners (LRS) are the two most investigated sparse intra-operative imaging modalities for driving these systems. However, integrating these devices in the clinical workflow to facilitate development and evaluation requires developing systems that easily permit data acquisition and processing. In this work we present a mock environment developed to acquire stereo images from a tracked operating microscope and to reconstruct 3D point clouds from these images. A reconstruction error of 1 mm is estimated by using a phantom with a known geometry and independently measured deformation extent. The microscope is tracked via an attached tracking rigid body that facilitates the recording of the position of the microscope via a commercial optical tracking system as it moves during the procedure. Point clouds, reconstructed under different microscope positions, are registered into the same space in order to compute the feature displacements. Using our mock craniotomy device, realistic cortical deformations are generated. Our experimental results report approximately 2mm average displacement error compared with the optical tracking system. These results demonstrate the practicality of using tracked stereoscopic microscope as an alternative to LRS to collect sufficient intraoperative information for brain shift correction.

  3. Selective Targeted Cerebral Revascularization via Microscope Integrated Indocyanine Green Videoangiography Technology.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Regli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Protective or flow replacement bypass surgery has an important role in the management of complex middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms. Protective bypass is useful when prolonged temporary arterial occlusion is needed for clip reconstruction. Flow replacement bypass is instead important when aneurysmal trapping is the treatment of choice in order to supply permanent collateral blood flow to the brain distal to the "trapped" vessel. In both cases, the identification of the correct recipient artery is an essential surgical step. When a superficial (cortical) artery is chosen as recipient, it indeed has to represent a distal branch of the involved (temporarily or permanently occluded) vessel.Here we describe a technique for selective-targeted revascularization based on the use of indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-VA), a microscope-integrated intraoperative tool nowadays known to provide real-time assessment of the cerebral circulation with distinct visualization of arterial, capillary and venous angiographic phases. The technique is founded on the analysis of differences in the timing of filling of M4 vessels seen on serial ICG-VAs. It enables reliable identification of the cortical recipient and eliminates the risk of erroneous revascularization of non-involved territories. The surgical decision-making of two patients treated for complex MCA aneurysms with selective-targeted bypass is presented.

  4. Cerebral integration of verbal and nonverbal emotional cues: impact of individual nonverbal dominance.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Brück, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Hösl, Franziska; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2012-07-02

    Emotional communication is essential for successful social interactions. Emotional information can be expressed at verbal and nonverbal levels. If the verbal message contradicts the nonverbal expression, usually the nonverbal information is perceived as being more authentic, revealing the "true feelings" of the speaker. The present fMRI study investigated the cerebral integration of verbal (sentences expressing the emotional state of the speaker) and nonverbal (facial expressions and tone of voice) emotional signals using ecologically valid audiovisual stimulus material. More specifically, cerebral activation associated with the relative impact of nonverbal information on judging the affective state of a speaker (individual nonverbal dominance index, INDI) was investigated. Perception of nonverbally expressed emotions was associated with bilateral activation within the amygdala, fusiform face area (FFA), temporal voice area (TVA), and the posterior temporal cortex as well as in the midbrain and left inferior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)/left insula. Verbally conveyed emotions were linked to increased responses bilaterally in the TVA. Furthermore, the INDI correlated with responses in the left amygdala elicited by nonverbal and verbal emotional stimuli. Correlation of the INDI with the activation within the medial OFC was observed during the processing of communicative signals. These results suggest that individuals with a higher degree of nonverbal dominance have an increased sensitivity not only to nonverbal but to emotional stimuli in general.

  5. Disconnected aging: cerebral white matter integrity and age-related differences in cognition.

    PubMed

    Bennett, I J; Madden, D J

    2014-09-12

    Cognition arises as a result of coordinated processing among distributed brain regions and disruptions to communication within these neural networks can result in cognitive dysfunction. Cortical disconnection may thus contribute to the declines in some aspects of cognitive functioning observed in healthy aging. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is ideally suited for the study of cortical disconnection as it provides indices of structural integrity within interconnected neural networks. The current review summarizes results of previous DTI aging research with the aim of identifying consistent patterns of age-related differences in white matter integrity, and of relationships between measures of white matter integrity and behavioral performance as a function of adult age. We outline a number of future directions that will broaden our current understanding of these brain-behavior relationships in aging. Specifically, future research should aim to (1) investigate multiple models of age-brain-behavior relationships; (2) determine the tract-specificity versus global effect of aging on white matter integrity; (3) assess the relative contribution of normal variation in white matter integrity versus white matter lesions to age-related differences in cognition; (4) improve the definition of specific aspects of cognitive functioning related to age-related differences in white matter integrity using information processing tasks; and (5) combine multiple imaging modalities (e.g., resting-state and task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging; fMRI) with DTI to clarify the role of cerebral white matter integrity in cognitive aging. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cue Recognition and Integration – Eye Tracking Evidence of Processing Differences in Sentence Comprehension in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Rahel; Cazzoli, Dario; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Preisig, Basil; Nef, Tobias; Nyffeler, Thomas; Gutbrod, Klemens; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Müri, René M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed at further elucidating whether aphasic patients’ difficulties in understanding non-canonical sentence structures, such as Passive or Object-Verb-Subject sentences, can be attributed to impaired morphosyntactic cue recognition, and to problems in integrating competing interpretations. Methods A sentence-picture matching task with canonical and non-canonical spoken sentences was performed using concurrent eye tracking. Accuracy, reaction time, and eye tracking data (fixations) of 50 healthy subjects and 12 aphasic patients were analysed. Results Patients showed increased error rates and reaction times, as well as delayed fixation preferences for target pictures in non-canonical sentences. Patients’ fixation patterns differed from healthy controls and revealed deficits in recognizing and immediately integrating morphosyntactic cues. Conclusion Our study corroborates the notion that difficulties in understanding syntactically complex sentences are attributable to a processing deficit encompassing delayed and therefore impaired recognition and integration of cues, as well as increased competition between interpretations. PMID:26562795

  7. Nursing diagnoses in patients with cerebral vascular accident: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Carolina Maria Araújo Chagas Costa; Silva, Aurilene Lima da; Guerra, Débora Rodrigues; Barbosa, Islene Victor; Bezerra, Karine de Castro; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista

    2016-01-01

    to verify the nursing diagnoses in patients affected by CVAs. this is an integrative review of the literature. The search was conducted on LILACS, Scielo, Medline, CINAHL, and Scopus databases between February and March 2015, using the following keywords: "Enfermagem", "Acidente Vascular Cerebral", "Diagnóstico de Enfermagem"; and "Nursing", "Stroke", and "Nursing Diagnosis". we found 9 articles published between 2009 and 2015; most of them were Brazilian, cross-sectional, and exploratory, with a level of evidence of 6. The evidence from the publications was classified as: "Evaluation and validation of specific nursing diagnoses for subjects affected by CVAs" and "Application of the nursing process on subjects affected by CVAs". we noticed the publications focused on nursing diagnoses related to motor disorders, such as risk of falls and impaired physical mobility. Domains regarding safety/protection (domain 11) and sleep/resting (domain 4) were present in most evaluated publications.

  8. An integrated software suite for surface-based analyses of cerebral cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Essen, D. C.; Drury, H. A.; Dickson, J.; Harwell, J.; Hanlon, D.; Anderson, C. H.

    2001-01-01

    The authors describe and illustrate an integrated trio of software programs for carrying out surface-based analyses of cerebral cortex. The first component of this trio, SureFit (Surface Reconstruction by Filtering and Intensity Transformations), is used primarily for cortical segmentation, volume visualization, surface generation, and the mapping of functional neuroimaging data onto surfaces. The second component, Caret (Computerized Anatomical Reconstruction and Editing Tool Kit), provides a wide range of surface visualization and analysis options as well as capabilities for surface flattening, surface-based deformation, and other surface manipulations. The third component, SuMS (Surface Management System), is a database and associated user interface for surface-related data. It provides for efficient insertion, searching, and extraction of surface and volume data from the database.

  9. An integrated software suite for surface-based analyses of cerebral cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Essen, D. C.; Drury, H. A.; Dickson, J.; Harwell, J.; Hanlon, D.; Anderson, C. H.

    2001-01-01

    The authors describe and illustrate an integrated trio of software programs for carrying out surface-based analyses of cerebral cortex. The first component of this trio, SureFit (Surface Reconstruction by Filtering and Intensity Transformations), is used primarily for cortical segmentation, volume visualization, surface generation, and the mapping of functional neuroimaging data onto surfaces. The second component, Caret (Computerized Anatomical Reconstruction and Editing Tool Kit), provides a wide range of surface visualization and analysis options as well as capabilities for surface flattening, surface-based deformation, and other surface manipulations. The third component, SuMS (Surface Management System), is a database and associated user interface for surface-related data. It provides for efficient insertion, searching, and extraction of surface and volume data from the database.

  10. Brainstem stimulation augments information integration in the cerebral cortex of desflurane-anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Siveshigan; Vizuete, Jeannette; Liu, Xiping; Juhasz, Gabor; Hudetz, Anthony G

    2014-01-01

    States of consciousness have been associated with information integration in the brain as modulated by anesthesia and the ascending arousal system. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that electrical stimulation of the oral part of the pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) can augment information integration in the cerebral cortex of anesthetized rats. Extracellular unit activity and local field potentials were recorded in freely moving animals from parietal association (PtA) and secondary visual (V2) cortices via chronically implanted microwire arrays at three levels of anesthesia produced by desflurane: 3.5, 4.5, and 6.0% (where 4.5% corresponds to that critical for the loss of consciousness). Information integration was characterized by integration (multiinformation) and interaction entropy, estimated from the statistical distribution of coincident spike patterns. PnO stimulation elicited electrocortical activation as indicated by the reductions in δ- and θ-band powers at the intermediate level of anesthesia. PnO stimulation augmented integration from 1.13 ± 0.03 to 6.12 ± 1.98 × 10(3) bits and interaction entropy from 0.44 ± 0.11 to 2.18 ± 0.72 × 10(3) bits; these changes were most consistent in the PtA at all desflurane concentrations. Stimulation of the retina with discrete light flashes after PnO stimulation elicited an additional 166 ± 25 and 92 ± 12% increase in interaction entropy in V2 during light and intermediate levels. The results suggest that the PnO may modulate spontaneous ongoing and sensory stimulus-related cortical information integration under anesthesia.

  11. Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Costello, Matthew C.; Bucur, Barbara; White, Leonard E.; Cabeza, Roberto; Davis, Simon W.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Provenzale, James M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white matter-cognition relation reduces the magnitude of age-cognition relation. In this research, we tested the mediating role of white matter integrity, in the context of a task switching paradigm involving word categorization. Participants were 20 healthy, community-dwelling older adults (60–85 years), and 20 younger adults (18–27 years). From diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, we obtained fractional anisotropy (FA) as an index of white matter integrity in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Mean FA values exhibited age-related decline consistent with a decrease in white matter integrity. From a model of reaction time distributions, we obtained independent estimates of the decisional and nondecisional (perceptual-motor) components of task performance. Age-related decline was evident in both components. Critically, age differences in task performance were mediated by FA in two regions: the central portion of the genu, and splenium-parietal fibers in the right hemisphere. This relation held only for the decisional component and was not evident in the nondecisional component. This result is the first demonstration that the integrity of specific white matter tracts is a mediator of age-related changes in cognitive performance. PMID:18564054

  12. Which way and how far? Tracking of translation and rotation information for human path integration.

    PubMed

    Chrastil, Elizabeth R; Sherrill, Katherine R; Hasselmo, Michael E; Stern, Chantal E

    2016-10-01

    Path integration, the constant updating of the navigator's knowledge of position and orientation during movement, requires both visuospatial knowledge and memory. This study aimed to develop a systems-level understanding of human path integration by examining the basic building blocks of path integration in humans. To achieve this goal, we used functional imaging to examine the neural mechanisms that support the tracking and memory of translational and rotational components of human path integration. Critically, and in contrast to previous studies, we examined movement in translation and rotation tasks with no defined end-point or goal. Navigators accumulated translational and rotational information during virtual self-motion. Activity in hippocampus, retrosplenial cortex (RSC), and parahippocampal cortex (PHC) increased during both translation and rotation encoding, suggesting that these regions track self-motion information during path integration. These results address current questions regarding distance coding in the human brain. By implementing a modified delayed match to sample paradigm, we also examined the encoding and maintenance of path integration signals in working memory. Hippocampus, PHC, and RSC were recruited during successful encoding and maintenance of path integration information, with RSC selective for tasks that required processing heading rotation changes. These data indicate distinct working memory mechanisms for translation and rotation, which are essential for updating neural representations of current location. The results provide evidence that hippocampus, PHC, and RSC flexibly track task-relevant translation and rotation signals for path integration and could form the hub of a more distributed network supporting spatial navigation. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3636-3655, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Fringe tracking at longer wavelengths using near- and mid-IR integrated optics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthusubramanian, Balaji; Labadie, Lucas; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Tepper, Jan; Minardi, Stefano; Diener, Romina

    2016-08-01

    Fringe tracking at longer wavelengths is advantageous for its larger Fried parameter (R0) and longer coherence time (τ0). The fringe trackers which are currently available at the VLTi (Finito, FSU, Gravity, etc.) tracks fringes at the near infrared wavelengths (H and K bands). In our work we try to explore the possibilities to track near and mid- infrared fringes using GLS based laser written integrated optics beam combiners. We simulate the atmospheric optical path difference (OPD) using Kolmogorov/Von-Karman atmospheric turbulence statistics. We also include the measured the piston noise generated due to the instrumental vibrations. Using the resulting OPD time series we can estimate the sensitivity of the fringe tracker at the L band.

  14. Integrated angular tracking and plasmonic membrane surfaces for a point of a care refractive index sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bay, Marie-Claude; Eckert, Rolf; Grenet, Eric; Stanley, Ross P.; Franzi, Edo; Heinzelmann, Harry; Ozdemir, Cenk I.; Altug, Hatice; Dunbar, L. Andrea

    2016-02-01

    We present an optical system which integrates a plasmonic sensing surface and an angular tracking system to enable a compact refractive index measurement. A refractive index change at the surface of the sensing membrane causes a change in the angle at which monochromatic light is transmitted through the membrane. This transmission angle is measured by the angular tracking system. We show good theoretical and experimental agreement of the transmission of the plasmonic sensing surface at different angular illumination of the membranes. Using this compact optical setup the embedded angular tracking system has an accuracy of <10-4 deg. This corresponds to a sensitivity <10-5 refractive index units. Finally we demonstrate this measurement technique using different concentrations of saline solution.

  15. A precise integration method for solving coupled vehicle-track dynamics with nonlinear wheel-rail contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Gao, Q.; Tan, S. J.; Zhong, W. X.

    2012-10-01

    A new method is proposed as a solution for the large-scale coupled vehicle-track dynamic model with nonlinear wheel-rail contact. The vehicle is simplified as a multi-rigid-body model, and the track is treated as a three-layer beam model. In the track model, the rail is assumed to be an Euler-Bernoulli beam supported by discrete sleepers. The vehicle model and the track model are coupled using Hertzian nonlinear contact theory, and the contact forces of the vehicle subsystem and the track subsystem are approximated by the Lagrange interpolation polynomial. The response of the large-scale coupled vehicle-track model is calculated using the precise integration method. A more efficient algorithm based on the periodic property of the track is applied to calculate the exponential matrix and certain matrices related to the solution of the track subsystem. Numerical examples demonstrate the computational accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  16. Restoring integrity-A grounded theory of coping with a fast track surgery programme.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Fridlund, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Background Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. Design The study design used classical grounded theory. Methods The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Results Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients' main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. Conclusion In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme.

  17. Particle Filter with Integrated Voice Activity Detection for Acoustic Source Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Eric A.; Johansson, Anders M.

    2006-12-01

    In noisy and reverberant environments, the problem of acoustic source localisation and tracking (ASLT) using an array of microphones presents a number of challenging difficulties. One of the main issues when considering real-world situations involving human speakers is the temporally discontinuous nature of speech signals: the presence of silence gaps in the speech can easily misguide the tracking algorithm, even in practical environments with low to moderate noise and reverberation levels. A natural extension of currently available sound source tracking algorithms is the integration of a voice activity detection (VAD) scheme. We describe a new ASLT algorithm based on a particle filtering (PF) approach, where VAD measurements are fused within the statistical framework of the PF implementation. Tracking accuracy results for the proposed method is presented on the basis of synthetic audio samples generated with the image method, whereas performance results obtained with a real-time implementation of the algorithm, and using real audio data recorded in a reverberant room, are published elsewhere. Compared to a previously proposed PF algorithm, the experimental results demonstrate the improved robustness of the method described in this work when tracking sources emitting real-world speech signals, which typically involve significant silence gaps between utterances.

  18. Multileaf collimator tracking integrated with a novel x-ray imaging system and external surrogate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Andreas; Fast, Martin F.; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

    2012-04-01

    We have previously developed a tumour tracking system, which adapts the aperture of a Siemens 160 MLC to electromagnetically monitored target motion. In this study, we exploit the use of a novel linac-mounted kilovoltage x-ray imaging system for MLC tracking. The unique in-line geometry of the imaging system allows the detection of target motion perpendicular to the treatment beam (i.e. the directions usually featuring steep dose gradients). We utilized the imaging system either alone or in combination with an external surrogate monitoring system. We equipped a Siemens ARTISTE linac with two flat panel detectors, one directly underneath the linac head for motion monitoring and the other underneath the patient couch for geometric tracking accuracy assessments. A programmable phantom with an embedded metal marker reproduced three patient breathing traces. For MLC tracking based on x-ray imaging alone, marker position was detected at a frame rate of 7.1 Hz. For the combined external and internal motion monitoring system, a total of only 85 x-ray images were acquired prior to or in between the delivery of ten segments of an IMRT beam. External motion was monitored with a potentiometer. A correlation model between external and internal motion was established. The real-time component of the MLC tracking procedure then relied solely on the correlation model estimations of internal motion based on the external signal. Geometric tracking accuracies were 0.6 mm (1.1 mm) and 1.8 mm (1.6 mm) in directions perpendicular and parallel to the leaf travel direction for the x-ray-only (the combined external and internal) motion monitoring system in spite of a total system latency of ˜0.62 s (˜0.51 s). Dosimetric accuracy for a highly modulated IMRT beam-assessed through radiographic film dosimetry-improved substantially when tracking was applied, but depended strongly on the respective geometric tracking accuracy. In conclusion, we have for the first time integrated MLC tracking

  19. Multileaf collimator tracking integrated with a novel x-ray imaging system and external surrogate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Andreas; Fast, Martin F; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

    2012-04-21

    We have previously developed a tumour tracking system, which adapts the aperture of a Siemens 160 MLC to electromagnetically monitored target motion. In this study, we exploit the use of a novel linac-mounted kilovoltage x-ray imaging system for MLC tracking. The unique in-line geometry of the imaging system allows the detection of target motion perpendicular to the treatment beam (i.e. the directions usually featuring steep dose gradients). We utilized the imaging system either alone or in combination with an external surrogate monitoring system. We equipped a Siemens ARTISTE linac with two flat panel detectors, one directly underneath the linac head for motion monitoring and the other underneath the patient couch for geometric tracking accuracy assessments. A programmable phantom with an embedded metal marker reproduced three patient breathing traces. For MLC tracking based on x-ray imaging alone, marker position was detected at a frame rate of 7.1 Hz. For the combined external and internal motion monitoring system, a total of only 85 x-ray images were acquired prior to or in between the delivery of ten segments of an IMRT beam. External motion was monitored with a potentiometer. A correlation model between external and internal motion was established. The real-time component of the MLC tracking procedure then relied solely on the correlation model estimations of internal motion based on the external signal. Geometric tracking accuracies were 0.6 mm (1.1 mm) and 1.8 mm (1.6 mm) in directions perpendicular and parallel to the leaf travel direction for the x-ray-only (the combined external and internal) motion monitoring system in spite of a total system latency of ~0.62 s (~0.51 s). Dosimetric accuracy for a highly modulated IMRT beam--assessed through radiographic film dosimetry--improved substantially when tracking was applied, but depended strongly on the respective geometric tracking accuracy. In conclusion, we have for the first time integrated MLC tracking

  20. Cerebral mechanisms of prosodic sensory integration using low-frequency bands of connected speech.

    PubMed

    Hesling, Isabelle; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Clément, Sylvain; Bordessoules, Martine; Allard, Michèle

    2005-11-01

    Even if speech perception has been reported to involve both left and right hemispheres, converging data have posited the existence of a functional asymmetry at the level of secondary auditory cortices. Using fMRI in 12 right-handed French men listening passively to long connected speech stimuli, we addressed the question of neuronal networks involved in the integration of low frequency bands of speech by comparing 1) differences in brain activity in two listening conditions (FN, NF) differing in the integration of pitch modulations (in FN, low frequencies, obtained by a low-pass filter, are addressed to the left ear while the whole acoustic message is simultaneously addressed to the right ear, NF being the reverse position); 2) differences in brain activity induced by high and low degrees of prosodic expression (expressive vs. flat); and 3) effects of the same connected speech stimulus in the two listening conditions. Each stimulus induced a specific cerebral network, the flat one weakening activations which were mainly reduced to the bilateral STG for both listening conditions. In the expressive condition, the specific sensory integration FN results in an increase of the articulatory loop and new recruitments such as right BA6-44, left BA39-40, the left posterior insula and the bilateral BA30. This finding may be accounted for by the existence of temporal windows differing both in length and in acoustic cues decoding, strengthening the "asymmetric sampling in time" hypothesis posited by Poeppel (Speech Commun 2003; 41:245-255). Such an improvement of prosodic integration could find applications in the rehabilitation of some speech disturbances. Hum Brain Mapp, 2005. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Cerebral blood volume in Alzheimer's disease and correlation with tissue structural integrity.

    PubMed

    Uh, Jinsoo; Lewis-Amezcua, Kelly; Martin-Cook, Kristin; Cheng, Yamei; Weiner, Myron; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Devous, Michael; Shen, Dinggang; Lu, Hanzhang

    2010-12-01

    A vascular component is increasingly recognized as important in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We measured cerebral blood volume (CBV) in patients with probable AD or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and in elderly non-demented subjects using a recently developed Vascular-Space-Occupancy (VASO) MRI technique. While both gray and white matters were examined, significant CBV deficit regions were primarily located in white matter, specifically in frontal and parietal lobes, in which CBV was reduced by 20% in the AD/MCI group. The regions with CBV deficit also showed reduced tissue structural integrity as indicated by increased apparent diffusion coefficients, whereas in regions without CBV deficits no such correlation was found. Subjects with lower CBV tended to have more white matter lesions in FLAIR MRI images and showed slower psychomotor speed. These data suggest that the vascular contribution in AD is primarily localized to frontal/parietal white matter and is associated with brain tissue integrity. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Enable Web-Based Tracking and Guiding by Integrating Location-Awareness with the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Rui

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research is to enable web-based tracking and guiding by integrating location-awareness with the Worldwide Web so that the users can use various location-based applications without installing extra software. Design/methodology/approach: The concept of web-based tracking and guiding is introduced and the relevant issues are…

  3. Enable Web-Based Tracking and Guiding by Integrating Location-Awareness with the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Rui

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research is to enable web-based tracking and guiding by integrating location-awareness with the Worldwide Web so that the users can use various location-based applications without installing extra software. Design/methodology/approach: The concept of web-based tracking and guiding is introduced and the relevant issues are…

  4. Integrated Ultra-Wideband Tracking and Carbon Dioxide Sensing System Design for International Space Station Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun (David); Hafermalz, David; Dusl, John; Barton, Rick; Wagner, Ray; Ngo, Phong

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time-of-Arrival (TOA) tracking system has been studied at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide the tracking capability inside the International Space Station (ISS) modules for various applications. One of applications is to locate and report the location where crew experienced possible high level of carbon-dioxide (CO2) and felt upset. Recent findings indicate that frequent, short-term crew exposure to elevated CO2 levels combined with other physiological impacts of microgravity may lead to a number of detrimental effects, including loss of vision. To evaluate the risks associated with transient elevated CO2 levels and design effective countermeasures, doctors must have access to frequent CO2 measurements in the immediate vicinity of individual crew members along with simultaneous measurements of their location in the space environment. To achieve this goal, a small, low-power, wearable system that integrates an accurate CO2 sensor with an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio capable of real-time location estimation and data communication is proposed. This system would be worn by crew members or mounted on a free-flyer and would automatically gather and transmit sampled sensor data tagged with real-time, high-resolution location information. Under the current proposed effort, a breadboard prototype of such a system has been developed. Although the initial effort is targeted to CO2 monitoring, the concept is applicable to other types of sensors. For the initial effort, a micro-controller is leveraged to integrate a low-power CO2 sensor with a commercially available UWB radio system with ranging capability. In order to accurately locate those places in a multipath intensive environment like ISS modules, it requires a robust real-time location system (RTLS) which can provide the required accuracy and update rate. A 3D UWB TOA tracking system with two-way ranging has been proposed and studied. The designed system will be tested

  5. Efficient integration of spectral features for vehicle tracking utilizing an adaptive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzkent, Burak; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Vodacek, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Object tracking in urban environments is an important and challenging problem that is traditionally tackled using visible and near infrared wavelengths. By inserting extended data such as spectral features of the objects one can improve the reliability of the identification process. However, huge increase in data created by hyperspectral imaging is usually prohibitive. To overcome the complexity problem, we propose a persistent air-to-ground target tracking system inspired by a state-of-the-art, adaptive, multi-modal sensor. The adaptive sensor is capable of providing panchromatic images as well as the spectra of desired pixels. This addresses the data challenge of hyperspectral tracking by only recording spectral data as needed. Spectral likelihoods are integrated into a data association algorithm in a Bayesian fashion to minimize the likelihood of misidentification. A framework for controlling spectral data collection is developed by incorporating motion segmentation information and prior information from a Gaussian Sum filter (GSF) movement predictions from a multi-model forecasting set. An intersection mask of the surveillance area is extracted from OpenStreetMap source and incorporated into the tracking algorithm to perform online refinement of multiple model set. The proposed system is tested using challenging and realistic scenarios generated in an adverse environment.

  6. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, R Daniel; Zhong, Zhangyi; Hammer, Daniel X; Mujat, Mircea; Patel, Ankit H; Deng, Cong; Zou, Weiyao; Burns, Stephen A

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a new, unified implementation of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) incorporating a wide-field line-scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) and a closed-loop optical retinal tracker. AOSLO raster scans are deflected by the integrated tracking mirrors so that direct AOSLO stabilization is automatic during tracking. The wide-field imager and large-spherical-mirror optical interface design, as well as a large-stroke deformable mirror (DM), enable the AOSLO image field to be corrected at any retinal coordinates of interest in a field of >25 deg. AO performance was assessed by imaging individuals with a range of refractive errors. In most subjects, image contrast was measurable at spatial frequencies close to the diffraction limit. Closed-loop optical (hardware) tracking performance was assessed by comparing sequential image series with and without stabilization. Though usually better than 10 μm rms, or 0.03 deg, tracking does not yet stabilize to single cone precision but significantly improves average image quality and increases the number of frames that can be successfully aligned by software-based post-processing methods. The new optical interface allows the high-resolution imaging field to be placed anywhere within the wide field without requiring the subject to re-fixate, enabling easier retinal navigation and faster, more efficient AOSLO montage capture and stitching.

  7. Off-policy integral reinforcement learning optimal tracking control for continuous-time chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qing-Lai; Song, Rui-Zhuo; Sun, Qiu-Ye; Xiao, Wen-Dong

    2015-09-01

    This paper estimates an off-policy integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm to obtain the optimal tracking control of unknown chaotic systems. Off-policy IRL can learn the solution of the HJB equation from the system data generated by an arbitrary control. Moreover, off-policy IRL can be regarded as a direct learning method, which avoids the identification of system dynamics. In this paper, the performance index function is first given based on the system tracking error and control error. For solving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation, an off-policy IRL algorithm is proposed. It is proven that the iterative control makes the tracking error system asymptotically stable, and the iterative performance index function is convergent. Simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the developed tracking control method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61304079 and 61374105), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant Nos. 4132078 and 4143065), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M530527), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. FRF-TP-14-119A2), and the Open Research Project from State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, China (Grant No. 20150104).

  8. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, R. Daniel; Zhong, Zhangyi; Hammer, Daniel X.; Mujat, Mircea; Patel, Ankit H.; Deng, Cong; Zou, Weiyao; Burns, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a new, unified implementation of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) incorporating a wide-field line-scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) and a closed-loop optical retinal tracker. AOSLO raster scans are deflected by the integrated tracking mirrors so that direct AOSLO stabilization is automatic during tracking. The wide-field imager and large-spherical-mirror optical interface design, as well as a large-stroke deformable mirror (DM), enable the AOSLO image field to be corrected at any retinal coordinates of interest in a field of >25 deg. AO performance was assessed by imaging individuals with a range of refractive errors. In most subjects, image contrast was measurable at spatial frequencies close to the diffraction limit. Closed-loop optical (hardware) tracking performance was assessed by comparing sequential image series with and without stabilization. Though usually better than 10 μm rms, or 0.03 deg, tracking does not yet stabilize to single cone precision but significantly improves average image quality and increases the number of frames that can be successfully aligned by software-based post-processing methods. The new optical interface allows the high-resolution imaging field to be placed anywhere within the wide field without requiring the subject to re-fixate, enabling easier retinal navigation and faster, more efficient AOSLO montage capture and stitching. PMID:21045887

  9. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalographic activity and middle cerebral artery Doppler flow measurements in preterm small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Kolsuz, Leyla Daban; Topcuoglu, Sevilay; Gursoy, Tugba; Karatekin, Güner; Ovali, H Fahri

    2015-03-01

    Amplitude-integrated encephalography (EEG) is frequently used in neonatal intensive care units to monitor brain functions. Its bedside application and easy interpretation are the most important features. Brain development of small for gestational age infants can be affected by intrauterine chronic hypoxia. The current study aimed to evaluate cerebral functions of small for gestational age infants by means of amplitude-integrated EEG. Thirty- to 34-week-old 22 small for gestational age and 27 appropriate for gestational age preterm infants were included in the study. The mode of delivery, gender, birth weight, and Apgar scores of the patients were recorded. Following middle cerebral artery mean velocity measurement with cranial Doppler at the 24th hour of birth, an amplitude-integrated EEG recording was performed on all infants, for a period of 4 to 24 hours. Small for gestational age infants had significantly higher middle cerebral artery mean velocity than appropriate for gestational age infants (21.09 ± 4.25 vs 17.8 ± 4.07; P = .029). The amplitude-integrated EEG recordings showed lower "lower border of quiet sleep" and total Burdjalov score in small for gestational age infants when compared with appropriate for gestational age infants (2.5 [1-3.25] µV vs 3 [2.75-4] µV; P = .04, 8 [6-10], 9 [9-11]; P = .04, respectively). Increased middle cerebral artery blood flow observed in small for gestational age infants might be a marker of chronic intrauterine hypoxia to which these infants were exposed. These infants demonstrated a more immature pattern of amplitude-integrated EEG.

  10. Quantitative measurement of regional blood flow with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate bolus track NMR imaging in cerebral infarcts in rats: validation with the iodo[14C]antipyrine technique.

    PubMed Central

    Wittlich, F; Kohno, K; Mies, G; Norris, D G; Hoehn-Berlage, M

    1995-01-01

    NMR bolus track measurements were correlated with autoradiographically determined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). The NMR method is based on bolus infusion of the contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate and high-speed T*2-sensitive NMR imaging. The first pass of the contrast agent through the image plane causes a transient decrease of the signal intensity. This time course of the signal intensity is transformed into relative concentrations of the contrast agent in each pixel. The mean transit time and relative blood flow and volume are calculated from such indicator dilution curves. We investigated whether this NMR technique correctly expresses the relative rCBF. The relative blood flow data, calculated from NMR bolus track experiments, and the absolute values of iodo[14C]antipyrine autoradiography were compared. A linear relationship was observed, indicating the proportionality of the transient NMR signal change with CBF. Excellent interindividual reproducibility of calibration constants is observed (r = 0.963). For a given NMR protocol, bolus track measurements calibrated with autoradiography after the experiment allow determination of absolute values for rCBF and regional blood volume. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7892189

  11. Bridging the gap: supporting translational research careers through an integrated research track within residency training.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Melissa R; Gordon, Joshua A; Pincus, Harold A; Oquendo, Maria A

    2013-06-01

    In the setting of traditional residency training programs, physician-scientists are often limited in their ability to pursue research training goals while meeting clinical training requirements. This creates a gap in research training at a critical developmental stage. In response, Columbia University Medical Center's Department of Psychiatry, in partnership with the New York State Psychiatric Institute, has created a formal Research Track Program (RTP) for psychiatry residents so that interested individuals can maintain their attention on research training during formative residency years. Clinical and research training are integrated through core clinical rotations on research units. With protected research time and clear developmental milestones for each year of training, the RTP allows research track residents to meet both clinical and research training goals while maintaining a healthy work-life balance. In coordination with existing postdoctoral research fellowship programs, research track residents can effectively jump-start fellowship training with advanced course work and consistent, continuous mentorship bridging residency and fellowship years. A key element of the program is its provision of core training in research literacy and extensive research opportunities for all residents, stimulating research interest across the whole residency program. Supported by the National Institutes of Health and a private foundation, this RTP capitalizes on a unique academic-private partnership to address many of the challenges facing physician-scientists. By integrating clinical and research exposures and offering protected research time, careful mentoring, and financial resources, the program aims to further the development of those most poised to establish careers in translational research.

  12. A Magnetic Tracking System based on Highly Sensitive Integrated Hall Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlageter, Vincent; Drljaca, Predrag; Popovic, Radivoje S.; KuČERA, Pavel

    A tracking system with five degrees of freedom based on a 2D-array of 16 Hall sensors and a permanent magnet is presented in this paper. The sensitivity of the Hall sensors is increased by integrated micro- and external macro-flux-concentrators. Detection distance larger than 20cm (during one hour without calibration) is achieved using a magnet of 0.2cm3. This corresponds to a resolution of the sensors of 0.05µTrms. The position and orientation of the marker is displayed in real time at least 20 times per second. The sensing system is small enough to be hand-held and can be used in a normal environment. This presented tracking system has been successfully applied to follow a small swallowed magnet through the entire human digestive tube. This approach is extremely promising as a new non-invasive diagnostic technique in gastro-enterology.

  13. Application of an Amplitude-integrated EEG Monitor (Cerebral Function Monitor) to Neonates.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Nora; Blumenthal, Susanne; Meyer, Irmgard; Klose-Verschuur, Susanne; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Müller, Hanna

    2017-09-06

    Amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) is an easily accessible technique to monitor the electrocortical activity in preterm and term infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This method was first used to monitor newborns after asphyxia, providing information about future neurological outcomes. The aEEG is also helpful to select newborns who benefit from cooling. The aEEG monitoring of preterm infants is becoming more widespread, as various studies have shown that neurodevelopmental outcome is related to early aEEG tracings. Here, we demonstrate the application of the aEEG monitoring system and present typical patterns that depend upon gestational age and pathophysiological conditions. Furthermore, we mention pitfalls in the interpretation of the aEEG, as this method requires accurate fixation and localization of the electrodes. Additionally, the raw EEG can be used to detect neonatal seizures or to identify aEEG application problems. In conclusion, aEEG is a safe and generally well-tolerated method for the bedside monitoring of neonatal cerebral function; it can even provide information about long-term outcome.

  14. Cerebral blood volume affects blood–brain barrier integrity in an acute transient stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shuning; Kim, Jeong Kon; Atochin, Dmitriy N; Farrar, Christian T; Huang, Paul L; Suh, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Seon Joo; Shim, Woo Hyun; Cho, Hyungjoon; Cho, Gyunggoo; Kim, Young Ro

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient vascular reserve after an ischemic stroke may induce biochemical cascades that subsequently deteriorate the blood–brain barrier (BBB) function. However, the direct relationship between poor cerebral blood volume (CBV) restoration and BBB disruption has not been examined in acute stroke. To quantify BBB integrity at acute stages of transient stroke, in particular for cases in which extravasation of the standard contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) is not observed, we adopted the water exchange index (WEI), a novel magnetic resonance image-derived parameter to estimate the water permeability across the BBB. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and R2 relaxation rate constant were also measured for outlining the tissue abnormality, while fractional CBV and WEI were quantified for assessing vascular alterations. The significantly decreased ADC and R2 in the ischemic cortices did not correlate with the changes in CBV or WEI. In contrast, a strong negative correlation between the ipsilesional WEI and CBV was found, in which stroke mice were clustered into two groups: (1) high WEI and low CBV and (2) normal WEI and CBV. The low CBV observed for mice with a disrupted BBB, characterized by a high WEI, indicates the importance of CBV restoration for maintaining BBB stability in acute stroke. PMID:23462571

  15. White matter integrity in dyskinetic cerebral palsy: Relationship with intelligence quotient and executive function.

    PubMed

    Laporta-Hoyos, Olga; Pannek, Kerstin; Ballester-Plané, Júlia; Reid, Lee B; Vázquez, Élida; Delgado, Ignacio; Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Macaya, Alfons; Póo, Pilar; Meléndez-Plumed, Mar; Junqué, Carme; Boyd, Roslyn; Pueyo, Roser

    2017-01-01

    Dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most disabling motor types of CP and has been classically associated with injury to the basal ganglia and thalamus. Although cognitive dysfunction is common in CP, there is a paucity of published quantitative analyses investigating the relationship between white matter (WM) microstructure and cognition in this CP type. This study aims (1) to compare brain WM microstructure between people with dyskinetic CP and healthy controls, (2) to identify brain regions where WM microstructure is related to intelligence and (3) to identify brain regions where WM microstructure is related to executive function in people with dyskinetic CP and (4) to identify brain regions where the correlations are different between controls and people with CP in IQ and executive functions. Thirty-three participants with dyskinetic CP (mean ± SD age: 24.42 ± 12.61, 15 female) were age and sex matched with 33 controls. Participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to assess intelligence quotient (IQ) and four executive function domains (attentional control, cognitive flexibility, goal setting and information processing). Diffusion weighted MRI scans were acquired at 3T. Voxel-based whole brain groupwise analyses were used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and of the CP group to the matched controls using a general lineal model. Further general linear models were used to identify regions where white matter FA correlated with IQ and each of the executive function domains. White matter FA was significantly reduced in the CP group in all cerebral lobes, predominantly in regions connected with the parietal and to a lesser extent the temporal lobes. There was no significant correlation between IQ or any of the four executive function domains and WM microstructure in the control group. In participants with CP, lower IQ was associated with lower FA in all cerebral lobes, predominantly in locations that also showed reduced FA

  16. CISUS: an integrated 3D ultrasound system for IGT using a modular tracking API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boctor, Emad M.; Viswanathan, Anand; Pieper, Steve; Choti, Michael A.; Taylor, Russell H.; Kikinis, Ron; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2004-05-01

    Ultrasound has become popular in clinical/surgical applications, both as the primary image guidance modality and also in conjunction with other modalities like CT or MRI. Three dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) systems have also demonstrated usefulness in image-guided therapy (IGT). At the same time, however, current lack of open-source and open-architecture multi-modal medical visualization systems prevents 3DUS from fulfilling its potential. Several stand-alone 3DUS systems, like Stradx or In-Vivo exist today. Although these systems have been found to be useful in real clinical setting, it is difficult to augment their functionality and integrate them in versatile IGT systems. To address these limitations, a robotic/freehand 3DUS open environment (CISUS) is being integrated into the 3D Slicer, an open-source research tool developed for medical image analysis and surgical planning. In addition, the system capitalizes on generic application programming interfaces (APIs) for tracking devices and robotic control. The resulting platform-independent open-source system may serve as a valuable tool to the image guided surgery community. Other researchers could straightforwardly integrate the generic CISUS system along with other functionalities (i.e. dual view visualization, registration, real-time tracking, segmentation, etc) to rapidly create their medical/surgical applications. Our current driving clinical application is robotically assisted and freehand 3DUS-guided liver ablation, which is fully being integrated under the CISUS-3D Slicer. Initial functionality and pre-clinical feasibility are demonstrated on phantom and ex-vivo animal models.

  17. Bridging the Gap: Supporting Translational Research Careers Through an Integrated Research Track Within Residency Training

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Melissa R.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Pincus, Harold A.; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    In the setting of traditional residency training programs, physician–scientists are often limited in their ability to pursue research training goals while meeting clinical training requirements. This creates a gap in research training at a critical developmental stage. In response, Columbia University Medical Center’s Department of Psychiatry, in partnership with the New York State Psychiatric Institute, has created a formal Research Track Program (RTP) for psychiatry residents so that interested individuals can maintain their attention on research training during formative residency years. Clinical and research training are integrated through core clinical rotations on research units. With protected research time and clear developmental milestones for each year of training, the RTP allows research track residents to meet both clinical and research training goals while maintaining a healthy work–life balance. In coordination with existing postdoctoral research fellowship programs, research track residents can effectively jump-start fellowship training with advanced course work and consistent, continuous mentorship bridging residency and fellowship years. A key element of the program is its provision of core training in research literacy and extensive research opportunities for all residents, stimulating research interest across the whole residency program. Supported by the National Institutes of Health and a private foundation, this RTP capitalizes on a unique academic–private partnership to address many of the challenges facing physician–scientists. By integrating clinical and research exposures and offering protected research time, careful mentoring, and financial resources, the program aims to further the development of those most poised to establish careers in translational research. PMID:23619070

  18. Comparison of ``integrating'' and ``tracking'' modes of operation in the Qweak experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahurin, Rob

    2012-10-01

    The Qweak experiment the first direct measurement of the proton's weak charge QW^p, has recently completed data collection at Jefferson Lab. Polarized, 1.165 GeV electrons were scattered from protons and focused onto an array of large (2,x0.18,) fused-silica Cherenkov detectors. We have proposed to measure the parity-violating asymmetry associated with QW^p to a precision of 5 ppb. To meet this statistical requirement, the bulk of the data were collected using ``integrating'' electronics (with typical event rates ˜800,Hz per detector). However, the observed asymmetry also depends on the distribution of momentum transfer Q^2 accepted by the experiment. Measurements of Q^2 were made by inserting wire chamber detectors --- but only with the beam current reduced by three to six orders of magnitude. For these ``tracking'' measurements, the main detectors were connected to electronics able to resolve single events. As a bridge between integrating and tracking modes, a small (1,mx1,m) Cherenkov detector on a motion stage had freedom to scan over one of the large Cherenkov detectors; the small size permitted use of the same electronics at all beam currents. In this talk I will discuss the consistency of results from these various modes of operation.

  19. Integration of trans-esophageal echocardiography with magnetic tracking technology for cardiac interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John T.; Wiles, Andrew D.; Wedlake, Chris; Bainbridge, Daniel; Kiaii, Bob; Trejos, Ana Luisa; Patel, Rajni; Peters, Terry M.

    2010-02-01

    Trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a standard component of patient monitoring during most cardiac surgeries. In recent years magnetic tracking systems (MTS) have become sufficiently robust to function effectively in appropriately structured operating room environments. The ability to track a conventional multiplanar 2D TEE transducer in 3D space offers incredible potential by greatly expanding the cumulative field of view of cardiac anatomy beyond the limited field of view provided by 2D and 3D TEE technology. However, there is currently no TEE probe manufactured with MTS technology embedded in the transducer, which means sensors must be attached to the outer surface of the TEE. This leads to potential safety issues for patients, as well as potential damage to the sensor during procedures. This paper presents a standard 2D TEE probe fully integrated with MTS technology. The system is evaluated in an environment free of magnetic and electromagnetic disturbances, as well as a clinical operating room in the presence of a da Vinci robotic system. Our first integrated TEE device is currently being used in animal studies for virtual reality-enhanced ultrasound guidance of intracardiac surgeries, while the "second generation" TEE is in use in a clinical operating room as part of a project to measure perioperative heart shift and optimal port placement for robotic cardiac surgery. We demonstrate excellent system accuracy for both applications.

  20. SigCS base: an integrated genetic information resource for human cerebral stroke

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To understand how stroke risk factors mechanistically contribute to stroke, the genetic components regulating each risk factor need to be integrated and evaluated with respect to biological function and through pathway-based algorithms. This resource will provide information to researchers studying the molecular and genetic causes of stroke in terms of genomic variants, genes, and pathways. Methods Reported genetic variants, gene structure, phenotypes, and literature information regarding stroke were collected and extracted from publicly available databases describing variants, genome, proteome, functional annotation, and disease subtypes. Stroke related candidate pathways and etiologic genes that participate significantly in risk were analyzed in terms of canonical pathways in public biological pathway databases. These efforts resulted in a relational database of genetic signals of cerebral stroke, SigCS base, which implements an effective web retrieval system. Results The current version of SigCS base documents 1943 non-redundant genes with 11472 genetic variants and 165 non-redundant pathways. The web retrieval system of SigCS base consists of two principal search flows, including: 1) a gene-based variant search using gene table browsing or a keyword search, and, 2) a pathway-based variant search using pathway table browsing. SigCS base is freely accessible at http://sysbio.kribb.re.kr/sigcs. Conclusions SigCS base is an effective tool that can assist researchers in the identification of the genetic factors associated with stroke by utilizing existing literature information, selecting candidate genes and variants for experimental studies, and examining the pathways that contribute to the pathophysiological mechanisms of stroke. PMID:22784567

  1. Integration of Three-Dimensional Rotational Angiography in Radiosurgical Treatment Planning of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Conti, Alfredo; Pontoriero, Antonio; Farago, Giuseppe; Midili, Federica; Siragusa, Carmelo; Granata, Francesca; Pitrone, Antonio; De Renzis, Costantino; Longo, Marcello; Tomasello, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Accuracy in delineating the target volume is a major issue for successful stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations. The aim of the present study was to describe a method to integrate three-dimensional (3D) rotational angiography ( (3DRA)) into CyberKnife treatment planning and to investigate its potential advantages compared with computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography. Methods and Materials: A total of 20 patients with a diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformation were included in the present study. All patients underwent multislice computed tomography and 3D-volumetric CTA, (3DRA), and 3D magnetic resonance angiography. The contouring of the target and critical volumes was done separately using CTA and thereafter directly using (3DRA). The composite, conjoint, and disjoint volumes were measured. Results: The use of CTA or (3DRA) resulted in significant differences in the target and critical volumes. The target volume averaged 3.49 {+-} 3.01 mL measured using CTA and 3.26 {+-} 2.93 mL measured using (3DRA), for a difference of 8% (p < .05). The conjoint and disjoint volume analysis showed an 88% volume overlap. The qualitative evaluation showed that the excess volume obtained using CTA was mostly tissue surrounding the nidus and venous structures. The mean contoured venous volume was 0.67 mL measured using CTA and 0.88 mL (range, 0.1-2.7) measured using (3DRA) (p < .05). Conclusions: (3DRA) is a volumetric angiographic study that can be integrated into computer-based treatment planning. Although whether (3DRA) provides superior accuracy has not yet been proved, its high spatial resolution is attractive and offers a superior 3D view. This allows a better 3D understanding of the target volume and distribution of the radiation doses within the volume. Additional technical efforts to improve the temporal resolution and the development of software tools aimed at improving the performance of 3D contouring

  2. Robust consensus tracking for an integrator-type multi-agent system with disturbances and unmodelled dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guoqiang

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a robust consensus tracking problem for a multi-agent system with integrator-type dynamics has been addressed in the presence of disturbances and unmodelled dynamics. The desired trajectory to be tracked is only provided to a small group of team members. An identifier is developed to estimate the unknown disturbances and unmodelled dynamics. A consensus controller is developed based on this identifier to achieve asymptotic consensus tracking using the local information obtained from neighbouring agents. The closed-loop stability is proved using the Lyapunov-based analysis and an invariance-like theorem. Numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed robust consensus controller.

  3. Computed tomographic angiography of the superficial cerebral venous anastomosis based on volume rendering, multi-planar reconstruction, and integral imaging display.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qiong; Chen, Feng; Jiang, Anhong; Huang, Yanping; Deng, Xuefei

    2015-12-01

    As damage to the superficial cerebral venous anastomosis may create catastrophic complications even after successful surgery, it is important to visualize and determine the normal features of the venous anastomosis with computed tomographic angiography. A total of 90 patients underwent a 64-detector row helical CT scan of head. The superficial cerebral venous anastomosis was reconstructed by volume rendering, multi-planar reconstruction, and integral display algorithm. In particular, we examined the vein of Trolard, the vein of Labbe, and the vein of Sylvian, in order to analyze the venous anastomosis. The superficial cerebral venous anastomosis varied across different individuals, and in this study, six types of anastomosis were found. In 28 % of patients, no venous anastomosis was found in the unilateral cerebral hemisphere. The display rate of the vein of Trolard, the vein of Labbe, and the vein of Sylvian in contributing to venous anastomosis was 70, 80, and 91 %, respectively. The number of vein of Trolard and vein of Labbe on the left side was greater than that of those on the right side. We implemented the 64-detector row helical CT as a rapid and noninvasive method to investigate the superficial cerebral venous anastomosis in our group of patients. We performed substantial image processing for the visualization of the superficial cerebral venous anastomosis; this would not only enable the early diagnosis of cerebral venous disease, but also protect the cerebral vein during neurosurgical intervention.

  4. Perceptions of Smartphone User-Centered Mobile Health Tracking Apps Across Various Chronic Illness Populations: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Birkhoff, Susan D; Smeltzer, Suzanne C

    2017-07-01

    This integrative review presents a synthesis of the current qualitative research addressing the motivating factors, usability, and experiences of mobile health tracking applications (apps) across various chronic disease populations. Integrative review of the literature. Databases used to conduct this integrative review included: PubMed Plus, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Google Scholar, Science Direct, and EBSCO megafile. The following search terms were used in all five databases: smartphone apps, apps, mHealth, eHealth, mobile health apps, health tracking apps, user-centered apps, wireless technology, engagement, qualitative, and usability. The initial literature review yielded 689 results. Once inclusion and exclusion criteria were employed, 11 studies met the criteria set forth for this review. The reviewed studies provided insight into users' perceptions, experiences, and motivations to incorporate smartphone mobile health apps into their daily lives when living with chronic illnesses. This review indicates the growing interest in user-centered mobile health tracking apps, but with little understanding of motivating factors that foster sustained app use. Mobile health tracking apps targeted to users with chronic conditions need to have a high level of usability in order to motivate users to sustain engagement with their mobile health tracking app. User-centered mobile health tracking app technology is being used with increasing frequency to potentially provide individualized support to chronic illness populations. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Inertial and GPS data integration for positioning and tracking of GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarella, Simone; D'Alvano, Alessandro; Ferrara, Vincenzo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays many applications and studies use a Global Positioning System (GPS) to integrate Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data [1-2]. The aim is the production of detailed detection maps that are geo-referenced and superimposable on geographic maps themes. GPS provides data to determine static positioning, and to track the mobile detection system path on the land. A low-cost standard GPS, like GPS-622R by RF Solutions Ltd, allows accuracy around 2.5 m CEP (Circular Error Probability), and a maximum update rate of 10 Hz. These accuracy and update rate are satisfying values when we evaluate positioning datum, but they are unsuitable for precision tracking of a speedy-mobile GPR system. In order to determine the relative displacements with respect to an initial position on the territory, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) can be used. Some inertial-system applications for GPR tracking have been presented in recent studies [3-4]. The integration of both GPS and IMU systems is the aim of our work, in order to increase GPR applicability, e.g. the case of a GPR mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle for the detection of people buried under avalanches [5]. In this work, we will present the design, realization and experimental characterization of our electronic board that includes GPS-622R and AltIMU-10 v3 by Pololu. The latter comprises an inertial-measurement unit and an altimeter. In particular, the IMU adopts L3GD20 gyro and LSM303D accelerometer and magnetometer; the digital barometer LPS331AP provides data for altitude evaluation. The prototype of our system for GPR positioning and tracking is based on an Arduino microcontroller board. Acknowledgement This work benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar. ' References [1] M. Solla, X. Núñez-Nieto, M. Varela-González, J. Martínez-Sánchez, and P. Arias, 'GPR for Road Inspection: georeferencing and efficient

  6. Recording of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography, oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and cerebral blood flow during massage of premature infants.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, Jacek; Boberski, Marek; Butrymowicz, Ewa; Niedbalski, Paweł; Ogniewski, Paweł; Niedbalski, Marek; Niedbalski, Zbigniew; Podraza, Wojciech; Podraza, Hanna

    2012-08-01

    Stimulation of the nervous system plays an important role in brain function and psychomotor development of children. Massage can benefit premature infants, but has limitations. The authors conducted a study to verify the direct effects of massage on amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG), oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), and pulse analyzed by color cerebral function monitor (CCFM) and cerebral blood flow assessed by the Doppler technique. The amplitude of the aEEG trend during massage significantly increased. Massage also impacted the dominant frequency δ waves. Frequency significantly increased during the massage and return to baseline after treatment. SaO(2) significantly decreased during massage. In four premature infants, massage was discontinued due to desaturation below 85%. Pulse frequency during the massage decreased but remained within physiological limits of greater than 100 beats per minute in all infants. Doppler flow values in the anterior cerebral artery measured before and after massage did not show statistically significant changes. Resistance index after massage decreased, which might provide greater perfusion of the brain, but this difference was not statistically significant. Use of the CCFM device allows for monitoring of three basic physiologic functions, namely aEEG, SaO(2), and pulse, and increases the safety of massage in preterm infants. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers

  7. Sparsity and Biomechanics Inspired Integration of Shape and Speckle Tracking for Cardiac Deformation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Compas, Colin B.; Lin, Ben A.; Sampath, Smita; O’Donnell, Matthew; Sinusas, Albert J.; Duncan, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac motion analysis, particularly of the left ventricle (LV), can provide valuable information regarding the functional state of the heart. We propose a strategy of combining shape tracking and speckle tracking based displacements to calculate the dense deformation field of the myocardium. We introduce the use and effects of l1 regularization, which induces sparsity, in our integration method. We also introduce regularization to make the dense fields more adhering to cardiac biomechanics. Finally, we motivate the necessity of temporal coherence in the dense fields and demonstrate a way of doing so. We test our method on ultrasound (US) images acquired from six open-chested canine hearts. Baseline and post-occlusion strain results are presented for an animal, where we were able to detect significant change in the ischemic region. Six sets of strain results were also compared to strains obtained from tagged magnetic resonance (MR) data. Median correlation (with MR-tagging) coefficients of 0.73 and 0.82 were obtained for radial and circumferential strains respectively. PMID:27976753

  8. The Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF): A tool for the integrated assessment of acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, C.N.; Henrion, M.; Marnicio, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    A major challenge that has faced policy makers concerned with acid deposition is obtaining an integrated view of the underlying science related to acid deposition. In response to this challenge, the US Department of Energy is sponsoring the development of an integrated Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF) which links together the key acid deposition components of emissions, air transport, atmospheric deposition, and aquatic effects in a single modeling structure. The goal of TAF is to integrate credible models of the scientific and technical issues into an assessment framework that can directly address key policy issues, and in doing so act as a bridge between science and policy. Key objectives of TAF are to support coordination and communication among scientific researchers; to support communications with policy makers, and to provide rapid response for analyzing newly emerging policy issues; and to provide guidance for prioritizing research programs. This paper briefly describes how TAF was formulated to meet those objectives and the underlying principals which form the basis for its development.

  9. Flight parameters monitoring system for tracking structural integrity of rotary-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohammadi, Jamshid; Olkiewicz, Craig

    1994-01-01

    Recent developments in advanced monitoring systems used in conjunction with tracking structural integrity of rotary-wing aircraft are explained. The paper describes: (1) an overview of rotary-wing aircraft flight parameters that are critical to the aircraft loading conditions and each parameter's specific requirements in terms of data collection and processing; (2) description of the monitoring system and its functions used in a survey of rotary-wing aircraft; and (3) description of the method of analysis used for the data. The paper presents a newly-developed method in compiling flight data. The method utilizes the maneuver sequence of events in several pre-identified flight conditions to describe various flight parameters at three specific weight ranges.

  10. Real-Time Tracking of Parental Histones Reveals Their Contribution to Chromatin Integrity Following DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Adam, Salomé; Dabin, Juliette; Chevallier, Odile; Leroy, Olivier; Baldeyron, Céline; Corpet, Armelle; Lomonte, Patrick; Renaud, Olivier; Almouzni, Geneviève; Polo, Sophie E

    2016-10-06

    Chromatin integrity is critical for cell function and identity but is challenged by DNA damage. To understand how chromatin architecture and the information that it conveys are preserved or altered following genotoxic stress, we established a system for real-time tracking of parental histones, which characterize the pre-damage chromatin state. Focusing on histone H3 dynamics after local UVC irradiation in human cells, we demonstrate that parental histones rapidly redistribute around damaged regions by a dual mechanism combining chromatin opening and histone mobilization on chromatin. Importantly, parental histones almost entirely recover and mix with new histones in repairing chromatin. Our data further define a close coordination of parental histone dynamics with DNA repair progression through the damage sensor DDB2 (DNA damage-binding protein 2). We speculate that this mechanism may contribute to maintaining a memory of the original chromatin landscape and may help preserve epigenome stability in response to DNA damage.

  11. Thermal phase lag heterodyne infrared imaging for current tracking in radio frequency integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perpiñà, X.; León, J.; Altet, J.; Vellvehi, M.; Reverter, F.; Barajas, E.; Jordà, X.

    2017-02-01

    With thermal phase lag measurements, current paths are tracked in a Class A radio frequency (RF) power amplifier at 2 GHz. The amplifier is heterodynally driven at 440 MHz and 2 GHz, and its resulting thermal field was inspected, respectively, at 1013 and 113 Hz with an infrared lock-in thermography system. The phase lag maps evidence with a higher sensitivity than thermal amplitude measurements an input-output loop due to a substrate capacitive coupling. This limits the amplifier's performance, raising the power consumption in certain components. Other information relative to local power consumption and amplifier operation is also inferred. This approach allows the local non-invasive testing of integrated systems regardless of their operating frequency.

  12. The Integrated Waste Tracking Systems (IWTS) - A Comprehensive Waste Management Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson

    2005-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site located near Idaho Falls, ID USA, has developed a comprehensive waste management and tracking tool that integrates multiple operational activities with characterization data from waste declaration through final waste disposition. The Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS) provides information necessary to help facility personnel properly manage their waste and demonstrate a wide range of legal and regulatory compliance. As a client?server database system, the IWTS is a proven tracking, characterization, compliance, and reporting tool that meets the needs of both operations and management while providing a high level of flexibility. This paper describes some of the history involved with the development and current use of IWTS as a comprehensive waste management tool as well as a discussion of IWTS deployments performed by the INL for outside clients. Waste management spans a wide range of activities including: work group interactions, regulatory compliance management, reporting, procedure management, and similar activities. The IWTS documents these activities and performs tasks in a computer-automated environment. Waste characterization data, container characterization data, shipments, waste processing, disposals, reporting, and limit compliance checks are just a few of the items that IWTS documents and performs to help waste management personnel perform their jobs. Throughout most hazardous and radioactive waste generating, storage and disposal sites, waste management is performed by many different groups of people in many facilities. Several organizations administer their areas of waste management using their own procedures and documentation independent of other organizations. Files are kept, some of which are treated as quality records, others not as stringent. Quality records maintain a history of: changes performed after approval, the reason for the change(s), and a record of whom and when

  13. Labeling the Structural Integrity of Nanoparticles for Advanced In Situ Tracking in Bionanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Meder, Fabian; Thomas, Steffi S; Fitzpatrick, Laurence W; Alahmari, Amirah; Wang, Suxiao; Beirne, Jason G; Vaz, Gizela; Redmond, Gareth; Dawson, Kenneth A

    2016-04-26

    Observing structural integrity of nanoparticles is essential in bionanotechnology but not always straightforward to measure in situ and in real-time. Fluorescent labels used for tracking intrinsically nonfluorescent nanomaterials generally do not allow simultaneous observation of integrity. Consequently, structural changes like degradation and disassembly cannot easily be followed in situ using fluorescence signals. We show that thioflavin T (ThT), a fluorophore and molecular rotor known to tag specific fibril structures in amyloids, can "label" the structural integrity of widely used and intrinsically nonfluorescent, silica nanoparticles (SiNPs). Entrapment of ThT in SiNPs controls the fluorohphore's relaxation pathway and leads to a red-shifted fluorescence spectrum providing real time information on SiNP integrity. The dynamic change of ThT fluorescence during degradation of doped SiNPs is found much higher than that of common labels fluorescein and rhodamine. Degradation kinetics of core-shell structures recorded by ThT fluorescence and light scattering prove the capability to clearly distinguish structural features during SiNPs degradation and allow obtaining degradation kinetics in vitro, in biological media, in serum, and in cells. The effect is transferable to different types of materials, here shown for ThT incorporated SiNPs with tightly tailorable sizes (9-100 nm), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) nanoparticles, and iron-doped-SiNPs (FeSiNPs). We thus suggest molecular rotors such as ThT as additional labels to effectively and easily sense nanoparticle structural status in situ and to enhance understanding and development of programmed nanoparticle disassembly in bionanotechnology.

  14. Discovery of a ROCK inhibitor, FPND, which prevents cerebral hemorrhage through maintaining vascular integrity by interference with VE-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shang; Ai, Nana; Shen, Mingyun; Dang, Yuanye; Chong, Cheong-Meng; Pan, Peichen; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Chan, Shun Wan; Leung, George Pak Heng; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man; Hou, Tingjun; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2017-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a weakened vessel ruptures and bleeds into the surrounding brain, leading to high rates of death and disability worldwide. A series of complex pathophysiological cascades contribute to the risk of hemorrhagic stroke, and no therapies have proven effective to prevent hemorrhagic stroke. Stabilization of vascular integrity has been considered as a potential therapeutic target for hemorrhagic stroke. ROCKs, which belong to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and participate in the organization of actin cytoskeleton, have become attractive targets for the treatment of strokes. In this study, in vitro enzyme-based assays revealed that a new compound (FPND) with a novel scaffold identified by docking-based virtual screening could inhibit ROCK1 specifically at low micromolar concentration. Molecular modeling showed that FPND preferentially interacted with ROCK1, and the difference between the binding affinity of FPND toward ROCK1 and ROCK2 primarily resulted from non-polar contributions. Furthermore, FPND significantly prevented statin-induced cerebral hemorrhage in a zebrafish model. In addition, in vitro studies using the xCELLigence RTCA system, immunofluorescence and western blotting revealed that FPND prevented statin-induced cerebral hemorrhage by enhancing endothelial cell–cell junctions through inhibiting the ROCK-mediated VE-cadherin signaling pathway. As indicated by the extremely low toxicity of FPND against mice, it is safe and can potentially prevent vascular integrity loss-related diseases, such as hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:28845297

  15. Discovery of a ROCK inhibitor, FPND, which prevents cerebral hemorrhage through maintaining vascular integrity by interference with VE-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Li, Shang; Ai, Nana; Shen, Mingyun; Dang, Yuanye; Chong, Cheong-Meng; Pan, Peichen; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Chan, Shun Wan; Leung, George Pak Heng; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man; Hou, Tingjun; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2017-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a weakened vessel ruptures and bleeds into the surrounding brain, leading to high rates of death and disability worldwide. A series of complex pathophysiological cascades contribute to the risk of hemorrhagic stroke, and no therapies have proven effective to prevent hemorrhagic stroke. Stabilization of vascular integrity has been considered as a potential therapeutic target for hemorrhagic stroke. ROCKs, which belong to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and participate in the organization of actin cytoskeleton, have become attractive targets for the treatment of strokes. In this study, in vitro enzyme-based assays revealed that a new compound (FPND) with a novel scaffold identified by docking-based virtual screening could inhibit ROCK1 specifically at low micromolar concentration. Molecular modeling showed that FPND preferentially interacted with ROCK1, and the difference between the binding affinity of FPND toward ROCK1 and ROCK2 primarily resulted from non-polar contributions. Furthermore, FPND significantly prevented statin-induced cerebral hemorrhage in a zebrafish model. In addition, in vitro studies using the xCELLigence RTCA system, immunofluorescence and western blotting revealed that FPND prevented statin-induced cerebral hemorrhage by enhancing endothelial cell-cell junctions through inhibiting the ROCK-mediated VE-cadherin signaling pathway. As indicated by the extremely low toxicity of FPND against mice, it is safe and can potentially prevent vascular integrity loss-related diseases, such as hemorrhagic stroke.

  16. Managing your investment in environmental compliance with integrated cost and benefit tracking analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Easter, C.D.

    1997-12-31

    This paper is designed to assist environmental managers in establishing an integrated approach to tracking the economic cost and benefit of compliance with environmental regulations. The Integrated Environmental Management System (IEMS) consists of a program which outlines reports, permits, data analysis and construction related projects that are necessary for compliance with federal, state and local requirements and establishes a dollar value in terms of both labor hours and capital expenditures for a given facility. This dollar value is cross-referenced with an Environmental Benefit Score (EBS) which is a ``weighted`` function of the following factors: pollution reduction, employee health and safety protection, community/public relations benefits and program/equipment durability. This system will improve the environmental budget managers` ability to efficiently apply resources to the proper project areas for maximum benefit. The data for this paper was compiled by reviewing environmental expenditure data for facilities over the previous decade and analyzing the impact in terms of the heretofore mentioned factors included in the Environmental Benefit Score (EBS). Through this process, a model program was designed which can be applied, with adjustments, to either public or private organizations. It is clear that a well managed and carefully chosen program of resource allocation is more efficient than a blanket program that attempts to broadly comply with all regulatory challenges concurrently.

  17. Tracking of Specific Integrant Clones in Dogs Treated with Foamy Virus Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Ohmine, Ken; Li, Yi; Bauer, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Vector integration can lead to proto-oncogene activation and malignancies during hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. We previously used foamy virus vectors to deliver the CD18 gene under the control of an internal murine stem cell virus promoter and successfully treated dogs with canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Here we have tracked the copy numbers of 11 specific proviruses found in these animals for 36–42 months after transplantation, including examples within or near proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and genes unrelated to cancer. We found no evidence for clonal expansion of any of the clones, including those with proviruses in the MECOM gene (MDS1-EVI1 complex). These results suggest that although foamy virus vectors may integrate near proto-oncogenes, this does not necessarily lead to clonal expansion and malignancies. Additionally, we show that copy number estimates of these specific proviruses based on linker-mediated PCR results are different from those obtained by quantitative PCR, but can provide a qualitative assessment of provirus levels. PMID:20738155

  18. Effects of visual perceptual intervention on visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Cho, MiLim; Kim, DeokJu; Yang, Yeongae

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find the effects of a visual perceptual intervention on visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy as subjects. [Methods] This study was conducted with 56 children who were diagnosed as having cerebral palsy. The visual perceptual intervention was implemented for 8 weeks, 3 times a week, for 30 minutes per session, for a total of 24 sessions. All children were assessed using the VMI and WeeFIM to evaluate visual motor integration and activities of daily living skills, immediately before and after the 8-week intervention. [Results] The VMI and WeeFIM scores of all of the 56 children with CP who participated in the study improved, and the improvements were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Visual perceptual intervention had a positive influence on the visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy.

  19. Effects of visual perceptual intervention on visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, MiLim; Kim, DeokJu; Yang, Yeongae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find the effects of a visual perceptual intervention on visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy as subjects. [Methods] This study was conducted with 56 children who were diagnosed as having cerebral palsy. The visual perceptual intervention was implemented for 8 weeks, 3 times a week, for 30 minutes per session, for a total of 24 sessions. All children were assessed using the VMI and WeeFIM to evaluate visual motor integration and activities of daily living skills, immediately before and after the 8-week intervention. [Results] The VMI and WeeFIM scores of all of the 56 children with CP who participated in the study improved, and the improvements were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Visual perceptual intervention had a positive influence on the visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:25729180

  20. Taxifolin inhibits amyloid-β oligomer formation and fully restores vascular integrity and memory in cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Yumi; Maki, Takakuni; Hattori, Yorito; Ito, Hideki; Mizuno, Katsuhiko; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Kalaria, Raj N; Fukushima, Masanori; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ihara, Masafumi

    2017-04-04

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) induces various forms of cerebral infarcts and hemorrhages from vascular amyloid-β accumulation, resulting in acceleration of cognitive impairment, which is currently untreatable. Soluble amyloid-β protein likely impairs cerebrovascular integrity as well as cognitive function in early stage Alzheimer's disease. Taxifolin, a flavonol with strong anti-oxidative and anti-glycation activities, has been reported to disassemble amyloid-β in vitro but the in vivo relevance remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether taxifolin has therapeutic potential in attenuating CAA, hypothesizing that inhibiting amyloid-β assembly may facilitate its clearance through several elimination pathways. Vehicle- or taxifolin-treated Tg-SwDI mice (commonly used to model CAA) were used in this investigation. Cognitive and cerebrovascular function, as well as the solubility and oligomerization of brain amyloid-β proteins, were investigated. Spatial reference memory was assessed by water maze test. Cerebral blood flow was measured with laser speckle flowmetry and cerebrovascular reactivity evaluated by monitoring cerebral blood flow changes in response to hypercapnia. Significantly reduced cerebrovascular pan-amyloid-β and amyloid-β1-40 accumulation was found in taxifolin-treated Tg-SwDI mice compared to vehicle-treated counterparts (n = 5). Spatial reference memory was severely impaired in vehicle-treated Tg-SwDI mice but normalized after taxifolin treatment, with scoring similar to wild type mice (n = 10-17). Furthermore, taxifolin completely restored decreased cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity in Tg-SwDI mice (n = 4-6). An in vitro thioflavin-T assay showed taxifolin treatment resulted in efficient inhibition of amyloid-β1-40 assembly. In addition, a filter trap assay and ELISA showed Tg-SwDI mouse brain homogenates exhibited significantly reduced levels of amyloid-β oligomers in vivo after taxifolin treatment (n

  1. Tracking of In-111-labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using SPECT imaging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to increase understanding of how infused cells work, it becomes important to track their initial movement, localization, and engraftment efficiency following transplantation. However, the available in vivo cell tracking techniques are suboptimal. The study objective was to determine the biodistribution of intravenously administered Indium-111 (In-111) oxine labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAo) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods Rats received 3 million In-111 labeled hUTC (i.v.) 48 hrs after tMCAo. Following the administration of either hUTC or equivalent dose of In-111-oxine (18.5 MBq), animals underwent SPECT imaging on days 0, 1, and 3. Radioactivity in various organs as well as in the stroke area and contralateral hemisphere was determined, decay corrected and normalized to the total (whole body including head) radioactivity on day 0. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to confirm the beneficial effects of hUTC on vascular and synaptic density, and apoptosis. Results Most of the radioactivity (43.36±23.07% on day 0) trafficked to the lungs immediately following IV administration of In-111 labeled hUTC (day 0) and decreased drastically to 8.81±7.75 and 4.01±4.52% on days 1 and 3 post-injection, respectively. In contrast, radioactivity measured in the lung of animals that received In-111-oxine alone remained relatively unchanged from day 0 to day 1 (18.38±5.45% at day 0 to 12.59±5.94%) and decreased to 8.34±4.25% on day 3. Significantly higher radioactivity was observed in stroke areas of animals that received In-111 labeled hUTC indicating the presence of cells at the site of injury representing approximately 1% of total administered dose. In addition, there was significant increase in vascular and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in stroke areas of rats that received In-111 labeled hUTC. Conclusions The present

  2. Tracking of In-111-labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using SPECT imaging.

    PubMed

    Arbab, Ali S; Thiffault, Christine; Navia, Bradford; Victor, Stephen J; Hong, Klaudyne; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Quan; Varma, Nadimpalli Rs; Iskander, Asm; Chopp, Michael

    2012-12-06

    In order to increase understanding of how infused cells work, it becomes important to track their initial movement, localization, and engraftment efficiency following transplantation. However, the available in vivo cell tracking techniques are suboptimal. The study objective was to determine the biodistribution of intravenously administered Indium-111 (In-111) oxine labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAo) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Rats received 3 million In-111 labeled hUTC (i.v.) 48 hrs after tMCAo. Following the administration of either hUTC or equivalent dose of In-111-oxine (18.5 MBq), animals underwent SPECT imaging on days 0, 1, and 3. Radioactivity in various organs as well as in the stroke area and contralateral hemisphere was determined, decay corrected and normalized to the total (whole body including head) radioactivity on day 0. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to confirm the beneficial effects of hUTC on vascular and synaptic density, and apoptosis. Most of the radioactivity (43.36±23.07% on day 0) trafficked to the lungs immediately following IV administration of In-111 labeled hUTC (day 0) and decreased drastically to 8.81±7.75 and 4.01±4.52% on days 1 and 3 post-injection, respectively. In contrast, radioactivity measured in the lung of animals that received In-111-oxine alone remained relatively unchanged from day 0 to day 1 (18.38±5.45% at day 0 to 12.59±5.94%) and decreased to 8.34±4.25% on day 3. Significantly higher radioactivity was observed in stroke areas of animals that received In-111 labeled hUTC indicating the presence of cells at the site of injury representing approximately 1% of total administered dose. In addition, there was significant increase in vascular and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in stroke areas of rats that received In-111 labeled hUTC. The present studies showed the tracking of In-111 labeled

  3. Dynamic Systems for Individual Tracking via Heterogeneous Information Integration and Crowd Source Distributed Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-04

    Tracking the movement of individuals in complex urban environments using mobile sensors is a challenging, but important problem in applications such...collection and analysis of energy usage of distributed simulations. 6 1   DDDAS System Overview Tracking the movement of vehicles in...recognition, scene analysis, and trajectory detection and prediction. This project focused on tracking the movement of individuals traveling in vehicles

  4. MetaTracker: integration and abstraction of 3D motion tracking data from multiple hardware systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopecky, Ken; Winer, Eliot

    2014-06-01

    Motion tracking has long been one of the primary challenges in mixed reality (MR), augmented reality (AR), and virtual reality (VR). Military and defense training can provide particularly difficult challenges for motion tracking, such as in the case of Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) and other dismounted, close quarters simulations. These simulations can take place across multiple rooms, with many fast-moving objects that need to be tracked with a high degree of accuracy and low latency. Many tracking technologies exist, such as optical, inertial, ultrasonic, and magnetic. Some tracking systems even combine these technologies to complement each other. However, there are no systems that provide a high-resolution, flexible, wide-area solution that is resistant to occlusion. While frameworks exist that simplify the use of tracking systems and other input devices, none allow data from multiple tracking systems to be combined, as if from a single system. In this paper, we introduce a method for compensating for the weaknesses of individual tracking systems by combining data from multiple sources and presenting it as a single tracking system. Individual tracked objects are identified by name, and their data is provided to simulation applications through a server program. This allows tracked objects to transition seamlessly from the area of one tracking system to another. Furthermore, it abstracts away the individual drivers, APIs, and data formats for each system, providing a simplified API that can be used to receive data from any of the available tracking systems. Finally, when single-piece tracking systems are used, those systems can themselves be tracked, allowing for real-time adjustment of the trackable area. This allows simulation operators to leverage limited resources in more effective ways, improving the quality of training.

  5. The first assessment of operative logs for traditional vascular fellowship track versus integrated vascular training programs.

    PubMed

    Batista, Philip; Abai, Babak; Salvatore, Dawn; DiMuzio, Paul

    2015-10-01

    As vascular surgery training paradigms evolve, one measure of success is operative experience. This study assessed the initial operative experience of those graduating from new integrated programs (0+5) vs those from the traditional programs (5+2). National operative case log data supplied by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education was compiled for vascular surgical residents graduating between 2010 and 2013. Mean case numbers for the 0+5 residents were compared with those for the 5+2 residents (experience from their general surgery residency plus vascular fellowship) for total vascular operations, open vascular operations, endovascular procedures, and total operative experience. The 5+2 trainees performed significantly more procedures than the 0+5 trainees (mean, 1605 vs 1015); however, they performed 12% less vascular procedures (mean, 758 vs 851). No significant differences in total number of open vascular operations (mean, 404 vs 411) or specific open operations for cerebral vascular disease, aneurysm, peripheral obstruction, and access were found. The increase in vascular procedures logged by 0+5 trainees was realized by a 24% increase in endovascular procedures, mainly involving diagnostic arteriography, caval filter placement, and balloon angioplasty. No significant differences were seen in endovascular aneurysm repair (mean, 63 vs 60) and stent placement (mean, 59 vs 60). This report summarizes the first data available for the 0+5 trainee operative experience. Compared with the traditional 5+2 trainees, the 0+5 trainees have (1) equivalent open vascular training and (2) overall superior endovascular training, although this was accounted via an increase in minor procedures. The overall operative experience remains greater for the 5+2 trainees secondary to 2 extra years of training. Further longitudinal studies will be needed to fully characterize the effect of the new 0+5 training paradigm. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Robust synchronisation tracking control of networked Euler-Lagrange systems using reference trajectory estimation based on virtual double-integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zi-Jiang; Qin, Pan

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers the problem of distributed synchronisation tracking control of multiple Euler-Lagrange systems on a directed graph which contains a spanning tree with the leader node being the root. To design the high performance distributed controllers, a virtual double-integrator is introduced in each agent and is controlled by a virtual distributed linear high-gain synchronisation tracking controller, so that the position and velocity of each agent track those of the reference trajectory with arbitrarily short transient time and small ultimate tracking error. Then taking the double-integrator's position and velocity as the estimates of those of the reference trajectory, in each generalised coordinate of each Euler-Lagrange agent, a local controller with a disturbance observer and a sliding mode control term is designed, to suppress the mutual interactions among the agents and the modelling uncertainties. The boundedness of the overall signals and the synchronisation tracking control performance are analysed, and the conditions for guaranteed control performance are clarified. Simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the performance of the distributed controllers.

  7. Noninvasive targeting delivery and in vivo magnetic resonance tracking method for live apoptotic cells in cerebral ischemia with functional Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsushi; Mekawy, Moataz M; Sumiyoshi, Akira; Riera, Jorge J; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Kawashima, Ryuta; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-03-11

    Apoptotic neuronal death is known as programmed cell death. Inhibition of this progression might contribute to a new treatment strategy. However, methods for in vivo detection of live apoptotic cells are in need to be developed and established. The purpose of this study is to develop a new method for in vivo brain imaging for live apoptotic lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We focused on the specific accumulation of our recently developed functional magnetic nanoparticles (FMNPs) into apoptotic cells using a rat cerebral ischemia model. Sulphorhodamine B, fluorescent dye was linked to valylalanylaspartic acid fluoromethyl ketone as a pan-caspase inhibitor to form SR-FLIVO. SR-FLIVO was bound with FMNPs to develop SR-FLIVO-FMNP probe. Ischemic rat brains were scanned by 7T MRI before and after intravenous injection of SR-FLIVO-FMNP and the distribution was evaluated by subtraction images of T2* colored mapping. SR-FLIVO, intracellular FMNPs, and T2* reduction area were histologically analyzed. The distribution of SR-FLIVO-FMNP was evaluated by subtracting the T2* signal images and was significantly correlated with the histological findings by TUNEL staining. Our experimental results revealed several findings where our newly developed probe SR-FLIVO-FMNP was intravenously administered into ischemic rats and FLIVO expression was tracked and found in apoptotic cells in rat brains after cerebral ischemia. A remarkable T2* reduction within the ischemic lesion was recorded using MRI based SR-FLIVO-FMNP probe as a contrasting agent due to the specific probe accumulation in apoptotic cells whereas, no observation of T2* reduction within the non-ischemic lesion due to no probe accumulation in non-apoptotic cells. Histological analysis based on the correlation between FLIVO and TUNEL staining showed that almost all FLIVO-positive cells were positive for TUNEL staining. These findings suggest the possibility for establishment of in vivo targeting delivery

  8. Host matrix metalloproteinases in cerebral malaria: new kids on the block against blood–brain barrier integrity?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a life-threatening complication of falciparum malaria, associated with high mortality rates, as well as neurological impairment in surviving patients. Despite disease severity, the etiology of CM remains elusive. Interestingly, although the Plasmodium parasite is sequestered in cerebral microvessels, it does not enter the brain parenchyma: so how does Plasmodium induce neuronal dysfunction? Several independent research groups have suggested a mechanism in which increased blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability might allow toxic molecules from the parasite or the host to enter the brain. However, the reported severity of BBB damage in CM is variable depending on the model system, ranging from mild impairment to full BBB breakdown. Moreover, the factors responsible for increased BBB permeability are still unknown. Here we review the prevailing theories on CM pathophysiology and discuss new evidence from animal and human CM models implicating BBB damage. Finally, we will review the newly-described role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and BBB integrity. MMPs comprise a family of proteolytic enzymes involved in modulating inflammatory response, disrupting tight junctions, and degrading sub-endothelial basal lamina. As such, MMPs represent potential innovative drug targets for CM. PMID:24467887

  9. Head tracking based on the integration of two different particle filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Tian, Weifeng; Jin, Zhihua

    2006-11-01

    Existing methods of improving particle filters mainly focus on two aspects: designing a good proposal distribution before sampling and allocating particles to a high posterior area after sampling. An auxiliary particle filter (APF) is one such simple algorithm belonging to the former aspect, which generates particles from an importance distribution depending on a more recent observation. Its weakness is that it requires a large number of particles. On the other hand, a kernel-based particle filter (KPF), which belongs to the latter aspect, is able to greatly reduce the number of particles required and is still able to capture good characteristics of the posterior density. However, a KPF does not take the current observation into account. To utilize their respective strengths, a new algorithm is proposed in this paper with the combination of an APF and a KPF, the APF for designing good proposal density and the KPF for exploring the dominant mode of the posterior density. Experimental results in several real-tracking scenarios demonstrate that the integrated algorithm surpasses the standard particle filter (SPF) when encountering weak dynamic models. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is also able to achieve a comparable performance with KPF whilst reducing computational cost.

  10. Tracking patient radiation exposure: challenges to integrating nuclear medicine with other modalities

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, Mathew; Rehani, Madan M.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The cumulative radiation exposure to the patient from multiple radiological procedures can place some individuals at significantly increased risk for stochastic effects and tissue reactions. Approaches, such as those in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Smart Card program, have been developed to track cumulative radiation exposures to individuals. These strategies often rely on the availability of structured dose reports, typically found in the DICOM header. Dosimetry information is currently readily available for many individual x-ray based procedures. Nuclear medicine, of which nuclear cardiology constitutes the majority of the radiation burden in the U.S., currently lags behind x-ray based procedures with respect to reporting of radiation dosimetric information. This paper discusses qualitative differences between nuclear medicine and x-ray based procedures, including differences in the radiation source and measurement of its strength, the impact of biokinetics on dosimetry, and the capability of current scanners to record dosimetry information. These differences create challenges in applying monitoring and reporting strategies used in x-ray based procedures to nuclear medicine, and integrating dosimetry information across modalities. A concerted effort by the medical imaging community, dosimetry specialists and manufacturers of imaging equipment is required to develop strategies to improve the reporting of radiation dosimetry data in nuclear medicine. Some ideas on how to address this issue are suggested. PMID:22695788

  11. Mass tracking and material accounting in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR)

    SciTech Connect

    Orechwa, Y.; Adams, C.H.; White, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a generic advanced liquid metal cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). There are a number of technical features of the IFR which contribute to its potential as a next-generation reactor. These are associated with large safety margins with regard to off-normal events involving the heat transport system, and the use of metallic fuel which makes possible the utilization of innovative fuel cycle processes. The latter feature permits fuel cycle closure the compact, low-cost reprocessing facilities, collocated with the reactor plant. These primary features are being demonstrated in the facilities at ANL-West, utilizing Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the associated Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) as an IFR prototype. The demonstration of this IFR prototype includes the design and implementation of the Mass-Tracking System (MTG). In this system, data from the operations of the FCF, including weights and batch-process parameters, are collected and maintained by the MTG running on distributed workstations. The components of the MTG System include: (1) an Oracle database manager with a Fortran interface, (2) a set of MTG Tasks'' which collect, manipulate and report data, (3) a set of MTG Terminal Sessions'' which provide some interactive control of the Tasks, and (4) a set of servers which manage the Tasks and which provide the communications link between the MTG System and Operator Control Stations, which control process equipment and monitoring devices within the FCF.

  12. Model Predictive Control with Integral Action for Current Density Profile Tracking in NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilhan, Z. O.; Wehner, W. P.; Schuster, E.; Boyer, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    Active control of the toroidal current density profile may play a critical role in non-inductively sustained long-pulse, high-beta scenarios in a spherical torus (ST) configuration, which is among the missions of the NSTX-U facility. In this work, a previously developed physics-based control-oriented model is embedded in a feedback control scheme based on a model predictive control (MPC) strategy to track a desired current density profile evolution specified indirectly by a desired rotational transform profile. An integrator is embedded into the standard MPC formulation to reject various modeling uncertainties and external disturbances. Neutral beam powers, electron density, and total plasma current are used as actuators. The proposed MPC strategy incorporates various state and actuator constraints directly into the control design process by solving a constrained optimization problem in real-time to determine the optimal actuator requests. The effectiveness of the proposed controller in regulating the current density profile in NSTX-U is demonstrated in closed-loop nonlinear simulations. Supported by the US DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. Cathepsin L acutely alters microvessel integrity within the neurovascular unit during focal cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yu-Huan; Kanazawa, Masato; Hung, Stephanie Y; Wang, Xiaoyun; Fukuda, Shunichi; Koziol, James A; del Zoppo, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    During focal cerebral ischemia, the degradation of microvessel basal lamina matrix occurs acutely and is associated with edema formation and microhemorrhage. These events have been attributed to matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). However, both known protease generation and ligand specificities suggest other participants. Using cerebral tissues from a non-human primate focal ischemia model and primary murine brain endothelial cells, astrocytes, and microglia in culture, the effects of active cathepsin L have been defined. Within 2 hours of ischemia onset cathepsin L, but not cathepsin B, activity appears in the ischemic core, around microvessels, within regions of neuron injury and cathepsin L expression. In in vitro studies, cathepsin L activity is generated during experimental ischemia in microglia, but not astrocytes or endothelial cells. In the acidic ischemic core, cathepsin L release is significantly increased with time. A novel ex vivo assay showed that cathepsin L released from microglia during ischemia degrades microvessel matrix, and interacts with MMP activity. Hence, the loss of microvessel matrix during ischemia is explained by microglial cathepsin L release in the acidic core during injury evolution. The roles of cathepsin L and its interactions with specific MMP activities during ischemia are relevant to strategies to reduce microvessel injury and hemorrhage. PMID:26198177

  14. Dimethyl fumarate attenuates cerebral edema formation by protecting the blood-brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Reiner; Urrutia, Andrés; Hoffmann, Angelika; Liu, Hui; Helluy, Xavier; Pham, Mirko; Reischl, Stefan; Korff, Thomas; Marti, Hugo H

    2015-04-01

    Brain edema is a hallmark of various neuropathologies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We aim to characterize how tissue hypoxia, together with oxidative stress and inflammation, leads to capillary dysfunction and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In a mouse stroke model we show that systemic treatment with dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an antioxidant drug clinically used for psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, significantly prevented edema formation in vivo. Indeed, DMF stabilized the BBB by preventing disruption of interendothelial tight junctions and gap formation, and decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity in brain tissue. In vitro, DMF directly sustained endothelial tight junctions, inhibited inflammatory cytokine expression, and attenuated leukocyte transmigration. We also demonstrate that these effects are mediated via activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). DMF activated the Nrf2 pathway as shown by up-regulation of several Nrf2 target genes in the brain in vivo, as well as in cerebral endothelial cells and astrocytes in vitro, where DMF also increased protein abundance of nuclear Nrf2. Finally, Nrf2 knockdown in endothelial cells aggravated subcellular delocalization of tight junction proteins during ischemic conditions, and attenuated the protective effect exerted by DMF. Overall, our data suggest that DMF protects from cerebral edema formation during ischemic stroke by targeting interendothelial junctions in an Nrf2-dependent manner, and provide the basis for a completely new approach to treat brain edema.

  15. Evaluating an Integrated Approach to the Management of Cerebral Palsy. Appendix A: IMCP Documentation Handbook. Volume II of IV. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heal, Laird W.; And Others

    The appendix is a guide to the curriculum and training procedures of the Integrated Management of Cerebral Palsy project which evaluated the effectiveness of a program of conductive education. Introductory sections provide an overview of conductive education (training motorically disabled children in small, motivating groups of similarly…

  16. Curriculum Tracking and Delinquency: Toward an Integration of Educational and Delinquency Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiatrowski, Michael D.; And Others

    Placement in a non-college curriculum track may cause losses in self-esteem and increased delinquency. A nationally representative, longitudinal sample of over 1600 high school boys was examined by means of a status attainment perspective to conceptualize tracking influences on delinquency, and by path models to explore assumptions about the…

  17. Evidence-based use of electronic clinical tracking systems in advanced practice registered nurse education: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Branstetter, M Laurie; Smith, Lynette S; Brooks, Andrea F

    2014-07-01

    Over the past decade, the federal government has mandated healthcare providers to incorporate electronic health records into practice by 2015. This technological update in healthcare documentation has generated a need for advanced practice RN programs to incorporate information technology into education. The National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties created core competencies to guide program standards for advanced practice RN education. One core competency is Technology and Information Literacy. Educational programs are moving toward the utilization of electronic clinical tracking systems to capture students' clinical encounter data. The purpose of this integrative review was to evaluate current research on advanced practice RN students' documentation of clinical encounters utilizing electronic clinical tracking systems to meet advanced practice RN curriculum outcome goals in information technology as defined by the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties. The state of the science depicts student' and faculty attitudes, preferences, opinions, and data collections of students' clinical encounters. Although electronic clinical tracking systems were utilized to track students' clinical encounters, these systems have not been evaluated for meeting information technology core competency standards. Educational programs are utilizing electronic clinical tracking systems with limited evidence-based literature evaluating the ability of these systems to meet the core competencies in advanced practice RN programs.

  18. NOTE: Tradeoffs of integrating real-time tracking into IGRT for prostate cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Bourland, J. D.; Yuan, Y.; Zhuang, T.; O'Daniel, J.; Thongphiew, D.; Wu, Q. J.; Das, S. K.; Yoo, S.; Yin, F. F.

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the integration of the Calypso real-time tracking system, based on implanted ferromagnetic transponders and a detector array, into the current process for image-guided radiation treatment (IGRT) of prostate cancer at our institution. The current IGRT process includes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prostate delineation, CT simulation for treatment planning, daily on-board kV and CBCT imaging for target alignment, and MRI/MRS for post-treatment assessment. This study assesses (1) magnetic-field-induced displacement and radio-frequency (RF)-induced heating of transponders during MRI at 1.5 T and 3 T, and (2) image artifacts caused by transponders and the detector array in phantom and patient cases with the different imaging systems. A tissue-equivalent phantom mimicking prostate tissue stiffness was constructed and implanted with three operational transponders prior to phantom solidification. The measurements show that the Calypso system is safe with all the imaging systems. Transponder position displacements due to the MR field are minimal (<1.0 mm) for both 1.5 T and 3 T MRI scanners, and the temperature variation due to MRI RF heating is <0.2 °C. The visibility of transponders and bony anatomy was not affected on the OBI kV and CT images. Image quality degradation caused by the detector antenna array is observed in the CBCT image. Image artifacts are most significant with the gradient echo sequence in the MR images, producing null signals surrounding the transponders with radii ~1.5 cm and length ~4 cm. Thus, Calypso transponders can preclude the use of MRI/MRS in post-treatment assessment. Modifications of the clinical flow are required to accommodate and minimize the substantial MRI artifacts induced by the Calypso transponders.

  19. Tradeoffs of integrating real-time tracking into IGRT for prostate cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Bourland, J D; Yuan, Y; Zhuang, T; O'Daniel, J; Thongphiew, D; Wu, Q J; Das, S K; Yoo, S; Yin, F F

    2009-09-07

    This study investigated the integration of the Calypso real-time tracking system, based on implanted ferromagnetic transponders and a detector array, into the current process for image-guided radiation treatment (IGRT) of prostate cancer at our institution. The current IGRT process includes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prostate delineation, CT simulation for treatment planning, daily on-board kV and CBCT imaging for target alignment, and MRI/MRS for post-treatment assessment. This study assesses (1) magnetic-field-induced displacement and radio-frequency (RF)-induced heating of transponders during MRI at 1.5 T and 3 T, and (2) image artifacts caused by transponders and the detector array in phantom and patient cases with the different imaging systems. A tissue-equivalent phantom mimicking prostate tissue stiffness was constructed and implanted with three operational transponders prior to phantom solidification. The measurements show that the Calypso system is safe with all the imaging systems. Transponder position displacements due to the MR field are minimal (<1.0 mm) for both 1.5 T and 3 T MRI scanners, and the temperature variation due to MRI RF heating is <0.2 degrees C. The visibility of transponders and bony anatomy was not affected on the OBI kV and CT images. Image quality degradation caused by the detector antenna array is observed in the CBCT image. Image artifacts are most significant with the gradient echo sequence in the MR images, producing null signals surrounding the transponders with radii approximately 1.5 cm and length approximately 4 cm. Thus, Calypso transponders can preclude the use of MRI/MRS in post-treatment assessment. Modifications of the clinical flow are required to accommodate and minimize the substantial MRI artifacts induced by the Calypso transponders.

  20. Design and Integration of a Driving Simulator With Eye-Tracking Capabilities in the Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-09

    CAREN Driving Simulation 1 Naval Health Research Center Design and Integration of a Driving Simulator With Eye-Tracking Capabilities in...California 92106-3521 CAREN Driving Simulation 2 INTRODUCTION The Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN; Motek Medical BV, Amsterdam...activate events, and record information. The ideal driving simulator for NHRC would include a variety of easily modified road courses, and it would

  1. Integration of the real-time tracking gradiometer (RTG) aboard the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) Morpheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, George I.; Matthews, Robert; Wynn, Michael

    2001-10-01

    In keeping with the Navy's policy to remove humans from harms way, the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is replacing human divers for many missions. The Advanced Marine Systems Lab at Florida Atlantic University (FAU) has developed a small, magnetically friendly, modular plastic AUV called Morpheus designed for coastal applications and especially suited for very shallow water (VSW) mine reconnaissance. Currently employed sensor technologies on AUVs have certain deficiencies and limitations when used across the wide gamut of naval targets and environments, and a strong requirement exists for a sensor or sensors to fill these niches. The Real-time Tracking Gradiometer (RTG) selected for this integration is truly such a niche sensor because its capabilities are not degraded by media interfaces or environmental conditions. It is an experimental prototype fluxgate magnetometer array developed by Quantum Magnetics for the Coastal Systems Station (CSS) and was designed to be man portable and self contained. While limited by physics in detection range, it is capable of detecting ferrous targets under the worst environmental conditions, even when the target is buried. While not having the range of sonar, the RTG does not respond to the false alarms that are indicated by sonar, and since it is capable of also providing range and bearing information, it provides an invaluable niche filling classification tool. The placing of any magnetic sensing system on a conventional AUV is a non-trivial problem. The standard AUV is designed around materials and components that were selected to maximize performance without regard to the magnetic properties of the materials used in its fabrication. To minimize the degradation of sensor performance caused by the platform, several steps must be taken. These include; the substitution of nonferrous components for ferrous, maximizing the separation between the sensor and magnetic field sources, minimizing current loops and using auxiliary

  2. Tracking Global Fund HIV/AIDS resources used for sexual and reproductive health service integration: case study from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mookherji, Sangeeta; Ski, Samantha; Huntington, Dale

    2015-05-27

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria (GF) strives for high value for money, encouraging countries to integrate synergistic services and systems strengthening to maximize investments. The GF needs to show how, and how much, its grants support more than just HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) has been part of HIV/AIDS grants since 2007. Previous studies showed the GF PBF system does not allow resource tracking for SRH integration within HIV/AIDS grants. We present findings from a resource tracking case study using primary data collected at country level. Ethiopia was the study site. We reviewed data from four HIV/AIDS grants from January 2009-June 2011 and categorized SDAs and activities as directly, indirectly, or not related to SRH integration. Data included: GF PBF data; financial, performance, in-depth interview and facility observation data from Ethiopia. All HIV/AIDS grants in Ethiopia support SRH integration activities (12-100%). Using activities within SDAs, expenditures directly supporting SRH integration increased from 25% to 66% for the largest HIV/AIDS grant, and from 21% to 34% for the smaller PMTCT-focused grant. Using SDAs to categorize expenditures underestimated direct investments in SRH integration; activity-based categorization is more accurate. The important finding is that primary data collection could not resolve the limitations in using GF GPR data for resource tracking. The remedy is to require existing activity-based budgets and expenditure reports as part of PBF reporting requirements, and make them available in the grant portfolio database. The GF should do this quickly, as it is a serious shortfall in the GF guiding principle of transparency. Showing high value for money is important for maximizing impact and replenishments. The Global Fund should routinely track HIV/AIDs grant expenditures to disease control, service integration, and overall health systems strengthening. The current PBF system

  3. Integrated navigation fusion strategy of INS/UWB for indoor carrier attitude angle and position synchronous tracking.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qigao; Wu, Yaheng; Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yu, Zhenzhong; Zhou, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    In some GPS failure conditions, positioning for mobile target is difficult. This paper proposed a new method based on INS/UWB for attitude angle and position synchronous tracking of indoor carrier. Firstly, error model of INS/UWB integrated system is built, including error equation of INS and UWB. And combined filtering model of INS/UWB is researched. Simulation results show that the two subsystems are complementary. Secondly, integrated navigation data fusion strategy of INS/UWB based on Kalman filtering theory is proposed. Simulation results show that FAKF method is better than the conventional Kalman filtering. Finally, an indoor experiment platform is established to verify the integrated navigation theory of INS/UWB, which is geared to the needs of coal mine working environment. Static and dynamic positioning results show that the INS/UWB integrated navigation system is stable and real-time, positioning precision meets the requirements of working condition and is better than any independent subsystem.

  4. FFT integration of instantaneous 3D pressure gradient fields measured by Lagrangian particle tracking in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, F.; Schanz, D.; Gesemann, S.; Schröder, A.

    2016-09-01

    Pressure gradient fields in unsteady flows can be estimated through flow measurements of the material acceleration in the fluid and the assumption of the governing momentum equation. In order to derive pressure from its gradient, almost exclusively two numerical methods have been used to spatially integrate the pressure gradient until now: first, direct path integration in the spatial domain, and second, the solution of the Poisson equation for pressure. Instead, we propose an alternative third method that integrates the pressure gradient field in Fourier space. Using a FFT function, the method is fast and easy to implement in programming languages for scientific computing. We demonstrate the accuracy of the integration scheme on a synthetic pressure field and apply it to an experimental example based on time-resolved material acceleration data from high-resolution Lagrangian particle tracking with the Shake-The-Box method.

  5. Lateral charge transport from heavy-ion tracks in integrated circuit chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Schwartz, H. R.; Nevill, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    A 256K DRAM has been used to study the lateral transport of charge (electron-hole pairs) induced by direct ionization from heavy-ion tracks in an IC. The qualitative charge transport has been simulated using a two-dimensional numerical code in cylindrical coordinates. The experimental bit-map data clearly show the manifestation of lateral charge transport in the creation of adjacent multiple-bit errors from a single heavy-ion track. The heavy-ion data further demonstrate the occurrence of multiple-bit errors from single ion tracks with sufficient stopping power. The qualitative numerical simulation results suggest that electric-field-funnel-aided (drift) collection accounts for single error generated by an ion passing through a charge-collecting junction, while multiple errors from a single ion track are due to lateral diffusion of ion-generated charge.

  6. Modifications and integration of the electronic tracking board in a pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Dexheimer, Judith W; Kennebeck, Stephanie

    2013-07-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are used for data storage; provider, laboratory, and patient communication; clinical decision support; procedure and medication orders; and decision support alerts. Clinical decision support is part of any EHR and is designed to help providers make better decisions. The emergency department (ED) poses a unique environment to the use of EHRs and clinical decision support. Used effectively, computerized tracking boards can help improve flow, communication, and the dissemination of pertinent visit information between providers and other departments in a busy ED. We discuss the unique modifications and decisions made in the implementation of an EHR and computerized tracking board in a pediatric ED. We discuss the changing views based on provider roles, customization to the user interface including the layout and colors, decision support, tracking board best practices collected from other institutions and colleagues, and a case study of using reminders on the electronic tracking board to drive pain reassessments.

  7. Lateral charge transport from heavy-ion tracks in integrated circuit chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Schwartz, H. R.; Nevill, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    A 256K DRAM has been used to study the lateral transport of charge (electron-hole pairs) induced by direct ionization from heavy-ion tracks in an IC. The qualitative charge transport has been simulated using a two-dimensional numerical code in cylindrical coordinates. The experimental bit-map data clearly show the manifestation of lateral charge transport in the creation of adjacent multiple-bit errors from a single heavy-ion track. The heavy-ion data further demonstrate the occurrence of multiple-bit errors from single ion tracks with sufficient stopping power. The qualitative numerical simulation results suggest that electric-field-funnel-aided (drift) collection accounts for single error generated by an ion passing through a charge-collecting junction, while multiple errors from a single ion track are due to lateral diffusion of ion-generated charge.

  8. Aerobic fitness and obesity: relationship to cerebral white matter integrity in the brain of active and sedentary older adults.

    PubMed

    Marks, B L; Katz, L M; Styner, M; Smith, J K

    2011-12-01

    Aerobic fitness (VO(2) peak) and obesity risk (OR) may impact brain health. This study examined hemispheric and segment specific relationships between VO(2) peak, OR and cerebral white-matter (CWM) integrity in the cingulum brain region in healthy older adults. Fifteen subjects (66±6 years) completed VO(2) peak testing and MRI of the brain. OR was determined via body mass index (BMI) and abdominal girth. MRI analysis was performed with a structural 3D T1 MP-Rage and diffusion tensor imaging technique (DTI, 21 directions, repeated four times) on a 3.0 T MR imaging unit. CWM integrity indices, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), were computed from the tensors. The anterior, middle and posterior cingulum segments were analysed on both sides of the brain. Partial correlations (age and gender controlled) and standard multiple regressions were used to determine significant associations and unique contributions to CWM integrity. VO(2) peak was moderately related to FA in the left middle cingulum segment (r partial=0.573, p=0.041) and explained 28.5% of FA's total variance (p=0.10). Abdominal girth (r partial=-0.764, p=0.002) and BMI (r partial=-0.690, p=0.009) were inversely related to FA in the right posterior cingulum (RPC) segment. Abdominal girth and BMI uniquely explained 53.9% of FA's total variance (p=0.012) and 43.9% (p=0.040), respectively, in the RPC. Higher aerobic fitness and lower obesity risk are related to greater CWM integrity but not in the same cingulum segments.

  9. @neurIST complex information processing toolchain for the integrated management of cerebral aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Uriol, M. C.; Berti, G.; Hose, D. R.; Marzo, A.; Chiarini, A.; Penrose, J.; Pozo, J.; Schmidt, J. G.; Singh, P.; Lycett, R.; Larrabide, I.; Frangi, A. F.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral aneurysms are a multi-factorial disease with severe consequences. A core part of the European project @neurIST was the physical characterization of aneurysms to find candidate risk factors associated with aneurysm rupture. The project investigated measures based on morphological, haemodynamic and aneurysm wall structure analyses for more than 300 cases of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms, extracting descriptors suitable for statistical studies. This paper deals with the unique challenges associated with this task, and the implemented solutions. The consistency of results required by the subsequent statistical analyses, given the heterogeneous image data sources and multiple human operators, was met by a highly automated toolchain combined with training. A testimonial of the successful automation is the positive evaluation of the toolchain by over 260 clinicians during various hands-on workshops. The specification of the analyses required thorough investigations of modelling and processing choices, discussed in a detailed analysis protocol. Finally, an abstract data model governing the management of the simulation-related data provides a framework for data provenance and supports future use of data and toolchain. This is achieved by enabling the easy modification of the modelling approaches and solution details through abstract problem descriptions, removing the need of repetition of manual processing work. PMID:22670202

  10. Crystal Structure of CCM3, a Cerebral Cavernous Malformation Protein Critical for Vascular Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Zhang, R; Zhang, H; He, Y; Ji, W; Min, W; Boggon, T

    2010-01-01

    CCM3 mutations are associated with cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM), a disease affecting 0.1-0.5% of the human population. CCM3 (PDCD10, TFAR15) is thought to form a CCM complex with CCM1 and CCM2; however, the molecular basis for these interactions is not known. We have determined the 2.5 {angstrom} crystal structure of CCM3. This structure shows an all {alpha}-helical protein containing two domains, an N-terminal dimerization domain with a fold not previously observed, and a C-terminal focal adhesion targeting (FAT)-homology domain. We show that CCM3 binds CCM2 via this FAT-homology domain and that mutation of a highly conserved FAK-like hydrophobic pocket (HP1) abrogates CCM3-CCM2 interaction. This CCM3 FAT-homology domain also interacts with paxillin LD motifs using the same surface, and partial CCM3 co-localization with paxillin in cells is lost on HP1 mutation. Disease-related CCM3 truncations affect the FAT-homology domain suggesting a role for the FAT-homology domain in the etiology of CCM.

  11. Crystal structure of CCM3, a cerebral cavernous malformation protein critical for vascular integrity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Haifeng; He, Yun; Ji, Weidong; Min, Wang; Boggon, Titus J

    2010-07-30

    CCM3 mutations are associated with cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM), a disease affecting 0.1-0.5% of the human population. CCM3 (PDCD10, TFAR15) is thought to form a CCM complex with CCM1 and CCM2; however, the molecular basis for these interactions is not known. We have determined the 2.5 A crystal structure of CCM3. This structure shows an all alpha-helical protein containing two domains, an N-terminal dimerization domain with a fold not previously observed, and a C-terminal focal adhesion targeting (FAT)-homology domain. We show that CCM3 binds CCM2 via this FAT-homology domain and that mutation of a highly conserved FAK-like hydrophobic pocket (HP1) abrogates CCM3-CCM2 interaction. This CCM3 FAT-homology domain also interacts with paxillin LD motifs using the same surface, and partial CCM3 co-localization with paxillin in cells is lost on HP1 mutation. Disease-related CCM3 truncations affect the FAT-homology domain suggesting a role for the FAT-homology domain in the etiology of CCM.

  12. Cerebral cavernous malformations proteins inhibit Rho kinase to stabilize vascular integrity

    PubMed Central

    Stockton, Rebecca A.; Shenkar, Robert; Awad, Issam A.

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial cell–cell junctions regulate vascular permeability, vasculogenesis, and angiogenesis. Familial cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) in humans result from mutations of CCM2 (malcavernin, OSM, MGC4607), PDCD10 (CCM3), or KRIT1 (CCM1), a Rap1 effector which stabilizes endothelial cell–cell junctions. Homozygous loss of KRIT1 or CCM2 produces lethal vascular phenotypes in mice and zebrafish. We report that the physical interaction of KRIT1 and CCM2 proteins is required for endothelial cell–cell junctional localization, and lack of either protein destabilizes barrier function by sustaining activity of RhoA and its effector Rho kinase (ROCK). Protein haploinsufficient Krit1+/− or Ccm2+/− mouse endothelial cells manifested increased monolayer permeability in vitro, and both Krit1+/− and Ccm2+/− mice exhibited increased vascular leak in vivo, reversible by fasudil, a ROCK inhibitor. Furthermore, we show that ROCK hyperactivity occurs in sporadic and familial human CCM endothelium as judged by increased phosphorylation of myosin light chain. These data establish that KRIT1–CCM2 interaction regulates vascular barrier function by suppressing Rho/ROCK signaling and that this pathway is dysregulated in human CCM endothelium, and they suggest that fasudil could ameliorate both CCM disease and vascular leak. PMID:20308363

  13. Cerebral cavernous malformations proteins inhibit Rho kinase to stabilize vascular integrity.

    PubMed

    Stockton, Rebecca A; Shenkar, Robert; Awad, Issam A; Ginsberg, Mark H

    2010-04-12

    Endothelial cell-cell junctions regulate vascular permeability, vasculogenesis, and angiogenesis. Familial cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) in humans result from mutations of CCM2 (malcavernin, OSM, MGC4607), PDCD10 (CCM3), or KRIT1 (CCM1), a Rap1 effector which stabilizes endothelial cell-cell junctions. Homozygous loss of KRIT1 or CCM2 produces lethal vascular phenotypes in mice and zebrafish. We report that the physical interaction of KRIT1 and CCM2 proteins is required for endothelial cell-cell junctional localization, and lack of either protein destabilizes barrier function by sustaining activity of RhoA and its effector Rho kinase (ROCK). Protein haploinsufficient Krit1(+/-) or Ccm2(+/-) mouse endothelial cells manifested increased monolayer permeability in vitro, and both Krit1(+/-) and Ccm2(+/-) mice exhibited increased vascular leak in vivo, reversible by fasudil, a ROCK inhibitor. Furthermore, we show that ROCK hyperactivity occurs in sporadic and familial human CCM endothelium as judged by increased phosphorylation of myosin light chain. These data establish that KRIT1-CCM2 interaction regulates vascular barrier function by suppressing Rho/ROCK signaling and that this pathway is dysregulated in human CCM endothelium, and they suggest that fasudil could ameliorate both CCM disease and vascular leak.

  14. Evaluating an Integrated Approach to the Management of Cerebral Palsy. Appendix B: Field Test Report of the Eau Claire Functional Abilities Test and the Wolfe-Bluel Socialization Inventory. Volume III of IV. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heal, Laird W.

    The appendix examined the measurement instruments developed in the course of the Integrated Management of Cerebral Palsy project to measure functional movements and socialization skills of severly handicapped, nonambulatory cerebral palsied children who had limited speech. The field test sample consisted of 51 cases for the Eau Claire Functional…

  15. Homocysteine alters cerebral microvascular integrity and causes remodeling by antagonizing GABA-A receptor.

    PubMed

    Lominadze, David; Tyagi, Neetu; Sen, Utpal; Ovechkin, Alexander; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2012-12-01

    High levels of homocysteine (Hcy), known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), are associated with cerebrovascular diseases, such as vascular dementia, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. The γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter and a ligand of GABA-A receptor. By inhibiting excitatory response, it may decrease complications associated with vascular dementia and stroke. Hcy specifically competes with the GABA-A receptors and acts as an excitotoxic neurotransmitter. Previously, we have shown that Hcy increases levels of NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreases levels of thioredoxin and peroxiredoxin by antagonizing the GABA-A receptor. Hcy treatment leads to activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in cerebral circulation by inducing redox stress and ROS. The hypothesis is that Hcy induces MMPs and suppresses tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs), in part, by inhibiting the GABA-A receptor. This leads to degradation of the matrix and disruption of the blood brain barrier. The brain cortex of transgenic mouse model of HHcy (cystathionine β-synthase, CBS-/+) and GABA-A receptor null mice treated with and without muscimol (GABA-A receptor agonist) was analysed. The mRNA levels were measured by Q-RT-PCR. Levels of MMP-2, -9, -13, and TIMP-1, -2, -3, and -4 were evaluated by in situ labeling and PCR-gene arrays. Pial venular permeability to fluorescence-labeled albumin was assessed with intravital fluorescence microscopy. We found that Hcy increases metalloproteinase activity and decreases TIMP-4 by antagonizing the GABA-A receptor. The results demonstrate a novel mechanism in which brain microvascular permeability changes during HHcy and vascular dementias, and have therapeutic ramifications for microvascular disease in Alzheimer's patients.

  16. A Radar-Enabled Collaborative Sensor Network Integrating COTS Technology for Surveillance and Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kozma, Robert; Wang, Lan; Iftekharuddin, Khan; McCracken, Ernest; Khan, Muhammad; Islam, Khandakar; Bhurtel, Sushil R.; Demirer, R. Murat

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) sensor nodes is studied in a distributed network, aiming at dynamic surveillance and tracking of ground targets. Data acquisition by low-cost (<$50 US) miniature low-power radar through a wireless mote is described. We demonstrate the detection, ranging and velocity estimation, classification and tracking capabilities of the mini-radar, and compare results to simulations and manual measurements. Furthermore, we supplement the radar output with other sensor modalities, such as acoustic and vibration sensors. This method provides innovative solutions for detecting, identifying, and tracking vehicles and dismounts over a wide area in noisy conditions. This study presents a step towards distributed intelligent decision support and demonstrates effectiveness of small cheap sensors, which can complement advanced technologies in certain real-life scenarios. PMID:22438713

  17. A radar-enabled collaborative sensor network integrating COTS technology for surveillance and tracking.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Wang, Lan; Iftekharuddin, Khan; McCracken, Ernest; Khan, Muhammad; Islam, Khandakar; Bhurtel, Sushil R; Demirer, R Murat

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) sensor nodes is studied in a distributed network, aiming at dynamic surveillance and tracking of ground targets. Data acquisition by low-cost (<$50 US) miniature low-power radar through a wireless mote is described. We demonstrate the detection, ranging and velocity estimation, classification and tracking capabilities of the mini-radar, and compare results to simulations and manual measurements. Furthermore, we supplement the radar output with other sensor modalities, such as acoustic and vibration sensors. This method provides innovative solutions for detecting, identifying, and tracking vehicles and dismounts over a wide area in noisy conditions. This study presents a step towards distributed intelligent decision support and demonstrates effectiveness of small cheap sensors, which can complement advanced technologies in certain real-life scenarios.

  18. Dynamic optimization approach for integrated supplier selection and tracking control of single product inventory system with product discount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutrisno; Widowati; Heru Tjahjana, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a mathematical model in the form of dynamic/multi-stage optimization to solve an integrated supplier selection problem and tracking control problem of single product inventory system with product discount. The product discount will be stated as a piece-wise linear function. We use dynamic programming to solve this proposed optimization to determine the optimal supplier and the optimal product volume that will be purchased from the optimal supplier for each time period so that the inventory level tracks a reference trajectory given by decision maker with minimal total cost. We give a numerical experiment to evaluate the proposed model. From the result, the optimal supplier was determined for each time period and the inventory level follows the given reference well.

  19. Age-related slowing of memory retrieval: Contributions of perceptual speed and cerebral white matter integrity

    PubMed Central

    Bucur, Barbara; Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Provenzale, James M.; Cabeza, Roberto; White, Leonard E.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research suggests that, in reaction time (RT) measures of episodic memory retrieval, the unique effects of adult age are relatively small compared to the effects aging shares with more elementary abilities such as perceptual speed. Little is known, however, regarding the mechanisms of perceptual speed. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to test the hypothesis that white matter integrity, as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA), serves as one mechanism of perceptual slowing in episodic memory retrieval. Results indicated that declines in FA in the pericallosal frontal region and in the genu of the corpus callosum, but not in other regions, mediated the relationship between perceptual speed and episodic retrieval RT. This relation held, though to a different degree, for both hits and correct rejections. These findings suggest that white matter integrity in prefrontal regions is one mechanism underlying the relation between individual differences in perceptual speed and episodic retrieval. PMID:17383774

  20. An fMRI study of visual hemifield integration and cerebral lateralization.

    PubMed

    Strother, Lars; Zhou, Zhiheng; Coros, Alexandra K; Vilis, Tutis

    2017-04-07

    The human brain integrates hemifield-split visual information via interhemispheric transfer. The degree to which neural circuits involved in this process behave differently during word recognition as compared to object recognition is not known. Evidence from neuroimaging (fMRI) suggests that interhemispheric transfer during word viewing converges in the left hemisphere, in two distinct brain areas, an "occipital word form area" (OWFA) and a more anterior occipitotemporal "visual word form area" (VWFA). We used a novel fMRI half-field repetition technique to test whether or not these areas also integrate nonverbal hemifield-split string stimuli of similar visual complexity. We found that the fMRI responses of the both the OWFA and VWFA while viewing nonverbal stimuli were strikingly different than those measured during word viewing, especially with respect to half-stimulus changes restricted to a single hemifield. We conclude that normal reading relies on left-lateralized neural mechanisms, which integrate hemifield-split visual information for words but not for nonverbal stimuli.

  1. Mapping of change in cerebral glucose utilization using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose double injection and the constrained weighted-integration method

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, K. |; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Yasuhara, Yoshifumi; Evans, A.C.; Gjedde, A.

    1996-12-01

    The authors developed a method for mapping the change in cerebral glucose utilization at two different physiological states using [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) double injection and the constrained weighted-integration method. They studied young normal subjects without (baseline-baseline group, n = 5) and with (baseline-stimulation group, n = 5) vibrotactile stimulation of the fingertips of the right hand. Dynamic scans were performed using positron emission tomography (PET) following an initial dose (the first session, 0--30 min) and an additional dose (the second session, 30--60 min). The parametric images of the net clearance of FDG from blood to brain (K*), unidirectional blood-to-brain clearance (K*{sub 1}) and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMR{sub glc}) of the two sessions were generated. The averaged subtraction (second minus first session) and t-statistic images were generated, which were rendered into Talairach`s sterotaxic coordinates and merged with the averaged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image. In the baseline-baseline group, regional K*, K*{sub 1}, and CMR{sub glc} in the first and second sessions were strongly correlated (r{sup 2} = 0.953, 0.935, and 0.951, respectively, n = 340). In the baseline-stimulation group, significant increases in these estimates were obtained in the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI) (from 3.43 {+-} 0.78 to 4.02 {+-} 1.01 ml/100 g/min for K*, 7.85 {+-} 1.88 to 9.09 {+-} 1.71 ml/100 g/min for K*{sub 1}, and 28.0 {+-} 5.9 to 32.3 {+-} 5.5 {micro}mol/100 g/min for CMR{sub glc}), while there were no significant changes in the ipsilateral SI (from 3.45 {+-} 0.84 to 3.39 {+-} 0.72 ml/100 g/min for K*, 8.17 {+-} 2.33 to 8.37 {+-} 1.75 ml/100 g/min for K*{sub 1}, and 29.5 {+-} 8.1 to 29.1 {+-} 8.2 {micro}mol/100 g/min for CMR{sub glc}). Significant increases in K* and CMR{sub glc} in the contralateral SI were clearly demonstrated in the t-statistic image.

  2. Functional cerebral activation detected by an integrated system combining CW-NIR spectroscopy and EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovati, Luigi; Fonda, Sergio; Bulf, L.; Ferrari, Renata; Biral, Gianpaolo; Salvatori, Giorgia; Bandera, Andrea; Corradini, M.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the possibility of correlating hemodynamic changes and neural activities in the brain by using an integrated system combining Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and electroencephalographic activity (EEG). We present brain hemodynamic changes and EEG recordings obtained from four volunteers during the performance of two different sequential thumb-finger opposition tasks, with and without a related mental activity. The optical and electrical signals were recorded simultaneously on the subject forehead. The coupling of the two systems could be useful to demonstrate correlation between cognitive paradigms and hemodynamic signals.

  3. Low Frequency Fluctuations Reveal Integrated and Segregated Processing among the Cerebral Hemispheres

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Dylan G.; Biswal, Bharat B.; Kelly, Clare; Stark, David E.; Margulies, Daniel S.; Shehzad, Zarrar; Uddin, Lucina Q.; Klein, Donald F.; Banich, Marie T.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has provided a novel approach for examining interhemispheric interaction, demonstrating a high degree of functional connectivity between homotopic regions in opposite hemispheres. However, heterotopic resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) remains relatively uncharacterized. In the present study, we examine non-homotopic regions, characterizing heterotopic RSFC and comparing it to intrahemispheric RSFC, to examine the impact of hemispheric separation on the integration and segregation of processing in the brain. Resting-state fMRI scans were acquired from 59 healthy participants to examine interregional correlations in spontaneous low frequency fluctuations in BOLD signal. Using a probabilistic atlas, we correlated probability-weighted time series from 112 regions (56 per hemisphere) distributed throughout the entire cerebrum. We compared RSFC for pairings of non-homologous regions located in different hemispheres (heterotopic connectivity) to RSFC for the same pairings when located within hemisphere (intrahemispheric connectivity). For positive connections, connectivity strength was greater within each hemisphere, consistent with integrated intrahemispheric processing. However, for negative connections, RSFC strength was greater between the hemispheres, consistent with segregated interhemispheric processing. These patterns were particularly notable for connections involving frontal and heteromodal regions. The distribution of positive and negative connectivity was nearly identical within and between the hemispheres, though we demonstrated detailed regional variation in distribution. We discuss implications for leading models of interhemispheric interaction. The future application of our analyses may provide important insight into impaired interhemispheric processing in clinical and aging populations. PMID:20570737

  4. Polyimide microfluidic devices with integrated nanoporous filtration areas manufactured by micromachining and ion track technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, S.; Trautmann, C.; Bertsch, A.; Renaud, Ph

    2004-03-01

    This paper reports on polyimide microfluidic devices fabricated by photolithography and a layer transfer lamination technology. The microchannels are sealed by laminating an uncured polyimide film on a partially cured layer and subsequent imidization. Selected areas of the microchannels were irradiated with heavy ions of several hundred MeV and the generated ion tracks are chemically etched to submicron pores of high aspect ratio. The ion beam parameters and the track etching conditions define density, length, diameter and shape of the pores. Membrane permeability and separation performance is demonstrated in cross-flow filtration experiments. The devices can be used for selective delivery or probing of fluids to biological tissue, e.g. drug delivery or microdialysis. For chip-based devices the filters can be used as a sample pre-treatment unit for filtration or concentration of particles or molecules.

  5. Integrated Eye Tracking and Neural Monitoring for Enhanced Assessment of Mild TBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    include functional magnetic resonance imagining ( fMRI ) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize the extent of functional cortical recruitment...and white matter injury, respectively. The inclusion of fMRI and DTI will provide an objective basis for cross-validating the EEG and eye tracking...Differential working memory load effects after mild traumatic brain injury. Neuroimage, 2001. 14(5): p. 1004-12. 2. Chen, J.K., et al., Functional

  6. An integrated approach to endoscopic instrument tracking for augmented reality applications in surgical simulation training.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Constantinos; Lahanas, Vasileios; Georgiou, Evangelos

    2013-12-01

    Despite the popular use of virtual and physical reality simulators in laparoscopic training, the educational potential of augmented reality (AR) has not received much attention. A major challenge is the robust tracking and three-dimensional (3D) pose estimation of the endoscopic instrument, which are essential for achieving interaction with the virtual world and for realistic rendering when the virtual scene is occluded by the instrument. In this paper we propose a method that addresses these issues, based solely on visual information obtained from the endoscopic camera. Two different tracking algorithms are combined for estimating the 3D pose of the surgical instrument with respect to the camera. The first tracker creates an adaptive model of a colour strip attached to the distal part of the tool (close to the tip). The second algorithm tracks the endoscopic shaft, using a combined Hough-Kalman approach. The 3D pose is estimated with perspective geometry, using appropriate measurements extracted by the two trackers. The method has been validated on several complex image sequences for its tracking efficiency, pose estimation accuracy and applicability in AR-based training. Using a standard endoscopic camera, the absolute average error of the tip position was 2.5 mm for working distances commonly found in laparoscopic training. The average error of the instrument's angle with respect to the camera plane was approximately 2°. The results are also supplemented by video segments of laparoscopic training tasks performed in a physical and an AR environment. The experiments yielded promising results regarding the potential of applying AR technologies for laparoscopic skills training, based on a computer vision framework. The issue of occlusion handling was adequately addressed. The estimated trajectory of the instruments may also be used for surgical gesture interpretation and assessment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Integrated Eye Tracking and Neural Monitoring for Enhanced Assessment of Mild TBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    6 Publications, Abstracts, and Presentations……………………………………..….6 Inventions, Patents , and Licenses……………………………………………..……..7 Reportable Outcomes...Applications of Cognitive Eye Tracking.” Neuorscience Group, University of California, San Diego. 7 Inventions, Patents , and Licenses

  8. Active contour-based visual tracking by integrating colors, shapes, and motions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Zhou, Xue; Li, Wei; Luo, Wenhan; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for active contour-based visual tracking using level sets. The main components of our framework include contour-based tracking initialization, color-based contour evolution, adaptive shape-based contour evolution for non-periodic motions, dynamic shape-based contour evolution for periodic motions, and the handling of abrupt motions. For the initialization of contour-based tracking, we develop an optical flow-based algorithm for automatically initializing contours at the first frame. For the color-based contour evolution, Markov random field theory is used to measure correlations between values of neighboring pixels for posterior probability estimation. For adaptive shape-based contour evolution, the global shape information and the local color information are combined to hierarchically evolve the contour, and a flexible shape updating model is constructed. For the dynamic shape-based contour evolution, a shape mode transition matrix is learnt to characterize the temporal correlations of object shapes. For the handling of abrupt motions, particle swarm optimization is adopted to capture the global motion which is applied to the contour in the current frame to produce an initial contour in the next frame.

  9. Electromagnetic real-time tumor position monitoring and dynamic multileaf collimator tracking using a Siemens 160 MLC: geometric and dosimetric accuracy of an integrated system.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Andreas; Nill, Simeon; Tacke, Martin; Oelfke, Uwe

    2011-02-01

    Dynamic multileaf collimator tracking represents a promising method for high-precision radiotherapy to moving tumors. In the present study, we report on the integration of electromagnetic real-time tumor position monitoring into a multileaf collimator-based tracking system. The integrated system was characterized in terms of its geometric and radiologic accuracy. The former was assessed from portal images acquired during radiation delivery to a phantom in tracking mode. The tracking errors were calculated from the positions of the tracking field and of the phantom as extracted from the portal images. Radiologic accuracy was evaluated from film dosimetry performed for conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy applied to different phantoms moving on sinusoidal trajectories. A static radiation delivery to the nonmoving target served as a reference for the delivery to the moving phantom with and without tracking applied. Submillimeter tracking accuracy was observed for two-dimensional target motion despite the relatively large system latency of 500 ms. Film dosimetry yielded almost complete recovery of a circular dose distribution with tracking in two dimensions applied: 2%/2 mm gamma-failure rates could be reduced from 59.7% to 3.3%. For single-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivery, accuracy was limited by the finite leaf width. A 2%/2 mm gamma-failure rate of 15.6% remained with tracking applied. The integrated system we have presented marks a major step toward the clinical implementation of high-precision dynamic multileaf collimator tracking. However, several challenges such as irregular motion traces or a thorough quality assurance still need to be addressed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Electromagnetic Real-Time Tumor Position Monitoring and Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Tracking Using a Siemens 160 MLC: Geometric and Dosimetric Accuracy of an Integrated System

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Andreas; Nill, Simeon; Tacke, Martin; Oelfke, Uwe

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Dynamic multileaf collimator tracking represents a promising method for high-precision radiotherapy to moving tumors. In the present study, we report on the integration of electromagnetic real-time tumor position monitoring into a multileaf collimator-based tracking system. Methods and Materials: The integrated system was characterized in terms of its geometric and radiologic accuracy. The former was assessed from portal images acquired during radiation delivery to a phantom in tracking mode. The tracking errors were calculated from the positions of the tracking field and of the phantom as extracted from the portal images. Radiologic accuracy was evaluated from film dosimetry performed for conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy applied to different phantoms moving on sinusoidal trajectories. A static radiation delivery to the nonmoving target served as a reference for the delivery to the moving phantom with and without tracking applied. Results: Submillimeter tracking accuracy was observed for two-dimensional target motion despite the relatively large system latency of 500 ms. Film dosimetry yielded almost complete recovery of a circular dose distribution with tracking in two dimensions applied: 2%/2 mm gamma-failure rates could be reduced from 59.7% to 3.3%. For single-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivery, accuracy was limited by the finite leaf width. A 2%/2 mm gamma-failure rate of 15.6% remained with tracking applied. Conclusion: The integrated system we have presented marks a major step toward the clinical implementation of high-precision dynamic multileaf collimator tracking. However, several challenges such as irregular motion traces or a thorough quality assurance still need to be addressed.

  11. Adaptive sliding mode dynamic controller with integrator in the loop for nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot trajectory tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif, Muhammad; Junaid Khan, Muhammad; Cai, Ning

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, novel adaptive sliding mode dynamic controller with integrator in the loop is proposed for nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot (WMR). The modified kinematics controller is used to generate kinematics velocities of WMR which are subsequently used as the input to adaptive dynamic controller. Actuator dynamics are also derived to generate actuator voltage of WMR through torque and velocity vectors. Stability of both kinematics and dynamic controller is presented using Lyapunov stability analysis. The proposed scheme is verified and validated using computer simulations for tracking the desired trajectory of WMR. The performance of proposed scheme is compared with standard backstepping kinematics controller and classical sliding mode control. In addition, the performance is further compared with standard backstepping kinematics controller with adaptive sliding mode controller without integrator. It is shown that the proposed scheme exhibits zero steady state error, fast error convergence and robustness in the presence of continuous disturbances and uncertainties.

  12. Real-time correction by optical tracking with integrated geometric distortion correction for reducing motion artifacts in functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, David; Chiew, Mark; Ranieri, Shawn; Tam, Fred; Chopra, Rajiv; Graham, Simon J

    2013-03-01

    Head motion artifacts are a major problem in functional MRI that limit its use in neuroscience research and clinical settings. Real-time scan-plane correction by optical tracking has been shown to correct slice misalignment and nonlinear spin-history artifacts; however, residual artifacts due to dynamic magnetic field nonuniformity may remain in the data. A recently developed correction technique, Phase Labeling for Additional Coordinate Encoding, can correct for absolute geometric distortion using only the complex image data from two echo planar images with slightly shifted k-space trajectories. An approach is presented that integrates Phase Labeling for Additional Coordinate Encoding into a real-time scan-plane update system by optical tracking, applied to a tissue-equivalent phantom undergoing complex motion and an functional MRI finger tapping experiment with overt head motion to induce dynamic field nonuniformity. Experiments suggest that such integrated volume-by-volume corrections are very effective at artifact suppression, with potential to expand functional MRI applications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. BOLD fMRI integration into radiosurgery treatment planning of cerebral vascular malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Stancanello, Joseph; Cavedon, Carlo; Francescon, Paolo; Causin, Francesco; Avanzo, Michele; Colombo, Federico; Cerveri, Pietro; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Uggeri, Fulvio

    2007-04-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to distinguish areas of the brain responsible for different tasks and functions. It is possible, for example, by using fMRI images, to identify particular regions in the brain which can be considered as 'functional organs at risk' (fOARs), i.e., regions which would cause significant patient morbidity if compromised. The aim of this study is to propose and validate a method to exploit functional information for the identification of fOARs in CyberKnife (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) radiosurgery treatment planning; in particular, given the high spatial accuracy offered by the CyberKnife system, local nonrigid registration is used to reach accurate image matching. Five patients affected by arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and scheduled to undergo radiosurgery were scanned prior to treatment using computed tomography (CT), three-dimensional (3D) rotational angiography (3DRA), T2 weighted and blood oxygenation level dependent echo planar imaging MRI. Tasks were chosen on the basis of lesion location by considering those areas which could be potentially close to treatment targets. Functional data were superimposed on 3DRA and CT used for treatment planning. The procedure for the localization of fMRI areas was validated by direct cortical stimulation on 38 AVM and tumor patients undergoing conventional surgery. Treatment plans studied with and without considering fOARs were significantly different, in particular with respect to both maximum dose and dose volume histograms; consideration of the fOARs allowed quality indices of treatment plans to remain almost constant or to improve in four out of five cases compared to plans with no consideration of fOARs. In conclusion, the presented method provides an accurate tool for the integration of functional information into AVM radiosurgery, which might help to minimize undesirable side effects and to make radiosurgery less invasive.

  14. JLAB Web Based Tracking System for Integrated Incident, Accident, Inspection, and Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    S. Prior; R. Lawrence

    2003-09-01

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, or JLab, is a Department of Energy particle accelerator used to conduct fundamental physics research. In such a facility there are numerous statutory, regulatory, contractual, and best practice requirements for managing and analyzing environmental health and safety (EH&S) related data. A tracking system has been developed at JLab that meets the needs of all levels of the organization, from the front line worker to the most senior management. This paper describes the system implementation and performance to date.

  15. The combination of astragalus membranaceus and ligustrazine ameliorates micro-haemorrhage by maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity in cerebrally ischaemic rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jun; Pan, Ruihuan; Jia, Xiang; Li, Yue; Hou, Zijun; Huang, Run-Yue; Chen, Xin; Huang, Shengping; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Sun, Jingbo; Huang, Yan

    2014-12-02

    Haemorrhagic transformation is an asymptomatic event that frequently occurs after following ischaemic stroke, particularly when pharmaceutical thrombolysis is used. However, the mechanism responsible for haemorrhagic transformation remains unknown, and therapeutics have not been identified. In this study, we administered a combination of astragalus membranaceus and ligustrazine to rats with cerebral ischaemia that had undergone thrombolysis. We analysed the effect of this combination on the attenuation of haemorrhagic transformation and the maintenance of blood-brain barrier integrity. A rat model of focal cerebral ischaemia was induced with autologous blood clot injections. Thrombolysis was performed via the intravenous injection of rt-PA. Astragalus membranaceus, ligustrazine or a combination of Astragalus membranaceus and ligustrazine was administered immediately after the clot injection. The cerebral infarct area, neurological deficits, blood-brain barrier integrity, and cerebral haemorrhage status were determined after 3, 6 and 24h of ischaemia. The ultrastructure of the blood-brain barrier was examined with a transmission electron microscope. The expression of tight junction proteins, including claudin-1, claudin-5, occludin, and zonula occludens-1, and matrix metallopeptidase-9 activation was further evaluated in terms of their roles in the protective effects of the combination drug on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Ischaemia-induced Evans blue leakage and cerebral haemorrhage were markedly reduced in the combination drug-treated rats compared to the rats treated with either astragalus membranaceus or ligustrazine alone (p<0.05). The disruption of the ultrastructure of the blood-brain barrier and the neurological deficits were ameliorated by the combination treatment (p<0.05). The reductions in the expression of laudin-1, claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1 were smaller in the rats that received the combination treatment. In addition, MMP-9 activity was

  16. Keeping track of the distance from home by leaky integration along veering paths.

    PubMed

    Lappe, Markus; Stiels, Maren; Frenz, Harald; Loomis, Jack M

    2011-07-01

    When humans use vision to gauge the travel distance of an extended forward movement, they often underestimate the movement's extent. This underestimation can be explained by leaky path integration, an integration of the movement to obtain distance. Distance underestimation occurs because this integration is imperfect and contains a leak that increases with distance traveled. We asked human observers to estimate the distance from a starting location for visually simulated movements in a virtual environment. The movements occurred along curved paths that veered left and right around a central forward direction. In this case, the distance that has to be integrated (i.e., the beeline distance between origin and endpoint) and the distance that is traversed (the path length along the curve) are distinct. We then tested whether the leak accumulated with distance from the origin or with traversed distance along the curved path. Leaky integration along the path makes the seemingly counterintuitive prediction that the estimated origin-to-endpoint distance should decrease with increasing veering, because the length of the path over which the integration occurs increases, leading to a larger leak effect. The results matched the prediction: movements of identical origin-to-endpoint distance were judged as shorter when the path became longer. We conclude that leaky path integration from visual motion is performed along the traversed path even when a straight beeline distance is calculated.

  17. Integrated Navigation Fusion Strategy of INS/UWB for Indoor Carrier Attitude Angle and Position Synchronous Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yaheng; Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Zhou, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    In some GPS failure conditions, positioning for mobile target is difficult. This paper proposed a new method based on INS/UWB for attitude angle and position synchronous tracking of indoor carrier. Firstly, error model of INS/UWB integrated system is built, including error equation of INS and UWB. And combined filtering model of INS/UWB is researched. Simulation results show that the two subsystems are complementary. Secondly, integrated navigation data fusion strategy of INS/UWB based on Kalman filtering theory is proposed. Simulation results show that FAKF method is better than the conventional Kalman filtering. Finally, an indoor experiment platform is established to verify the integrated navigation theory of INS/UWB, which is geared to the needs of coal mine working environment. Static and dynamic positioning results show that the INS/UWB integrated navigation system is stable and real-time, positioning precision meets the requirements of working condition and is better than any independent subsystem. PMID:25121111

  18. A prospective comparative study of microscope-integrated intraoperative fluorescein and indocyanine videoangiography for clip ligation of complex cerebral aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Lane, Brandon; Bohnstedt, Bradley N; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2015-03-01

    The authors prospectively analyzed 2 microscope-integrated videoangiography techniques using intravenous indocyanine green (ICG) and fluorescein for assessment of cerebral aneurysm obliteration and adjacent vessel patency. The authors prospectively enrolled 22 patients who underwent clip ligation of their aneurysm and used intraoperative videoangiography to assess obliteration of the aneurysmal sac and patency of the adjacent branching and perforating arteries. Patients underwent ICG videoangiography (ICG-VA) and the newly developed fluorescein videoangiography (FL-VA) using microscope-integrated fluorescence modules. Two independent observers compared the videoangiography recordings for value and quality to assess aneurysm exclusion and the patency of adjacent arteries. All 22 patients first underwent FL-VA and then ICG-VA after clip application. In 7 cases (32%), FL-VA provided superior detail to assess perforating arteries (4 cases), distal branches (2 cases), and both (1 case); such detail was not readily available on ICG-VA. In 1 patient, ICG-VA offered better visualization of posterior communicating artery aneurysm occlusion than FL-VA because of staining artifact on the aneurysm dome from the adjacent tentorium. In 2 patients, FL-VA offered the needed advantage of real-time manipulation of the vessels and flow assessment by visualization through the operating microscope oculars. In 2 other cases, ICG-VA was more practical for repeat usage because of its more efficient clearance from the intravascular space. The ICG-VA image quality was often degraded at higher magnification in deep operative fields, partly due to chromatic aberration. Both ICG-VA and FL-VA afforded restricted views of vasculature based on the angle of surgical approach and obscuration by blood clot, aneurysm, or brain tissue. Compared with ICG-VA, FL-VA can potentially provide an improved visualization of vasculature at high magnification in deep surgical fields. ICG-VA is more effective for

  19. Solar concentrator with integrated tracking and light delivery system with summation

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie Curt

    2015-05-05

    A solar light distribution system includes a solar light concentrator that is affixed externally to a light transfer tube. Solar light waves are processed by the concentrator into a collimated beam of light, which is then transferred through a light receiving port and into the light transfer tube. A reflector redirects the collimated beam of light through the tube to a light distribution port. The interior surface of the light transfer tube is highly reflective so that the light transfers through the tube with minimal losses. An interchangeable luminaire is attached to the light distribution port and provides light inside of a structure. A sun tracking device rotates the concentrator and the light transfer tube to optimize the receiving of solar light by the concentrator throughout the day. The system provides interior lighting that uses only renewable energy sources, and releases no carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.

  20. Solar concentrator with integrated tracking and light delivery system with collimation

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie Curt

    2015-06-09

    A solar light distribution system includes a solar light concentrator that is affixed externally to a light transfer tube. Solar light waves are processed by the concentrator into a collimated beam of light, which is then transferred through a light receiving port and into the light transfer tube. A reflector directs the collimated beam of light through the tube to a light distribution port. The interior surface of the light transfer tube is highly reflective so that the light transfers through the tube with minimal losses. An interchangeable luminaire is attached to the light distribution port and distributes light inside of a structure. A sun tracking device rotates the concentrator and the light transfer tube to optimize the receiving of solar light by the concentrator throughout the day. The system provides interior lighting, uses only renewable energy sources, and releases no carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.

  1. Real-Time Correction By Optical Tracking with Integrated Geometric Distortion Correction for Reducing Motion Artifacts in fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotenberg, David J.

    Artifacts caused by head motion are a substantial source of error in fMRI that limits its use in neuroscience research and clinical settings. Real-time scan-plane correction by optical tracking has been shown to correct slice misalignment and non-linear spin-history artifacts, however residual artifacts due to dynamic magnetic field non-uniformity may remain in the data. A recently developed correction technique, PLACE, can correct for absolute geometric distortion using the complex image data from two EPI images, with slightly shifted k-space trajectories. We present a correction approach that integrates PLACE into a real-time scan-plane update system by optical tracking, applied to a tissue-equivalent phantom undergoing complex motion and an fMRI finger tapping experiment with overt head motion to induce dynamic field non-uniformity. Experiments suggest that including volume by volume geometric distortion correction by PLACE can suppress dynamic geometric distortion artifacts in a phantom and in vivo and provide more robust activation maps.

  2. Development and Integration of Genome-Enabled Techniques to Track and Predict the Cycling of Carbon in Model Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, Jillian

    2014-11-26

    The primary objective of this project was to establish widely applicable, high-throughput “omics” methods for tracking carbon flow in microbial communities at a strain-resolved molecular level. We developed and applied these methods to study a well-established microbial community model system with a long history of “omics” innovation: chemoautotrophic biofilms grown in an acid mine drainage (AMD) environment. The methods are now being transitioned (in a new project) to study soil. Using metagenomics, stable-isotope proteomics, stable-isotope metabolomics, transcriptomics, and microscopy, we tracked carbon flow during initial biofilm growth involving CO2 fixation, through the maturing biofilm community consisting of multiple trophic levels, and during an anaerobic degradative phase after biofilms sink. This work included explicit consideration of the often overlooked roles of archaea and microbial eukaryotes (fungi) in carbon turnover. We also analyzed where the eosystem begins to fail in response to thermal perturbation, and how perturbation propagates through a carbon cycle. We investigated the form of strain variation in microbial communities, the importance of strain variants, and the rate and form of strain evolution. Overall, the project generated an array of new, integrated ‘omics’ approaches and provided unprecedented insight into the functioning of a natural ecosystem. This project supported graduate training for five Ph.D. students and three post doctoral fellows and contributed directly to at least 26 publications (two in Science).

  3. A novel Silicon Photomultiplier with bulk integrated quench resistors: utilization in optical detection and tracking applications for particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovics, Stefan; Andricek, Ladislav; Diehl, Inge; Hansen, Karsten; Jendrysik, Christian; Krueger, Katja; Lehmann, Raik; Ninkovic, Jelena; Reckleben, Christian; Richter, Rainer; Schaller, Gerhard; Schopper, Florian; Sefkow, Felix

    2017-02-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are a promising candidate for replacing conventional photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in many applications, thanks to ongoing developments and advances in their technology. Conventional SiPMs are generally an array of avalanche photo diodes, operated in Geiger mode and read out in parallel, thus leading to the necessity of a high ohmic quenching resistor. This resistor enables passive quenching and is usually located on top of the array, limiting the fill factor of the device. In this paper, a novel detector concept with a bulk integrated quenching resistor will be recapped. In addition, due to other advantages of this novel detector design, a new concept, in which these devices will be utilized as tracking detectors for particle physics applications will be introduced, as well as first simulation studies and experimental measurements of this new approach.

  4. Standard high-reliability integrated circuit logic packaging. [for deep space tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaughter, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    A family of standard, high-reliability hardware used for packaging digital integrated circuits is described. The design transition from early prototypes to production hardware is covered and future plans are discussed. Interconnections techniques are described as well as connectors and related hardware available at both the microcircuit packaging and main-frame level. General applications information is also provided.

  5. Intrasurgical Human Retinal Imaging With Manual Instrument Tracking Using a Microscope-Integrated Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Device

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Paul; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Cunefare, David; Migacz, Justin; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A.; Toth, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the first in-human intraoperative imaging using a custom prototype spectral-domain microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (MIOCT) device during vitreoretinal surgery with instruments in the eye. Methods: Under institutional review board approval for a prospective intraoperative study, MIOCT images were obtained at surgical pauses with instruments held static in the vitreous cavity and then concurrently with surgical maneuvers. Postoperatively, MIOCT images obtained at surgical pauses were compared with images obtained with a high-resolution handheld spectral-domain OCT (HHOCT) system with objective endpoints, including acquisition of images acceptable for analysis and identification of predefined macular morphologic or pathologic features. Results: Human MIOCT images were successfully obtained before incision and during pauses in surgical maneuvers. MIOCT imaging confirmed preoperative diagnoses, such as epiretinal membrane, full-thickness macular hole, and vitreomacular traction and demonstrated successful achievement of surgical goals. MIOCT and HHOCT images obtained at surgical pauses in two cohorts of five patients were comparable with greater than or equal to 80% correlation in 80% of patients. Real-time video-imaging concurrent with surgical manipulations enabled, for the first time using this device, visualization of dynamic instrument-retina interaction with targeted OCT tracking. Conclusion: MIOCT is successful for imaging at surgical pauses and for real-time image guidance with implementation of targeted OCT tracking. Even faster acquisition speeds are currently being developed with incorporation of a swept-source MIOCT engine. Further refinements and investigations will be directed toward continued integration for real-time volumetric imaging of surgical maneuvers. Translational Relevance: Ongoing development of seamless MIOCT systems will likely transform surgical visualization, approaches, and decision-making. PMID

  6. GeoMedStat: an integrated spatial surveillance system to track air pollution and associated healthcare events.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Fazlay S; Li, Hui; Williams, Worth B; Waller, Lance A; Brackin, Bruce T; Zhang, Lei; Grimes, Kim A; Finley, Richard W

    2014-12-01

    Air pollutants, such as particulate matter with a diameter ≤2.5 microns (PM2.5) and ozone (O3), are known to exacerbate asthma and other respiratory diseases. An integrated surveillance system that tracks such air pollutants and associated disease incidence can assist in risk assessment, healthcare preparedness and public awareness. However, the implementation of such an integrated environmental health surveillance system is a challenge due to the disparate sources of many types of data and the implementation becomes even more complicated for a spatial and real-time system due to lack of standardised technological components and data incompatibility. In addition, accessing and utilising health data that are considered as Protected Health Information (PHI) require maintaining stringent protocols, which have to be supported by the system. This paper aims to illustrate the development of a spatial surveillance system (GeoMedStat) that is capable of tracking daily environmental pollutants along with both daily and historical patient encounter data. It utilises satellite data and the groundmonitor data from the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the US Environemental Protection Agenecy (EPA), rspectively as inputs estimating air pollutants and is linked to hospital information systems for accessing chief complaints and disease classification codes. The components, developmental methods, functionality of GeoMedStat and its use as a real-time environmental health surveillance system for asthma and other respiratory syndromes in connection with with PM2.5 and ozone are described. It is expected that the framework presented will serve as an example to others developing real-time spatial surveillance systems for pollutants and hospital visits.

  7. Deletion of T Cells Bearing the Vβ8.1 T-Cell Receptor following Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus 7 Integration Confers Resistance to Murine Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gorgette, Olivier; Existe, Alexandre; Boubou, Mariama Idrissa; Bagot, Sébastien; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Mazier, Dominique; Cazenave, Pierre-André; Pied, Sylviane

    2002-01-01

    Plasmodium berghei ANKA induces a fatal neurological syndrome known as cerebral malaria (CM) in susceptible mice. Host genetic elements are among the key factors determining susceptibility or resistance to CM. Analysis of mice of the same H-2 haplotype revealed that mouse mammary tumor virus 7 (MTV-7) integration into chromosome 1 is one of the key factors associated with resistance to neurological disease during P. berghei ANKA infection. We investigated this phenomenon by infecting a series of recombinant inbred mice (CXD2), derived from BALB/c (susceptible to CM) and DBA/2 (resistant to CM) mice, with P. berghei ANKA. We observed differences in susceptibility to CM induced by this Plasmodium strain. Mice with the MTV-7 sequence in their genome were resistant to CM, whereas those without integration of this gene were susceptible. Thus, an integrated proviral open reading frame or similar genomic sequences may confer protection against neuropathogenesis during malaria, at least in mice. PMID:12065512

  8. Planning and tracking chemotherapy production for cancer treatment: a performing and integrated solution.

    PubMed

    Kergosien, Y; Tournamille, J-F; Laurence, B; Billaut, J-C

    2011-09-01

    Chemotherapy drugs are intended for the treatment of cancer. The production of such drugs and their administration to the patient is a delicate and expensive operation. The study deals with the acquisition and processing of data regarding the production of intravenous chemotherapy, from the production request (the medical prescription), the production itself (pharmaceutical process), to the delivery in the health care unit, for the administration of the chemotherapy. The goal of this study is to develop a system that can schedule, control and track the chemotherapy preparations and satisfy a certification process of quality management ("ISO 9001 version 2000" standard). The solution proposed in this paper was developed within the framework of a common certification process at the Biopharmaceutical Unit of the Oncology Clinic (UBCO) of the Bretonneau hospital in Tours (France). The system consists of two software programs: a software to insure traceability and a decision making software to plan the production. To simplify the data entry process, some mobile entry points with bar code reader have been deployed. These tools enable an accurate tracking of the production, a security and control for the schedule production phases, and a full traceability of each operation leading to the administration of the chemotherapy drug. The first result is a software that creates the production schedule, allows a real time control of the production process and a full traceability of each step. Computational experiments are based on real data sets, with a comparison of a time period before and after the implementation of this solution. The results show the positive impacts of this software, like the reduction of delayed deliveries, real time generation of production indicators, optimization of the production and a saving of staff time. This intuitive system guarantees a traceability in connection with a high quality system certified ISO 9001-v2000 (with a rapid data entry), an

  9. Integration of communications and tracking data processing simulation for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacovara, Robert C.

    1987-01-01

    A simplified model of the communications network for the Communications and Tracking Data Processing System (CTDP) was developed. It was simulated by use of programs running on several on-site computers. These programs communicate with one another by means of both local area networks and direct serial connections. The domain of the model and its simulation is from Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) interface to Data Management Systems (DMS). The simulation was designed to allow status queries from remote entities across the DMS networks to be propagated through the model to several simulated ORU's. The ORU response is then propagated back to the remote entity which originated the request. Response times at the various levels were investigated in a multi-tasking, multi-user operating system environment. Results indicate that the effective bandwidth of the system may be too low to support expected data volume requirements under conventional operating systems. Instead, some form of embedded process control program may be required on the node computers.

  10. ParseCNV integrative copy number variation association software with quality tracking.

    PubMed

    Glessner, Joseph T; Li, Jin; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2013-03-01

    A number of copy number variation (CNV) calling algorithms exist; however, comprehensive software tools for CNV association studies are lacking. We describe ParseCNV, unique software that takes CNV calls and creates probe-based statistics for CNV occurrence in both case-control design and in family based studies addressing both de novo and inheritance events, which are then summarized based on CNV regions (CNVRs). CNVRs are defined in a dynamic manner to allow for a complex CNV overlap while maintaining precise association region. Using this approach, we avoid failure to converge and non-monotonic curve fitting weaknesses of programs, such as CNVtools and CNVassoc, and although Plink is easy to use, it only provides combined CNV state probe-based statistics, not state-specific CNVRs. Existing CNV association methods do not provide any quality tracking information to filter confident associations, a key issue which is fully addressed by ParseCNV. In addition, uncertainty in CNV calls underlying CNV associations is evaluated to verify significant results, including CNV overlap profiles, genomic context, number of probes supporting the CNV and single-probe intensities. When optimal quality control parameters are followed using ParseCNV, 90% of CNVs validate by polymerase chain reaction, an often problematic stage because of inadequate significant association review. ParseCNV is freely available at http://parsecnv.sourceforge.net.

  11. An integrated system for clinical treatment verification of HDR prostate brachytherapy combining source tracking with pretreatment imaging.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan L; Hanlon, Max; Panettieri, Vanessa; Millar, Jeremy L; Matheson, Bronwyn; Haworth, Annette; Franich, Rick D

    2017-09-22

    High-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy treatment is usually delivered in one or a few large dose fractions. Poor execution of a planned treatment could have significant clinical impact, as high doses are delivered in seconds, and mistakes in an individual fraction cannot be easily rectified. Given that most potential errors in HDR brachytherapy ultimately lead to a geographical miss, a more direct approach to verification of correct treatment delivery is to directly monitor the position of the source throughout the treatment. In this work, we report on the clinical implementation of our treatment verification system that uniquely combines the 2D source-tracking capability with 2D pretreatment imaging, using a single flat panel detector (FPD). The clinical brachytherapy treatment couch was modified to allow integration of the FPD into the couch. This enabled the patient to be set up in the brachytherapy bunker in a position that closely matched that at treatment planning imaging. An anteroposterior image was acquired of the patient immediately before treatment delivery and was assessed by the Radiation Oncologist online, to reestablish the positions of the catheters relative to the prostate. Assessment of catheter positions was performed in the left-right and superior-inferior directions along the entire catheter length and throughout the treatment volume. Source tracking was then performed during treatment delivery, and the measured position of the source dwells were directly compared to the treatment plan for verification. The treatment verification system was integrated into the clinical environment without significant change to workflow. Two patient cases are presented in this work to provide clinical examples of this system, which is now in routine use for all patient treatments in our clinic. The catheter positions were visualized relative to the prostate, immediately before treatment delivery. For one of the patient cases presented in this work, they

  12. Particle-Tracking within an Ultra-High-Resolution Urban Domain Integrated with Best Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, S. R.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) are used to offset the impacts of urban developments known to decrease aquifer recharge, alter drainage networks, change feedbacks to the atmosphere and enhance contaminant transport. To evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs (i.e. engineered wetlands, grass swales, permeable pavements, etc.), a high-resolution study of these processes can be performed in the field using timely monitored instruments, or conceptually-based hydrologic models. However, this approach requires advancing stormwater modeling techniques using high performance computing. The goal of this work is to develop a novel approach to evaluate BMP implementation using an ultra-high-resolution domain and ParFlow, a physically-based hydrologic model that simulates surface and subsurface water interactions. This study domain is located in Aurora, CO, an area that experienced over 200% urban growth over the last 30 years. The ultra-high-resolution domain was constructed using LIDAR imagery and consisted of 1m x 1m horizontal resolution over a ~7.7 km by 2.1 km lateral extent up to 2 m in the subsurface, with a domain totaling more than 3x106unknowns. Three storm events (wet, dry and normal) were simulated with two pavement types, permeable (K=0.18 mhr-1,Φ=0.1) and impermeable (K=0.0018 mhr-1, Φ=0.06), amounting to 6 simulation scenarios. We investigated changes to stormwater routing and infiltration with and without BMP implementation. Contaminant transport was performed using SLIM-FAST, a Lagrangian, particle tracking approach that allows for complex, contaminant-loading scenarios common in the urban environment. Preliminary results show delayed particle movement within impermeable pavement scenarios and particle trapping along the gutters and rooftop locations. This approach is useful for evaluating the effectiveness of BMPs in trapping and reducing concentrations of emerging contaminants of concern within urban environments.

  13. Quantification of tackling demands in professional Australian football using integrated wearable athlete tracking technology.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; McLean, Owen; Spittle, Michael; Breed, Ray V P

    2013-11-01

    To describe and quantify the frequency, velocity and acceleration at impact during tackling in Australian football using a combination of video and athlete tracking technology. Quasi-experimental. Data was collected from twenty professional Australian Football League players during four in-season matches. All tackles made by the player and those against the player were video-coded and time stamped at the point of contact and then subjectively categorised into low, medium and high intensity impact groups. Peak GPS and acceleration data were identified at the point of contact. Two-way analysis of variance was used to assess differences (p<0.05) between tackle type (made and against) and tackle intensity. A total of 173 tackles made and 179 tackles against were recorded. Significant differences were found between all tackle intensity groups. Peak velocity was significantly greater in high (19.5±6.1 k mh(-1)) compared to medium (13.4±5.8 k mh(-1)) and low intensity (11.3±5.0 k mh(-1)) tackles. Peak Player Load, a modified vector magnitude of tri-axial acceleration, was significantly greater in high (7.5±1.7 a.u.) compared to medium (4.9±1.5 a.u.) and low intensity (4.0±1.3 a.u.) tackles. High intensity tackles, although less frequent, are significantly greater in speed of movement immediately prior to contact and in the resultant impact acceleration compared to tackles of lower intensity. Differences in accelerometer data between tackles observed to be progressively greater in intensity suggest a level of ecological validity and provide preliminary support for the use of accelerometers to assess impact forces in contact invasion sports. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cerebral Aneurysms

    MedlinePlus

    ... cerebral aneurysm may be required to restore deteriorating respiration and reduce abnormally high pressure within the brain. ... cerebral aneurysm may be required to restore deteriorating respiration and reduce abnormally high pressure within the brain. ...

  15. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ol (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect ... resource—it highlights the ADDM Network’s data on cerebral palsy in a way that is useful for stakeholders ...

  16. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  17. Progress Monitoring in an Integrated Health Care System: Tracking Behavioral Health Vital Signs.

    PubMed

    Steinfeld, Bradley; Franklin, Allie; Mercer, Brian; Fraynt, Rebecca; Simon, Greg

    2016-05-01

    Progress monitoring implementation in an integrated health care system is a complex process that must address factors such as measurement, technology, delivery system care processes, patient needs and provider requirements. This article will describe how one organization faced these challenges by identifying the key decision points (choice of measure, process for completing rating scale, interface with electronic medical record and clinician engagement) critical to implementation. Qualitative and quantitative data will be presented describing customer and stakeholder satisfaction with the mental health progress monitoring tool (MHPMT) as well as organizational performance with key measurement targets.

  18. The influence of aerobic fitness on cerebral white matter integrity and cognitive function in older adults: Results of a one-year exercise intervention

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Michelle W.; Heo, Susie; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Alves, Heloisa; Chaddock, Laura; Szabo, Amanda N.; Mailey, Emily L.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; White, Siobhan M.; Gothe, Neha; McAuley, Edward; Sutton, Bradley P.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral white matter degeneration occurs with increasing age and is associated with declining cognitive function. Research has shown that cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise are effective as protective, even restorative, agents against cognitive and neurobiological impairments in older adults. In this study, we investigated whether the beneficial impact of aerobic fitness would extend to white matter integrity in the context of a one-year exercise intervention. Further, we examined the pattern of diffusivity changes to better understand the underlying biological mechanisms. Finally, we assessed whether training-induced changes in white matter integrity would be associated with improvements in cognitive performance independent of aerobic fitness gains. Results showed that aerobic fitness training did not affect group-level change in white matter integrity, executive function, or short-term memory, but that greater aerobic fitness derived from the walking program was associated with greater change in white matter integrity in the frontal and temporal lobes, and greater improvement in short-term memory. Increases in white matter integrity, however, were not associated with short-term memory improvement, independent of fitness improvements. Therefore, while not all findings are consistent with previous research, we provide novel evidence for correlated change in training-induced aerobic fitness, white matter integrity, and cognition among healthy older adults. PMID:22674729

  19. The influence of aerobic fitness on cerebral white matter integrity and cognitive function in older adults: results of a one-year exercise intervention.

    PubMed

    Voss, Michelle W; Heo, Susie; Prakash, Ruchika S; Erickson, Kirk I; Alves, Heloisa; Chaddock, Laura; Szabo, Amanda N; Mailey, Emily L; Wójcicki, Thomas R; White, Siobhan M; Gothe, Neha; McAuley, Edward; Sutton, Bradley P; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-11-01

    Cerebral white matter (WM) degeneration occurs with increasing age and is associated with declining cognitive function. Research has shown that cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise are effective as protective, even restorative, agents against cognitive and neurobiological impairments in older adults. In this study, we investigated whether the beneficial impact of aerobic fitness would extend to WM integrity in the context of a one-year exercise intervention. Further, we examined the pattern of diffusivity changes to better understand the underlying biological mechanisms. Finally, we assessed whether training-induced changes in WM integrity would be associated with improvements in cognitive performance independent of aerobic fitness gains. Results showed that aerobic fitness training did not affect group-level change in WM integrity, executive function, or short-term memory, but that greater aerobic fitness derived from the walking program was associated with greater change in WM integrity in the frontal and temporal lobes, and greater improvement in short-term memory. Increases in WM integrity, however, were not associated with short-term memory improvement, independent of fitness improvements. Therefore, while not all findings are consistent with previous research, we provide novel evidence for correlated change in training-induced aerobic fitness, WM integrity, and cognition among healthy older adults.

  20. Prescription drug monitoring program data tracking of opioid addiction treatment outcomes in integrated dual diagnosis care involving injectable naltrexone

    PubMed Central

    Sajid, Ayesha; Whiteman, Aaron; Bell, Richard L.; Greene, Marion S.; Engleman, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Fourfold increases in opioid prescribing and dispensations over 2 decades in the U.S. has paralleled increases in opioid addictions and overdoses, requiring new preventative, diagnostic, and treatment strategies. This study examines Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) tracking as a novel measure of opioid addiction treatment outcomes in a university‐affiliated integrated mental health‐addiction treatment clinic. Methods Repeated measure parametrics examined PDMP and urine drug screening (UDS) data before and after first injection for all patients (N = 68) who received at least one long‐acting naltrexone injection (380 mg/IM) according to diagnostic groupings of having either (i) alcohol (control); (ii) opioid; or (iii) combined alcohol and opioid use disorders. Results There were no group differences post‐injection in treatment days, injections delivered, or treatment service encounters. UDS and PDMP measures of opioid exposures were greater in opioid compared to alcohol‐only patients. Post‐first injection, UDS's positive for opioids declined (p < .05) along with PDMP measures of opioid prescriptions (p < .001), doses (p < .01), types (p < .001), numbers of dispensing prescribers (p < .001) and pharmacies (p < .001). Opioid patients without alcohol disorders showed the best outcomes with 50% to 80% reductions in PDMP‐measures of opioids, down to levels of alcohol‐only patients. Conclusions This study shows PDMP utility for measuring opioid addiction treatment outcomes, supporting the routine use of PDMPs in clinical and research settings. Scientific Significance These findings demonstrate that opioid addiction in patients with complex addictions and mental illnesses comorbidities can show effective treatment responses as measured by PDMP tracking of decreases in opioid prescriptions to those patients. (Am J Addict 2016;25:557–564) PMID:27647699

  1. Integrating smart-phone based momentary location tracking with fixed site air quality monitoring for personal exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; Meng, Ying-Ying; Pickett, Melissa; Ritz, Beate

    2015-02-15

    Epidemiological studies investigating relationships between environmental exposures from air pollution and health typically use residential addresses as a single point for exposure, while environmental exposures in transit, at work, school or other locations are largely ignored. Personal exposure monitors measure individuals' exposures over time; however, current personal monitors are intrusive and cannot be operated at a large scale over an extended period of time (e.g., for a continuous three months) and can be very costly. In addition, spatial locations typically cannot be identified when only personal monitors are used. In this paper, we piloted a study that applied momentary location tracking services supplied by smart phones to identify an individual's location in space-time for three consecutive months (April 28 to July 28, 2013) using available Wi-Fi networks. Individual exposures in space-time to the traffic-related pollutants Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) were estimated by superimposing an annual mean NOX concentration surface modeled using the Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling technique. Individual's exposures were assigned to stationary (including home, work and other stationary locations) and in-transit (including commute and other travel) locations. For the individual, whose home/work addresses were known and the commute route was fixed, it was found that 95.3% of the time, the individual could be accurately identified in space-time. The ambient concentration estimated at the home location was 21.01 ppb. When indoor/outdoor infiltration, indoor sources of air pollution and time spent outdoors were taken into consideration, the individual's cumulative exposures were 28.59 ppb and 96.49 ppb, assuming a respective indoor/outdoor ratio of 1.33 and 5.00. Integrating momentary location tracking services with fixed-site field monitoring, plus indoor-outdoor air exchange calibration, makes exposure assessment of a very large population over an extended time period

  2. Variance of time-of-flight distribution is sensitive to cerebral blood flow as demonstrated by ICG bolus-tracking measurements in adult pigs

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jonathan T.; Milej, Daniel; Gerega, Anna; Weigl, Wojciech; Diop, Mamadou; Morrison, Laura B.; Lee, Ting-Yim; Liebert, Adam; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Variance of time-of-flight distributions have been shown to be more sensitive to cerebral blood flow (CBF) during dynamic-contrast enhanced monitoring of neurotrauma patients than attenuation. What is unknown is the degree to which variance is affected by changes in extracerebral blood flow. Furthermore, the importance of acquiring the arterial input function (AIF) on quantitative analysis of the data is not yet clear. This animal study confirms that variance is both sensitive and specific to changes occurring in the brain when measurements are acquired on the surface of the scalp. Furthermore, when the variance data along with the measured AIF is analyzed using a nonparametric deconvolution method, the recovered change in CBF is in good agreement with CT perfusion values. PMID:23413183

  3. Integration of a vision-based tracking platform, visual instruction, and error analysis models for an efficient billiard training system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Chihhsiong; Hsiung, Pao-Ann; Wan, Chieh-Hao; Koong, Chorng-Shiuh; Liu, Tang-Kun; Yang, Yuanfan; Lin, Chu-Hsing; Chu, William Cheng-Chung

    2009-02-01

    A billiard ball tracking system is designed to combine with a visual guide interface to instruct users for a reliable strike. The integrated system runs on a PC platform. The system makes use of a vision system for cue ball, object ball and cue stick tracking. A least-squares error calibration process correlates the real-world and the virtual-world pool ball coordinates for a precise guidance line calculation. Users are able to adjust the cue stick on the pool table according to a visual guidance line instruction displayed on a PC monitor. The ideal visual guidance line extended from the cue ball is calculated based on a collision motion analysis. In addition to calculating the ideal visual guide, the factors influencing selection of the best shot among different object balls and pockets are explored. It is found that a tolerance angle around the ideal line for the object ball to roll into a pocket determines the difficulty of a strike. This angle depends in turn on the distance from the pocket to the object, the distance from the object to the cue ball, and the angle between these two vectors. Simulation results for tolerance angles as a function of these quantities are given. A selected object ball was tested extensively with respect to various geometrical parameters with and without using our integrated system. Players with different proficiency levels were selected for the experiment. The results indicate that all players benefit from our proposed visual guidance system in enhancing their skills, while low-skill players show the maximum enhancement in skill with the help of our system. All exhibit enhanced maximum and average hit-in rates. Experimental results on hit-in rates have shown a pattern consistent with that of the analysis. The hit-in rate is thus tightly connected with the analyzed tolerance angles for sinking object balls into a target pocket. These results prove the efficiency of our system, and the analysis results can be used to attain an

  4. Extending the functional cerebral systems theory of emotion to the vestibular modality: a systematic and integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Joseph E; Holland, Alissa K; Harrison, David W

    2009-03-01

    Throughout history, vestibular and emotional dysregulation have often manifested together in clinical settings, with little consideration that they may have a common basis. Regarding vestibular mechanisms, the role of brainstem and cerebellar structures has been emphasized in the neurological literature, whereas emotion processing in the cerebral hemispheres has been the focus in psychology. A conceptual model is proposed that links research in the 2 disparate fields by means of a functional cerebral systems framework. The claim is that frontal regions exert regulatory control over posterior systems for sensation and autonomic functions in a dense, interconnected network. Impairment at levels within the system is expected to influence vestibular and cognitive processes depending on the extent of frontal regulatory capacity. M. Kinsbourne's (1980) shared cerebral space model specifies the conditions under which dysfunction of the vestibular modality will influence higher cognitive levels. A position on laterality and associative relations within the right hemisphere is proposed to explain links among dizziness, nausea, and negative emotion. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. IMPACT Observatory: tracking the evolution of clinical trial data sharing and research integrity

    PubMed Central

    Krleža-Jerić, Karmela; Gabelica, Mirko; Banzi, Rita; Martinić, Marina Krnić; Pulido, Bibiana; Mahmić-Kaknjo, Mersiha; Reveiz, Ludovic; Šimić, Josip; Utrobičić, Ana; Hrgović, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The opening of research data is emerging thanks to the increasing possibilities of digital technology. The opening of clinical trial (CT) data is a part of this process, expected to have positive scientific, ethical, health, and economic impacts thus contributing to research integrity. The January 2016 proposal by the International Council of Medical Journal Editors triggered ample discussion about CT data sharing and reconfirmed the need for an ongoing assessment of its dynamics. The IMProving Access to Clinical Trials data (IMPACT) Observatory aims to play such a role, and assess the data sharing culture, policies, and practices of key players, the impact of their interventions on CTs, and contribute to a transformation of research. The objective of this paper is to present the IMPACT Observatory as well as share some of its preliminary findings. Materials and methods Methods include a scoping study of research, surveys, interviews, and an environmental scan of research data repositories. Results Our preliminary findings indicate that although opening of CT data has not yet been achieved, its evolution is encouraging. Initiatives by key players contribute to increasing of CT data sharing, and many barriers are shrinking or disappearing. Conclusions The major barrier is the lack of data sharing standards, from preparing data for public sharing to its curatorship, findability and access. However, experiences accumulated by sharing CT data according to “upon request” or “open” mechanisms could inform the development of such standards. The Vivli, CORBEL-ECRIN and Open Trials projects are currently working in this direction. PMID:27812300

  6. Reference values for three channels of amplitude-integrated EEG using the Brainz BRM3 cerebral function monitor in normal term neonates: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nimisha; Pappas, Athina; Thomas, Ronald; Shankaran, Seetha

    2015-03-01

    Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (EEG) is a form of continuous EEG using a select number of electrodes (2-4), which can be used for bedside monitoring of brain functions in critically ill neonates. There is a paucity of normative amplitude-integrated EEG data for term healthy neonates especially for unilateral channels that are available for newer cerebral function monitors. To define absolute amplitudes for all three available channels and also to determine if route of delivery or presence of a caput succedaneum would affect amplitude-integrated EEG amplitude voltages. This is a prospective observational study of 80 healthy term neonates (gestational age ≥ 38 weeks) who had three-channel amplitude-integrated EEG recorded for 90 minutes within 12 hours of birth using the Brainz BRM3 cerebral function monitor. Median maximum and median minimum voltages obtained were 16.96 μV and 8.13 μV for the cross-cerebral (CC), 14.42 μV and 7.13 μV for the right unilateral, and 13.16 μV and 6.51 μV for the left unilateral aEEG channels, respectively. There were no statistically significant difference amplitude voltages for any channel based on route of delivery. The presence of a caput succedaneum was associated with a decrease in the median and mean of the maximum and minimum amplitude voltages for CC channel. Median maximum and median minimum voltages for the CC channel among the caput and normal scalp examination groups were 14.62 μV vs 17.27 μV (P = 0.022) and 7.21 μV vs 8.24 μV (P = 0.004), respectively. Similarly, mean maximum and mean minimum voltages for the CC channel were 15.42 μV vs 17.59 μV (P = 0.038) and 7.27 μV vs 8.25 μV (P = 0.005) in the caput and normal scalp examination groups, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Field calculations, single-particle tracking, and beam dynamics with space charge in the electron lens for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, Daniel; Stancari, Giulio

    2015-11-17

    An electron lens is planned for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator as a nonlinear element for integrable dynamics, as an electron cooler, and as an electron trap to study space-charge compensation in rings. We present the main design principles and constraints for nonlinear integrable optics. A magnetic configuration of the solenoids and of the toroidal section is laid out. Singleparticle tracking is used to optimize the electron path. Electron beam dynamics at high intensity is calculated with a particle-in-cell code to estimate current limits, profile distortions, and the effects on the circulating beam. In the conclusions, we summarize the main findings and list directions for further work.

  8. Topographic changes in cerebral blood flow and reduced white matter integrity in the first 2 weeks following revascularization surgery in adult moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Kazumata, Ken; Tha, Khin Khin; Uchino, Haruto; Shiga, Tohru; Shichinohe, Hideo; Ito, Masaki; Nakayama, Naoki; Abumiya, Takeo

    2016-09-02

    OBJECTIVE After revascularization surgery, hyperperfusion and ischemia are associated with morbidity and mortality in adult moyamoya disease (MMD). However, structural changes within the brain following revascularization surgery, especially in the early postsurgical period, have not been thoroughly studied. Such knowledge may enable improved monitoring and clinical management of hyperperfusion and ischemia in MMD. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the topographic and temporal profiles of cerebral perfusion and related white matter microstructural changes following revascularization surgery in adult MMD. METHODS The authors analyzed 20 consecutive surgeries performed in 17 adults. Diffusion imaging in parallel with serial measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using SPECT was performed. Both voxel-based and region-of-interest analyses were performed, comparing neuroimaging parameters of postoperative hemispheres with those of preoperative hemispheres at 4 different time points within 2 weeks after surgery. RESULTS Voxel-based analysis showed a distinct topographic pattern of cerebral perfusion, characterized by increased rCBF in the basal ganglia for the first several days and gradually increased rCBF in the lateral prefrontal cortex over 1 week (p < 0.001). Decreased rCBF was also observed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, occipital lobe, and cerebellum contralateral to the surgical hemisphere (p < 0.001). Reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity (AD), as well as increased radial diffusivity (RD), were demonstrated in both the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule (p < 0.001). Diffusion parameters demonstrated the greatest changes in both FA and RD on Days 1-2 and in AD on Days 3-6; FA, RD, and AD recovered to preoperative levels on Day 14. Patients with transient neurological deteriorations (TNDs), as compared with those without, demonstrated greater increases in rCBF in both the lateral prefrontal

  9. Myofascial Structural Integration Therapy on Gross Motor Function and Gait of Young Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Loi, Elizabeth C.; Buysse, Christina A.; Price, Karen S.; Jaramillo, Theresa M.; Pico, Elaine L.; Hansen, Alexis B.; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Though the cause of motor abnormalities in cerebral palsy is injury to the brain, structural changes in muscle and fascia may add to stiffness and reduced function. This study examined whether myofascial structural integration therapy, a complementary treatment that manipulates muscle and fascia, would improve gross motor function and gait in children <4 years with cerebral palsy. Participants (N = 29) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (NCT01815814, https://goo.gl/TGxvwd) or Open Label Extension. The main outcome was the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 assessed at 3-month intervals. Gait (n = 8) was assessed using the GAITRite® electronic walkway. Parents completed a survey at study conclusion. Comparing Treatment (n = 15) and Waitlist-Control groups (n = 9), we found a significant main effect of time but no effect of group or time × group interaction. The pooled sample (n = 27) showed a main effect of time, but no significantly greater change after treatment than between other assessments. Foot length on the affected side increased significantly after treatment, likely indicating improvement in the children’s ability to approach a heel strike. Parent surveys indicated satisfaction and improvements in the children’s quality of movement. MSI did not increase the rate of motor skill development, but was associated with improvement in gait quality. PMID:26442234

  10. Myofascial Structural Integration Therapy on Gross Motor Function and Gait of Young Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Loi, Elizabeth C; Buysse, Christina A; Price, Karen S; Jaramillo, Theresa M; Pico, Elaine L; Hansen, Alexis B; Feldman, Heidi M

    2015-01-01

    Though the cause of motor abnormalities in cerebral palsy is injury to the brain, structural changes in muscle and fascia may add to stiffness and reduced function. This study examined whether myofascial structural integration therapy, a complementary treatment that manipulates muscle and fascia, would improve gross motor function and gait in children <4 years with cerebral palsy. Participants (N = 29) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (NCT01815814, https://goo.gl/TGxvwd) or Open Label Extension. The main outcome was the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 assessed at 3-month intervals. Gait (n = 8) was assessed using the GAITRite(®) electronic walkway. Parents completed a survey at study conclusion. Comparing Treatment (n = 15) and Waitlist-Control groups (n = 9), we found a significant main effect of time but no effect of group or time × group interaction. The pooled sample (n = 27) showed a main effect of time, but no significantly greater change after treatment than between other assessments. Foot length on the affected side increased significantly after treatment, likely indicating improvement in the children's ability to approach a heel strike. Parent surveys indicated satisfaction and improvements in the children's quality of movement. MSI did not increase the rate of motor skill development, but was associated with improvement in gait quality.

  11. Determining origin in a migratory marine vertebrate: a novel method to integrate stable isotopes and satellite tracking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Wunder, Michael B.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bolten, Alan B.; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis is a useful tool to track animal movements in both terrestrial and marine environments. These intrinsic markers are assimilated through the diet and may exhibit spatial gradients as a result of biogeochemical processes at the base of the food web. In the marine environment, maps to predict the spatial distribution of stable isotopes are limited, and thus determining geographic origin has been reliant upon integrating satellite telemetry and stable isotope data. Migratory sea turtles regularly move between foraging and reproductive areas. Whereas most nesting populations can be easily accessed and regularly monitored, little is known about the demographic trends in foraging populations. The purpose of the present study was to examine migration patterns of loggerhead nesting aggregations in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), where sea turtles have been historically understudied. Two methods of geographic assignment using stable isotope values in known-origin samples from satellite telemetry were compared: 1) a nominal approach through discriminant analysis and 2) a novel continuous-surface approach using bivariate carbon and nitrogen isoscapes (isotopic landscapes) developed for this study. Tissue samples for stable isotope analysis were obtained from 60 satellite-tracked individuals at five nesting beaches within the GoM. Both methodological approaches for assignment resulted in high accuracy of foraging area determination, though each has advantages and disadvantages. The nominal approach is more appropriate when defined boundaries are necessary, but up to 42% of the individuals could not be considered in this approach. All individuals can be included in the continuous-surface approach, and individual results can be aggregated to identify geographic hotspots of foraging area use, though the accuracy rate was lower than nominal assignment. The methodological validation provides a foundation for future sea turtle studies in the region to inexpensively

  12. Determining origin in a migratory marine vertebrate: a novel method to integrate stable isotopes and satellite tracking.

    PubMed

    Zanden, Hannah B Vander; Tucker, Anton D; Hart, Kristen M; Lamont, Margaret M; Fuisaki, Ikuko; Addison, David; Mansfield, Katherine L; Phillips, Katrina F; Wunder, Michael B; Bowen, Gabriel J; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bolten, Alan B; Bjorndal, Karen A

    2015-03-01

    Stable isotope analysis is a useful tool to track animal movements in both terrestrial and marine environments. These intrinsic markers are assimilated through the diet and may exhibit spatial gradients as a result of biogeochemical processes at the base of the food web. In the marine environment, maps to predict the spatial distribution of stable isotopes are limited, and thus determining geographic origin has been reliant upon integrating satellite telemetry and stable isotope data. Migratory sea turtles regularly move between foraging and reproductive areas. Whereas most nesting populations can be easily accessed and regularly monitored, little is known about the demographic trends in foraging populations. The purpose of the present study was to examine migration patterns of loggerhead nesting aggregations in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), where sea turtles have been historically understudied. Two methods of geographic assignment using stable isotope values in known-origin samples from satellite telemetry were compared: (1) a nominal approach through discriminant analysis and (2) a novel continuous-surface approach using bivariate carbon and nitrogen isoscapes (isotopic landscapes) developed for this study. Tissue samples for stable isotope analysis were obtained from 60 satellite-tracked individuals at five nesting beaches within the GoM. Both methodological approaches for assignment resulted in high accuracy of foraging area determination, though each has advantages and disadvantages. The nominal approach is more appropriate when defined boundaries are necessary, but up to 42% of the individuals could not be considered in this approach. All individuals can be included in the continuous-surface approach, and individual results can be aggregated to identify geographic hotspots of foraging area use, though the accuracy rate was lower than nominal assignment. The methodological validation provides a foundation for future sea turtle studies in the region to

  13. Tracking the Evolution of Cerebral Gadolinium-Enhancing Lesions to Persistent T1 Black Holes in Multiple Sclerosis: Validation of a Semiautomated Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Andermatt, Simon; Papadopoulou, Athina; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Sprenger, Till; Cattin, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Some gadolinium-enhancing multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions remain T1-hypointense over months ("persistent black holes, BHs") and represent areas of pronounced tissue loss. A reduced conversion of enhancing lesions to persistent BHs could suggest a favorable effect of a medication on tissue repair. However, the individual tracking of enhancing lesions can be very time-consuming in large clinical trials. We created a semiautomated workflow for tracking the evolution of individual MS lesions, to calculate the proportion of enhancing lesions becoming persistent BHs at follow-up. Our workflow automatically coregisters, compares, and detects overlaps between lesion masks at different time points. We tested the algorithm in a data set of Magnetic Resonance images (1.5 and 3T; spin-echo T1-sequences) from a phase 3 clinical trial (n = 1,272), in which all enhancing lesions and all BHs had been previously segmented at baseline and year 2. The algorithm analyzed the segmentation masks in a longitudinal fashion to determine which enhancing lesions at baseline turned into BHs at year 2. Images of 50 patients (192 enhancing lesions) were also reviewed by an experienced MRI rater, blinded to the algorithm results. In this MRI data set, there were no cases that could not be processed by the algorithm. At year 2, 417 lesions were classified as persistent BHs (417/1,613 = 25.9%). The agreement between the rater and the algorithm was > 98%. Due to the semiautomated procedure, this algorithm can be of great value in the analysis of large clinical trials, when a rater-based analysis would be time-consuming. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  14. Motion tracking and electromyography-assisted identification of mirror hand contributions to functional near-infrared spectroscopy images acquired during a finger-tapping task performed by children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hervey, Nathan; Khan, Bilal; Shagman, Laura; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Roberts, Heather; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Clegg, Nancy J.; Liu, Hanli; MacFarlane, Duncan; Alexandrakis, George

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Recent studies have demonstrated functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to be a viable and sensitive method for imaging sensorimotor cortex activity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, during unilateral finger tapping, children with CP often exhibit unintended motions in the nontapping hand, known as mirror motions, which confuse the interpretation of resulting fNIRS images. This work presents a method for separating some of the mirror motion contributions to fNIRS images and demonstrates its application to fNIRS data from four children with CP performing a finger-tapping task with mirror motions. Finger motion and arm muscle activity were measured simultaneously with fNIRS signals using motion tracking and electromyography (EMG), respectively. Subsequently, subject-specific regressors were created from the motion capture or EMG data and independent component analysis was combined with a general linear model to create an fNIRS image representing activation due to the tapping hand and one image representing activation due to the mirror hand. The proposed method can provide information on how mirror motions contribute to fNIRS images, and in some cases, it helps remove mirror motion contamination from the tapping hand activation images. PMID:26157980

  15. Integration of real-time internal electromagnetic position monitoring coupled with dynamic multileaf collimator tracking: an intensity-modulated radiation therapy feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan L; Sawant, Amit; Santanam, Lakshmi; Venkat, Raghu B; Newell, Laurence J; Cho, Byung-Chul; Poulsen, Per; Catell, Herbert; Keall, Paul J; Parikh, Parag J

    2009-07-01

    Continuous tumor position measurement coupled with a tumor tracking system would result in a highly accurate radiation therapy system. Previous internal position monitoring systems have been limited by fluoroscopic radiation dose and low delivery efficiency. We aimed to incorporate a continuous, electromagnetic, three-dimensional position tracking system (Calypso 4D Localization System) with a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC)-based dose delivery system. A research version of the Calypso System provided real-time position of three Beacon transponders. These real-time three-dimensional positions were sent to research MLC controller with a motion-tracking algorithm that changed the planned leaf sequence. Electromagnetic transponders were embedded in a solid water film phantom that moved with patient lung trajectories while being irradiated with two different plans: a step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (S-IMRT) field and a dynamic IMRT (D-IMRT) field. Dosimetric results were recorded under three conditions: no intervention, DMLC tracking, and a spatial gating system. Dosimetric accuracy was comparable for gating and DMLC tracking. Failure rates for gating/DMLC tracking are as follows: +/-3 cGy 10.9/ 7.5% for S-IMRT, 3.3/7.2% for D-IMRT; gamma (3mm/3%) 0.2/1.2% for S-IMRT, 0.2/0.2% for D-IMRT. DMLC tracking proved to be as efficient as standard delivery, with a two- to fivefold efficiency increase over gating. Real-time target position information was successfully integrated into a DMLC effector system to modify dose delivery. Experimental results show both comparable dosimetric accuracy as well as improved efficiency compared with spatial gating.

  16. Integration of Real-Time Internal Electromagnetic Position Monitoring Coupled With Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Tracking: An Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ryan L.; Sawant, Amit PhD.; Santanam, Lakshmi PhD.; Venkat, Raghu B.; Newell, Laurence J.; Cho, Byung-chul; Poulsen, Per; Catell, Herbert; Keall, Paul J.; Parikh, Parag J.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: Continuous tumor position measurement coupled with a tumor tracking system would result in a highly accurate radiation therapy system. Previous internal position monitoring systems have been limited by fluoroscopic radiation dose and low delivery efficiency. We aimed to incorporate a continuous, electromagnetic, three-dimensional position tracking system (Calypso 4D Localization System) with a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC)-based dose delivery system. Methods and Materials: A research version of the Calypso System provided real-time position of three Beacon transponders. These real-time three-dimensional positions were sent to research MLC controller with a motion-tracking algorithm that changed the planned leaf sequence. Electromagnetic transponders were embedded in a solid water film phantom that moved with patient lung trajectories while being irradiated with two different plans: a step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (S-IMRT) field and a dynamic IMRT (D-IMRT) field. Dosimetric results were recorded under three conditions: no intervention, DMLC tracking, and a spatial gating system. Results: Dosimetric accuracy was comparable for gating and DMLC tracking. Failure rates for gating/DMLC tracking are as follows: {+-}3 cGy 10.9/ 7.5% for S-IMRT, 3.3/7.2% for D-IMRT; gamma (3mm/3%) 0.2/1.2% for S-IMRT, 0.2/0.2% for D-IMRT. DMLC tracking proved to be as efficient as standard delivery, with a two- to fivefold efficiency increase over gating. Conclusions: Real-time target position information was successfully integrated into a DMLC effector system to modify dose delivery. Experimental results show both comparable dosimetric accuracy as well as improved efficiency compared with spatial gating.

  17. A web-based communication system for integrated care in cerebral palsy: design features, technical feasibility and usability.

    PubMed

    Gulmans, Jitske; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M R; Visser, Jacqueline J W; Nijeweme-d'Hollosy, Wendy Oude; van Gemert-Pijnen, J E W C Lisette; van Harten, Wim H

    2010-01-01

    We developed a secure, web-based system for parent-professional and inter-professional communication. The aim was to improve communication in the care of children with cerebral palsy. We conducted a six-month trial of the system in three Dutch health-care regions. The participants were the parents of 30 cerebral palsy patients and 120 professional staff involved in their care. Information about system usage was extracted from the system's database. The experience of the parents and professionals was evaluated by a questionnaire after six months. The system proved to be technically robust and reliable. A total of 21 parents (70%) and 66 professionals (55%) used the system. The parents submitted 111 questions and 59 responses, with a mean of 5 questions (range 1-17) and 3 responses (range 1-9) per parent. The professionals submitted 79 questions and 237 responses, with a mean of 2 questions (range 1-8) and 4 responses (range 1-23) per professional. Most parents (95%) and some professionals (30%) reported value in using the system, which ranged from efficiency and accessibility to flexibility and transparency. The web-based communication system was technically feasible and produced improved parent-professional and inter-professional communication. It may be especially valuable if frequent interventions or consultations about a child's care are required, involving complex care networks of different professionals and organisations.

  18. Psychiatry Resident Graduate Comfort with General Medical Issues: Impact of an Integrated Psychiatry-Primary Medical Care Training Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobscha, Steven K.; Snyder, Kristen M.; Corson, Kathryn; Ganzini, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine if a psychiatry-primary medical care (PPMC) training track impacts comfort and behaviors related to addressing general medical issues after residency. Method: Thirty five psychiatry resident graduates completed mailed surveys; nine of them had completed the PPMC track. Results: Compared to non-PPMC participants, PPMC…

  19. Randomized controlled trial of traditional Chinese medicine (acupuncture and tuina) in cerebral palsy: part 1--any increase in seizure in integrated acupuncture and rehabilitation group versus rehabilitation group?

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun; Zou, Li-Ping; Han, Tong-Li; Zheng, Hua; Caspi, Opher; Wong, Virginia; Su, Yani; Shen, Kun-Ling

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to observe for any change in baseline seizure frequency with acupuncture in children with cerebral palsy. A randomized controlled study was conducted: Group I consisted of integrated acupuncture, tuina, and rehabilitation (physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and hydrotherapy) for 12 weeks; and Group II consisted of rehabilitation (physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and hydrotherapy) for 12 weeks. After a washout period of 4 weeks, Group II then received acupuncture and tuina for 12 weeks. Each subject received 5 daily acupuncture sessions per week for 12 weeks (total = 60 sessions). All children were assessed for any change in seizure frequency during treatment. One hundred and sixteen (116) children were recruited and randomized into Group I (N = 58) and Group II (N = 58). Thirty-three (33) children withdrew (9 from Group I and 24 from Group II). Of the remaining 83 children, Group I consisted of 49 and Group II of 34 children. For baseline, 5 children (6%; 5/83) had seizures. During phase 1 (12 weeks) of integrative treatment and subsequent 4-week follow-up, 3 children in Group I had seizures. Among those 3 children with seizures, 1 child with prior history of recurrent febrile seizure had 3 more recurrent febrile seizures during acupuncture treatment and 2 children without any prior history of seizures had new-onset seizures (1 with 3 recurrent febrile seizures and 1 with afebrile seizure). For Group I, 2 children with epilepsy had no increase in seizure frequency during acupuncture treatment. For Group II during the phase 2 acupuncture period, none had increase in seizure frequency. In both groups, 4 of 5 children (80%; 2 in Group I and 2 in Group II) with seizures had no increase in seizure frequency during acupuncture treatment and follow-up. The risk of increasing seizure is not increased with acupuncture treatment for cerebral palsy.

  20. White matter integrity, hippocampal volume, and cognitive performance of a world-famous nonagenarian track-and-field athlete.

    PubMed

    Burzynska, A Z; Wong, C N; Chaddock-Heyman, L; Olson, E A; Gothe, N P; Knecht, A; Voss, M W; McAuley, E; Kramer, A F

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with successful brain and cognitive aging. However, little is known about the effects of PA, CRF, and exercise on the brain in the oldest-old. Here we examined white matter (WM) integrity, measured as fractional anisotropy (FA) and WM hyperintensity (WMH) burden, and hippocampal (HIPP) volume of Olga Kotelko (1919-2014). Olga began training for competitions at age of 77 and as of June 2014 held over 30 world records in her age category in track-and-field. We found that Olga's WMH burden was larger and the HIPP was smaller than in the reference sample (58 healthy low-active women 60-78 years old), and her FA was consistently lower in the regions overlapping with WMH. Olga's FA in many normal-appearing WM regions, however, did not differ or was greater than in the reference sample. In particular, FA in her genu corpus callosum was higher than any FA value observed in the reference sample. We speculate that her relatively high FA may be related to both successful aging and the beneficial effects of exercise in old age. In addition, Olga had lower scores on memory, reasoning and speed tasks than the younger reference sample, but outperformed typical adults of age 90-95 on speed and memory. Together, our findings open the possibility of old-age benefits of increasing PA on WM microstructure and cognition despite age-related increase in WMH burden and HIPP shrinkage, and add to the still scarce neuroimaging data of the healthy oldest-old (>90 years) adults.

  1. PDCD10 (CCM3) regulates brain endothelial barrier integrity in cerebral cavernous malformation type 3: role of CCM3-ERK1/2-cortactin cross-talk.

    PubMed

    Stamatovic, Svetlana M; Sladojevic, Nikola; Keep, Richard F; Andjelkovic, Anuska V

    2015-11-01

    Impairment of brain endothelial barrier integrity is critical for cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) lesion development. The current study investigates changes in tight junction (TJ) complex organization when PDCD10 (CCM3) is mutated/depleted in human brain endothelial cells. Analysis of lesions with CCM3 mutation and brain endothelial cells transfected with CCM3 siRNA (CCM3-knockdown) showed little or no increase in TJ transmembrane and scaffolding proteins mRNA expression, but proteins levels were generally decreased. CCM3-knockdown cells had a redistribution of claudin-5 and occludin from the membrane to the cytosol with no alterations in protein turnover but with diminished protein-protein interactions with ZO-1 and ZO-1 interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. The most profound effect of CCM3 mutation/depletion was on an actin-binding protein, cortactin. CCM3 depletion caused cortactin Ser-phosphorylation, dissociation from ZO-1 and actin, redistribution to the cytosol and degradation. This affected cortical actin ring organization, TJ complex stability and consequently barrier integrity, with constant hyperpermeability to inulin. A potential link between CCM3 depletion and altered cortactin was tonic activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2. ERK1/2 inhibition increased cortactin expression and incorporation into the TJ complex and improved barrier integrity. This study highlights the potential role of CCM3 in regulating TJ complex organization and brain endothelial barrier permeability.

  2. PDCD10 (CCM3) REGULATES BRAIN ENDOTHELIAL BARRIER INTEGRITY IN CEREBRAL CAVERNOUS MALFORMATION TYPE 3: ROLE OF CCM3-ERK1/2-CORTACTIN CROSS-TALK

    PubMed Central

    Stamatovic, Svetlana M.; Sladojevic, Nikola; Keep, Richard F.; Andjelkovic, Anuska V.

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of brain endothelial barrier integrity is critical for cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) lesion development. The current study investigates changes in tight junction (TJ) complex organization when PDCD10 (CCM3) is mutated/depleted in human brain endothelial cells. Analysis of lesions with CCM3 mutation and brain endothelial cells transfected with CCM3 siRNA (CCM3-knockdown) showed little or no increase in TJ transmembrane and scaffolding proteins mRNA expression, but proteins levels were generally decreased. CCM3- knockdown cells had a redistribution of claudin-5 and occludin from the membrane to the cytosol with no alterations in protein turnover but with diminished protein-protein interactions with ZO-1 and ZO-1 interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. The most profound effect of CCM3 mutation/depletion was on an actin-binding protein, cortactin. CCM3 depletion caused cortactin Ser-phosphorylation, dissociation from ZO-1 and actin, redistribution to the cytosol and degradation. This affected cortical actin ring organization, TJ complex stability and consequently barrier integrity, with constant hyperpermeability to inulin. A potential link between CCM3 depletion and altered cortactin was tonic activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2. ERK1/2 inhibition increased cortactin expression and incorporation into the TJ complex and improved barrier integrity. This study highlights the potential role of CCM3 in regulating TJ complex organization and brain endothelial barrier permeability. PMID:26385474

  3. Cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rénia, Laurent; Wu Howland, Shanshan; Claser, Carla; Charlotte Gruner, Anne; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Hui Teo, Teck; Russell, Bruce; Ng, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is the most severe pathology caused by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The pathogenic mechanisms leading to cerebral malaria are still poorly defined as studies have been hampered by limited accessibility to human tissues. Nevertheless, histopathology of post-mortem human tissues and mouse models of cerebral malaria have indicated involvement of the blood-brain barrier in cerebral malaria. In contrast to viruses and bacteria, malaria parasites do not infiltrate and infect the brain parenchyma. Instead, rupture of the blood-brain barrier occurs and may lead to hemorrhages resulting in neurological alterations. Here, we review the most recent findings from human studies and mouse models on the interactions of malaria parasites and the blood-brain barrier, shedding light on the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria, which may provide directions for possible interventions. PMID:22460644

  4. Regulation of cerebral autoregulation by carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingzhong; Gelb, Adrian W

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autoregulation describes a mechanism that maintains cerebral blood flow stable despite fluctuating perfusion pressure. Multiple nonperfusion pressure processes also regulate cerebral perfusion. These mechanisms are integrated. The effect of the interplay between carbon dioxide and perfusion pressure on cerebral circulation has not been specifically reviewed. On the basis of the published data and speculation on the aspects that are without supportive data, the authors offer a conceptualization delineating the regulation of cerebral autoregulation by carbon dioxide. The authors conclude that hypercapnia causes the plateau to progressively ascend, a rightward shift of the lower limit, and a leftward shift of the upper limit. Conversely, hypocapnia results in the plateau shifting to lower cerebral blood flows, unremarkable change of the lower limit, and unclear change of the upper limit. It is emphasized that a sound understanding of both the limitations and the dynamic and integrated nature of cerebral autoregulation fosters a safer clinical practice.

  5. An integrated model-driven method for in-treatment upper airway motion tracking using cine MRI in head and neck radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Dolly, Steven; Li, Harold; Fischer-Valuck, Benjamin; Victoria, James; Dempsey, James; Ruan, Su; Anastasio, Mark; Mazur, Thomas; Gach, Michael; Kashani, Rojano; Green, Olga; Rodriguez, Vivian; Gay, Hiram; Thorstad, Wade; Mutic, Sasa

    2016-08-01

    For the first time, MRI-guided radiation therapy systems can acquire cine images to dynamically monitor in-treatment internal organ motion. However, the complex head and neck (H&N) structures and low-contrast/resolution of on-board cine MRI images make automatic motion tracking a very challenging task. In this study, the authors proposed an integrated model-driven method to automatically track the in-treatment motion of the H&N upper airway, a complex and highly deformable region wherein internal motion often occurs in an either voluntary or involuntary manner, from cine MRI images for the analysis of H&N motion patterns. Considering the complex H&N structures and ensuring automatic and robust upper airway motion tracking, the authors firstly built a set of linked statistical shapes (including face, face-jaw, and face-jaw-palate) using principal component analysis from clinically approved contours delineated on a set of training data. The linked statistical shapes integrate explicit landmarks and implicit shape representation. Then, a hierarchical model-fitting algorithm was developed to align the linked shapes on the first image frame of a to-be-tracked cine sequence and to localize the upper airway region. Finally, a multifeature level set contour propagation scheme was performed to identify the upper airway shape change, frame-by-frame, on the entire image sequence. The multifeature fitting energy, including the information of intensity variations, edge saliency, curve geometry, and temporal shape continuity, was minimized to capture the details of moving airway boundaries. Sagittal cine MR image sequences acquired from three H&N cancer patients were utilized to demonstrate the performance of the proposed motion tracking method. The tracking accuracy was validated by comparing the results to the average of two manual delineations in 50 randomly selected cine image frames from each patient. The resulting average dice similarity coefficient (93.28%  ±  1

  6. Cerebral Paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, I

    1975-01-01

    The first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by Otani in Japan in 1887. This was nine years after Kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of Bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by Baelz and Manson. The first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. The patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. The postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobes. An adult fluke was found in the occipital lesion and another was seen in a gross specimen of normal brain tissue around the affected occipital lobe. Two years after Otani's discovery, at autopsy a 29-year-old man with a history of Jacksonian seizure was reported as having cerebral paragonimiasis. Some time later, however, it was confirmed that the case was actually cerebral schistosomiasis japonica. Subsequently, cases of cerebral paragonimiasis were reported. However, the majority of these cases were not confirmed histologically. It was pointed out that some of these early cases were probably not Paragonimus infection. After World War II, reviews as well as case reports were published. Recently, investigations have been reported from Korea, with a clinicla study on 62 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis seen at the Neurology Department of the National Medical Center, Seoul, between 1958 and 1964. In 1971 Higashi described a statistical study on 105 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis that had been treated surgically in Japan.

  7. A Post-stroke Therapeutic Regimen with Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids that Promotes White Matter Integrity and Beneficial Microglial Responses after Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoyan; Pu, Hongjian; Hu, Xiaoming; Wei, Zhishuo; Hong, Dandan; Zhang, Wenting; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun; Shi, Yejie

    2016-12-01

    White matter injury induced by ischemic stroke elicits sensorimotor impairments, which can be further deteriorated by persistent proinflammatory responses. We previously reported that delayed and repeated treatments with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) improve spatial cognitive functions and hippocampal integrity after ischemic stroke. In the present study, we report a post-stroke n-3 PUFA therapeutic regimen that not only confers protection against neuronal loss in the gray matter but also promotes white matter integrity. Beginning 2 h after 60 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), mice were randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) injections (10 mg/kg, daily for 14 days), alone or in combination with dietary fish oil (FO) supplements starting 5 days after MCAO. Sensorimotor functions, gray and white matter injury, and microglial responses were examined up to 28 days after MCAO. Our results showed that DHA and FO combined treatment-facilitated long-term sensorimotor recovery and demonstrated greater beneficial effect than DHA injections alone. Mechanistically, n-3 PUFAs not only offered direct protection on white matter components, such as oligodendrocytes, but also potentiated microglial M2 polarization, which may be important for white matter repair. Notably, the improved white matter integrity and increased M2 microglia were strongly linked to the mitigation of sensorimotor deficits after stroke upon n-3 PUFA treatments. Together, our results suggest that post-stroke DHA injections in combination with FO dietary supplement benefit white matter restoration and microglial responses, thereby dictating long-term functional improvements.

  8. Diagnostic impact of integrated 18F-FDG PET/MRI in cerebral staging of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Deuschl, Cornelius; Nensa, Felix; Grueneisen, Johannes; Poeppel, Thorsten D; Sawicki, Lino M; Heusch, Philipp; Gramsch, Carolin; Mönninghoff, Christoph; Quick, Harald H; Forsting, Michael; Umutlu, Lale; Schlamann, Marc

    2017-08-01

    Background Integrated positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) systems are increasingly being available and used for staging examinations. Brain metastases (BM) are frequent in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and decisive for treatment strategy. Purpose To assess the diagnostic value of integrated 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D glucose (18F-FDG) PET/MRI in initial staging in patients with NSCLC for BM in comparison to MRI alone. Material and Methods Eighty-three patients were prospectively enrolled for an integrated 18F-FDG PET/MRI examination. The 3 T MRI protocol included a fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery sequence (FLAIR) and a contrast-enhanced three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition GRE sequence (MPRAGE). Two neuroradiologists evaluated the datasets in consensus regarding: (i) present lesions; (ii) size of lesions; and (iii) number of lesions detected in MRI alone, compared to the PET component when reading the 18F-FDG PET/MRI. Results Based on MRI alone, BM were detected in 15 out of the 83 patients, comprising a total of 39 metastases. Based on PET alone, six patients out of the 83 patients were rated positive for metastatic disease, revealing a total of 15 metastases. PET detected no additional BM. The size of the BM correlated positively with sensitivity of detection in PET. Conclusion The sensitivity of PET in detection of BM depends on their size. 18F-FDG PET/MRI does not lead to an improvement in diagnostic accuracy in cerebral staging of NSCLC patients, as MRI alone remains the gold standard.

  9. Using Eye Tracking to Investigate Semantic and Spatial Representations of Scientific Diagrams during Text-Diagram Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Wu, Chao-Jung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated strategies used by readers when reading a science article with a diagram and assessed whether semantic and spatial representations were constructed while reading the diagram. Seventy-one undergraduate participants read a scientific article while tracking their eye movements and then completed a reading comprehension test. Our…

  10. Integrating different tracking systems in football: multiple camera semi-automatic system, local position measurement and GPS technologies.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Allen, Adam; Poon, Tsz Kit; Modonutti, Mattia; Gregson, Warren; Di Salvo, Valter

    2014-12-01

    Abstract During the past decade substantial development of computer-aided tracking technology has occurred. Therefore, we aimed to provide calibration equations to allow the interchangeability of different tracking technologies used in soccer. Eighty-two highly trained soccer players (U14-U17) were monitored during training and one match. Player activity was collected simultaneously with a semi-automatic multiple-camera (Prozone), local position measurement (LPM) technology (Inmotio) and two global positioning systems (GPSports and VX). Data were analysed with respect to three different field dimensions (small, <30 m(2) to full-pitch, match). Variables provided by the systems were compared, and calibration equations (linear regression models) between each system were calculated for each field dimension. Most metrics differed between the 4 systems with the magnitude of the differences dependant on both pitch size and the variable of interest. Trivial-to-small between-system differences in total distance were noted. However, high-intensity running distance (>14.4 km · h(-1)) was slightly-to-moderately greater when tracked with Prozone, and accelerations, small-to-very largely greater with LPM. For most of the equations, the typical error of the estimate was of a moderate magnitude. Interchangeability of the different tracking systems is possible with the provided equations, but care is required given their moderate typical error of the estimate.

  11. Using Eye Tracking to Investigate Semantic and Spatial Representations of Scientific Diagrams during Text-Diagram Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Wu, Chao-Jung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated strategies used by readers when reading a science article with a diagram and assessed whether semantic and spatial representations were constructed while reading the diagram. Seventy-one undergraduate participants read a scientific article while tracking their eye movements and then completed a reading comprehension test. Our…

  12. Integrating UF6 Cylinder RF Tracking With Continuous Load Cell Monitoring for Verifying Declared UF6 Feed and Withdrawal Operations Verifying Declared UF6 Feed and Withdrawal Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Krichinsky, Alan M; Miller, Paul; Pickett, Chris A; Richardson, Dave; Rowe, Nathan C; Whitaker, J Michael; Younkin, James R

    2009-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is demonstrating the integration of UF6 cylinder tracking, using RF technology, with continuous load cell monitoring (CLCM) at mock UF6 feed and withdrawal (F&W) stations. CLCM and cylinder tracking are two of several continuous-monitoring technologies that show promise in providing integrated safeguards of F&W operations at enrichment plants. Integrating different monitoring technologies allows advanced, automated event processing to screen innocuous events thereby minimizing false alerts to independent inspectors. Traditionally, international inspectors rely on batch verification of material inputs and outputs derived from operator declarations and periodic on-site inspections at uranium enrichment plants or other nuclear processing facilities. Continuously monitoring F&W activities between inspections while providing filtered alerts of significant operational events will substantially increase the amount of valuable information available to inspectors thereby promising to enhance the effectiveness of safeguards and to improve efficiency in conducting on-site inspections especially at large plants for ensuring that all operations are declared.

  13. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Parents > Cerebral Palsy A A A ... kids who are living with the condition. About Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is one of the most common ...

  14. Cerebral palsy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cerebral palsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cerebral palsy : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_palsy/cerebral_palsy. ...

  15. Cerebral Palsy (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Right Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Teens > Cerebral Palsy Print A A ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...

  16. Integrating Geochemical Reactions with a Particle-Tracking Approach to Simulate Nitrogen Transport and Transformation in Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Z.; Welty, C.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Lagrangian, particle-tracking models are commonly used to simulate solute advection and dispersion in aquifers. They are computationally efficient and suffer from much less numerical dispersion than grid-based techniques, especially in heterogeneous and advectively-dominated systems. Although particle-tracking models are capable of simulating geochemical reactions, these reactions are often simplified to first-order decay and/or linear, first-order kinetics. Nitrogen transport and transformation in aquifers involves both biodegradation and higher-order geochemical reactions. In order to take advantage of the particle-tracking approach, we have enhanced an existing particle-tracking code SLIM-FAST, to simulate nitrogen transport and transformation in aquifers. The approach we are taking is a hybrid one: the reactive multispecies transport process is operator split into two steps: (1) the physical movement of the particles including the attachment/detachment to solid surfaces, which is modeled by a Lagrangian random-walk algorithm; and (2) multispecies reactions including biodegradation are modeled by coupling multiple Monod equations with other geochemical reactions. The coupled reaction system is solved by an ordinary differential equation solver. In order to solve the coupled system of equations, after step 1, the particles are converted to grid-based concentrations based on the mass and position of the particles, and after step 2 the newly calculated concentration values are mapped back to particles. The enhanced particle-tracking code is capable of simulating subsurface nitrogen transport and transformation in a three-dimensional domain with variably saturated conditions. Potential application of the enhanced code is to simulate subsurface nitrogen loading to the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Implementation details, verification results of the enhanced code with one-dimensional analytical solutions and other existing numerical models will be presented in

  17. SU-F-BRA-03: Integrating Novel Electromagnetic Tracking Hollow Needle Assistance in Permanent Implant Brachytherapy Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Racine, E; Hautvast, G; Binnekamp, D; Beaulieu, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To report on the results of a complete permanent implant brachytherapy procedure assisted by an electromagnetic (EM) hollow needle possessing both 3D tracking and seed drop detection abilities. Methods: End-to-end in-phantom EM-assisted LDR procedures were conducted. The novel system consisted of an EM tracking apparatus (NDI Aurora V2, Planar Field Generator), a 3D US scanner (Philips CX50), a hollow needle prototype allowing 3D tracking and seed drop detection and a specially designed treatment planning software (Philips Healthcare). A tungsten-doped 30 cc spherical agarose prostate immersed in gelatin was used for the treatment. A cylindrical shape of 0.8 cc was carved along its diameter to mimic the urethra. An initial plan of 26 needles and 47 seeds was established with the system. The plan was delivered with the EM-tracked hollow needle, and individual seed drop locations were recorded on the fly. The phantom was subsequently imaged with a CT scanner from which seed positions and contour definitions were obtained. The DVHs were then independently recomputed and compared with those produced by the planning system, both before and after the treatment. Results: Of the 47 seeds, 45 (96%) were detected by the EM technology embedded in the hollow needle design. The executed plan (from CT analysis) differed from the initial plan by 2%, 14% and 8% respectively in terms of V100, D90 and V150 for the prostate, and by 8%, 7% and 10% respectively in terms of D5, V100 and V120 for the urethra. Conclusion: The average DVH deviations between initial and executed plans were within a 5% tolerance imposed for this proof-of-concept assessment. This relatively good concordance demonstrates the feasibility and potential benefits of combining EM tracking and seed drop detection for real-time dosimetry validation and assistance in permanent implant brachytherapy procedures. This project has been entirely funded by Philips Healthcare.

  18. iTAG: Integrating a Cloud Based, Collaborative Animal Tracking Network into the GCOOS data portal in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, B. A.; Currier, R. D.; Simoniello, C.

    2016-02-01

    The tagging and tracking of aquatic animals using acoustic telemetry hardware has traditionally been the purview of individual researchers that specialize in single species. Concerns over data privacy and unauthorized use of receiver arrays have prevented the construction of large-scale, multi-species, multi-institution, multi-researcher collaborative acoustic arrays. We have developed a toolset to build the new portal using the Flask microframework, Python language, and Twitter bootstrap. Initial feedback has been overwhelmingly positive. The privacy policy has been praised for its granularity: principal investigators can choose between three levels of privacy for all data and hardware: Completely private - viewable only by the PI Visible to iTAG members Visible to the general public At the time of this writing iTAG is still in the beta stage, but the feedback received to date indicates that with the proper design and security features, and an iterative cycle of feedback from potential members, constructing a collaborative acoustic tracking network system is possible. Initial usage will be limited to the entry and searching for `orphan/mystery' tags, with the integration of historical array deployments and data following shortly thereafter. We have also been working with staff from the Ocean Tracking Network to allow for integration of the two systems. The database schema of iTAG is based on the marine metadata convention for acoustic telemetry. This should permit machine-to-machine data exchange between iTAG and OTN. The integration of animal telemetry data into the GCOOS portal will allow researchers to easily access the physiochemical oceanography data, thus allowing for a more in depth understanding of animal response and usage patterns.

  19. Cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Colver, Allan; Fairhurst, Charles; Pharoah, Peter O D

    2014-04-05

    The syndrome of cerebral palsy encompasses a large group of childhood movement and posture disorders. Severity, patterns of motor involvement, and associated impairments such as those of communication, intellectual ability, and epilepsy vary widely. Overall prevalence has remained stable in the past 40 years at 2-3·5 cases per 1000 livebirths, despite changes in antenatal and perinatal care. The few studies available from developing countries suggest prevalence of comparable magnitude. Cerebral palsy is a lifelong disorder; approaches to intervention, whether at an individual or environmental level, should recognise that quality of life and social participation throughout life are what individuals with cerebral palsy seek, not improved physical function for its own sake. In the past few years, the cerebral palsy community has learned that the evidence of benefit for the numerous drugs, surgery, and therapies used over previous decades is weak. Improved understanding of the role of multiple gestation in pathogenesis, of gene environment interaction, and how to influence brain plasticity could yield significant advances in treatment of the disorder. Reduction in the prevalence of post-neonatal cerebral palsy, especially in developing countries, should be possible through improved nutrition, infection control, and accident prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sample-Wise Aiding in GPS/INS Ultra-Tight Integration for High-Dynamic, High-Precision Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Yanhong; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    By aiding GPS receiver tracking loops with INS estimates of signal dynamics, GPS/INS ultra-tight coupling can improve the navigation performance in challenging environments. Traditionally the INS data are injected into the loops once every loop update interval, which limits the levels of dynamics accommodated. This paper presents a sample-wise aiding method, which interpolates the aiding Doppler into each digital sample of the local signal to further eliminate the dynamic errors. The relationship between the tracking error and the aiding rate is derived analytically. Moreover, the effects of sample-wise aiding using linear and spline interpolations are simulated and compared with traditional aiding under different INS data update rates. Finally, extensive tests based on a digital IF (intermediate frequency) signal simulator and a software receiver validate the theoretical equations and demonstrate that the dynamic stress error can be significantly reduced by sample-wise aiding. PMID:27077858

  1. Reduced Cerebral White Matter Integrity Assessed by DTI in Cognitively Normal H63D-HFE Polymorphism Carriers.

    PubMed

    Meadowcroft, Mark D; Wang, Jianli; Purnell, Carson J; Eslinger, Paul J; Neely, Elizabeth B; Yang, Qing X; Connor, James R

    2017-08-03

    The H63D-HFE single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been associated with brain iron dysregulation; however, the emergent role of this missense variant in brain structure and function has yet to be determined. Previous work has demonstrated that HFE SNP carriers have reduced white matter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) proton relaxation rates. The mechanism by which white matter alterations perturb MRI relaxation is unknown as is how these metrics are related to myelin integrity. Fifteen subjects heterozygous for the HFE-H63D SNP and 25 controls with wild-type HFE had diffusion-weighted, anatomical MRIs taken, and underwent cognitive assessment. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusion (MD), and mode of anisotropy (MO) were calculated from the diffusion dataset to investigate the relationship between the H63D-HFE SNP and myelin integrity. A decrease in FA, an increase in MD, and an increase in MO are demonstrated in multiple H63D-HFE polymorphism carrier white matter tracts. Regions with altered diffusion metrics are notably located in heavily myelinated white matter association fibers, such as the anterior corona radiata and longitudinal fasciculi. The MRI data presented here demonstrate that H63D-HFE polymorphism carriers have diffusivity changes in white matter compared to wild-type subjects. The reduced integrity white matter tracts in H63D-HFE carriers are hypothesized to be related to increased susceptibility of these late-myelinating regions to cellular stress induced by oligodendrocyte iron dyshomeostasis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  2. Dynamics of gene-modified progenitor cells analyzed by tracking retroviral integration sites in a human SCID-X1 gene therapy trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gary P; Berry, Charles C; Malani, Nirav; Leboulch, Philippe; Fischer, Alain; Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Bushman, Frederic D

    2010-06-03

    X-linked severe-combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) has been treated by therapeutic gene transfer using gammaretroviral vectors, but insertional activation of proto-oncogenes contributed to leukemia in some patients. Here we report a longitudinal study of gene-corrected progenitor cell populations from 8 patients using 454 pyrosequencing to map vector integration sites, and extensive resampling to allow quantification of clonal abundance. The number of transduced cells infused into patients initially predicted the subsequent diversity of circulating cells. A capture-recapture analysis was used to estimate the size of the gene-corrected cell pool, revealing that less than 1/100th of the infused cells had long-term repopulating activity. Integration sites were clustered even at early time points, often near genes involved in growth control, and several patients harbored expanded cell clones with vectors integrated near the cancer-implicated genes CCND2 and HMGA2, but remain healthy. Integration site tracking also documented that chemotherapy for adverse events resulted in successful control. The longitudinal analysis emphasizes that key features of transduced cell populations--including diversity, integration site clustering, and expansion of some clones--were established early after transplantation. The approaches to sequencing and bioinformatics analysis reported here should be widely useful in assessing the outcome of gene therapy trials.

  3. Reconstructing the Late Cretaceous inversion of the Roer Valley Graben (southern Netherlands) using a new model that integrates burial and provenance history with fission track thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luijendijk, E.; van Balen, R. T.; Ter Voorde, M.; Andriessen, P. A. M.

    2011-06-01

    Apatite fission track thermochronology is a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the thermal and geological evolution of sedimentary basins. However, reconstructing basin evolution using thermochronological data is complicated by the fact that sediments also record the thermal history of their source areas. Moreover, samples frequently contain grains from multiple source areas. We have constructed a new numerical model that integrates sediment burial and thermal history with provenance history scenarios and that uses the derived thermal history to calculate synthetic apatite fission track data. We have applied this model to study the evolution of the Roer Valley Graben and to explore the dependency of fission track data on provenance and basin thermal history. Samples that are buried at shallow depths (<1400 m) preserve a mix of late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic provenance ages that correspond to the Caledonian and Variscan orogenic events of the sediment source areas, the London-Brabant and Ardenno-Rhenish massifs, respectively, with varying degrees of subsequent exhumation. Using this knowledge about the inherited thermal history, fission track data of Mesozoic sediments could be used to constrain the Late Cretaceous inversion of the basin with an accuracy of ±250 to ±500 m. These results show that inversion-related exhumation was localized, reaching a maximum of 750 to 1250 m in the eastern part of the basin, while not exceeding 500 m in the western half of the basin. These results are in agreement with the distribution of preserved preinversion sediments and syninversion sediment accumulations that flank the northeastern part of the basin.

  4. Impairment and recovery of ipsilateral sensory-motor function following unilateral cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Jones, R D; Donaldson, I M; Parkin, P J

    1989-02-01

    After unilateral cerebral hemisphere stroke, resulting in contralateral arm symptoms but largely sparing higher cerebral function, ipsilateral arm function is generally considered to be unaffected. In this study, 8 subjects with acute unilateral cerebral infarction (confirmed by CT scan) and primarily motor deficits underwent 11 computerized and 6 clinical assessments between 11 days and 12 months poststroke, and were compared with 12 normal subjects. Computerized tests comprised 3 pursuit tracking tasks (preview-random, step and a combination of these), designed to measure different aspects of integrated sensory-motor (S-M) function, and 12 tasks aimed at breaking tracking into various sensory, perceptual and motor components (joint movement sense, visual resolution, object perception, static and dynamic visuospatial perception, range of movement, grip and arm strength, reaction time, speed, static and dynamic steadiness). The asymptomatic arm was impaired on all but one of the computerized tests throughout the 12-month period, although to a lesser degree than the symptomatic arm. Grip strength was marginally impaired initially. Incomplete neurological recovery was seen in the asymptomatic arm for all functions except strength, speed and steadiness, possibly indicating their resistance to improvement. Clinical assessment detected no asymptomatic arm impairment and only a mild transient deficit of higher mental function. Our data suggest that (1) all cerebral hemisphere areas involved in S-M functions can exert some degree of bilateral motor control; (2) ipsilateral influence is never greater than contralateral influence, and is usually considerably less; and (3) the proportion of ipsilateral to contralateral control is closely related to the degree of continuous sensory feedback required by the particular task. The mechanism and degree of ipsilateral dysfunction can be explained by a 3-tier cerebral model of S-M integration comprising a lower level of functions

  5. Tracking Architecture Based on Dual-Filter with State Feedback and Its Application in Ultra-Tight GPS/INS Integration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Miao, Lingjuan; Shao, Haijun

    2016-05-02

    If a Kalman Filter (KF) is applied to Global Positioning System (GPS) baseband signal preprocessing, the estimates of signal phase and frequency can have low variance, even in highly dynamic situations. This paper presents a novel preprocessing scheme based on a dual-filter structure. Compared with the traditional model utilizing a single KF, this structure avoids carrier tracking being subjected to code tracking errors. Meanwhile, as the loop filters are completely removed, state feedback values are adopted to generate local carrier and code. Although local carrier frequency has a wide fluctuation, the accuracy of Doppler shift estimation is improved. In the ultra-tight GPS/Inertial Navigation System (INS) integration, the carrier frequency derived from the external navigation information is not viewed as the local carrier frequency directly. That facilitates retaining the design principle of state feedback. However, under harsh conditions, the GPS outputs may still bear large errors which can destroy the estimation of INS errors. Thus, an innovative integrated navigation filter is constructed by modeling the non-negligible errors in the estimated Doppler shifts, to ensure INS is properly calibrated. Finally, field test and semi-physical simulation based on telemetered missile trajectory validate the effectiveness of methods proposed in this paper.

  6. Tracking Architecture Based on Dual-Filter with State Feedback and Its Application in Ultra-Tight GPS/INS Integration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Miao, Lingjuan; Shao, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    If a Kalman Filter (KF) is applied to Global Positioning System (GPS) baseband signal preprocessing, the estimates of signal phase and frequency can have low variance, even in highly dynamic situations. This paper presents a novel preprocessing scheme based on a dual-filter structure. Compared with the traditional model utilizing a single KF, this structure avoids carrier tracking being subjected to code tracking errors. Meanwhile, as the loop filters are completely removed, state feedback values are adopted to generate local carrier and code. Although local carrier frequency has a wide fluctuation, the accuracy of Doppler shift estimation is improved. In the ultra-tight GPS/Inertial Navigation System (INS) integration, the carrier frequency derived from the external navigation information is not viewed as the local carrier frequency directly. That facilitates retaining the design principle of state feedback. However, under harsh conditions, the GPS outputs may still bear large errors which can destroy the estimation of INS errors. Thus, an innovative integrated navigation filter is constructed by modeling the non-negligible errors in the estimated Doppler shifts, to ensure INS is properly calibrated. Finally, field test and semi-physical simulation based on telemetered missile trajectory validate the effectiveness of methods proposed in this paper. PMID:27144570

  7. Cerebral Malaria.

    PubMed

    Marsden, P D; Bruce-Chwatt, L J

    1975-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is an acute diffuse encephalopathy associated only with Plasmodium falciparum. It is probably a consequence of the rapid proliferation of the parasites in the body of man in relation to red cell invasion, and results in stagnation of blood flow in cerebralcapillaries with thromobotic occlusion of large numbers of cerebral capillaries. The subsequent cerebral pathology is cerebral infarction with haemorrhage and cerebral oedema. The wide prevalence of P. falciparum in highly endemic areas results in daily challenges to patients from several infected mosquitoes. It is thus important to understand the characteristics of P. falciparum, since this is one of the most important protozoan parasites of man and severe infection from it constitutes one of the few real clinical emergencies in tropical medicine. One of the more important aspects of the practice of medicine in the tropics is to establish a good understanding of the pattern of medical practice in that area. This applies to malaria as well as to other diseases. The neophyte might be somewhat surprised to learn, for example that an experienced colleague who lives in a holoendemic malarious area such as West Africa, sees no cerebral malaria. But the explanation is simple when the doctor concerned has a practice which involves treating adults only. Cerebral malaria is rare in adults, because in highly endemic areas, by the age of 1 year most of the infants in a group under study have already experienced their first falciparum infection. By the time they reach adult life, they have a solid immunity against severe falciparum infections. In fact, "clinical malaria" could occur in such a group under only two circumstances: 1) in pregnancy, a patent infection with P. falciparum might develop, probably due to an IgG drain across the placenta to the foetus;2) in an individual who has constantly taken antimalarials and who may have an immunity at such a low level that when antimalarial therapy is interrupted

  8. Subcellular Changes in Bridging Integrator 1 Protein Expression in the Cerebral Cortex During the Progression of Alzheimer Disease Pathology.

    PubMed

    Adams, Stephanie L; Tilton, Kathy; Kozubek, James A; Seshadri, Sudha; Delalle, Ivana

    2016-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have established BIN1 (Bridging Integrator 1) as the most significant late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) susceptibility locus after APOE We analyzed BIN1 protein expression using automated immunohistochemistry on the hippocampal CA1 region in 19 patients with either no, mild, or moderate-to-marked AD pathology, who had been assessed by Clinical Dementia Rating and CERAD scores. We also examined the amygdala, prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions in a subset of these patients. In non-demented controls without AD pathology, BIN1 protein was expressed in white matter, glia, particularly oligodendrocytes, and in the neuropil in which the BIN1 signal decorated axons. With increasing severity of AD, BIN1 in the CA1 region showed: 1) sustained expression in glial cells, 2) decreased areas of neuropil expression, and 3) increased cytoplasmic neuronal expression that did not correlate with neurofibrillary tangle load. In patients with AD, both the prefrontal cortex and CA1 showed a decrease in BIN1-immunoreactive (BIN1-ir) neuropil areas and increases in numbers of BIN1-ir neurons. The numbers of CA1 BIN1-ir pyramidal neurons correlated with hippocampal CERAD neuritic plaque scores; BIN1 neuropil signal was absent in neuritic plaques. Our data provide novel insight into the relationship between BIN1 protein expression and the progression of AD-associated pathology and its diagnostic hallmarks. © 2016 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. NAD replenishment with nicotinamide mononucleotide protects blood-brain barrier integrity and attenuates delayed tissue plasminogen activator-induced haemorrhagic transformation after cerebral ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chun-Chun; Kong, Yuan-Yuan; Hua, Xia; Li, Guo-Qiang; Zheng, Si-Li; Cheng, Ming-He; Wang, Pei; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2017-08-15

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only approved pharmacological therapy for acute brain ischaemia; however, a major limitation of tPA is the haemorrhagic transformation that follows tPA treatment. Here, we determined whether nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a key intermediate of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis, affects tPA-induced haemorrhagic transformation. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was achieved in CD1 mice by introducing a filament to the left MCA for 5 h. When the filament was removed for reperfusion, tPA was infused via the tail vein. A single dose of NMN was injected i.p. (300 mg·kg(-1) ). Mice were killed at 24 h post ischaemia, and their brains were evaluated for brain infarction, oedema, haemoglobin content, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, the expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs) and the activity/expression of MMPs. In the mice infused with tPA at 5 h post ischaemia, there were significant increases in mortality, brain infarction, brain oedema, brain haemoglobin level, neural apoptosis, Iba-1 staining (microglia activation) and myeloperoxidase staining (neutrophil infiltration). All these tPA-induced alterations were significantly prevented by NMN administration. Mechanistically, the delayed tPA treatment increased BBB permeability by down-regulating TJPs, including claudin-1, occludin and zonula occludens-1, and enhancing the activities and protein expression of MMP9 and MMP2. Similarly, NMN administration partly blocked these tPA-induced molecular changes. Our results demonstrate that NMN ameliorates tPA-induced haemorrhagic transformation in brain ischaemia by maintaining the integrity of the BBB. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. The intercalated BSc (Med) Honours/MB ChB and integrated MB ChB/PhD tracks at the University of Cape Town: models for a national medical student research training programme.

    PubMed

    Katz, A A; Futter, M; Mayosi, B M

    2014-02-01

    The Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Cape Town is addressing the shortage of clinician-scientists in South Africa by introducing two research training tracks in parallel with the professional MB ChB programme, namely the intercalated BSc (Med) Hons/MB ChB track and the integrated MB ChB/PhD track. The BSc (Med) Hons/MB ChB track is available to MB ChB students who have completed the first two years of study. The track comprises a course in Molecular Medicine given concurrently with the MB ChB third-year curriculum, followed by a BSc (Med) Hons as a 'year out' of MB ChB. Subsequently students may enroll into the integrated MB ChB/PhD track that enables them to undertake a PhD concurrently with MB ChB studies, which will be spread over additional years, or alternatively to undertake a PhD after completion of the MB ChB. These tracks, which were launched in 2011, represent an opportunity to train a new cadre of young African clinician-scientists at the undergraduate level.

  11. Cytokines and Chemokines in Cerebral Malaria Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dunst, Josefine; Kamena, Faustin; Matuschewski, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is among the major causes of malaria-associated mortality and effective adjunctive therapeutic strategies are currently lacking. Central pathophysiological processes involved in the development of cerebral malaria include an imbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses to Plasmodium infection, endothelial cell activation, and loss of blood-brain barrier integrity. However, the sequence of events, which initiates these pathophysiological processes as well as the contribution of their complex interplay to the development of cerebral malaria remain incompletely understood. Several cytokines and chemokines have repeatedly been associated with cerebral malaria severity. Increased levels of these inflammatory mediators could account for the sequestration of leukocytes in the cerebral microvasculature present during cerebral malaria, thereby contributing to an amplification of local inflammation and promoting cerebral malaria pathogenesis. Herein, we highlight the current knowledge on the contribution of cytokines and chemokines to the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria with particular emphasis on their roles in endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment, as well as their implication in the progression to blood-brain barrier permeability and neuroinflammation, in both human cerebral malaria and in the murine experimental cerebral malaria model. A better molecular understanding of these processes could provide the basis for evidence-based development of adjunct therapies and the definition of diagnostic markers of disease progression.

  12. Cytokines and Chemokines in Cerebral Malaria Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dunst, Josefine; Kamena, Faustin; Matuschewski, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is among the major causes of malaria-associated mortality and effective adjunctive therapeutic strategies are currently lacking. Central pathophysiological processes involved in the development of cerebral malaria include an imbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses to Plasmodium infection, endothelial cell activation, and loss of blood-brain barrier integrity. However, the sequence of events, which initiates these pathophysiological processes as well as the contribution of their complex interplay to the development of cerebral malaria remain incompletely understood. Several cytokines and chemokines have repeatedly been associated with cerebral malaria severity. Increased levels of these inflammatory mediators could account for the sequestration of leukocytes in the cerebral microvasculature present during cerebral malaria, thereby contributing to an amplification of local inflammation and promoting cerebral malaria pathogenesis. Herein, we highlight the current knowledge on the contribution of cytokines and chemokines to the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria with particular emphasis on their roles in endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment, as well as their implication in the progression to blood-brain barrier permeability and neuroinflammation, in both human cerebral malaria and in the murine experimental cerebral malaria model. A better molecular understanding of these processes could provide the basis for evidence-based development of adjunct therapies and the definition of diagnostic markers of disease progression. PMID:28775960

  13. Integrated Vitrinite Reflectance and Apatite Fission Track Thermocronology of the Lower Karoo rocks in the Moatize Basin, Tete Province, Mozambique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Cogné, Nathan; Rodrigues, Bruno; Jorge, Raul; Marques, João

    2014-05-01

    The Karoo in Mozambique is represented by Late Carboniferous to Late Triassic sediments that were deposited in rift basins that fringe or developed between Proterozoic cratons. In Tete Province, central-west Mozambique, the Karoo is well represented along the Zambezi river valley forming several intra-cratonic basins separated by horsts consisting of igneous and high grade metamorphic Proterozoic rocks. One of the main horst blocks is located between the Cahora Bassa region and Tete city, separating the Middle Zambezi Basin and the Lower Zambezi Basin. The area of study is located in the Moatize Basin, one of many small basins that form the Lower Zambezi Basin. The stratigraphy of this basin consists of several sedimentary formations that record changes in depositional environment and palaeoclimate from glacial (Vúzi Formation - Lower Permian) at the base, through wet to temperate in the middle (Moatize Formation - Lower Permian), to warm arid at the top of the succession (Matinde and Cádzi formations - Middle to Upper Permian). The Upper Karoo volcanics of Early Jurassic age do not crop out in the Moatize Basin. One of the most remarkable characteristics of the Moatize Basin is the richness of coal deposits present in the Lower Permian Moatize Formation. Two coal exploration boreholes (DW123 - T.D. 489 m and DW132 - T.D. 516 m) drilled in the Moatize Basin were studied by means of vitrinite reflectance (VR) and apatite fission track analysis (AFTA), in order to assess their burial and uplift histories. The two boreholes intersected only Moatize Formation lithologies. VR increases in the two borehole sections from ca. 1.30-1.32 % Ro at the top to ca. 1.52-1.69 % Ro at the bottom, indicating medium to low volatile coal rank. Modelled VR data from the two boreholes indicate palaeogeothermal gradients between 40 and 56ºC/km, possible related to basin forming processes. Fission track ages increase from 84 Ma and 102 Ma at the bottom to 138 Ma and 146 Ma at the top

  14. Integration of Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey; Sprigg, William; Huete, Alfredo; Levetin, Estelle; VandeWater, Peter; Nickovic, Slobodan; Pejanovic, Goran; Budge, Amelia; Heidi Krapfl; Myers, Orrin; Losleben, Mark; Deaton, Tommie; Zelicoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Initial efforts to develop a deterministic model for predicting and simulating pollen release and downwind concentration to study dependencies of phenology on meteorology will be discussed. The development of a real-time, rapid response pollen release and transport system as a component of the New Mexico Environmental Public Health Tracking System (EPHTS), is based on meteorological models, NASA Earth science results (ESR), and an in-situ network of phenology cameras. The plan is to detect pollen release verified using ground based atmospheric pollen sampling within a few hours using daily MODIS daa in nearly real-time from Direct Broadcast, similar to the MODIS Rapid Response System for fire detection. As MODIS winds down, the NPOESS-VIIRS sensor will assume daily vegetation monitoring tasks. Also, advancements in geostationary satellites will allow 1km vegetation indices at 15-30 minute intervals. The pollen module in EPHTS will be used to: (1) support public health decisions for asthma and allergy alerts in New Mexico, Texas and Oklahoma; (2) augment the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN); and (3) extend surveillance services to local healthcare providers subscribing to the Syndrome Reporting Information System (SYRIS). Previous studies in NASA's public health applications portfolios provide the infrastructure for this effort. The team is confident that NASA and NOAA ESR data, combined into a verified and validated dust model will yield groundbreaking results using the modified dust model to transport pollen. The growing ESR/health infrastructure is based on results from a rapid prototype scoping effort for pollen detection and simulation carried out by the principal investigators.

  15. Integration of Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey; Sprigg, William; Huete, Alfredo; Levetin, Estelle; VandeWater, Peter; Nickovic, Slobodan; Pejanovic, Goran; Budge, Amelia; Heidi Krapfl; Myers, Orrin; hide

    2009-01-01

    Initial efforts to develop a deterministic model for predicting and simulating pollen release and downwind concentration to study dependencies of phenology on meteorology will be discussed. The development of a real-time, rapid response pollen release and transport system as a component of the New Mexico Environmental Public Health Tracking System (EPHTS), is based on meteorological models, NASA Earth science results (ESR), and an in-situ network of phenology cameras. The plan is to detect pollen release verified using ground based atmospheric pollen sampling within a few hours using daily MODIS daa in nearly real-time from Direct Broadcast, similar to the MODIS Rapid Response System for fire detection. As MODIS winds down, the NPOESS-VIIRS sensor will assume daily vegetation monitoring tasks. Also, advancements in geostationary satellites will allow 1km vegetation indices at 15-30 minute intervals. The pollen module in EPHTS will be used to: (1) support public health decisions for asthma and allergy alerts in New Mexico, Texas and Oklahoma; (2) augment the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN); and (3) extend surveillance services to local healthcare providers subscribing to the Syndrome Reporting Information System (SYRIS). Previous studies in NASA's public health applications portfolios provide the infrastructure for this effort. The team is confident that NASA and NOAA ESR data, combined into a verified and validated dust model will yield groundbreaking results using the modified dust model to transport pollen. The growing ESR/health infrastructure is based on results from a rapid prototype scoping effort for pollen detection and simulation carried out by the principal investigators.

  16. Cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Newton, C.; Hien, T. T.; White, N.

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral malaria may be the most common non-traumatic encephalopathy in the world. The pathogenesis is heterogenous and the neurological complications are often part of a multisystem dysfunction. The clinical presentation and pathophysiology differs between adults and children. Recent studies have elucidated the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and raised possible interventions. Antimalarial drugs, however, remain the only intervention that unequivocally affects outcome, although increasing resistance to the established antimalarial drugs is of grave concern. Artemisinin derivatives have made an impact on treatment, but other drugs may be required. With appropriate antimalarial drugs, the prognosis of cerebral malaria often depends on the management of other complications—for example, renal failure and acidosis. Neurological sequelae are increasingly recognised, but further research on the pathogenesis of coma and neurological damage is required to develop other ancillary treatments.

 PMID:10990500

  17. Self-assembly of high-resolutions PS-b-PMMA block-copolymers: processes capabilities and integration on 300mm track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, X.; Nicolet, C.; Tiron, R.; Gharbi, A.; Chamiot-Maitral, G.; Jullian, K.; Pimenta-Barros, P.; Argoud, M.; Peyre, J.-L.; Van Spaandonk, R.; Fleury, G.; Hadziioannou, G.; Navarro, C.

    2014-03-01

    Careful control and reproducibility of BCP's synthesis are mandatory parameters to push-down PS-b-PMMA block-copolymer systems toward its lowest dimensions for microelectronic applications. The self-assembly process optimization of different high-resolution cylindrical PS-b-PMMA block-copolymers (i.e. L0 period below 25 nm) is studied to highlight processes-variations as regard to more classical PS-b-PMMA systems while the characterizations of bulk materials provide deeper insights on the parameters addressing the self-assembly of such materials. The integration of a high-resolution BCP on 300 mm track is then studied to check the capabilities of such materials in terms of lithographic applications. CD uniformity measurements in contact hole shrink approach, as well as the transfer of the BCP mask into typical industrial under-layer stacks leading to aggressive features, show that these materials exhibit promising potentials for advanced lithographic nodes.

  18. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Cerebral ... cerebral Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder that affects muscle tone, movement, and motor skills (the ability to move in a coordinated and ...

  19. Integration of Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G.; Levetin, E.; Van de water, P.; Myers, O.; Budge, A. M.; Krapfl, H.; Crimmins, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus pollen, a significant aeroallergen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Yin 2007) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust (Yin 2007). The use of satellite data products for studying phenology is well documented (White and Nemani 2006). We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. The linkages already exist with DREAM through PHAiRS (Public Health Applications in remote Sensing) to the public health community. This linkage has the potential to fill this data gap so that health effects of pollen can better be tracked for linkage with health outcome data including asthma, respiratory effects, myocardial infarction, and lost work days. DREAM is based on the SKIRON/Eta modeling system and the Eta/NCEP regional atmospheric model. The dust modules of the entire system incorporate the state of the art parameterizations of all the major phases of the atmospheric dust life such as production, diffusion, advection, and removal. These modules also include effects of the particle size distribution on aerosol dispersion. The dust production mechanism is based on the viscous/turbulent mixing, shear-free convection diffusion, and soil moisture. In addition to these sophisticated mechanisms, very high resolution databases, including elevation, soil properties, and vegetation cover are utilized. The DREAM model was modified to use pollen sources instead of dust (PREAM). Pollen release will be estimated based on satellite-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. The MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09) will provide information on the start of the plant growing season, growth stage, peak

  20. Integrated Multivariate Analysis with Nondetects for the Development of Human Sewage Source-Tracking Tools Using Bacteriophages of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Wangkahad, Bencharong; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee

    2017-02-21

    We developed sewage-specific microbial source tracking (MST) tools using enterococci bacteriophages and evaluated their performance with univariate and multivariate analyses involving data below detection limits. Newly isolated Enterococci faecalis bacterial strains AIM06 (DSM100702) and SR14 (DSM100701) demonstrated 100% specificity and 90% sensitivity to human sewage without detecting 68 animal manure pooled samples of cats, chickens, cows, dogs, ducks, pigs, and pigeons. AIM06 and SR14 bacteriophages were present in human sewage at 2-4 orders of magnitude. A principal component analysis confirmed the importance of both phages as main water quality parameters. The phages presented only in the polluted water, as classified by a cluster analysis, and at median concentrations of 1.71 × 10(2) and 4.27 × 10(2) PFU/100 mL, respectively, higher than nonhost specific RYC2056 phages and sewage-specific KS148 phages (p < 0.05). Interestingly, AIM06 and SR14 phages exhibited significant correlations with each other and with total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, and biochemical oxygen demand (Kendall's tau = 0.348 to 0.605, p < 0.05), a result supporting their roles as water quality indicators. This research demonstrates the multiregional applicability of enterococci hosts in MST application and highlights the significance of multivariate analysis with nondetects in evaluating the performance of new MST host strains.

  1. Uncertainty in the tracking and analysis framework integrated assessment: The value of knowing how little you know

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenblick, R.; Henrion, M.

    1997-12-31

    The Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF) team has created a model to estimate the economic and ecological effects of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment, Title TV. TAF has been coded in the Analytica modeling environment. Analytica allows model variables to be represented as ranges of values, defined as probability distributions. Using Monte Carlo techniques to propagate uncertain values through the model, model results can reflect the uncertainty in model inputs and construction. Rank correlations and elasticities can be computed to gauge model input parameter importance and model sensitivities. These tools allow modelers to view model results in the proper context: Are model results invariant with respect to model component uncertainty and variability? They also help pinpoint the uncertain model components which most affect model results, and may therefore merit additional research to reduce overall model uncertainty. In this paper, we describe the methods used to characterize uncertainty and variability in the TAF model. We also describe the related processes of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in the TAF model, and relate the results of these processes back to the progressive refinement of the model itself. We use actual results from the Soils-Aquatics, Visibility, and Human Health modules to demonstrate the techniques described.

  2. Connecting environmental health data to people and policy: integrating information and mobilizing communities for environmental public health tracking.

    PubMed

    Ali, Robbie; Wheitner, David; Talbott, Evelyn O; Zborowski, Jeanne V

    2007-10-01

    Evaluation of available data is a critical preliminary step in the assessment of local environmental health. As part of a multi-organizational initiative to improve environmental health in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania region, the University of Pittsburgh Center for Healthy Environments and Communities (CHEC) interviewed 70 experts in the academic, government, non-profit, and private sectors and reviewed print and electronic resources to characterize environmental and public health data available in the region. The objectives of this undertaking were: to provide a conceptual framework for categorizing data locally on environmental hazards, exposures and health endpoints, to describe and evaluate the types of environmental public health data available nationally and locally, to identify existing endeavors to gather and categorize such data, and to present case studies on the real-life relevance of the availability or lack of availability of environmental health data. The purpose and relevance of this project, the evolution of the methodology, successes and challenges met, and anticipated next steps are presented. This process description and resulting comprehensive report is available to communities, at both the state and local health department level as well as lay community members, engaged in similar endeavors, to characterize their local and regional environmental health landscape. The framework outlined serves as background for a related statewide environmental health project sponsored by the Pennsylvania Department of Health through the Pennsylvania Consortium on Interdisciplinary Environmental Policy (PCIEP) and potentially as a foundation for community-based data evaluation for the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program.

  3. Prediction of Outcome in Neonates with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy II: Role of Amplitude-Integrated Electroencephalography and Cerebral Oxygen Saturation Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Goeral, Katharina; Urlesberger, Berndt; Giordano, Vito; Kasprian, Gregor; Wagner, Michael; Schmidt, Lisa; Berger, Angelika; Klebermass-Schrehof, Katrin; Olischar, Monika

    2017-07-14

    Few data have been published on the combined use of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for outcome prediction in neonates cooled for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Our aim was to evaluate the predictive values and the most powerful predictive combinations of single aEEG and NIRS parameters and the respective cut-off values with regard to short-term outcomes in HIE II. aEEG and NIRS were prospectively studied at the Medical University of Vienna in the first 102 h of life with regard to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-two neonates diagnosed with HIE II treated with hypothermia were investigated. The measurement period was divided into 6-h epochs. According to MRI, 2 outcome groups were defined and predictive values of aEEG parameters, regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2), and the additional value of both methods combined were studied. Receiver operating curves (ROC) were obtained and area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. ROC were then used to detect the optimal cut-off points, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values. At all time epochs, combined parameter scores were more predictive than single parameter scores. The highest AUC were observed between 18 and 60 h of cooling for the aEEG summation score (0.72-0.84) and for (background pattern + seizures) × rScO2 (0.79-0.85). At 42-60 h sensitivity was similar between those 2 scores (87.5-90.0%), but the addition of NIRS to aEEG led to an increase in specificity (from 52.4-59.1% to 72.7-90.5%). In HIE II, aEEG and NIRS are important predictors of short-term outcome. The combination of both methods improves prognostication. The highest predictive abilities were observed between 18 and 60 h of cooling. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Utag for iTAG: Putting the "U and me" in the Integrated Tracking of Aquatic Animals in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, C.; Currier, R. D.; Kirkpatrick, B. A.; Kobara, S.

    2016-02-01

    Exciting advances in aquatic animal tracking capabilities are contributing to the development of a national Animal Telemetry Network under the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System. Ongoing efforts in this arena with the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association (GCOOS-RA) and partners, have laid the foundation for innovative community engagement that uses the iTAG platform to enhance ocean literacy. Presented will be an example of how the Utag for iTAG campaign was developed as a community service project in a Pinellas County, Florida, elementary school where approximately 70% of the students are underserved and/or underrepresented and more than half are on free or reduced lunch. The project incorporates the integration of telemetry platforms in the Gulf, a student-led visual arts project to develop the program logo, crowdsourcing to raise money to purchase telemetry tags, and a communication network that includes interactions among students, formal and informal educators, and scientists from the United States and Canada. The work is part of a larger effort by the GCOOS-RA to develop its citizen science observing network for the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Path integration absent in scent-tracking fimbria-fornix rats: evidence for hippocampal involvement in "sense of direction" and "sense of distance" using self-movement cues.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, I Q; Gorny, B

    1999-06-01

    Allothetic and idiothetic navigation strategies use very different cue constellations and computational processes. Allothetic navigation requires the use of the relationships between relatively stable external (visual, olfactory, auditory) cues, whereas idiothetic navigation requires the integration of cues generated by self-movement and/or efferent copy of movement commands. The flexibility with which animals can switch between these strategies and the neural structures that support these strategies are not well understood. By capitalizing on the proclivity of foraging rats to carry large food pellets back to a refuge for eating, the present study examined the contribution of the hippocampus to the use of allothetic versus idiothetic navigation strategies. Control rats and fimbria-fornix-ablated rats were trained to follow linear, polygonal, and octagonal scent trails that led to a piece of food. The ability of the rats to return to the refuge with the food via the shortest route using allothetic cues (visual cues and/or the odor trail available) or using ideothetic cues (the odor trail removed and the rats blindfolded or tested in infrared light) was examined. Control rats "closed the polygon" by returning directly home in all cue conditions. Fimbria-fornix rats successfully used allothetic cues (closed the polygon using visual cues or tracked back on the string) but were insensitive to the direction and distance of the refuge and were lost when restricted to idiothetic cues. The results support the hypothesis that the hippocampal formation is necessary for navigation requiring the integration of idiothetic cues.

  6. SPINE: an integrated tracking database and data mining approach for identifying feasible targets in high-throughput structural proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bertone, P; Kluger, Y; Lan, N; Zheng, D; Christendat, D; Yee, A; Edwards, A M; Arrowsmith, C H; Montelione, G T; Gerstein, M

    2001-07-01

    High-throughput structural proteomics is expected to generate considerable amounts of data on the progress of structure determination for many proteins. For each protein this includes information about cloning, expression, purification, biophysical characterization and structure determination via NMR spectroscopy or X-ray crystallography. It will be essential to develop specifications and ontologies for standardizing this information to make it amenable to retrospective analysis. To this end we created the SPINE database and analysis system for the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium. SPINE, which is available at bioinfo.mbb.yale.edu/nesg or nesg.org, is specifically designed to enable distributed scientific collaboration via the Internet. It was designed not just as an information repository but as an active vehicle to standardize proteomics data in a form that would enable systematic data mining. The system features an intuitive user interface for interactive retrieval and modification of expression construct data, query forms designed to track global project progress and external links to many other resources. Currently the database contains experimental data on 985 constructs, of which 740 are drawn from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, 123 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 93 from Caenorhabditis elegans and the remainder from other organisms. We developed a comprehensive set of data mining features for each protein, including several related to experimental progress (e.g. expression level, solubility and crystallization) and 42 based on the underlying protein sequence (e.g. amino acid composition, secondary structure and occurrence of low complexity regions). We demonstrate in detail the application of a particular machine learning approach, decision trees, to the tasks of predicting a protein's solubility and propensity to crystallize based on sequence features. We are able to extract a number of key rules from our trees, in particular that soluble

  7. Integrated radiotherapy imaging system (IRIS): design considerations of tumour tracking with linac gantry-mounted diagnostic x-ray systems with flat-panel detectors.

    PubMed

    Berbeco, Ross I; Jiang, Steve B; Sharp, Gregory C; Chen, George T; Mostafavi, Hassan; Shirato, Hiroki

    2004-01-21

    The design of an integrated radiotherapy imaging system (IRIS), consisting of gantry mounted diagnostic (kV) x-ray tubes and fast read-out flat-panel amorphous-silicon detectors, has been studied. The system is meant to be capable of three main functions: radiographs for three-dimensional (3D) patient set-up, cone-beam CT and real-time tumour/marker tracking. The goal of the current study is to determine whether one source/panel pair is sufficient for real-time tumour/marker tracking and, if two are needed, the optimal position of each relative to other components and the isocentre. A single gantry-mounted source/imager pair is certainly capable of the first two of the three functions listed above and may also be useful for the third, if combined with prior knowledge of the target's trajectory. This would be necessary because only motion in two dimensions is visible with a single imager/source system. However, with previously collected information about the trajectory, the third coordinate may be derived from the other two with sufficient accuracy to facilitate tracking. This deduction of the third coordinate can only be made if the 3D tumour/marker trajectory is consistent from fraction to fraction. The feasibility of tumour tracking with one source/imager pair has been theoretically examined here using measured lung marker trajectory data for seven patients from multiple treatment fractions. The patients' selection criteria include minimum mean amplitudes of the tumour motions greater than 1 cm peak-to-peak. The marker trajectory for each patient was modelled using the first fraction data. Then for the rest of the data, marker positions were derived from the imager projections at various gantry angles and compared with the measured tumour positions. Our results show that, due to the three dimensionality and irregular trajectory characteristics of tumour motion, on a fraction-to-fraction basis, a 'monoscopic' system (single source/imager) is inadequate for

  8. Integrated radiotherapy imaging system (IRIS): design considerations of tumour tracking with linac gantry-mounted diagnostic x-ray systems with flat-panel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbeco, Ross I.; Jiang, Steve B.; Sharp, Gregory C.; Chen, George T. Y.; Mostafavi, Hassan; Shirato, Hiroki

    2004-01-01

    The design of an integrated radiotherapy imaging system (IRIS), consisting of gantry mounted diagnostic (kV) x-ray tubes and fast read-out flat-panel amorphous-silicon detectors, has been studied. The system is meant to be capable of three main functions: radiographs for three-dimensional (3D) patient set-up, cone-beam CT and real-time tumour/marker tracking. The goal of the current study is to determine whether one source/panel pair is sufficient for real-time tumour/marker tracking and, if two are needed, the optimal position of each relative to other components and the isocentre. A single gantry-mounted source/imager pair is certainly capable of the first two of the three functions listed above and may also be useful for the third, if combined with prior knowledge of the target's trajectory. This would be necessary because only motion in two dimensions is visible with a single imager/source system. However, with previously collected information about the trajectory, the third coordinate may be derived from the other two with sufficient accuracy to facilitate tracking. This deduction of the third coordinate can only be made if the 3D tumour/marker trajectory is consistent from fraction to fraction. The feasibility of tumour tracking with one source/imager pair has been theoretically examined here using measured lung marker trajectory data for seven patients from multiple treatment fractions. The patients' selection criteria include minimum mean amplitudes of the tumour motions greater than 1 cm peak-to-peak. The marker trajectory for each patient was modelled using the first fraction data. Then for the rest of the data, marker positions were derived from the imager projections at various gantry angles and compared with the measured tumour positions. Our results show that, due to the three dimensionality and irregular trajectory characteristics of tumour motion, on a fraction-to-fraction basis, a 'monoscopic' system (single source/imager) is inadequate for

  9. Work Flow Analysis Report Action Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    PETERMANN, M.L.

    1999-12-14

    The Work Flow Analysis Report will be used to facilitate the requirements for implementing the further deployment of the Action Tracking module of Passport. The report consists of workflow integration processes for Action Tracking.

  10. On the right track. The integrated IEC campaign succeeds in recruiting many acceptors in a fishing commune.

    PubMed

    Hata, K

    1995-01-01

    The Population and Family Planning Committee of Quangnam Danang Province's integrated information, education, and communication (IEC) campaign promotes late marriage, having two children, and spacing births from 3 to 5 years. The total fertility rate (TFR) in the province is 3.4. One urgent priority of the committee is to tackle poverty by reducing the rapid rate of natural population increase in rural areas. Xa Cam Ha is a poor, rice-producing commune of population 11,114 in which family planning used to be widely unaccepted among families. TFR in the commune is now slightly less than 3. The steady promotion of the Population and Family Planning Program has encouraged couples to accept and practice family planning such that the rate of natural increase fell from 2.0% in 1985 to 1.8% in 1994. Financial incentives are also offered to family planning acceptors; poor acceptors are eligible for loans from the People's Committee to start income-generating activities. More and more couples are accepting family planning.

  11. [Cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Malagón Valdez, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The term cerebral palsy (CP), is used for a great number of clinical neurological syndromes. The syndromes are characterized by having a common cause, motor defects. It is important, because they can cause a brain damage by presenting motor defects and some associated deficiencies, such as mental deficiency, epilepsy, language and visual defects and pseudobulbar paralysis, with the non-evolving fact. Some authors prefer using terms such as "non-evolving encephalopathies". In the treatment the utility of prevention programs of early stimulation and special rehabilitation methods, and treatment of associated deficiencies such as epilepsy, mental deficiency, language, audition and visual problems, and the attention deficit improve the prognosis in an important way. The prognosis depends on the severity of the disease and the associated manifestations.

  12. Development of integrated protocols to track the deposition and impacts of metal contaminants in tidal riverine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Helen M.; Patterson, R. Timothy; Nasser, Nawaf; Edwards, Robin J.; Graham, Conor

    2016-04-01

    Tidally-influenced rivers are particularly vulnerable to the effects of metal contamination, yet are amongst the most complex fluvial environments in terms of their sediment deposition and transport patterns. We present the results of an interdisciplinary study that aims to elucidate the fluxes and deposition of metal contaminants in a tidally-influenced river system in Northern Ireland, with a view to developing protocols that will have wide applicability for the monitoring and assessment of metal contaminants in similar environments in other regions. We employ a novel methodology that combines ICPMS analysis of sediments, ITRAX-based core analysis and the examination a important group of shelled protozoans (foraminifera), which occur widely in tidal riverine environments, and which are highly sensitive to metal contamination. The responses shown by the group vary between species and with different levels of contaminant exposure. Some species, for example, show increased relative abundances in proximity to discharge sources, whilst others develop chamber deformities. Application of our integrated multiproxy approach to the analysis of surface sediment samples and cores provides a framework for assessing both the spatial and temporal patterns of metal deposition and the impact of contaminants on the biota. Modern sediment samples (n=90) were collected at varying distances from a point contamination source (a former industrial site) in different morpho-sedimentary settings. The impact of 25 measured variables on the modern foraminiferal faunas was considered, including 20 metals, pH, conductivity, elevation and particle size. Channel sediments in close proximity to the contamination source and with the highest levels of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mg and As, yielded the sparsest foraminiferal faunas (Shannon Diversity Index values 0-1.5), whilst the highest prevalence of foraminiferids showing chamber deformities were observed in channel edge and levée bank sites. Kernal density

  13. Integration for Airborne Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health Decision Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Nickovic, S.; Huete, A.; Budge, A.; Flowers, L.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the program is to assess the feasibility of combining a dust transport model with MODIS derived phenology to study pollen transport for integration with a public health decision support system. The use of pollen information has specifically be identified as a critical need by the New Mexico State Health department for inclusion in the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) program. Material and methods: Pollen can be transported great distances. Local observations of plan phenology may be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) is an integrated modeling system designed to accurately describe the dust cycle in the atmosphere. The dust modules of the entire system incorporate the state of the art parameterization of all the major phases of the atmospheric dust life such as production, diffusion, advection, and removal. These modules also include effects of the particles size distribution on aerosol dispersion. The model was modified to use pollen sources instead of dust. Pollen release was estimated based on satellite-derived phenology of key plan species and vegetation communities. The MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09) provided information on the start of the plant growing season, growth stage, and pollen release. The resulting deterministic model is useful for predicting and simulating pollen emission and downwind concentration to study details of phenology and meteorology and their dependencies. The proposed linkage in this project provided critical information on the location timing and modeled transport of pollen directly to the EPHT> This information is useful to support the centers for disease control and prevention (CDC)'s National EPHT and the state of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  14. Integration for Airborne Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health Decision Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Nickovic, S.; Huete, A.; Budge, A.; Flowers, L.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the program is to assess the feasibility of combining a dust transport model with MODIS derived phenology to study pollen transport for integration with a public health decision support system. The use of pollen information has specifically be identified as a critical need by the New Mexico State Health department for inclusion in the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) program. Material and methods: Pollen can be transported great distances. Local observations of plan phenology may be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) is an integrated modeling system designed to accurately describe the dust cycle in the atmosphere. The dust modules of the entire system incorporate the state of the art parameterization of all the major phases of the atmospheric dust life such as production, diffusion, advection, and removal. These modules also include effects of the particles size distribution on aerosol dispersion. The model was modified to use pollen sources instead of dust. Pollen release was estimated based on satellite-derived phenology of key plan species and vegetation communities. The MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09) provided information on the start of the plant growing season, growth stage, and pollen release. The resulting deterministic model is useful for predicting and simulating pollen emission and downwind concentration to study details of phenology and meteorology and their dependencies. The proposed linkage in this project provided critical information on the location timing and modeled transport of pollen directly to the EPHT> This information is useful to support the centers for disease control and prevention (CDC)'s National EPHT and the state of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  15. Integrating Concepts in Biology Textbook Increases Learning: Assessment Triangulation Using Concept Inventory, Card Sorting, and MCAT Instruments, Followed by Longitudinal Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Luckie, Douglas B.; Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Griffin, Caleigh E.; Hess, Andrea L.; Price, Katrina J.; Tawa, Alex; Thacker, Samantha M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the educational impact of an intervention, the inquiry-focused textbook Integrating Concepts in Biology (ICB), when used in a yearlong introductory biology course sequence. Student learning was evaluated using three published instruments: 1) The Biology Concept Inventory probed depth of student mastery of fundamental concepts in organismal and cellular topics when confronting misconceptions as distractors. ICB students had higher gains in all six topic categories (+43% vs. peers overall, p < 0.01). 2) The Biology Card Sorting Task assessed whether students organized biological ideas more superficially, as novices do, or based on deeper concepts, like experts. The frequency with which ICB students connected deep-concept pairs, or triplets, was similar to peers; but deep understanding of structure/function was much higher (for pairs: 77% vs. 25%, p < 0.01). 3) A content-focused Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) posttest compared ICB student content knowledge with that of peers from 15 prior years. Historically, MCAT performance for each semester ranged from 53% to 64%; the ICB cohort scored 62%, in the top quintile. Longitudinal tracking in five upper-level science courses the following year found ICB students outperformed peers in physiology (85% vs. 80%, p < 0.01). PMID:28389429

  16. The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP) Partners with the Alaska Data Integration Working Group (ADIwg) to Develop an Interagency Web Service Standard for Sharing Project Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, R. P.; Kassin, A.; Graves Gaylord, A.; Manley, W. F.; Franco, J. C.; Dover, M.; Garcia-Lavigne, D.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP) has partnered with the Alaska Data Integration Working Group (ADIwg) to develop and implement an interagency standard for project tracking (who's doing what, when and where in the region) with RESTful (Respresentational State Transfer) web services. This standard is derived from the Federal Geographic Data Committee and International Standards Organization's XML-based metadata standard. It allows for free open access to high-level project information from various entities and government agencies. The standard has been utilized in the development and enhancement of the ARMAP 2D application (http://armap.org) which allows users to search for research projects by location, year, funding program, keyword, investigator, and discipline, among other variables. Key information about each project is displayed within the application with links to web pages that provide additional information. The ARMAP 2D application has been significantly enhanced to include support for multiple projections, improved base maps, additional reference data layers, and optimization for better performance. The additional functionality of this tool will increase awareness of projects funded by numerous entities in the Arctic, enhance coordination for logistics support, help identify geographic gaps in research efforts and potentially foster more collaboration amongst researchers working in the region.

  17. Derailing Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Reviews recent research on student achievement, self-concept, and curriculum and instruction showing the ineffectiveness of tracking and ability grouping. Certain court rulings show that tracking violates the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Innovative alternatives include cooperative learning, mastery learning, peer tutoring,…

  18. Beyond Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    On the surface, educational tracking may seem like a useful tool for allowing students to work at their own pace, and to avoid discouraging competition, but abuses of the tracking idea have arisen through biased placement practices that have denied equal access to education for minority students. The articles in this issue explore a number of…

  19. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Integration of OMI and TES Aerosol Products into the EPA Regional Planning Organizations' FASTNET Aerosol Tracking and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.

    2006-01-01

    Every year, more than 280 million visitors tour our Nation s most treasured parks and wilderness areas. Unfortunately, many visitors are unable to see the spectacular vistas they expect because of white or brown haze in the air. Most of this haze is not natural; it is air pollution, carried by the wind often hundreds of miles from its origin. Some of the pollutants have been linked to serious health problems, such as asthma and other lung disorders, and even premature death. In addition, nitrates and sulfates contribute to acid rain formation, which contaminates rivers and lakes and erodes buildings and historical monuments. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency RPOs (Regional Planning Organizations) have been tasked with monitoring and determining the nature and origin of haze in Class I scenic areas, and finding ways to reduce haze in order to improve visibility in these areas. The RPOs have developed an Internet-based air quality DST (Decision Support Tool) called FASTNET (Fast Aerosol Sensing Tools for Natural Event Tracking). While FASTNET incorporates a few satellite datasets, most of the data utilized by this DST comes from ground-based instrument networks. The problem is that in many areas the sensors are sparsely located, with long distances between them, causing difficulties in tracking haze over the United States, determining its source, and analyzing its content. Satellite data could help to fill in the data gaps and to supplement and verify ground-recorded air quality data. Although satellite data are now being used for air quality research applications, such data are not routinely used for environmental decision support, in part because of limited resources, difficulties with interdisciplinary data interpretation, and the need for advanced inter-agency partnerships. As a result, the validation and verification of satellite data for air quality operational system applications has been limited This candidate solution evaluates the usefulness of OMI

  20. MATERIAL TRACKING USING LANMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, F.

    2010-06-07

    LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.

  1. Rover tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Tracks made by the Sojourner rover are visible in this image, taken by one of the cameras aboard Sojourner on Sol 3. The tracks represent the rover maneuvering towards the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill.' The rover, having exited the lander via the rear ramp, first traveled towards the right portion of the image, and then moved forward towards the left where Barnacle Bill sits. The fact that the rover was making defined tracks indicates that the soil is made up of particles on a micron scale.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. Rover Tracks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-07

    Tracks made by the Sojourner rover are visible in this image, taken by one of the cameras aboard Sojourner on Sol 3. The tracks represent the rover maneuvering towards the rock dubbed "Barnacle Bill." The rover, having exited the lander via the rear ramp, first traveled towards the right portion of the image, and then moved forward towards the left where Barnacle Bill sits. The fact that the rover was making defined tracks indicates that the soil is made up of particles on a micron scale. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00633

  3. Amiodarone administered for cardiac resuscitation does not alter the integrity of noncontrast cerebral computed tomography performed on neurologically symptomatic patients before therapeutic cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Ptak, Thomas; Novelline, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Recent revisions of the advanced cardiac life support guidelines support the use of amiodarone in treating acute cardiac arrhythmia. Chemically, amiodarone has two atoms of iodine per molecule (39.3% wt/wt). We propose that at antiarrhythmic doses as prescribed by advanced cardiac life support guidelines, enhancement resulting from the bound amiodarone iodine is not significantly different from routine noncontrasted screening cerebral computed tomography (CT) studies. Six patients presenting to the our emergency department with successful resuscitation after cardiac arrhythmia were identified before obtaining a screening CT scan and subsequent transfer to the cardiac catheterization laboratory for intervention. The total dose of amiodarone (bolus + drip) was calculated up to the moment of the CT scan. Subjects were age and gender matched with two control subjects. Hematocrit value and CT density measurements in the pons, putamen, centrum semiovale, and cerebral venous blood pool were recorded. Paired t test and linear regression analyses were performed. Amiodarone dose and hematocrit were used as covariates in the regression model to correct for altered density as a result of relative anemia. Mean density in the blood pool was increased in the amiodarone subjects in both the univariate and regression models. Although the mean density difference of 3 HU was statistically significant, it is not likely detectable by the eye. All other brain area measurements showed nonsignificant differences in mean density for both the univariate analysis and regression model. Amiodarone administered at doses recommended by the American Heart Association for treatment of cardiac arrhythmia does not interfere with interpretation of the precatheterization noncontrasted screening cerebral CT scan.

  4. Effects of the Integration of Dynamic Weight Shifting Training Into Treadmill Training on Walking Function of Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Kim, Janis; Arora, Pooja; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J; Zhang, Yunhui

    2017-06-21

    The aim of the study was to determine whether applying an assistance force to the pelvis and legs during treadmill training can improve walking function in children with cerebral palsy. Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were randomly assigned to the robotic or treadmill only group. For participants who were assigned to the robotic group, a controlled force was applied to the pelvis and legs during treadmill walking. For participants who were assigned to the treadmill only group, manual assistance was provided as needed. Each participant trained 3 times/wk for 6 wks. Outcome measures included walking speed, 6-min walking distance, and clinical assessment of motor function, which were evaluated before, after training, and 8 wks after the end of training, and were compared between two groups. Significant increases in walking speed and 6-min walking distance were observed after robotic training (P = 0.03), but no significant change was observed after treadmill training only. A greater increase in 6-min walking distance was observed after robotic training than that after treadmill only training (P = 0.01). Applying a controlled force to the pelvis and legs, for facilitating weight-shift and leg swing, respectively, during treadmill training may improve walking speed and endurance in children with cerebral palsy. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) discuss the importance of physical activity at the participation level (sports programs) for children with cerebral palsy; (2) contrast the changes in walking ability and endurance for children in GMFCS level I, II and III following sports programs; and (3) identify the impact of higher frequency of sports program attendance over time on walking ability. Advanced ACCREDITATION: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing

  5. United Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... stay up to date with everything UCP! Affiliate Network UCP affiliates provide services and support on a ... with Cerebral Palsy and other disabilities and their networks. Individuals with cerebral palsy and other disabilities deserve ...

  6. Cerebral Palsy (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Kids > Cerebral Palsy A A A ... the things that kids do every day. What's CP? Some kids with CP use wheelchairs and others ...

  7. Integration of kerma-area product and cumulative air kerma determination into a skin dose tracking system for fluoroscopic imaging procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayan, Sarath; Shankar, Alok; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2016-03-01

    The skin dose tracking system (DTS) that we developed provides a color-coded mapping of the cumulative skin dose distribution on a 3D graphic of the patient during fluoroscopic procedures in real time. The DTS has now been modified to also calculate the kerma area product (KAP) and cumulative air kerma (CAK) for fluoroscopic interventions using data obtained in real-time from the digital bus on a Toshiba Infinix system. KAP is the integral of air kerma over the beam area and is typically measured with a large-area transmission ionization chamber incorporated into the collimator assembly. In this software, KAP is automatically determined for each x-ray pulse as the product of the air kerma/ mAs from a calibration file for the given kVp and beam filtration times the mAs per pulse times the length and width of the beam times a field nonuniformity correction factor. Field nonuniformity is primarily the result of the heel effect and the correction factor was determined from the beam profile measured using radio-chromic film. Dividing the KAP by the beam area at the interventional reference point provides the area averaged CAK. The KAP and CAK per x-ray pulse are summed after each pulse to obtain the total procedure values in real-time. The calculated KAP and CAK were compared to the values displayed by the fluoroscopy machine with excellent agreement. The DTS now is able to automatically calculate both KAP and CAK without the need for measurement by an add-on transmission ionization chamber.

  8. The Integration of Electronic Medical Student Evaluations Into an Emergency Department Tracking System is Associated With Increased Quality and Quantity of Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Chiu, David T; Solano, Joshua J; Ullman, Edward; Pope, Jennifer; Tibbles, Carrie; Horng, Steven; Nathanson, Larry A; Fisher, Jonathan; Rosen, Carlo L

    2016-10-01

    Medical student evaluations are essential for determining clerkship grades. Electronic evaluations have various advantages compared to paper evaluations, such as increased ease of collection, asynchronous reporting, and decreased likelihood of becoming lost. To determine whether electronic medical student evaluations (EMSEs) provide more evaluations and content when compared to paper shift card evaluations. This before and after cohort study was conducted over a 2.5-year period at an academic hospital affiliated with a medical school and emergency medicine residency program. EMSEs replaced the paper shift evaluations that had previously been used halfway through the study period. A random sample of the free text comments on both paper and EMSEs were blindly judged by medical student clerkship directors for their helpfulness and usefulness. Logistic regression was used to test for any relationship between quality and quantity of words. A total of 135 paper evaluations for 30 students and then 570 EMSEs for 62 students were collected. An average of 4.8 (standard deviation [SD] 3.2) evaluations were completed per student using the paper version compared to 9.0 (SD 3.8) evaluations completed per student electronically (p < 0.001). There was an average of 8.8 (SD 8.5) words of free text evaluation on paper evaluations when compared to 22.5 (SD 28.4) words for EMSEs (p < 0.001). A statistically significant (p < 0.02) association between quality of an evaluation and the word count existed. EMSEs that were integrated into the emergency department tracking system significantly increased the number of evaluations completed compared to paper evaluations. In addition, the EMSEs captured more "helpful/useful" information about the individual students as evidenced by the longer free text entries per evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrating Concepts in Biology Textbook Increases Learning: Assessment Triangulation Using Concept Inventory, Card Sorting, and MCAT Instruments, Followed by Longitudinal Tracking.

    PubMed

    Luckie, Douglas B; Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Griffin, Caleigh E; Hess, Andrea L; Price, Katrina J; Tawa, Alex; Thacker, Samantha M

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the educational impact of an intervention, the inquiry-focused textbook Integrating Concepts in Biology (ICB), when used in a yearlong introductory biology course sequence. Student learning was evaluated using three published instruments: 1) The Biology Concept Inventory probed depth of student mastery of fundamental concepts in organismal and cellular topics when confronting misconceptions as distractors. ICB students had higher gains in all six topic categories (+43% vs. peers overall, p < 0.01). 2) The Biology Card Sorting Task assessed whether students organized biological ideas more superficially, as novices do, or based on deeper concepts, like experts. The frequency with which ICB students connected deep-concept pairs, or triplets, was similar to peers; but deep understanding of structure/function was much higher (for pairs: 77% vs. 25%, p < 0.01). 3) A content-focused Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) posttest compared ICB student content knowledge with that of peers from 15 prior years. Historically, MCAT performance for each semester ranged from 53% to 64%; the ICB cohort scored 62%, in the top quintile. Longitudinal tracking in five upper-level science courses the following year found ICB students outperformed peers in physiology (85% vs. 80%, p < 0.01). © 2017 D. B. Luckie et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Imaging the time-integrated cerebral metabolic activity with subcellular resolution through nanometer-scale detection of biosynthetic products deriving from (13)C-glucose.

    PubMed

    Takado, Yuhei; Knott, Graham; Humbel, Bruno M; Masoodi, Mojgan; Escrig, Stéphane; Meibom, Anders; Comment, Arnaud

    2015-11-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the brain but also an important source of building blocks for proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Little is known about the use of glucose for biosynthesis in tissues at the cellular level. We demonstrate that local cerebral metabolic activity can be mapped in mouse brain tissue by quantitatively imaging the biosynthetic products deriving from [U-(13)C]glucose metabolism using a combination of in situ electron microscopy and secondary ion mass-spectroscopy (NanoSIMS). Images of the (13)C-label incorporated into cerebral ultrastructure with ca. 100 nm resolution allowed us to determine the timescale on which the metabolic products of glucose are incorporated into different cells, their sub-compartments and organelles. These were mapped in astrocytes and neurons in the different layers of the motor cortex. We see evidence for high metabolic activity in neurons via the nucleus (13)C enrichment. We observe that in all the major cell compartments, such as e.g. nucleus and Golgi apparatus, neurons incorporate substantially higher concentrations of (13)C-label than astrocytes.

  11. Investigating cerebral oedema using poroelasticity.

    PubMed

    Vardakis, John C; Chou, Dean; Tully, Brett J; Hung, Chang C; Lee, Tsong H; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral oedema can be classified as the tangible swelling produced by expansion of the interstitial fluid volume. Hydrocephalus can be succinctly described as the abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain which ultimately leads to oedema within specific sites of parenchymal tissue. Using hydrocephalus as a test bed, one is able to account for the necessary mechanisms involved in the interaction between oedema formation and cerebral fluid production, transport and drainage. The current state of knowledge about integrative cerebral dynamics and transport phenomena indicates that poroelastic theory may provide a suitable framework to better understand various diseases. In this work, Multiple-Network Poroelastic Theory (MPET) is used to develop a novel spatio-temporal model of fluid regulation and tissue displacement within the various scales of the cerebral environment. The model is applied through two formats, a one-dimensional finite difference - Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) coupling framework, as well as a two-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) formulation. These are used to investigate the role of endoscopic fourth ventriculostomy in alleviating oedema formation due to fourth ventricle outlet obstruction (1D coupled model) in addition to observing the capability of the FEM template in capturing important characteristics allied to oedema formation, like for instance in the periventricular region (2D model). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Cerebral Palsy (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR: A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Kids > Cerebral Palsy Print A A A What's in this article? ... the first word you spoke? For kids with cerebral palsy, called CP for short, taking a first step ...

  13. Aging and Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networker, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…

  14. Tracking and understanding volcanic emissions through cross-disciplinary integration of field, textural, geochemical and geophysical data: A textural working group. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    gurioli, L.

    2013-12-01

    Relating magma ascent to eruption style using information preserved in pyroclastic deposits is a major challenge in modern volcanology. Because magma ascent and fragmentation are inaccessible to direct observation, one way to obtain quantitative information for conduit dynamics is through textural quantification of the sampled products (i.e., full definition of the rock vesicle and crystal properties). Many workers have shown that quantification of vesicle and crystal size distributions yields valuable insights into the processes that created the pyroclasts. However, the physical characteristics of individual pyroclasts must not be considered in isolation from information regarding: (i) the deposits from which they are taken; (ii) their chemistry; (iii) geophysical signatures of the related explosive events; and (iv) results from petrological and/or analogue experiments. As a result, attempts to understand eruption dynamics have increasingly involved the coupling of traditional field and sample-return analyses with geophysical measurements made synchronous with sample collection. In spite of this progress, we remain far from developing a definitive methods that allows us to sample, correlate and/or compare the multitude of parameters that can be measured at an actively building field deposits. As a result, no study has yet been able to correlate all derivable textural parameters with the full range of available multidisciplinary data. To discuss these issues, a working group met during 6-7 November 2012 at the Maison International of the Université Blaise Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand, France). The workshop was supported by the European Science Foundation and was held under the title: 'Tracking and understanding volcanic emissions through cross-disciplinary integration: A textural working group'. Our main objective was to gather an advisory group to define measurements, methods, formats and standards to be applied to integration of geophysical and physical

  15. Optical detection of brain function: simultaneous imaging of cerebral vascular response, tissue metabolism, and cellular activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Du, Congwu; Pan, Yingtian

    2011-01-01

    It is known that a remaining challenge for functional brain imaging is to distinguish the coupling and decoupling effects among neuronal activity, cerebral metabolism, and vascular hemodynamics, which highlights the need for new tools to enable simultaneous measures of these three properties in vivo. Here, we review current neuroimaging techniques and their prospects and potential limitations for tackling this challenge. We then report a novel dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging (DW-LSI) tool developed in our labs that enables simultaneous imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume, and tissue hemoglobin oxygenation, which allows us to monitor neurovascular and tissue metabolic activities at high spatiotemporal resolutions over a relatively large field of view. Moreover, we report digital frequency ramping Doppler optical coherence tomography (DFR-OCT) that allows for quantitative 3D imaging of the CBF network in vivo. In parallel, we review calcium imaging techniques to track neuronal activity, including intracellular calcium approach using Rhod2 fluorescence technique that we develop to detect neuronal activity in vivo. We report a new multimodality imaging platform that combines DW-LSI, DFR-OCT, and calcium fluorescence imaging for simultaneous detection of cortical hemodynamics, cerebral metabolism, and neuronal activities of the animal brain in vivo, as well as its integration with microprobes for imaging neuronal function in deep brain regions in vivo. Promising results of in vivo animal brain functional studies suggest the potential of this multimodality approach for future awake animal and behavioral studies.

  16. [Integrity].

    PubMed

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  17. Uncorrelated Track Avoidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    continual series of uncorrelated tracks when gathering observations. The constants of the motion for simple two-body motion for a satellite orbiting the Earth ...of the Earth -Centered Rotating System, Ẑ-component of inertial angular momentum (Hk), and the time rate of change of the right ascension of the...3 2.1 Earth -Centered Coordinate Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 III. Integrals of Satellite Motion

  18. Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyn, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    Integrated learning is an exciting adventure for both teachers and students. It is not uncommon to observe the integration of academic subjects such as math, science, and language arts. However, educators need to recognize that movement experiences in physical education also can be linked to academic curricula and, may even lead the…

  19. Projections from Bed Nuclei of the Stria Terminalis, Dorsomedial Nucleus: Implications for Cerebral Hemisphere Integration of Neuroendocrine, Autonomic, and Drinking Responses

    PubMed Central

    DONG, HONG-WEI; SWANSON, LARRY W.

    2008-01-01

    The overall projection pattern of a tiny bed nuclei of the stria terminalis anteromedial group differentiation, the dorsomedial nucleus (BSTdm), was analyzed with the PHAL anterograde pathway-tracing method in rats. Many brain regions receive a relatively moderate to strong input from the BSTdm. They fall into 8 general categories: humeral sensory-related (subfornical organ and median preoptic nucleus—involved in initiating drinking behavior and salt appetite), neuroendocrine system (magnocellular: oxytocin, vasopressin; parvicellular: gonadotropin-releasing hormone, somatostatin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone), central autonomic control network (central amygdalar nucleus, BST anterolateral group, descending paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, retrochiasmatic area, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, Barrington's nucleus), hypothalamic visceromotor pattern generator network (5 of 6 known components), behavior control column (ingestive: descending paraventricular nucleus; reproductive: lateral medial preoptic nucleus; defensive: anterior hypothalamic nucleus; foraging: ventral tegmental area, along with interconnected nucleus accumbens and substantia innominata), orofacial motor control (retrorubral area), thalamocortical feedback loops (paraventricular, central medial, intermediodorsal, and medial mediodorsal nuclei; nucleus reuniens), and behavioral state control (subparaventricular zone, ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, supramammillary nucleus, lateral habenula, and raphé nuclei). This pattern of axonal projections, and what little is known of its inputs, suggest that the BSTdm is part of a striatopallidal differentiation involved in coordinating the homeostatic and behavioral responses associated thirst and salt appetite, although clearly it may relate them to other functions as well. The BSTdm generates the densest known inputs directly to the neuroendocrine system from any part of the cerebral

  20. Communications and tracking technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on communications and tracking technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. The objective is to develop devices, components, and analytical methods to enhance and enable technology to meet space station evolutionary requirements for multiple access (proximity) communications, space-to-ground communications, and tracking as it pertains to rendezvous and docking as well as potential orbital debris warning systems. Topics covered include: optical communications and tracking; monolithic microwave integrated circuit systems; traveling wave tube technology; advanced modulation and coding; and advanced automation.

  1. [Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome].

    PubMed

    Laakso, Elina; Pekkola, Johanna; Soinne, Lauri; Putaala, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is increasingly recognized. The condition is characterized by multifocal vasoconstriction lesions in cerebral arteries. Headache is the central symptom, with an acute onset and paroxysmal occurrence. Some of the patients develop intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic disturbance of the cerebral circulation, hypertensive encephalopathy (PRES) or epileptic seizures as complications. The disease is most common in middle-aged women. Most patients have an underlying predisposing factor, most commonly vasoactive medications, drugs or puerperium. There is no evidence-based practice.

  2. Statins and cerebral hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Marshall, Randolph S

    2012-01-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are associated with improved stroke outcome. This observation has been attributed in part to the palliative effect of statins on cerebral hemodynamics and cerebral autoregulation (CA), which are mediated mainly through the upregulation of endothelium nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Several animal studies indicate that statin pretreatment enhances cerebral blood flow after ischemic stroke, although this finding is not further supported in clinical settings. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity, however, is significantly improved after long-term statin administration in most patients with severe small vessel disease, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, or impaired baseline CA. PMID:22929438

  3. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptak, Gregory S.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal practice of medicine includes integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research. This article reviews nine treatment modalities used for children who have cerebral palsy (CP), including hyperbaric oxygen, the Adeli Suit, patterning, electrical stimulation, conductive education,…

  4. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptak, Gregory S.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal practice of medicine includes integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research. This article reviews nine treatment modalities used for children who have cerebral palsy (CP), including hyperbaric oxygen, the Adeli Suit, patterning, electrical stimulation, conductive education,…

  5. Virtual reality presurgical planning for cerebral gliomas adjacent to motor pathways in an integrated 3-D stereoscopic visualization of structural MRI and DTI tractography.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Tian-ming; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Jin-Song; Tang, Wei-Jun; Zhao, Yao; Pan, Zhi-Guang; Mao, Ying; Zhou, Liang-Fu

    2010-11-01

    Resection of gliomas invading primary motor cortex and subcortical motor pathway is difficult in both surgical decision-making and functional outcome prediction. In this study, magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were used to perform tractography to visualize pyramidal tract (PT) along its whole length in a stereoscopic virtual reality (VR) environment. The potential value of its clinical application was evaluated. Both three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI datasets were obtained from 45 eligible patients with suspected cerebral gliomas and then transferred to the VR system (Dextroscope; Volume Interactions Pte. Ltd., Singapore). The cortex and tumor were segmented and reconstructed via MRI, respectively, while the tractographic PTs were reconstructed via DTI. All those were presented in a stereoscopic 3-D display synchronously, for the purpose of patient-specific presurgical planning and surgical simulation in each case. The relationship between increasing amplitude of the number of effective fibers of PT (EPT) at affected sides and the patients' Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) at 6 months was addressed out. In VR presurgical planning for gliomas, surgery was aided by stereoscopic 3-D visualizing the relative position of the PTs and a tumor. There was no significant difference between pre- and postsurgical EPT in this population. A positive relationship was proved between EPT increasing amplitude and 6-month KPS. 3-D stereoscopic visualization of tractography in this VR environment enhances the operators to well understand the anatomic information of intra-axial tumor contours and adjacent PT, results in surgical trajectory optimization initially, and maximal safe tumor resection finally. In accordance to the EPT increasing amplitude, surgeon can predict the long-term motor functional outcome.

  6. Training Guide to Cerebral Palsy Sports. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jeffery A., Ed.

    This official training manual of the United States Cerebral Palsy Athletic Association includes the latest coaching and training techniques specific to all sports in the national program. The book features guidelines for coaching over a dozen sports, including soccer, swimming, cycling, and track and field. It contains everything coaches,…

  7. Training Guide to Cerebral Palsy Sports. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jeffery A., Ed.

    This official training manual of the United States Cerebral Palsy Athletic Association includes the latest coaching and training techniques specific to all sports in the national program. The book features guidelines for coaching over a dozen sports, including soccer, swimming, cycling, and track and field. It contains everything coaches,…

  8. Cerebral Asymmetries and Reading Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirozzolo, Francis J.

    1978-01-01

    Reviewed are historical developments regarding the concepts of cerebral localization, and analyzed are implications of current research on the role of the cerebral hemispheres in reading disorders. (CL)

  9. Motion Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Integrated Sensors, Inc. (ISI), under NASA contract, developed a sensor system for controlling robot vehicles. This technology would enable a robot supply vehicle to automatically dock with Earth-orbiting satellites or the International Space Station. During the docking phase the ISI-developed sensor must sense the satellite's relative motion, then spin so the robot vehicle can adjust its motion to align with the satellite and slowly close until docking is completed. ISI used the sensing/tracking technology as the basis of its OPAD system, which simultaneously tracks an object's movement in six degrees of freedom. Applications include human limb motion analysis, assembly line position analysis and auto crash dummy motion analysis. The NASA technology is also the basis for Motion Analysis Workstation software, a package to simplify the video motion analysis process.

  10. STUDIES IN CEREBRAL METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Gilbert S.; Adams, John E.; Bentinck, Richard C.; Eisenberg, Eugene; Harper, Harold; Hobson, Quentin J. G.

    1953-01-01

    In numerous clinical observations, it has been noted that steroid hormones have effects upon the central nervous system. Earlier interpretations of this relationship were largely speculative until newer methods permitted quantitation of actions of hormones and hormonal deficiencies on cerebral metabolism. The present studies indicate that certain steroids which affect behavior also influence cerebral metabolism. PMID:13019600

  11. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, R; Ramadan, H; Bamford, J

    2013-01-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is an underdiagnosed condition which usually presents as severe headache with or without neurological deficit. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with headache and multifocal intracerebral haemorrhage. We review the literature regarding the presentation, pathophysiology and management of RCVS and discuss how to differentiate it from cerebral vasculitis.

  12. Cerebral Palsy (CP) Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... SSI file Error processing SSI file Pop Quiz: Cerebral Palsy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Sandy is the parent of a child with cerebral palsy and the Board President of Gio’s Garden , a ...

  13. GPS Metric Tracking Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) applications become more prevalent for land- and air-based vehicles, GPS applications for space vehicles will also increase. The Applied Technology Directorate of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has developed a lightweight, low-cost GPS Metric Tracking Unit (GMTU), the first of two steps in developing a lightweight, low-cost Space-Based Tracking and Command Subsystem (STACS) designed to meet Range Safety's link margin and latency requirements for vehicle command and telemetry data. The goals of STACS are to improve Range Safety operations and expand tracking capabilities for space vehicles. STACS will track the vehicle, receive commands, and send telemetry data through the space-based asset, which will dramatically reduce dependence on ground-based assets. The other step was the Low-Cost Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Transceiver (LCT2), developed by the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), which allows the vehicle to communicate with a geosynchronous relay satellite. Although the GMTU and LCT2 were independently implemented and tested, the design collaboration of KSC and WFF engineers allowed GMTU and LCT2 to be integrated into one enclosure, leading to the final STACS. In operation, GMTU needs only a radio frequency (RF) input from a GPS antenna and outputs position and velocity data to the vehicle through a serial or pulse code modulation (PCM) interface. GMTU includes one commercial GPS receiver board and a custom board, the Command and Telemetry Processor (CTP) developed by KSC. The CTP design is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processors to support GPS functions.

  14. Tracking Virtual Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Beutter, Brent R.; Lorenceau, Jean D.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Current models of smooth pursuit eye movements assume that it is largely driven by retinal image motion. We tested this hypothesis by measuring pursuit of elliptical motion (3.2s, 0.9 Hz, 1.4 deg x 1.6 deg, 4 randomly interleaved phases) of either a small spot ("real" motion) or of a line-figure diamond viewed through apertures such that only the motion of four isolated oblique line segments was visible ("virtual" motion). Each segment moved sinusoidally along a linear trajectory yet subjects perceived a diamond moving along an elliptical path behind the aperture. We found, as expected, that real motion produced accurate tracking (N = 2) with mean gain (over horizontal and vertical) of 0.9, mean phase of -6 deg (lag), mean relative phase (H vs V) of 90 +/- 8 deg (RMS error). Virtual motion behind an X-shaped aperture (N= 4 with one naive) yielded a mean gain of 0.7, mean phase of -11 deg, mean relative phase of 87 +/- 15 deg. We also measured pursuit with the X-shaped aperture using a higher segment luminance which prevents the segments from being grouped into a coherently moving diamond while keeping the motion otherwise identical. In this incoherent case, the same four subjects no longer showed consistent elliptical tracking (RMS error in relative phase rose to 60 deg) suggesting that perceptual coherence is critical. Furthermore, to rule out tracking of the centroid, we also used vertical apertures so that all segment motion was vertical (N = 3). This stimulus still produced elliptical tracking (mean relative phase of 84 +/- 19 deg), albeit with a lower gain (0.6). These data show that humans can track moving objects reasonably accurately even when the trajectory can only be derived by spatial integration of motion signals. Models that merely seek to minimize retinal or local stimulus motion cannot explain these results.

  15. Boulder Tracks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-07-15

    15 July 2004 The arrows in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture point to three boulders that left trails behind them as they rolled down the lower parts of a meteor crater's wall. In two cases, the tracks can be resolved into a series of small depressions, indicating the variable shape of the boulder as it unevenly proceeded down the slope. These features are located near 18.4°N, 120.1°W. The 75 meter scale bar is about 246 feet long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06450

  16. Development of an integrated obesity management waist belt system composed of calorie tracking and waist circumference measuring module for long term monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yongwon; Noh, Hyung Wook; Lee, I B; Song, Yoonseon; Jang, Won Ick; Lee, Sooyeul

    2011-01-01

    A waist belt type simple device was designed to monitor the individuals who are obese and want to maintain their consumed calories and waist circumference changes. Relatively long term monitoring with this device could help them maintain their health conditions. This devised system is composed of calorie tracking and waist circumference module. This study suggests feasible and meaningful results. If users' data are collected largely with this developed system, we can reveal the relationship between obesity and daily life pattern.

  17. Boulder Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-408, 1 July 2003

    If a boulder rolls down a slope on an uninhabited planet, does it make a sound? While we do not know the sound made by a boulder rolling down a slope in the martian region of Gordii Dorsum, we do know that it made an impression. This full-resolution Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a series of depressions made on a dust-mantled slope as a boulder rolled down it, sometime in the recent past. The boulder track is located just right of center in this picture. The boulder sits at the end of the track. This picture was acquired in May 2003; it is located near 11.2oN, 147.8oW. North is toward the lower left, sunlight illuminates the scene from the right. The picture covers an area only 810 meters (about 886 yards) across.

  18. Cerebral Autoregulation Real-Time Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Tsalach, Adi; Ratner, Eliahu; Lokshin, Stas; Silman, Zmira; Breskin, Ilan; Budin, Nahum; Kamar, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is a mechanism which maintains constant cerebral blood flow (CBF) despite changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Assessing whether this mechanism is intact or impaired and determining its boundaries is important in many clinical settings, where primary or secondary injuries to the brain may occur. Herein we describe the development of a new ultrasound tagged near infra red light monitor which tracks CBF trends, in parallel, it continuously measures blood pressure and correlates them to produce a real time autoregulation index. Its performance is validated in both in-vitro experiment and a pre-clinical case study. Results suggest that using such a tool, autoregulation boundaries as well as its impairment or functioning can be identified and assessed. It may therefore assist in individualized MAP management to ensure adequate organ perfusion and reduce the risk of postoperative complications, and might play an important role in patient care. PMID:27571474

  19. Mechanisms of Astrocyte-Mediated Cerebral Edema

    PubMed Central

    Stokum, Jesse A.; Kurland, David B.; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J. Marc

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral edema formation stems from disruption of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity and occurs after injury to the CNS. Due to the restrictive skull, relatively small increases in brain volume can translate into impaired tissue perfusion and brain herniation. In excess, cerebral edema can be gravely harmful. Astrocytes are key participants in cerebral edema by virtue of their relationship with the cerebral vasculature, their unique compliment of solute and water transport proteins, and their general role in brain volume homeostasis. Following the discovery of aquaporins, passive conduits of water flow, aquaporin 4 (AQP4) was identified as the predominant astrocyte water channel. Normally, AQP4 is highly enriched at perivascular endfeet, the outermost layer of the BBB, whereas after injury, AQP4 expression disseminates to the entire astrocytic plasmalemma, a phenomenon termed dysregulation. Arguably, the most important role of AQP4 is to rapidly neutralize osmotic gradients generated by ionic transporters. In pathological conditions, AQP4 is believed to be intimately involved in the formation and clearance of cerebral edema. In this review, we discuss aquaporin function and localization in the BBB during health and injury, and we examine post-injury ionic events that modulate AQP4- dependent edema formation. PMID:24996934

  20. Tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, V. A.; Gaedtke, H. D.

    1985-10-15

    A system of tracking the sun each day of the year with compensation for changes in time of sunrise and time of sunset as well as sun declination on a day to day basis, declination being under control of a crank that makes one revolution per year. The equation of time is under control of a cam that also revolves once a year and resets the clock to reflect solar rather than mean solar time in order to properly follow the sun. The position of sun acquisition and loss are a function of the declination and the time is a function of the clock corrected via the cam for equation of time. Thus, when the declination is reset each day, it sets the position of acquisition and loss while the clock, now set for the change due to the equation of time, determines the time of acquisition and loss.

  1. Fluoroscopic tracking of multiple implanted fiducial markers using multiple object tracking.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoli; Sharp, Greg C; Jiang, Steve B

    2007-07-21

    When treating mobile tumors using techniques such as beam gating or beam tracking, precise localization of tumor position is required, which is often realized by fluoroscopically tracking implanted fiducial markers. Multiple markers placed inside or near a tumor are often preferred to a single marker for the sake of accuracy. In this work, we propose a marker tracking system that can track multiple markers simultaneously, without confusing them, and that is also robust enough to continue tracking even when the markers are moving behind bony anatomy. The integrated radiotherapy imaging system (IRIS), developed at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), was used to take fluoroscopy videos for marker tracking. The tracking system integrates marker detection with a multiple object tracking process, inspired by the multiple hypothesis marker tracking (MHT) process. It also utilizes breathing pattern information to help tracking. Four criteria are used to identify tracking failure, and when tracking failure occurs, the system can immediately inform the user. (In the clinical environment, the system would immediately disable the treatment beam.) In this paper, two liver patients with implanted fiducial markers were studied, and the studies were performed retrospectively to assess the effectiveness of the new tracking system. For both patients, LAT and AP fluoroscopic videos were studied. In order to better test the proposed tracking system, artificial markers were added around the real markers to disturb the tracking of the real markers. The performance of the proposed system was compared to that of a conventional tracking system (one that did not use multiple object tracking). The performance of the new system was also investigated with and without consideration of the breathing pattern information. We found that the conventional tracking system can easily miss tracking markers in the presence of artificial markers, and it cannot detect the tracking failures. On the

  2. Fluoroscopic tracking of multiple implanted fiducial markers using multiple object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Sharp, Greg C.; Jiang, Steve B.

    2007-07-01

    When treating mobile tumors using techniques such as beam gating or beam tracking, precise localization of tumor position is required, which is often realized by fluoroscopically tracking implanted fiducial markers. Multiple markers placed inside or near a tumor are often preferred to a single marker for the sake of accuracy. In this work, we propose a marker tracking system that can track multiple markers simultaneously, without confusing them, and that is also robust enough to continue tracking even when the markers are moving behind bony anatomy. The integrated radiotherapy imaging system (IRIS), developed at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), was used to take fluoroscopy videos for marker tracking. The tracking system integrates marker detection with a multiple object tracking process, inspired by the multiple hypothesis marker tracking (MHT) process. It also utilizes breathing pattern information to help tracking. Four criteria are used to identify tracking failure, and when tracking failure occurs, the system can immediately inform the user. (In the clinical environment, the system would immediately disable the treatment beam.) In this paper, two liver patients with implanted fiducial markers were studied, and the studies were performed retrospectively to assess the effectiveness of the new tracking system. For both patients, LAT and AP fluoroscopic videos were studied. In order to better test the proposed tracking system, artificial markers were added around the real markers to disturb the tracking of the real markers. The performance of the proposed system was compared to that of a conventional tracking system (one that did not use multiple object tracking). The performance of the new system was also investigated with and without consideration of the breathing pattern information. We found that the conventional tracking system can easily miss tracking markers in the presence of artificial markers, and it cannot detect the tracking failures. On the

  3. Respiration tracking in radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Schweikard, Achim; Shiomi, Hiroya; Adler, John

    2004-10-01

    Respiratory motion is difficult to compensate for with conventional radiotherapy systems. An accurate tracking method for following the motion of the tumor is of considerable clinical relevance. We investigate methods to compensate for respiratory motion using robotic radiosurgery. In this system the therapeutic beam is moved by a robotic arm, and follows the moving target through a combination of infrared tracking and synchronized x-ray imaging. Infrared emitters are used to record the motion of the patient's skin surface. The position of internal gold fiducials is computed repeatedly during treatment, via x-ray image processing. We correlate the motion between external and internal markers. From this correlation model we infer the placement of the internal target during time intervals where no x-ray images are taken. Fifteen patients with lung tumors have recently been treated with a fully integrated system implementing this new method. The clinical trials confirm our hypothesis that internal motion and external motion are indeed correlated. In a preliminar study we have extended our work to tracking without implanted fiducials, based on algorithms for computing deformation motions and digitally reconstructed radiographs.

  4. On the Right Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Ed

    1983-01-01

    Suggests thinking of "tracks" as clues and using them as the focus of outdoor activities in the urban environment. Provides 24 examples of possible track activities, including: seeds on the ground (track of a nearby tree), litter (track of a litterbug), and peeling paint (track of weathering forces). (JN)

  5. On the Right Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Ed

    1983-01-01

    Suggests thinking of "tracks" as clues and using them as the focus of outdoor activities in the urban environment. Provides 24 examples of possible track activities, including: seeds on the ground (track of a nearby tree), litter (track of a litterbug), and peeling paint (track of weathering forces). (JN)

  6. Track Construction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Ron; Di Gennaro, Guy; Ediger, Rick; Garner, Lanny; Hersom, Steve; Miller, Jack; Nemeth, Ron; Petrucelli, Jim; Sierks, Donna; Smith, Don; Swank, Kevin; West, Kevin

    This book establishes guidelines for the construction and maintenance of tracks by providing information for building new tracks or upgrading existing tracks. Subjects covered include running track planning and construction, physical layout, available surfaces, and maintenance. General track requirements and construction specifications are…

  7. Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Registry Interest Form Contact Us | Login Disorder Definitions Learn More > Disorder Definitions Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCM) ... until it is too late to salvage vision. Routine screening is very important, even if there are ...

  8. Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What ... Information Page NINDS Epilepsy Information Page NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page NINDS Farber's Disease Information Page ...

  9. Acquired Cerebral Trauma: Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The article summarizes a series of articles concerning acquired cerebral trauma. Reviewed are technological advances, treatment, assessment, potential innovative therapies, long-term outcome, family impact of chronic brain injury, and prevention. (DB)

  10. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 911) if you have sudden loss of movement , sensation, vision, or speech. Alternative Names Amyloidosis - cerebral; CAA; Congophilic angiopathy Images Amyloidosis on the fingers Arteries of the brain References Kase CS, Shoamanesh A. Intracerebral hemorrhage. In: Daroff ...

  11. A-Train Data Depot: Integrating, Visualizing, and Extracting Cloudsat, CALIPSO, MODIS, and AIRS Atmospheric Measurements Along the A-Train Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steven; Stephens, Graeme; Winkler, Dave; Leptoukh, Greg; Reinke, Don; Smith, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The succession of US and international Earth observing satellites that follow each other, seconds to minutes apart, across the local afternoon equator crossing is called the ATrain. The A-Train consists of the following satellites, in order of equator crossing: OCO, EOS Aqua, CloudSat, CALIPSO, PARASOL, and EOS Aura. Flying in such formation increases the number of observations, validates observations, and enables coordination between science observations, resulting in a more complete virtual science platform (Kelly, 2000). The goal of this project is to create the first ever A-Train virtual data portal/center, the A-Train Data Depot (ATDD), to process, archive, access, visualize, analyze and correlate distributed atmosphere measurements from various A-Train instruments along A-Train tracks. The ATDD will enable the free movement of remotely located A-Train data so that they are combined to create a consolidated vertical view of the Earth's Atmosphere along the A-Train tracks. Once the infrastructure of the ATDD is in place, it will be easily evolved to serve data from all A-Train data measurements: one stop shopping. The innovative approach of analyzing and visualizing atmospheric profiles along the platforms track (i.e., time) will be accommodated by reusing the GSFC Atmospheric Composition Data and Information Services Center (ACDISC) visualization and analysis tool, GIOVANNI, existing data reduction tools, on-line archiving for fast data access, access to remote data without unnecessary data transfers, and data retrieval by users finding data desirable for further study. Initial measurements utilized include CALIPSO lidar backscatter, CloudSat radar reflectivity, clear air relative humidity, water vapor and temperature from AIRS, and cloud properties and aerosols from both MODIS. This will be foilowed by associated measurements from TVILS, =MI, HIRDLS, sad TES. Given the independent nature of instrumentlplatform development, the ATDD project has been met with

  12. The thermal history of the Karoo Moatize-Minjova Basin, Tete Province, Mozambique: An integrated vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission track thermochronology study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Cogné, Nathan; Chew, David M.; Rodrigues, Bruno; Jorge, Raul C. G. S.; Marques, João; Jamal, Daud; Vasconcelos, Lopo

    2015-12-01

    The Moatize-Minjova Basin is a Karoo-aged rift basin located in the Tete Province of central Mozambique along the present-day Zambezi River valley. In this basin the Permian Moatize and Matinde formations consist of interbedded carbonaceous mudstones and sandstones with coal seams. The thermal history has been determined using rock samples from two coal exploration boreholes (ca. 500 m depth) to constrain the burial and exhumation history of the basin. Organic maturation levels were determined using vitrinite reflectance and spore fluorescence/colour. Ages and rates of tectonic uplift and denudation have been assessed by apatite fission track analysis. The thermal history was modelled by inverse modelling of the fission track and vitrinite reflectance data. The Moatize Formation attained a coal rank of bituminous coals with low to medium volatiles (1.3-1.7%Rr). Organic maturation levels increase in a linear fashion downhole in the two boreholes, indicating that burial was the main process controlling peak temperature maturation. Calculated palaeogeothermal gradients range from 59 °C/km to 40 °C/km. According to the models, peak burial temperatures were attained shortly (3-10 Ma) after deposition. Apatite fission track ages [146 to 84 Ma (Cretaceous)] are younger than the stratigraphic age. Thermal modelling indicates two episodes of cooling and exhumation: a first period of rapid cooling between 240 and 230 Ma (Middle - Upper Triassic boundary) implying 2500-3000 m of denudation; and a second period, also of rapid cooling, from 6 Ma (late Miocene) onwards implying 1000-1500 m of denudation. The first episode is related to the main compressional deformation event within the Cape Fold Belt in South Africa, which transferred stress northwards on pre-existing transtensional fault systems within the Karoo rift basins, causing tectonic inversion and uplift. During the Mesozoic and most of the Cenozoic the basin is characterized by very slow cooling. The second period

  13. A-Train Data Depot: Integrating, Visualizing, and Extracting Cloudsat, CALIPSO, MODIS, and AIRS Atmospheric Measurements Along the A-Train Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steven; Stephens, Graeme; Winkler, Dave; Leptoukh, Greg; Reinke, Don; Smith, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The succession of US and international Earth observing satellites that follow each other, seconds to minutes apart, across the local afternoon equator crossing is called the ATrain. The A-Train consists of the following satellites, in order of equator crossing: OCO, EOS Aqua, CloudSat, CALIPSO, PARASOL, and EOS Aura. Flying in such formation increases the number of observations, validates observations, and enables coordination between science observations, resulting in a more complete virtual science platform (Kelly, 2000). The goal of this project is to create the first ever A-Train virtual data portal/center, the A-Train Data Depot (ATDD), to process, archive, access, visualize, analyze and correlate distributed atmosphere measurements from various A-Train instruments along A-Train tracks. The ATDD will enable the free movement of remotely located A-Train data so that they are combined to create a consolidated vertical view of the Earth's Atmosphere along the A-Train tracks. Once the infrastructure of the ATDD is in place, it will be easily evolved to serve data from all A-Train data measurements: one stop shopping. The innovative approach of analyzing and visualizing atmospheric profiles along the platforms track (i.e., time) will be accommodated by reusing the GSFC Atmospheric Composition Data and Information Services Center (ACDISC) visualization and analysis tool, GIOVANNI, existing data reduction tools, on-line archiving for fast data access, access to remote data without unnecessary data transfers, and data retrieval by users finding data desirable for further study. Initial measurements utilized include CALIPSO lidar backscatter, CloudSat radar reflectivity, clear air relative humidity, water vapor and temperature from AIRS, and cloud properties and aerosols from both MODIS. This will be foilowed by associated measurements from TVILS, =MI, HIRDLS, sad TES. Given the independent nature of instrumentlplatform development, the ATDD project has been met with

  14. WE-G-BRD-04: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): An Integrated Model-Based Intrafractional Organ Motion Tracking Approach with Dynamic MRI in Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Dolly, S; Anastasio, M; Li, H; Wooten, H; Gay, H; Mutic, S; Thorstad, W; Li, H; Victoria, J; Dempsey, J; Ruan, S; Low, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In-treatment dynamic cine images, provided by the first commercially available MRI-guided radiotherapy system, allow physicians to observe intrafractional motion of head and neck (H&N) internal structures. Nevertheless, high anatomical complexity and relatively poor cine image contrast/resolution have complicated automatic intrafractional motion evaluation. We proposed an integrated model-based approach to automatically delineate and analyze moving structures from on-board cine images. Methods: The H&N upper airway, a complex and highly deformable region wherein severe internal motion often occurs, was selected as the target-to-be-tracked. To reliably capture its motion, a hierarchical structure model containing three statistical shapes (face, face-jaw, and face-jaw-palate) was first built from a set of manually delineated shapes using principal component analysis. An integrated model-fitting algorithm was then employed to align the statistical shapes to the first to-be-detected cine frame, and multi-feature level-set contour propagation was performed to identify the airway shape change in the remaining frames. Ninety sagittal cine MR image sets, acquired from three H&N cancer patients, were utilized to demonstrate this approach. Results: The tracking accuracy was validated by comparing the results to the average of two manual delineations in 20 randomly selected images from each patient. The resulting dice similarity coefficient (93.28+/−1.46 %) and margin error (0.49+/−0.12 mm) showed good agreement with the manual results. Intrafractional displacements of anterior, posterior, inferior, and superior airway boundaries were observed, with values of 2.62+/−2.92, 1.78+/−1.43, 3.51+/−3.99, and 0.68+/−0.89 mm, respectively. The H&N airway motion was found to vary across directions, fractions, and patients, and highly correlated with patients’ respiratory frequency. Conclusion: We proposed the integrated computational approach, which for the first

  15. High Efficiency Restriction Enzyme–Free Linear Amplification-Mediated Polymerase Chain Reaction Approach for Tracking Lentiviral Integration Sites Does Not Abrogate Retrieval Bias

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chuanfeng; Jares, Alexander; Winkler, Thomas; Xie, Jianjun; Metais, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Retroviral vectors are an efficient and widely employed means of introducing an exogenous expression cassette into target cells. These vectors have been shown to integrate semi-randomly into the cellular genome, and can be associated with genotoxicity due to impact on expression of proximate genes. Therefore, efficient and accurate integration site analysis, while quantifying contributions of individual vector-containing clones, is desirable. Linear amplification-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LAM-PCR) is a widely used technique for identifying integrated proviral and host genomic DNA junctions. However, LAM-PCR is subject to selection bias inherent in the reliance of the assay on the presence of a restriction enzyme–cutting site adjacent to a retrievable integration site, and it is further limited by an inability to discriminate prior to sequencing between the flanking genomic DNA of interest and uninformative internal vector DNA. We report a modified restriction enzyme–free LAM-PCR (Re-free LAM-PCR) approach that is less time and labor intensive compared to conventional LAM-PCR, but in contrast to some other nonrestrictive methods, compares in efficiency and sensitivity, excludes retrieval of uninformative internal vector sequences, and allows retrieval of integration sites unbiased by the presence of nearby restriction sites. However, we report that Re-free LAM-PCR remains inaccurate for quantitation of the relative contributions of individual integration site–containing clones in a polyclonal setting, suggesting that bias in LAM-PCR retrieval of integration sites is not wholly explained by restriction enzyme–related factors. PMID:22992116

  16. High efficiency restriction enzyme-free linear amplification-mediated polymerase chain reaction approach for tracking lentiviral integration sites does not abrogate retrieval bias.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuanfeng; Jares, Alexander; Winkler, Thomas; Xie, Jianjun; Metais, Jean-Yves; Dunbar, Cynthia E

    2013-01-01

    Retroviral vectors are an efficient and widely employed means of introducing an exogenous expression cassette into target cells. These vectors have been shown to integrate semi-randomly into the cellular genome, and can be associated with genotoxicity due to impact on expression of proximate genes. Therefore, efficient and accurate integration site analysis, while quantifying contributions of individual vector-containing clones, is desirable. Linear amplification-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LAM-PCR) is a widely used technique for identifying integrated proviral and host genomic DNA junctions. However, LAM-PCR is subject to selection bias inherent in the reliance of the assay on the presence of a restriction enzyme-cutting site adjacent to a retrievable integration site, and it is further limited by an inability to discriminate prior to sequencing between the flanking genomic DNA of interest and uninformative internal vector DNA. We report a modified restriction enzyme-free LAM-PCR (Re-free LAM-PCR) approach that is less time and labor intensive compared to conventional LAM-PCR, but in contrast to some other nonrestrictive methods, compares in efficiency and sensitivity, excludes retrieval of uninformative internal vector sequences, and allows retrieval of integration sites unbiased by the presence of nearby restriction sites. However, we report that Re-free LAM-PCR remains inaccurate for quantitation of the relative contributions of individual integration site-containing clones in a polyclonal setting, suggesting that bias in LAM-PCR retrieval of integration sites is not wholly explained by restriction enzyme-related factors.

  17. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nance, Elizabeth; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kannan, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. PMID:24204146

  18. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nance, Elizabeth; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kannan, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed.

  19. The Integration of Geographical Information System and Remotely Sensed Data to Track and Predict the Migration Path of the Africanized Honey Bee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Charles; Bravo, Jessica; De Luna, Rosalia; Lopez, Gerardo; Pichardo, Itza; Trejo, Danny; Vargas, Gabriel

    1997-01-01

    One of the research groups at the Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES) is researching the northward migration path of Africanized Honey Bees or often referred to in the popular press as killer bees. The goal of the Killer Bee Research Group (KBRG) is to set up a database in the form of a geographical information system, which will be used to track and predict the bees future migration path. Included in this paper is background information on geographical information systems, the SPANS Explorer software package which was used to implement the database, and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data and how each of these is being incorporated in the research. With an accurate means of predicting future migration paths, the negative effects of the Africanized honey bees maybe reduced.

  20. Integration of Airborne Aerosol Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health Decision Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, William A.; Huete, Alfredo; Pejanovic, Goran; Nickovic, Slobodan; Krapfl, Heide; Budge, Amy; Zelicoff, Alan; VandeWater, Peter K.; Levetin, Estelle; hide

    2009-01-01

    The residual signal indicates that the pollen event may influence the seasonal signal to an extent that would allow detection, given accurate QA filtering and BRDF corrections. MODIS daily reflectances increased during the pollen season. The DREAM model (PREAM) was successfully modified for use with pollen and may provide 24-36 hour running pollen forecasts. Publicly available pollen forecasts are linked to general weather patterns and roughly-known species phenologies. These are too coarse for timely health interventions. PREAM addresses this key data gap so that targeting intervention measures can be determined temporally and geospatially. The New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH) as part of its Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN) would use PREAM a tool for alerting the public in advance of pollen bursts to intervene and reduce the health impact on asthma populations at risk.

  1. Is an instrumented spasticity assessment an improvement over clinical spasticity scales in assessing and predicting the response to integrated botulinum toxin type a treatment in children with cerebral palsy?

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Lynn; Van Campenhout, Anja; Desloovere, Kaat; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Huenaerts, Catherine; Vandendoorent, Britt; Nieuwenhuys, Angela; Molenaers, Guy

    2014-03-01

    To compare responsiveness and predictive ability of clinical and instrumented spasticity assessments after botulinum toxin type A (BTX) treatment combined with casting in the medial hamstrings (MEHs) in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Prospective cohort study. Hospital. Consecutive sample of children (N=31; 40 MEH muscles) with CP requiring BTX injections. Clinical and instrumented spasticity assessments before and on average ± SD 53±14 days after BTX. Clinical spasticity scales included the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Modified Tardieu Scale. The instrumented spasticity assessment integrated biomechanical (position and torque) and electrophysiological (surface electromyography) signals during manually performed low- and high-velocity passive stretches of the MEHs. Signals were compared between both stretch velocities and were examined pre- and post-BTX. Responsiveness of clinical and instrumented assessments was compared by percentage exact agreement. Prediction ability was assessed with a logistic regression and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the baseline parameters of responders versus nonresponders. Both clinical and instrumented parameters improved post-BTX (P≤.005); however, they showed a low percentage exact agreement. The baseline Modified Tardieu Scale was the only clinical scale predictive for response (area under the ROC curve=0.7). For the instrumented assessment, baseline values of root mean square (RMS) electromyography and torque were better predictors for a positive response (area under the ROC curve=.82). Baseline RMS electromyography remained an important predictor in the logistic regression. The instrumented spasticity assessment showed higher responsiveness than the clinical scales. The amount of RMS electromyography is considered a promising parameter to predict treatment response. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Rho kinase as a target for cerebral vascular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Lisa M; Sellers, James R; McKerracher, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The development of novel pharmaceutical treatments for disorders of the cerebral vasculature is a serious unmet medical need. These vascular disorders are typified by a disruption in the delicate Rho signaling equilibrium within the blood vessel wall. In particular, Rho kinase overactivation in the smooth muscle and endothelial layers of the vessel wall results in cytoskeletal modifications that lead to reduced vascular integrity and abnormal vascular growth. Rho kinase is thus a promising target for the treatment of cerebral vascular disorders. Indeed, preclinical studies indicate that Rho kinase inhibition may reduce the formation/growth/rupture of both intracranial aneurysms and cerebral cavernous malformations. PMID:26062400

  3. Broadband changes in the cortical surface potential track activation of functionally diverse neuronal populations

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kai J; Honey, Christopher J; Hermes, Dora; Rao, Rajesh PN; denNijs, Marcel; Ojemann, Jeffrey G

    2013-01-01

    We illustrate a general principal of electrical potential measurements from the surface of the cerebral cortex, by revisiting and reanalyzing experimental work from the visual, language and motor systems. A naïve decomposition technique of electrocorticographic power spectral measurements reveals that broadband spectral changes reliably track task engagement. These broadband changes are shown to be a generic correlate of local cortical function across a variety of brain areas and behavioral tasks. Furthermore, they fit a power-law form that is consistent with simple models of the dendritic integration of asynchronous local population firing. Because broadband spectral changes covary with diverse perceptual and behavioral states on the timescale of 20–50ms, they provide a powerful and widely applicable experimental tool. PMID:24018305

  4. "Integrating Concepts in Biology" Textbook Increases Learning: Assessment Triangulation Using Concept Inventory, Card Sorting, and MCAT Instruments, Followed by Longitudinal Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckie, Douglas B.; Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Griffin, Caleigh E.; Hess, Andrea L.; Price, Katrina J.; Tawa, Alex; Thacker, Samantha M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the educational impact of an intervention, the inquiry-focused textbook "Integrating Concepts in Biology" ("ICB"), when used in a yearlong introductory biology course sequence. Student learning was evaluated using three published instruments: 1) The Biology Concept Inventory probed depth…

  5. Infusion of Atmospheric Dust Model Outputs into a Public Health Decision Support System: The Integration of Open Geospatial Consortium Service Products Into the New Mexico Environmental Public Health Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudspeth, W. B.; Cavner, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    New Mexico's Environmental Public Health Tracking System (EPHTS), funded by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN), aims to improve health awareness and services by linking health effects data with levels and frequency of environmental exposure. As a public health web-based decision-support system, EPHTS systems include: state-of-the-art statistical analysis tools; geospatial visualization tools; data discovery, extraction, and delivery tools; and environmental/public health linkage information. As part of its mandate, EPHTS issues public health advisories and forecasts of environmental conditions that have consequences for human health. Through a NASA-funded partnership between the University of New Mexico and the University of Arizona, efforts have been underway to infuse NASA Earth Science results, as well as meteorological forecast data, into two existing models (the Dust Regional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model) in order to improve forecasts of atmospheric dust, ozone, and aerosols. The goal of this work has been to develop services that can be integrated into existing public health decision support systems (DSS) to provide enhanced environmental data (i.e. ground surface particulate concentration estimates) for use in epidemiological analysis, public health warning systems, and syndromic surveillance systems. The results and products derived from the outputs of these models are made available to the New Mexico EPHTS. In particular, these products are integrated into existing clients within the larger framework of the EPHTS Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The SOA can be described as an multi-tiered architecture of interacting services, each providing a specific function. They include SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) and OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) services to deliver maps, data, and analytical capabilities. This paper reviews the SOA developed as

  6. The Age of Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Bhardwaj, R D; Curtis, M A; Spalding, K L; Buchholz, B A; Fink, D; Bjork-Eriksson, T; Nordborg, C; Gage, F H; Druid, H; Eriksson, P S; Frisen, J

    2006-04-06

    The traditional static view of the adult mammalian brain has been challenged by the realization of continuous generation of neurons from stem cells. Based mainly on studies in experimental animals, adult neurogenesis may contribute to recovery after brain insults and decreased neurogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric diseases in man. The extent of neurogenesis in the adult human brain has, however, been difficult to establish. We have taken advantage of the integration of {sup 14}C, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, in DNA to establish the age of neurons in the major areas of the human cerebral cortex. Together with the analysis of the cortex from patients who received BrdU, which integrates in the DNA of dividing cells, our results demonstrate that whereas non-neuronal cells turn over, neurons in the human cerebral cortex are not generated postnatally at detectable levels, but are as old as the individual.

  7. [Negative symptoms and cerebral imaging].

    PubMed

    Kaladjian, A; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    A number of neuroanatomical and neurofonctional abnormalities have been evidenced by cerebral imaging studies in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Nevertheless, those specifically associated with the negative symptoms of this disease are still insufficiently known. This work is a review of selected studies that have assessed the brain correlates of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Approaches using structural imaging have highlighted reduction of gray matter density or cortical thickness associated with negative symptoms, which is rather sparsely distributed within the frontal and temporal regions, localized nevertheless more particularly in the frontal medial and orbitofrontal areas, as well as the amygdalo-hippocampic complex. These deficits are concurrent with a loss of integrity of the principal paths of white matter tracts between frontal and limbic regions. On the other hand, neurofonctional abnormalities associated with negative symptoms involve especially the frontal areas and limbic striatum. A disturbed functioning within the fronto-striatal loops, related to a striatal dopaminergic deficit, may represent a potential explanatory hypothesis of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as suggested by studies using Positron Emission Tomography on this topic or neuroimaging studies on the effects of antipsychotics. A better identification of the cerebral abnormalities associated with the negative dimension of schizophrenia, with regard to the lateralization of these abnormalities or to their changes during the course of the disease, could offer new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of this dimension which, until now, remains few responsive to conventional pharmacological treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. High performance adaptive tracking system: HPATS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, James; Cannon, Randy; Segewitz, Markus; Stockum, Larry

    2005-05-01

    A high performance tracking system that adaptively adjusts the tracker algorithms and track loop parameters based on real-time scene statistics has been developed and demonstrated against realistic target scenarios. The HPATS provides the capability to acquire and track very low contrast targets in the presence of background clutter and time-vaying target conditions to sub-pixel accuracy. HPATS is applicable to both fire control and terminal guidance applications that incorporate imaging sensors. An overview of the tracking system design, simulation modeling, tracker metrics tools, and field test examples of low contrast target tracking performance is presented. The HPATS technology development included a high fidelity Integrated Flight Simulation (IFS) that modeled the end to end performance of the missile fly out, the target acquisition, the target tracking, aim-point selection, terminal guidance, and lethality.

  9. Eye-tracking and EMG supported 3D Virtual Reality - an integrated tool for perceptual and motor development of children with severe physical disabilities: a research concept.

    PubMed

    Pulay, Márk Ágoston

    2015-01-01

    Letting children with severe physical disabilities (like Tetraparesis spastica) to get relevant motional experiences of appropriate quality and quantity is now the greatest challenge for us in the field of neurorehabilitation. These motional experiences may establish many cognitive processes, but may also cause additional secondary cognitive dysfunctions such as disorders in body image, figure invariance, visual perception, auditory differentiation, concentration, analytic and synthetic ways of thinking, visual memory etc. Virtual Reality is a technology that provides a sense of presence in a real environment with the help of 3D pictures and animations formed in a computer environment and enable the person to interact with the objects in that environment. One of our biggest challenges is to find a well suited input device (hardware) to let the children with severe physical disabilities to interact with the computer. Based on our own experiences and a thorough literature review we have come to the conclusion that an effective combination of eye-tracking and EMG devices should work well.

  10. The use of a tracking test battery in the quantitative evaluation of neurological function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repa, B. S.

    1973-01-01

    A number of tracking tasks that have proven useful to control engineers and psychologists measuring skilled performance have been evaluated for clinical use. Normal subjects as well as patients with previous diagnoses of Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy were used in the evaluation. The tests that were studied included step tracking, random tracking, and critical tracking. The results of the present experiments encourage the continued use of tracking tasks as assessment precedures in a clinical environment. They have proven to be reliable, valid, and sensitive measures of neurological function.

  11. Detection and tracking of dual-labeled HIV particles using wide-field live cell imaging to follow viral core integrity

    PubMed Central

    Mamede, Joao I.; Hope, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Live cell imaging is a valuable technique that allows the characterization of the dynamic processes of the HIV-1 life-cycle. Here, we present a method of production and imaging of dual-labeled HIV viral particles that allows the visualization of two events. Varying release of the intravirion fluid phase marker reveals virion fusion and the loss of the integrity of HIV viral cores with the use of live wide-field fluorescent microscopy. PMID:26714704

  12. Solar tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  13. Hierarchical fringe tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Romain G.; Elhalkouj, Thami; Boskri, Abdelkarim; Folcher, Jean-Pierre; Lagarde, Stéphane; Bresson, Yves; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lazrek, Mohamed; Rakshit, Suvendu

    2014-07-01

    The limiting magnitude is a key issue for optical interferometry. Pairwise fringe trackers based on the integrated optics concepts used for example in GRAVITY seem limited to about K=10.5 with the 8m Unit Telescopes of the VLTI, and there is a general "common sense" statement that the efficiency of fringe tracking, and hence the sensitivity of optical interferometry, must decrease as the number of apertures increases, at least in the near infrared where we are still limited by detector readout noise. Here we present a Hierarchical Fringe Tracking (HFT) concept with sensitivity at least equal to this of a two apertures fringe trackers. HFT is based of the combination of the apertures in pairs, then in pairs of pairs then in pairs of groups… The key HFT module is a device that behaves like a spatial filter for two telescopes (2TSF) and transmits all or most of the flux of a cophased pair in a single mode beam. We give an example of such an achromatic 2TSF, based on very broadband dispersed fringes analyzed by grids, and show that it allows piston measures from very broadband fringes with only 3 to 5 pixels per fringe tracker. We show the results of numerical simulation indicating that our device is a good achromatic spatial filter and allowing a first evaluation of its coupling efficiency, which is similar to this of a single mode fiber on a single aperture. Our very preliminary results indicate that HFT has a good chance to be a serious candidate for the most sensitive fringe tracking with the VLTI and also interferometers with much larger number of apertures. On the VLTI the first rough estimate of the magnitude gain with regard to the GRAVITY internal FT is between 2.5 and 3.5 magnitudes in K, with a decisive impact on the VLTI science program for AGNs, Young stars and planet forming disks.

  14. [Cerebral ischemia and histamine].

    PubMed

    Adachi, Naoto

    2002-10-01

    Cerebral ischemia induces excess release of glutamate and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which provoke catastrophic enzymatic processes leading to irreversible neuronal injury. Histamine plays the role of neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and histaminergic fibers are widely distributed in the brain. In cerebral ischemia, release of histamine from nerve endings has been shown to be enhanced by facilitation of its activity. An inhibition of the histaminergic activity in ischemia aggravates the histologic outcome. In contrast, intracerebroventricular administration of histamine improves the aggravation, whereas blockade of histamine H2 receptors aggravates ischemic injury. Furthermore, H2 blockade enhances ischemic release of glutamate and dopamine. These findings suggest that central histamine provides beneficial effects against ischemic neuronal damage by suppressing release of excitatory neurotransmitters. However, histaminergic H2 action facilitates the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and shows deleterious effects on cerebral edema.

  15. Hypernatraemia in cerebral disorders

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. H.

    1962-01-01

    Six patients are described in whom cerebral damage was associated with raised plasma sodium and chloride concentrations and with extremely low urinary outputs of sodium and chloride. The patients were not clinically dehydrated and direct determinations showed that the blood and plasma volumes, the endogenous creatinine clearance, and the urinary output of antidiuretic hormone were normal. For these and other reasons it is concluded that the metabolic picture results not from diminished circulatory volume, water deficiency, sodium deficiency, undetected diabetes insipidus or osmotic diuresis, but from the cerebral damage itself. In these and other cited cases, the cerebral damage was localized chiefly in the frontal lobes, hypothalamus or lower brain-stem, thus suggesting a descending pathway, the relationship of which to the pineal area controlling aldosterone secretion requires clarification. Images PMID:13920001

  16. Duplicated middle cerebral artery.

    PubMed

    Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion.

  17. NORAD satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Joseph J. F.

    1987-01-01

    NORAD routinely tracks about 6000 orbiting objects. During the last 30 days of orbital time, prior to reentry, special perturbations are used in the orbital update procedure. Besides routine orbit determination, NORAD does special tasks such as predicting satellite orbit conjunctions within 20 km, ephimerides of weather satellites, satellite decay predictions and other studies. Since their mission is operational, they do not store the data from their analyses. The ballistic coefficient is not known for most of the orbiting objects. If a ballistic coefficient were derived that was consistent with one density model, it might give erroneous results if used with a different density model. Given the ballistic coefficient, density values could, in principle, be obtained from their tracking data. The densities would represent an integrated mean over the orbital path near perigee. They would be model dependent and would not necessarily represent the real density. In summary, the primary need is for reliable forecasts of solar flux (F10.7) and geomagnetic activity (Ap) in the 1 to 4 week time scale. Forecasts over longer time spans would also be useful for special projects.

  18. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with cerebral hemorrhage during early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Quanmin; Guo, Pin; Ge, Jianwei; Qiu, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) rarely induces cerebral hemorrhage, and CVST with cerebral hemorrhage during early pregnancy is extremely rare. Upon literature review, we are able to find only one case of CVST with cerebral hemorrhage in early pregnancy. In this paper, we report another case of a 27-year-old patient who developed CVST with cerebral hemorrhage in her fifth week of pregnancy. Although the optimal treatment for this infrequent condition remains controversial, we adopted anticoagulation as the first choice of treatment and obtained favorable results. PMID:25630781

  19. CEREBRAL INTEGRATION AND ITS ASSESSMENT BY DRUGS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MENTAL DISORDERS, DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE)), (* LYSERGIC ACIDS , PSYCHIATRY), CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, PERCEPTION(PSYCHOLOGY), PSYCHOSES, NEUROSES, BEHAVIOR, VISUAL PERCEPTION, PERSONALITY, PERSONALITY TESTS

  20. TrackEye tracking algorithm characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, Michael T.; Shields, Robert W.; Reed, Jack M.

    2004-10-01

    TrackEye is a film digitization and target tracking system that offers the potential for quantitatively measuring the dynamic state variables (e.g., absolute and relative position, orientation, linear and angular velocity/acceleration, spin rate, trajectory, angle of attack, etc.) for moving objects using captured single or dual view image sequences. At the heart of the system is a set of tracking algorithms that automatically find and quantify the location of user selected image details such as natural test article features or passive fiducials that have been applied to cooperative test articles. This image position data is converted into real world coordinates and rates with user specified information such as the image scale and frame rate. Though tracking methods such as correlation algorithms are typically robust by nature, the accuracy and suitability of each TrackEye tracking algorithm is in general unknown even under good imaging conditions. The challenges of optimal algorithm selection and algorithm performance/measurement uncertainty are even more significant for long range tracking of high-speed targets where temporally varying atmospheric effects degrade the imagery. This paper will present the preliminary results from a controlled test sequence used to characterize the performance of the TrackEye tracking algorithm suite.

  1. TrackEye tracking algorithm characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Jack W.; Shields, Rob W; Valley, Michael T.

    2004-08-01

    TrackEye is a film digitization and target tracking system that offers the potential for quantitatively measuring the dynamic state variables (e.g., absolute and relative position, orientation, linear and angular velocity/acceleration, spin rate, trajectory, angle of attack, etc.) for moving objects using captured single or dual view image sequences. At the heart of the system is a set of tracking algorithms that automatically find and quantify the location of user selected image details such as natural test article features or passive fiducials that have been applied to cooperative test articles. This image position data is converted into real world coordinates and rates with user specified information such as the image scale and frame rate. Though tracking methods such as correlation algorithms are typically robust by nature, the accuracy and suitability of each TrackEye tracking algorithm is in general unknown even under good imaging conditions. The challenges of optimal algorithm selection and algorithm performance/measurement uncertainty are even more significant for long range tracking of high-speed targets where temporally varying atmospheric effects degrade the imagery. This paper will present the preliminary results from a controlled test sequence used to characterize the performance of the TrackEye tracking algorithm suite.

  2. Integration of altitude and airspeed information into a primary flight display via moving-tape formats: Evaluation during random tracking task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Nataupsky, Mark; Steinmetz, George G.

    1987-01-01

    A ground-based aircraft simulation study was conducted to determine the effects on pilot preference and performance of integrating airspeed and altitude information into an advanced electronic primary flight display via moving-tape (linear moving scale) formats. Several key issues relating to the implementation of moving-tape formats were examined in this study: tape centering, tape orientation, and trend information. The factor of centering refers to whether the tape was centered about the actual airspeed or altitude or about some other defined reference value. Tape orientation refers to whether the represented values are arranged in descending or ascending order. Two pilots participated in this study, with each performing 32 runs along seemingly random, previously unknown flight profiles. The data taken, analyzed, and presented consisted of path performance parameters, pilot-control inputs, and electrical brain response measurements.

  3. Cerebral Folate Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…

  4. [Multiple cerebral tuberculomas].

    PubMed

    Noriega, L; Villarreal, F

    The tuberculosis is a disease that continues being important cause of morbidity and mortality at worldwide level. Its presentation as tuberculomas cerebral manifold at level of the central nervous system is little frequent in immunocompetent patients and can be confused with other etiology. An indigenous young man, immunocompetent consulted for history of headache, nausea, vomits, convulsions, double vision and hemiparesia left side, which in the cerebral tomography of revenue was showing injuries compatible with cerebral abscesses; for which he received treatment with antibiotics without improvement for what there takes biopsy of the injuries that reported tuberculomas, specific treatment being initiated later and the primary area being investigated without the same one be detecting. After the first procedural step with evident clinical and radiographic improvement. The tuberculosis in anyone of their forms of presentation must be included within the diagnosis differential of the patients in our endemic countries for this disease. The clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral injuries is difficult and single usually it obtains to the diagnosis during a pathology study that shows tuberculomas with caseosa necrosis, epiteliodes cell and the acid alcohol bacilli resistant.

  5. Cerebral Folate Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…

  6. Cerebral Palsy (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain is affected and which parts of the body that section of the brain controls. If CP affects both arms and both legs, ... the case of spastic CP) or to help control seizures. And some might have special surgeries to keep their arms or legs straighter and more ... Coping With Cerebral Palsy Puberty can ...

  7. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ducros, Anne

    2012-10-01

    Recurrent thunderclap headaches, seizures, strokes, and non-aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage can all reveal reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. This increasingly recognised syndrome is characterised by severe headaches, with or without other symptoms, and segmental constriction of cerebral arteries that resolves within 3 months. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is supposedly due to a transient disturbance in the control of cerebrovascular tone. More than half the cases occur post partum or after exposure to adrenergic or serotonergic drugs. Manifestations have a uniphasic course, and vary from pure cephalalgic forms to rare catastrophic forms associated with several haemorrhagic and ischaemic strokes, brain oedema, and death. Diagnosis can be hampered by the dynamic nature of clinicoradiological features. Stroke can occur a few days after initial normal imaging, and cerebral vasoconstriction is at a maximum on angiograms 2-3 weeks after clinical onset. The calcium channel blocker nimodipine seems to reduce thunderclap headaches within 48 h of administration, but has no proven effect on haemorrhagic and ischaemic complications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ducros, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is characterized by severe headaches with or without focal neurologic deficits and/or seizures, and segmental constriction of cerebral arteries that resolves within 3 months. This increasingly recognized syndrome is supposedly due to a transient disturbance in the control of cerebral vascular tone with sympathetic overactivity. It can cause stroke in the young. It affects mainly middle-aged women. More than half the cases occur after exposure to vasoactive substances or during postpartum. The manifestations have a monophasic course, without new clinical symptom after 4 weeks, and range from pure cephalalgic forms with recurrent thunderclap headaches over 1-2 weeks to rare catastrophic forms with multiple hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes, brain edema and death. Diagnosis may be hampered by the dynamic nature of clinicoradiological features. Convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage or stroke may occur a few days after initial normal imaging, and cerebral vasoconstriction is maximal on angiography 2-3 weeks after clinical onset. Symptomatic treatment includes rest and removal of vasoactive substances. Nimodipine has been proposed to reduce thunderclap headaches within 48 hours, but has no proven effect on the hemorrhagic and ischemic complications. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cerebral Palsy Litigation

    PubMed Central

    Sartwelle, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    The cardinal driver of cerebral palsy litigation is electronic fetal monitoring, which has continued unabated for 40 years. Electronic fetal monitoring, however, is based on 19th-century childbirth myths, a virtually nonexistent scientific foundation, and has a false positive rate exceeding 99%. It has not affected the incidence of cerebral palsy. Electronic fetal monitoring has, however, increased the cesarian section rate, with the expected increase in mortality and morbidity risks to mothers and babies alike. This article explains why electronic fetal monitoring remains endorsed as efficacious in the worlds’ labor rooms and courtrooms despite being such a feeble medical modality. It also reviews the reasons professional organizations have failed to condemn the use of electronic fetal monitoring in courtrooms. The failures of tort reform, special cerebral palsy courts, and damage limits to stem the escalating litigation are discussed. Finally, the authors propose using a currently available evidence rule—the Daubert doctrine that excludes “junk science” from the courtroom—as the beginning of the end to cerebral palsy litigation and electronic fetal monitoring’s 40-year masquerade as science. PMID:25183322

  10. Can we track holes?

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Todd S.; Kuzmova, Yoana

    2011-01-01

    The evidence is mixed as to whether the visual system treats objects and holes differently. We used a multiple object tracking task to test the hypothesis that figural objects are easier to track than holes. Observers tracked four of eight items (holes or objects). We used an adaptive algorithm to estimate the speed allowing 75% tracking accuracy. In Experiments 1–5, the distinction between holes and figures was accomplished by pictorial cues, while red-cyan anaglyphs were used to provide the illusion of depth in Experiment 6. We variously used Gaussian pixel noise, photographic scenes, or synthetic textures as backgrounds. Tracking was more difficult when a complex background was visible, as opposed to a blank background. Tracking was easier when disks carried fixed, unique markings. When these factors were controlled for, tracking holes was no more difficult than tracking figures, suggesting that they are equivalent stimuli for tracking purposes. PMID:21334361

  11. Can we track holes?

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Todd S; Kuzmova, Yoana

    2011-05-11

    The evidence is mixed as to whether the visual system treats objects and holes differently. We used a multiple object tracking task to test the hypothesis that figural objects are easier to track than holes. Observers tracked four of eight items (holes or objects). We used an adaptive algorithm to estimate the speed allowing 75% tracking accuracy. In Experiments 1-5, the distinction between holes and figures was accomplished by pictorial cues, while red-cyan anaglyphs were used to provide the illusion of depth in Experiment 6. We variously used Gaussian pixel noise, photographic scenes, or synthetic textures as backgrounds. Tracking was more difficult when a complex background was visible, as opposed to a blank background. Tracking was easier when disks carried fixed, unique markings. When these factors were controlled for, tracking holes was no more difficult than tracking figures, suggesting that they are equivalent stimuli for tracking purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Prothrombotic states and cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Barinagarrementeria, F; González-Duarte, A; Cantú-Brito, C

    1998-01-01

    Hematological disorders per se represent unusual causes of cerebral ischemia, explaining in young people 4% of strokes. Hematological disorders that induce a thrombotic tendency contribute to overall ischemic stroke risk and may directly cause cerebral ischemia in patients without other risk factors. The frequency of cerebral infarctions caused by prothrombotic states is not known. This review will focus on disorders such as prothrombotic coagulopaties, including resistance to activated protein C and antiphospholipid syndrome as cause of cerebral infarction. Cerebral venous thrombosis and cerebral infarction from arterial origin are the most common form of neurological involvement. Pathophysiological mechanism of stroke in these patients are multiple and can include as in antiphospholipid syndrome embolism from valves abnormalities related to hematological disturbance, as well as thrombosis of extracranial or intracranial vessels. Is clear, however, that prothrombotic states could explains a high percentage of cases of those so called cryptogenic cerebral infarction in young people.

  13. Track initiation of bearings-only tracking based on ant navigation concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jihong; Xu, Benlian; Wang, Zhiquan

    2010-11-01

    A novel heuristic track initiation method is developed for the bearing-only multi-sensor-multi-target tracking system, in which each target is assumed to move with a straight line. The key idea of the proposed method is derived from the ant navigation concept in its foraging life, which differs from the traditional ant colony optimization algorithm, and it utilizes the concept of path integration and visual landmarks in ants' navigation toolkit to find the exact positions of each target. Numerous numerical simulations are conducted and the effectiveness of the proposed track initiation method is verified according to the probability of correct track initiation.

  14. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Samia Ben; Touati, Nahla; Baccouche, Hela; Drissi, Cyrine; Romdhane, Neila Ben; Hentati, Fayçal

    2016-01-01

    Data regarding cerebral venous thrombosis in North Africa are scarce. This study aims to identify the clinical features, risk factors, outcome, and prognosis of cerebral venous thrombosis in Tunisia. Data of 160 patients with radiologically confirmed cerebral venous thrombosis, hospitalized in Mongi Ben Hmida National Institute of Neurology (Tunis, Tunisia), were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The mean age was 37.3 years with a female predominance (83.1%). The mode of onset was subacute in most cases (56.2%). Headache was the most common symptom (71.3%), and focal neurologic symptoms were the main clinical presentation (41.8%). The most common sites of thrombosis were the superior sagittal sinus (65%) and the lateral sinus (60.6%). More than 1 sinus was involved in 114 (71.2%) patients. Parenchymal lesions observed in 85 (53.1%) patients did not correlate with cerebral venous thrombosis extent. Major risk factors were obstetric causes (pregnancy and puerperium) found in 46 (38.6% of women aged <50 years) patients, followed by anemia (28.1%) and congenital or acquired thrombophilia (16.2%). Mortality rate was of 6.6%. Good outcome at 6 months (modified Rankin Scale ≤2) was observed in 105 (87.5%)of 120 patients available for follow-up. Predictors of poor outcome were altered consciousness and elevated plasma C-reactive protein levels. Clinical and radiologic presentation of cerebral venous thrombosis in Tunisia was quite similar to other parts of the world with, however, a particularly high frequency of obstetric causes. Plasma C-reactive protein level should be considered as a prognostic factor in CVT.

  15. Cerebral White Matter

    PubMed Central

    Schmahmann, Jeremy D.; Smith, Eric E.; Eichler, Florian S.; Filley, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Lesions of the cerebral white matter (WM) result in focal neurobehavioral syndromes, neuropsychiatric phenomena, and dementia. The cerebral WM contains fiber pathways that convey axons linking cerebral cortical areas with each other and with subcortical structures, facilitating the distributed neural circuits that subserve sensorimotor function, intellect, and emotion. Recent neuroanatomical investigations reveal that these neural circuits are topographically linked by five groupings of fiber tracts emanating from every neocortical area: (1) cortico-cortical association fibers; (2) corticostriatal fibers; (3) commissural fibers; and cortico-subcortical pathways to (4) thalamus and (5) pontocerebellar system, brain stem, and/or spinal cord. Lesions of association fibers prevent communication between cortical areas engaged in different domains of behavior. Lesions of subcortical structures or projection/striatal fibers disrupt the contribution of subcortical nodes to behavior. Disconnection syndromes thus result from lesions of the cerebral cortex, subcortical structures, and WM tracts that link the nodes that make up the distributed circuits. The nature and the severity of the clinical manifestations of WM lesions are determined, in large part, by the location of the pathology: discrete neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms result from focal WM lesions, whereas cognitive impairment across multiple domains—WM dementia—occurs in the setting of diffuse WM disease. We present a detailed review of the conditions affecting WM that produce these neurobehavioral syndromes, and consider the pathophysiology, clinical effects, and broad significance of the effects of aging and vascular compromise on cerebral WM, in an attempt to help further the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of these disorders. PMID:18990132

  16. Tracking the roots of reading ability: white matter volume and integrity correlate with phonological awareness in prereading and early-reading kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Saygin, Zeynep M; Norton, Elizabeth S; Osher, David E; Beach, Sara D; Cyr, Abigail B; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Yendiki, Anastasia; Fischl, Bruce; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D E

    2013-08-14

    Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these differences in structural connectivity are related to the cause of dyslexia or if they are consequences of reading difficulty (e.g., less reading experience or compensatory brain organization). Here, in 40 kindergartners who had received little or no reading instruction, we examined the relation between behavioral predictors of dyslexia and white matter organization in left arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the parietal portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus using probabilistic tractography. Higher composite phonological awareness scores were significantly and positively correlated with the volume of the arcuate fasciculus, but not with other tracts. Two other behavioral predictors of dyslexia, rapid naming and letter knowledge, did not correlate with volumes or diffusion values in these tracts. The volume and fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate showed a particularly strong positive correlation with a phoneme blending test. Whole-brain regressions of behavioral scores with diffusion measures confirmed the unique relation between phonological awareness and the left arcuate. These findings indicate that the left arcuate fasciculus, which connects anterior and posterior language regions of the human brain and which has been previously associated with reading ability in older individuals, is already smaller and has less integrity in kindergartners who are at risk for dyslexia because of poor phonological awareness. These findings suggest a structural basis of behavioral risk for dyslexia that predates reading instruction.

  17. Calculating track thrust with track functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsi-Ming; Procura, Massimiliano; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2013-08-01

    In e+e- event shapes studies at LEP, two different measurements were sometimes performed: a “calorimetric” measurement using both charged and neutral particles and a “track-based” measurement using just charged particles. Whereas calorimetric measurements are infrared and collinear safe, and therefore calculable in perturbative QCD, track-based measurements necessarily depend on nonperturbative hadronization effects. On the other hand, track-based measurements typically have smaller experimental uncertainties. In this paper, we present the first calculation of the event shape “track thrust” and compare to measurements performed at ALEPH and DELPHI. This calculation is made possible through the recently developed formalism of track functions, which are nonperturbative objects describing how energetic partons fragment into charged hadrons. By incorporating track functions into soft-collinear effective theory, we calculate the distribution for track thrust with next-to-leading logarithmic resummation. Due to a partial cancellation between nonperturbative parameters, the distributions for calorimeter thrust and track thrust are remarkably similar, a feature also seen in LEP data.

  18. To Track or Not to Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper was written for a graduate level action research course at Muskingum University, located in New Concord, OH. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine which method of instruction best serves ALL high school students. Is it more advantageous to track ("ability group") students or not to track students…

  19. Intraoperative cerebral blood flow imaging of rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hangdao; Li, Yao; Yuan, Lu; Wu, Caihong; Lu, Hongyang; Tong, Shanbao

    2014-09-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is of interest to neuroscience researchers, which offers the assessment of hemodynamic responses throughout the process of neurosurgery and provides an early biomarker for surgical guidance. However, intraoperative CBF imaging has been challenging due to animal's motion and position change during the surgery. In this paper, we presented a design of an operation bench integrated with laser speckle contrast imager which enables monitoring of the CBF intraoperatively. With a specially designed stereotaxic frame and imager, we were able to monitor the CBF changes in both hemispheres during the rodent surgery. The rotatable design of the operation plate and implementation of online image registration allow the technician to move the animal without disturbing the CBF imaging during surgery. The performance of the system was tested by middle cerebral artery occlusion model of rats.

  20. Multiple frame cluster tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadaleta, Sabino; Klusman, Mike; Poore, Aubrey; Slocumb, Benjamin J.

    2002-08-01

    Tracking large number of closely spaced objects is a challenging problem for any tracking system. In missile defense systems, countermeasures in the form of debris, chaff, spent fuel, and balloons can overwhelm tracking systems that track only individual objects. Thus, tracking these groups or clusters of objects followed by transitions to individual object tracking (if and when individual objects separate from the groups) is a necessary capability for a robust and real-time tracking system. The objectives of this paper are to describe the group tracking problem in the context of multiple frame target tracking and to formulate a general assignment problem for the multiple frame cluster/group tracking problem. The proposed approach forms multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and base individual frame clustering decisions on the information from multiple frames of data in much the same way that MFA or MHT work for individual object tracking. The formulation of the assignment problem for resolved object tracking and candidate clustering methods for use in multiple frame cluster tracking are briefly reviewed. Then, three different formulations are presented for the combination of multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and the multiple frame assignments of clusters between frames.

  1. The dynamic response of slab track constructions and their benefit with respect to conventional ballasted track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezin, Y.; Farrington, D.; Penny, C.; Temple, B.; Iwnicki, S.

    2010-12-01

    A recently developed Flexible Track System Model integrated with a multibody dynamics software tool was used to simulate the dynamic interaction between a vehicle and two innovative slab track designs, comparing their performance with respect to conventional ballasted track. The design concepts are presented and the modelling assumptions are given. Simulations are then carried out to quantify, for example, the impact of ballasted track degraded state using the case of a hanging sleeper. In comparison, the benefit of the two innovative track designs is highlighted as they prevent this type of localised defect from occurring. The alternative track designs were also shown to be capable of carrying a vehicle safely and with less impact on the system over a localised weakened formation support, by simulating a washout event.

  2. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  3. Effects of Surgery and Proton Therapy on Cerebral White Matter of Craniopharyngioma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Uh, Jinsoo; Merchant, Thomas E.; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu; Sabin, Noah D.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Ogg, Robert J.; Boop, Frederick A.; Jane, John A.; Hua, Chiaho

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine radiation dose effect on the structural integrity of cerebral white matter in craniopharyngioma patients receiving surgery and proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Fifty-one patients (2.1-19.3 years of age) with craniopharyngioma underwent surgery and proton therapy in a prospective therapeutic trial. Anatomical magnetic resonance images acquired after surgery but before proton therapy were inspected to identify white matter structures intersected by surgical corridors and catheter tracks. Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to measure microstructural integrity changes in cerebral white matter. Fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from DTI was statistically analyzed for 51 atlas-based white matter structures of the brain to determine radiation dose effect. FA in surgery-affected regions in the corpus callosum was compared to that in its intact counterpart to determine whether surgical defects affect radiation dose effect. Results: Surgical defects were seen most frequently in the corpus callosum because of transcallosal resection of tumors and insertion of ventricular or cyst catheters. Longitudinal DTI data indicated reductions in FA 3 months after therapy, which was followed by a recovery in most white matter structures. A greater FA reduction was correlated with a higher radiation dose in 20 white matter structures, indicating a radiation dose effect. The average FA in the surgery-affected regions before proton therapy was smaller (P=.0001) than that in their non–surgery-affected counterparts with more intensified subsequent reduction of FA (P=.0083) after therapy, suggesting that surgery accentuated the radiation dose effect. Conclusions: DTI data suggest that mild radiation dose effects occur in patients with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy. Surgical defects present at the time of proton therapy appear to accentuate the radiation dose effect longitudinally

  4. EFFECTS OF SURGERY AND PROTON THERAPY ON CEREBRAL WHITE MATTER OF CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Uh, Jinsoo; Merchant, Thomas E.; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu; Sabin, Noah D.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Ogg, Robert J.; Boop, Frederick A.; Jane, John A.; Hua, Chiaho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the radiation dose-effect on the structural integrity of cerebral white matter in craniopharyngioma patients receiving surgery and proton therapy. Methods and Materials Fifty-one patients (aged 2.1–19.3 years) with craniopharyngioma underwent surgery and proton therapy in a prospective therapeutic trial. Anatomical magnetic resonance images acquired after surgery but before proton therapy were inspected to identify white matter structures intersected by surgical corridors and catheter tracks. Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to measure microstructural integrity changes in cerebral white matter. Fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from DTI was statistically analyzed for 51 atlas-based white matter structures of the brain to determine radiation dose-effect. FA in surgery-affected regions in the corpus callosum was compared to that in its intact counterpart to determine whether surgical defects affect radiation dose-effect. Results Surgical defects were seen most frequently in the corpus callosum because of transcallosal resection of tumors and insertion of ventricular or cyst catheters. The longitudinal DTI data indicated reductions in FA 3 months after therapy, which was followed by a recovery in most white matter structures. A greater FA reduction was correlated with a higher radiation dose in 20 white matter structures, indicating a radiation dose-effect. The average FA in the surgery-affected regions before proton therapy was smaller (P =0.0001) than that in their non-surgery affected counterparts with more intensified subsequent reduction of FA (P=0.0083) after therapy, suggesting that surgery accentuated the radiation dose-effect. Conclusions DTI data suggest that mild radiation dose-effects occur in patients with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy. Surgical defects present at the time of proton therapy appear to accentuate the radiation dose-effect longitudinally. This study supports

  5. Effects of Surgery and Proton Therapy on Cerebral White Matter of Craniopharyngioma Patients.

    PubMed

    Uh, Jinsoo; Merchant, Thomas E; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu; Sabin, Noah D; Indelicato, Daniel J; Ogg, Robert J; Boop, Frederick A; Jane, John A; Hua, Chiaho

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine radiation dose effect on the structural integrity of cerebral white matter in craniopharyngioma patients receiving surgery and proton therapy. Fifty-one patients (2.1-19.3 years of age) with craniopharyngioma underwent surgery and proton therapy in a prospective therapeutic trial. Anatomical magnetic resonance images acquired after surgery but before proton therapy were inspected to identify white matter structures intersected by surgical corridors and catheter tracks. Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to measure microstructural integrity changes in cerebral white matter. Fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from DTI was statistically analyzed for 51 atlas-based white matter structures of the brain to determine radiation dose effect. FA in surgery-affected regions in the corpus callosum was compared to that in its intact counterpart to determine whether surgical defects affect radiation dose effect. Surgical defects were seen most frequently in the corpus callosum because of transcallosal resection of tumors and insertion of ventricular or cyst catheters. Longitudinal DTI data indicated reductions in FA 3 months after therapy, which was followed by a recovery in most white matter structures. A greater FA reduction was correlated with a higher radiation dose in 20 white matter structures, indicating a radiation dose effect. The average FA in the surgery-affected regions before proton therapy was smaller (P=.0001) than that in their non-surgery-affected counterparts with more intensified subsequent reduction of FA (P=.0083) after therapy, suggesting that surgery accentuated the radiation dose effect. DTI data suggest that mild radiation dose effects occur in patients with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy. Surgical defects present at the time of proton therapy appear to accentuate the radiation dose effect longitudinally. This study supports consideration of pre-existing surgical

  6. Noninvasive measurement of cerebral oxygen saturation and cerebral phronetal function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengli; Zhang, Aiyu; Xu, Min; Jin, Taiyi

    1998-08-01

    Using the Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), the noninvasive measurement of cerebral oxygen concentration can be achieved in vivo based on the Lambert-Beer Law. In this paper, we discuss the possibility of studying higher brain functions through combining cerebral oxygen saturation and cerebral function measurement. Event-related experiments are introduced to measure the cerebral phronetal function. Time domain curves show sight differences among these experiment results. However, with the aid of DFT, experiment data of all five human volunteers show the frequency near 20 Hz or 40 Hz is evoked depending on the difficulty of the mental tasks. The results demonstrate the feasibility of cerebral functions study by means of cerebral oxygen saturation measurement analyzed in the frequency domain.

  7. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, B.E.

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxilliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  8. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, Burrell E.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxiliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  9. Track Dynamics Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    better underptanding of track dynamics and performance. Analytical techniques were developed to predict track vibration mode3, chordal action effects ...buildup, and end connector tightening I] effectiveness . Double-pin track for heavy tanks was analyzed with these techniques, and designs for improved...o. Pin and Bushing Loads and Deflections . . . a 0 . . 6 Effects of Obstacle Negotiation . . . . . . . . . . 7 Thermal Analysis

  10. Ground moving target processing for tracking selected targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Howard; Majumder, Uttam; Owirka, Gregory; Finn, Lucas

    2016-05-01

    BAE Systems has developed a baseline real-time selected vehicle (SV) radar tracking capability that successfully tracked multiple civilian vehicles in real-world traffic conditions within challenging semi-urban clutter. This real-time tracking capability was demonstrated in laboratory setting. Recent enhancements to the baseline capability include multiple detection modes, improvements to the system-level design, and a wide-area tracking mode. The multiple detection modes support two tracking regimes; wide-area and localized selected vehicle tracking. These two tracking regimes have distinct challenges that may be suited to different trackers. Incorporation of a wide-area tracking mode provides both situational awareness and the potential for enhancing SV track initiation. Improvements to the system-level design simplify the integration of multiple detection modes and more realistic SV track initiation capabilities. Improvements are designed to contribute to a comprehensive tracking capability that exploits a continuous stare paradigm. In this paper, focus will be on the challenges, design considerations, and integration of selected vehicle tracking.

  11. Managing Malignant Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sahuquillo, Juan; Sheth, Kevin N.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Walcott, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Opinion statement Managing patients with malignant cerebral infarction remains one of the foremost challenges in medicine. These patients are at high risk for progressive neurologic deterioration and death due to malignant cerebral edema, and they are best cared for in the intensive care unit of a comprehensive stroke center. Careful initial assessment of neurologic function and of findings on MRI, coupled with frequent reassessment of clinical and radiologic findings using CT or MRI are mandatory to promote the prompt initiation of treatments that will ensure the best outcome in these patients. Significant deterioration in either neurologic function or radiologic findings or both demand timely treatment using the best medical management, which may include osmotherapy (mannitol or hypertonic saline), endotracheal intubation, and mechanical ventilation. Under appropriate circumstances, decompressive craniectomy may be warranted to improve outcome or to prevent death. PMID:21190097

  12. Long-term visual tracking based on correlation filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Quanlu; Lao, Songyang; Bai, Liang

    2017-03-01

    In order to accomplish the long term visual tracking task in complex scenes, solve problems of scale variation, appearance variation and tracking failure, a long term tracking algorithm is given based on the framework of collaborative correlation tracking. Firstly, we integrate several powerful features to boost the represent ability based on the kernel correlation filter, and extend the filter by embedding a scale factor into the kernelized matrix to handle the scale variation. Then, we use the Peak-Sidelobe Ratio to decide whether the object is tracked successfully, and a CUR filter for re-detection the object in case of tracking failure is learnt with random sampling. Corresponding experiment is performed on 17 challenging benchmark video sequences. Compared with the 8 existing state-of-the-art algorithms based on discriminative learning method, the results show that the proposed algorithm improves the tracking performance on several indexes, and is robust to complex scenes for long term visual tracking.

  13. Modeling Cerebral Vascular Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Using a pressure gradient to drive the blood flow, and the external pressure induced by a blast wave through the surrounding brain elements, an...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Many numerical models for the brain do not include the vascular structures within the brain and thus...are incapable of predicting damage to the cerebral vasculature. The presence of the vasculature within the brain produces a reinforcing effect and

  14. Primary cerebral malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kai; Kong, Xiangyi; Mao, Gengsheng; Qiu, Ming; Zhu, Haibo; Zhou, Lei; Nie, Qingbin; Xu, Yi; Du, Shiwei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Primary intracranial melanomas are uncommon and constitute approximately 1% of all melanoma cases and 0.07% of all brain tumors. In nature, these primary melanomas are very aggressive and can spread to other organs. We report an uncommon case of primary cerebral malignant melanoma—a challenging diagnosis guided by clinical presentations, radiological features, and surgical biopsy results, aiming to emphasize the importance of considering primary melanoma when making differential diagnoses of intracranial lesions. We present a rare case of a primary cerebral melanoma in the left temporal lobe. The mass appeared iso-hypodense on brain computed tomography (CT), short signal on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (T1WI) and long signal on T2WI. It was not easy to make an accurate diagnosis before surgery. We showed the patient's disease course and reviewed related literatures, for readers’ reference. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. Because of this, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary. After surgery, the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma. The patient was discharged without any complications and went on to receive adjuvant radiochemotherapy. It is difficult to diagnose primary cerebral melanoma in the absence of any cutaneous melanosis. A high index of clinical suspicion along with good pathology reporting is the key in diagnosing these extremely rare tumors. PMID:28121927

  15. Cerebral oxygenation and hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Anthony R.; Morrison, Shawnda A.; Ainslie, Philip N.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is associated with marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Increased distribution of cardiac output to the periphery, increases in alveolar ventilation and resultant hypocapnia each contribute to the fall in CBF during passive hyperthermia; however, their relative contribution remains a point of contention, and probably depends on the experimental condition (e.g., posture and degree of hyperthermia). The hyperthermia-induced hyperventilatory response reduces arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2) causing cerebral vasoconstriction and subsequent reductions in flow. During supine passive hyperthermia, the majority of recent data indicate that reductions in PaCO2 may be the primary, if not sole, culprit for reduced CBF. On the other hand, during more dynamic conditions (e.g., hemorrhage or orthostatic challenges), an inability to appropriately decrease peripheral vascular conductance presents a condition whereby adequate cerebral perfusion pressure may be compromised secondary to reductions in systemic blood pressure. Although studies have reported maintenance of pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy) during exercise and severe heat stress, the influence of cutaneous blood flow is known to contaminate this measure. This review discusses the governing mechanisms associated with changes in CBF and oxygenation during moderate to severe (i.e., 1.0°C to 2.0°C increase in body core temperature) levels of hyperthermia. Future research directions are provided. PMID:24624095

  16. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sampaio Rocha Filho, Pedro Augusto; Santos Barbosa, Janayna; Melo Correa-Lima, Ana Rosa

    2010-08-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is characterized by thunderclap headache associated with multifocal vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries in patients without aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The vasoconstriction reverts within three months. We report a 44-year-old man who had a thunderclap headache during sexual intercourse. A similar episode occurred at rest 36 hours later. The patient had already experienced a thunderclap headache 10 years earlier, during coitus. There were no abnormalities on examination. His brain computed tomography scan was normal and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed no xanthochromia, 15 WBC/mm³ and 10 RBC/mm³. Lumbar puncture was repeated two days later (WBC = 3/mm³ and RBC = 43/mm³). An initial digital cerebral angiography showed a diffuse segmental intracerebral vasospasm. A new angiography after 15 days was normal. He remains headache-free after twenty six months. In conclusion, patients who have thunderclap headache with normal brain CT and cerebrospinal fluid without xantochromia should be investigated for this syndrome.

  17. Reading, 'Righting', and Arithmetic for the Cerebral Palsied Child: A Therapeutic Approach for the Classroom Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Blanche B.; Tucker, Susan L.

    1985-01-01

    The article offers management strategies to help teachers of elementary students with cerebral palsy. Suggestions address aspects of neuro-developmental and sensorimotor integration and describe such activities as sandbox writing, feel-it boxes, and painting. (CL)

  18. Track finding efficiency in

    SciTech Connect

    Allmendinger, T.; Bhuyan, B.; Brown, D. N.; Choi, H.; Christ, S.; Covarelli, R.; Davier, M.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Hafner, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Long, O.; Lutz, A. M.; Martinelli, M.; Muller, D. R.; Nugent, I. M.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Purohit, M. V.; Prencipe, E.; Roney, J. M.; Simi, G.; Solodov, E. P.; Telnov, A. V.; Varnes, E.; Waldi, R.; Wang, W. F.; White, R. M.

    2012-12-10

    We describe several studies to measure the charged track reconstruction efficiency and asymmetry of the BaBar detector. The first two studies measure the tracking efficiency of a charged particle using τ and initial state radiation decays. The third uses the τ decays to study the asymmetry in tracking, the fourth measures the tracking efficiency for low momentum tracks, and the last measures the reconstruction efficiency of K$0\\atop{S}$ particles. The first section also examines the stability of the measurements vs. BaBar running periods.

  19. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  20. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit Button Information For… Media Policy Makers Research and Tracking Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to help prevent them. Importance of Tracking and Research Tracking: Birth defects tracking systems identify babies born ...

  1. Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral edema

    PubMed Central

    Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema. PMID:26661240

  2. Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral edema.

    PubMed

    Stokum, Jesse A; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2016-03-01

    Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema.

  3. Iron Oxide as an MRI Contrast Agent for Cell Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Korchinski, Daniel J.; Taha, May; Yang, Runze; Nathoo, Nabeela; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide contrast agents have been combined with magnetic resonance imaging for cell tracking. In this review, we discuss coating properties and provide an overview of ex vivo and in vivo labeling of different cell types, including stem cells, red blood cells, and monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, we provide examples of applications of cell tracking with iron contrast agents in stroke, multiple sclerosis, cancer, arteriovenous malformations, and aortic and cerebral aneurysms. Attempts at quantifying iron oxide concentrations and other vascular properties are examined. We advise on designing studies using iron contrast agents including methods for validation. PMID:26483609

  4. Magnetic eye tracking in mice.

    PubMed

    Payne, Hannah L; Raymond, Jennifer L

    2017-09-05

    Eye movements provide insights about a wide range of brain functions, from sensorimotor integration to cognition; hence, the measurement of eye movements is an important tool in neuroscience research. We describe a method, based on magnetic sensing, for measuring eye movements in head-fixed and freely moving mice. A small magnet was surgically implanted on the eye, and changes in the magnet angle as the eye rotated were detected by a magnetic field sensor. Systematic testing demonstrated high resolution measurements of eye position of <0.1°. Magnetic eye tracking offers several advantages over the well-established eye coil and video-oculography methods. Most notably, it provides the first method for reliable, high-resolution measurement of eye movements in freely moving mice, revealing increased eye movements and altered binocular coordination compared to head-fixed mice. Overall, magnetic eye tracking provides a lightweight, inexpensive, easily implemented, and high-resolution method suitable for a wide range of applications.

  5. Tracking dynamic team activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tambe, M.

    1996-12-31

    AI researchers are striving to build complex multi-agent worlds with intended applications ranging from the RoboCup robotic soccer tournaments, to interactive virtual theatre, to large-scale real-world battlefield simulations. Agent tracking - monitoring other agent`s actions and inferring their higher-level goals and intentions - is a central requirement in such worlds. While previous work has mostly focused on tracking individual agents, this paper goes beyond by focusing on agent teams. Team tracking poses the challenge of tracking a team`s joint goals and plans. Dynamic, real-time environments add to the challenge, as ambiguities have to be resolved in real-time. The central hypothesis underlying the present work is that an explicit team-oriented perspective enables effective team tracking. This hypothesis is instantiated using the model tracing technology employed in tracking individual agents. Thus, to track team activities, team models are put to service. Team models are a concrete application of the joint intentions framework and enable an agent to track team activities, regardless of the agent`s being a collaborative participant or a non-participant in the team. To facilitate real-time ambiguity resolution with team models: (i) aspects of tracking are cast as constraint satisfaction problems to exploit constraint propagation techniques; and (ii) a cost minimality criterion is applied to constrain tracking search. Empirical results from two separate tasks in real-world, dynamic environments one collaborative and one competitive - are provided.

  6. MR-Compatible Integrated Eye Tracking System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-10

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This instrumentation grant was used to purchase state-of-the-art, high-resolution video eye tracker that can be used to...monitor the subjects’ eye movements as they perform visual search tasks, such as searching a visual image for a camouflaged target. The eye tracker...8217 eye movements in this fashion allows us to not only study the role of changes in eye position and shifts of visual 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4

  7. Correlation tracking for a Planetary Pointing and Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assefi, T.

    1978-01-01

    The Planetary Pointing and Tracking System (PPTS) is being developed to provide precision pointing for science platforms on future autonomous planetary spacecraft. The PPTS design approach using a CCD optical sensor for closed-loop control with respect to the target body, a gyro for inertial stabilization, and brushless dc torque motors for smooth and continuous platform articulation is essential for high resolution planetary imaging and automated science execution. An integral part of PPTS is the correlation tracker which has the potential to revolutionize autonomous guidance.

  8. Middle Cerebral Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Liou, Michelle; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Liu, Hua-Shan; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chou, Ming-Chung; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Calcification of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is uncommon in the healthy elderly. Whether calcification of the MCA is associated with cerebral ischemic stroke remains undetermined. We intended to investigate the association using Agatston calcium scoring of the MCA. This study retrospectively included 354 subjects with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory and 1518 control subjects who underwent computed tomography (CT) of the brain. We recorded major known risk factors for ischemic stroke, including age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, along with the MCA calcium burden, measured with the Agatston calcium scoring method. Univariate and modified logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between the MCA calcification and ischemic stroke. The univariate analyses showed significant associations of ischemic stroke with age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, total MCA Agatston score, and the presence of calcification on both or either side of the MCA. Subjects with the presence of MCA calcification on both or either side of the MCA were 8.46 times (95% confidence interval, 4.93–14.53; P < 0.001) more likely to have a cerebral infarct than subjects without MCA calcification after adjustment for the major known risk factors, including age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. However, a higher degree of MCA calcification reflected by the Agatston score was not associated with higher risk of MCA ischemic stroke after adjustment for the confounding factors and presence of MCA calcification. These results suggest that MCA calcification is associated with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory. Further prospective studies are required to verify the clinical implications of the MCA calcification. PMID:26683969

  9. [Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome].

    PubMed

    Néel, A; Guillon, B; Auffray-Calvier, E; Hello, M; Hamidou, M

    2012-10-01

    The reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is an under-estimated transient acute cerebrovascular disorder. It has long been mistaken as central nervous system vasculitis whereas it is now believed to result from an acute but prolonged vasospasm of cerebral arteries. This disorder can be precipitated by postpartum or vasoactive drug. However, it occurs spontaneously in a significant number of cases. The characteristic clinico-radiological presentation and disease course of the RCVS has been delineated only recently. Mean age at onset is 40-45 years, with a female predominance. A provocative factor can be identified in 12-60% out of the patients. Clinical presentation is predominantly marked by recurrent thunderclap headaches, but can be complicated with focal neurological deficit or seizures. Brain imaging is normal in most cases, but can reveal hemorrhagic or ischemic complications. Cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage is a suggestive finding. A posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) can be seen occasionally. Cerebral angiography reveals multifocal arterial narrowing with string and bead appearance. Cerebrospinal fluid reveals no or mild abnormalities. The disease resumes spontaneously within several days to weeks, whereas vasoconstriction reverses within 1 to 3 months. This clinico-radiological presentation should be promptly recognized in order to avoid unnecessary investigations and aggressive treatment, and lead to search for a triggering factor. Further studies are required in order to clarify the precipitating role of several drugs, and clinical trials are needed to reduce the occurrence of strokes. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Orthostatic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Novak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Orthostatic dizziness without orthostatic hypotension is common but underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. This study describes orthostatic cerebral hypoperfusion syndrome (OCHOs). OCHOs is defined by (1) abnormal orthostatic drop of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) during the tilt test and (2) absence of orthostatic hypotension, arrhythmia, vascular abnormalities, or other causes of abnormal orthostatic CBFv. This retrospective study included patients referred for evaluation of unexplained orthostatic dizziness. Patients underwent standardized autonomic testing, including 10 min of tilt test. The following signals were monitored: heart rate, end tidal CO2, blood pressure, and CBFv from the middle cerebral artery using transcranial Doppler. Patients were screened for OCHOs. Patients who fulfilled the OCHOs criteria were compared to age- and gender-matched controls. From 1279 screened patients, 102 patients (60/42 women/men, age 51.1 ± 14.9, range 19-84 years) fulfilled criteria of OCHOs. There was no difference in baseline supine hemodynamic variables between OCHOs and the control group. During the tilt, mean CBFv decreased 24.1 ± 8.2% in OCHOs versus 4.2 ± 5.6% in controls (p < 0.0001) without orthostatic hypotension in both groups. Supine mean blood pressure (OCHOs/controls, 90.5 ± 10.6/91.1 ± 9.4 mmHg, p = 0.62) remained unchanged during the tilt (90.4 ± 9.7/92.1 ± 9.6 mmHg, p = 0.2). End tidal CO2 and heart rate responses to the tilt were normal and equal in both groups. OCHOs is a novel syndrome of low orthostatic CBFv. Two main pathophysiological mechanisms are proposed, including active cerebral vasoconstriction and passive increase of peripheral venous compliance. OCHOs may be a common cause of orthostatic dizziness.

  11. Cerebral Disorders of Calves.

    PubMed

    Dore, Vincent; Smith, Geof

    2017-03-01

    Neurologic diseases of the cerebrum are relatively common in cattle. In calves, the primary cerebral disorders are polioencephalomalacia, meningitis, and sodium toxicity. Because diagnostic testing is not always readily available, the practitioner must often decide on a course of treatment based on knowledge of the likely disease, as well as his or her own clinical experience. This is particularly true with neurologic diseases in which the prognosis is often poor and euthanasia may be the most humane outcome. This article reviews the most common diseases affecting the cerebrum of calves with a focus on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

  12. Resting cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Ances, B M.; Sisti, D; Vaida, F; Liang, C L.; Leontiev, O; Perthen, J E.; Buxton, R B.; Benson, D; Smith, D M.; Little, S J.; Richman, D D.; Moore, D J.; Ellis, R J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: HIV enters the brain soon after infection causing neuronal damage and microglial/astrocyte dysfunction leading to neuropsychological impairment. We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC). Methods: This cross-sectional study used arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI) to measure rCBF within 33 HIV+ and 26 HIV− subjects. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test assessed rCBF differences due to HIV serostatus. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined optimal rCBF cutoffs for differentiating HIV serostatus. The effects of neuropsychological impairment and infection duration on rCBF were evaluated. Results: rCBF within the LN and VC were significantly reduced for HIV+ compared to HIV− subjects. A 2-tiered CART approach using either LN rCBF ≤50.09 mL/100 mL/min or LN rCBF >50.09 mL/100 mL/min but VC rCBF ≤37.05 mL/100 mL/min yielded an 88% (29/33) sensitivity and an 88% (23/26) specificity for differentiating by HIV serostatus. HIV+ subjects, including neuropsychologically unimpaired, had reduced rCBF within the LN (p = 0.02) and VC (p = 0.001) compared to HIV− controls. A temporal progression of brain involvement occurred with LN rCBF significantly reduced for both acute/early (<1 year of seroconversion) and chronic HIV-infected subjects, whereas rCBF in the VC was diminished for only chronic HIV-infected subjects. Conclusion: Resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using arterial spin labeling MRI has the potential to be a noninvasive neuroimaging biomarker for assessing HIV in the brain. rCBF reductions that occur soon after seroconversion possibly reflect neuronal or vascular injury among HIV+ individuals not yet expressing neuropsychological impairment. GLOSSARY AEH = acute/early HIV infection; ANOVA = analysis of variance; ASL-MRI = arterial spin labeling MRI; CART = classification and regression tree; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CH = chronic HIV

  13. Oligodendrogenesis after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruilan; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2013-01-01

    Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle of adult rodent brain generate oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that disperse throughout the corpus callosum and striatum where some of OPCs differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes. Studies in animal models of stroke demonstrate that cerebral ischemia induces oligodendrogenesis during brain repair processes. This article will review evidence of stroke-induced proliferation and differentiation of OPCs that are either resident in white matter or are derived from SVZ neural progenitor cells and of therapies that amplify endogenous oligodendrogenesis in ischemic brain. PMID:24194700

  14. "Oil spill event tracking in the Aegean Sea. Integration of diverse data sets by the use of harmonization tools", that is the Humboldt Ocean Scenario implementation in Greek waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykiardopoulos, Angelos; Lakes, Vasilis; Iona, Athanasia

    2010-05-01

    The critical role of Data Harmonization in Data Management dealing with Geospatial Data it is a reality in nowadays. The GMES funded project HUMBOLDT has the target to contribute to the implementation of a European Spatial Data Infrastructure (ESDI). The main objective of this infrastructure is to integrate a diverse spatial Data Sets located in a various European organizations from miscellaneous domains. For this target to be achived the requirements of INSPIRE directive, of GMES Initiative and others EU related activities have to be net in HUMBOLDT Project. Under this point of view, the scope of the "Oil spill event tracking in the Aegean Sea" entry was not to develop a new system or new tools aiming in forecasting and drifting of the oil spill. Contra wise the objective was the already developed in HUMBOLDT Project tools to be used together with POSEIDON system which is a system for forecasting, monitoring and information producing for the Greek seas. The idea was via the above tools, Harmonization of diverse Data Sets regarding oil spill event to take place. The Harmonization would deal either for Input Data Sets of Poseidon system, as well as in System output Data Sets together with External GIS data about the nearby coasts layout (roads, urban or protected areas etc) . Thus the whole platform would serve the objective to predict the oil spill consequences for the marine environment and at the same time to ward off the danger of pollution for possible protected areas near by the event. Further more, the platform will be ready for the future to use additional datasets regarding protection of areas for example: river embouchures, river estuaries etc Concluding the whole entry will play the role of a valuable mean for Ecological Protection of Greek seas and coasts able to provide the decision-makers who rely on strategic information regarding environmental and security issues, with an independent and permanent access to reliable data.

  15. A novel multi-target ligand (JM-20) protects mitochondrial integrity, inhibits brain excitatory amino acid release and reduces cerebral ischemia injury in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Figueredo, Yanier; Ramírez-Sánchez, Jeney; Hansel, Gisele; Simões Pires, Elisa Nicoloso; Merino, Nelson; Valdes, Odalys; Delgado-Hernández, René; Parra, Alicia Lagarto; Ochoa-Rodríguez, Estael; Verdecia-Reyes, Yamila; Salbego, Christianne; Costa, Silvia L; Souza, Diogo O; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L

    2014-10-01

    We previously showed that JM-20, a novel 1,5-benzodiazepine fused to a dihydropyridine moiety, possessed an anxiolytic profile similar to diazepam and strong neuroprotective activity in different cell models relevant to cerebral ischemia. Here, we investigated whether JM-20 protects against ischemic neuronal damage in vitro and in vivo. The effects of JM-20 were evaluated on hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). For in vivo studies, Wistar rats were subjected 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and oral administration of JM-20 at 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg 1 h following reperfusion. Twenty-four hours after cerebral blood flow restoration, neurological deficits were scored, and the infarct volume, histopathological changes in cortex, number of hippocampal and striatal neurons, and glutamate/aspartate concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid were measured. Susceptibility to brain mitochondrial swelling, membrane potential dissipation, H2O2 generation, cytochrome c release, Ca2+ accumulation, and morphological changes in the organelles were assessed 24 h post-ischemia. In vitro, JM-20 (1 and 10 μM) administered during reperfusion significantly reduced cell death in hippocampal slices subjected to OGD. In vivo, JM-20 treatment (4 and 8 mg/kg) significantly decreased neurological deficit scores, edema formation, total infarct volumes and histological alterations in different brain regions. JM-20 treatment also protected brain mitochondria from ischemic damage, most likely by preventing Ca2+ accumulation in organelles. Moreover, an 8-mg/kg JM-20 dose reduced glutamate and aspartate concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and the deleterious effects of MCAo even when delivered 8 h after blood flow restoration. These results suggest that in rats, JM-20 is a robust neuroprotective agent against ischemia/reperfusion injury with a wide therapeutic window. Our findings support the further examination of potential clinical JM-20 use to treat

  16. Sim Track User's Manual (v 1.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.

    2010-01-27

    SimTrack is a simple c++ library designed for the numeric particle tracking in the high energy accelerators. It adopts the 4th order symplectic integrator for the optical transport in the magnetic elements. The 4-D and 6-D weak-strong beam-beam treatments are integrated in it for the beam-beam studies. SimTrack is written with c++ class and standard template library. It provides versatile functions to manage elements and lines. It supports a large range of types of elements. New type of element can be easily created in the library. SimTrack calculates Twiss, coupling and fits tunes, chromaticities and corrects closed orbits. AC dipole and AC multipole are available in this library. SimTrack allows change of element parameters during tracking.

  17. SimTrack: A compact c++ code for particle orbit and spin tracking in accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yun

    2015-08-29

    SimTrack is a compact c++ code of 6-d symplectic element-by-element particle tracking in accelerators originally designed for head-on beam–beam compensation simulation studies in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It provides a 6-d symplectic orbit tracking with the 4th order symplectic integration for magnet elements and the 6-d symplectic synchro-beam map for beam–beam interaction. Since its inception in 2009, SimTrack has been intensively used for dynamic aperture calculations with beam–beam interaction for RHIC. Recently, proton spin tracking and electron energy loss due to synchrotron radiation were added. In this article, I will present the code architecture, physics models, and some selected examples of its applications to RHIC and a future electron-ion collider design eRHIC.

  18. SimTrack: A compact c++ library for particle orbit and spin tracking in accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yun

    2015-06-24

    SimTrack is a compact c++ library of 6-d symplectic element-by-element particle tracking in accelerators originally designed for head-on beam-beam compensation simulation studies in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It provides a 6-d symplectic orbit tracking with the 4th order symplectic integration for magnet elements and the 6-d symplectic synchro-beam map for beam-beam interaction. Since its inception in 2009, SimTrack has been intensively used for dynamic aperture calculations with beam-beam interaction for RHIC. Recently, proton spin tracking and electron energy loss due to synchrotron radiation were added. In this article, I will present the code architecture, physics models, and some selected examples of its applications to RHIC and a future electron-ion collider design eRHIC.

  19. SimTrack: A compact c++ code for particle orbit and spin tracking in accelerators

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Yun

    2015-08-29

    SimTrack is a compact c++ code of 6-d symplectic element-by-element particle tracking in accelerators originally designed for head-on beam–beam compensation simulation studies in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It provides a 6-d symplectic orbit tracking with the 4th order symplectic integration for magnet elements and the 6-d symplectic synchro-beam map for beam–beam interaction. Since its inception in 2009, SimTrack has been intensively used for dynamic aperture calculations with beam–beam interaction for RHIC. Recently, proton spin tracking and electron energy loss due to synchrotron radiation were added. In this article, I will present the code architecture,more » physics models, and some selected examples of its applications to RHIC and a future electron-ion collider design eRHIC.« less

  20. [Acute tetraparesis of cerebral origin].

    PubMed

    Feuillet, L; Milandre, L; Kaphan, E; Ali Cherif, A

    2005-09-01

    Thrombolytic treatment in the early stage of ischemic cerebral attacks requires rapid confirmation of the diagnosis and topographic localization. Unusual clinical features can lead to misdiagnosis with the risk of delaying optimal therapeutic management. We report the cases of two patients who experienced acute tetraparesis without any associated encephalic sign, consistent with the diagnosis of spinal cord injury. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal. Conversely, cerebral MRI displayed in both cases bilateral hemispheric infarction. Two ischemic lesions were revealed in the territory of both anterior cerebral arteries in the first patient, while the second patient had a bilateral infarction in the posterior arms of both internal capsules. In case of tetraparesis, emergency spinal cord MRI should be performed to rule out neurosurgical etiologies and ischemia. If negative, cerebral MRI should be performed at the same time to look for early cerebral infarction in both hemispheres and determine the indication for thrombolysis.

  1. Uncommon Causes of Cerebral Microbleeds.

    PubMed

    Noorbakhsh-Sabet, Nariman; Pulakanti, Varun Chandi; Zand, Ramin

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are small and round perivascular hemosiderin depositions detectable by gradient echo sequences or susceptibility-weighted imaging. Cerebral microbleeds are common among patients with hypertension, cerebral ischemia, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In this article, we describe uncommon causes of CMBs. We searched Pubmed with the keyword CMBs for relevant studies and looked for different uncommon causes of CMBs. CMBs have several uncommon etiologies including posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, infective endocarditis, brain radiation therapy, cocaine abuse, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, traumatic brain injury, intravascular lymphomatosis or proliferating angio-endotheliomatosis, moyamoya disease, sickle cell anemia/β-thalassemia, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy subcortical infarcts, and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), genetic syndromes, or obstructive sleep apnea. Understanding the uncommon causes of CMBs is not only helpful in diagnosis and prognosis of some of these rare diseases, but can also help in better understanding different pathophysiology involved in the development of CMBs. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanodosimetric track structure in homogeneous extended beams.

    PubMed

    Conte, V; Moro, D; Colautti, P; Grosswendt, B

    2015-09-01

    Physical aspects of particle track structure are important in determining the induction of clustered damage in relevant subcellular structures like the DNA and higher-order genomic structures. The direct measurement of track-structure properties of ionising radiation is feasible today by counting the number of ionisations produced inside a small gas volume. In particular, the so-called track-nanodosimeter, installed at the TANDEM-ALPI accelerator complex of LNL, measures ionisation cluster-size distributions in a simulated subcellular structure of dimensions 20 nm, corresponding approximately to the diameter of the chromatin fibre. The target volume is irradiated by pencil beams of primary particles passing at specified impact parameter. To directly relate these measured track-structure data to radiobiological measurements performed in broad homogeneous particle beams, these data can be integrated over the impact parameter. This procedure was successfully applied to 240 MeV carbon ions and compared with Monte Carlo simulations for extended fields.

  3. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory.

  4. Tracking Small Artists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, James C.; Klette, Reinhard; Chen, Chia-Yen

    Tracks of small animals are important in environmental surveillance, where pattern recognition algorithms allow species identification of the individuals creating tracks. These individuals can also be seen as artists, presented in their natural environments with a canvas upon which they can make prints. We present tracks of small mammals and reptiles which have been collected for identification purposes, and re-interpret them from an esthetic point of view. We re-classify these tracks not by their geometric qualities as pattern recognition algorithms would, but through interpreting the 'artist', their brush strokes and intensity. We describe the algorithms used to enhance and present the work of the 'artists'.

  5. [Noradrenaline and cerebral aging].

    PubMed

    Jouvet, M; Albarede, J L; Lubin, S; Meyrignac, C

    1991-01-01

    The central functions of norepinephrine (NE) are a recent discovery: regulation of alertness and of the wakefulness-sleep cycle, maintenance of attention, memory and learning, cerebral plasticity and neuro-protection. The anatomical, histological, biochemical and physiological properties of the central noradrenergic system: extreme capacity for ramification and arborization; slow conduction, non-myelinized axons with extrasynaptic varicosities producing and releasing NE; frequency of co-transmission phenomena, and; neuromodulation with fiber effect responsible for improvement in the signal over background noise ratio and selection of significant stimuli form a true interface between the outside world and the central nervous system, notably for the neocortex in the context of the cognitive treatment of information. This central noradrenergic system is involved in the neurophysiology and the clinical features of cerebral aging (ideation-motor and cognitive function slowing down, loss of behavioral adjustment), neuro-degenerative disorders (SDAT, Parkinson's disease), certain aspects of depression and less obvious conditions (head injuries, sequelae of cerebrovascular accidents, sub-cortical dementia). The recent development of medications improving alertness (adrafinil, modafinil) with a pure central action and specifically noradrenergic, may contribute to an improvement in these multifactorial disorders.

  6. Cerebral cartography and connectomics

    PubMed Central

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics. PMID:25823870

  7. Cerebral cartography and connectomics.

    PubMed

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-05-19

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Monitoring of cerebral autoregulation.

    PubMed

    Czosnyka, Marek; Miller, Chad

    2014-12-01

    Pressure autoregulation is an important hemodynamic mechanism that protects the brain against inappropriate fluctuations in cerebral blood flow in the face of changing cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Static autoregulation represents how far cerebrovascular resistance changes when CPP varies, and dynamic autoregulation represents how fast these changes happen. Both have been monitored in the setting of neurocritical care to aid prognostication and contribute to individualizing CPP targets in patients. Failure of autoregulation is associated with a worse outcome in various acute neurological diseases. Several studies have used transcranial Doppler ultrasound, intracranial pressure (ICP with vascular reactivity as surrogate measure of autoregulation), and near-infrared spectroscopy to continuously monitor the impact of spontaneous fluctuations in CPP on cerebrovascular physiology and to calculate derived variables of autoregulatory efficiency. Many patients who undergo such monitoring demonstrate a range of CPP in which autoregulatory efficiency is optimal. Management of patients at or near this optimal level of CPP is associated with better outcomes in traumatic brain injury. Many of these studies have utilized the concept of the pressure reactivity index, a correlation coefficient between ICP and mean arterial pressure. While further studies are needed, these data suggest that monitoring of autoregulation could aid prognostication and may help identify optimal CPP levels in individual patients.

  9. Delayed cerebral radiation necrosis.

    PubMed

    Morris, J G; Grattan-Smith, P; Panegyres, P K; O'Neill, P; Soo, Y S; Langlands, A O

    1994-02-01

    The clinical features and long-term outcome of seven patients with delayed cerebral radiation necrosis (DCRN) are described. Radiotherapy had been given for pituitary tumour (1), astrocytoma (2), pinealoma (2), craniopharyngioma (1) and parotid carcinoma (1). The mean latency to onset of the first neurological symptoms was 22 months (range 6-40 months), and mean duration of follow-up was 86 months (range 60-126). Three patients died at a mean of 84 months after radiotherapy (range 62-98). A fourth patient probably died from metastatic disease. Three patients remain alive, albeit severely disabled, after 5-10 years. The illness typically ran a stepwise course, with fits and stroke-like episodes occurring against a background of progressive dementia and somnolence. CT and MRI scans showed progressive ventricular dilatation associated with cerebral atrophy and diffuse or focal changes in the white matter. Four patients had had two or more neurosurgical procedures after the radiotherapy. In only one of the seven patients was the diagnosis made at presentation. DCRN produces a distinctive clinical picture, yet remains a poorly recognized complication of cranial irradiation.

  10. Etiology of cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Meberg, Alf; Broch, Harald

    2004-01-01

    To register the prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) and determine etiological factors for the condition. Population based study with registration of CP-cases in children born during the 30-year period 1970-99. Cases with postneonatal etiology were excluded. 166 CP-cases were registered among 70 824 children, a prevalence of 2.3 per 1000 live born infants. The prevalence did not change significantly during the period. 66 (40%) were low birthweight infants (LBWIs; <2500 g), and 100 (60%) normal birthweight infants (NBWIs; > or = 2500 g). The origin was classified as prenatal in 37 (22%), perinatal/neonatal in 78 (47%) and unclassifiable in 51 (31 %). In LBWIs 39/66 (59%) had a perinatal/neonatal etiology, most frequently intra- or periventricular hemorrhages (IVH/PVH) and/or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) or cerebral infarctions (CI) (17; 44%). In NBWIs 39/100 (39%) had a perinatal etiology, most frequently hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) (31; 79%). In a substantial percentage of CP-cases perinatal/neonatal brain injury was classified as the cause. Among these IVH/PVH/PVL/CI dominated in LBWIs, while HIE dominated in NBWIs. Our data may point to preventability of a larger part of CP than earlier suggested.

  11. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

  12. Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Mook, Walther N K A; Rennenberg, Roger J M W; Schurink, Geert Willem; van Oostenbrugge, Robert Jan; Mess, Werner H; Hofman, Paul A M; de Leeuw, Peter W

    2005-12-01

    Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) after carotid endarterectomy is characterised by ipsilateral headache, hypertension, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. If not treated properly it can result in severe brain oedema, intracerebral or subarachnoid haemorrhage, and death. Knowledge of CHS among physicians is limited. Most studies report incidences of CHS of 0-3% after carotid endarterectomy. CHS is most common in patients with increases of more than 100% in perfusion compared with baseline after carotid endarterectomy and is rare in patients with increases in perfusion less than 100% compared with baseline. The most important risk factors in CHS are diminished cerebrovascular reserve, postoperative hypertension, and hyperperfusion lasting more than several hours after carotid endarterectomy. Impaired autoregulation as a result of endothelial dysfunction mediated by generation of free oxygen radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis of CHS. Treatment strategies are directed towards regulation of blood pressure and limitation of rises in cerebral perfusion. Complete recovery happens in mild cases, but disability and death can occur in more severe cases. More information about CHS and early institution of adequate treatment are of paramount importance in order to prevent these potentially severe complications.

  13. [Cerebral amyloid angiopathy].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenji; Yamada, Masahito

    2014-07-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid proteins in the small and medium-sized blood vessels of the leptomeninges and central nervous system. Amyloid β protein (Aβ), immunoglobulin light chains, cystatin C, prion protein (PrP), ABri/ADan, transthyretin, and gelsoline, are all associated with CAA. While most CAA patients demonstrated sporadic Aβ-type amyloid deposition, a small number of patients present with familial forms, e.g. Dutch-type hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis (HCHWA-D), Icelandic-type HCHWA (HCHWA-I), familial British dementia (FBD), familial Danish dementia (FDD), and PrP-CAA. Deposited amyloid proteins damage smooth muscle cells in blood vessel walls leading to pathological appearances calling 'double-barreled' changes, fibrinoid necrosis, and microaneurysms. These structural abnormalities result in microinfarcts and hemorrhages in the central nervous system. Recurrent hemorrhage is a common clinical manifestation in patients with CAA; however, small multiple infarctions, progressive dementia, transient neurological symptoms, and CAA-related inflammation can also occur. The pathomechanisms of CAA remain unknown. Although improvements in imaging techniques have allowed us to identify patients with CAA more readily, pathological examination is still essential for a definite diagnosis. There have been no curative treatments for CAA so far.

  14. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Calic, Z; Cappelen-Smith, C; Zagami, A S

    2015-06-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a clinical-radiological syndrome characterised by severe thunderclap headaches with or without other neurological symptoms and multifocal constriction of cerebral arteries that usually resolves spontaneously within 3 months. Most patients recover completely, but up to 10% have a permanent neurological disability and some even die. Previously RCVS has been described in many clinical contexts and under different names with the term RCVS first being suggested in 2007 to unify the group. The condition may be spontaneous, but in up to 60% of cases it is secondary to another cause, including vasoactive substances (medications and illicit drugs), blood products and the post-partum state. It is believed to have a similar pathophysiological mechanism to the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), and both can occur in similar clinical contexts and are frequently associated. Treatment options include calcium channel antagonists. RCVS occurs in a broad range of clinical situations making it an increasingly recognised condition about which doctors in various specialties need to be aware. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  15. Cerebral Gluconeogenesis and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan

    2017-01-01

    The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions. PMID:28101056

  16. Brain-behavior relationships in young traumatic brain injury patients: fractional anisotropy measures are highly correlated with dynamic visuomotor tracking performance.

    PubMed

    Caeyenberghs, K; Leemans, A; Geurts, M; Taymans, T; Vander Linden, C; Smits-Engelsman, B C M; Sunaert, S; Swinnen, S P

    2010-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients have a high incidence of eye-hand coordination deficits. Diffuse axonal injury is common in TBI and is presumed to contribute to persistent motor problems. Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), this study sought to identify changes in (sensori)motor white matter (WM) pathways/regions in a TBI group during the chronic recovery stage. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between WM integrity and upper-limb visuomotor tracking performance. A young TBI (n=17) and control (n=14) group performed a dynamic tracking task, characterized by increasing information processing speed and predictive movement control. DTI scans were administered along with standard anatomical scans. The TBI group was found to perform inferior to the control group on the tracking task. Decreased fractional anisotropy was found in the TBI group in dedicated pathways involved in transmission of afferent and efferent information, i.e., corticospinal tract, posterior thalamic radiation, and optic radiation, due to increased diffusivity parallel and perpendicular to axonal fibre direction. This decrease in WM integrity was associated with inferior visuomotor tracking performance. Moreover, discriminant function analysis demonstrated that the model, based on the combined application of DTI and behavioral measures, was the most effective in distinguishing between TBI patients and controls. This study shows that specific eye-hand coordination deficits in a young TBI group are related to microstructural abnormalities in task-specific cerebral WM structures. Measures of white matter integrity are potentially important biomarkers for TBI that may support prognosis of motor deficits. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Minocycline reduces microgliosis and improves subcortical white matter function in a model of cerebral vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Manso, Yasmina; Holland, Philip R; Kitamura, Akihiro; Szymkowiak, Stefan; Duncombe, Jessica; Hennessy, Edel; Searcy, James L; Marangoni, Martina; Randall, Andrew D; Brown, Jon T; McColl, Barry W; Horsburgh, Karen

    2017-07-19

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a key mechanism associated with white matter disruption in cerebral vascular disease and dementia. In a mouse model relevant to studying cerebral vascular disease, we have previously shown that cerebral hypoperfusion disrupts axon-glial integrity and the distribution of key paranodal and internodal proteins in subcortical myelinated axons. This disruption of myelinated axons is accompanied by increased microglia and cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hypoperfusion impairs the functional integrity of white matter, its relation with axon-glial integrity and microglial number, and whether by targeting microglia these effects can be improved. We show that in response to increasing durations of hypoperfusion, the conduction velocity of myelinated fibres in the corpus callosum is progressively reduced and that paranodal and internodal axon-glial integrity is disrupted. The number of microglial cells increases in response to hypoperfusion and correlates with disrupted paranodal and internodal integrity and reduced conduction velocities. Further minocycline, a proposed anti-inflammatory and microglia inhibitor, restores white matter function related to a reduction in the number of microglia. The study suggests that microglial activation contributes to the structural and functional alterations of myelinated axons induced by cerebral hypoperfusion and that dampening microglia numbers/proliferation should be further investigated as potential therapeutic benefit in cerebral vascular disease. © 2017 The Authors GLIA Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Longitudinal quantitation of middle cerebral artery blood flow in normal human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Veille, J C; Hanson, R; Tatum, K

    1993-12-01

    We attempted to quantify noninvasively blood flow of the middle cerebral artery in human fetuses during five distinct periods. Twenty normal fetuses had color pulsed Doppler ultrasonography of the middle cerebral artery. A total of 68 studies were successfully done and are reported. The Doppler sample was placed as parallel to the direction of the vessel flow as possible. All waveforms were recorded on a strip chart at a preset speed of 100 mm/sec. Six Doppler waveforms were digitized for the time velocity integral (area under the curve is equal to time velocity integral) and averaged. Middle cerebral blood flow was obtained by multiplying the time velocity integral of the Doppler curve by the cross-sectional area of the vessel. The combined cardiac output was obtained by adding the right and left ventricular outputs, which were obtained by multiplying the time velocity integrals by the area of the corresponding annuli. Analysis of variance for repeated measurements was used to determine significance. The diameter of the middle cerebral artery, the time velocity integral, and the peak flow velocity of the Doppler waveform increased significantly with advancing gestational age. Blood flow to the middle cerebral artery ranged from 23 ml/min at 19 weeks to 133 ml/min at term. Resistivity index values were not correlated with advancing gestational age. The percent of the cardiac output to one of the two middle cerebral arteries remained constant throughout gestation with a range between 3% and 7%. (1) Time velocity integral, peak flow velocity, diameter, and blood flow of the middle cerebral artery increased significantly with gestational age; (2) the percent of the total cardiac output to the middle cerebral artery does not significantly change with gestational age.

  19. The value to the anaesthetist of monitoring cerebral activity.

    PubMed

    Langford, R M; Thomsen, C E

    1994-03-01

    The administration rate of general anaesthetic drugs is at present guided by clinical experience, and indirect indicators such as haemodynamic parameters. In the presence of muscle relaxants most of the clinical signs of inadequate anaesthesia are lost and accidental awareness may occur. A number of monitoring modalities, primarily based on analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been proposed for measurement of the anaesthetic depth. Moreover intraoperative cerebral monitoring may also provide the anaesthetist with early warning of cerebral ischaemia, or information on specific neurological pathways. To facilitate this, it is essential to combine analysis of the spontaneous EEG with recording of evoked potentials, to assess both cortical and subcortical activity/events. None of the reviewed methods, however promising, can alone meet all of the requirements for intraoperative monitoring of cerebral function. We suggest that the future direction should be to integrate several modalities in a single device, to provide valuable new information, upon which to base clinical management decisions.

  20. Kidney Function and Cerebral Blood Flow: The Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Sedaghat, Sanaz; Vernooij, Meike W; Loehrer, Elizabeth; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Hofman, Albert; van der Lugt, Aad; Franco, Oscar H; Dehghan, Abbas; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-03-01

    CKD is linked with various brain disorders. Whereas brain integrity is dependent on cerebral perfusion, the association between kidney function and cerebral blood flow has yet to be determined. This study was performed in the framework of the population-based Rotterdam Study and included 2645 participants with mean age of 56.6 years (45% men). We used eGFR and albumin-to-creatinine ratio to assess kidney function and performed phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging of basilar and carotid arteries to measure cerebral blood flow. Participants had an average (SD) eGFR of 86.3 (13.4) ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and a median (interquartile range) albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 3.4 (2.2-6.1) mg/g. In age- and sex-adjusted models, a higher albumin-to-creatinine ratio was associated with lower cerebral blood flow level (difference in cerebral blood flow [milliliters per minute per 100 ml] per doubling of the albumin-to-creatinine ratio, -0.31; 95% confidence interval, -0.58 to -0.03). The association was not present after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (P=0.10). Each 1 SD lower eGFR was associated with 0.42 ml/min per 100 ml lower cerebral blood flow (95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 0.83) adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, in this population-based study, we observed that lower eGFR is independently associated with lower cerebral blood flow.

  1. Eye Tracking Young Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Sasson, Noah J.; Elison, Jed T.

    2012-01-01

    The rise of accessible commercial eye-tracking systems has fueled a rapid increase in their use in psychological and psychiatric research. By providing a direct, detailed and objective measure of gaze behavior, eye-tracking has become a valuable tool for examining abnormal perceptual strategies in clinical populations and has been used to identify disorder-specific characteristics1, promote early identification2, and inform treatment3. In particular, investigators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have benefited from integrating eye-tracking into their research paradigms4-7. Eye-tracking has largely been used in these studies to reveal mechanisms underlying impaired task performance8 and abnormal brain functioning9, particularly during the processing of social information1,10-11. While older children and adults with ASD comprise the preponderance of research in this area, eye-tracking may be especially useful for studying young children with the disorder as it offers a non-invasive tool for assessing and quantifying early-emerging developmental abnormalities2,12-13. Implementing eye-tracking with young children with ASD, however, is associated with a number of unique challenges, including issues with compliant behavior resulting from specific task demands and disorder-related psychosocial considerations. In this protocol, we detail methodological considerations for optimizing research design, data acquisition and psychometric analysis while eye-tracking young children with ASD. The provided recommendations are also designed to be more broadly applicable for eye-tracking children with other developmental disabilities. By offering guidelines for best practices in these areas based upon lessons derived from our own work, we hope to help other investigators make sound research design and analysis choices while avoiding common pitfalls that can compromise data acquisition while eye-tracking young children with ASD or other developmental difficulties. PMID:22491039

  2. Eye tracking young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Noah J; Elison, Jed T

    2012-03-27

    The rise of accessible commercial eye-tracking systems has fueled a rapid increase in their use in psychological and psychiatric research. By providing a direct, detailed and objective measure of gaze behavior, eye-tracking has become a valuable tool for examining abnormal perceptual strategies in clinical populations and has been used to identify disorder-specific characteristics, promote early identification, and inform treatment. In particular, investigators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have benefited from integrating eye-tracking into their research paradigms. Eye-tracking has largely been used in these studies to reveal mechanisms underlying impaired task performance and abnormal brain functioning, particularly during the processing of social information. While older children and adults with ASD comprise the preponderance of research in this area, eye-tracking may be especially useful for studying young children with the disorder as it offers a non-invasive tool for assessing and quantifying early-emerging developmental abnormalities. Implementing eye-tracking with young children with ASD, however, is associated with a number of unique challenges, including issues with compliant behavior resulting from specific task demands and disorder-related psychosocial considerations. In this protocol, we detail methodological considerations for optimizing research design, data acquisition and psychometric analysis while eye-tracking young children with ASD. The provided recommendations are also designed to be more broadly applicable for eye-tracking children with other developmental disabilities. By offering guidelines for best practices in these areas based upon lessons derived from our own work, we hope to help other investigators make sound research design and analysis choices while avoiding common pitfalls that can compromise data acquisition while eye-tracking young children with ASD or other developmental difficulties.

  3. Leveraging Information Technology. Track V: Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Seven papers from the 1987 CAUSE conference's Track V, Communications, are presented. They include: "University of Miami LAN: A Case Study" (Ruben Lopez and M. Lewis Temares); "Designing and Implementing an Integrated Communications Environment in a Small College" (Charles S. Garratt IV, Jack M. Lewis, and John L. Van Hemert);…

  4. Leveraging Information Technology. Track IV: Support Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Seven papers from the 1987 CAUSE conference's Track IV, Support Services, are presented. They include: "Application Development Center" (John F. Leydon); "College Information Management System: The Design and Implementation of a Completely Integrated Office Automation and Student Information System" (Karen L. Miselis);…

  5. Whole-rock uranium analysis by fission track activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, J. R.; Haines, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    We report a whole-rock uranium method in which the polished sample and track detector are separated in a vacuum chamber. Irradiation with thermal neutrons induces uranium fission in the sample, and the detector records the integrated fission track density. Detection efficiency and geometric factors are calculated and compared with calibration experiments.

  6. UWB Tracking Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Julia; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking prototype system is currently being developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center for space exploration applications. This talk discusses the software development efforts for this UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system. The role the software plays in this system is to take waveform data from two UWB radio receivers as an input, feed this input into an AOA tracking algorithm, and generate the target position as an output. The architecture of the software (Input/Output Interface and Algorithm Core) will be introduced in this talk. The development of this software has three phases. In Phase I, the software is mostly Matlab driven and calls C++ socket functions to provide the communication links to the radios. This is beneficial in the early stage when it is necessary to frequently test changes in the algorithm. Phase II of the development is to have the software mostly C++ driven and call a Matlab function for the AOA tracking algorithm. This is beneficial in order to send the tracking results to other systems and also to improve the tracking update rate of the system. The third phase is part of future work and is to have the software completely C++ driven with a graphics user interface. This software design enables the fine resolution tracking of the UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system.

  7. Large scale tracking algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  8. Track Starter's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Charles H.; Rankin, Kelly D.

    This guide was developed to serve both the novice and experienced starter in track and field events. Each year in the United States, runners encounter dozens of different starters' mannerisms as they travel to track meets in various towns and states. The goal of any competent and conscientious starter is to insure that all runners receive a fair…

  9. 2 Tracks for Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The academic work force has been transformed over the past several decades, less by design than out of expediency. In 1969, professors who were either tenured or tenure-track made up 78 percent of the faculty. Those working part time made up only 18.5 percent. By 2009, those proportions had almost flipped, with tenured and tenure-track making up…

  10. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  11. 2 Tracks for Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The academic work force has been transformed over the past several decades, less by design than out of expediency. In 1969, professors who were either tenured or tenure-track made up 78 percent of the faculty. Those working part time made up only 18.5 percent. By 2009, those proportions had almost flipped, with tenured and tenure-track making up…

  12. Photon track evolution.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A D

    2005-01-01

    Given the time scale of biological, biochemical, biophysical and physical effects in a radiation exposure of living tissue, the first physical stage can be considered to be independent of time. All the physical interactions caused by the incident photons happen at the same starting time. From this point of view it would seem that the evolution of photon tracks is not a relevant topic for analysis; however, if the photon track is considered as a sequence of several interactions, there are several steps until the total degradation of the energy of the primary photon. We can characterise the photon track structure by the probability p(E,j), that is, the probability that a photon with energy E suffers j secondary interactions. The aim of this work is to analyse the photon track structure by considering j as a step of the photon track evolution towards the total degradation of the photon energy. Low energy photons (<150 keV) are considered, with water phantoms and half-extended geometry. The photon track evolution concept is presented and compared with the energy deposition along the track and also with the spatial distribution of the several steps in the photon track.

  13. Can Tracking Improve Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Kremer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tracking students into different classrooms according to their prior academic performance is controversial among both scholars and policymakers. If teachers find it easier to teach a homogeneous group of students, tracking could enhance school effectiveness and raise test scores of both low- and high-ability students. If students benefit from…

  14. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  15. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Eric Y.

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  16. Nested Tracking Graphs

    DOE PAGES

    Lukasczyk, Jonas; Weber, Gunther; Maciejewski, Ross; ...

    2017-06-01

    Tracking graphs are a well established tool in topological analysis to visualize the evolution of components and their properties over time, i.e., when components appear, disappear, merge, and split. However, tracking graphs are limited to a single level threshold and the graphs may vary substantially even under small changes to the threshold. To examine the evolution of features for varying levels, users have to compare multiple tracking graphs without a direct visual link between them. We propose a novel, interactive, nested graph visualization based on the fact that the tracked superlevel set components for different levels are related to eachmore » other through their nesting hierarchy. This approach allows us to set multiple tracking graphs in context to each other and enables users to effectively follow the evolution of components for different levels simultaneously. We show the effectiveness of our approach on datasets from finite pointset methods, computational fluid dynamics, and cosmology simulations.« less

  17. Watershed Assessment, Tracking & Environmental ResultS (WATERS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Watershed Assessment, Tracking & Environmental Results (WATERS) is an integrated information system for the nation's surface waters connecting Office of Water databases to a larger network of water information.

  18. Cerebral Arterial Fenestrations

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Daniel L; Stout, Charles E; Kim, Warren T; Kansagra, Akash P; Yu, John Paul; Gu, Amy; Jewell, Nicholas P; Hetts, Steven W; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; Halbach, Van V

    2014-01-01

    Summary Arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant with indeterminate significance. Given the controversy surrounding fenestrations we sought their prevalence within our practice along with their association with other cerebrovascular anomalies. We retrospectively reviewed 10,927 patients undergoing digital subtraction angiography between 1992 and 2011. Dictated reports were searched for the terms “fenestration” or “fenestrated” with images reviewed for relevance, yielding 228 unique cases. A Medline database search from February 1964 to January 2013 generated 304 citations, 127 cases of which were selected for analysis. Cerebral arterial fenestrations were identified in 228 patients (2.1%). At least one aneurysm was noted in 60.5% of patients, with an aneurysm arising from the fenestration in 19.6% of patients. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage or non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were present in 60.1% and 15.8%, respectively. For the subset of patients with an aneurysm arising directly from a fenestration relative to those patients with an aneurysm not immediately associated with a fenestration, the prevalence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was 66.7% vs. 58.6% (p = 0.58). Fenestrations were more often within the posterior circulation (73.2%) than the anterior circulation (24.6%), though there was no difference in the prevalence of aneurysms within these groups (61.1% vs. 60.7%, p = 1.0). Cerebral arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant more often manifesting at the anterior communicating arterial complex and basilar artery and with no definite pathological relationship with aneurysms. PMID:24976087

  19. Processing Pathways in Mental Arithmetic—Evidence from Probabilistic Fiber Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Glauche, Volkmar; Weiller, Cornelius; Willmes, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Numerical cognition is a case of multi-modular and distributed cerebral processing. So far neither the anatomo-functional connections between the cortex areas involved nor their integration into established frameworks such as the differentiation between dorsal and ventral processing streams have been specified. The current study addressed this issue combining a re-analysis of previously published fMRI data with probabilistic fiber tracking data from an independent sample. We aimed at differentiating neural correlates and connectivity for relatively easy and more difficult addition problems in healthy adults and their association with either rather verbally mediated fact retrieval or magnitude manipulations, respectively. The present data suggest that magnitude- and fact retrieval-related processing seem to be subserved by two largely separate networks, both of them comprising dorsal and ventral connections. Importantly, these networks not only differ in localization of activation but also in the connections between the cortical areas involved. However, it has to be noted that even though seemingly distinct anatomically, these networks operate as a functionally integrated circuit for mental calculation as revealed by a parametric analysis of brain activation. PMID:23383194

  20. Tracking soccer players based on homography among multiple views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Sachiko; Saito, Hideo

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a method of tracking soccer players using multiple views. As many researchers have done on soccer scene analysis by using trajectories of the playser and the soccer ball, it is desirable to track soccer players robustly. Soccer player tracking enables strategy analysis, scene recovery, making scenes for broadcasting, and automatic system of the camera control. However, soccer is a sport that occlusion occurs in many cases, and tracking often fails by the occlusion of the players. It is difficult to track the players by using a single camera alone. Therefore, we use multiple view images to avoid the occlusion problem, so that we can obtain robustness in player tracking. As a first step, inner-camera operation is performed independently in each camera to track the players. In any case that player can not be tracked in the camera, inter-camera operation is performed as a second step. Tracking information of all cameras are integrated by using the geometrical relationship between cameras called homography. Inter-camera operation makes it possible to get the location of the player who is not detected in the image, who is occluded by the other player, and who is outside the angle of view. Experimental results show that robust player tracking is available by tracking advantage using multiple cameras.

  1. Integrative Analysis of mRNA, microRNA, and Protein Correlates of Relative Cerebral Blood Volume Values in GBM Reveals the Role for Modulators of Angiogenesis and Tumor Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Rao, Arvind; Manyam, Ganiraju; Rao, Ganesh; Jain, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is routinely used to provide hemodynamic assessment of brain tumors as a diagnostic as well as a prognostic tool. Recently, it was shown that the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), obtained from the contrast-enhancing as well as -nonenhancing portion of glioblastoma (GBM), is strongly associated with overall survival. In this study, we aim to characterize the genomic correlates (microRNA, messenger RNA, and protein) of this vascular parameter. This study aims to provide a comprehensive radiogenomic and radioproteomic characterization of the hemodynamic phenotype of GBM using publicly available imaging and genomic data from the Cancer Genome Atlas GBM cohort. Based on this analysis, we identified pathways associated with angiogenesis and tumor proliferation underlying this hemodynamic parameter in GBM.

  2. Integrative Analysis of mRNA, microRNA, and Protein Correlates of Relative Cerebral Blood Volume Values in GBM Reveals the Role for Modulators of Angiogenesis and Tumor Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Arvind; Manyam, Ganiraju; Rao, Ganesh; Jain, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is routinely used to provide hemodynamic assessment of brain tumors as a diagnostic as well as a prognostic tool. Recently, it was shown that the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), obtained from the contrast-enhancing as well as -nonenhancing portion of glioblastoma (GBM), is strongly associated with overall survival. In this study, we aim to characterize the genomic correlates (microRNA, messenger RNA, and protein) of this vascular parameter. This study aims to provide a comprehensive radiogenomic and radioproteomic characterization of the hemodynamic phenotype of GBM using publicly available imaging and genomic data from the Cancer Genome Atlas GBM cohort. Based on this analysis, we identified pathways associated with angiogenesis and tumor proliferation underlying this hemodynamic parameter in GBM. PMID:27053917

  3. Visual Analytics for Mobile Eye Tracking.

    PubMed

    Kurzhals, Kuno; Hlawatsch, Marcel; Seeger, Christof; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of eye tracking data often requires the annotation of areas of interest (AOIs) to derive semantic interpretations of human viewing behavior during experiments. This annotation is typically the most time-consuming step of the analysis process. Especially for data from wearable eye tracking glasses, every independently recorded video has to be annotated individually and corresponding AOIs between videos have to be identified. We provide a novel visual analytics approach to ease this annotation process by image-based, automatic clustering of eye tracking data integrated in an interactive labeling and analysis system. The annotation and analysis are tightly coupled by multiple linked views that allow for a direct interpretation of the labeled data in the context of the recorded video stimuli. The components of our analytics environment were developed with a user-centered design approach in close cooperation with an eye tracking expert. We demonstrate our approach with eye tracking data from a real experiment and compare it to an analysis of the data by manual annotation of dynamic AOIs. Furthermore, we conducted an expert user study with 6 external eye tracking researchers to collect feedback and identify analysis strategies they used while working with our application.

  4. Tacrolimus prevents murine cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lam Quoc; Nhi, Dang My; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Hamano, Shinjiro; Hirayama, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil are immunosuppressants frequently used in human organ transplantation. Tacrolimus is also reported to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. Here, we report that tacrolimus prevented the death from cerebral malaria of Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected C57BL/6J mice, but not their death from malaria due to the high parasitaemia and severe anaemia. The mycophenolate mofetil-treated mice showed higher mortality from cerebral malaria and succumbed to malaria earlier than tacrolimus-treated littermates. Tacrolimus attenuated the infiltration of mononuclear cells including pathogenic CD8(+) T cells into the brain. It appears to prevent murine cerebral malaria through the inhibition of cerebral infiltration of CD8(+) T cells. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cerebral emboli of paradoxical origin.

    PubMed

    Jones, H R; Caplan, L R; Come, P C; Swinton, N W; Breslin, D J

    1983-03-01

    A diagnosis of paradoxical cerebral embolus (PCE) was made in five patients aged 31 to 62 years who sustained eight cerebral ischemic events. No patient had evidence of primary carotid system or left heart disease. A probe-patent foramen ovale was the presumed mechanism in four patients, and an unsuspected congenital atrial septal defect was found in the fifth patient. Clinically apparent pulmonary emboli or venous thrombosis preceded the cerebral event in only one instance. Review of the literature reveals a high mortality with PCE. However, careful clinical search for this lesion may be rewarding: four of our five patients survived. One should consider PCE in any patient with cerebral embolus in whom there is no demonstrable left-sided circulatory source. This principle applies particularly if there is concomitant venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or enhanced potential for venous thrombosis due to, for example, morbid obesity, use of hormonal birth control pills, prolonged bed rest (especially postoperatively), or systemic carcinoma.

  6. Cerebral hydatid disease in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Milne; Bickerstaff, Edwin R.; Hamilton, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    Two cases of cerebral hydatid disease are described. This condition, acquired by Britons in Britain, is extremely rare as only two similar cases have been reported before. Details of clinical presentation, investigation and treatment are described. Images PMID:1206419

  7. Improvement on the stabilization of a precision tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuno, H.; Koshiba, T.

    A tracking system that operates from nonstationary platforms must be able to stabilize the tracking axis for precision tracking. Implementation of a free gyro pointing assembly which has a momentum wheel as an integral part of the inner gimbal assembly and that is oriented with its spin axis parallel to the line of sight, is the most widely used method for tactical missiles. The paper describes two methods to improve the stabilization of this tracking system by adjusting the gimbal balance during accelerated condition and adjusting gimbal friction torque at an optimium level appropriate to the applied torque. The results show a one-fifth improvement of the drift rate.

  8. Mapping of the cerebral response to acetazolamide using graded asymmetric spin echo EPI.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bhashkar; Preece, Mark; Houston, Gavin C; Papadakis, Nikolas G; Carpenter, T Adrian; Hall, Laurance D; Huang, Christopher L-H

    2005-11-01

    Cerebral vascular reactivity in different regions of the rat brain was quantitatively characterized by spatial and temporal measurements of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)-fMRI signals following intravenous administration of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide: this causes cerebral vasodilatation through a cerebral extracellular acidosis that spares neuronal metabolism and vascular smooth muscle function, thus separating vascular and cerebral metabolic events. An asymmetric spin echo-echo planar imaging (ASE-EPI) pulse sequence sensitised images selectively to oxygenation changes in the microvasculature; use of a surface coil receiver enhanced image signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Image SNRs and hardware integrity were verified by incorporating quality assurance procedures; cardiorespiratory stability in the physiological preparations were monitored and maintained through the duration of the experiments. These conditions made it possible to apply BOLD contrast fMRI to map regional changes in cerebral perfusion in response to acetazolamide administration. Thus, fMRI findings demonstrated cerebral responses to acetazolamide that directly paralleled the known physiological actions of acetazolamide and whose time courses were similar through all regions of interest, consistent with acetazolamide's initial distribution in brain plasma, where it affects cerebral haemodynamics by acting at cerebral capillary endothelial cells. However, marked variations in the magnitude of the responses suggested relative perfusion deficits in the hippocampus and white matter regions correlating well with their relatively low vascularity and the known vulnerability of the hippocampus to ischaemic damage.

  9. Cerebral ganglioglioma. A Golgi study.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, I; Ribalta, T; Digon, E; Acebes, J

    1983-01-01

    The morphological characteristics of neurons revealed by Golgi's method are reported in a case of cerebral ganglioglioma. Spindle-shaped (leptodendritic) neurons and radiated type I neurons form the bulk of this tumour. According to Ramon-Moliner (1968) isodendritic neurons (both leptodendritic and radiate type I) are philogenetically primitive cells and differ greatly from those observed in most of the deep cerebral nuclei of the mammalian's brain.

  10. Resource Allocation in Cerebral Specialization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    of this multiple-resources view. EXTENSION OF THE THEORY TO THE TWO CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES Since the anatomical division of the brain invites...performance differences between the hemispheres (e.g., right-handed males with no familial history of left- handedness who use a normal rather than an...G. Beaumont (Eds.), Hemisphere function in the human rain.. New York: Halstead Press, 1974. Kinsbourne, M. The cerebral basis of lateral asymmetries

  11. A comparison of head and manual control for a position-control pursuit tracking task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.; Zacharias, G. L.; Porterfield, J. L.; Monk, D.; Arbak, C.

    1981-01-01

    Head control was compared with manual control in a pursuit tracking task involving proportional controlled-element dynamics. An integrated control/display system was used to explore tracking effectiveness in horizontal and vertical axes tracked singly and concurrently. Compared with manual tracking, head tracking resulted in a 50 percent greater rms error score, lower pilot gain, greater high-frequency phase lag and greater low-frequency remnant. These differences were statistically significant, but differences between horizontal- and vertical-axis tracking and between 1- and 2-axis tracking were generally small and not highly significant. Manual tracking results were matched with the optimal control model using pilot-related parameters typical of those found in previous manual control studies. Head tracking performance was predicted with good accuracy using the manual tracking model plus a model for head/neck response dynamics obtained from the literature.

  12. UCSC Data Integrator and Variant Annotation Integrator

    PubMed Central

    Hinrichs, Angie S.; Raney, Brian J.; Speir, Matthew L.; Rhead, Brooke; Casper, Jonathan; Karolchik, Donna; Kuhn, Robert M.; Rosenbloom, Kate R.; Zweig, Ann S.; Haussler, David; Kent, W. James

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Two new tools on the UCSC Genome Browser web site provide improved ways of combining information from multiple datasets, optionally including the user's own custom track data and/or data from track hubs. The Data Integrator combines columns from multiple data tracks, showing all items from the first track along with overlapping items from the other tracks. The Variant Annotation Integrator is tailored to adding functional annotations to variant calls; it offers a more restricted set of underlying data tracks but adds predictions of each variant's consequences for any overlapping or nearby gene transcript. When available, it optionally adds additional annotations including effect prediction scores from dbNSFP for missense mutations, ENCODE regulatory summary tracks and conservation scores. Availability and implementation: The web tools are freely available at http://genome.ucsc.edu/ and the underlying database is available for download at http://hgdownload.cse.ucsc.edu/. The software (written in C and Javascript) is available from https://genome-store.ucsc.edu/ and is freely available for academic and non-profit usage; commercial users must obtain a license. Contact: angie@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26740527

  13. Uncertainty in diffusion tensor based fibre tracking.

    PubMed

    Hahn, H K; Klein, J; Nimsky, C; Rexilius, J; Peitgen, H O

    2006-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging and related fibre tracking techniques have the potential to identify major white matter tracts afflicted by an individual pathology or tracts at risk for a given surgical approach. However, the reliability of these techniques is known to be limited by image distortions, image noise, low spatial resolution, and the problem of identifying crossing fibres. This paper intends to bridge the gap between the requirements of neurosurgical applications and basic research on fibre tracking uncertainty. We acquired echo planar diffusion tensor data from both 1.5 T and 3.0 T scanners. For fibre tracking, an extended deflection-based algorithm is employed with enhanced robustness to impaired fibre integrity such as caused by diffuse or infiltrating pathological processes. Moreover, we present a method to assess and visualize the uncertainty of fibre reconstructions based on variational complex Gaussian noise, which provides an alternative to the bootstrap method. We compare fibre tracking results with and without variational noise as well as with artificially decreased image resolution and signal-to-noise. Using our fibre tracking technique, we found a high robustness to decreased image resolution and signal-to-noise. Still, the effects of image quality on the tracking result will depend on the employed fibre tracking algorithm and must be handled with care, especially when being used for neurosurgical planning or resection guidance. An advantage of the variational noise approach over the bootstrap technique is that it is applicable to any given set of diffusion tensor images. We conclude that the presented approach allows for investigating the uncertainty of diffusion tensor imaging based fibre tracking and might offer a perspective to overcome the problem of size underestimation observed by existing techniques.

  14. Endothelial glycocalyx on brain endothelial cells is lost in experimental cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Casper; Hyttel, Poul; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L

    2014-07-01

    We hypothesized that the glycocalyx, which is important for endothelial integrity, is lost in severe malaria. C57BL/6 mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, resulting in cerebral malaria, or P. chabaudi AS, resulting in uncomplicated malaria. We visualized the glycocalyx with transmission electron microscopy and measured circulating glycosaminoglycans by dot blot and ELISA. The glycocalyx was degraded in brain vasculature in cerebral and to a lesser degree uncomplicated malaria. It was affected on both intact and apoptotic endothelial cells. Circulating glycosaminoglycan levels suggested that glycocalyx disruption preceded cerebral manifestations. The contribution of this loss to pathogenesis should be studied further.

  15. Therapeutic implications of melatonin in cerebral edema.

    PubMed

    Rathnasamy, Gurugirijha; Ling, Eng-Ang; Kaur, Charanjit

    2014-12-01

    Cerebral edema/brain edema refers to the accumulation of fluid in the brain and is one of the fatal conditions that require immediate medical attention. Cerebral edema develops as a consequence of cerebral trauma, cerebral infarction, hemorrhages, abscess, tumor, hypoxia, and other toxic or metabolic factors. Based on the causative factors cerebral edema is differentiated into cytotoxic cerebral edema, vasogenic cerebral edema, osmotic and interstitial cerebral edema. Treatment of cerebral edema depends on timely diagnosis and medical assistance. Pragmatic treatment strategies such as antihypertensive medications, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, barbiturates, steroids, glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and trometamol are used in clinical practice. Although the above mentioned treatment approaches are being used, owing to the complexity of the mechanisms involved in cerebral edema, a single ther