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Sample records for cerebratulus lacteus cytolysin

  1. Binding of Cerebratulus cytolysin A-III to human erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, K M

    1985-01-10

    Binding of Cerebratulus lacteus cytolysin A-III to intact human erythrocytes and erythrocyte membranes has been investigated. Binding to ghosts is essentially complete within 2.5 min of mixing which is slightly faster than the rate of hemolysis measured with intact cells. Approximately 4 X 10(4) binding sites per cell, exhibiting a K 0.5 of 0.7 microM exist; this compares with 50% hematocrit of about 0.3 microM for A-III. Binding is absent in ghosts extracted with Nonidet P-40, but is unaffected by pretreatment of ghosts with either trypsin or elastase.

  2. Ligand Migration in the Apolar Tunnel of Cerebratulus lacteus Mini-Hemoglobin*

    PubMed Central

    Pesce, Alessandra; Nardini, Marco; Dewilde, Sylvia; Capece, Luciana; Martí, Marcelo A.; Congia, Sonia; Salter, Mallory D.; Blouin, George C.; Estrin, Darío A.; Ascenzi, Paolo; Moens, Luc; Bolognesi, Martino; Olson, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The large apolar tunnel traversing the mini-hemoglobin from Cerebratulus lacteus (CerHb) has been examined by x-ray crystallography, ligand binding kinetics, and molecular dynamic simulations. The addition of 10 atm of xenon causes loss of diffraction in wild-type (wt) CerHbO2 crystals, but Leu-86(G12)Ala CerHbO2, which has an increased tunnel volume, stably accommodates two discrete xenon atoms: one adjacent to Leu-86(G12) and another near Ala-55(E18). Molecular dynamics simulations of ligand migration in wt CerHb show a low energy pathway through the apolar tunnel when Leu or Ala, but not Phe or Trp, is present at the 86(G12) position. The addition of 10–15 atm of xenon to solutions of wt CerHbCO and L86A CerHbCO causes 2–3-fold increases in the fraction of geminate ligand recombination, indicating that the bound xenon blocks CO escape. This idea was confirmed by L86F and L86W mutations, which cause even larger increases in the fraction of geminate CO rebinding, 2–5-fold decreases in the bimolecular rate constants for ligand entry, and large increases in the computed energy barriers for ligand movement through the apolar tunnel. Both the addition of xenon to the L86A mutant and oxidation of wt CerHb heme iron cause the appearance of an out Gln-44(E7) conformer, in which the amide side chain points out toward the solvent and appears to lower the barrier for ligand escape through the E7 gate. However, the observed kinetics suggest little entry and escape (≤25%) through the E7 pathway, presumably because the in Gln-44(E7) conformer is thermodynamically favored. PMID:21147768

  3. The Apolar Channel in Cerebratulus lacteus Hemoglobin Is the Route for O2 Entry and Exit*

    PubMed Central

    Salter, Mallory D.; Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich; Dewilde, Sylvia; Moens, Luc; Pesce, Alessandra; Nardini, Marco; Bolognesi, Martino; Olson, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The major pathway for O2 binding to mammalian myoglobins (Mb) and hemoglobins (Hb) involves transient upward movement of the distal histidine (His-64(E7)), allowing ligand capture in the distal pocket. The mini-globin from Cerebratulus lacteus (CerHb) appears to have an alternative pathway between the E and H helices that is made accessible by loss of the N-terminal A helix. To test this pathway, we examined the effects of changing the size of the E7 gate and closing the end of the apolar channel in CerHb by site-directed mutagenesis. Increasing the size of Gln-44(E7) from Ala to Trp causes variation of association (k′O2) and dissociation (kO2) rate coefficients, but the changes are not systematic. More significantly, the fractions (Fgem ≈ 0.05–0.19) and rates (kgem ≈ 50–100 μs-1) of geminate CO recombination in the Gln-44(E7) mutants are all similar. In contrast, blocking the entrance to the apolar channel by increasing the size of Ala-55(E18) to Phe and Trp causes the following: 1) both k′O2 and kO2 to decrease roughly 4-fold; 2) Fgem for CO to increase from ∼0.05 to 0.45; and 3) kgem to decrease from ∼80 to ∼9 μs-1, as ligands become trapped in the channel. Crystal structures and low temperature Fourier-transform infrared spectra of Phe-55 and Trp-55 CerHb confirm that the aromatic side chains block the channel entrance, with little effect on the distal pocket. These results provide unambiguous experimental proof that diatomic ligands can enter and exit a globin through an interior channel in preference to the more direct E7 pathway. PMID:18840607

  4. Isotopic fingerprints of bacterial chemosymbiosis in the bivalve Loripes lacteus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreier, A.; Stannek, L.; Blumenberg, M.; Taviani, M.; Sigovini, M.; Wrede, C.; Thiel, V.; Hoppert, M.

    2012-04-01

    Metazoans with chemosynthetic bacterial endosymbionts are widespread in marine habitats and respective endosymbioses are known from seven recent animal phyla. However, little is known about endosymbioses in fossil settings and, hence, ecological significance in earth history. In the presented project, we investigate the ancient and recent bivalve fauna living at marine sedimentary oxic/anoxic interfaces. Two bivalve species collected from the same benthic environment - a Mediterranean lagoon - were studied in detail. The diet of Loripes lacteus is based on thiotrophic gill symbionts whereas Venerupis aureus is a filter feeding bivalve without symbionts. The presence of three key enzymes from sulfur oxidation (APS-reductase), carbon fixation (RubisCO) and assimilation of nitrogen (glutamine synthetase [GS]) were detected by immunofluorescence in symbionts of Loripes and/or by activity tests in living specimens. In search of biosignatures associated with thiotrophic chemosymbionts that might be suitable for detection of chemosymbiotic diets in recent and fossil bivalve shells, we analyzed the isotopic composition of shell lipids (δ13C) and the bulk organic matrix of the shell (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S). We could show that the combined δ15N and δ13C values from shell extracts are stable in subfossil (Pleistocene) bivalve specimens, as long as the isotopic data is "calibrated" with respective signatures from a filter feeding bivalve sampled from the same site or lithostratigraphic bed.

  5. Sugar recoveries from wheat straw following treatments with the fungus Irpex lacteus.

    PubMed

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia; Vaquero, María Eugenia; Martínez, Ángel T; Martínez, María Jesús

    2013-03-01

    Irpex lacteus is a white-rot fungus capable of increasing sugar recovery from wheat straw; however, in order to incorporate biopretreatment in bioethanol production, some process specifications need to be optimized. With this objective, I. lacteus was grown on different liquid culture media for use as inoculums. Additionally, the effect of wheat straw particle size, moisture content, organic and inorganic supplementations, and mild alkali washing during solid-state fermentation (SSF) on sugar yield were investigated. Wheat thin stillage was the best medium for producing inoculums. Supplementation of wheat straw with 0.3mM Mn(II) during SSF resulted in glucose yields of 68% as compared to yields of 62% and 33% for cultures grown without supplementation or on untreated raw material, respectively after 21 days. Lignin loss, wheat straw digestibility, peroxidase activity, and fungal biomass were also correlated with sugar yields in the search for biopretreatment efficiency indicators.

  6. The enterococcal cytolysin synthetase has an unanticipated lipid kinase fold.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shi-Hui; Tang, Weixin; Lukk, Tiit; Yu, Yi; Nair, Satish K; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2015-07-30

    The enterococcal cytolysin is a virulence factor consisting of two post-translationally modified peptides that synergistically kill human immune cells. Both peptides are made by CylM, a member of the LanM lanthipeptide synthetases. CylM catalyzes seven dehydrations of Ser and Thr residues and three cyclization reactions during the biosynthesis of the cytolysin large subunit. We present here the 2.2 Å resolution structure of CylM, the first structural information on a LanM. Unexpectedly, the structure reveals that the dehydratase domain of CylM resembles the catalytic core of eukaryotic lipid kinases, despite the absence of clear sequence homology. The kinase and phosphate elimination active sites that affect net dehydration are immediately adjacent to each other. Characterization of mutants provided insights into the mechanism of the dehydration process. The structure is also of interest because of the interactions of human homologs of lanthipeptide cyclases with kinases such as mammalian target of rapamycin.

  7. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of reactive Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye by the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Duraisamy; Velmurugan, Natarajan; Shim, Jae Hong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Lee, Yang Soo

    2012-11-30

    The treatment of effluents from textile industry with microorganisms, especially bacteria and fungi, has recently gained attention. The present study was conducted using white rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes sp., and Lentinula edodes for the decolorization of reactive textile Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye. I. lacteus resulted in the best decolorization and degradation of the dye within four days. Therefore, more detailed studies were carried out using I. lacteus. The decolorization was evaluated at various concentration, pH values, and temperatures. The activities of laccase, manganese peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase enzymes were estimated to reveal the roles of enzymes in decolorization. The colorless nature of the fungal cells revealed that decolorization occurred through degradation, and confirmed by analysis of the metabolites by UV-visible spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography after decolorization. The metabolites were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, and functional group analysis was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The degraded dye metabolites were assessed for phytotoxicity using Vigna radiata and Brassica juncea, which demonstrated nontoxic nature of the metabolites formed after degradation of dye.

  8. Biodegradation and detoxification potential of rotating biological contactor (RBC) with Irpex lacteus for remediation of dye-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Malachova, Katerina; Rybkova, Zuzana; Sezimova, Hana; Cerven, Jiri; Novotny, Cenek

    2013-12-01

    Use of fungal organisms in rotating biological contactors (RBC) for bioremediation of liquid industrial wastes has so far been limited in spite of their significant biodegradation potential. The purpose was to investigate the power of RBC using Irpex lacteus for decolorization and detoxification of industrial dyes and dyeing textile liquors. Recalcitrant dye Methylene Blue (150 mg L(-1)) was decolorized within 70 days, its mutagenicity removed, and the biological toxicity decreased more than 10-fold. I. lacteus biofilm in the RBC completely decolorized within 26 and 47 days dyeing liquors containing disperse or reactive dyes adjusted to pH4.5 and 5-fold diluted with the growth medium, respectively. Their respective biological toxicity values were reduced 10- to 10(4)-fold in dependence of the test used. A battery of toxicity tests comprising Vibrio fisheri, Lemna minor and Sinapis alba was efficient to monitor the toxicity of textile dyes and wastewaters. Strong decolorization and detoxification power of RBC using I. lacteus biofilms was demonstrated.

  9. Biobleaching of Acacia kraft pulp with extracellular enzymes secreted by Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 using low-cost media.

    PubMed

    Afrida, Sitompul; Tamai, Yutaka; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    The white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 have been shown in previous studies to have high biobleaching activity in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities and stabilities of extracellular enzymes, prepared from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus culture grown in three types of economical media of agricultural and forestry wastes, for biobleaching of Acacia oxygen-delignified kraft pulp using kappa number reduction as an indicator of delignification. After 3 days of incubation, the extracellular enzymes preparations from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus cultures in media of Acacia mangium wood powder supplemented with rice bran and addition 1 % glucose (WRBG), resulted in significant decrease of 4.4 and 6.7 %, respectively. A slightly higher kappa number reduction (7.4 %) was achieved with the combine extracellular enzymes from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus. One of the strategies for reducing the cost of enzyme production for treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry is the utilization of agricultural and forestry waste. Thus, WRBG has potential as a culture medium for producing stable lignolytic enzymes simply and economically.

  10. The promoting effects of manganese on biological pretreatment with Irpex lacteus and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Song, Lili; Ma, Fuying; Zeng, Yelin; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Hongbo

    2013-05-01

    The effect of metal ions on biological pretreatment was evaluated for improving subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Results showed that the efficiency of fungal pretreatment was greatly improved with manganese supplement in biomass. After enzymatic hydrolysis of 28-d pretreated corn stover, maximum glucose yield was 308.98 mg/g corn stover with manganese supplement, which increased by 61.39% as compared to the conventional fungal pretreatment. Furthermore, manganese also enhanced the production of ethanol, corresponding to a high ethanol conversion (83.39%). Manganese greatly improved the delignification of Irpex lacteus specially. Correspondingly, the efficiency of saccharification and fermentation was closely related to the removal of lignin. This study showed a promising effect of manganese on fungal pretreatment and the production of biofuels.

  11. Enhanced simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated beech wood by in situ treatment with the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus in a membrane aerated biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Brethauer, Simone; Robert Lawrence, Shahab; Michael Hans-Peter, Studer

    2017-03-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the combination of steam pretreatment and biological treatment with lignin degrading fungal strains in order to enable efficient bioprocessing of beech wood to ethanol. In a sequential process of steam and fungal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, Irpex lacteus almost doubled the glucose yield for mildly pretreated beech wood, but could not improve yields for more severely pretreated substrates. However, when simultaneous saccharification and fermentation is combined with in situ I. lacteus treatment, which is enabled by the application of a membrane aerated biofilm reactor, ethanol yields of optimally steam pretreated beech could be improved from 65 to 80%. Generally, in situ fungal treatment during bioprocessing of lignocellulose is an interesting method to harness the versatile abilities of white rot fungi.

  12. The fingerprint of chemosymbiosis: origin and preservation of isotopic biosignatures in the nonseep bivalve Loripes lacteus compared with Venerupis aurea.

    PubMed

    Dreier, Anne; Stannek, Lorena; Blumenberg, Martin; Taviani, Marco; Sigovini, Marco; Wrede, Christoph; Thiel, Volker; Hoppert, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Endosymbionts in marine bivalves leave characteristic biosignatures in their host organisms. Two nonseep bivalve species collected in Mediterranean lagoons, thiotrophic symbiotic Loripes lacteus and filter-feeding nonsymbiotic Venerupis aurea, were studied in detail with respect to generation and presence of such signatures in living animals, and the preservation of these signals in subfossil (late Pleistocene) sedimentary shells. Three key enzymes from sulfur oxidation (APS-reductase), CO(2) fixation (RubisCO) and assimilation of nitrogen [glutamine synthetase (GS)] were detected by immunofluorescence in the bacterial symbionts of Loripes. In Loripes, major activity was derived from GS of the symbionts whereas in Venerupis the host GS is active. In search of geologically stable biosignatures for thiotrophic chemosymbiosis that might be suitable to detect such associations in ancient bivalves, we analyzed the isotopic composition of shell lipids (δ(13)C) and the bulk organic matrix of the shell (δ(13)C , δ(15)N , δ(34)S). In the thiotrophic Loripes, δ(13)C values were depleted compared with the filter-feeding Venerupis by as much as 8.5‰ for individual fatty acids, and 4.4‰ for bulk organic carbon. Likewise, bulk δ(15)N and δ(34)S values were more depleted in recent thiotrophic Loripes. Whereas δ (34)S values were found to be unstable over time, the combined δ(15)N and δ(13)C values in organic shell extracts revealed a specific signature for chemosymbiosis in recent and subfossil specimens.

  13. A Novel Means of Self-Protection, Unrelated to Toxin Activation, Confers Immunity to the Bactericidal Effects of the Enterococcus faecalis Cytolysin

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Phillip S.; Hancock, Lynn E.; Booth, Mary C.; Gilmore, Michael S.

    1999-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis has become a pervasive clinical problem due to the emergence of resistance to most antibiotics. The cytolysin of E. faecalis is a novel bacterial toxin that contributes to the severity of disease. It consists of two structural subunits, which together possess both hemolytic and bactericidal activity. Both toxin subunits are encoded in a complex operon frequently harbored on pheromone-responsive plasmids. E. faecalis strains lacking such plasmids are susceptible to the bactericidal effects of the cytolysin. A novel cytolysin immunity determinant at the 3′ end of the pAD1 cytolysin operon is described in the present study. Deletion analysis and specific mutagenesis isolated the immunity function to a single open reading frame. Specific mutagenesis experiments demonstrate that cytolysin immunity is unrelated to cytolysin activator (CylA) expression as previously proposed. Cytolysin immunity is, however, encoded on the same transcript as and 3′ to CylA, and previous associations between immunity and CylA can be ascribed to the polar behavior of Tn917 insertion. PMID:10377111

  14. Degradation and detoxification of the triphenylmethane dye malachite green catalyzed by crude manganese peroxidase from Irpex lacteus F17.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xueting; Zheng, Jinzhao; Lu, Yongming; Jia, Rong

    2016-05-01

    Malachite green (MG), a recalcitrant, carcinogenic, and mutagenic triphenylmethane dye, was decolorized and detoxified using crude manganese peroxidase (MnP) prepared from the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus F17. In this study, the key factors (pH, temperature, MG, Mn(2+), H2O2, MnP) in these processes were investigated. Under optimal conditions, 96 % of 200 mg L(-1) of MG was decolorized when 66.32 U L(-1) of MnP was added for 1 h. The K m, V max, and k cat values were 109.9 μmol L(-1), 152.8 μmol L(-1) min(-1), and 44.5 s(-1), respectively. The decolorization of MG by MnP followed first-order reaction kinetics with a kinetic rate constant of 0.0129 h(-1). UV-vis and UPLC analysis revealed degradation of MG. Furthermore, seven different intermediates formed during the MnP treatment of 0.5 h were identified by LC-TOF-MS. These degradation products were generated via two different routes by either N-demethylation of MG or the oxidative cleavage of the C-C double bond in MG. Based on ecotoxicity analyses performed on bacteria and algae, it was confirmed that MG metabolites produced by the MnP-catalyzed system were appreciably less toxic than the parent compound. These studies indicate the potential use of this enzyme system in the clean-up of aquatic and terrestrial environments.

  15. Crystal structure of an invertebrate cytolysin pore reveals unique properties and mechanism of assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, Marjetka; Savory, Peter; Rojko, Nejc; Kisovec, Matic; Wood, Neil; Hambley, Richard; Pugh, Jonathan; Wallace, E. Jayne; McNeill, Luke; Bruce, Mark; Liko, Idlir; Allison, Timothy M.; Mehmood, Shahid; Yilmaz, Neval; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Gilbert, Robert J. C.; Robinson, Carol V.; Jayasinghe, Lakmal; Anderluh, Gregor

    2016-05-01

    The invertebrate cytolysin lysenin is a member of the aerolysin family of pore-forming toxins that includes many representatives from pathogenic bacteria. Here we report the crystal structure of the lysenin pore and provide insights into its assembly mechanism. The lysenin pore is assembled from nine monomers via dramatic reorganization of almost half of the monomeric subunit structure leading to a β-barrel pore ~10 nm long and 1.6-2.5 nm wide. The lysenin pore is devoid of additional luminal compartments as commonly found in other toxin pores. Mutagenic analysis and atomic force microscopy imaging, together with these structural insights, suggest a mechanism for pore assembly for lysenin. These insights are relevant to the understanding of pore formation by other aerolysin-like pore-forming toxins, which often represent crucial virulence factors in bacteria.

  16. Alteration of epithelial cell lysosomal integrity induced by bacterial cholesterol‐dependent cytolysins

    PubMed Central

    Malet, Julien Karim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial pathogens can interfere during infection with host cell organelles, such as mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum‐Golgi system or nuclei. As important cellular functions are often compartmentalized in these organelles, their targeting allows pathogens to manipulate key host functions during infection. Here, we identify lysosomes as a new class of organelles targeted by the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. We demonstrate that extracellular Listeria, via secretion of the pore‐forming toxin listeriolysin O, alters lysosomal integrity in epithelial cells but not in macrophages. Listeriolysin O induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization and release of lysosomal content, such as cathepsins proteases, which remain transiently active in the host cytosol. We furthermore show that other bacterial pore‐forming toxins, such as perfringolysin O and pneumolysin, also induce lysosomes alteration. Together, our data unveil a novel activity of bacterial cholesterol‐dependent cytolysins. PMID:27739224

  17. Crystal structure of an invertebrate cytolysin pore reveals unique properties and mechanism of assembly

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, Marjetka; Savory, Peter; Rojko, Nejc; Kisovec, Matic; Wood, Neil; Hambley, Richard; Pugh, Jonathan; Wallace, E. Jayne; McNeill, Luke; Bruce, Mark; Liko, Idlir; Allison, Timothy M.; Mehmood, Shahid; Yilmaz, Neval; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Gilbert, Robert J. C.; Robinson, Carol V.; Jayasinghe, Lakmal; Anderluh, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    The invertebrate cytolysin lysenin is a member of the aerolysin family of pore-forming toxins that includes many representatives from pathogenic bacteria. Here we report the crystal structure of the lysenin pore and provide insights into its assembly mechanism. The lysenin pore is assembled from nine monomers via dramatic reorganization of almost half of the monomeric subunit structure leading to a β-barrel pore ∼10 nm long and 1.6–2.5 nm wide. The lysenin pore is devoid of additional luminal compartments as commonly found in other toxin pores. Mutagenic analysis and atomic force microscopy imaging, together with these structural insights, suggest a mechanism for pore assembly for lysenin. These insights are relevant to the understanding of pore formation by other aerolysin-like pore-forming toxins, which often represent crucial virulence factors in bacteria. PMID:27176125

  18. Stepwise visualization of membrane pore formation by suilysin, a bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysin.

    PubMed

    Leung, Carl; Dudkina, Natalya V; Lukoyanova, Natalya; Hodel, Adrian W; Farabella, Irene; Pandurangan, Arun P; Jahan, Nasrin; Pires Damaso, Mafalda; Osmanović, Dino; Reboul, Cyril F; Dunstone, Michelle A; Andrew, Peter W; Lonnen, Rana; Topf, Maya; Saibil, Helen R; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2014-12-02

    Membrane attack complex/perforin/cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (MACPF/CDC) proteins constitute a major superfamily of pore-forming proteins that act as bacterial virulence factors and effectors in immune defence. Upon binding to the membrane, they convert from the soluble monomeric form to oligomeric, membrane-inserted pores. Using real-time atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron microscopy (EM), and atomic structure fitting, we have mapped the structure and assembly pathways of a bacterial CDC in unprecedented detail and accuracy, focussing on suilysin from Streptococcus suis. We show that suilysin assembly is a noncooperative process that is terminated before the protein inserts into the membrane. The resulting ring-shaped pores and kinetically trapped arc-shaped assemblies are all seen to perforate the membrane, as also visible by the ejection of its lipids. Membrane insertion requires a concerted conformational change of the monomeric subunits, with a marked expansion in pore diameter due to large changes in subunit structure and packing.

  19. Perfringolysin O structure and mechanism of pore formation as a paradigm for cholesterol-dependent cytolysins.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Benjamin B; Heuck, Alejandro P

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) constitute a family of pore forming toxins secreted by Gram-positive bacteria. These toxins form transmembrane pores by inserting a large β-barrel into cholesterol-containing membrane bilayers. Binding of water-soluble CDCs to the membrane triggers the formation of oligomers containing 35-50 monomers. The coordinated insertion of more than seventy β-hairpins into the membrane requires multiple structural conformational changes. Perfringolysin O (PFO), secreted by Clostridium perfringens, has become the prototype for the CDCs. In this chapter, we will describe current knowledge on the mechanism of PFO cytolysis, with special focus on cholesterol recognition, oligomerization, and the conformational changes involved in pore formation.

  20. Protective role of the dynamin inhibitor Dynasore against the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin of Trueperella pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Preta, Giulio; Lotti, Virginia; Cronin, James G.; Sheldon, I. Martin

    2015-01-01

    The virulence of many Gram-positive bacteria depends on cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), which form pores in eukaryotic cell plasma membranes. Pyolysin (PLO) from Trueperella pyogenes provided a unique opportunity to explore cellular responses to CDCs because it does not require thiol activation. Sublytic concentrations of PLO stimulated phosphorylation of MAPK ERK and p38 in primary stromal cells, and induced autophagy as determined by protein light-chain 3B cleavage. Although, inhibitors of MAPK or autophagy did not affect PLO-induced cytolysis. However, 10 μM 3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid-(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)-hydrazide (Dynasore), a dynamin guanosine 5′-triphosphatase inhibitor, protected stromal cells against PLO-induced cytolysis as determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (85 ± 17% versus 50 ± 9% cell viability), measuring extracellular ATP, and kinetic assays. This was a generalized mechanism because Dynasore also protected HeLa cells against streptolysin O. Furthermore, the effect was reversible, with stromal cell sensitivity to PLO restored within 30 minutes of Dynasore removal. The protective effect of Dynasore was not conferred by dynamin inhibition, induction of ERK phosphorylation, or Dynasore binding to PLO. Rather, Dynasore reduced cellular cholesterol and disrupted plasma membrane lipid rafts, similar to positive control methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Dynasore is a tractable tool to explore the complexity of cholesterol homeostasis in eukaryotic cells and to develop strategies to counter CDCs.—Preta, G., Lotti, V., Cronin, J. G., and Sheldon, I. M. Protective role of the dynamin inhibitor Dynasore against the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin of Trueperella pyogenes. PMID:25550455

  1. Molecular analysis of cytolysin A (ClyA) in pathogenic Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Albrecht; von Rhein, Christine; Bauer, Susanne; Hüttinger, Christian; Goebel, Werner

    2004-08-01

    Cytolysin A (ClyA) of Escherichia coli is a pore-forming hemolytic protein encoded by the clyA (hlyE, sheA) gene that was first identified in E. coli K-12. In this study we examined various clinical E. coli isolates with regard to the presence and integrity of clyA. PCR and DNA sequence analyses demonstrated that 19 of 23 tested Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains, all 7 tested enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) strains, 6 of 8 enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) strains, and 4 of 7 tested enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains possess a complete clyA gene. The remaining STEC, EAEC, and ETEC strains and 9 of the 17 tested enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains were shown to harbor mutant clyA derivatives containing 1-bp frameshift mutations that cause premature termination of the coding sequence. The other eight EPEC strains and all tested uropathogenic and new-born meningitis-associated E. coli strains (n = 14 and 3, respectively) carried only nonfunctional clyA fragments due to the deletion of two sequences of 493 bp and 204 or 217 bp at the clyA locus. Expression of clyA from clinical E. coli isolates proved to be positively controlled by the transcriptional regulator SlyA. Several tested E. coli strains harboring a functional clyA gene produced basal amounts of ClyA when grown under standard laboratory conditions, but most of them showed a clyA-dependent hemolytic phenotype only when SlyA was overexpressed. The presented data indicate that cytolysin A can play a role only for some of the pathogenic E. coli strains.

  2. Fungal bioremediation of the creosote-contaminated soil: influence of Pleurotus ostreatus and Irpex lacteus on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal and soil microbial community composition in the laboratory-scale study.

    PubMed

    Byss, Marius; Elhottová, Dana; Tříska, Jan; Baldrian, Petr

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of selected basidiomycetes in the removing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the creosote-contaminated soil. Fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Irpex lacteus were supplemented with creosote-contaminated (50-200 mg kg(-1) PAH) soil originating from a wood-preserving plant and incubated at 15 °C for 120 d. Either fungus degraded PAH with 4-6 aromatic rings more efficiently than the microbial community present initially in the soil. PAH removal was higher in P. ostreatus treatments (55-67%) than in I. lacteus treatments (27-36%) in general. P. ostreatus (respectively, I. lacteus) removed 86-96% (47-59%) of 2-rings PAH, 63-72% (33-45%) of 3-rings PAH, 32-49% (9-14%) of 4-rings PAH and 31-38% (11-13%) of 5-6-rings PAH. MIS (Microbial Identification System) Sherlock analysis of the bacterial community determined the presence of dominant Gram-negative bacteria (G-) Pseudomonas in the inoculated soil before the application of fungi. Complex soil microbial community was characterized by phospholipid fatty acids analysis followed by GC-MS/MS. Either fungus induced the decrease of bacterial biomass (G- bacteria in particular), but the soil microbial community was influenced by P. ostreatus in a different way than by I. lacteus. The bacterial community was stressed more by the presence of I. lacteus than P. ostreatus (as proved by the ratio of the fungal/bacterial markers and by the ratio of trans/cis mono-unsaturated fatty acids). Moreover, P. ostreatus stimulated the growth of Gram-positive bacteria (G+), especially actinobacteria and these results indicate the potential of the positive synergistic interaction of this fungus and actinobacteria in creosote biodegradation.

  3. A non-classical assembly pathway of Escherichia coli pore-forming toxin cytolysin A.

    PubMed

    Fahie, Monifa; Romano, Fabian B; Chisholm, Christina; Heuck, Alejandro P; Zbinden, Mark; Chen, Min

    2013-10-25

    Cytolysin A (ClyA) is an α-pore forming toxin from pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella enterica. Here, we report that E. coli ClyA assembles into an oligomeric structure in solution in the absence of either bilayer membranes or detergents at physiological temperature. These oligomers can rearrange to create transmembrane pores when in contact with detergents or biological membranes. Intrinsic fluorescence measurements revealed that oligomers adopted an intermediate state found during the transition between monomer and transmembrane pore. These results indicate that the water-soluble oligomer represents a prepore intermediate state. Furthermore, we show that ClyA does not form transmembrane pores on E. coli lipid membranes. Because ClyA is delivered to the target host cell in an oligomeric conformation within outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), our findings suggest ClyA forms a prepore oligomeric structure independently of the lipid membrane within the OMV. The proposed model for ClyA represents a non-classical pathway to attack eukaryotic host cells.

  4. Revisiting the oligomerization mechanism of Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, a beta-barrel pore-forming toxin.

    PubMed

    Rai, Anand Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2016-06-03

    Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a membrane-damaging beta-barrel pore-forming toxin (beta-PFT). VCC causes permeabilization of the target membranes by forming transmembrane oligomeric beta-barrel pores. Oligomerization is a key step in the mode of action of any beta-PFT, including that of VCC. Earlier studies have identified some of the key residues in VCC that are directly involved in the generation of the inter-protomer contacts, thus playing critical roles in the oligomerization of the membrane-bound toxin. Analysis of the VCC oligomeric pore structure reveals a potential hydrogen-bond network that appears to connect the sidechain of an asparagine residue (Asn582; located within an inter-domain linker sequence) from one protomer to the backbone CO- and NH-groups of the neighbouring protomer, indirectly through water molecules at most of the inter-protomer interfaces. In the present study, we show that the mutation of Asn582Ala affects the oligomerization and the pore-forming activity of VCC in the membrane lipid bilayer of the synthetic lipid vesicles, while the replacement of Asn582Gln results into the restoration of the oligomeric pore-forming ability of the toxin. Using a number of truncated variants of VCC, having deletion in the C-terminal region of the toxin starting from the Asn582 residue or beyond, we also show that the presence of Asn582 is critically required for the oligomerization of the truncated form of the protein.

  5. A new model for pore formation by cholesterol-dependent cytolysins.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Cyril F; Whisstock, James C; Dunstone, Michelle A

    2014-08-01

    Cholesterol Dependent Cytolysins (CDCs) are important bacterial virulence factors that form large (200-300 Å) membrane embedded pores in target cells. Currently, insights from X-ray crystallography, biophysical and single particle cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM) experiments suggest that soluble monomers first interact with the membrane surface via a C-terminal Immunoglobulin-like domain (Ig; Domain 4). Membrane bound oligomers then assemble into a prepore oligomeric form, following which the prepore assembly collapses towards the membrane surface, with concomitant release and insertion of the membrane spanning subunits. During this rearrangement it is proposed that Domain 2, a region comprising three β-strands that links the pore forming region (Domains 1 and 3) and the Ig domain, must undergo a significant yet currently undetermined, conformational change. Here we address this problem through a systematic molecular modeling and structural bioinformatics approach. Our work shows that simple rigid body rotations may account for the observed collapse of the prepore towards the membrane surface. Support for this idea comes from analysis of published cryo-EM maps of the pneumolysin pore, available crystal structures and molecular dynamics simulations. The latter data in particular reveal that Domains 1, 2 and 4 are able to undergo significant rotational movements with respect to each other. Together, our data provide new and testable insights into the mechanism of pore formation by CDCs.

  6. A New Model for Pore Formation by Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysins

    PubMed Central

    Reboul, Cyril F.; Whisstock, James C.; Dunstone, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol Dependent Cytolysins (CDCs) are important bacterial virulence factors that form large (200–300 Å) membrane embedded pores in target cells. Currently, insights from X-ray crystallography, biophysical and single particle cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM) experiments suggest that soluble monomers first interact with the membrane surface via a C-terminal Immunoglobulin-like domain (Ig; Domain 4). Membrane bound oligomers then assemble into a prepore oligomeric form, following which the prepore assembly collapses towards the membrane surface, with concomitant release and insertion of the membrane spanning subunits. During this rearrangement it is proposed that Domain 2, a region comprising three β-strands that links the pore forming region (Domains 1 and 3) and the Ig domain, must undergo a significant yet currently undetermined, conformational change. Here we address this problem through a systematic molecular modeling and structural bioinformatics approach. Our work shows that simple rigid body rotations may account for the observed collapse of the prepore towards the membrane surface. Support for this idea comes from analysis of published cryo-EM maps of the pneumolysin pore, available crystal structures and molecular dynamics simulations. The latter data in particular reveal that Domains 1, 2 and 4 are able to undergo significant rotational movements with respect to each other. Together, our data provide new and testable insights into the mechanism of pore formation by CDCs. PMID:25144725

  7. Stepwise visualization of membrane pore formation by suilysin, a bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysin

    PubMed Central

    Lukoyanova, Natalya; Hodel, Adrian W; Farabella, Irene; Pandurangan, Arun P; Jahan, Nasrin; Pires Damaso, Mafalda; Osmanović, Dino; Reboul, Cyril F; Dunstone, Michelle A; Andrew, Peter W; Lonnen, Rana; Topf, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Membrane attack complex/perforin/cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (MACPF/CDC) proteins constitute a major superfamily of pore-forming proteins that act as bacterial virulence factors and effectors in immune defence. Upon binding to the membrane, they convert from the soluble monomeric form to oligomeric, membrane-inserted pores. Using real-time atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron microscopy (EM), and atomic structure fitting, we have mapped the structure and assembly pathways of a bacterial CDC in unprecedented detail and accuracy, focussing on suilysin from Streptococcus suis. We show that suilysin assembly is a noncooperative process that is terminated before the protein inserts into the membrane. The resulting ring-shaped pores and kinetically trapped arc-shaped assemblies are all seen to perforate the membrane, as also visible by the ejection of its lipids. Membrane insertion requires a concerted conformational change of the monomeric subunits, with a marked expansion in pore diameter due to large changes in subunit structure and packing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04247.001 PMID:25457051

  8. Protective role of autophagy against Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, a pore-forming toxin from V. cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel; Saka, Hector Alex; Chinen, Isabel; Zoppino, Felipe C. M.; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Bocco, Jose Luis; Colombo, María Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Autophagy is the unique, regulated mechanism for the degradation of organelles. This intracellular process acts as a prosurvival pathway during cell starvation or stress and is also involved in cellular response against specific bacterial infections. Vibrio cholerae is a noninvasive intestinal pathogen that has been studied extensively as the causative agent of the human disease cholera. V. cholerae illness is produced primarily through the expression of a potent toxin (cholera toxin) within the human intestine. Besides cholera toxin, this bacterium secretes a hemolytic exotoxin termed V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC) that causes extensive vacuolation in epithelial cells. In this work, we explored the relationship between the vacuolation caused by VCC and the autophagic pathway. Treatment of cells with VCC increased the punctate distribution of LC3, a feature indicative of autophagosome formation. Moreover, VCC-induced vacuoles colocalized with LC3 in several cell lines, including human intestinal Caco-2 cells, indicating the interaction of the large vacuoles with autophagic vesicles. Electron microscopy analysis confirmed that the vacuoles caused by VCC presented hallmarks of autophagosomes. Additionally, biochemical evidence demonstrated the degradative nature of the VCC-generated vacuoles. Interestingly, autophagy inhibition resulted in decreased survival of Caco-2 cells upon VCC intoxication. Also, VCC failed to induce vacuolization in Atg5−/− cells, and the survival response of these cells against the toxin was dramatically impaired. These results demonstrate that autophagy acts as a cellular defense pathway against secreted bacterial toxins. PMID:17267617

  9. Induction, Purification and Characterization of a Novel Manganese Peroxidase from Irpex lacteus CD2 and Its Application in the Decolorization of Different Types of Dye

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xing; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is the one of the important ligninolytic enzymes produced by lignin-degrading fungi which has the great application value in the field of environmental biotechnology. Searching for new MnP with stronger tolerance to metal ions and organic solvents is important for the maximization of potential of MnP in the biodegradation of recalcitrant xenobiotics. In this study, it was found that oxalic acid, veratryl alcohol and 2,6-Dimehoxyphenol could stimulate the synthesis of MnP in the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2. A novel manganese peroxidase named as CD2-MnP was purified and characterized from this fungus. CD2-MnP had a strong capability for tolerating different metal ions such as Ca2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ as well as organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, DMSO, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, butanediol and glycerin. The different types of dyes including the azo dye (Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R, Direct Red 5B), anthraquinone dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue R), indigo dye (Indigo Carmine) and triphenylmethane dye (Methyl Green) as well as simulated textile wastewater could be efficiently decolorized by CD2-MnP. CD2-MnP also had a strong ability of decolorizing different dyes with the coexistence of metal ions and organic solvents. In summary, CD2-MnP from Irpex lacteus CD2 could effectively degrade a broad range of synthetic dyes and exhibit a great potential for environmental biotechnology. PMID:25412169

  10. Mutations affecting export and activity of cytolysin A from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Albrecht; Völkerink, Guido; von Rhein, Christine; Bauer, Susanne; Maier, Elke; Bergmann, Birgit; Goebel, Werner; Benz, Roland

    2010-08-01

    Cytolysin A (known as ClyA, HlyE, and SheA) is a cytolytic pore-forming protein toxin found in several Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains. The structure of its water-soluble monomeric form and that of dodecameric ClyA pores is known, but the mechanisms of ClyA export from bacterial cells and of pore assembly are only partially understood. Here we used site-directed mutagenesis to study the importance of different regions of the E. coli ClyA protein for export and activity. The data indicate that ClyA translocation to the periplasm requires several protein segments located closely adjacent to each other in the "tail" domain of the ClyA monomer, namely, the N- and C-terminal regions and the hydrophobic sequence ranging from residues 89 to 101. Deletion of most of the "head" domain of the monomer (residues 181 to 203), on the other hand, did not strongly affect ClyA secretion, suggesting that the tail domain plays a particular role in export. Furthermore, we found that the N-terminal amphipathic helix alphaA1 of ClyA is crucial for the formation and the properties of the transmembrane channel, and hence for hemolytic activity. Several mutations affecting the C-terminal helix alphaG, the "beta-tongue" region in the head domain, or the hydrophobic region in the tail domain of the ClyA monomer strongly impaired the hemolytic activity and reduced the activity toward planar lipid bilayer membranes but did not totally prevent formation of wild-type-like channels in these artificial membranes. The latter regions thus apparently promote membrane interaction without being directly required for pore formation in a lipid bilayer.

  11. The Unique Molecular Choreography of Giant Pore Formation by the Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysins of Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tweten, Rodney K; Hotze, Eileen M; Wade, Kristin R

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which the cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) assemble their giant β-barrel pore in cholesterol-rich membranes has been the subject of intense study in the past two decades. A combination of structural, biophysical, and biochemical analyses has revealed deep insights into the series of complex and highly choreographed secondary and tertiary structural transitions that the CDCs undergo to assemble their β-barrel pore in eukaryotic membranes. Our knowledge of the molecular details of these dramatic structural changes in CDCs has transformed our understanding of how giant pore complexes are assembled and has been critical to our understanding of the mechanisms of other important classes of pore-forming toxins and proteins across the kingdoms of life. Finally, there are tantalizing hints that the CDC pore-forming mechanism is more sophisticated than previously imagined and that some CDCs are employed in pore-independent processes.

  12. Occurrence and characteristics of the cytolysin A gene in Shigella strains and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    von Rhein, Christine; Bauer, Susanne; Simon, Valeska; Ludwig, Albrecht

    2008-10-01

    Cytolysin A (ClyA, HlyE, SheA) is a hemolytic pore-forming toxin found in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In the present study, analysis of several Shigella strains revealed that they harbor only nonfunctional clyA gene copies that have been inactivated either by the integration of insertion sequence (IS) elements (Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella boydii, and Shigella sonnei strains) or by a frameshift mutation (Shigella flexneri). Shigella dysenteriae and S. boydii strains also exhibited IS-associated deletions at the clyA locus. PCR and Southern blot analyses as well as database searches indicated that clyA-related DNA sequences are completely absent in strains belonging to various other genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae. According to these data, ClyA may play a role only for a rather small subset of the enteric bacteria.

  13. Contrasted responses of Ruditapes decussatus (filter and deposit feeding) and Loripes lacteus (symbiotic) exposed to polymetallic contamination (Port-Camargue, France).

    PubMed

    Caro, Audrey; Chereau, Gaetan; Briant, Nicolas; Roques, Cécile; Freydier, Rémi; Delpoux, Sophie; Escalas, Arthur; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise

    2015-02-01

    The use of symbiotic bivalve species to assess the effect of anthropogenic metal pollution was rarely investigated whereas data on filter feeding bivalves are common. The aim of this study was the exposure of two bivalve species, Ruditapes decussatus and Loripes lacteus to polymetallic pollution gradient, originating from harbor activities (Port-Camargue, south of France). Both bivalves differ by their trophic status, filter and deposit feeder for Ruditapes and symbiotic for Loripes that underlies potential differences in metal sensibility. The bivalves were immerged in July (for Ruditapes during 2 and 8 days) and in August 2012 (for Loripes during 2, 6 and 8 days) in the water column of the harbor, at 3 stations according to pollution gradient. Metal concentrations (Cu, Mn, Zn) in the water column were quantified as dissolved metals (measured by ICP-MS) and as labile metals (measured by ICP-MS using DGT technique). For each exposure time, accumulation of metals in the soft tissue of bivalves ("bioaccumulation") was measured for both species. In addition, specific parameters, according to the trophic status of each bivalve, were investigated: filtering activity (specific clearance rate, SCR) for Ruditapes, and relative cell size (SSC) and genomic content (FL1) of bacterial symbionts hosted in the gills of Loripes. The SCR of Ruditapes drops from 100% (control) to 34.7% after 2 days of exposure in the less contaminated site (station 8). On the other hand, the relative cell size (SSC) and genomic content (FL1), measured by flow cytometry were not impacted by the pollution gradient. Bioaccumulation was compared for both species, showing a greater capability of Cu accumulation for Loripes without lethal effect. Mn, Fe and Zn were generally not accumulated by any of the species according to the pollution gradient. The trophic status of each species may greatly influence their respective responses to polymetallic pollution.

  14. Effects of lipid composition on membrane permeabilization by sticholysin I and II, two cytolysins of the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.

    PubMed

    Valcarcel, C A; Dalla Serra, M; Potrich, C; Bernhart, I; Tejuca, M; Martinez, D; Pazos, F; Lanio, M E; Menestrina, G

    2001-06-01

    Sticholysin I and II (St I and St II), two basic cytolysins purified from the Caribbean sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, efficiently permeabilize lipid vesicles by forming pores in their membranes. A general characteristic of these toxins is their preference for membranes containing sphingomyelin (SM). As a consequence, vesicles formed by equimolar mixtures of SM with phosphatidylcholine (PC) are very good targets for St I and II. To better characterize the lipid dependence of the cytolysin-membrane interaction, we have now evaluated the effect of including different lipids in the composition of the vesicles. We observed that at low doses of either St I or St II vesicles composed of SM and phosphatidic acid (PA) were permeabilized faster and to a higher extent than vesicles of PC and SM. As in the case of PC/SM mixtures, permeabilization was optimal when the molar ratio of PA/SM was ~1. The preference for membranes containing PA was confirmed by inhibition experiments in which the hemolytic activity of St I was diminished by pre-incubation with vesicles of different composition. The inclusion of even small proportions of PA into PC/SM LUVs led to a marked increase in calcein release caused by both St I and St II, reaching maximal effect at ~5 mol % of PA. Inclusion of other negatively charged lipids (phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylinositol (PI), or cardiolipin (CL)), all at 5 mol %, also elicited an increase in calcein release, the potency being in the order CL approximately PA > PG approximately PI approximately PS. However, some boosting effect was also obtained, including the zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or even, albeit to a lesser extent, the positively charged lipid stearylamine (SA). This indicated that the effect was not mediated by electrostatic interactions between the cytolysin and the negative surface of the vesicles. In fact, increasing the ionic strength of the medium had only a small inhibitory

  15. Effects of lipid composition on membrane permeabilization by sticholysin I and II, two cytolysins of the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.

    PubMed Central

    Valcarcel, C A; Dalla Serra, M; Potrich, C; Bernhart, I; Tejuca, M; Martinez, D; Pazos, F; Lanio, M E; Menestrina, G

    2001-01-01

    Sticholysin I and II (St I and St II), two basic cytolysins purified from the Caribbean sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, efficiently permeabilize lipid vesicles by forming pores in their membranes. A general characteristic of these toxins is their preference for membranes containing sphingomyelin (SM). As a consequence, vesicles formed by equimolar mixtures of SM with phosphatidylcholine (PC) are very good targets for St I and II. To better characterize the lipid dependence of the cytolysin-membrane interaction, we have now evaluated the effect of including different lipids in the composition of the vesicles. We observed that at low doses of either St I or St II vesicles composed of SM and phosphatidic acid (PA) were permeabilized faster and to a higher extent than vesicles of PC and SM. As in the case of PC/SM mixtures, permeabilization was optimal when the molar ratio of PA/SM was ~1. The preference for membranes containing PA was confirmed by inhibition experiments in which the hemolytic activity of St I was diminished by pre-incubation with vesicles of different composition. The inclusion of even small proportions of PA into PC/SM LUVs led to a marked increase in calcein release caused by both St I and St II, reaching maximal effect at ~5 mol % of PA. Inclusion of other negatively charged lipids (phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylinositol (PI), or cardiolipin (CL)), all at 5 mol %, also elicited an increase in calcein release, the potency being in the order CL approximately PA >> PG approximately PI approximately PS. However, some boosting effect was also obtained, including the zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or even, albeit to a lesser extent, the positively charged lipid stearylamine (SA). This indicated that the effect was not mediated by electrostatic interactions between the cytolysin and the negative surface of the vesicles. In fact, increasing the ionic strength of the medium had only a small

  16. Mechanism of membrane permeabilization by sticholysin I, a cytolysin isolated from the venom of the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.

    PubMed

    Tejuca, M; Serra, M D; Ferreras, M; Lanio, M E; Menestrina, G

    1996-11-26

    Actinaria cytolysins are very potent basic toxins isolated from the venom of sea anemones, which are supposed to exert their toxic activity through formation of oligomeric pores in the host plasma membrane. To gain insight into their mechanism of action, the interaction of Stichodactyla helianthus sticholysin I (St-I) with lipid bilayers was studied. St-I increased the permeability of calcein-loaded lipid vesicles composed of different phospholipids. The rate of permeabilization improved when sphingomyelin (SM) was introduced into phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles, reaching an optimum value at equimolar concentrations of these two phospholipids. It was also a function of the pH, showing a local maximum of activity between pH 8 and 9 and a marked decrease at pH 10 and 11. Under optimal conditions (e.g., PC:SM 1:1, pH 8, toxin to vesicle ratio < 200), most of the toxin is bound to the lipid phase. The reduced toxin effect at low and high SM content, or at high pH, is principally due to a decreased toxin binding. From the dose dependence of the permeabilization, at constant lipid concentration, it was inferred that St-I increases membrane permeability by forming oligomeric pores comprising at least three cytolysin monomers. The involvement of oligomers was also suggested by the dependence of calcein release on the vesicle concentration at constant toxin dose. In fact, the time course of dye release was well described under all circumstances by a kinetic model which assumes that trimerization leads to a conductive pore. All the relevant equilibrium and rate constants were derived. Addition of St-I to one side of a planar lipid membrane increased the conductivity of the film in discrete steps of defined amplitude, indicating the formation of ion channels. The dose dependence of this effect was the same as with LUV. The channel was cation-selective and its conductance suggested a functional radius of about 1.0 nm, consistent with the size of the lesion previously

  17. A family of antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptides related to the frenatins from skin secretions of the Orinoco lime frog Sphaenorhynchus lacteus (Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena; Radosavljevic, Gordana; Attoub, Samir; King, Jay D; Lukic, Miodrag L; McClean, Stephen

    2014-06-01

    Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the Orinoco lime tree frog Sphaenorhynchus lacteus (Hylidae, Hylinae) revealed the presence of three structurally related host-defense peptides with limited sequence similarity to frenatin 2 from Litoria infrafrenata (Hylidae, Pelodryadinae) and frenatin 2D from Discoglossus sardus (Alytidae). Frenatin 2.1S (GLVGTLLGHIGKAILG.NH2) and frenatin 2.2S (GLVGTLLGHIGKAILS.NH2) are C-terminally α-amidated but frenatin 2.3S (GLVGTLLGHIGKAILG) is not. Frenatin 2.1S and 2.2S show potent bactericidal activity against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC ≤16μM) but are less active against a range of Gram-negative bacteria. Frenatin 2.1S (LC50=80±6 μM) and 2.2S (LC50=75±5 μM) are cytotoxic against non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells but are less hemolytic against human erythrocytes (LC50=167±8 μM for frenatin 2.1S and 169±7 μM for 2.2S). Weak antimicrobial and cytotoxic potencies of frenatin 2.3S demonstrate the importance of C-terminal α-amidation for activity. Frenatin 2.1S and 2.2S significantly (P<0.05) increased production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-23 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages and frenatin 2.1S also enhanced production of TNF-α. Effects on IL-6 production were not significant. Frenatin 2.2S significantly downregulated production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by LPS-stimulated cells. The data support speculation that frenatins act on skin macrophages to produce a cytokine-mediated stimulation of the adaptive immune system in response to invasion by microorganisms. They may represent a template for the design of peptides with therapeutic applications as immunostimulatory agents.

  18. Revisiting the membrane interaction mechanism of a membrane-damaging β-barrel pore-forming toxin Vibrio cholerae cytolysin.

    PubMed

    Rai, Anand Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) permeabilizes target cell membranes by forming transmembrane oligomeric β-barrel pores. VCC has been shown to associate with the target membranes via amphipathicity-driven spontaneous partitioning into the membrane environment. More specific interaction(s) of VCC with the membrane components have also been documented. In particular, specific binding of VCC with the membrane lipid components is believed to play a crucial role in determining the efficacy of the pore-formation process. However, the structural basis and the functional implications of the VCC interaction with the membrane lipids remain unclear. Here we show that the distinct loop sequences within the membrane-proximal region of VCC play critical roles to determine the functional interactions of the toxin with the membrane lipids. Alterations of the loop sequences via structure-guided mutagenesis allow amphipathicity-driven partitioning of VCC to the membrane lipid bilayer. Alterations of the loop sequences, however, block specific interactions of VCC with the membrane lipids and abort the oligomerization, membrane insertion, pore-formation and cytotoxic activity of the toxin. Present study identifies the structural signatures in VCC implicated for its functional interactions with the membrane lipid components, a process that presumably acts to drive the subsequent steps of the oligomeric β-barrel pore-formation and cytotoxic responses.

  19. Cellular Functions and X-ray Structure of Anthrolysin O, a Cholesterol-dependent Cytolysin Secreted by Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Bourdeau, Raymond W.; Malito, Enrico; Chenal, Alexandre; Bishop, Brian L.; Musch, Mark W.; Villereal, Mitch L.; Chang, Eugene B.; Mosser, Elise M.; Rest, Richard F.; Tang, Wei-Jen

    2009-06-02

    Anthrolysin O (ALO) is a pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) secreted by Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent for anthrax. Growing evidence suggests the involvement of ALO in anthrax pathogenesis. Here, we show that the apical application of ALO decreases the barrier function of human polarized epithelial cells as well as increases intracellular calcium and the internalization of the tight junction protein occludin. Using pharmacological agents, we also found that barrier function disruption requires increased intracellular calcium and protein degradation. We also report a crystal structure of the soluble state of ALO. Based on our analytical ultracentrifugation and light scattering studies, ALO exists as a monomer. Our ALO structure provides the molecular basis as to how ALO is locked in a monomeric state, in contrast to other CDCs that undergo antiparallel dimerization or higher order oligomerization in solution. ALO has four domains and is globally similar to perfringolysin O (PFO) and intermedilysin (ILY), yet the highly conserved undecapeptide region in domain 4 (D4) adopts a completely different conformation in all three CDCs. Consistent with the differences within D4 and at the D2-D4 interface, we found that ALO D4 plays a key role in affecting the barrier function of C2BBE cells, whereas PFO domain 4 cannot substitute for this role. Novel structural elements and unique cellular functions of ALO revealed by our studies provide new insight into the molecular basis for the diverse nature of the CDC family.

  20. Characterization of a Streptococcal Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin with a Lewis y and b Specific Lectin Domain†

    PubMed Central

    Farrand, Stephen; Hotze, Eileen; Friese, Paul; Hollingshead, Susan K.; Smith, David F.; Cummings, Richard D.; Dale, George L.; Tweten, Rodney K.

    2008-01-01

    The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are a large family of pore-forming toxins that often exhibit distinct structural changes that modify their pore-forming activity. A soluble platelet aggregation factor from Streptococcus mitis (Sm-hPAF) was characterized and shown to be a functional CDC with an amino-terminal fucose-binding lectin domain. Sm-hPAF, or lectinolysin (LLY) as renamed herein, is most closely related to CDCs from Streptococcus intermedius (ILY) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumolysin or PLY). The LLY gene was identified in strains of S. mitis, S. pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae. LLY induces pore-dependent changes in the light scattering properties of the platelets that mimic those induced by platelet aggregation but does not induce platelet aggregation. LLY monomers form the typical large homooligomeric membrane pore complex observed for the CDCs. The pore-forming activity of LLY on platelets is modulated by the amino-terminal lectin domain, a structure that is not present in other CDCs. Glycan microarray analysis showed the lectin domain is specific for difucosylated glycans within Lewis b (Leb) and Lewis y (Ley) antigens. The glycan-binding site is occluded in the soluble monomer of LLY but is apparently exposed after cell binding, since it significantly increases LLY pore-forming activity in a glycan-dependent manner. Hence, LLY represents a new class of CDC whose pore-forming mechanism is modulated by a glycan-binding domain. PMID:18553932

  1. Transmembrane oligomeric form of Vibrio cholerae cytolysin triggers TLR2/TLR6-dependent proinflammatory responses in monocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Khilwani, Barkha; Mukhopadhaya, Arunika; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2015-02-15

    Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) kills target eukaryotic cells by forming transmembrane oligomeric β-barrel pores. Once irreversibly converted into the transmembrane oligomeric form, VCC acquires an unusual structural stability and loses its cytotoxic property. It is therefore possible that, on exertion of its cytotoxic activity, the oligomeric form of VCC retained in the disintegrated membrane fractions of the lysed cells would survive within the host cellular milieu for a long period, without causing any further cytotoxicity. Under such circumstances, VCC oligomers may potentially be recognized by the host immune cells. Based on such a hypothesis, in the present study we explored the interaction of the transmembrane oligomeric form of VCC with the monocytes and macrophages of the innate immune system. Our study shows that the VCC oligomers assembled in the liposome membranes elicit potent proinflammatory responses in monocytes and macrophages, via stimulation of the toll-like receptor (TLR)2/TLR6-dependent signalling cascades that involve myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/interleukin-1-receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)1/tumour-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated factor (TRAF)6. VCC oligomer-mediated proinflammatory responses critically depend on the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. Proinflammatory responses induced by the VCC oligomers also require activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family member c-Jun N-terminal kinase, which presumably acts via stimulation of the transcription factor activator protein-1. Notably, the role of the MAPK p38 could not be documented in the process.

  2. The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins pneumolysin and streptolysin O require binding to red blood cell glycans for hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Shewell, Lucy K; Harvey, Richard M; Higgins, Melanie A; Day, Christopher J; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren E; Chen, Austen Y; Gillen, Christine M; James, David B A; Alonzo, Francis; Torres, Victor J; Walker, Mark J; Paton, Adrienne W; Paton, James C; Jennings, Michael P

    2014-12-09

    The cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) pneumolysin (Ply) is a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Membrane cholesterol is required for the cytolytic activity of this toxin, but it is not clear whether cholesterol is the only cellular receptor. Analysis of Ply binding to a glycan microarray revealed that Ply has lectin activity and binds glycans, including the Lewis histo-blood group antigens. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that Ply has the highest affinity for the sialyl LewisX (sLeX) structure, with a K(d) of 1.88 × 10(-5) M. Ply hemolytic activity against human RBCs showed dose-dependent inhibition by sLeX. Flow cytometric analysis and Western blots showed that blocking binding of Ply to the sLeX glycolipid on RBCs prevents deposition of the toxin in the membrane. The lectin domain responsible for sLeX binding is in domain 4 of Ply, which contains candidate carbohydrate-binding sites. Mutagenesis of these predicted carbohydrate-binding residues of Ply resulted in a decrease in hemolytic activity and a reduced affinity for sLeX. This study reveals that this archetypal CDC requires interaction with the sLeX glycolipid cellular receptor as an essential step before membrane insertion. A similar analysis conducted on streptolysin O from Streptococcus pyogenes revealed that this CDC also has glycan-binding properties and that hemolytic activity against RBCs can be blocked with the glycan lacto-N-neotetraose by inhibiting binding to the cell surface. Together, these data support the emerging paradigm shift that pore-forming toxins, including CDCs, have cellular receptors other than cholesterol that define target cell tropism.

  3. The Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin Pneumolysin from Streptococcus pneumoniae Binds to Lipid Raft Microdomains in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sidney D.; Sanders, Melissa E.; Tullos, Nathan A.; Stray, Stephen J.; Norcross, Erin W.; McDaniel, Larry S.; Marquart, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen responsible for causing several human diseases including pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media. Pneumococcus is also a major cause of human ocular infections and is commonly isolated in cases of bacterial keratitis, an infection of the cornea. The ocular pathology that occurs during pneumococcal keratitis is partly due to the actions of pneumolysin (Ply), a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin produced by pneumococcus. The lytic mechanism of Ply is a three step process beginning with surface binding to cholesterol. Multiple Ply monomers then oligomerize to form a prepore. The prepore then undergoes a conformational change that creates a large pore in the host cell membrane, resulting in cell lysis. We engineered a collection of single amino acid substitution mutants at residues (A370, A406, W433, and L460) that are crucial to the progression of the lytic mechanism and determined the effects that these mutations had on lytic function. Both PlyWT and the mutant Ply molecules (PlyA370G, PlyA370E, PlyA406G, PlyA406E, PlyW433G, PlyW433E, PlyW433F, PlyL460G, and PlyL460E) were able to bind to the surface of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) with similar efficiency. Additionally, PlyWT localized to cholesterol-rich microdomains on the HCEC surface, however, only one mutant (PlyA370G) was able to duplicate this behavior. Four of the 9 mutant Ply molecules (PlyA370E, PlyW433G, PlyW433E, and PlyL460E) were deficient in oligomer formation. Lastly, all of the mutant Ply molecules, except PlyA370G, exhibited significantly impaired lytic activity on HCECs. The other 8 mutants all experienced a reduction in lytic activity, but 4 of the 8 retained the ability to oligomerize. A thorough understanding of the molecular interactions that occur between Ply and the target cell, could lead to targeted treatments aimed to reduce the pathology observed during pneumococcal keratitis. PMID:23577214

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of θ-toxin (perfringolysin O), a pore-forming cytolysin of Clostridium perfringens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Sekino-Suzuki, Naoko; Ohno-Iwashita, Yoshiko; Miki, Kunio

    1996-10-01

    θ-Toxin (perfringolysin O), a cholesterol-binding, pore-forming cytolysin of Clostridium perfringens type A was crystallized by the vapor diffusion procedure using polyethyleneglycol 4000 and sodium chloride as precipitants in 2-(cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid (CHES) buffer at pH 9.5. The diffraction patterns of precession photographs indicated that the crystals belong to the orthorhombic system and the space group C222 1 with unit-cell dimensions of a = 47.7 Å, b = 182.0 Å and c = 175.8 Å. Assuming that the asymmetric unit contains one or two molecules (Mw 52 700), the Vm value is calculated as 3.6 or 1.8 Å 3/dalton, respectively. The crystals diffract X-rays to at least 3 Å resolution and are suitable for high resolution X-ray crystal structure determination.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of an Enterococcus faecalis repressor protein, CylR2, involved in regulating cytolysin production through quorum-sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Shuisong; McAteer, Kathleen; Bussiere, Dirksen E.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2004-06-01

    CylR2 is one of the two regulatory proteins associated with the quorum-sensing-dependent synthesis of cytolysin for the common pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. The protein was expressed with a C-terminal 6-histidine tag and purified to homogeneity with a cobalt affinity column followed by another size exclusion column. Both native and SeMet proteins were crystallized. A complete X-ray diffraction data set from the native crystal was collected to 2.3 resolution. The crystal was tetragonal, belonging to space group P41/43, with unit-cell dimensions a=b=66.2 , c=40.9 and a=b=g=90. The asymmetric unit contained two molecules of CylR2.

  6. Structure of the Lectin Regulatory Domain of the Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin Lectinolysin Reveals the Basis for Its Lewis Antigen Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Feil, Susanne C.; Lawrence, Sara; Mulhern, Terrence D.; Holien, Jessica K.; Hotze, Eileen M.; Farrand, Stephen; Tweten, Rodney K.; Parker, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) punch holes in target cell membranes through a highly regulated process. Streptococcus mitis lectinolysin (LLY) exhibits another layer of regulation with a lectin domain that enhances the pore-forming activity of the toxin. We have determined the crystal structures of the lectin domain by itself and in complex with various glycans that reveal the molecular basis for the Lewis antigen specificity of LLY. A small-angle X-ray scattering study of intact LLY reveals the molecule is flat and elongated with the lectin domain oriented so that the Lewis antigen-binding site is exposed. We suggest that the lectin domain enhances the pore-forming activity of LLY by concentrating toxin molecules at fucose-rich sites on membranes, thus promoting the formation of pre-pore oligomers on the surface of susceptible cells. PMID:22325774

  7. Pre-pore oligomer formation by Vibrio cholerae cytolysin: insights from a truncated variant lacking the pore-forming pre-stem loop.

    PubMed

    Paul, Karan; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2014-01-03

    Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC), a β-barrel pore-forming toxin (β-PFT), induces killing of the target eukaryotic cells by forming heptameric transmembrane β-barrel pores. Consistent with the β-PFT mode of action, binding of the VCC toxin monomers with the target cell membrane triggers formation of pre-pore oligomeric intermediates, followed by membrane insertion of the β-strands contributed by the pre-stem motif within the central cytolysin domain of each protomer. It has been shown previously that blocking of membrane insertion of the VCC pre-stem motif arrests conversion of the pre-pore state to the functional transmembrane pore. Consistent with the generalized β-PFT mechanism, it therefore appears that the VCC pre-stem motif plays a critical role toward forming the structural scaffold of the transmembrane β-barrel pore. It is, however, still not known whether the pre-stem motif plays any role in the membrane interaction process, and subsequent pre-pore structure formation by VCC. In this direction, we have constructed a recombinant variant of VCC deleting the pre-stem region, and have characterized the effect(s) of physical absence of the pre-stem motif on the distinct steps of the membrane pore-formation process. Our results show that the deletion of the pre-stem segment does not affect membrane binding and pre-pore oligomer formation by the toxin, but it critically abrogates the functional pore-forming activity of VCC. Present study extends our insights regarding the structure-function mechanism associated with the membrane pore formation by VCC, in the context of the β-PFT mode of action.

  8. The Pore-Forming Toxin β hemolysin/cytolysin Triggers p38 MAPK-Dependent IL-10 Production in Macrophages and Inhibits Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bebien, Magali; Hensler, Mary E.; Davanture, Suzel; Hsu, Li-Chung; Karin, Michael; Park, Jin Mo; Alexopoulou, Lena; Liu, George Y.; Nizet, Victor; Lawrence, Toby

    2012-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in human newborns and immune-compromised adults. The pore-forming toxin (PFT) β hemolysin/cytolysin (βh/c) is a major virulence factor for GBS, which is generally attributed to its cytolytic functions. Here we show βh/c has immunomodulatory properties on macrophages at sub-lytic concentrations. βh/c-mediated activation of p38 MAPK drives expression of the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, and inhibits both IL-12 and NOS2 expression in GBS-infected macrophages, which are critical factors in host defense. Isogenic mutant bacteria lacking βh/c fail to activate p38-mediated IL-10 production in macrophages and promote increased IL-12 and NOS2 expression. Furthermore, targeted deletion of p38 in macrophages increases resistance to invasive GBS infection in mice, associated with impaired IL-10 induction and increased IL-12 production in vivo. These data suggest p38 MAPK activation by βh/c contributes to evasion of host defense through induction of IL-10 expression and inhibition of macrophage activation, a new mechanism of action for a PFT and a novel anti-inflammatory role for p38 in the pathogenesis of invasive bacterial infection. Our studies suggest p38 MAPK may represent a new therapeutic target to blunt virulence and improve clinical outcome of invasive GBS infection. PMID:22829768

  9. Transcription and translation products of the cytolysin gene psm-mec on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate Staphylococcus aureus virulence.

    PubMed

    Kaito, Chikara; Saito, Yuki; Nagano, Gentaro; Ikuo, Mariko; Omae, Yosuke; Hanada, Yuichi; Han, Xiao; Kuwahara-Arai, Kyoko; Hishinuma, Tomomi; Baba, Tadashi; Ito, Teruyo; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2011-02-03

    The F region downstream of the mecI gene in the SCCmec element in hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) contains two bidirectionally overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), the fudoh ORF and the psm-mec ORF. The psm-mec ORF encodes a cytolysin, phenol-soluble modulin (PSM)-mec. Transformation of the F region into the Newman strain, which is a methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strain, or into the MW2 (USA400) and FRP3757 (USA300) strains, which are community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains that lack the F region, attenuated their virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. Introducing the F region to these strains suppressed colony-spreading activity and PSMα production, and promoted biofilm formation. By producing mutations into the psm-mec ORF, we revealed that (i) both the transcription and translation products of the psm-mec ORF suppressed colony-spreading activity and promoted biofilm formation; and (ii) the transcription product of the psm-mec ORF, but not its translation product, decreased PSMα production. These findings suggest that both the psm-mec transcript, acting as a regulatory RNA, and the PSM-mec protein encoded by the gene on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. Pathogenesis of Streptococcus urinary tract infection depends on bacterial strain and β-hemolysin/cytolysin that mediates cytotoxicity, cytokine synthesis, inflammation and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Sophie Y.; Sullivan, Matthew J.; Ipe, Deepak S.; Smith, Joshua P.; Cripps, Allan W.; Ulett, Glen C.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae can cause urinary tract infection (UTI) including cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). The early host-pathogen interactions that occur during S. agalactiae UTI and subsequent mechanisms of disease pathogenesis are poorly defined. Here, we define the early interactions between human bladder urothelial cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and mouse bladder using uropathogenic S. agalactiae (UPSA) 807 and ABU-causing S. agalactiae (ABSA) 834 strains. UPSA 807 adhered, invaded and killed bladder urothelial cells more efficiently compared to ABSA 834 via mechanisms including low-level caspase-3 activation, and cytolysis, according to lactate dehydrogenase release measures and cell viability. Severe UPSA 807-induced cytotoxicity was mediated entirely by the bacterial β-hemolysin/cytolysin (β-H/C) because an β-H/C-deficient UPSA 807 isogenic mutant, UPSA 807ΔcylE, was not cytotoxic in vitro; the mutant was also significantly attenuated for colonization in the bladder in vivo. Analysis of infection-induced cytokines, including IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in vitro and in vivo revealed that cytokine and chemokine responses were dependent on expression of β-H/C that also elicited severe bladder neutrophilia. Thus, virulence of UPSA 807 encompasses adhesion to, invasion of and killing of bladder cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses that elicit neutrophil infiltration, and β-H/C-mediated subversion of innate immune-mediated bacterial clearance from the bladder. PMID:27383371

  11. Negatively charged residues of the segment linking the enzyme and cytolysin moieties restrict the membrane-permeabilizing capacity of adenylate cyclase toxin

    PubMed Central

    Masin, Jiri; Osickova, Adriana; Sukova, Anna; Fiser, Radovan; Halada, Petr; Bumba, Ladislav; Linhartova, Irena; Osicka, Radim; Sebo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The whooping cough agent, Bordetella pertussis, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) that plays a crucial role in host respiratory tract colonization. CyaA targets CR3-expressing cells and disrupts their bactericidal functions by delivering into their cytosol an adenylate cyclase enzyme that converts intracellular ATP to cAMP. In parallel, the hydrophobic domain of CyaA forms cation-selective pores that permeabilize cell membrane. The invasive AC and pore-forming domains of CyaA are linked by a segment that is unique in the RTX cytolysin family. We used mass spectrometry and circular dichroism to show that the linker segment forms α-helical structures that penetrate into lipid bilayer. Replacement of the positively charged arginine residues, proposed to be involved in target membrane destabilization by the linker segment, reduced the capacity of the toxin to translocate the AC domain across cell membrane. Substitutions of negatively charged residues then revealed that two clusters of negative charges within the linker segment control the size and the propensity of CyaA pore formation, thereby restricting the cell-permeabilizing capacity of CyaA. The ‘AC to Hly-linking segment’ thus appears to account for the smaller size and modest cell-permeabilizing capacity of CyaA pores, as compared to typical RTX hemolysins. PMID:27581058

  12. The Solvent-Exposed C-Terminus of the Cytolysin A Pore-Forming Toxin Directs Pore Formation and Channel Function in Membranes.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayana, Pradeep; Desikan, Rajat; Ayappa, K Ganapathy; Visweswariah, Sandhya S

    2016-10-13

    Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) bind to cell membranes and form nanoscale pores that allow leakage of cellular components, resulting in cell death. The water-soluble, monomeric form of these toxins shows a dramatic conformational change during pore formation, as exemplified by crystal structures of the monomer and functional pore of cytolysin A (ClyA). The solvent-exposed, C-terminal residues of the protein are essential for activity, but the mechanism by which this region regulates pore formation remains unknown. We show here that deletion of the C-terminus of ClyA did not alter its ability to bind to the membrane or oligomerize in detergent. However, the truncated toxin lysed erythrocytes poorly, was more susceptible to proteolysis and thermal unfolding, and showed low calcein leakage from small unilamellar vesicles. Using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we find that deletion of C-terminal residues from the ClyA monomer significantly altered stability and unfolding trajectories in the transmembrane N-terminal helix, a region that is pivotal in maintaining the structural integrity of the helical bundle. MD simulations of pores with or without the C-terminus showed minor differences, implying that if oligomerization could be induced prior to the addition to vesicles, then an active pore could be generated. Via generation of oligomers in a detergent prior to the addition to vesicles, the truncated toxin could induce calcein leakage from vesicles, albeit to a lower extent. Therefore, regions of pore-forming toxins, not directly involved in the pore structure, are not passive players but have important roles in undergoing the transition through intermediary steps leading to successful pore formation in a membrane environment.

  13. Soluble Oligomers of the Pore-forming Toxin Cytolysin A from Escherichia coli Are Off-pathway Products of Pore Assembly.

    PubMed

    Roderer, Daniel; Benke, Stephan; Schuler, Benjamin; Glockshuber, Rudi

    2016-03-11

    The α-pore-forming toxin Cytolysin A (ClyA) is responsible for the hemolytic activity of various Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains. Soluble ClyA monomers spontaneously assemble into annular dodecameric pore complexes upon contact with membranes or detergent. At ClyA monomer concentrations above ∼100 nm, the rate-limiting step in detergent- or membrane- induced pore assembly is the unimolecular reaction from the monomer to the assembly-competent protomer, which then oligomerizes rapidly to active pore complexes. In the absence of detergent, ClyA slowly forms soluble oligomers. Here we show that soluble ClyA oligomers cannot form dodecameric pore complexes after the addition of detergent and are hemolytically inactive. In addition, we demonstrate that the natural cysteine pair Cys-87/Cys-285 of ClyA forms a disulfide bond under oxidizing conditions and that both the oxidized and reduced ClyA monomers assemble to active pores via the same pathway in the presence of detergent, in which an unstructured, monomeric intermediate is transiently populated. The results show that the oxidized ClyA monomer assembles to pore complexes about one order of magnitude faster than the reduced monomer because the unstructured intermediate of oxidized ClyA is less stable and dissolves more rapidly than the reduced intermediate. Moreover, we show that oxidized ClyA forms soluble, inactive oligomers in the absence of detergent much faster than the reduced monomer, providing an explanation for several contradictory reports in which oxidized ClyA had been described as inactive.

  14. Trapping of Vibrio cholerae cytolysin in the membrane-bound monomeric state blocks membrane insertion and functional pore formation by the toxin.

    PubMed

    Rai, Anand Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2014-06-13

    Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a potent membrane-damaging cytolytic toxin that belongs to the family of β barrel pore-forming protein toxins. VCC induces lysis of its target eukaryotic cells by forming transmembrane oligomeric β barrel pores. The mechanism of membrane pore formation by VCC follows the overall scheme of the archetypical β barrel pore-forming protein toxin mode of action, in which the water-soluble monomeric form of the toxin first binds to the target cell membrane, then assembles into a prepore oligomeric intermediate, and finally converts into the functional transmembrane oligomeric β barrel pore. However, there exists a vast knowledge gap in our understanding regarding the intricate details of the membrane pore formation process employed by VCC. In particular, the membrane oligomerization and membrane insertion steps of the process have only been described to a limited extent. In this study, we determined the key residues in VCC that are critical to trigger membrane oligomerization of the toxin. Alteration of such key residues traps the toxin in its membrane-bound monomeric state and abrogates subsequent oligomerization, membrane insertion, and functional transmembrane pore-formation events. The results obtained from our study also suggest that the membrane insertion of VCC depends critically on the oligomerization process and that it cannot be initiated in the membrane-bound monomeric form of the toxin. In sum, our study, for the first time, dissects membrane binding from the subsequent oligomerization and membrane insertion steps and, thus, defines the exact sequence of events in the membrane pore formation process by VCC.

  15. Soluble Oligomers of the Pore-forming Toxin Cytolysin A from Escherichia coli Are Off-pathway Products of Pore Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Roderer, Daniel; Benke, Stephan; Schuler, Benjamin; Glockshuber, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    The α-pore-forming toxin Cytolysin A (ClyA) is responsible for the hemolytic activity of various Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains. Soluble ClyA monomers spontaneously assemble into annular dodecameric pore complexes upon contact with membranes or detergent. At ClyA monomer concentrations above ∼100 nm, the rate-limiting step in detergent- or membrane- induced pore assembly is the unimolecular reaction from the monomer to the assembly-competent protomer, which then oligomerizes rapidly to active pore complexes. In the absence of detergent, ClyA slowly forms soluble oligomers. Here we show that soluble ClyA oligomers cannot form dodecameric pore complexes after the addition of detergent and are hemolytically inactive. In addition, we demonstrate that the natural cysteine pair Cys-87/Cys-285 of ClyA forms a disulfide bond under oxidizing conditions and that both the oxidized and reduced ClyA monomers assemble to active pores via the same pathway in the presence of detergent, in which an unstructured, monomeric intermediate is transiently populated. The results show that the oxidized ClyA monomer assembles to pore complexes about one order of magnitude faster than the reduced monomer because the unstructured intermediate of oxidized ClyA is less stable and dissolves more rapidly than the reduced intermediate. Moreover, we show that oxidized ClyA forms soluble, inactive oligomers in the absence of detergent much faster than the reduced monomer, providing an explanation for several contradictory reports in which oxidized ClyA had been described as inactive. PMID:26757820

  16. ClyA cytolysin from Salmonella: distribution within the genus, regulation of expression by SlyA, and pore-forming characteristics.

    PubMed

    von Rhein, Christine; Bauer, Susanne; López Sanjurjo, Enrique Javier; Benz, Roland; Goebel, Werner; Ludwig, Albrecht

    2009-01-01

    Functional homologs of the Escherichia coli cytolysin A (clyA, hlyE, sheA) gene have recently been detected in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A). In this study, analysis of a collection of Salmonella strains showed that all S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A strains tested harbor an intact copy of the corresponding clyA variant, i.e. clyA(STy) and clyA(SPaA), respectively. On the other hand, clyA proved to be absent in the S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B and serovar Paratyphi C strains, in various non-typhoid S. enterica subsp. enterica serovars (Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Choleraesuis, Dublin, and Gallinarum), and in S. enterica subsp. arizonae and Salmonella bongori strains. When grown under normal laboratory conditions, the S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A strains produced only basal amounts of ClyA protein and did not exhibit a clyA-dependent hemolytic phenotype. RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses as well as phenotypic data revealed, however, that the expression of clyA(STy) and clyA(SPaA) can be activated by the Salmonella transcription factor SlyA. In addition, osmotic protection assays and lipid bilayer experiments demonstrated that the hemolytic ClyA(STy) and ClyA(SPaA) proteins are effective pore-forming toxins which, similar to E. coli ClyA, generate large, stable, moderately cation-selective channels in target membranes. Taken together with our recent serological findings which have indicated that S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A strains produce substantial amounts of ClyA during human infection, these data suggest that ClyA may play a role in S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A pathogenesis.

  17. Physicochemical constraints of elevated pH affect efficient membrane interaction and arrest an abortive membrane-bound oligomeric intermediate of the beta-barrel pore-forming toxin Vibrio cholerae cytolysin.

    PubMed

    Rai, Anand Kumar; Kundu, Nidhi; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2015-10-01

    Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a potent membrane-damaging cytotoxic protein. VCC causes permeabilization of the target cell membranes by forming transmembrane oligomeric beta-barrel pores. Membrane pore formation by VCC involves following key steps: (i) membrane binding, (ii) formation of a pre-pore oligomeric intermediate, (iii) membrane insertion of the pore-forming motifs, and (iv) formation of the functional transmembrane pore. Membrane binding, oligomerization, and subsequent pore-formation process of VCC appear to be facilitated by multiple regulatory mechanisms that are only partly understood. Here, we have explored the role(s) of the physicochemical constraints, specifically imposed by the elevated pH conditions, on the membrane pore-formation mechanism of VCC. Elevated pH abrogates efficient interaction of VCC with the target membranes, and blocks its pore-forming activity. Under the elevated pH conditions, membrane-bound fractions of VCC remain trapped in the form of abortive oligomeric species that fail to generate the functional transmembrane pores. Such an abortive oligomeric assembly appears to represent a distinct, more advanced intermediate state than the pre-pore state. The present study offers critical insights regarding the implications of the physicochemical constraints for regulating the efficient membrane interaction and pore formation by VCC.

  18. Vibrio cholerae cytolysin is essential for high enterotoxicity and apoptosis induction produced by a cholera toxin gene-negative V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strain.

    PubMed

    Saka, Hector Alex; Bidinost, Carla; Sola, Claudia; Carranza, Pablo; Collino, Cesar; Ortiz, Susana; Echenique, Jose Ricardo; Bocco, José Luis

    2008-02-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) gene-negative Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strains may cause severe diarrhea though their pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a pore-forming exotoxin encoded in the hlyA gene of V. cholerae whose contribution to the pathogenesis is not fully understood. In this work, the virulence properties of a CT gene-negative V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strain causing a cholera-like syndrome were analyzed. Inoculation of rabbit ileal loops with the wild type strain induced extensive fluid accumulation, accompanied by severe histopathological damage characterized by villus shortening, lymphangiectasia and focal areas of necrosis. These pathogenic effects were abrogated by mutation of the hlyA gene thus pointing out the main role of VCC in the virulence of the strain. Interestingly, this toxin was capable of triggering apoptosis in human intestinal cell lines due to its anion channel activity. Moreover, the wild type strain also induced increased apoptosis of the intestinal epithelium cells which was not observed upon inoculation of the VCC null mutant strain, indicating that VCC may trigger apoptotic cell death during infection in vivo. Altogether, these results support a main role of VCC in the pathogenesis of the CT gene-negative V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strain and identify apoptosis as a previously unrecognized cell death pathway triggered by VCC.

  19. Isolation of VanB-type Enterococcus faecalis strains from nosocomial infections: first report of the isolation and identification of the pheromone-responsive plasmids pMG2200, Encoding VanB-type vancomycin resistance and a Bac41-type bacteriocin, and pMG2201, encoding erythromycin resistance and cytolysin (Hly/Bac).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bo; Tomita, Haruyoshi; Inoue, Takako; Ike, Yasuyoshi

    2009-02-01

    Eighteen identical VanB-type Enterococcus faecalis isolates that were obtained from different hospitalized patients were examined for their drug resistance and plasmid DNAs. Of the 18 strains, 12 strains exhibited resistance to erythromycin (Em), gentamicin (Gm), kanamycin (Km), tetracycline (Tc), and vancomycin (Van) and produced cytolysin (Hly/Bac) and a bacteriocin (Bac) active against E. faecalis strains. Another six of the strains exhibited resistance to Gm, Km, Tc, and Van and produced a bacteriocin. Em and Van resistance was transferred individually to E. faecalis FA2-2 strains at a frequency of about 10(-4) per donor cell by broth mating. The Em-resistant transconjugants and the Van-resistant transconjugants harbored a 65.7-kbp plasmid and a 106-kbp plasmid, respectively. The 106-kbp and 65.7-kbp plasmids isolated from the representative E. faecalis NKH15 strains were designated pMG2200 and pMG2201, respectively. pMG2200 conferred vancomycin resistance and bacteriocin activity on the host strain and responded to the synthetic pheromone cCF10 for pCF10, while pMG2201 conferred erythromycin resistance and cytolysin activity on its host strain and responded to the synthetic pheromone cAD1 for pAD1. The complete DNA sequence of pMG2200 (106,527 bp) showed that the plasmid carried a Tn1549-like element encoding vanB2-type resistance and the Bac41-like bacteriocin genes of pheromone-responsive plasmid pYI14. The plasmid contained the regulatory region found in pheromone-responsive plasmids and encoded the genes prgX and prgQ, which are the key negative regulatory elements for plasmid pCF10. pMG2200 also encoded TraE1, a key positive regulator of plasmid pAD1, indicating that pMG2200 is a naturally occurring chimeric plasmid that has a resulting prgX-prgQ-traE1 genetic organization in the regulatory region of the pheromone response. The functional oriT region and the putative relaxase gene of pMG2200 were identified and found to differ from those of pCF10 and pAD1

  20. Phylogenetic position of phylum Nemertini, inferred from 18S rRNA sequences: molecular data as a test of morphological character homology.

    PubMed

    Turbeville, J M; Field, K G; Raff, R A

    1992-03-01

    Partial 18S rRNA sequence of the nemertine Cerebratulus lacteus was obtained and compared with those of coelomate metazoans and acoelomate platyhelminths to test whether nemertines share a most recent common ancestor with the platyhelminths, as traditionally has been implied, or whether nemertines lie within a protostome coelomate clade, as suggested by more recent morphological analyses. Maximum-parsimony analysis supports the inclusion of the nemertine within a protostome-coelomate clade that falls within a more inclusive coelomate clade. Bootstrap analysis indicates strong support for a monophyletic Coelomata composed of a deuterostome and protostome-coelomate clade. Support for a monophyletic protostome Coelomata is weak. Inference by distance analysis is consistent with that of maximum parsimony. Analysis of down-weighted paired sites by maximum parsimony reveals variation in topology only within the protostome-coelomate clade. The relationships among the protostome coelomates cannot be reliably inferred from the partial sequences, suggesting that coelomate protostomes diversified rapidly. Results with evolutionary parsimony are consistent with the inclusion of the nemertine in a coelomate clade. The molecular inference corroborates recent morphological character analyses that reveal no synapomorphies of nemertines and flatworms but instead suggest that the circulatory system and rhynchocoel of nemertines are homologous to coelomic cavities of protostome coelomates, thus supporting the corresponding hypothesis that nemertines belong within a protostome-coelomate clade. The sequence data provide an independent test of morphological character homology.

  1. Progress in nemertean biology: development and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Turbeville, J M

    2002-07-01

    This paper reviews progress in developmental biology and phylogeny of the Nemertea, a common but poorly studied spiralian taxon of considerable ecological and evolutionary significance. Analyses of reproductive biology (including calcium dynamics during fertilization and oocyte maturation), larval morphology and development and developmental genetics have significantly extended our knowledge of spiralian developmental biology. Developmental genetics studies have in addition provided characters useful for reconstructing metazoan phylogeny. Reinvestigation of the cell lineage of Cerebratulus lacteus using fluorescent tracers revealed that endomesoderm forms from the 4d cell as in other spiralians and that ectomesoderm is derived from the 3a and 3b cells as in annelids, echiurans and molluscs. Studies examining blastomere specification show that cell fates are established precociously in direct developers and later in indirect developers. Morphological characters used to estimate the phylogenetic position of nemerteans are critically re-evaluated, and cladistic analyses of morphology reveal that conflicting hypotheses of nemertean relationships result because of different provisional homology statements. Analyses that include disputed homology statements (1, gliointerstitial cell system 2, coelomic circulatory system) suggest that nemerteans form the sister taxon to the coelomate spiralian taxa rather than the sister taxon to Platyhelminthes. Analyses of small subunit rRNA (18S rDNA) sequences alone or in combination with morphological characters support the inclusion of the nemerteans in a spiralian coelomate clade nested within a more inclusive lophotrochozoan clade. Ongoing evaluation of nemertean relationships with mitochondrial gene rearrangements and other molecular characters is discussed.

  2. [Low-molecular cytolysins and trypsin inhibitors from sea anemone Radianthus macrodactylus. Isolation and partial characterization].

    PubMed

    Zykova, T A; Monastyrnaia, M M; Apalikova, O V; Shvets, T V; Kozlovskaia, E P

    1998-07-01

    Two low-molecular cytolytic toxins (RmI and RmII) and four trypsin inhibitors were isolated from the aqueous extract of sea anemone Radianthus macrodactylus. The method of isolation involved precipitation with acetone, gel filtration on acrylex P-4, ion-exchange chromatography on CM-32 cellulose, affinity chromatography on trypsin-binding sepharose 4B, ion exchange chromatography on an Ultrapore TSK CM-3SW column, and reversed phase HPLC on a Silasorb C18 column. RmI, RmII, and JnI inhibitor displayed molecular masses 5100, 6100, and 7100 Da, respectively, when subjected to SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric points were 9.2 and 9.3 for RmI and RmII, respectively. The amino acid composition and N-terminal amino acid residue (glycine) were determined for RmI, RmII, and JnI. Both proteins were nontoxic to mice and crabs. Hemolytic activity was determined to be 25 and 20 HU/mg for RmI and RmII, respectively, and their action on erythrocyte membrane was not inhibited by exogenous sphingomyelin. RmI and RmII exhibited antihistamine activity.

  3. Antibody-Based Detection and Inhibition of Vaginolysin, the Gardnerella vaginalis Cytolysin

    PubMed Central

    Randis, Tara M.; Kulkarni, Ritwij; Aguilar, Jorge L.; Ratner, Adam J.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection worldwide and is associated with significant adverse sequelae. We have recently characterized vaginolysin (VLY), the human-specific cytotoxin produced by Gardnerella vaginalis and believed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of BV and its associated morbidities. We hypothesize that novel antibody-based strategies may be useful for detection of VLY and for inhibition of its toxic effects on human cells. Using purified toxin as an immunogen, we generated polyclonal rabbit immune serum (IS) against VLY. A western blot of G. vaginalis lysate was probed with IS and a single band (57 kD) identified. Immunofluorescence techniques using IS detected VLY production by G. vaginalis. In addition, we have developed a sandwich ELISA assay capable of VLY quantification at ng/ml concentrations in the supernatant of growing G. vaginalis. To investigate the potential inhibitory role of IS on VLY-mediated cell lysis, we exposed human erythrocytes to VLY or VLY pretreated with IS and determined the percent hemolysis. Pretreatment with IS resulted in a significant reduction in VLY-mediated lysis. Similarly, both human cervical carcinoma cells and vaginal epithelial cells exhibited reduced cytolysis following exposure to VLY with IS compared to VLY alone. These results confirm that antibody-based techniques are an effective means of VLY detection. Furthermore, VLY antiserum functions as an inhibitor of VLY–CD59 interaction, mitigating cell lysis. These strategies may have a potential role in the diagnosis and treatment of BV. PMID:19370149

  4. New records of ribbon worms (Nemertea) from Ceará, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Cecili B; Matthews-Cascon, Helena; Norenburg, Jon L

    2016-01-05

    Of 45 species of nemerteans reported for the Brazilian coast, only two were recorded from Brazil's Northeast coast. Here we report seven new records for the state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil: Tubulanus rhabdotus Côrrea, 1954, Carinomella cf. lactea Coe, 1905, Baseodiscus delineatus (Delle-Chiaje 1825), Cerebratulus cf. lineolatus Coe, 1905, Cerebratulus sp. 1, Cerebratulus sp. 2 and Lineidae sp. 1. Specimens were collected at the following beaches: Praia dos Dois Coqueiros, Praia do Pacheco, Pecém harbor, Praia da Pedra Rachada and Praia do Guajiru. T. rhabdotus is a new record for Northeast Brazil, Carinomella cf. lactea and Cerebratulus cf. lineolatus are new records for the South Atlantic Ocean and both genera are new records for Brazil.

  5. Two-dimensional crystallization on lipid monolayers and three-dimensional structure of sticholysin II, a cytolysin from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Benito, J; Gavilanes, F; de Los Ríos, V; Mancheño, J M; Fernández, J J; Gavilanes, J G

    2000-01-01

    Sticholysin II (Stn II), a potent cytolytic protein isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, has been crystallized on lipid monolayers. With Fourier-based methods, a three-dimensional (3D) model of Stn II, up to a resolution of 15 A, has been determined. The two-sided plane group is p22(1)2, with dimensions a = 98 A, b = 196 A. The 3D model of Stn II displays a Y-shaped structure, slightly flattened, with a small curvature along its longest dimension (51 A). This protein, with a molecular mass of 19. 2 kDa, is one of the smallest structures reconstructed with this methodology. Two-dimensional (2D) crystals of Stn II on phosphatidylcholine monolayers present a unit cell with two tetrameric motifs, with the monomers in two different orientations: one with its longest dimension lying on the crystal plane and the other with this same axis leaning at an angle of approximately 60 degrees with the crystal plane. PMID:10827995

  6. Downscaling the in vitro test of fungal bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Drevinskas, Tomas; Mickienė, Rūta; Maruška, Audrius; Stankevičius, Mantas; Tiso, Nicola; Mikašauskaitė, Jurgita; Ragažinskienė, Ona; Levišauskas, Donatas; Bartkuvienė, Violeta; Snieškienė, Vilija; Stankevičienė, Antanina; Polcaro, Chiara; Galli, Emanuela; Donati, Enrica; Tekorius, Tomas; Kornyšova, Olga; Kaškonienė, Vilma

    2016-02-01

    The miniaturization and optimization of a white rot fungal bioremediation experiment is described in this paper. The optimized procedure allows determination of the degradation kinetics of anthracene. The miniaturized procedure requires only 2.5 ml of culture medium. The experiment is more precise, robust, and better controlled comparing it to classical tests in flasks. Using this technique, different parts, i.e., the culture medium, the fungi, and the cotton seal, can be analyzed. A simple sample preparation speeds up the analytical process. Experiments performed show degradation of anthracene up to approximately 60% by Irpex lacteus and up to approximately 40% by Pleurotus ostreatus in 25 days. Bioremediation of anthracene by the consortium of I. lacteus and P. ostreatus shows the biodegradation of anthracene up to approximately 56% in 23 days. At the end of the experiment, the surface tension of culture medium decreased comparing it to the blank, indicating generation of surfactant compounds.

  7. Repair of a Bacterial Small β-Barrel Toxin Pore Depends on Channel Width.

    PubMed

    von Hoven, Gisela; Rivas, Amable J; Neukirch, Claudia; Meyenburg, Martina; Qin, Qianqian; Parekh, Sapun; Hellmann, Nadja; Husmann, Matthias

    2017-02-14

    Membrane repair emerges as an innate defense protecting target cells against bacterial pore-forming toxins. Here, we report the first paradigm of Ca(2+)-dependent repair following attack by a small β-pore-forming toxin, namely, plasmid-encoded phobalysin of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae In striking contrast, Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, the closest ortholog of phobalysin, subverted repair. Mutational analysis uncovered a role of channel width in toxicity and repair. Thus, the replacement of serine at phobalysin´s presumed channel narrow point with the bulkier tryptophan, the corresponding residue in Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (W318), modulated Ca(2+) influx, lysosomal exocytosis, and membrane repair. And yet, replacing tryptophan (W318) with serine in Vibrio cholerae cytolysin enhanced toxicity. The data reveal divergent strategies evolved by two related small β-pore-forming toxins to manipulate target cells: phobalysin leads to fulminant perturbation of ion concentrations, closely followed by Ca(2+) influx-dependent membrane repair. In contrast, V. cholerae cytolysin causes insidious perturbations and escapes control by the cellular wounded membrane repair-like response.IMPORTANCE Previous studies demonstrated that large transmembrane pores, such as those formed by perforin or bacterial toxins of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin family, trigger rapid, Ca(2+) influx-dependent repair mechanisms. In contrast, recovery from attack by the small β-pore-forming Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin or aerolysin is slow in comparison and does not depend on extracellular Ca(2+) To further elucidate the scope of Ca(2+) influx-dependent repair and understand its limitations, we compared the cellular responses to phobalysin and V. cholerae cytolysin, two related small β-pore-forming toxins which create membrane pores of slightly different sizes. The data indicate that the channel width of a small β-pore-forming toxin is a critical determinant of both primary

  8. Comparative Examination of the Olive Mill Wastewater Biodegradation Process by Various Wood-Rot Macrofungi

    PubMed Central

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Zervakis, Georgios I.

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water) resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent's decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64%) followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW's phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment. PMID:24987685

  9. Fungal Growth and Manganese Peroxidase Production in a Deep Tray Solid-State Bioreactor, and In Vitro Decolorization of Poly R-478 by MnP.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinshan; Huang, Xianjun; Yao, Juntao; Zhou, Yue; Jia, Rong

    2015-06-01

    The growth of Irpex lacteus F17 and manganese peroxidase (MnP) production in a selfdesigned tray bioreactor, operating in solid-state conditions at a laboratory scale, were studied. The bioreactor was divided into three layers by three perforated trays. Agroindustrial residues were used both as the carrier of bound mycelia and as a nutrient medium for the growth of I. lacteus F17. The maximum biomass production in the bioreactor was detected at 60 h of fermentation, which was consistent with the CO2 releasing rate by the fungus. During the stationary phase of fungal growth, the maximum MnP activity was observed, reaching 950 U/l at 84 h. Scanning electron microscopy images clearly showed the growth situation of mycelia on the support matrix. Furthermore, the MnP produced by I. lacteus F17 in the bioreactor was isolated and purified, and the internal peptide sequences were also identified with mass spectrometry. The optimal activity of the enzyme was detected at pH 7 and 25 °C, with a long half-life time of 9 days. In addition, the MnP exhibited significant stability within a broad pH range of 4-7 and at temperature up to 55 °C. Besides this, the MnP showed the ability to decolorize the polymeric model dye Poly R-478 in vitro.

  10. Biotransformation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics by ligninolytic fungi--Metabolites, enzymes and residual antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Čvančarová, Monika; Moeder, Monika; Filipová, Alena; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2015-10-01

    A group of white rot fungi (Irpex lacteus, Panus tigrinus, Dichomitus squalens, Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus) was investigated for the biodegradation of norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin (OF) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). The selected fluoroquinolones were readily degraded almost completely by I. lacteus and T. versicolor within 10 and 14 d of incubation in liquid medium, respectively. The biodegradation products were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The analyses indicated that the fungi use similar mechanisms to degrade structurally related antibiotics. The piperazine ring of the molecules is preferably attacked via either substitution or/and decomposition. In addition to the degradation efficiency, attention was devoted to the residual antibiotic activities estimated using Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Only I. lacteus was able to remove the antibiotic activity during the course of the degradation of NOR and OF. The product-effect correlations evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) enabled elucidation of the participation of the individual metabolites in the residual antibacterial activity. Most of the metabolites correlated with the antibacterial activity, explaining the rather high residual activity remaining after the biodegradation. PCA of ligninolytic enzyme activities indicated that manganese peroxidase might participate in the degradation.

  11. Fungal biodegradation of anthracene-polluted cork: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jové, Patrícia; Olivella, Maria À; Camarero, Susana; Caixach, Josep; Planas, Carles; Cano, Laura; De Las Heras, Francesc X

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of cork waste in adsorbing aqueous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been previously reported. Biodegradation of contaminated cork using filamentous fungi could be a good alternative for detoxifying cork to facilitate its final processing. For this purpose, the degradation efficiency of anthracene by three ligninolytic white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Irpex lacteus and Pleurotus ostreatus) and three non-ligninolytic fungi which are found in the cork itself (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium simplicissimum and Mucor racemosus) are compared. Anthracene degradation by all fungi was examined in solid-phase cultures after 0, 16, 30 and 61 days. The degradation products of anthracene by P. simplicissimum and I. lacteus were also identified by GC-MS and a metabolic pathway was proposed for P. simplicissimum. Results show that all the fungi tested degraded anthracene. After 61 days of incubation, approximately 86%, 40%, and 38% of the initial concentration of anthracene (i.e., 100 µM) was degraded by P. simplicissimum, P. chrysosporium and I. lacteus, respectively. The rest of the fungi degraded anthracene to a lesser extent (<30%). As a final remark, the results obtained in this study indicate that P. simplicissimum, a non-ligninolytic fungi characteristic of cork itself, could be used as an efficient degrader of PAH-contaminated cork.

  12. Comparative examination of the olive mill wastewater biodegradation process by various wood-rot macrofungi.

    PubMed

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water) resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent's decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64%) followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW's phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment.

  13. Repair of a Bacterial Small β-Barrel Toxin Pore Depends on Channel Width

    PubMed Central

    von Hoven, Gisela; Rivas, Amable J.; Neukirch, Claudia; Meyenburg, Martina; Qin, Qianqian; Parekh, Sapun

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Membrane repair emerges as an innate defense protecting target cells against bacterial pore-forming toxins. Here, we report the first paradigm of Ca2+-dependent repair following attack by a small β-pore-forming toxin, namely, plasmid-encoded phobalysin of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae. In striking contrast, Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, the closest ortholog of phobalysin, subverted repair. Mutational analysis uncovered a role of channel width in toxicity and repair. Thus, the replacement of serine at phobalysin´s presumed channel narrow point with the bulkier tryptophan, the corresponding residue in Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (W318), modulated Ca2+ influx, lysosomal exocytosis, and membrane repair. And yet, replacing tryptophan (W318) with serine in Vibrio cholerae cytolysin enhanced toxicity. The data reveal divergent strategies evolved by two related small β-pore-forming toxins to manipulate target cells: phobalysin leads to fulminant perturbation of ion concentrations, closely followed by Ca2+ influx-dependent membrane repair. In contrast, V. cholerae cytolysin causes insidious perturbations and escapes control by the cellular wounded membrane repair-like response. PMID:28196960

  14. Cytolytic pore-forming protein associated with the surface membrane of Naegleria fowleri

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Whole cell homogenates of Naegleria fowleri were examined by hemolytic and /sup 51/Cr-release assays for the presence of cytolytic molecules which may participate in the cytopathogenic action of this amoeba. Two distinct cytolytic activities were found. A surface membrane cytolysin was identified which was found to be avidly associated with membranes possessing an equilibrium density of 1.135 g/cm/sup 3/ in isopycnic sucrose gradients. The activity of the surface membrane cytolysin was not affected by heating at 75/sup 0/C for 30 min. The second cytolytic activity was found in putative lysosomes possessing an equilibrium density of 1.162 g/cm/sup 3/ and was completely inactivated by heating at 75/sup 0/C for 30 min. Cytolysis produced in the presence of both cytolysins was consistently synergistic with respect to the activity of either cytolysin alone. The lesions produced on erythrocytes by this cooperative process were characterized by electron microscopy as transmembrane pores resembling a number of other cytolytic effector molecules including the ninth component of complement, perforins of cytolytic T lymphocytes, and the alphatoxin of Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. Evaluation of Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423 as probiotics by using a gastro-intestinal model with infant milk formulations as substrate.

    PubMed

    Botes, Marelize; van Reenen, Carol A; Dicks, Leon M T

    2008-12-10

    Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423 produce bacteriocins with activity against a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Both strains survived intestinal conditions simulated in a gastro-intestinal model (GIM) with infant milk formulations as substrate and prevented the growth of Listeria monocytogenes ScottA. The strains are inhibited by the antibiotics amoxicillin, cefadroxil, roxithromycin and doxycycline, anti-inflammatory medicaments containing meloxicam, ibuprofen and sodium diklofenak, and analgesics containing paracetamol, codeine phosphate and promethazine. Strain 423 is sensitive to vancomycin and does not contain genes encoding gelatinase, cell aggregation substance (AS), adhesion to collagen (Ace), enterococcus surface protein (Esp), Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis antigen (EfaAfs), cytolysin and non-cytolysin (beta-hemolysin III). Genes encoding AS, cytolysin and non-cytolysin (beta-hemolysin III) were amplified from the genome of strain ST4SA. Survival of strains ST4SA and 423 improved when used as combined cultures in the GIM and compared well with the survival of commercially available probiotics subjected to the same conditions.

  16. Biodegradation of endocrine-disrupting compounds and suppression of estrogenic activity by ligninolytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Cajthaml, Tomás; Kresinová, Zdena; Svobodová, Katerina; Möder, Monika

    2009-05-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) represent a large group of substances of natural and anthropogenic origin. They are widely distributed in the environment and can pose serious risks to aquatic organisms and to public health. In this study, 4-n-nonylphenol, technical 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, and triclosan were biodegraded by eight ligninolytic fungal strains (Irpex lacteus 617/93, Bjerkandera adusta 606/93, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME 446, Phanerochaete magnoliae CCBAS 134/I, Pleurotus ostreatus 3004 CCBAS 278, Trametes versicolor 167/93, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus CCBAS 595, Dichomitus squalens CCBAS 750). The results show that under the used conditions the fungi were able to degrade the EDCs within 14d of cultivation with exception of B. adusta and P. chrysosporium in the case of triclosane and bisphenol A, respectively. I. lacteus and P. ostreatus were found to be most efficient EDC degraders with their degradation efficiency exceeding 90% or 80%, respectively, in 7d. Both fungi degraded technical 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol-A, and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol below the detection limit within first 3d of cultivation. In general, estrogenic activities assayed with a recombinant yeast test decreased with advanced degradation. However, in case of I. lacteus, P. ostreatus, and P. chrysosporium the yeast assay showed a residual estrogenic activity (28-85% of initial) in 17alpha-ethinylestradiol cultures. Estrogenic activity in B. adusta cultures temporally increased during degradation of technical 4-nonylphenol, suggesting a production of endocrine-active intermediates. Attention was paid also to the effects of EDCs on the ligninolytic enzyme activities of the different fungi strains to evaluate their possible stimulation or suppression of activities during the biodegradation processes.

  17. Activation of a heat-stable cytolytic protein associated with the surface membrane of Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed Central

    Lowrey, D M; McLaughlin, J

    1985-01-01

    Surface membrane-enriched fractions of Naegleria fowleri obtained after isopycnic centrifugation experiments contain a potent cytolytic activity as determined by hemolysis and 51Cr release assays. This surface membrane cytolysin was unaffected by a treatment at 75 degrees C for 30 min and accounted for 70 to 90% of cytolysis by whole-cell lysates of amoebae. This heat resistance as well as intimate membrane association distinguished the surface membrane cytolytic activity from a second heat-labile cytolytic activity which appears to be latent within lysosomes. The surface membrane cytolysin was found to be specifically activated by diluted samples of lysosomal fractions. The possible role of this surface membrane cytotoxin in the pathogenicity of N. fowleri is discussed. PMID:4055029

  18. Optimisation of the biological pretreatment of wheat straw with white-rot fungi for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    López-Abelairas, M; Álvarez Pallín, M; Salvachúa, D; Lú-Chau, T; Martínez, M J; Lema, J M

    2013-09-01

    The biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol is an environmentally friendly alternative to the most frequently used process, steam explosion (SE). However, this pretreatment can still not be industrially implemented due to long incubation times. The main objective of this work was to test the viability of and optimise the biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, which uses ligninolytic fungi (Pleurotus eryngii and Irpex lacteus) in a solid-state fermentation of sterilised wheat straw complemented with a mild alkali treatment. In this study, the most important parameters of the mechanical and thermal substrate conditioning processes and the most important parameters of the fungal fermentation process were optimised to improve sugar recovery. The largest digestibilities were achieved with fermentation with I. lacteus under optimised conditions, under which cellulose and hemicellulose digestibility increased after 21 days of pretreatment from 16 to 100 % and 12 to 87 %, respectively. The maximum glucose yield (84 %) of cellulose available in raw material was obtained after only 14 days of pretreatment with an overall ethanol yield of 74 % of the theoretical value, which is similar to that reached with SE.

  19. Development of Fungal Inocula for Bioaugmentation of Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lestan, D.; Lamar, R. T.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes novel fungal inocula for bioaugmentation of soils contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. The inocula are in the form of pelleted solid substrates coated with a sodium alginate suspension of fungal spores or mycelial fragments and incubated until overgrown with the mycelium of selected lignin-degrading fungi. The organisms evaluated were Phanerochaete chrysosporium (BKM F-1767, ATCC 42725), P. sordida (HHB-8922-Sp), Irpex lacteus (Mad-517, ATCC 11245), Bjerkandera adusta (FP-135160-Sp, ATCC 62023), and Trametes versicolor (MD-277). The pelleted fungal inocula resisted competition and proliferation from indigenous soil microbes, were lower in moisture content than current fungal inocula, and had sufficient mechanical strength to allow handling and introduction into the soil without a change in the mechanical consistency of the pellets. Inoculated at a rate of 3% in artificially contaminated nonsterile soil, I. lacteus, B. adusta, and T. versicolor removed 86, 82, and 90%, respectively, of the pentachlorophenol in 4 weeks. A mathematical model was developed to explain moisture distribution in a hydrogel-coated pelleted substrate. PMID:16535337

  20. Breakdown products on metabolic pathway of degradation of benz[a]anthracene by a ligninolytic fungus.

    PubMed

    Cajthaml, Tomás; Erbanová, Pavla; Sasek, Václav; Moeder, Monika

    2006-07-01

    Cultures of the ligninolytic fungus Irpex lacteus incubated in a nutrient liquid medium degraded more than 70% of the initially applied benz[a]anthracene within 14 days. At the first step of metabolization, benz[a]anthracene was transformed via a typical pathway of ligninolytic fungi to benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione (BaAQ). The product was further transformed by at least two ways, whereas one is complied with the anthracene metabolic pathway of I. lacteus. Benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione was degraded to 1,2-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid and phthalic acid that was followed with production of 2-hydroxymethyl benzoic acid or monomethyl and dimethylesters of phthalic acid. Another degradation product of BaAQ was identified as 1-tetralone. Its transformation via 1,4-naphthalenedione, 1,4-naphthalenediol and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-hydroxynaphthalene resulted again in phthalic acid. None of the intermediates were identified as dead-end metabolites. Metabolites produced by ring cleavage of benz[a]anthracene using the ligninolytic fungus are firstly presented in this work.

  1. The influence of termites on atmospheric trace gases: CH sub 4 , CO sub 2 , CHCl sub 3 , N sub 2 O, CO, H sub 2 , and light hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, M.A.K.; Rasmussen, R.A. ); French, J.R.J. ); Holt, J.A. )

    1990-03-20

    Based on field studies of mounds of Australian termites the authors estimate that on a global scale termites emit about 12 {times} 10{sup 12} g/yr of methane (< 20 tg/yr) and about 4 {times} 10{sup 15} g CO{sub 2}/yr (< 8 pg/yr). Most of the detailed results are based on studies of the species Coptotermes lacteus. They found that in mid-latitudes the emissions vary seasonally. As much methane is emitted in the summers as in all other seasons combined. The soils a few meters from the mounds consumed methane at an average rate of 40 {mu}g/m{sup 2}/h. They found no evidence of net emissions of CO and found that H{sub 2} is consistently consumed by the mounds and the soils near the mounds. All six species studied produced chloroform. The concentrations of chloroform inside the mounds of C. lacteus were a thousand times greater than ambient levels, but calculations show that termites are not likely to be a significant global source of chloroform. Finally, they used the results of this study, and others before them, to construct a view of the role of termites in the global carbon cycle.

  2. Identification of non-pseudomonad bacteria from fruit bodies of wild agaricales fungi that detoxify tolaasin produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Takanori; Murata, Hitoshi; Shirata, Akira

    2002-10-01

    Bacterial isolates from wild Agaricales fungi detoxified tolaasin, the inducer of brown blotch disease of cultivated mushrooms produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii. Mycetocola tolaasinivorans and Mycetocola lacteus were associated with fruit bodies of wild Pleurotus ostreatus and wild Lepista nuda, respectively. Tolaasin-detoxifying bacteria belonging to other genera were found in various wild mushrooms. An Acinetobacter sp. was isolated from fruit bodies of Tricholoma matsutake, Bacillus pumilus was isolated from Coprinus disseminatus, and Sphingobacterium multivorum was isolated from Clitocybe clavipes. A Pedobacter sp., which seemed not be identifiable as any known bacterial species, was isolated from a Clitocybe sp. Tolaasin-detoxifying bacteria identified thus far were attached to the surface of mycelia rather than residing within the fungal cells. M. tolaasinivorans, M. lacteus, B. pumilus, the Pedobacter sp., and S. multivorum efficiently detoxified tolaasin and strongly suppressed brown blotch development in cultivated P. ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus in vitro, but the Acinetobacter sp. did so less efficiently. These bacteria may be useful for the elucidation of mechanisms involved in tolaasin-detoxification, and may become biological control agents of mushroom disease.

  3. Competition between two wood-degrading fungi with distinct influences on residues.

    PubMed

    Song, Zewei; Vail, Andrew; Sadowsky, Michael J; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2012-01-01

    Many wood-degrading fungi colonize specific types of forest trees, but often lack wood specificity in pure culture. This suggests that wood type affects competition among fungi and indirectly influences the soil residues generated. While assessing wood residues is an established science, linking this information to dominant fungal colonizers has proven to be difficult. In the studies presented here, we used isolate-specific quantitative PCR to quantify competitive success between two distinct fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Irpex lacteus, brown and white rot fungi, respectively, colonizing three wood types (birch, pine, oak). Ergosterol (fungal biomass), fungal species-specific DNA copy numbers, mass loss, pH, carbon fractions, and alkali solubility were determined 3 and 8 weeks postinoculation from replicate wood sections. Quantitative PCR analyses indicated that I. lacteus consistently outcompeted G. trabeum, by several orders of magnitude, on all wood types. Consequently, wood residues exhibited distinct characteristics of white rot. Our results show that competitive interactions between fungal species can influence colonization success, and that this can have significant consequences on the outcomes of wood decomposition.

  4. Acid protease production in fungal root endophytes.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, Michael S; Fraser, Erica; Kernaghan, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous in healthy root tissue, but little is known about their ecosystem functions, including their ability to utilize organic nutrient sources such as proteins. Root-associated fungi may secrete proteases to access the carbon and mineral nutrients within proteins in the soil or in the cells of their plant host. We compared the protein utilization patterns of multiple isolates of the root endophytes Phialocephala fortinii s.l., Meliniomyces variabilis and Umbelopsis isabellina with those of two ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Hebeloma incarnatulum and Laccaria bicolor, and the wood-decay fungus Irpex lacteus at pH values of 2-9 on liquid BSA media. We also assessed protease activity using a fluorescently labeled casein assay and gelatin zymography and characterized proteases using specific protease inhibitors. I. lacteus and U. isabellina utilized protein efficiently, while the ECM fungi exhibited poor protein utilization. ECM fungi secreted metallo-proteases and had pH optima above 4, while other fungi produced aspartic proteases with lower pH optima. The ascomycetous root endophytes M. variabilis and P. fortinii exhibited intermediate levels of protein utilization and M. variabilis exhibited a very low pH optimum. Comparing proteolytic profiles between fungal root endophytes and fungi with well defined ecological roles provides insight into the ecology of these cryptic root associates.

  5. Analysis of ciliary band formation in the mollusc Ilyanassa obsoleta.

    PubMed

    Gharbiah, Maey; Nakamoto, Ayaki; Nagy, Lisa M

    2013-07-01

    Two primary ciliary bands, the prototroch and metatroch, are required for locomotion and in the feeding larvae of many spiralians. The metatroch has been reported to have different cellular origins in the molluscs Crepidula fornicata and Ilyanassa obsoleta, as well as in the annelid Polygordius lacteus, consistent with multiple independent origins of the spiralian metatroch. Here, we describe in further detail the cell lineage of the ciliary bands in the gastropod mollusc I. obsoleta using intracellular lineage tracing and the expression of an acetylated tubulin antigen that serves as a marker for ciliated cells. We find that the I. obsoleta metatroch is formed primarily by third quartet derivatives as well as a small number of second quartet derivatives. These results differ from the described metatrochal lineage in the mollusc C. fornicata that derives solely from the second quartet or the metatrochal lineage in the annelid P. lacteus that derives solely from the third quartet. The present study adds to a growing body of literature concerning the evolution of the metatroch and the plasticity of cell fates in homologous micromeres in spiralian embryos.

  6. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 9. The relations of Australasian Ypsiloncyphon species to their Asian congeners, additions, mainly to Petrocyphon and Prionocyphon, and a key to Australian genera of Scirtinae.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Peter

    2016-03-02

    The endemic Australasian species of Ypsiloncyphon are the sister group of the combined Asian species groups 1, 2, and 4. The description of the type species, Y. chlorizans (Klausnitzer), is supplemented by details of male and female genitalia. New species are described and illustrated in several genera: Austrocyphon scissus n. sp., Leptocyphon abnormis n. sp., Petrocyphon bonang n. sp., P. lacteus n. sp., P. televisionarius n. sp., Prionocyphon bidentatus n. sp., P. cacatua n. sp., P. laurae n. sp., P. neboissi n. sp., P. serratus n. sp., P. uncatus n. sp., and P. urbanus n. sp. Genus Prionocyphon is distinguished from Oriental genera with similar antennal modifications. However, a synapomorphy of Prionocyphon as presently understood is not known. Supplementary information on various species in the aforementioned genera and in Pachycyphon and Calvarium is provided. A key to the genera of adult Australian Scirtidae: Scirtinae is presented.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Actinobacteria Isolated From the Guts of Subterranean Termites.

    PubMed

    Arango, R A; Carlson, C M; Currie, C R; McDonald, B R; Book, A J; Green, F; Lebow, N K; Raffa, K F

    2016-09-28

    Subterranean termites need to minimize potentially pathogenic and competitive fungi in their environment in order to maintain colony health. We examined the ability of Actinobacteria isolated from termite guts in suppressing microorganisms commonly encountered in a subterranean environment. Guts from two subterranean termite species, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and Reticulitermes tibialis Banks, were extracted and plated on selective chitin media. A total of 38 Actinobacteria isolates were selected for in vitro growth inhibition assays. Target microbes included three strains of Serratia marcescens Bizio, two mold fungi (Trichoderma sp. and Metarhizium sp.), a yeast fungus (Candida albicans (C.P. Robin) Berkhout), and four basidiomycete fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum (Persoon) Murrill, Tyromyces palustris (Berkeley & M.A. Curtis) Murrill, Irpex lacteus (Fries) Fries, and Trametes versicolor (L.) Lloyd). Results showed both broad and narrow ranges of antimicrobial activity against the mold fungi, yeast fungus, and S. marcescens isolates by the Actinobacteria selected. This suggests that termite gut-associated Actinobacteria produce secondary antimicrobial compounds that may be important for pathogen inhibition in termites. Basidiomycete fungi were strongly inhibited by the selected Actinobacteria isolates, with G. trabeum and T. versicolor being most inhibited, followed by I. lacteus and T. palustris The degree of inhibition was correlated with shifts in pH caused by the Actinobacteria. Nearly all Actinobacteria isolates raised pH of the growth medium to basic levels (i.e. pH ∼8.0-9.5). We summarize antimicrobial activity of these termite gut-associated Actinobacteria and examine the implications of these pH shifts.

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Actinobacteria Isolated From the Guts of Subterranean Termites.

    PubMed

    Arango, R A; Carlson, C M; Currie, C R; McDonald, B R; Book, A J; Green, F; Lebow, N K; Raffa, K F

    2016-12-01

    Subterranean termites need to minimize potentially pathogenic and competitive fungi in their environment in order to maintain colony health. We examined the ability of Actinobacteria isolated from termite guts in suppressing microorganisms commonly encountered in a subterranean environment. Guts from two subterranean termite species, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and Reticulitermes tibialis Banks, were extracted and plated on selective chitin media. A total of 38 Actinobacteria isolates were selected for in vitro growth inhibition assays. Target microbes included three strains of Serratia marcescens Bizio, two mold fungi (Trichoderma sp. and Metarhizium sp.), a yeast fungus (Candida albicans (C.P. Robin) Berkhout), and four basidiomycete fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum (Persoon) Murrill, Tyromyces palustris (Berkeley & M.A. Curtis) Murrill, Irpex lacteus (Fries) Fries, and Trametes versicolor (L.) Lloyd). Results showed both broad and narrow ranges of antimicrobial activity against the mold fungi, yeast fungus, and S. marcescens isolates by the Actinobacteria selected. This suggests that termite gut-associated Actinobacteria produce secondary antimicrobial compounds that may be important for pathogen inhibition in termites. Basidiomycete fungi were strongly inhibited by the selected Actinobacteria isolates, with G. trabeum and T. versicolor being most inhibited, followed by I. lacteus and T. palustris The degree of inhibition was correlated with shifts in pH caused by the Actinobacteria. Nearly all Actinobacteria isolates raised pH of the growth medium to basic levels (i.e. pH ∼8.0-9.5). We summarize antimicrobial activity of these termite gut-associated Actinobacteria and examine the implications of these pH shifts.

  9. Occurrence of fungi and fungus-like organisms in the Horodnianka River in the vicinity of Białystok, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kiziewicz, Bozena; Zdrojkowska, Ewa; Gajo, Bernadetta; Godlewska, Anna; Muszyńska, Elzbieta; Mazalska, Bozenna

    2011-01-01

    Studies of fungi and fungus- like organisms in the northeastern Poland have mainly concentrated on running waters in the vicinity of Białystok, including the Horodnianka River. The main objective was to investigate biodiversity of fungi and fungus-like organisms which take part in decomposition of organic matter commonly found in inland waters. To obtain a complete picture of species composition of fungi and fungus-like organisms in running waters we decided to explore representative sites of the Horodnianka River such as Olmonty, Hryniewicze and Horodniany with close localization of landfill. Fungal species were isolated using baiting technique. Baits of onion skin (Alium cepa), hemp-seeds (Cannabis sativa), impregnated cellophane and snake skin (Natrix natrix) were applied to isolate fungi from water of the Horodnianka River. The fungal community consists of 26 species, 10 species of fungi belonging to class Chytridiomycetes (3), anamorphic fungi (6), and Zygomycetes (1). 16 species belong to fungus-like organisms from class Oomycetes. Most of the recognized species have already been found in other running waters. From all the examined habitats the fungi belonging to 26 species of 18 genera Achlya, Alternaria, Aphanomyces, Aspergillus, Catenophlyctis, Dictyuchus, Fusarium, Karlingia, Lagenidium, Leptomitus, Olpidiopsis, Penicillium, Phlyctochytrium, Pythium, Saprolegnia, Scoliognia, Thraustotheca and Zoophagus were obtained. Certain fungal species like Aphanomyces laevis, Fusarium aqueductum, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, Leptomitus lacteus, Saprolegnia feax and S. parasitica were found at all the study sites. Among fungi potentially pathogenic and allergogenic for humans the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Lagenidium and Penicillium have already been described. However, the species Lagenidium giganteum and Achlya androgyna are new in the fungal biota of Poland. The greatest number of fungal species occurred in Olmonty (24), the smallest in Horodniany

  10. Identification of a Streptolysin S-Associated Gene Cluster and Its Role in the Pathogenesis of Streptococcus iniae Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Jeffrey D.; Camus, Alvin C.; Duncan, Carla L.; Nizet, Victor; Bast, Darrin J.; Thune, Ronald L.; Low, Donald E.; de Azavedo, Joyce C. S.

    2002-01-01

    Streptococcus iniae causes meningoencephalitis and death in cultured fish species and soft-tissue infection in humans. We recently reported that S. iniae is responsible for local tissue necrosis and bacteremia in a murine subcutaneous infection model. The ability to cause bacteremia in this model is associated with a genetic profile unique to strains responsible for disease in fish and humans (J. D. Fuller, D. J. Bast, V. Nizet, D. E. Low, and J. C. S. de Azavedo, Infect. Immun. 69:1994-2000, 2001). S. iniae produces a cytolysin that confers a hemolytic phenotype on blood agar media. In this study, we characterized the genomic region responsible for S. iniae cytolysin production and assessed its contribution to virulence. Transposon (Tn917) mutant libraries of commensal and disease-associated S. iniae strains were generated and screened for loss of hemolytic activity. Analysis of two nonhemolytic mutants identified a chromosomal locus comprising 9 genes with 73% homology to the group A streptococcus (GAS) sag operon for streptolysin S (SLS) biosynthesis. Confirmation that the S. iniae cytolysin is a functional homologue of SLS was achieved by PCR ligation mutagenesis, complementation of an SLS-negative GAS mutant, and use of the SLS inhibitor trypan blue. SLS-negative sagB mutants were compared to their wild-type S. iniae parent strains in the murine model and in human whole-blood killing assays. These studies demonstrated that S. iniae SLS expression is required for local tissue necrosis but does not contribute to the establishment of bacteremia or to resistance to phagocytic clearance. PMID:12228303

  11. Airways microbiota: Hidden Trojan horses in asbestos exposed individuals?

    PubMed

    Magouliotis, Dimitrios E; Tasiopoulou, Vasiliki S; Molyvdas, Paschalis-Adam; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G

    2014-11-01

    Malignant pleura mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare type of cancer with devastating prognosis, which develops in the pleural cavity from transformed mesothelium. MPM has been directly associated with asbestos exposure however there are aspects of the pathophysiology involved in the translocation of asbestos fibers in the pleura that remain unclear. Here, we propose and discuss that certain proteins secreted by airways symbiotic microbiota create membrane pores to the airway epithelial cells, through which asbestos fibers can penetrate the lung parenchyma and reach the sub-pleural areas. We evaluate this hypothesis using data from the published literature regarding the airways microbiota toxins such as cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs).

  12. Identification of secreted virulence factors of Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Castro-Gomes, Thiago; Cardoso, Mariana S; DaRocha, Wanderson D; Laibida, Letícia A; Nascimento, Andréa M A; Zuccherato, Luciana W; Horta, Maria Fátima; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Teixeira, Santuza M R

    2014-04-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a component of tropical soil microbiota, is an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium that can infect humans and other animals. In addition to identifying a large number of genes that demonstrate the vast biotechnological potential of this bacterium, genome sequencing revealed several virulence factors, including different cytolysins, which can be related to its pathogenicity. Here we confirmed these predictions from genomic analyses by identifying, through mass spectrometry, proteins present in the culture supernatant of C. violaceum that may constitute secreted virulence factors. Among them, we identified a secreted collagenase and the product of a gene with sequence similarity to previously characterized bacterial porins.

  13. The Impact of Paralogy on Phylogenomic Studies – A Case Study on Annelid Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Struck, Torsten H.

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenomic studies based on hundreds of genes derived from expressed sequence tags libraries are increasingly used to reveal the phylogeny of taxa. A prerequisite for these studies is the assignment of genes into clusters of orthologous sequences. Sophisticated methods of orthology prediction are used in such analyses, but it is rarely assessed whether paralogous sequences have been erroneously grouped together as orthologous sequences after the prediction, and whether this had an impact on the phylogenetic reconstruction using a super-matrix approach. Herein, I tested the impact of paralogous sequences on the reconstruction of annelid relationships based on phylogenomic datasets. Using single-partition analyses, screening for bootstrap support, blast searches and pruning of sequences in the supermatrix, wrongly assigned paralogous sequences were found in eight partitions and the placement of five taxa (the annelids Owenia, Scoloplos, Sthenelais and Eurythoe and the nemertean Cerebratulus) including the robust bootstrap support could be attributed to the presence of paralogous sequences in two partitions. Excluding these sequences resulted in a different, weaker supported placement for these taxa. Moreover, the analyses revealed that paralogous sequences impacted the reconstruction when only a single taxon represented a previously supported higher taxon such as a polychaete family. One possibility of a priori detection of wrongly assigned paralogous sequences could combine 1) a screening of single-partition analyses based on criteria such as nodal support or internal branch length with 2) blast searches of suspicious cases as presented herein. Also possible are a posteriori approaches in which support for specific clades is investigated by comparing alternative hypotheses based on differences in per-site likelihoods. Increasing the sizes of EST libraries will also decrease the likelihood of wrongly assigned paralogous sequences, and in the case of orthology

  14. Channel formation by RTX-toxins of pathogenic bacteria: Basis of their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Benz, Roland

    2016-03-01

    The pore-forming cytolysins of the RTX-toxin (Repeats in ToXin) family are a relatively small fraction of a steadily increasing family of proteins that contain several functionally important glycine-rich and aspartate containing nonapeptide repeats. These cytolysins produced by a variety of Gram-negative bacteria form ion-permeable channels in erythrocytes and other eukaryotic cells. Hemolytic and cytolytic RTX-toxins represent pathogenicity factors of the toxin-producing bacteria and are very often important key factors in pathogenesis of the bacteria. Channel formation by RTX-toxins lead to the dissipation of ionic gradients and membrane potential across the cytoplasmic membrane of target cells, which results in cell death. Here we discuss channel formation and channel properties of some of the best known RTX-toxins, such as α-hemolysin (HlyA) of Escherichia coli and the uropathogenic EHEC strains, the adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT, CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis and the RTX-toxins (ApxI, ApxII and ApxIII) produced by different strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The channels formed by these RTX-toxins in lipid bilayers share some common properties such as cation selectivity and voltage-dependence. Furthermore the channels are transient and show frequent switching between different ion-conducting states. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Mauro Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale.

  15. Bioluminescence based biosensors for quantitative detection of enterococcal peptide–pheromone activity reveal inter-strain telesensing in vivo during polymicrobial systemic infection

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Solheim, Margrete; Diep, Dzung B.; Nes, Ingolf F.; Brede, Dag Anders

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a significant threat in the nosocomial setting due to the emergence of isolates that are multi-antibiotic resistant, refractory to the available therapies and equipped with a variety of pathogenicity determinants. This bacterium uses quorum-sensing systems to regulate its physiological processes, including the expression of virulence traits, to adapt and proliferate within a host. Here, we describe the construction and application of two bioluminescence-based reporter systems for the direct detection of the quorum-sensing regulated expression of (i) the gelatinase biosynthesis-activating pheromone (GBAP) and (ii) the cytolysin small subunit (CylLS) in natural samples. The two E. faecalis reporters conditionally expressed bioluminescence in the presence of GBAP and CylLS both in the supernatants of liquid cultures and in an agar-overlay assay in as little as three hours, with a high level of sensitivity. Biosensors employed to investigate the interaction between the fsr and cyl systems revealed that fsr impeded CylLS activity by 75%. Furthermore, we identified a clinical E. faecalis isolate that acted as a biological cheater, producing cytolysin only upon sensing CylLS-producers in its environment. This isolate enhanced its virulence during polymicrobial systemic infection of Galleria mellonella. PMID:25661457

  16. Genome-wide analysis of the regulatory function mediated by the small regulatory psm-mec RNA of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Gordon Y C; Villaruz, Amer E; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Duong, Anthony C; Yeh, Anthony J; Nguyen, Thuan H; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Queck, S Y; Otto, M

    2014-07-01

    Several methicillin resistance (SCCmec) clusters characteristic of hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains harbor the psm-mec locus. In addition to encoding the cytolysin, phenol-soluble modulin (PSM)-mec, this locus has been attributed gene regulatory functions. Here we employed genome-wide transcriptional profiling to define the regulatory function of the psm-mec locus. The immune evasion factor protein A emerged as the primary conserved and strongly regulated target of psm-mec, an effect we show is mediated by the psm-mec RNA. Furthermore, the psm-mec locus exerted regulatory effects that were more moderate in extent. For example, expression of PSM-mec limited expression of mecA, thereby decreasing methicillin resistance. Our study shows that the psm-mec locus has a rare dual regulatory RNA and encoded cytolysin function. Furthermore, our findings reveal a specific mechanism underscoring the recently emerging concept that S. aureus strains balance pronounced virulence and high expression of antibiotic resistance.

  17. Effect on polymorphonuclear cell function of a human-specific cytotoxin, intermedilysin, expressed by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Macey, M G; Whiley, R A; Miller, L; Nagamune, H

    2001-10-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the normal flora of the mouth but is also an opportunistic pathogen associated with purulent infections at oral and nonoral sites. Intermedilysin (ILY) has been shown to be a cytolysin capable of generating pores in the cell membrane of erythrocytes demonstrable by electron microscopy. This effect has been shown to be specific for human cells. Since polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) are the main cell involved in innate immunity we investigated the effect of purified intermedilysin from Streptococcus intermedius on PMN function. Active ILY at a concentration of 40 ng/microl caused a significant decrease in the number of intact PMNs after 60 min. The active cytolysin, when compared with heat-inactivated ILY, did not appear to be chemotactic for the PMNs but did cause an increase in intracellular calcium, with increased cell surface CD11b expression, metabolic burst, and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. These findings may have implications for the role of ILY in deep-seated abscesses.

  18. Functional Contributions of Positive Charges in the Pore-Lining Helix 3 of the Bordetella pertussis CyaA-Hemolysin to Hemolytic Activity and Ion-Channel Opening

    PubMed Central

    Kurehong, Chattip; Kanchanawarin, Chalermpol; Powthongchin, Busaba; Prangkio, Panchika; Katzenmeier, Gerd; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan

    2017-01-01

    The Bordetella pertussis CyaA-hemolysin (CyaA-Hly) domain was previously demonstrated to be an important determinant for hemolysis against target erythrocytes and ion-channel formation in planar lipid bilayers (PLBs). Here, net-charge variations in the pore-lining helix of thirteen related RTX cytolysins including CyaA-Hly were revealed by amino acid sequence alignments, reflecting their different degrees of hemolytic activity. To analyze possible functional effects of net-charge alterations on hemolytic activity and channel formation of CyaA-Hly, specific mutations were made at Gln574 or Glu581 in its pore-lining α3 of which both residues are highly conserved Lys in the three highly active RTX cytolysins (i.e., Escherichia coli α-hemolysin, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae toxin, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin). All six constructed CyaA-Hly mutants that were over-expressed in E. coli as 126 kDa His-tagged soluble proteins were successfully purified via immobilized Ni2+-affinity chromatography. Both positive-charge substitutions (Q574K, Q574R, E581K, E581R) and negative-charge elimination (E581Q) appeared to increase the kinetics of toxin-induced hemolysis while the substitution with a negatively-charged side-chain (Q574E) completely abolished its hemolytic activity. When incorporated into PLBs under symmetrical conditions (1.0 M KCl, pH 7.4), all five mutant toxins with the increased hemolytic activity produced clearly-resolved single channels with higher open probability and longer lifetime than the wild-type toxin, albeit with a half decrease in their maximum conductance. Molecular dynamics simulations for 50 ns of a trimeric CyaA-Hly pore model comprising three α2-loop-α3 transmembrane hairpins revealed a significant role of the positive charge at both target positions in the structural stability and enlarged diameter of the simulated pore. Altogether, our present data have disclosed functional contributions of positively-charged side

  19. Functional Contributions of Positive Charges in the Pore-Lining Helix 3 of the Bordetella pertussis CyaA-Hemolysin to Hemolytic Activity and Ion-Channel Opening.

    PubMed

    Kurehong, Chattip; Kanchanawarin, Chalermpol; Powthongchin, Busaba; Prangkio, Panchika; Katzenmeier, Gerd; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan

    2017-03-16

    The Bordetella pertussis CyaA-hemolysin (CyaA-Hly) domain was previously demonstrated to be an important determinant for hemolysis against target erythrocytes and ion-channel formation in planar lipid bilayers (PLBs). Here, net-charge variations in the pore-lining helix of thirteen related RTX cytolysins including CyaA-Hly were revealed by amino acid sequence alignments, reflecting their different degrees of hemolytic activity. To analyze possible functional effects of net-charge alterations on hemolytic activity and channel formation of CyaA-Hly, specific mutations were made at Gln(574) or Glu(581) in its pore-lining α3 of which both residues are highly conserved Lys in the three highly active RTX cytolysins (i.e., Escherichia coli α-hemolysin, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae toxin, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin). All six constructed CyaA-Hly mutants that were over-expressed in E. coli as 126 kDa His-tagged soluble proteins were successfully purified via immobilized Ni(2+)-affinity chromatography. Both positive-charge substitutions (Q574K, Q574R, E581K, E581R) and negative-charge elimination (E581Q) appeared to increase the kinetics of toxin-induced hemolysis while the substitution with a negatively-charged side-chain (Q574E) completely abolished its hemolytic activity. When incorporated into PLBs under symmetrical conditions (1.0 M KCl, pH 7.4), all five mutant toxins with the increased hemolytic activity produced clearly-resolved single channels with higher open probability and longer lifetime than the wild-type toxin, albeit with a half decrease in their maximum conductance. Molecular dynamics simulations for 50 ns of a trimeric CyaA-Hly pore model comprising three α2-loop-α3 transmembrane hairpins revealed a significant role of the positive charge at both target positions in the structural stability and enlarged diameter of the simulated pore. Altogether, our present data have disclosed functional contributions of positively

  20. A genomic virulence reference map of Enterococcus faecalis reveals an important contribution of phage03-like elements in nosocomial genetic lineages to pathogenicity in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Snipen, Lars-Gustav; Murray, Barbara E; Willems, Rob J L; Gilmore, Michael S; Diep, Dzung B; Nes, Ingolf F; Brede, Dag Anders

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, the commensal and pathogenic host-microbe interaction of Enterococcus faecalis was explored using a Caenorhabditis elegans model system. The virulence of 28 E. faecalis isolates representing 24 multilocus sequence types (MLSTs), including human commensal and clinical isolates as well as isolates from animals and of insect origin, was investigated using C. elegans strain glp-4 (bn2ts); sek-1 (km4). This revealed that 6 E. faecalis isolates behaved in a commensal manner with no nematocidal effect, while the remaining strains showed a time to 50% lethality ranging from 47 to 120 h. Principal component analysis showed that the difference in nematocidal activity explained 94% of the variance in the data. Assessment of known virulence traits revealed that gelatinase and cytolysin production accounted for 40.8% and 36.5% of the observed pathogenicity, respectively. However, coproduction of gelatinase and cytolysin did not increase virulence additively, accounting for 50.6% of the pathogenicity and therefore indicating a significant (26.7%) saturation effect. We employed a comparative genomic analysis approach using the 28 isolates comprising a collection of 82,356 annotated coding sequences (CDS) to identify 2,325 patterns of presence or absence among the investigated strains. Univariate statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) established that individual patterns positively correlated (n = 61) with virulence. The patterns were investigated to identify potential new virulence traits, among which we found five patterns consisting of the phage03-like gene clusters. Strains harboring phage03 showed, on average, 17% higher killing of C. elegans (P = 4.4e(-6)). The phage03 gene cluster was also present in gelatinase-and-cytolysin-negative strain E. faecalis JH2-2. Deletion of this phage element from the JH2-2 clinical strain rendered the mutant apathogenic in C. elegans, and a similar mutant of the nosocomial V583 isolate showed significantly attenuated

  1. A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C.

    2008-10-02

    Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

  2. Crystal structure of listeriolysin O reveals molecular details of oligomerization and pore formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Stefan; van Pee, Katharina; Hudel, Martina; Leustik, Martin; Rhinow, Daniel; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Chakraborty, Trinad; Yildiz, Özkan

    2014-04-01

    Listeriolysin O (LLO) is an essential virulence factor of Listeria monocytogenes that causes listeriosis. Listeria monocytogenes owes its ability to live within cells to the pH- and temperature-dependent pore-forming activity of LLO, which is unique among cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. LLO enables the bacteria to cross the phagosomal membrane and is also involved in activation of cellular processes, including the modulation of gene expression or intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. Neither the pore-forming mechanism nor the mechanisms triggering the signalling processes in the host cell are known in detail. Here, we report the crystal structure of LLO, in which we identified regions important for oligomerization and pore formation. Mutants were characterized by determining their haemolytic and Ca2+ uptake activity. We analysed the pore formation of LLO and its variants on erythrocyte ghosts by electron microscopy and show that pore formation requires precise interface interactions during toxin oligomerization on the membrane.

  3. Crystal structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumolysin provides key insights into early steps of pore formation

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Sara L.; Feil, Susanne C.; Morton, Craig J.; Farrand, Allison J.; Mulhern, Terrence D.; Gorman, Michael A.; Wade, Kristin R.; Tweten, Rodney K.; Parker, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Pore-forming proteins are weapons often used by bacterial pathogens to breach the membrane barrier of target cells. Despite their critical role in infection important structural aspects of the mechanism of how these proteins assemble into pores remain unknown. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the world’s leading cause of pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremia and otitis media. Pneumolysin (PLY) is a major virulence factor of S. pneumoniae and a target for both small molecule drug development and vaccines. PLY is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), a family of pore-forming toxins that form gigantic pores in cell membranes. Here we present the structure of PLY determined by X-ray crystallography and, in solution, by small-angle X-ray scattering. The crystal structure reveals PLY assembles as a linear oligomer that provides key structural insights into the poorly understood early monomer-monomer interactions of CDCs at the membrane surface. PMID:26403197

  4. Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1-encoded Fst toxin affects membrane permeability and alters cellular responses to lantibiotics.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Keith E; Weaver, Dariel M; Wells, Carol L; Waters, Christopher M; Gardner, Marshall E; Ehli, Erik A

    2003-04-01

    Fst is a peptide toxin encoded by the par toxin-antitoxin stability determinant of Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1. Intracellular overproduction of Fst resulted in simultaneous inhibition of all cellular macromolecular synthesis concomitant with cell growth inhibition and compromised the integrity of the cell membrane. Cells did not lyse or noticeably leak intracellular contents but had specific defects in chromosome partitioning and cell division. Extracellular addition of synthetic Fst had no effect on cell growth. Spontaneous Fst-resistant mutants had a phenotype consistent with changes in membrane composition. Interestingly, overproduction of Fst sensitized cells to the lantibiotic nisin, and Fst-resistant mutants were cross-resistant to nisin and the pAD1-encoded cytolysin.

  5. Listeriolysin O as a strong immunogenic molecule for the development of new anti-tumor vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rui; Liu, Yuqin

    2013-01-01

    The pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO), which is produced by Listeria monocytogenes, mediates bacterial phagosomal escape and facilitates bacterial multiplication during infection. This toxin has recently gained attention because of its confirmed role in the controlled and specific modulation of the immune response. Currently, cancer immunotherapies are focused on conquering the immune tolerance induced by poorly immunogenic tumor antigens and eliciting strong, lasting immunological memory. An effective way to achieve these goals is the co-administration of potent immunomodulatory adjuvant components with vaccine vectors. LLO, a toxin that belongs to the family of cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), exhibits potent cell type-non-specific toxicity and is a source of dominant CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes. According to recent research, in addition to its effective cytotoxicity as a cancer immunotherapeutic drug, the non-specific adjuvant property of LLO makes it promising for the development of efficacious anti-tumor vaccines. PMID:23399758

  6. Regulation of the Membrane Insertion and Conductance Activity of the Metamorphic Chloride Intracellular Channel Protein CLIC1 by Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Stella M.; Alkhamici, Heba; Brown, Louise J.; Almond, Oscar C.; Goodchild, Sophia C.; Carne, Sonia; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Holt, Stephen A.; Cornell, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    The Chloride Intracellular ion channel protein CLIC1 has the ability to spontaneously insert into lipid membranes from a soluble, globular state. The precise mechanism of how this occurs and what regulates this insertion is still largely unknown, although factors such as pH and redox environment are known contributors. In the current study, we demonstrate that the presence and concentration of cholesterol in the membrane regulates the spontaneous insertion of CLIC1 into the membrane as well as its ion channel activity. The study employed pressure versus area change measurements of Langmuir lipid monolayer films; and impedance spectroscopy measurements using tethered bilayer membranes to monitor membrane conductance during and following the addition of CLIC1 protein. The observed cholesterol dependent behaviour of CLIC1 is highly reminiscent of the cholesterol-dependent-cytolysin family of bacterial pore-forming proteins, suggesting common regulatory mechanisms for spontaneous protein insertion into the membrane bilayer. PMID:23457643

  7. Regulation of the membrane insertion and conductance activity of the metamorphic chloride intracellular channel protein CLIC1 by cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Stella M; Alkhamici, Heba; Brown, Louise J; Almond, Oscar C; Goodchild, Sophia C; Carne, Sonia; Curmi, Paul M G; Holt, Stephen A; Cornell, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The Chloride Intracellular ion channel protein CLIC1 has the ability to spontaneously insert into lipid membranes from a soluble, globular state. The precise mechanism of how this occurs and what regulates this insertion is still largely unknown, although factors such as pH and redox environment are known contributors. In the current study, we demonstrate that the presence and concentration of cholesterol in the membrane regulates the spontaneous insertion of CLIC1 into the membrane as well as its ion channel activity. The study employed pressure versus area change measurements of Langmuir lipid monolayer films; and impedance spectroscopy measurements using tethered bilayer membranes to monitor membrane conductance during and following the addition of CLIC1 protein. The observed cholesterol dependent behaviour of CLIC1 is highly reminiscent of the cholesterol-dependent-cytolysin family of bacterial pore-forming proteins, suggesting common regulatory mechanisms for spontaneous protein insertion into the membrane bilayer.

  8. Tethered bilayer membranes as a complementary tool for functional and structural studies: The pyolysin case.

    PubMed

    Preta, Giulio; Jankunec, Marija; Heinrich, Frank; Griffin, Sholeem; Sheldon, Iain Martin; Valincius, Gintaras

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the use of tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) as an experimental platform for functional and structural studies of membrane associated proteins by electrochemical techniques. The reconstitution of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) pyolysin (PLO) from Trueperella pyogenes into tBLMs was followed in real-time by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Changes of the EIS parameters of the tBLMs upon exposure to PLO solutions were consistent with the dielectric barrier damage occurring through the formation of water-filled pores in membranes. Parallel experiments involving a mutant version of PLO, which is able to bind to the membranes but does not form oligomer pores, strengthen the reliability of this methodology, since no change in the electrochemical impedance was observed. Complementary atomic force microscopy (AFM) and neutron reflectometry (NR) measurements revealed structural details of the membrane bound PLO, consistent with the structural transformations of the membrane bound toxins found for other cholesterol dependent cytolysins. In this work, using the tBLMs platform we also observed a protective effect of the dynamin inhibitor Dynasore against pyolysin as well as pneumolysin. An effect of Dynasore in tBLMs, which was earlier observed in experiments with live cells, confirms the biological relevance of the tBLMs models, as well as demonstrates the potential of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to quantify membrane damage by the pore forming toxins. In conclusion, tBLMs are a reliable and complementary method to explore the activity of CDCs in eukaryotic cells and to develop strategies to limit the toxic effects of CDCs.

  9. The sensing of membrane microdomains based on pore-forming toxins.

    PubMed

    Skočaj, M; Bakrač, B; Križaj, I; Maček, P; Anderluh, G; Sepčić, K

    2013-01-01

    Membrane rafts are transient and unstable membrane microdomains that are enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol, and specific proteins. They are involved in intracellular trafficking, signal transduction, pathogen entry, and attachment of various ligands. Increasing experimental evidence on the crucial biological roles of membrane rafts under normal and pathological conditions require new techniques for their structural and functional characterization. In particular, fluorescence-labeled cytolytic proteins that interact specifically with molecules enriched in rafts are of increasing interest. Cholera toxin subunit B interacts specifically with raft-residing ganglioside G(M1), and it has long been the lipid probe of choice for membrane rafts. Recently, four new pore-forming toxins have been proposed as selective raft markers: (i) equinatoxin II, a cytolysin from the sea anemone Actinia equina, which specifically recognizes free and membrane-embedded sphingomyelin; (ii) a truncated non-toxic mutant of a cytolytic protein, lysenin, from the earthworm Eisenia foetida, which specifically recognizes sphingomyelin-enriched membrane domains; (iii) a non-toxic derivative of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin perfringolysin O, from the bacterium Clostridium perfringens, which selectively binds to membrane domains enriched in cholesterol; and (iv) ostreolysin, from the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, which does not bind to a single raft-enriched lipid component, but requires a specific combination of two of the most important raft-residing lipids: sphingomyelin and cholesterol. Nontoxic, raft-binding derivatives of cytolytic proteins have already been successfully used to explore both the structure and function of membrane rafts, and of raft-associated molecules. Here, we review these four new derivatives of pore-forming toxins as new putative markers of these membrane microdomains.

  10. The β-prism lectin domain of Vibrio cholerae hemolysin promotes self-assembly of the β-pore-forming toxin by a carbohydrate-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Sreerupa; Mukherjee, Amarshi; Mazumdar, Budhaditya; Ghosh, Amar N; Banerjee, Kalyan K

    2014-02-14

    Vibrio cholerae cytolysin/hemolysin (VCC) is an amphipathic 65-kDa β-pore-forming toxin with a C-terminal β-prism lectin domain. Because deletion or point mutation of the lectin domain seriously compromises hemolytic activity, it is thought that carbohydrate-dependent interactions play a critical role in membrane targeting of VCC. To delineate the contributions of the cytolysin and lectin domains in pore formation, we used wild-type VCC, 50-kDa VCC (VCC(50)) without the lectin domain, and mutant VCC(D617A) with no carbohydrate-binding activity. VCC and its two variants with no carbohydrate-binding activity moved to the erythrocyte stroma with apparent association constants on the order of 10(7) M(-1). However, loss of the lectin domain severely reduced the efficiency of self-association of the VCC monomer with the β-barrel heptamer in the synthetic lipid bilayer from ∼83 to 27%. Notably, inactivation of the carbohydrate-binding activity by the D617A mutation marginally reduced oligomerization to ∼77%. Oligomerization of VCC(50) was temperature-insensitive; by contrast, VCC self-assembly increased with increasing temperature, suggesting that the process is driven by entropy and opposed by enthalpy. Asialofetuin, the β1-galactosyl-terminated glycoprotein inhibitor of VCC-induced hemolysis, promoted oligomerization of 65-kDa VCC to a species that resembled the membrane-inserted heptamer in stoichiometry and morphology but had reduced global amphipathicity. In conclusion, we propose (i) that the β-prism lectin domain facilitated toxin assembly by producing entropy during relocation in the heptamer and (ii) that glycoconjugates inhibited VCC by promoting its assembly to a water-soluble, less amphipathic oligomer variant with reduced ability to penetrate the bilayer.

  11. Complex nature of enterococcal pheromone-responsive plasmids.

    PubMed

    Wardal, Ewa; Sadowy, Ewa; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2010-01-01

    Pheromone-responsive plasmids constitute a unique group of approximately 20 plasmids identified, as yet, only among enterococcal species. Several of their representatives, e.g. pAD1, pCF10, pPD1 and pAM373 have been extensively studied. These plasmids possess a sophisticated conjugation mechanism based on response to sex pheromones--small peptides produced by plasmid-free recipient cells. Detailed analysis of regulation and function of the pheromone response process revealed its great complexity and dual role--in plasmid conjugation and modulation of enterococcal virulence. Among other functional modules identified in pheromone plasmids, the stabilization/partition systems play a crucial role in stable maintenance of the plasmid molecule in host bacteria. Among them, the par locus of pAD1 is one of the exceptional RNA addiction systems. Pheromone-responsive plasmids contribute also to enterococcal phenotype being an important vehicle of antibiotic resistance in this genus. Both types of acquired vancomycin resistance determinants, vanA and vanB, as well many other resistant phenotypes, were found to be located on these plasmids. They also encode two basic agents of enterococcal virulence, i.e. aggregation substance (AS) and cytolysin. AS participates in mating-pair formation during conjugation but can also facilitate the adherence ofenterococci to human tissues during infection. The second protein, cytolysin, displays hemolytic activity and helps to invade eukaryotic cells. There are still many aspects of the nature of pheromone plasmids that remain unclear and more detailed studies are needed to understand their uniqueness and complexity.

  12. Listeriolysin O Is Necessary and Sufficient to Induce Autophagy during Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Morse, Nicole; Robbins, Jennifer R.; Rae, Chris S.; Mochegova, Sofia N.; Swanson, Michele S.; Zhao, Zijiang; Virgin, Herbert W.; Portnoy, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that autophagy is utilized by cells as a protective mechanism against Listeria monocytogenes infection. Methodology/Principal Findings However we find autophagy has no measurable role in vacuolar escape and intracellular growth in primary cultured bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) deficient for autophagy (atg5−/−). Nevertheless, we provide evidence that the pore forming activity of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin listeriolysin O (LLO) can induce autophagy subsequent to infection by L. monocytogenes. Infection of BMDMs with L. monocytogenes induced microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) lipidation, consistent with autophagy activation, whereas a mutant lacking LLO did not. Infection of BMDMs that express LC3-GFP demonstrated that wild-type L. monocytogenes was encapsulated by LC3-GFP, consistent with autophagy activation, whereas a mutant lacking LLO was not. Bacillus subtilis expressing either LLO or a related cytolysin, perfringolysin O (PFO), induced LC3 colocalization and LC3 lipidation. Further, LLO-containing liposomes also recruited LC3-GFP, indicating that LLO was sufficient to induce targeted autophagy in the absence of infection. The role of autophagy had variable effects depending on the cell type assayed. In atg5−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts, L. monocytogenes had a primary vacuole escape defect. However, the bacteria escaped and grew normally in atg5−/− BMDMs. Conclusions/Significance We propose that membrane damage, such as that caused by LLO, triggers bacterial-targeted autophagy, although autophagy does not affect the fate of wild-type intracellular L. monocytogenes in primary BMDMs. PMID:20062534

  13. Pro-inflammatory exoprotein characterization of toxic shock syndrome Staphylococcus aureus†

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Chi; Anderson, Michele J.; Kohler, Petra L.; Strandberg, Kristi L.; Olson, Michael E.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) clonal type USA200 is the most widely disseminated Staphylococcus aureus colonizer of the nose and is a major cause of toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Exoproteins derived from these organisms have been suggested to contribute to their colonization and causation of human diseases, but have not been well-characterized. Two representative S. aureus USA200 isolates, MNPE (α-toxin positive) and CDC587 (α-toxin mutant), isolated from pulmonary post-influenza TSS and menstrual vaginal TSS, respectively, were evaluated. Biochemical, immunobiological and cell-based assays, including mass spectrometry, were used to identify key exoproteins derived from the strains that are responsible for pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity on human vaginal epithelial cells. Exoproteins associated with virulence were produced by both strains, and cytolysins (α-toxin and γ-toxin), superantigens, and proteases were identified as the major exoproteins, which caused epithelial cell inflammation and cytotoxicity. Exoprotein fractions from MNPE were more pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic than those from CDC587 due to high concentrations of α-toxin. CDC587 produced a small amount of α-toxin, despite the presence of a stop codon (TAG) at codon 113. Additional exotoxin identification studies of USA200 strain [S. aureus MN8 (α-toxin mutant)] confirmed that MN8 also produced low levels of α-toxin despite the same stop codon. The differences observed in virulence factor profiles of two USA200 strains provide insight into environmental factors that select for specific virulence factors. Cytolysins, superantigens, and proteases were identified as potential targets, where toxin neutralization may prevent or diminish epithelial damage associated with S. aureus. PMID:21749039

  14. Reconstitution of Cholesterol-Dependent Vaginolysin into Tethered Phospholipid Bilayers: Implications for Bioanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Budvytyte, Rima; Pleckaityte, Milda; Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Vanderah, David J.; Valincius, Gintaras

    2013-01-01

    Functional reconstitution of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin vaginolysin (VLY) from Gardnerella vaginalis into artificial tethered bilayer membranes (tBLMs) has been accomplished. The reconstitution of VLY was followed in real-time by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Changes of the EIS parameters of the tBLMs upon exposure to VLY solutions were consistent with the formation of water-filled pores in the membranes. It was found that reconstitution of VLY is a strictly cholesterol-dependent, irreversible process. At a constant cholesterol concentration reconstitution of VLY occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, thus allowing the monitoring of VLY concentration and activity in vitro and opening possibilities for tBLM utilization in bioanalysis. EIS methodology allowed us to detect VLY down to 0.5 nM (28 ng/mL) concentration. Inactivation of VLY by certain amino acid substitutions led to noticeably lesser tBLM damage. Pre-incubation of VLY with the neutralizing monoclonal antibody 9B4 inactivated the VLY membrane damage in a concentration-dependent manner, while the non-neutralizing antibody 21A5 exhibited no effect. These findings demonstrate the biological relevance of the interaction between VLY and the tBLM. The membrane-damaging interaction between VLY and tBLM was observed in the absence of the human CD59 receptor, known to strongly facilitate the hemolytic activity of VLY. Taken together, our study demonstrates the applicability of tBLMs as a bioanalytical platform for the detection of the activity of VLY and possibly other cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. PMID:24349307

  15. Potential of combined fungal and bacterial treatment for color removal in textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Novotný, Ceněk; Svobodová, Kateřina; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Heissenberger, Andreas; Fuchs, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Low efficiency of dye removal by mixed bacterial communities and high rates of dye decolorization by white-rot fungi suggest a combination of both processes to be an option of treatment of textile wastewaters containing dyes and high concentrations of organics. Bacteria were able to remove mono-azo dye but not other chemically different dyes whereas decolorization rates using Irpex lacteus mostly exceeded 90% within less than one week irrespective of dye structure. Decolorization rates for industrial textile wastewaters containing 2-3 different dyes by fungal trickling filters (FTF) attained 91%, 86%, 35% within 5-12 d. Sequential two-step application of FTF and bacterial reactors resulted in efficient decolorization in 1st step (various single dyes, 94-99% within 5 d; wastewater I, 90% within 7 d) and TOC reduction of 95-97% in the two steps. Large potential of combined use of white-rot fungi and traditional bacterial treatment systems for bioremediation of textile wastewaters was demonstrated.

  16. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  17. Fermentation of biologically pretreated wheat straw for ethanol production: comparison of fermentative microorganisms and process configurations.

    PubMed

    López-Abelairas, María; Lu-Chau, Thelmo Alejandro; Lema, Juan Manuel

    2013-08-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with white-rot fungi to produce bioethanol is an environmentally friendly alternative to the commonly used physico-chemical processes. After biological pretreatment, a solid substrate composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, the two latter with a composition lower than that of the initial substrate, is obtained. In this study, six microorganisms and four process configurations were utilised to ferment a hydrolysate obtained from wheat straw pretreated with the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus. To enhance total sugars utilisation, five of these microorganisms are able to metabolise, in addition to glucose, most of the pentoses obtained after the hydrolysis of wheat straw by the application of a mixture of hemicellulolytic and cellulolytic enzymes. The highest overall ethanol yield was obtained with the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus. Its application in combination with the best process configuration yielded 163 mg ethanol per gram of raw wheat straw, which was between 23 and 35 % greater than the yields typically obtained with a conventional bioethanol process, in which wheat straw is pretreated using steam explosion and fermented with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  18. Synthesis of rebaudioside A from stevioside and their interaction model with hTAS2R4 bitter taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Singla, Ramit; Jaitak, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Steviol glycosides (SG's) from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) have been used as a natural low-calorie sweeteners. Its aftertaste bitterness restricts its use for human consumption and limits its application in food and pharmaceutical products. In present study, we have performed computational analysis in order to investigate the interaction of two major constituents of SG's against homology model of the hTAS2R4 receptor. Molecular simulation study was performed using stevioside and rebaudioside A revealed that, sugar moiety at the C-3'' position in rebaudioside A causes restriction of its entry into the receptor site thereby unable to trigger the bitter reception signaling cascade. Encouraged by the current finding, we have also developed a greener route using β-1,3-glucanase from Irpex lacteus for the synthesis of de-bittered rebaudioside A from stevioside. The rebaudioside A obtained was of high quality with percent conversion of 62.5%. The results here reported could be used for the synthesis of rebaudioside A which have large application in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  19. Fungal treatment of cornstalks enhances the delignification and xylan loss during mild alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic digestibility of glucan.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongbo; Du, Wanqing; Zhang, Ji; Ma, Fuying; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhong, Weixin

    2010-09-01

    Fungal treatment with Irpex lacteus was used to enhance the delignification and xylan loss during mild alkaline pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic conversion in this research. The 15-day bio-treatment can modify the lignin structure and increase losses of lignin (from 75.67% to 80.00%) and xylan (from 40.68% to 51.37%) during alkaline pretreatment, making the enzymatic conversion more efficient. The high digestibility of glucan can be obtained after the bio-treatment and alkaline pretreatment at near room-temperature (30 degrees C), and the maximum digestibility increased 14% in comparison with that after the sole alkaline pretreatment. The bio-treatment enhanced delignification and glucan digestibility more significantly when the alkaline pretreatment was performed at lower severity. Additionally, Nuclei Growth model with a time-dependent rate constant can describe well the delignification and xylan loss. Results indicated that the bio-treatment increased the rate constant of initial reaction, but accelerated the decline of rate constant during alkaline pretreatment.

  20. A new genus and a new species in the sea cucumber subfamily Colochirinae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Dendrochirotida: Cucumariidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Mjobo, Sifiso; Thandar, Ahmed S

    2016-11-09

    A new genus Hemiocnus is here erected to accommodate the Mediterranean dendrochirotid sea cucumber Cladodactyla syracusana Grube, currently classified, with some doubt, in the cucumariid genus Pseudocnella. At the same time a new cucumariid species, Hemiocnus rubrobrunneus, is described from some Tunisian material, misidentified as Pseudocnella syracusana (Grube), received from the United States National Museum. The new genus appears most closely related to Pseudocnella than to any other genus within the Colochirinae. Although its body wall ossicles resemble those of Pseudocnella spp. it differs in that the two ventral-most tentacles are reduced and in the presence of rosettes in the tentacles. P. syracusana also cannot be classified in Ocnus because of the presence of multi-layered, fir-cone shaped plates in the body wall, often with one end denticulate; such ossicles are lacking in the type species of the latter genus. The new species, Hemiocnus rubrobrunneus, on the other hand, shows some resemblance to H. syracusanus in its characteristic buttons and incomplete baskets, differing in its softer body wall, lack of fir-cone-shaped plates and in the presence of rosettes and complete baskets in the body wall. There are also some resemblances of the new species to the Mediterranean species of Ocnus viz. O. brunneus, O. planci and O. lacteus, but the soft nature of the body wall, shallow quadrilocular instead of deep trilocular baskets, and the presence of large knobbed plates in the anal region precludes its inclusion in this genus.

  1. Water recycle as a must: decolorization of textile wastewaters by plant-associated fungi.

    PubMed

    Tegli, Stefania; Cerboneschi, Matteo; Corsi, Massimo; Bonnanni, Marco; Bianchini, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    Textile dye effluents are among the most problematic pollutants because of their toxicity on several organisms and ecosystems. Low cost and ecocompatible bioremediation processes offer a promising alternative to the conventional and aspecific physico-chemical procedures adopted so far. Here, microorganisms resident on three real textile dyeing effluent were isolated, characterized, and tested for their decolorizing performances. Although able to survive on these real textile-dyeing wastewaters, they always showed a very low decolorizing activity. On the contrary, several plant-associated fungi (Bjerkandera adusta, Funalia trogii, Irpex lacteus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes hirsuta, Trichoderma viride, and Aspergillus nidulans) were also assayed and demonstrated to be able both to survive and to decolorize to various extents the three effluents, used as such in liquid cultures. The decolorizing potential of these fungi was demonstrated to be influenced by nutrient availability and pH. Best performances were constantly obtained using B. adusta and A. nidulans, relying on two strongly different mechanisms for their decolorizing activities: degradation for B. adusta and biosorption for A. nidulans. Acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna showed a substantial reduction in toxicity of the three textile dyeing effluents when treated with B. adusta and A. nidulans, as suggested by mass spectrometric analysis as well.

  2. Diversity of fungi in creosote-treated crosstie wastes and their resistance to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ji; Lee, Hwanhwi; Choi, Yong-Seok; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok; Huh, Na-Yoon; Lee, Sangjoon; Lim, Young Woon; Lee, Sung-Suk; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2010-05-01

    This study was conducted to generate information regarding the diversity of fungi inhabiting creosote-treated wood in a storage yard for crosstie wastes in Gwangmyeong, Korea. Additionally, the resistance to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of indigenous fungi that mainly occupy creosote-treated wood was evaluated. We isolated fungi from the surface and inner area of crosstie wastes and identified them using a combination of traditional methods and molecular techniques. Overall, 179 isolates including 47 different species were isolated from 240 sampling sites. The identified fungal species included 23 ascomycetes, 19 basidiomycetes, and 5 zygomycetes. Three species, Alternaria alternata, Irpex lacteus, and Rhizomucor variabilis, were the most frequently isolated ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and zygomycetes, respectively. The results of this study showed that there was a large difference in the fungal diversity between the surface and the inner area. Additionally, zygomycetes and ascomycetes were found to have a greater tolerance to PAHs than basidiomycetes. However, two basidiomycetes, Heterobasidion annosum and Schizophyllum commune, showed very high resistance to PAHs, even in response to the highest concentration (1,000 ppm), which indicates that these species may play a role in the degradation of PAHs.

  3. Bioremediation of long-term PCB-contaminated soil by white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Stella, Tatiana; Covino, Stefano; Čvančarová, Monika; Filipová, Alena; Petruccioli, Maurizio; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2017-02-15

    The objective of this work was to test the PCB-degrading abilities of two white-rot fungi, namely Pleurotus ostreatus and Irpex lacteus, in real contaminated soils with different chemical properties and autochthonous microflora. In addition to the efficiency in PCB removal, attention was given to other important parameters, such as changes in the toxicity and formation of PCB transformation products. Moreover, structural shifts and dynamics of both bacterial and fungal communities were monitored using next-generation sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid analysis. The best results were obtained with P. ostreatus, which resulted in PCB removals of 18.5, 41.3 and 50.5% from the bulk, top (surface) and rhizosphere, respectively, of dumpsite soils after 12 weeks of treatment. Numerous transformation products were detected (hydoxylated and methoxylated PCBs, chlorobenzoates and chlorobenzyl alcohols), which indicates that both fungi were able to oxidize and decompose the aromatic moiety of PCBs in the soils. Microbial community analysis revealed that P. ostreatus efficiently colonized the soil samples and suppressed other fungal genera. However, the same fungus substantially stimulated bacterial taxa that encompass putative PCB degraders. The results of this study finally demonstrated the feasibility of using this fungus for possible scaled-up bioremediation applications.

  4. Transcriptional response of lignin-degrading enzymes to 17α-ethinyloestradiol in two white rots

    PubMed Central

    Přenosilová, L; Křesinová, Z; Amemori, A Slavíková; Cajthaml, T; Svobodová, K

    2013-01-01

    Fungal, ligninolytic enzymes have attracted a great attention for their bioremediation capabilities. A deficient knowledge of regulation of enzyme production, however, hinders the use of ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation applications. In this work, a transcriptional analyses of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) production by two white rots was combined with determination of pI of the enzymes and the evaluation of 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) degradation to study regulation mechanisms used by fungi during EE2 degradation. In the cultures of Trametes versicolor the addition of EE2 caused an increase in laccase activity with a maximum of 34.2 ± 6.7 U g−1 of dry mycelia that was observed after 2 days of cultivation. It corresponded to a 4.9 times higher transcription levels of a laccase-encoding gene (lacB) that were detected in the cultures at the same time. Simultaneously, pI values of the fungal laccases were altered in response to the EE2 treatment. Like T. versicolor, Irpex lacteus was also able to remove 10 mg l−1 EE2 within 3 days of cultivation. While an increase to I. lacteus MnP activity and MnP gene transcription levels was observed at the later phase of the cultivation. It suggests another metabolic role of MnP but EE2 degradation. PMID:23170978

  5. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 “Bunker C” fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels. PMID:26111162

  6. Influence of Hyphal Inoculum potential on the Competitive Success of Fungi Colonizing Wood.

    PubMed

    Song, Zewei; Vail, Andrew; Sadowsky, Michael J; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2015-05-01

    The relative amounts of hyphal inoculum in forest soils may determine the capacity for fungi to compete with and replace early colonizers of wood in ground contact. Our aim in this study was to test the flexibility of priority effects (colonization timing) by varying the timing of inoculum introduction (i.e., precolonization) and amount of inoculum (i.e., inoculum potential). We controlled these variables in soil-block microcosms using fungi with known competitive outcomes in similar conditions, tracking isolate-specific fungal biomass, and residue physiochemistry over time. In the precolonization trial (experiment I), a brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum was given 1, 3, or 5 weeks to precolonize wood blocks (oak, birch, pine, and spruce) prior the introduction of a white rot fungus, Irpex lacteus, a more aggressive colonizer in this set-up. In the inoculum potential trial (experiment II), the fungi were inoculated simultaneously, but with eightfold higher brown rot inoculum than that of experiment I. As expected, longer precolonization duration increased the chance for the less-competitive brown rot fungus to outcompete its white rot opponent. Higher brown rot fungal inoculum outside of the wood matrix also resulted in competitive success for the brown rot isolate in most cases. These temporal shifts in fungal dominance were detectable in a 'community snapshot' as isolate-specific quantitative PCR, but also as functionally-relevant consequences of wood rot type, including carbohydrate depolymerization and pH. These results from a controlled system reinforce fungal-fungal interaction and suggest that relative inoculum availability beyond the wood matrix (i.e., soils) might regulate the duration of priority effects and shift the functional trajectory of wood decomposition.

  7. An initial examination of the potential role of T-cell immunity in protection against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection

    PubMed Central

    Aranyos, Alek M.; Roff, Shannon R.; Pu, Riuyu; Owen, Jennifer L.; Coleman, James K.; Yamamoto, Janet K.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of vaccine-induced T-cell immunity in conferring protection with prototype and commercial FIV vaccines is still unclear. Current studies performed adoptive transfer of T cells from prototype FIV-vaccinated cats to partial-to-complete feline leukocyte antigen (FLA)-matched cats a day before either homologous FIVPet or heterologous-subtype pathogenic FIVFC1 challenge. Adoptive-transfer (A–T) conferred a protection rate of 87% (13 of 15, p<0.001) against FIVPet using FLA-matched T cells, whereas all 12 control cats were unprotected. Furthermore, A-T conferred protection rate of 50% (6 of 12, p<0.023) against FIVFC1 using FLA-matched T cells, whereas all 8 control cats were unprotected. Transfer of FLA-matched T and B cells demonstrated that T cells are needed to confer A-T protection. In addition, complete FLA-matching and addition of T-cell numbers >13×106 cells were required for A-T protection against FIVFC1 strain, reported to be a highly pathogenic virus resistant to vaccine-induced neutralizing-antibodies. The addition of FLA-matched B cells alone was not protective. The poor quality of the anti-FIV T-cell immunity induced by the vaccine likely contributed to the lack of protection in an FLA-matched recipient against FIVFC1. The quality of the immune response was determined by the presence of high mRNA levels of cytolysin (perforin) and cytotoxins (granzymes A, B, and H) and T helper-1 cytokines (interferon-γ [IFNγ] and IL2). Increased cytokine, cytolysin and cytotoxin production was detected in the donors which conferred protection in A-T studies. In addition, the CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation and/or IFNγ responses to FIV p24 and reverse transcriptase increased with each year in cats receiving 1X-3X vaccine boosts over 4 years. These studies demonstrate that anti-FIV T-cell immunity induced by vaccination with a dual-subtype FIV vaccine is essential for prophylactic protection against AIDS lentiviruses such as FIV and potentially HIV-1

  8. An initial examination of the potential role of T-cell immunity in protection against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection.

    PubMed

    Aranyos, Alek M; Roff, Shannon R; Pu, Ruiyu; Owen, Jennifer L; Coleman, James K; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2016-03-14

    The importance of vaccine-induced T-cell immunity in conferring protection with prototype and commercial FIV vaccines is still unclear. Current studies performed adoptive transfer of T cells from prototype FIV-vaccinated cats to partial-to-complete feline leukocyte antigen (FLA)-matched cats a day before either homologous FIVPet or heterologous-subtype pathogenic FIVFC1 challenge. Adoptive-transfer (A-T) conferred a protection rate of 87% (13 of 15, p < 0.001) against FIVPet using the FLA-matched T cells, whereas all 12 control cats were unprotected. Furthermore, A-T conferred protection rate of 50% (6 of 12, p<0.023) against FIVFC1 using FLA-matched T cells, whereas all 8 control cats were unprotected. Transfer of FLA-matched T and B cells demonstrated that T cells are needed to confer A-T protection. In addition, complete FLA-matching and addition of T-cell numbers > 13 × 10(6) cells were required for A-T protection against FIVFC1 strain, reported to be a highly pathogenic virus resistant to vaccine-induced neutralizing-antibodies. The addition of FLA-matched B cells alone was not protective. The poor quality of the anti-FIV T-cell immunity induced by the vaccine likely contributed to the lack of protection in an FLA-matched recipient against FIVFC1. The quality of the immune response was determined by the presence of high mRNA levels of cytolysin (perforin) and cytotoxins (granzymes A, B, and H) and T helper-1 cytokines (interferon-γ [IFNγ] and IL2). Increased cytokine, cytolysin and cytotoxin production was detected in the donors which conferred protection in A-T studies. In addition, the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell proliferation and/or IFNγ responses to FIV p24 and reverse transcriptase increased with each year in cats receiving 1X-3X vaccine boosts over 4 years. These studies demonstrate that anti-FIV T-cell immunity induced by vaccination with a dual-subtype FIV vaccine is essential for prophylactic protection against AIDS lentiviruses such as FIV and

  9. In silico exploration of novel phytoligands against probable drug target of Clostridium tetani.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Prakash, Nisha; Bharadwaj, Navya

    2012-12-01

    Though tetanus is an old disease with well known medicines, its complications are still a serious issue worldwide. Tetanus is mainly due to a powerful neurotoxin, tetanolysin-O, produced by a Gram positive anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium tetani. The toxin has a thiol-activated cytolysin which causes lysis of human platelets, lysosomes and a variety of subcellular membranes. The existing therapy seems to have challenged as available vaccines are not so effective and the bacteria developed resistance to many drugs. Computer aided approach is a novel platform to screen drug targets and design potential inhibitors. The three dimensional structure of the toxin is essential for structure based drug design. But the structure of tetanolysin-O is not available in its native form. Moreover, the interaction and pharmacological activities of current drugs against tetanolysin-O is not clear. Hence, there is need for three dimensional model of the toxin. The model was generated by homology modeling using crystal structure of perfringolysin-O, chain-A (PDB ID: 1PFO) as the template. The modeled structure has 22.7% α helices, 27.51% β sheets and 41.75% random coils. A thiol-activated cytolysin was predicted in the region of 105 to 1579, which acts as a functional domain of the toxin. The hypothetical model showed the backbone root mean square deviation (RMSD) value of 0.6 Å and the model was validated by ProCheck. The Ramachandran plot of the model accounts for 92.3% residues in the most allowed region. The model was further refined by various tools and deposited to Protein Model Database (PMDB ID: PM0077550). The model was used as the drug target and the interaction of various lead molecules with protein was studied by molecular docking. We have selected phytoligands based on literatures and pharmacophoric studies. The efficiency of herbal compounds and chemical leads was compared. Our study concluded that herbal derivatives such as berberine (7, 8, 13, 13a-tetradehydro-9

  10. The MACPF/CDC family of pore-forming toxins

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Carlos J; Kondos, Stephanie; Bull, Tara E; Kuiper, Michael J; Law, Ruby H P; Buckle, Ashley M; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Bird, Phillip I; Trapani, Joseph A; Whisstock, James C; Dunstone, Michelle A

    2008-01-01

    Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are commonly associated with bacterial pathogenesis. In eukaryotes, however, PFTs operate in the immune system or are deployed for attacking prey (e.g. venoms). This review focuses upon two families of globular protein PFTs: the cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) and the membrane attack complex/perforin superfamily (MACPF). CDCs are produced by Gram-positive bacteria and lyse or permeabilize host cells or intracellular organelles during infection. In eukaryotes, MACPF proteins have both lytic and non-lytic roles and function in immunity, invasion and development. The structure and molecular mechanism of several CDCs are relatively well characterized. Pore formation involves oligomerization and assembly of soluble monomers into a ring-shaped pre-pore which undergoes conformational change to insert into membranes, forming a large amphipathic transmembrane β-barrel. In contrast, the structure and mechanism of MACPF proteins has remained obscure. Recent crystallographic studies now reveal that although MACPF and CDCs are extremely divergent at the sequence level, they share a common fold. Together with biochemical studies, these structural data suggest that lytic MACPF proteins use a CDC-like mechanism of membrane disruption, and will help understand the roles these proteins play in immunity and development. PMID:18564372

  11. CodY orchestrates the expression of virulence determinants in emetic Bacillus cereus by impacting key regulatory circuits.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Elrike; Doll, Viktoria; Pauthner, Matthias; Lücking, Genia; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2012-07-01

    Bacillus cereus causes gastrointestinal diseases and local and systemic infections elicited by the depsipeptide cereulide, enterotoxins, phospholipases, cytolysins and proteases. The PlcR-PapR quorum sensing system activates the expression of several virulence factors, whereas the Spo0A-AbrB regulatory circuit partially controls the plasmid-borne cereulide synthetase (ces) operon. Here, we show that CodY, a nutrient-responsive regulator of Gram-positive bacteria, has a profound effect on both regulatory systems, which have been assumed to operate independently of each other. Deletion of codY resulted in downregulation of virulence genes belonging to the PlcR regulon and a concomitant upregulation of the ces genes. CodY was found to be a repressor of the ces operon, but did not interact with the promoter regions of PlcR-dependent virulence genes in vitro, suggesting an indirect regulation of the latter. Furthermore, CodY binds to the promoter of the immune inhibitor metalloprotease InhA1, demonstrating that CodY directly links B. cereus metabolism to virulence. In vivo studies using a Galleria mellonella infection model, showed that the codY mutant was substantially attenuated, highlighting the importance of CodY as a key regulator of pathogenicity. Our results demonstrate that CodY profoundly modulates the virulence of B. cereus, possibly controlling the development of pathogenic traits in suitable host environments.

  12. Plasticity of Listeriolysin O Pores and its Regulation by pH and Unique Histidine

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, Marjetka; Marchioretto, Marta; Zanetti, Manuela; Bavdek, Andrej; Kisovec, Matic; Cajnko, Miša Mojca; Lunelli, Lorenzo; Serra, Mauro Dalla; Anderluh, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Pore formation of cellular membranes is an ancient mechanism of bacterial pathogenesis that allows efficient damaging of target cells. Several mechanisms have been described, however, relatively little is known about the assembly and properties of pores. Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a pH-regulated cholesterol-dependent cytolysin from the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, which forms transmembrane β-barrel pores. Here we report that the assembly of LLO pores is rapid and efficient irrespective of pH. While pore diameters at the membrane surface are comparable at either pH 5.5 or 7.4, the distribution of pore conductances is significantly pH-dependent. This is directed by the unique residue H311, which is also important for the conformational stability of the LLO monomer and the rate of pore formation. The functional pores exhibit variations in height profiles and can reconfigure significantly by merging to other full pores or arcs. Our results indicate significant plasticity of large β-barrel pores, controlled by environmental cues like pH. PMID:25854672

  13. Insights into aureocin A70 regulation: participation of regulator AurR, alternative transcription factor σ(B) and phage ϕ11 regulator cI.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Marcus Lívio Varella; Fleming, Luana Rocha; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire

    2016-01-01

    Aureocin A70 is a four-component bacteriocin produced by Staphylococcus aureus A70. Its locus encompasses three transcriptional units coding for: (i) structural peptides (aurABCD), (ii) an ABC transporter (aurT) and (iii) the dedicated immunity protein and a putative transcriptional regulator (aurRI). The data provided here showed that AurR is an HTH-containing protein that reduces aureocin A70 production on solid medium, but not in broth. AurR seems to work similarly to LtnR and CylR2, repressors of lantibiotics lacticin 3147 and cytolysin, respectively. At least two other factors play a role in aureocin A70 production: (i) the alternative σ(B) factor, as σ(B)-defective cells produce more bacteriocin than the restored σ(B+) cells, and (ii) the ϕ11 regulator cI, since a lysogenic strain for ϕ11 exhibited a significant reduction in aureocin A70 production on solid medium when compared with the non-lysogenic isogenic strain. Full aeration and ROS generation abolished the effect of the phage regulators on aureocin A70 production. Interestingly, the ϕ11 regulator cI seems to cooperate with AurR to abolish aureocin A70 production. This study therefore represents the first report showing that phage regulators may play a role in regulation of bacteriocin production.

  14. The Intraperitoneal Transcriptome of the Opportunistic Pathogen Enterococcus faecalis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Cécile; Cacaci, Margherita; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Rattei, Thomas; Eder, Thomas; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Kalinowski, Jörn; Hain, Torsten; Hartke, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive lactic acid intestinal opportunistic bacterium with virulence potential. For a better understanding of the adapation of this bacterium to the host conditions, we performed a transcriptome analysis of bacteria isolated from an infection site (mouse peritonitis) by RNA-sequencing. We identified a total of 211 genes with significantly higher transcript levels and 157 repressed genes. Our in vivo gene expression database reflects well the infection process since genes encoding important virulence factors like cytolysin, gelatinase or aggregation substance as well as stress response proteins, are significantly induced. Genes encoding metabolic activities are the second most abundant in vivo induced genes demonstrating that the bacteria are metabolically active and adapt to the special nutrient conditions of the host. α- and β- glucosides seem to be important substrates for E. faecalis inside the host. Compared to laboratory conditions, the flux through the upper part of glycolysis seems to be reduced and more carbon may enter the pentose phosphate pathway. This may reflect the need of the bacteria under infection conditions to produce more reducing power for biosynthesis. Another important substrate is certainly glycerol since both pathways of glycerol catabolism are strongly induced. Strongly in vivo induced genes should be important for the infection process. This assumption has been verified in a virulence test using well characterized mutants affected in glycerol metabolism. This showed indeed that mutants unable to metabolize this sugar alcohol are affected in organ colonisation in a mouse model. PMID:25978463

  15. The Intraperitoneal Transcriptome of the Opportunistic Pathogen Enterococcus faecalis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Muller, Cécile; Cacaci, Margherita; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Rattei, Thomas; Eder, Thomas; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Kalinowski, Jörn; Hain, Torsten; Hartke, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive lactic acid intestinal opportunistic bacterium with virulence potential. For a better understanding of the adapation of this bacterium to the host conditions, we performed a transcriptome analysis of bacteria isolated from an infection site (mouse peritonitis) by RNA-sequencing. We identified a total of 211 genes with significantly higher transcript levels and 157 repressed genes. Our in vivo gene expression database reflects well the infection process since genes encoding important virulence factors like cytolysin, gelatinase or aggregation substance as well as stress response proteins, are significantly induced. Genes encoding metabolic activities are the second most abundant in vivo induced genes demonstrating that the bacteria are metabolically active and adapt to the special nutrient conditions of the host. α- and β- glucosides seem to be important substrates for E. faecalis inside the host. Compared to laboratory conditions, the flux through the upper part of glycolysis seems to be reduced and more carbon may enter the pentose phosphate pathway. This may reflect the need of the bacteria under infection conditions to produce more reducing power for biosynthesis. Another important substrate is certainly glycerol since both pathways of glycerol catabolism are strongly induced. Strongly in vivo induced genes should be important for the infection process. This assumption has been verified in a virulence test using well characterized mutants affected in glycerol metabolism. This showed indeed that mutants unable to metabolize this sugar alcohol are affected in organ colonisation in a mouse model.

  16. Inhibition of Tumor Growth and Metastasis by a Combination of Escherichia coli–mediated Cytolytic Therapy and Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Sheng-Nan; Phan, Thuy X; Nam, Taek-Keun; Nguyen, Vu H; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Bom, Hee-Seung; Choy, Hyon E; Hong, Yeongjin; Min, Jung-Joon

    2010-01-01

    We have reported that Escherichia coli K-12 colonizes hypoxic and necrotic tumor regions after intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice. In this study, we established a novel strategy for cancer therapy using engineered bacteria to enhance the therapeutic effects of radiation. E. coli strain K-12 was engineered to produce cytolysin A (ClyA), and its effects on tumor growth in primary and metastatic tumor models were evaluated. A single treatment with E. coli–expressing ClyA significantly decreased tumor growth rates initially (9 days after treatment); however, the tumors tended to grow thereafter. With only radiotherapy (RT; 21 Gy), the tumor growth rates were retarded, but not the tumor sizes. A combination of therapy with E. coli–expressing ClyA and radiation [a total of 5 × 107 colony-forming units (CFU) and 21 Gy] resulted in significant tumor shrinkage and even complete disappearance of tumors in mice with tumors derived from murine CT26 colon cancer. Furthermore, treatment with E. coli–expressing ClyA markedly suppressed metastatic tumor growth and prolonged the survival time in mice. The results described here indicate that therapy with engineered E. coli could significantly improve the results of RT, and could exert a striking inhibitory effect on the development of lung metastasis. PMID:20051939

  17. Increasing of temperature induces pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae and the up-regulation of inflammatory related genes in infected Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2014-08-06

    Temperature strongly affects the health of aquatic poikilotherms. In Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), elevated water temperatures increase the severity of streptococcosis. Here we investigated the effects of temperature on the vulnerability and inflammatory response of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci; GBS). At 35 and 28 °C, GBS took 4 and 7h, respectively to reach the log-phase and, when incubated with tilapia whole blood, experienced survival rates of 97% and 2%, respectively. The hemolysis activity of GBS grown at 35 °C was five times higher than that of GBS grown at 28 °C. GBS expressed cylE (β-hemolysin/cytolysin), cfb (CAMP factor) and PI-2b (pili-backbone) much more strongly at 35 °C than at 28 °C. Challenging Nile tilapia reared at 35 and 28 °C with GBS resulted in accumulated mortalities of about 85% and 45%, respectively. At 35 °C, infected tilapia exhibited tremendous inflammatory responses due to a dramatic up-regulation (30-40-fold) of inflammatory-related genes (cyclooxygenase-2, IL-1β and TNF-α) between 6 and 96 h-post infection. These results suggest that the increase of GBS pathogenicity to Nile tilapia induced by elevated temperature is associated with massive inflammatory responses, which may lead to acute mortality.

  18. Group B streptococcal haemolysin and pigment, a tale of twins

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Fraile, Manuel; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Group B streptococcus [(GBS or Streptococcus agalactiae)] is a leading cause of neonatal meningitis and septicaemia. Most clinical isolates express simultaneously a β-haemolysin/cytolysin and a red polyenic pigment, two phenotypic traits important for GBS identification in medical microbiology. The genetic determinants encoding the GBS haemolysin and pigment have been elucidated and the molecular structure of the pigment has been determined. The cyl operon involved in haemolysin and pigment production is regulated by the major two-component system CovS/R, which coordinates the expression of multiple virulence factors of GBS. Genetic analyses indicated strongly that the haemolysin activity was due to a cytolytic toxin encoded by cylE. However, the biochemical nature of the GBS haemolysin has remained elusive for almost a century because of its instability during purification procedures. Recently, it has been suggested that the haemolytic and cytolytic activity of GBS is due to the ornithine rhamnopolyenic pigment and not to the CylE protein. Here we review and summarize our current knowledge of the genetics, regulation and biochemistry of these twin GBS phenotypic traits, including their functions as GBS virulence factors. PMID:24617549

  19. Engineering of bacteria for the visualization of targeted delivery of a cytolytic anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sheng-Nan; Park, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Hee Jung; Zheng, Jin Hai; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Bom, Hee-Seung; Hong, Yeongjin; Szardenings, Michael; Shin, Myung Geun; Kim, Sun-Chang; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Choy, Hyon E; Min, Jung-Joon

    2013-11-01

    A number of recent reports have demonstrated that attenuated Salmonella typhimurium are capable of targeting both primary and metastatic tumors. The use of bacteria as a vehicle for the delivery of anticancer drugs requires a mechanism that precisely regulates and visualizes gene expression to ensure the appropriate timing and location of drug production. To integrate these functions into bacteria, we used a repressor-regulated tetracycline efflux system, in which the expression of a therapeutic gene and an imaging reporter gene were controlled by divergent promoters (tetAP and tetRP) in response to extracellular tetracycline. Attenuated S. typhimurium was transformed with the expression plasmids encoding cytolysin A, a therapeutic gene, and renilla luciferase variant 8, an imaging reporter gene, and administered intravenously to tumor-bearing mice. The engineered Salmonella successfully localized to tumor tissue and gene expression was dependent on the concentration of inducer, indicating the feasibility of peripheral control of bacterial gene expression. The bioluminescence signal permitted the localization of gene expression from the bacteria. The engineered bacteria significantly suppressed both primary and metastatic tumors and prolonged survival in mice. Therefore, engineered bacteria that carry a therapeutic and an imaging reporter gene for targeted anticancer therapy can be designed as a theranostic agent.

  20. Perfringolysin O: The Underrated Clostridium perfringens Toxin?

    PubMed Central

    Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Goossens, Evy; Valgaeren, Bonnie; Pardon, Bart; Timbermont, Leen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Deprez, Piet; Wade, Kristin R.; Tweten, Rodney; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens expresses multiple toxins that promote disease development in both humans and animals. One such toxin is perfringolysin O (PFO, classically referred to as θ toxin), a pore-forming cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC). PFO is secreted as a water-soluble monomer that recognizes and binds membranes via cholesterol. Membrane-bound monomers undergo structural changes that culminate in the formation of an oligomerized prepore complex on the membrane surface. The prepore then undergoes conversion into the bilayer-spanning pore measuring approximately 250–300 Å in diameter. PFO is expressed in nearly all identified C. perfringens strains and harbors interesting traits that suggest a potential undefined role for PFO in disease development. Research has demonstrated a role for PFO in gas gangrene progression and bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis, but there is limited data available to determine if PFO also functions in additional disease presentations caused by C. perfringens. This review summarizes the known structural and functional characteristics of PFO, while highlighting recent insights into the potential contributions of PFO to disease pathogenesis. PMID:26008232

  1. Phobalysin, a Small β-Pore-Forming Toxin of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Amable J; von Hoven, Gisela; Neukirch, Claudia; Meyenburg, Martina; Qin, Qianqian; Füser, Sabine; Boller, Klaus; Lemos, Manuel L; Osorio, Carlos R; Husmann, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, an important pathogen of marine animals, may also cause septicemia or hyperaggressive necrotizing fasciitis in humans. We previously showed that hemolysin genes are critical for virulence of this organism in mice and fish. In the present study, we characterized the hlyA gene product, a putative small β-pore-forming toxin, and termed it phobalysin P (PhlyP), for "photobacterial lysin encoded on a plasmid." PhlyP formed stable oligomers and small membrane pores, causing efflux of K(+), with no significant leakage of lactate dehydrogenase but entry of vital dyes. The latter feature distinguished PhlyP from the related Vibrio cholerae cytolysin. Attack by PhlyP provoked a loss of cellular ATP, attenuated translation, and caused profound morphological changes in epithelial cells. In coculture experiments with epithelial cells, Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae led to rapid hemolysin-dependent membrane permeabilization. Unexpectedly, hemolysins also promoted the association of P. damselae subsp. damselae with epithelial cells. The collective observations of this study suggest that membrane-damaging toxins commonly enhance bacterial adherence.

  2. Capturing the Membrane-Triggered Conformational Transition of an α-Helical Pore-Forming Toxin.

    PubMed

    Giri Rao, V V Hemanth; Desikan, Rajat; Ayappa, K Ganapathy; Gosavi, Shachi

    2016-12-01

    Escherichia coli cytolysin A (ClyA) is an α-helical pore-forming toxin (PFT) which lyses target cells by forming membrane permeabilizing pores. The rate-determining step of this process is the conversion of the soluble ClyA monomer into a membrane inserted protomer. We elucidate the mechanism of this conformational transition using molecular dynamics simulations of coarse-grained models of ClyA and a membrane. We find that a membrane is necessary for the conformational conversion because membrane-protein interactions counteract the loss of the many intraprotein hydrophobic interactions that stabilize the membrane-inserting segments in the ClyA monomer. Of the two membrane-inserting segments, the flexible and highly hydrophobic β-tongue inserts first while the insertion of helix αA1 is membrane assisted. We conclude that the β-tongue is designed to behave as a quick-response membrane sensor, while helix αA1 improves target selectivity for cholesterol-containing cell membranes by acting as a fidelity check.

  3. Clostridial pore-forming toxins: powerful virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Popoff, Michel R

    2014-12-01

    Pore formation is a common mechanism of action for many bacterial toxins. More than one third of clostridial toxins are pore-forming toxins (PFTs) belonging to the β-PFT class. They are secreted as soluble monomers rich in β-strands, which recognize a specific receptor on target cells and assemble in oligomers. Then, they undergo a conformational change leading to the formation of a β-barrel, which inserts into the lipid bilayer forming functional pore. According to their structure, clostridial β-PFTs are divided into several families. Clostridial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins form large pores, which disrupt the plasma membrane integrity. They are potent virulence factors mainly involved in myonecrosis. Clostridial heptameric β-PFTs (aerolysin family and staphylococcal α-hemolysin family) induce small pores which trigger signaling cascades leading to different cell responses according to the cell types and toxins. They are mainly responsible for intestinal diseases, like necrotic enteritis, or systemic diseases/toxic shock from intestinal origin. Clostridial intracellularly active toxins exploit pore formation through the endosomal membrane to translocate the enzymatic component or domain into the cytosol. Single chain protein toxins, like botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins, use hydrophobic α-helices to form pores, whereas clostridial binary toxins encompass binding components, which are structurally and functionally related to β-PFTs, but which have acquired the specific activity to internalize their corresponding enzymatic components. Structural analysis suggests that β-PFTs and binding components share a common evolutionary origin.

  4. Pore-forming activity of alpha-toxin is essential for clostridium septicum-mediated myonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Catherine L; Lyras, Dena; Cordner, Leanne M; Melton-Witt, Jody; Emmins, John J; Tweten, Rodney K; Rood, Julian I

    2009-03-01

    Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin is a beta-barrel pore-forming cytolysin that is functionally similar to aerolysin. Residues important in receptor binding, oligomerization, and pore formation have been identified; however, little is known about the activity of the toxin in an infection, although it is essential for disease. We have now shown that deletion of a small portion of the transmembrane domain, so that the toxin is no longer able to form pores, completely abrogates its ability to contribute to disease, as does replacement of the sole cysteine residue with leucine. However, although previous biochemical and cytotoxicity assays clearly indicated that mutations in residues important in oligomerization, binding, and prepore conversion greatly reduced activity or rendered the toxin inactive, once the mutated toxins were overexpressed by the natural host in the context of an infection it was found they were able to cause disease in a mouse model of myonecrosis. These results highlight the importance of testing the activity of virulence determinants in the normal host background and in an infectious disease context and provide unequivocal evidence that it is the ability of alpha-toxin to form a pore that confers its toxicity in vivo.

  5. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: a unique combination of a pore-forming moiety with a cell-invading adenylate cyclase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Masin, Jiri; Osicka, Radim; Bumba, Ladislav; Sebo, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA, ACT or AC-Hly) is a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis. CyaA targets myeloid phagocytes expressing the complement receptor 3 (CR3, known as αMβ2 integrin CD11b/CD18 or Mac-1) and translocates by a poorly understood mechanism directly across the cytoplasmic membrane into cell cytosol of phagocytes an adenylyl cyclase(AC) enzyme. This binds intracellular calmodulin and catalyzes unregulated conversion of cytosolic ATP into cAMP. Among other effects, this yields activation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, BimEL accumulation and phagocyte apoptosis induction. In parallel, CyaA acts as a cytolysin that forms cation-selective pores in target membranes. Direct penetration of CyaA into the cytosol of professional antigen-presenting cells allows the use of an enzymatically inactive CyaA toxoid as a tool for delivery of passenger antigens into the cytosolic pathway of processing and MHC class I-restricted presentation, which can be exploited for induction of antigen-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune responses.

  6. Cloning, functional characterization, and mode of action of a novel insecticidal pore-forming toxin, sphaericolysin, produced by Bacillus sphaericus.

    PubMed

    Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Nakashima, Kenta; Ishida, Chiharu; Kawamura, Tadayuki; Matsuda, Kazuhiko

    2007-05-01

    An insecticidal protein produced by Bacillus sphaericus A3-2 was purified to elucidate its structure and mode of action. The active principle purified from the culture broth of A3-2 was a protein with a molecular mass of 53 kDa that rapidly intoxicated German cockroaches (Blattela germanica) at a dose of about 100 ng when injected. The insecticidal protein sphaericolysin possessed the undecapeptide motif of cholesterol-dependent cytolysins and had a unique N-terminal sequence. The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was equally as potent as the native protein. Sphaericolysin-induced hemolysis resulted from the protein's pore-forming action. This activity as well as the insecticidal activity was markedly reduced by a Y159A mutation. Also, coapplication of sphaericolysin with cholesterol abolished the insecticidal action, suggesting that cholesterol binding plays an important role in insecticidal activity. Sphaericolysin-lysed neurons dissociated from the thoracic ganglia of the German cockroaches. In addition, sphaericolysin's activity in ganglia was suppressed by the Y159A mutation. The sphaericolysin-induced damage to the cockroach ganglia was greater than the damage to the ganglia of common cutworms (Spodoptera litura), which accounts, at least in part, for the higher sensitivity to sphaericolysin displayed by the cockroaches than that displayed by cutworms.

  7. Directly Observing the Lipid-Dependent Self-Assembly and Pore-Forming Mechanism of the Cytolytic Toxin Listeriolysin O.

    PubMed

    Mulvihill, Estefania; van Pee, Katharina; Mari, Stefania A; Müller, Daniel J; Yildiz, Özkan

    2015-10-14

    Listeriolysin O (LLO) is the major virulence factor of Listeria monocytogenes and a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family. Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria produce water-soluble CDC monomers that bind cholesterol-dependent to the lipid membrane of the attacked cell or of the phagosome, oligomerize into prepores, and insert into the membrane to form transmembrane pores. However, the mechanisms guiding LLO toward pore formation are poorly understood. Using electron microscopy and time-lapse atomic force microscopy, we show that wild-type LLO binds to membranes, depending on the presence of cholesterol and other lipids. LLO oligomerizes into arc- or slit-shaped assemblies, which merge into complete rings. All three oligomeric assemblies can form transmembrane pores, and their efficiency to form pores depends on the cholesterol and the phospholipid composition of the membrane. Furthermore, the dynamic fusion of arcs, slits, and rings into larger rings and their formation of transmembrane pores does not involve a height difference between prepore and pore. Our results reveal new insights into the pore-forming mechanism and introduce a dynamic model of pore formation by LLO and other CDC pore-forming toxins.

  8. A pore-forming toxin requires a specific residue for its activity in membranes with particular physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Morante, Koldo; Caaveiro, Jose M M; Tanaka, Koji; González-Mañas, Juan Manuel; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2015-04-24

    The physicochemical landscape of the bilayer modulates membrane protein function. Actinoporins are a family of potent hemolytic proteins from sea anemones acting at the membrane level. This family of cytolysins preferentially binds to target membranes containing sphingomyelin, where they form lytic pores giving rise to cell death. Although the cytolytic activity of the actinoporin fragaceatoxin C (FraC) is sensitive to vesicles made of various lipid compositions, it is far from clear how this toxin adjusts its mechanism of action to a broad range of physiochemical landscapes. Herein, we show that the conserved residue Phe-16 of FraC is critical for pore formation in cholesterol-rich membranes such as those of red blood cells. The interaction of a panel of muteins of Phe-16 with model membranes composed of raft-like lipid domains is inactivated in cholesterol-rich membranes but not in cholesterol-depleted membranes. These results indicate that actinoporins recognize different membrane environments, resulting in a wider repertoire of susceptible target membranes (and preys) for sea anemones. In addition, this study has unveiled promising candidates for the development of protein-based biosensors highly sensitive to the concentration of cholesterol within the membrane.

  9. Characterization of variants of the pore-forming toxin ClyA from Escherichia coli controlled by a redox switch.

    PubMed

    Roderer, Daniel; Benke, Stephan; Müller, Marcus; Fäh-Rechsteiner, Helene; Ban, Nenad; Schuler, Benjamin; Glockshuber, Rudi

    2014-10-14

    The α-pore-forming toxin Cytolysin A (ClyA) is responsible for the hemolytic phenotype of several Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains. ClyA is a soluble, 34 kDa monomer that assembles into a dodecameric pore complex in the presence of membranes or detergent. The comparison of the X-ray structures of monomeric ClyA and the ClyA protomer in the pore complex revealed one of the largest conformational transitions observed so far in proteins, involving the structural rearrangement of more than half of all residues, which is consistent with the finding that conversion from the monomer to the assembly competent protomer is rate-limiting for pore assembly. Here, we introduced artificial disulfide bonds at two distinct sites into the ClyA monomer that both prevent a specific structural rearrangement required for protomer formation. Using electron microscopy and hemolytic activity assays, we show that the engineered disulfides indeed trap these ClyA variants in an assembly incompetent state. Assembly of the variants into functional pore complexes can be completely recovered by disulfide reduction. The assembly kinetics of the ClyA variants recorded with circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed the same mechanism of protomer formation that was observed for wild-type ClyA, proceeding via an intermediate with decreased secondary structure content.

  10. Intermedilysin, a novel cytotoxin specific for human cells secreted by Streptococcus intermedius UNS46 isolated from a human liver abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Nagamune, H; Ohnishi, C; Katsuura, A; Fushitani, K; Whiley, R A; Tsuji, A; Matsuda, Y

    1996-01-01

    A novel cytotoxin (intermedilysin) specific for human cells was identified as a cytolytic factor of Streptococcus intermedius UNS46 isolated from a human liver abscess. Intermedilysin caused human cell death with membrane blebs. Intermedilysin was purified from UNS46 culture medium by means of gel filtration and hydrophobic chromatography. The purified toxin was resolved into major and minor bands of 54 and 53 kDa, respectively, by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These proteins reacted with an antibody against intermedilysin. Five internal peptide fragments of intermedilysin were sequenced and found to have 42 to 71% homology with the thiol-activated cytotoxin pneumolysin. However, the action of intermedilysin differed from that of thiol-activated cytotoxins, especially in terms of a lack of activation by dithiothreitol and resistance to treatments with N-ethylmaleimide and 5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), although cholesterol inhibited the toxin activity. Intermedilysin was potently hemolytic on human erythrocytes but was 100-fold less effective on chimpanzee and cynomolgus monkey erythrocytes. Intermedilysin was not hemolytic in nine other animal species tested. Since human erythrocytes treated with trypsin were far less sensitive to intermedilysin than were the intact cells, a cell membrane protein(s) may participate in the intermedilysin action. These data demonstrated that intermedilysin is distinguishable from all known bacterial cytolysins. PMID:8757839

  11. Giant MACPF/CDC pore forming toxins: A class of their own.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Cyril F; Whisstock, James C; Dunstone, Michelle A

    2016-03-01

    Pore Forming Toxins (PFTs) represent a key mechanism for permitting the passage of proteins and small molecules across the lipid membrane. These proteins are typically produced as soluble monomers that self-assemble into ring-like oligomeric structures on the membrane surface. Following such assembly PFTs undergo a remarkable conformational change to insert into the lipid membrane. While many different protein families have independently evolved such ability, members of the Membrane Attack Complex PerForin/Cholesterol Dependent Cytolysin (MACPF/CDC) superfamily form distinctive giant β-barrel pores comprised of up to 50 monomers and up to 300Å in diameter. In this review we focus on recent advances in understanding the structure of these giant MACPF/CDC pores as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to their formation. Commonalities and evolved variations of the pore forming mechanism across the superfamily are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Mauro Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale.

  12. Structure of the poly-C9 component of the complement membrane attack complex

    PubMed Central

    Dudkina, Natalya V.; Spicer, Bradley A.; Reboul, Cyril F.; Conroy, Paul J.; Lukoyanova, Natalya; Elmlund, Hans; Law, Ruby H. P.; Ekkel, Susan M.; Kondos, Stephanie C.; Goode, Robert J. A.; Ramm, Georg; Whisstock, James C.; Saibil, Helen R.; Dunstone, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    The membrane attack complex (MAC)/perforin-like protein complement component 9 (C9) is the major component of the MAC, a multi-protein complex that forms pores in the membrane of target pathogens. In contrast to homologous proteins such as perforin and the cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), all of which require the membrane for oligomerisation, C9 assembles directly onto the nascent MAC from solution. However, the molecular mechanism of MAC assembly remains to be understood. Here we present the 8 Å cryo-EM structure of a soluble form of the poly-C9 component of the MAC. These data reveal a 22-fold symmetrical arrangement of C9 molecules that yield an 88-strand pore-forming β-barrel. The N-terminal thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) domain forms an unexpectedly extensive part of the oligomerisation interface, thus likely facilitating solution-based assembly. These TSP1 interactions may also explain how additional C9 subunits can be recruited to the growing MAC subsequent to membrane insertion. PMID:26841934

  13. Stonefish toxin defines an ancient branch of the perforin-like superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Reboul, Cyril F.; Huynh, Kitmun; Oellig, Christine A.; Winter, Kelly L.; Hodgson, Wayne C.; Seymour, Jamie; Dearden, Peter K.; Tweten, Rodney K.; Whisstock, James C.; McGowan, Sheena

    2015-01-01

    The lethal factor in stonefish venom is stonustoxin (SNTX), a heterodimeric cytolytic protein that induces cardiovascular collapse in humans and native predators. Here, using X-ray crystallography, we make the unexpected finding that SNTX is a pore-forming member of an ancient branch of the Membrane Attack Complex-Perforin/Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin (MACPF/CDC) superfamily. SNTX comprises two homologous subunits (α and β), each of which comprises an N-terminal pore-forming MACPF/CDC domain, a central focal adhesion-targeting domain, a thioredoxin domain, and a C-terminal tripartite motif family-like PRY SPla and the RYanodine Receptor immune recognition domain. Crucially, the structure reveals that the two MACPF domains are in complex with one another and arranged into a stable early prepore-like assembly. These data provide long sought after near-atomic resolution insights into how MACPF/CDC proteins assemble into prepores on the surface of membranes. Furthermore, our analyses reveal that SNTX-like MACPF/CDCs are distributed throughout eukaryotic life and play a broader, possibly immune-related function outside venom. PMID:26627714

  14. Disentangling the roles of cholesterol and CD59 in intermedilysin pore formation

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Courtney M.; Parsons, Edward S.; Smith, Richard A. G.; Seddon, John M.; Ces, Oscar; Bubeck, Doryen

    2016-01-01

    The plasma membrane provides an essential barrier, shielding a cell from the pressures of its external environment. Pore-forming proteins, deployed by both hosts and pathogens alike, breach this barrier to lyse target cells. Intermedilysin is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin that requires the human immune receptor CD59, in addition to cholesterol, to form giant β-barrel pores in host membranes. Here we integrate biochemical assays with electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to distinguish the roles of these two receptors in mediating structural transitions of pore formation. CD59 is required for the specific coordination of intermedilysin (ILY) monomers and for triggering collapse of an oligomeric prepore. Movement of Domain 2 with respect to Domain 3 of ILY is essential for forming a late prepore intermediate that releases CD59, while the role of cholesterol may be limited to insertion of the transmembrane segments. Together these data define a structural timeline for ILY pore formation and suggest a mechanism that is relevant to understanding other pore-forming toxins that also require CD59. PMID:27910935

  15. Antibiotics and heavy metals resistance and other biological characters in enterococci isolated from surface water of Monte Cotugno Lake (Italy).

    PubMed

    De Niederhäusern, Simona; Bondi, Moreno; Anacarso, Immacolata; Iseppi, Ramona; Sabia, Carla; Bitonte, Fabiano; Messi, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Considering the limited knowledge about the biological characters in enterococci isolated from surface waters, we investigated antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance, bacteriocin production, and some important virulence traits of 165 enterococci collected in water samples from Monte Cotugno Lake, the largest artificial basin built with earth in Europe. The species distribution of isolates was as follows: Enterococcus faecium (80%), Enterococcus faecalis (12.7%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (3%), Enterococcus mundtii (1.8%), Enterococcus hirae (1.8%), Enterococcus durans (0.6%). All enterococci showed heavy metal resistance toward Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, were susceptible to Ag and Hg, and at the same time exhibited in large percentage (83.7%) resistance to one or more of the antibiotics tested. Relatively to virulence factor genes, 50.9% enterococci were positive for gelatinase (gelE), 10.9% for aggregation substance (agg), 12.7% and 66.6% for the cell wall adhesins (efaAfs and efaAfm), respectively. No amplicons were detected after PCR for cytolysin production (cylA, cylB and cylM) and enterococcal surface protein (esp) genes. Bacteriocin production was found in most of the isolates. Given that the waters of the Monte Cotugno Lake are used for different purposes, among which farming and recreational activities, they can contribute to spread enterococci endowed with virulence factors, and antibiotics and heavy metals resistance to humans.

  16. Export Requirements of Pneumolysin in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Price, Katherine E.; Greene, Neil G.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major causative agent of otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. Pneumolysin (Ply), a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), is produced by virtually all clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae, and ply mutant strains are severely attenuated in mouse models of colonization and infection. In contrast to all other known members of the CDC family, Ply lacks a signal peptide for export outside the cell. Instead, Ply has been hypothesized to be released upon autolysis or, alternatively, via a nonautolytic mechanism that remains undefined. We show that an exogenously added signal sequence is not sufficient for Sec-dependent Ply secretion in S. pneumoniae but is sufficient in the surrogate host Bacillus subtilis. Previously, we showed that Ply is localized primarily to the cell wall compartment in the absence of detectable cell lysis. Here we show that Ply released by autolysis cannot reassociate with intact cells, suggesting that there is a Ply export mechanism that is coupled to cell wall localization of the protein. This putative export mechanism is capable of secreting a related CDC without its signal sequence. We show that B. subtilis can export Ply, suggesting that the export pathway is conserved. Finally, through truncation and domain swapping analyses, we show that export is dependent on domain 2 of Ply. PMID:22563048

  17. Phobalysin, a Small β-Pore-Forming Toxin of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Amable J.; von Hoven, Gisela; Neukirch, Claudia; Meyenburg, Martina; Qin, Qianqian; Füser, Sabine; Boller, Klaus; Lemos, Manuel L.; Osorio, Carlos R.

    2015-01-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, an important pathogen of marine animals, may also cause septicemia or hyperaggressive necrotizing fasciitis in humans. We previously showed that hemolysin genes are critical for virulence of this organism in mice and fish. In the present study, we characterized the hlyA gene product, a putative small β-pore-forming toxin, and termed it phobalysin P (PhlyP), for “photobacterial lysin encoded on a plasmid.” PhlyP formed stable oligomers and small membrane pores, causing efflux of K+, with no significant leakage of lactate dehydrogenase but entry of vital dyes. The latter feature distinguished PhlyP from the related Vibrio cholerae cytolysin. Attack by PhlyP provoked a loss of cellular ATP, attenuated translation, and caused profound morphological changes in epithelial cells. In coculture experiments with epithelial cells, Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae led to rapid hemolysin-dependent membrane permeabilization. Unexpectedly, hemolysins also promoted the association of P. damselae subsp. damselae with epithelial cells. The collective observations of this study suggest that membrane-damaging toxins commonly enhance bacterial adherence. PMID:26303391

  18. Cholesterol-dependent hemolytic activity of Passiflora quadrangularis leaves.

    PubMed

    Yuldasheva, L N; Carvalho, E B; Catanho, M-T J A; Krasilnikov, O V

    2005-07-01

    Plants used in traditional medicine are rich sources of hemolysins and cytolysins, which are potential bactericidal and anticancer drugs. The present study demonstrates for the first time the presence of a hemolysin in the leaves of Passiflora quadrangularis L. This hemolysin is heat stable, resistant to trypsin treatment, has the capacity to froth, and acts very rapidly. The hemolysin activity is dose-dependent, with a slope greater than 1 in a double-logarithmic plot. Polyethylene glycols of high molecular weight were able to reduce the rate of hemolysis, while liposomes containing cholesterol completely inhibited it. In contrast, liposomes containing phosphatidylcholine were ineffective. The Passiflora hemolysin markedly increased the conductance of planar lipid bilayers containing cholesterol but was ineffective in cholesterol-free bilayers. Successive extraction of the crude hemolysin with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol resulted in a 10-fold purification, with the hemolytic activity being recovered in the n-butanol fraction. The data suggest that membrane cholesterol is the primary target for this hemolysin and that several hemolysin molecules form a large transmembrane water pore. The properties of the Passiflora hemolysin, such as its frothing ability, positive color reaction with vanillin, selective extraction with n-butanol, HPLC profile, cholesterol-dependent membrane susceptibility, formation of a stable complex with cholesterol, and rapid erythrocyte lysis kinetics indicate that it is probably a saponin.

  19. Engineering a pH responsive pore forming protein.

    PubMed

    Kisovec, Matic; Rezelj, Saša; Knap, Primož; Cajnko, Miša Mojca; Caserman, Simon; Flašker, Ajda; Žnidaršič, Nada; Repič, Matej; Mavri, Janez; Ruan, Yi; Scheuring, Simon; Podobnik, Marjetka; Anderluh, Gregor

    2017-02-08

    Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a cytolysin capable of forming pores in cholesterol-rich lipid membranes of host cells. It is conveniently suited for engineering a pH-governed responsiveness, due to a pH sensor identified in its structure that was shown before to affect its stability. Here we introduced a new level of control of its hemolytic activity by making a variant with hemolytic activity that was pH-dependent. Based on detailed structural analysis coupled with molecular dynamics and mutational analysis, we found that the bulky side chain of Tyr406 allosterically affects the pH sensor. Molecular dynamics simulation further suggested which other amino acid residues may also allosterically influence the pH-sensor. LLO was engineered to the point where it can, in a pH-regulated manner, perforate artificial and cellular membranes. The single mutant Tyr406Ala bound to membranes and oligomerized similarly to the wild-type LLO, however, the final membrane insertion step was pH-affected by the introduced mutation. We show that the mutant toxin can be activated at the surface of artificial membranes or living cells by a single wash with slightly acidic pH buffer. Y406A mutant has a high potential in development of novel nanobiotechnological applications such as controlled release of substances or as a sensor of environmental pH.

  20. Stonefish toxin defines an ancient branch of the perforin-like superfamily.

    PubMed

    Ellisdon, Andrew M; Reboul, Cyril F; Panjikar, Santosh; Huynh, Kitmun; Oellig, Christine A; Winter, Kelly L; Dunstone, Michelle A; Hodgson, Wayne C; Seymour, Jamie; Dearden, Peter K; Tweten, Rodney K; Whisstock, James C; McGowan, Sheena

    2015-12-15

    The lethal factor in stonefish venom is stonustoxin (SNTX), a heterodimeric cytolytic protein that induces cardiovascular collapse in humans and native predators. Here, using X-ray crystallography, we make the unexpected finding that SNTX is a pore-forming member of an ancient branch of the Membrane Attack Complex-Perforin/Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin (MACPF/CDC) superfamily. SNTX comprises two homologous subunits (α and β), each of which comprises an N-terminal pore-forming MACPF/CDC domain, a central focal adhesion-targeting domain, a thioredoxin domain, and a C-terminal tripartite motif family-like PRY SPla and the RYanodine Receptor immune recognition domain. Crucially, the structure reveals that the two MACPF domains are in complex with one another and arranged into a stable early prepore-like assembly. These data provide long sought after near-atomic resolution insights into how MACPF/CDC proteins assemble into prepores on the surface of membranes. Furthermore, our analyses reveal that SNTX-like MACPF/CDCs are distributed throughout eukaryotic life and play a broader, possibly immune-related function outside venom.

  1. Structure of the poly-C9 component of the complement membrane attack complex.

    PubMed

    Dudkina, Natalya V; Spicer, Bradley A; Reboul, Cyril F; Conroy, Paul J; Lukoyanova, Natalya; Elmlund, Hans; Law, Ruby H P; Ekkel, Susan M; Kondos, Stephanie C; Goode, Robert J A; Ramm, Georg; Whisstock, James C; Saibil, Helen R; Dunstone, Michelle A

    2016-02-04

    The membrane attack complex (MAC)/perforin-like protein complement component 9 (C9) is the major component of the MAC, a multi-protein complex that forms pores in the membrane of target pathogens. In contrast to homologous proteins such as perforin and the cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), all of which require the membrane for oligomerisation, C9 assembles directly onto the nascent MAC from solution. However, the molecular mechanism of MAC assembly remains to be understood. Here we present the 8 Å cryo-EM structure of a soluble form of the poly-C9 component of the MAC. These data reveal a 22-fold symmetrical arrangement of C9 molecules that yield an 88-strand pore-forming β-barrel. The N-terminal thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) domain forms an unexpectedly extensive part of the oligomerisation interface, thus likely facilitating solution-based assembly. These TSP1 interactions may also explain how additional C9 subunits can be recruited to the growing MAC subsequent to membrane insertion.

  2. Structural basis of complement membrane attack complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Serna, Marina; Giles, Joanna L.; Morgan, B. Paul; Bubeck, Doryen

    2016-01-01

    In response to complement activation, the membrane attack complex (MAC) assembles from fluid-phase proteins to form pores in lipid bilayers. MAC directly lyses pathogens by a ‘multi-hit' mechanism; however, sublytic MAC pores on host cells activate signalling pathways. Previous studies have described the structures of individual MAC components and subcomplexes; however, the molecular details of its assembly and mechanism of action remain unresolved. Here we report the electron cryo-microscopy structure of human MAC at subnanometre resolution. Structural analyses define the stoichiometry of the complete pore and identify a network of interaction interfaces that determine its assembly mechanism. MAC adopts a ‘split-washer' configuration, in contrast to the predicted closed ring observed for perforin and cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Assembly precursors partially penetrate the lipid bilayer, resulting in an irregular β-barrel pore. Our results demonstrate how differences in symmetric and asymmetric components of the MAC underpin a molecular basis for pore formation and suggest a mechanism of action that extends beyond membrane penetration. PMID:26841837

  3. Structural basis of complement membrane attack complex formation.

    PubMed

    Serna, Marina; Giles, Joanna L; Morgan, B Paul; Bubeck, Doryen

    2016-02-04

    In response to complement activation, the membrane attack complex (MAC) assembles from fluid-phase proteins to form pores in lipid bilayers. MAC directly lyses pathogens by a 'multi-hit' mechanism; however, sublytic MAC pores on host cells activate signalling pathways. Previous studies have described the structures of individual MAC components and subcomplexes; however, the molecular details of its assembly and mechanism of action remain unresolved. Here we report the electron cryo-microscopy structure of human MAC at subnanometre resolution. Structural analyses define the stoichiometry of the complete pore and identify a network of interaction interfaces that determine its assembly mechanism. MAC adopts a 'split-washer' configuration, in contrast to the predicted closed ring observed for perforin and cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Assembly precursors partially penetrate the lipid bilayer, resulting in an irregular β-barrel pore. Our results demonstrate how differences in symmetric and asymmetric components of the MAC underpin a molecular basis for pore formation and suggest a mechanism of action that extends beyond membrane penetration.

  4. pH dependence of listeriolysin O aggregation and pore-forming ability.

    PubMed

    Bavdek, Andrej; Kostanjšek, Rok; Antonini, Valeria; Lakey, Jeremy H; Dalla Serra, Mauro; Gilbert, Robert J C; Anderluh, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Listeriolysin O (LLO) is the major factor implicated in the escape of Listeria monocytogenes from the phagolysosome. It is the only representative of cholesterol-dependent cytolysins that exhibits pH-dependent activity. Despite intense studies of LLO pH-dependence, this feature of the toxin still remains incompletely explained. Here we used fluorescence and CD spectroscopy to show that the structure of LLO is not detectably affected by pH at room temperature. We observed slightly altered haemolytic and permeabilizing activities at different pH values, which we relate to reduced binding of LLO to the lipid membranes. However, alkaline pH and elevated temperatures caused rapid denaturation of LLO. Aggregates of the toxin were able to bind Congo red and Thioflavin T dyes and were visible under transmission electron microscopy as large, amorphous, micrometer-sized assemblies. The aggregates had the biophysical properties of amyloid. Analytical ultracentrifugation indicated dimerization of the protein in acidic conditions, which protects the protein against premature denaturation in the phagolysosome, where toxin activity takes place. We therefore suggest that LLO spontaneously aggregates at the neutral pH found in the host cell cytosol and that this is a major mechanism of LLO inactivation.

  5. Virulence factors and bacteriocins in faecal enterococci of wild boars.

    PubMed

    Poeta, Patricia; Igrejas, Gilberto; Costa, Daniela; Sargo, Roberto; Rodrigues, Jorge; Torres, Carmen

    2008-10-01

    The production of antimicrobial, haemolytic and gelatinase activities was tested in 67 enterococci (39 E. faecium, 24 E. hirae, 2 E. faecalis, and 2 Enterococcus spp.), recovered from faecal samples of wild boars. In addition, the presence of genes encoding bacteriocin and virulence factors was also analysed by PCR and sequencing. Production of antimicrobial activity was checked in all enterococci against 9 indicator bacteria and it was detected in 11 E. faecium isolates (16.5%); eight and two of them harboured the genes encoding enterocin A + enterocin B and enterocin L50A/B, respectively. Sixty-seven per cent of our enterococci harboured different combinations of genes of the cyl operon, but none of them contained the complete cyl L(L)L(S)ABM operon, necessary for cytolysin expression. The presence of gel E gene, associated with the fsr ABC locus, was identified in 4 E. faecium and two E. faecalis isolates, exhibiting all of them gelatinase activity. beta -hemolytic activity was not found in our isolates. Both cpd and ace genes, encoding respectively the accessory colonisation factor and pheromone, were detected in two E. faecalis isolates, and the hyl gene, encoding hyalorunidase, in two E. faecium isolates, one of them gelatinase-positive. Genes encoding bacteriocins and virulence factors are widely disseminated among faecal enterococci of wild boars and more studies should be carried out to know the global distribution of these determinants in enterococci of different ecosystems.

  6. Crystal structure of enterococcus faecalis sly A-like transcriptional factor.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, R.; Zhang, R.; Zagnitko, O.; Dementieva, I.; Maltsev, N.; Watson, J. D.; Laskowski, R.; Gornicki, P.; Joachimiak, A.; Univ. of Chicago; European Bioinformatics Inst.

    2003-05-30

    The crystal structure of a SlyA transcriptional regulator at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution is presented, and structural relationships between members of the MarR/SlyA family are discussed. The SlyA family, which includes SlyA, Rap, Hor, and RovA proteins, is widely distributed in bacterial and archaeal genomes. Current evidence suggests that SlyA-like factors act as repressors, activators, and modulators of gene transcription. These proteins have been shown to up-regulate the expression of molecular chaperones, acid-resistance proteins, and cytolysin, and down-regulate several biosynthetic enzymes. The structure of SlyA from Enterococcus faecalis, determined as a part of an ongoing structural genomics initiative (www.mcsg.anl.gov), revealed the same winged helix DNA-binding motif that was recently found in the MarR repressor from Escherichia coli and the MexR repressor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a sequence homologue of MarR. Phylogenetic analysis of the MarR/SlyA family suggests that Sly is placed between the SlyA and MarR subfamilies and shows significant sequence similarity to members of both subfamilies.

  7. Safety of Lactobacillus plantarum ST8Sh and Its Bacteriocin.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Perin, Luana M; Carneiro, Bruno M; Rahal, Paula; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2017-02-23

    Total DNA extracted from Lb. plantarum ST8Sh was screened for the presence of more than 50 genes related to production of biogenic amines (histidine decarboxylase, tyrosine decarboxylase, and ornithine decarboxylase), virulence factors (sex pheromones, gelatinase, cytolysin, hyaluronidase, aggregation substance, enterococcal surface protein, endocarditis antigen, adhesion of collagen, integration factors), and antibiotic resistance (vancomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, bacitracin). Lb. plantarum ST8Sh showed a low presence of virulence genes. Only 13 genes were detected (related to sex pheromones, aggregation substance, adhesion of collagen, tetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, but not to vancomycin, and bacitracin) and may be considered as indication of safety for application in fermented food products. In addition, interaction between Lb. plantarum ST8Sh and drugs from different groups were determined in order to establish possible application of the strain in combination with commercial drugs. Cytotoxicity of the semi-purified bacteriocins produced by Lb. plantarum ST8Sh was depended on applied concentration-highly cytotoxic when applied at 25 μg/mL and no cytotoxicity at 5 μg/mL.

  8. The Listeria monocytogenes hemolysin has an acidic pH optimum to compartmentalize activity and prevent damage to infected host cells.

    PubMed

    Glomski, Ian J; Gedde, Margaret M; Tsang, Albert W; Swanson, Joel A; Portnoy, Daniel A

    2002-03-18

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that escapes from a phagosome and grows in the host cell cytosol. The pore-forming cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, listeriolysin O (LLO), mediates bacterial escape from vesicles and is approximately 10-fold more active at an acidic than neutral pH. By swapping dissimilar residues from a pH-insensitive orthologue, perfringolysin O (PFO), we identified leucine 461 as unique to pathogenic Listeria and responsible for the acidic pH optimum of LLO. Conversion of leucine 461 to the threonine present in PFO increased the hemolytic activity of LLO almost 10-fold at a neutral pH. L. monocytogenes synthesizing LLO L461T, expressed from its endogenous site on the bacterial chromosome, resulted in a 100-fold virulence defect in the mouse listeriosis model. These bacteria escaped from acidic phagosomes and initially grew normally in cells and spread cell to cell, but prematurely permeabilized the host membrane and killed the cell. These data show that the acidic pH optimum of LLO results from an adaptive mutation that acts to limit cytolytic activity to acidic vesicles and prevent damage in the host cytosol, a strategy also used by host cells to compartmentalize lysosomal hydrolases.

  9. Native Microbial Colonization of Drosophila melanogaster and Its Use as a Model of Enterococcus faecalis Pathogenesis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Christopher R.; Gilmore, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Enterococci are commensal organisms of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of a broad range of mammalian and insect hosts, but they are also leading causes of nosocomial infection. Little is known about the ecological role of enterococci in the GI tract consortia. To develop a tractable model for studying the roles of these organisms as commensals and pathogens, we characterized the Drosophila melanogaster microflora and examined the occurrence of enterococci in the gastrointestinal consortium of Drosophila. In a survey of laboratory-reared Drosophila and wild-captured flies, we found that Drosophila was naturally colonized by representatives of five bacterial phyla. Among these organisms were several species of enterococci, including Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus gallinaraum, and Enterococcus durans, as well as a previously detected but uncultured Enterococcus species. Drosophila could be cured of enterococcal carriage by antibiotic treatment and could be reassociated with laboratory strains. High-level colonization by a well-characterized strain expressing the enterococcal cytolysin was found to be detrimental to Drosophila compared to the effect of an isogenic, noncytolytic control. The anatomical distribution of enterococci in the Drosophila GI tract was determined by immunohistochemical staining of thin sections of naturally colonized and reassociated flies. PMID:17220307

  10. Virulence of enterococci.

    PubMed Central

    Jett, B D; Huycke, M M; Gilmore, M S

    1994-01-01

    Enterococci are commensal organisms well suited to survival in intestinal and vaginal tracts and the oral cavity. However, as for most bacteria described as causing human disease, enterococci also possess properties that can be ascribed roles in pathogenesis. The natural ability of enterococci to readily acquire, accumulate, and share extrachromosomal elements encoding virulence traits or antibiotic resistance genes lends advantages to their survival under unusual environmental stresses and in part explains their increasing importance as nosocomial pathogens. This review discusses the current understanding of enterococcal virulence relating to (i) adherence to host tissues, (ii) invasion and abscess formation, (iii) factors potentially relevant to modulation of host inflammatory responses, and (iv) potentially toxic secreted products. Aggregation substance, surface carbohydrates, or fibronectin-binding moieties may facilitate adherence to host tissues. Enterococcus faecalis appears to have the capacity to translocate across intact intestinal mucosa in models of antibiotic-induced superinfection. Extracellular toxins such as cytolysin can induce tissue damage as shown in an endophthalmitis model, increase mortality in combination with aggregation substance in an endocarditis model, and cause systemic toxicity in a murine peritonitis model. Finally, lipoteichoic acid, superoxide production, or pheromones and corresponding peptide inhibitors each may modulate local inflammatory reactions. Images PMID:7834601

  11. The Forgotten Virulence Factor: The 'non-conventional' Hemolysin TlyA And Its Role in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Mohammad Bagher; Katzenmeier, Gerd

    2016-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a human-specific Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium which colonizes the gastric mucosal layer in the stomach causing diseases such as peptic ulcer, adenocarcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. It is estimated that approximately half of the world's population is infected with H. pylori making it the most intensively characterized microbial pathogen up to now. Hemolysis has been suggested to significantly contribute to colonization of the stomach and disease progression by H. pylori. In a number of earlier studies, TlyA was characterized as a putative pore-forming cytolysin. Although a few observations in the literature suggest a role for TlyA as significant virulence factor of H. pylori, the molecular and structural characterization of this protein is much curtailed at present. Given the intensive characterization of numerous H. pylori virulence factors over the past decade, surprisingly little information exists for the TlyA toxin and its significance for pathogenesis. This review provides a brief overview on microbial hemolysis and its role for pathogenesis and discusses recent research efforts aimed at an improved understanding of the role of the 'non-conventional' hemolysin and its associated RNA methyltransferase TlyA from H. pylori.

  12. Identification and Immunological Characterization of Three Potential Vaccinogens against Cryptosporidium Species ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Manque, Patricio A.; Tenjo, Fernando; Woehlbier, Ute; Lara, Ana M.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Xu, Ping; Alves, João M.; Smeltz, Ronald B.; Conrad, Daniel H.; Buck, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a ubiquitous infectious disease, caused by the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, leading to acute, persistent, and chronic diarrhea with life-threatening consequences in immunocompromised individuals. In developing countries, cryptosporidiosis in early childhood has been associated with subsequent significant impairment in growth, physical fitness, and intellectual abilities. Currently, vaccines are unavailable and chemotherapeutics are toxic and impractical, and agents for immunoprophylaxis or treatment of cryptosporidiosis are a high priority. Availability of the genome sequences for C. hominis and C. parvum provides new opportunities to procure and examine novel vaccine candidates. Using the novel approach of “reverse vaccinology,” we identified several new potential vaccine candidates. Three of these antigens—Cp15, profilin, and a Cryptosporidium apyrase—were delivered in heterologous prime-boost regimens as fusions with cytolysin A (ClyA) in a Salmonella live vaccine vector and as purified recombinant antigens, and they were found to induce specific and potent humoral and cellular immune responses, suggesting their potential as new vaccinogens against Cryptosporidium infection. PMID:21918117

  13. Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis isolates originating from different sources for their virulence factors and genes, antibiotic resistance patterns, genotypes and biofilm production

    PubMed Central

    Gulhan, T; Boynukara, B; Ciftci, A; Sogut, M. U; Findik, A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 72 Enterococcus faecalis isolates originating from humans (n=39), dogs (n=26) and cats (n=7) were investigated for some virulence factors, some virulence genes, antibiotic resistance phenotypes, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) patterns and biofilm production. Of the isolates, 31 (43.1%) were positive for gelatinase, 11 (15.3%) for aggregation substance and cytolysine, 38 (52.8%) for gelE and 34 (47.2%) for asa1 genes. All isolates were found to be negative for hyl, esp and cylA genes. All isolates were found to be resistant to nalidixic acid and kanamycin. On the other hand, all isolates were cited for susceptible to amoxicillin. Vancomycin resistance genes (vanA, vanB, vanC1/C2 or vanD) have not been detected in any of the phenotypically vancomycin resistant isolates. Isolates from humans, dogs and cats were grouped into 8, 2 and 4 antibiotypes depending upon susceptibilities to 12 different antibiotics. In all human, dog and cat isolates, 9, 12 and 2 genotypes were determined by RAPD-PCR, respectively. Nine (34.6%) of the dog isolates were found to be positive for biofilm production. This study showed that multiple antibiotic resistance among human isolates is more frequent than in dog and cat isolates. PMID:27175186

  14. Distribution of the intermedilysin gene among the anginosus group streptococci and correlation between intermedilysin production and deep-seated infection with Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Nagamune, H; Whiley, R A; Goto, T; Inai, Y; Maeda, T; Hardie, J M; Kourai, H

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of intermedilysin, a human-specific cytolysin, among the anginosus group streptococci and the correlation of toxin production and infection by Streptococcus intermedius were investigated. PCR and Southern hybridization specific for the intermedilysin gene revealed that the toxin gene exists only in S. intermedius and no homologue to the toxin gene is distributed in S. anginosus and S. constellatus. Thus, the intermedilysin gene is useful as a marker gene of S. intermedius. Moreover, a human-specific hemolysis assay and Western blotting with intermedilysin-specific antibodies clearly demonstrated that the intermedilysin production level in isolates from deep-seated infections, such as brain and liver abscesses, is higher (6.2- to 10.2-fold, respectively) than in strains from normal habitats, such as dental plaque, or from peripheral infection sites. However, other candidate virulence factors of S. intermedius, such as chondroitin sulfate depolymerase, hyaluronidase, and sialidase activities, did not show such a clear correlation between enzymatic activity and isolation sites or disease severity. From these results, intermedilysin is likely to be the pathogenic or triggering factor of significance in inducing deep-seated infections with S. intermedius.

  15. Role of catabolite control protein A in the regulation of intermedilysin production by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Tabata, Atsushi; Hiroshima, Riki; Imaki, Hidenori; Masuda, Sachiko; Whiley, Robert A; Aduse-Opoku, Joseph; Kikuchi, Ken; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2010-09-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is an opportunistic pathogen of humans that causes purulent infections, including brain and liver abscesses. This pathogen secretes a human-specific cytolysin, intermedilysin, which has been recognized as a major virulence factor. However, most of the expressional control mechanisms of ily are still unknown. To determine these mechanisms, we analyzed the nucleotide sequence of the ily promoter region. We found a highly homologous region to the catabolite-repressible element (cre) in the ily promoter region and observed a considerable decrease in the amount of secreted intermedilysin when cells were grown in a culture medium containing high concentrations of glucose/utilizable carbohydrates. Disruption of the ccpA gene, which encodes catabolite control protein A, did not induce catabolite repression of ily by glucose/utilizable carbohydrates. In cre mutants, catabolite repression of ily was partially restored, and purified catabolite control protein A bound to an oligonucleotide containing the cre consensus sequence in the ily promoter region. In addition, a prolonged lag phase and slower doubling time of the ccpA mutant cells were observed. Our data show that S. intermedius can modulate ily expression and growth rate through catabolite control protein A-mediated monitoring of the extracellular glucose/utilizable carbohydrate concentration.

  16. Effects of Suilysin on Streptococcus suis-Induced Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shengwei; Wang, Junping; Chen, Shaolong; Yin, Jiye; Pan, Zhiyuan; Liu, Keke; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yuling; Yuan, Yuan; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Blood platelets play important roles during pathological thrombocytopenia in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Streptococcus suis (S. suis) an emerging human pathogen, can cause STSS similarly to S. pyogenes. However, S. suis interactions with platelets are poorly understood. Here, we found that suilysin (SLY), different from other bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), was the sole stimulus that induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the inside-out activation of GPIIb/IIIa of platelets mediated SLY-induced platelet aggregation. This process was triggered by Ca2+ influx that depend on the pore forming on platelets by SLY. Additionally, although SLY induced α-granule release occurred via the MLCK-dependent pathway, PLC-β-IP3/DAG-MLCK and Rho-ROCK-MLCK signaling were not involved in SLY-induced platelet aggregation. Interestingly, the pore dependent Ca2+ influx was also found to participate in the induction of platelet aggregation with pneumolysin (PLY) and streptolysin O (SLO), two other CDCs. It is possible that the CDC-mediated platelet aggregation we observed in S. suis is a similar response mechanism to that used by a wide range of bacteria. These findings might lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets for S. suis-associated STSS. PMID:27800304

  17. Suilysin-induced Platelet-Neutrophil Complexes Formation is Triggered by Pore Formation-dependent Calcium Influx

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shengwei; Zheng, Yuling; Chen, Shaolong; Huang, Shujing; Liu, Keke; Lv, Qingyu; Jiang, Yongqiang; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activation and platelet–neutrophil interactions have been found to be involved in inflammation, organ failure and soft-tissue necrosis in bacterial infections. Streptococcus suis, an emerging human pathogen, can cause streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome (STSS) similarly to Streptococcus pyogenes. Currently, S. suis–platelet interactions are poorly understood. Here, we found that suilysin (SLY), the S. suis cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC), was the sole stimulus of S. suis that induced platelet-neutrophil complexes (PNC) formation. Furthermore, P-selectin released in α-granules mediated PNC formation. This process was triggered by the SLY-induced pore forming-dependent Ca2+ influx. Moreover, we demonstrated that the Ca2+ influx triggered an MLCK-dependent pathway playing critical roles in P-selectin activation and PNC formation, however, PLC-β-IP3/DAG-MLCK and Rho-ROCK-MLCK signalling were not involved. Additionally, the “outside-in” signalling had a smaller effect on the SLY-induced P-selectin release and PNC formation. Interestingly, other CDCs including pneumolysin and streptolysin O have also been found to induce PNC formation in a pore forming-dependent Ca2+ influx manner. It is possible that the bacterial CDC-mediated PNC formation is a similar response mechanism used by a wide range of bacteria. These findings may provide useful insight for discovering potential therapeutic targets for S. suis-associated STSS. PMID:27830834

  18. Enterococcus cecorum infection in a racing pigeon.

    PubMed

    Jung, Arne; Teske, Lydia; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2014-12-01

    Until now, Enterococcus cecorum (EC) has been known as a pathogen for broilers, broiler breeders, and Pekin ducks. In the present report, we describe a fatal systemic EC infection in a young racing pigeon (Columba livia forma domestica). EC was isolated from the heart, liver, spleen, and intestine of the bird in pure culture. In the pathologic examination, the pigeon showed enteritis and an ulcerative gastritis, which may have been predisposing factors for the development of the generalized EC infection. An accumulation of gram-positive cocci in spleen tissue was found in the histopathologic examination and confirms the presence of a systemic EC infection in the pigeon. Additionally, EC was isolated from cloacal swabs of other pigeons in the same loft, but no additional pigeons were submitted for necropsy. All EC isolates tested were negative by PCR for the enterococcal virulence factors cytolysin, enterococcal surface protein, aggregation substance, hyaluronidase, and gelatinase. Therefore, the reason for the enhanced virulence of the EC isolate remains unknown. Our report confirms EC as a disease-causing agent in pigeons and presents the first data concerning the analysis of EC for virulence factors.

  19. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the streptolysin O determinant from Streptococcus pyogenes: characterization of the cloned streptolysin O determinant and demonstration of the absence of substantial homology with determinants of other thiol-activated toxins.

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, M; Timmis, K N

    1984-01-01

    A gene bank of Streptococcus pyogenes Richards was constructed in Escherichia coli by using the bacteriophage replacement vector lambda L47.1, and hybrid phage expressing streptolysin O (SLO) were identified among the recombinants. DNA sequences encoding SLO were subcloned from an slo+ hybrid phage into a low-copy-number vector plasmid to yield an slo+ hybrid plasmid, pMK157. This plasmid contains 5.6 kilobase pairs of cloned streptococcal DNA sequences, is stable, and expresses SLO at easily detectable levels in E. coli. Transposon gamma delta insertion mutants and in vitro-generated deletion mutants of pMK157 were isolated and analyzed. This analysis showed that a single gene is sufficient for production of SLO in E. coli and allowed this slo gene to be mapped to within +/- 100 base pairs. Two forms of the slo gene product, with molecular weights of 68,000 and 61,000, were detected in E. coli minicells harboring slo+ plasmids and by immunoblotting of E. coli whole cells harboring slo+ plasmids. Southern blotting hybridization experiments with the cloned SLO DNA sequences as probes failed to demonstrate homology between the cloned SLO determinant and DNA isolated from bacteria expressing thiol-activated cytolysins related to SLO. Images PMID:6321351

  20. Engineering a pH responsive pore forming protein

    PubMed Central

    Kisovec, Matic; Rezelj, Saša; Knap, Primož; Cajnko, Miša Mojca; Caserman, Simon; Flašker, Ajda; Žnidaršič, Nada; Repič, Matej; Mavri, Janez; Ruan, Yi; Scheuring, Simon; Podobnik, Marjetka; Anderluh, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a cytolysin capable of forming pores in cholesterol-rich lipid membranes of host cells. It is conveniently suited for engineering a pH-governed responsiveness, due to a pH sensor identified in its structure that was shown before to affect its stability. Here we introduced a new level of control of its hemolytic activity by making a variant with hemolytic activity that was pH-dependent. Based on detailed structural analysis coupled with molecular dynamics and mutational analysis, we found that the bulky side chain of Tyr406 allosterically affects the pH sensor. Molecular dynamics simulation further suggested which other amino acid residues may also allosterically influence the pH-sensor. LLO was engineered to the point where it can, in a pH-regulated manner, perforate artificial and cellular membranes. The single mutant Tyr406Ala bound to membranes and oligomerized similarly to the wild-type LLO, however, the final membrane insertion step was pH-affected by the introduced mutation. We show that the mutant toxin can be activated at the surface of artificial membranes or living cells by a single wash with slightly acidic pH buffer. Y406A mutant has a high potential in development of novel nanobiotechnological applications such as controlled release of substances or as a sensor of environmental pH. PMID:28176876

  1. Distinct Neurotoxicity Profile of Listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Jana; Hupp, Sabrina; Bischoff, Carolin; Foertsch, Christina; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Chakraborty, Trinad; Iliev, Asparouh I.

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are protein toxins that originate from Gram-positive bacteria and contribute substantially to their pathogenicity. CDCs bind membrane cholesterol and build prepores and lytic pores. Some effects of the toxins are observed in non-lytic concentrations. Two pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes, cause fatal bacterial meningitis, and both produce toxins of the CDC family—pneumolysin and listeriolysin O, respectively. It has been demonstrated that pneumolysin produces dendritic varicosities (dendrite swellings) and dendritic spine collapse in the mouse neocortex, followed by synaptic loss and astrocyte cell shape remodeling without elevated cell death. We utilized primary glial cultures and acute mouse brain slices to examine the neuropathological effects of listeriolysin O and to compare it to pneumolysin with identical hemolytic activity. In cultures, listeriolysin O permeabilized cells slower than pneumolysin did but still initiated non-lytic astrocytic cell shape changes, just as pneumolysin did. In an acute brain slice culture system, listeriolysin O produced dendritic varicosities in an NMDA-dependent manner but failed to cause dendritic spine collapse and cortical astrocyte reorganization. Thus, listeriolysin O demonstrated slower cell permeabilization and milder glial cell remodeling ability than did pneumolysin and lacked dendritic spine collapse capacity but exhibited equivalent dendritic pathology. PMID:28098781

  2. Distinct Neurotoxicity Profile of Listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Jana; Hupp, Sabrina; Bischoff, Carolin; Foertsch, Christina; Mitchell, Timothy J; Chakraborty, Trinad; Iliev, Asparouh I

    2017-01-13

    Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are protein toxins that originate from Gram-positive bacteria and contribute substantially to their pathogenicity. CDCs bind membrane cholesterol and build prepores and lytic pores. Some effects of the toxins are observed in non-lytic concentrations. Two pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes, cause fatal bacterial meningitis, and both produce toxins of the CDC family-pneumolysin and listeriolysin O, respectively. It has been demonstrated that pneumolysin produces dendritic varicosities (dendrite swellings) and dendritic spine collapse in the mouse neocortex, followed by synaptic loss and astrocyte cell shape remodeling without elevated cell death. We utilized primary glial cultures and acute mouse brain slices to examine the neuropathological effects of listeriolysin O and to compare it to pneumolysin with identical hemolytic activity. In cultures, listeriolysin O permeabilized cells slower than pneumolysin did but still initiated non-lytic astrocytic cell shape changes, just as pneumolysin did. In an acute brain slice culture system, listeriolysin O produced dendritic varicosities in an NMDA-dependent manner but failed to cause dendritic spine collapse and cortical astrocyte reorganization. Thus, listeriolysin O demonstrated slower cell permeabilization and milder glial cell remodeling ability than did pneumolysin and lacked dendritic spine collapse capacity but exhibited equivalent dendritic pathology.

  3. The Pore-Forming Haemolysins of Bacillus Cereus: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramarao, Nalini; Sanchis, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group contains diverse Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal diseases and severe eye infections in humans. They have also been incriminated in a multitude of other severe, and frequently fatal, clinical infections, such as osteomyelitis, septicaemia, pneumonia, liver abscess and meningitis, particularly in immuno-compromised patients and preterm neonates. The pathogenic properties of this organism are mediated by the synergistic effects of a number of virulence products that promote intestinal cell destruction and/or resistance to the host immune system. This review focuses on the pore-forming haemolysins produced by B. cereus: haemolysin I (cereolysin O), haemolysin II, haemolysin III and haemolysin IV (CytK). Haemolysin I belongs to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family whose best known members are listeriolysin O and perfringolysin O, produced by L. monocytogenes and C. perfringens respectively. HlyII and CytK are oligomeric ß-barrel pore-forming toxins related to the α-toxin of S. aureus or the ß-toxin of C. perfringens. The structure of haemolysin III, the least characterized haemolytic toxin from the B. cereus, group has not yet been determined. PMID:23748204

  4. Cationic antimicrobial peptides disrupt the Streptococcus pyogenes ExPortal.

    PubMed

    Vega, Luis Alberto; Caparon, Michael G

    2012-09-01

    Although they possess a well-characterized ability to porate the bacterial membrane, emerging research suggests that cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) can influence pathogen behaviour at levels that are sublethal. In this study, we investigated the interaction of polymyxin B and human neutrophil peptide (HNP-1) with the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. At sublethal concentrations, these CAPs preferentially targeted the ExPortal, a unique microdomain of the S. pyogenes membrane, specialized for protein secretion and processing. A consequence of this interaction was the disruption of ExPortal organization and a redistribution of ExPortal components into the peripheral membrane. Redistribution was associated with inhibition of secretion of certain toxins, including the SpeB cysteine protease and the streptolysin O (SLO) cytolysin, but not SIC, a protein that protects S. pyogenes from CAPs. These data suggest a novel function for CAPs in targeting the ExPortal and interfering with secretion of factors required for infection and survival. This mechanism may prove valuable for the design of new types of antimicrobial agents to combat the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  5. Morin Attenuates Streptococcus suis Pathogenicity in Mice by Neutralizing Suilysin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gen; Lu, Gejin; Qi, Zhimin; Li, Hongen; Wang, Lin; Wang, Yanhui; Liu, Bowen; Niu, Xiaodi; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis, a Gram-positive pathogen, is widely recognized as an important agent of swine infection, and it is also known to cause a variety of zoonoses, such as meningitis, polyarthritis and pneumonia. Suilysin (SLY), an extracellular pore-forming toxin that belongs to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin family, is an essential virulence factor of S. suis capsular type 2 (SS2). Here, we found that morin hydrate (morin), a natural flavonoid that lacks anti-SS2 activity, inhibits the hemolytic activity of SLY, protects J774 cells from SS2-induced injury and protects mice from SS2 infection. Further, by molecular modeling and mutational analysis, we found that morin binds to the “stem” domain 2 in SLY and hinders its transformation from the monomer form to the oligomer form, which causes the loss of SLY activity. Our study demonstrates that morin hinders the cell lysis activity of SLY through a novel mechanism of interrupting the heptamer formation. These findings may lead to the development of promising therapeutic candidates for the treatment of SS2 infections. PMID:28373868

  6. Engineering a pH responsive pore forming protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisovec, Matic; Rezelj, Saša; Knap, Primož; Cajnko, Miša Mojca; Caserman, Simon; Flašker, Ajda; Žnidaršič, Nada; Repič, Matej; Mavri, Janez; Ruan, Yi; Scheuring, Simon; Podobnik, Marjetka; Anderluh, Gregor

    2017-02-01

    Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a cytolysin capable of forming pores in cholesterol-rich lipid membranes of host cells. It is conveniently suited for engineering a pH-governed responsiveness, due to a pH sensor identified in its structure that was shown before to affect its stability. Here we introduced a new level of control of its hemolytic activity by making a variant with hemolytic activity that was pH-dependent. Based on detailed structural analysis coupled with molecular dynamics and mutational analysis, we found that the bulky side chain of Tyr406 allosterically affects the pH sensor. Molecular dynamics simulation further suggested which other amino acid residues may also allosterically influence the pH-sensor. LLO was engineered to the point where it can, in a pH-regulated manner, perforate artificial and cellular membranes. The single mutant Tyr406Ala bound to membranes and oligomerized similarly to the wild-type LLO, however, the final membrane insertion step was pH-affected by the introduced mutation. We show that the mutant toxin can be activated at the surface of artificial membranes or living cells by a single wash with slightly acidic pH buffer. Y406A mutant has a high potential in development of novel nanobiotechnological applications such as controlled release of substances or as a sensor of environmental pH.

  7. Assembly of streptolysin O pores assessed by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy provides evidence for the formation of anchored but incomplete oligomers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Sarah E; D'Angelo, Michael E; Paintavigna, Stefania; Tabor, Rico F; Martin, Lisandra L; Bird, Phillip I

    2015-01-01

    Streptolysin O (SLO) is a bacterial pore forming protein that is part of the cholesterol dependent cytolysin (CDC) family. We have used quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) to examine SLO membrane binding and pore formation. In this system, SLO binds tightly to cholesterol-containing membranes, and assembles into partial and complete pores confirmed by atomic force microscopy. SLO binds to the lipid bilayer at a single rate consistent with the Langmuir isotherm model of adsorption. Changes in dissipation illustrate that SLO alters the viscoelastic properties of the bilayer during pore formation, but there is no loss of material from the bilayer as reported for small membrane-penetrating peptides. SLO mutants were used to further dissect the assembly and insertion processes by QCM-D. This shows the signature of SLO in QCM-D changes when pore formation is inhibited, and that bound and inserted SLO forms can be distinguished. Furthermore a pre-pore locked SLO mutant binds reversibly to lipid, suggesting that the partially complete wtSLO forms observed by AFM are anchored to the membrane.

  8. Red Blood Cell Susceptibility to Pneumolysin: CORRELATION WITH MEMBRANE BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.

    PubMed

    Bokori-Brown, Monika; Petrov, Peter G; Khafaji, Mawya A; Mughal, Muhammad K; Naylor, Claire E; Shore, Angela C; Gooding, Kim M; Casanova, Francesco; Mitchell, Tim J; Titball, Richard W; Winlove, C Peter

    2016-05-06

    This study investigated the effect of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the plasma membrane as well as membrane morphology on the susceptibility of human red blood cells to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin, a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, using single cell studies. We show a correlation between the physical properties of the membrane (bending rigidity and surface and dipole electrostatic potentials) and the susceptibility of red blood cells to pneumolysin-induced hemolysis. We demonstrate that biochemical modifications of the membrane induced by oxidative stress, lipid scrambling, and artificial cell aging modulate the cell response to the toxin. We provide evidence that the diversity of response to pneumolysin in diabetic red blood cells correlates with levels of glycated hemoglobin and that the mechanical properties of the red blood cell plasma membrane are altered in diabetes. Finally, we show that diabetic red blood cells are more resistant to pneumolysin and the related toxin perfringolysin O relative to healthy red blood cells. Taken together, these studies indicate that the diversity of cell response to pneumolysin within a population of human red blood cells is influenced by the biophysical and biochemical status of the plasma membrane and the chemical and/or oxidative stress pre-history of the cell.

  9. pH controlled gating of toxic protein pores by dendrimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Taraknath; Kanchi, Subbarao; Ayappa, K. G.; Maiti, Prabal K.

    2016-06-01

    Designing effective nanoscale blockers for membrane inserted pores formed by pore forming toxins, which are expressed by several virulent bacterial strains, on a target cell membrane is a challenging and active area of research. Here we demonstrate that PAMAM dendrimers can act as effective pH controlled gating devices once the pore has been formed. We have used fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize the cytolysin A (ClyA) protein pores modified with fifth generation (G5) PAMAM dendrimers. Our results show that the PAMAM dendrimer, in either its protonated (P) or non-protonated (NP) states can spontaneously enter the protein lumen. Protonated dendrimers interact strongly with the negatively charged protein pore lumen. As a consequence, P dendrimers assume a more expanded configuration efficiently blocking the pore when compared with the more compact configuration adopted by the neutral NP dendrimers creating a greater void space for the passage of water and ions. To quantify the effective blockage of the protein pore, we have calculated the pore conductance as well as the residence times by applying a weak force on the ions/water. Ionic currents are reduced by 91% for the P dendrimers and 31% for the NP dendrimers. The preferential binding of Cl- counter ions to the P dendrimer creates a zone of high Cl- concentration in the vicinity of the internalized dendrimer and a high concentration of K+ ions in the transmembrane region of the pore lumen. In addition to steric effects, this induced charge segregation for the P dendrimer effectively blocks ionic transport through the pore. Our investigation shows that the bio-compatible PAMAM dendrimers can potentially be used to develop therapeutic protocols based on the pH sensitive gating of pores formed by pore forming toxins to mitigate bacterial infections.Designing effective nanoscale blockers for membrane inserted pores formed by pore forming toxins, which are expressed by several virulent

  10. Targeted deletion of the ara operon of Salmonella typhimurium enhances L-arabinose accumulation and drives PBAD-promoted expression of anti-cancer toxins and imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyun; Lim, Daejin; Kim, Geun-Joong; Park, Seung-Hwan; Sik Kim, Hyeon; Hong, Yeongjin; Choy, Hyon E; Min, Jung-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-specific expression of antitumor drugs can be achieved using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium harboring the PBAD promoter, which is induced by L-arabinose. However, L-arabinose does not accumulate because it is metabolized to D-xylulose-5-P by enzymes encoded by the ara operon in Salmonellae. To address this problem, we developed an engineered strain of S. typhimurium in which the ara operon is deleted. Linear DNA transformation was performed using λ red recombinase to exchange the ara operon with linear DNA carrying an antibiotic-resistance gene with homology to regions adjacent to the ara operon. The ara operon-deleted strain and its parental strain were transformed with a plasmid encoding Renilla luciferase variant 8 (RLuc8) or cytolysin A (clyA) under the control of the PBAD promoter. Luciferase assays demonstrated that RLuc8 expression was 49-fold higher in the ara operon-deleted S. typhimurium than in the parental strain after the addition of L-arabinose. In vivo bioluminescence imaging showed that the tumor tissue targeted by the ara operon-deleted Salmonella had a stronger imaging signal (~30-fold) than that targeted by the parental strain. Mice with murine colon cancer (CT26) that had been injected with the ara operon-deleted S. typhimurium expressing clyA showed significant tumor suppression. The present report demonstrates that deletion of the ara operon of S. typhimurium enhances L-arabinose accumulation and thereby drives PBAD-promoted expression of cytotoxic agents and imaging agents. This is a promising approach for tumor therapy and imaging.

  11. Functional Characterization of Sticholysin I and W111C Mutant Reveals the Sequence of the Actinoporin’s Pore Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Antonini, Valeria; Pérez-Barzaga, Victor; Bampi, Silvia; Pentón, David; Martínez, Diana; Serra, Mauro Dalla; Tejuca, Mayra

    2014-01-01

    The use of pore-forming toxins in the construction of immunotoxins against tumour cells is an alternative for cancer therapy. In this protein family one of the most potent toxins are the actinoporins, cytolysins from sea anemones. We work on the construction of tumour proteinase-activated immunotoxins using sticholysin I (StI), an actinoporin isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. To accomplish this objective, recombinant StI (StIr) with a mutation in the membrane binding region has been employed. In this work, it was evaluated the impact of mutating tryptophan 111 to cysteine on the toxin pore forming capability. StI W111C is still able to permeabilize erythrocytes and liposomes, but at ten-fold higher concentration than StI. This is due to its lower affinity for the membrane, which corroborates the importance of residue 111 for the binding of actinoporins to the lipid bilayer. In agreement, other functional characteristics not directly associated to the binding, are essentially the same for both variants, that is, pores have oligomeric structures with similar radii, conductance, cation-selectivity, and instantaneous current-voltage behavior. In addition, this work provides experimental evidence sustaining the toroidal protein-lipid actinoporins lytic structures, since the toxins provoke the trans-bilayer movement (flip–flop) of a pyrene-labeled analogue of phosphatidylcholine in liposomes, indicating the existence of continuity between the outer and the inner membrane leaflet. Finally, our planar lipid membranes results have also contributed to a better understanding of the actinoporin’s pore assembly mechanism. After the toxin binding and the N-terminal insertion in the lipid membrane, the pore assembly occurs by passing through different transient sub-conductance states. These states, usually 3 or 4, are due to the successive incorporation of N-terminal α-helices and lipid heads to the growing pores until a stable toroidal oligomeric

  12. Characterization of functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human gut.

    PubMed

    İspirli, Hümeyra; Demirbaş, Fatmanur; Dertli, Enes

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains identified after isolation from human faeces. Of these isolates, strain R13 showed the best resistance to low pH, bile salts, and survival in the simulated in vitro digestion assay, and demonstrated an important level of adhesion to hexadecane as a potential probiotic candidate. Analysis of the antibiotic resistance of E. faecium strains indicated that in general these isolates were sensitive to the tested antibiotics and no strain appeared to be resistant to vancomycin. Examination of the virulence determinants for E. faecium strains demonstrated that all strains contained the virulence genes common in gut- and food-originated enterococci, and strain R13 harboured the lowest number of virulence genes. Additionally, no strain contained the genes related to cytolysin metabolism and showed hemolytic activity. The antimicrobial role of E. faecium strains was tested against several pathogens, in which different levels of inhibitory effects were observed, and strain R13 was inhibitory to all tested pathogens. PCR screening of genes encoding enterocin A and B indicated the presence of these genes in E. faecium strains. Preliminary characterization of bacteriocins revealed that their activity was lost after proteolytic enzyme treatments, but no alteration in antimicrobial activity was observed at different pHs (3.5 to 9.5) and after heat treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed the functional characteristics of E. faecium R13 as a gut isolate, and this strain could be developed as a new probiotic after further tests.

  13. Occurrence and virulence properties of Vibrio and Salinivibrio isolates from tropical lagoons of the southern Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Suárez, Paula; Giner, Sandra; Sanz, Virginia; Peña, Jessy; Sánchez, Damarys; García-Amado, M Alexandra

    2017-03-21

    The Vibrionaceae are Gram-negative bacteria present in marine and estuarine environments worldwide, including several species known as important pathogens to humans and aquatic organisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the occurrence and virulence properties of Vibrio and Salinivibrio isolated from lagoons at Cuare Wildlife Refuge and Margarita Island in the southern Caribbean Sea. Water, plankton and oyster samples were collected during October 2011 and March 2012 and examined by specific PCR and culture methods. Vibrio genus DNA was detected in 95% of samples, while the intergenic spacer region (ISR) of Vibrio cholerae and the genes that code for the thermolabile direct haemolysin (tl) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the haemolysin/cytolysin (vvhA) of Vibrio vulnificus were absent or amplified in low proportions (23, 5, and 0%, respectively). Nine isolates from water and plankton were confirmed as Vibrio or Salinivibrio by phenotypic tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. All the isolates presented similar patterns of virulence factors, in which the genes ctxA (encoding for cholera toxin), tl and vvhA were lacking, whereas seven isolates displayed antibiotic resistance against ampicillin and cephalosporins. The 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis showed the clustering of Vibrio isolates in three main clades: the plankton isolate from Cuare Wildlife Refuge formed a group with V. cholerae and Vibrio mimicus while the Margarita isolates clustered with sequences from the harveyi clade and Salinivibrio. This is the first time that Salinivibrio species are reported in tropical lagoons of the Caribbean Sea with antibiotic resistance.

  14. Characterization of pneumococcal purpura-producing principle.

    PubMed

    Chetty, C; Kreger, A

    1980-07-01

    Purpura was grossly observable in albino mice 6 to 8 h after the intraperitoneal injection of sterile, deoxyribonuclease-treated, cell-free extracts prepared by sodium deoxycholate-induced lysis, sonic disruption, Parr bomb treatment, autolysis without sodium deoxycholate, or alternate freezing and thawing of washed suspensions of Streptococcus pneumoniae type I. Cell-free extracts obtained from sonically disrupted, heat-killed cells (100 degrees C for 20 min) did not contain purpurogenic activity. The reaction was maximal at approximately 24 h postinjection, started to fade slowly after 24 to 48 h, and usually was not grossly observable by 4 to 6 days postinjection. The purpura-producing principle (PPP) in the cell-free extract was purified by sequential ammonium sulfate precipitation, protamine sulfate precipitation, Sepharose 6B gel filtration, wheat germ lectin-Sepharose 6MB affinity chromatography, ribonuclease and trypsin treatment, and a second Sepharose 6B gel filtration step. The final preparation (i) contained glucosamine (5.6%), muramic acid (8.0%), neutral carbohydrate (12.8%), phosphate (8.0%), orcinol-reactive material (6.0%), and Lowry-reactive material (1.6%), and (ii) was free of detectable amounts of deoxyribonucleic acid, capsular polysaccharide, neuraminidase, cytolysin, and hyaluronidase. The isoelectric point and molecular size of the PPP were approximately pI 3.0 and several million daltons, respectively, and the activity remained in the supernatant fluid after centrifugation for 1 day at 105,000 x g. PPP activity was destroyed by incubation with egg white lysozyme and sodium metaperiodate but was resistant to trypsin, pronase, alpha-amylase, deoxyribonuclease, ribonuclease, alkaline phosphatase, pancreatic lipase, 7% trichloroacetic acid, 6 M urea, autoclaving (121 degrees C) for 30 min, and mild acid and alkali exposure. Our observations indicate that the PPP requires intact beta-1,4-glucosidic linkages for activity and support the working

  15. Functional and topological studies with Trp-containing analogs of the peptide StII(1-30) derived from the N-terminus of the pore forming toxin sticholysin II: contribution to understand its orientation in membrane.

    PubMed

    Ros, Uris; Souto, Ana Lucia C F; de Oliveira, Felipe J; Crusca, Edson; Pazos, Fabiola; Cilli, Eduardo M; Lanio, Maria E; Schreier, Shirley; Alvarez, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Sticholysin II (St II) is the most potent cytolysin produced by the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, exerting hemolytic activity via pore formation in membranes. The toxin's N-terminus contains an amphipathic α-helix that is very likely involved in pore formation. We have previously demonstrated that the synthetic peptide StII(1-30) encompassing the 1-30 segment of St II forms pores of similar radius to that of the protein (around 1 nm), being a good model of toxin functionality. Here we have studied the functional and conformational properties of fluorescent analogs of StII(1-30) in lipid membranes. The analogs were obtained by replacing Leu residues at positions 2, 12, 17, and 24 with the intrinsically fluorescent amino acid Trp (StII(1-30L2W), StII(1-30L12W), StII(1-30L17W), or StII(1-30L24W), respectively). The exchange by Trp did not significantly modify the activity and conformation of the parent peptide. The blue-shift and intensity enhancement of fluorescence in the presence of membrane indicated that Trp at position 2 is more deeply buried in the hydrophobic region of the bilayer. These experiments, as well as assays with water-soluble or spin-labeled lipid-soluble fluorescence quenchers suggest an orientation of StII(1-30) with its N-terminus oriented towards the hydrophobic core of the bilayer while the rest of the peptide is more exposed to the aqueous environment, as hypothesized for sticholysins.

  16. Validation of a mutant of the pore-forming toxin sticholysin-I for the construction of proteinase-activated immunotoxins.

    PubMed

    Pentón, David; Pérez-Barzaga, Victor; Díaz, Iscel; Reytor, Mey L; Campos, Javier; Fando, Rafael; Calvo, Loany; Cilli, Eduardo M; Morera, Vivian; Castellanos-Serra, Lila R; Pazos, Fabiola; Lanio, María E; Alvarez, Carlos; Pons, Tirso; Tejuca, Mayra

    2011-06-01

    The use of pore-forming toxins from sea anemones (actinoporins) in the construction of immunotoxins (ITs) against tumour cells is an alternative for cancer therapy. However, the main disadvantage of actinoporin-based ITs obtained so far has been the poor cellular specificity associated with the toxin's ability to bind and exert its activity in almost any cell membrane. Our final goal is the construction of tumour proteinase-activated ITs using a cysteine mutant at the membrane binding region of sticholysin-I (StI), a cytolysin isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. The mutant and the ligand moiety would be linked by proteinase-sensitive peptides through the StI cysteine residue blocking the toxin binding region and hence the IT non-specific killing activity. To accomplish this objective the first step was to obtain the mutant StI W111C, and to evaluate the impact of mutating tryptophan 111 by cysteine on the toxin pore-forming capacity. After proteolysis of the cleavage sequence, a short peptide would remain attached to the toxin. The next step was to evaluate whether this mutant is able to form pores even with a residual peptide linked to cysteine 111. In this work we demonstrated that (i) StI W111C shows pore-forming capacity in a nanomolar range, although it is 8-fold less active than the wild-type recombinant StI, corroborating the previously reported importance of residue 111 for the binding of StI to membranes, and (ii) the mutant is able to form pores even with a residual seven-residue peptide linked to cysteine 111. In addition, it was demonstrated that binding of a large molecule to cysteine 111 renders an inactive toxin that is no longer able to bind to the membrane. These results validate the mutant StI W111C for its use in the construction of tumour proteinase-activated ITs.

  17. Synergistic hemolysins of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS).

    PubMed

    Różalska, Małgorzata; Derczyńska, Anna; Maszewska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    A total of 104 coagulase negative staphylococci, belonging to S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus and S. warneri, originating from the collection of the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology (ZMF), Medical University of Lodz, Poland, were tested for their synergistic hemolytic activity. 83% of strains produced δ-hemolysin, however, the percentage of positive strains of S. haemolyticus, S. warneri, S. capitis and S. hominis was different - 98%, 78%, 75% and 68%, respectively. Highly pure hemolysins were obtained from culture supernatants by protein precipitation with ammonium sulphate (0-70% of saturation) and extraction by using a mixture of organic solvents. The purity and molecular mass of hemolysins was determined by TRIS/Tricine PAGE. All CoNS hemolysins were small peptides with a molar mass of about 3.5 kDa; they possessed cytotoxic activity against the line of human foreskin fibroblasts ATCC Hs27 and lysed red cells from different mammalian species, however, the highest activity was observed when guinea pig, dog and human red blood cells were used. The cytotoxic effect on fibroblasts occurred within 30 minutes. The S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus strain was used as a control. The antimicrobial activity was examined using hemolysins of S. capitis, S. hominis, S. cohnii ssp. cohnii and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus. Hemolysins of the two S. cohnii subspecies did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity. Cytolysins of S. capitis and S. hominis had a very narrow spectrum of action; out of 37 examined strains, the growth of only Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Pasteurella multocida was inhibited.

  18. Cytokines in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats: persistent mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and absent expression of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Issazadeh, S; Lorentzen, J C; Mustafa, M I; Höjeberg, B; Müssener, A; Olsson, T

    1996-09-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats is typically a brief and monophasic disease with sparse demyelination. However, inbred DA rats develop a demyelinating, prolonged and relapsing encephalomyelitis after immunization with rat spinal cord in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. This model enables studies of mechanisms related to chronicity and demyelination, two hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we have investigated, in situ, the dynamics of cytokine mRNA expression in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral lymphoid organs (lymph node cells and splenocytes) of diseased DA rats. We demonstrate that peripheral lymphoid cells stimulated in vitro with encephalitogenic peptides 69-87 and 87-101 of myelin basic protein responded with high mRNA expression for proinflammatory cytokines; interferon-gamma, interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumour necrosis factors alpha and beta, IL-1 beta and cytolysin. A high expression of mRNA for these proinflammatory cytokines was also observed in the CNS where it was accompanied by classical signs of inflammation such as expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II, CD4, CD8 and IL-2 receptor. The expression of mRNA for proinflammatory cytokines was remarkably long-lasting in DA rats as compared to LEW rats which display a brief and monophasic EAE. Furthermore, mRNAs for putative immunodownmodulatory cytokines, i.e. transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), IL-10 and IL-4 were almost absent in DA rats, in both the CNS and in vitro stimulated peripheral lymphoid cells, while their levels were elevated in the CNS of LEW rats during the recovery phase. We conclude that the MS-like prolonged and relapsing EAE in DA rats is associated with a prolonged production of proinflammatory cytokines and/or low or absent production of immunodownmodulatory cytokines.

  19. Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) toxins: an overview.

    PubMed

    Frazão, Bárbara; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2012-08-01

    The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most venomous animals. The Anthozoa class includes sea anemones, hard corals, soft corals and sea pens. The composition of cnidarian venoms is not known in detail, but they appear to contain a variety of compounds. Currently around 250 of those compounds have been identified (peptides, proteins, enzymes and proteinase inhibitors) and non-proteinaceous substances (purines, quaternary ammonium compounds, biogenic amines and betaines), but very few genes encoding toxins were described and only a few related protein three-dimensional structures are available. Toxins are used for prey acquisition, but also to deter potential predators (with neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity effects) and even to fight territorial disputes. Cnidaria toxins have been identified on the nematocysts located on the tentacles, acrorhagi and acontia, and in the mucous coat that covers the animal body. Sea anemone toxins comprise mainly proteins and peptides that are cytolytic or neurotoxic with its potency varying with the structure and site of action and are efficient in targeting different animals, such as insects, crustaceans and vertebrates. Sea anemones toxins include voltage-gated Na⁺ and K⁺ channels toxins, acid-sensing ion channel toxins, Cytolysins, toxins with Kunitz-type protease inhibitors activity and toxins with Phospholipase A2 activity. In this review we assessed the phylogentic relationships of sea anemone toxins, characterized such toxins, the genes encoding them and the toxins three-dimensional structures, further providing a state-of-the-art description of the procedures involved in the isolation and purification of bioactive toxins.

  20. Ecology of Antibiotic Resistance Genes: Characterization of Enterococci from Houseflies Collected in Food Settings†

    PubMed Central

    Macovei, Lilia; Zurek, Ludek

    2006-01-01

    In this project, enterococci from the digestive tracts of 260 houseflies (Musca domestica L.) collected from five restaurants were characterized. Houseflies frequently (97% of the flies were positive) carried enterococci (mean, 3.1 × 103 CFU/fly). Using multiplex PCR, 205 of 355 randomly selected enterococcal isolates were identified and characterized. The majority of these isolates were Enterococcus faecalis (88.2%); in addition, 6.8% were E. faecium, and 4.9% were E. casseliflavus. E. faecalis isolates were phenotypically resistant to tetracycline (66.3%), erythromycin (23.8%), streptomycin (11.6%), ciprofloxacin (9.9%), and kanamycin (8.3%). Tetracycline resistance in E. faecalis was encoded by tet(M) (65.8%), tet(O) (1.7%), and tet(W) (0.8%). The majority (78.3%) of the erythromycin-resistant E. faecalis isolates carried erm(B). The conjugative transposon Tn916 and members of the Tn916/Tn1545 family were detected in 30.2% and 34.6% of the identified isolates, respectively. E. faecalis carried virulence genes, including a gelatinase gene (gelE; 70.7%), an aggregation substance gene (asa1; 33.2%), an enterococcus surface protein gene (esp; 8.8%), and a cytolysin gene (cylA; 8.8%). Phenotypic assays showed that 91.4% of the isolates with the gelE gene were gelatinolytic and that 46.7% of the isolates with the asa1 gene aggregated. All isolates with the cylA gene were hemolytic on human blood. This study showed that houseflies in food-handling and -serving facilities carry antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent enterococci that have the capacity for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to other bacteria. PMID:16751512

  1. Staphylococcal β-Toxin Modulates Human Aortic Endothelial Cell and Platelet Function through Sphingomyelinase and Biofilm Ligase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Alfa; Kulhankova, Katarina; Sonkar, Vijay K.; Dayal, Sanjana; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus causes many infections, such as skin and soft tissue, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis (IE). IE is an endovascular infection of native and prosthetic valves and the lining of the heart; it is characterized by the formation of cauliflower-like “vegetations” composed of fibrin, platelets, other host factors, bacteria, and bacterial products. β-Toxin is an S. aureus virulence factor that contributes to the microorganism’s ability to cause IE. This cytolysin has two enzymatic activities: sphingomyelinase (SMase) and biofilm ligase. Although both activities have functions in a rabbit model of IE, the mechanism(s) by which β-toxin directly affects human cells and is involved in the infectious process has not been elucidated. Here, we compared the in vitro effects of purified recombinant wild-type β-toxin, SMase-deficient β-toxin (H289N), and biofilm ligase-deficient β-toxin (H162A and/or D163A) on human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and platelets. β-Toxin was cytotoxic to HAECs and inhibited the production of interleukin 8 (IL-8) from these cells by both SMase and biofilm ligase activities. β-Toxin altered HAEC surface expression of CD40 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). HAECs treated with β-toxin displayed granular membrane morphology not seen in treatment with the SMase-deficient mutant. The altered morphology resulted in two possibly separable activities, cell rounding and redistribution of cell membranes into granules, which were not the result of endosome production from the Golgi apparatus or lysosomes. β-Toxin directly aggregated rabbit platelets via SMase activity. PMID:28325766

  2. Characterization of Multi-Drug Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Cephalic Recording Chambers in Research Macaques (Macaca spp.).

    PubMed

    Woods, Stephanie E; Lieberman, Mia T; Lebreton, Francois; Trowel, Elise; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Dzink-Fox, Joanne; Gilmore, Michael S; Fox, James G

    2017-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance. Multi-locus sequence typing showed that most belonged to two E. faecalis sequence types (ST): ST 4 and ST 55. The genomes of three representative isolates were sequenced to identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistances and other traits. Antimicrobial resistance genes identified included aac(6')-aph(2"), aph(3')-III, str, ant(6)-Ia, tetM, tetS, tetL, ermB, bcrABR, cat, and dfrG, and polymorphisms in parC (S80I) and gyrA (S83I) were observed. These isolates also harbored virulence factors including the cytolysin toxin genes in ST 4 isolates, as well as multiple biofilm-associated genes (esp, agg, ace, SrtA, gelE, ebpABC), hyaluronidases (hylA, hylB), and other survival genes (ElrA, tpx). Crystal violet biofilm assays confirmed that ST 4 isolates produced more biofilm than ST 55 isolates. The abundance of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor genes in the ST 4 isolates likely relates to the loss of CRISPR-cas. This macaque colony represents a unique model for studying E. faecalis infection associated with indwelling devices, and provides an opportunity to understand the basis of persistence of this pathogen in a healthcare setting.

  3. Streptolysin S Promotes Programmed Cell Death and Enhances Inflammatory Signaling in Epithelial Keratinocytes during Group A Streptococcus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Rebecca A.; Puricelli, Jessica M.; Higashi, Dustin L.; Park, Claudia J.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A Streptococcus (GAS), is a pathogen that causes a multitude of human diseases from pharyngitis to severe infections such as toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis. One of the primary virulence factors produced by GAS is the peptide toxin streptolysin S (SLS). In addition to its well-recognized role as a cytolysin, recent evidence has indicated that SLS may influence host cell signaling pathways at sublytic concentrations during infection. We employed an antibody array-based approach to comprehensively identify global host cell changes in human epithelial keratinocytes in response to the SLS toxin. We identified key SLS-dependent host responses, including the initiation of specific programmed cell death and inflammatory cascades with concomitant downregulation of Akt-mediated cytoprotection. Significant signaling responses identified by our array analysis were confirmed using biochemical and protein identification methods. To further demonstrate that the observed SLS-dependent host signaling changes were mediated primarily by the secreted toxin, we designed a Transwell infection system in which direct bacterial attachment to host cells was prevented, while secreted factors were allowed access to host cells. The results using this approach were consistent with our direct infection studies and reveal that SLS is a bacterial toxin that does not require bacterial attachment to host cells for activity. In light of these findings, we propose that the production of SLS by GAS during skin infection promotes invasive outcomes by triggering programmed cell death and inflammatory cascades in host cells to breach the keratinocyte barrier for dissemination into deeper tissues. PMID:26238711

  4. Smooth and Rough Biotypes of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum Can Be Genetically Distinguished at the Arcanolysin Locus

    PubMed Central

    Ruther, Haley S.; Phillips, Kalyn; Ross, Dolores; Crawford, Alyssa; Weidner, M. Payton; Sammra, Osama; Lämmler, Christoph; McGee, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Arcanobacterium haemolyticum is a Gram-positive, β-hemolytic emerging human pathogen that is classified into smooth or rough biotypes. This bacterial species is also a rare pathogen of animals. Smooth biotypes possess smooth colony edges, are moderate to strong in β-hemolysis, and predominately cause wound infections. In contrast, rough biotypes possess rough and irregular colony edges, have weak to no β-hemolytic activity, and predominately cause pharyngitis. Using horse erythrocytes we confirmed that smooth isolates are generally more hemolytic than rough isolates. A hemolysin from A. haemolyticum, arcanolysin (aln/ALN), was recently discovered and is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family. PCR amplification of aln from all 36 smooth A. haemolyticum isolates yielded the expected 2.0 kb product. While 21 rough isolates yielded the 2.0 kb product, 16 isolates had a 3.2 kb product. The extra 1.2 kb segment was 99% identical to IS911 (insertion sequence) from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the upstream region of aln revealed ~40 nucleotide polymorphisms among 73 clinical isolates from Finland, Denmark, Germany and United States (Nebraska). Remarkably, multi-sequence alignments of the aln upstream region demonstrated that ~90% of the isolates phylogenetically clustered as either smooths or roughs. Differential restriction enzyme analysis of the aln upstream region also demonstrated that the aln upstream region of most (~75%) smooth isolates was cleaved with ClaI while this region in most (~86%) rough isolates was cleaved with XcmI. We conclude that the aln upstream region can be used to genetically distinguish between smooth and rough biotypes of this important emerging pathogen. PMID:26382754

  5. Stability, structural and functional properties of a monomeric, calcium–loaded adenylate cyclase toxin, CyaA, from Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Cannella, Sara E.; Ntsogo Enguéné, Véronique Yvette; Davi, Marilyne; Malosse, Christian; Sotomayor Pérez, Ana Cristina; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Vachette, Patrice; Durand, Dominique; Ladant, Daniel; Chenal, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin, CyaA, which invades eukaryotic cells and alters their physiology by cAMP overproduction. Calcium is an essential cofactor of CyaA, as it is the case for most members of the Repeat-in-ToXins (RTX) family. We show that the calcium-bound, monomeric form of CyaA, hCyaAm, conserves its permeabilization and haemolytic activities, even in a fully calcium-free environment. In contrast, hCyaAm requires sub-millimolar calcium in solution for cell invasion, indicating that free calcium in solution is involved in the CyaA toxin translocation process. We further report the first in solution structural characterization of hCyaAm, as deduced from SAXS, mass spectrometry and hydrodynamic studies. We show that hCyaAm adopts a compact and stable state that can transiently conserve its conformation even in a fully calcium-free environment. Our results therefore suggest that in hCyaAm, the C-terminal RTX-domain is stabilized in a high-affinity calcium-binding state by the N-terminal domains while, conversely, calcium binding to the C-terminal RTX-domain strongly stabilizes the N-terminal regions. Hence, the different regions of hCyaAm appear tightly connected, leading to stabilization effects between domains. The hysteretic behaviour of CyaA in response to calcium is likely shared by other RTX cytolysins. PMID:28186111

  6. Screening of the Enterocin-Encoding Genes and Antimicrobial Activity in Enterococcus Species.

    PubMed

    Ogaki, Mayara Baptistucci; Rocha, Katia Real; Terra, MÁrcia Regina; Furlaneto, MÁrcia Cristina; Maia, Luciana Furlaneto

    2016-06-28

    In the current study, a total of 135 enterococci strains from different sources were screened for the presence of the enterocin-encoding genes entA, entP, entB, entL50A, and entL50B. The enterocin genes were present at different frequencies, with entA occurring the most frequently, followed by entP and entB; entL50A and L50B were not detected. The occurrence of single enterocin genes was higher than the occurrence of multiple enterocin gene combinations. The 80 isolates that harbor at least one enterocin-encoding gene (denoted "Gene(+) strains") were screened for antimicrobial activity. A total of 82.5% of the Gene(+) strains inhibited at least one of the indicator strains, and the isolates harboring multiple enterocin-encoding genes inhibited a larger number of indicator strains than isolates harboring a single gene. The indicator strains that exhibited growth inhibition included Listeria innocua strain CLIP 12612 (ATCC BAA-680), Listeria monocytogenes strain CDC 4555, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC 6538, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Salmonella typhimurium strain UK-1 (ATCC 68169), and Escherichia coli BAC 49LT ETEC. Inhibition due to either bacteriophage lysis or cytolysin activity was excluded. The growth inhibition of antilisterial Gene+ strains was further tested under different culture conditions. Among the culture media formulations, the MRS agar medium supplemented with 2% (w/v) yeast extract was the best solidified medium for enterocin production. Our findings extend the current knowledge of enterocin-producing enterococci, which may have potential applications as biopreservatives in the food industry due to their capability of controlling food spoilage pathogens.

  7. Functional characterization of sticholysin I and W111C mutant reveals the sequence of the actinoporin's pore assembly.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Valeria; Pérez-Barzaga, Victor; Bampi, Silvia; Pentón, David; Martínez, Diana; Dalla Serra, Mauro; Tejuca, Mayra

    2014-01-01

    The use of pore-forming toxins in the construction of immunotoxins against tumour cells is an alternative for cancer therapy. In this protein family one of the most potent toxins are the actinoporins, cytolysins from sea anemones. We work on the construction of tumour proteinase-activated immunotoxins using sticholysin I (StI), an actinoporin isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. To accomplish this objective, recombinant StI (StIr) with a mutation in the membrane binding region has been employed. In this work, it was evaluated the impact of mutating tryptophan 111 to cysteine on the toxin pore forming capability. StI W111C is still able to permeabilize erythrocytes and liposomes, but at ten-fold higher concentration than StI. This is due to its lower affinity for the membrane, which corroborates the importance of residue 111 for the binding of actinoporins to the lipid bilayer. In agreement, other functional characteristics not directly associated to the binding, are essentially the same for both variants, that is, pores have oligomeric structures with similar radii, conductance, cation-selectivity, and instantaneous current-voltage behavior. In addition, this work provides experimental evidence sustaining the toroidal protein-lipid actinoporins lytic structures, since the toxins provoke the trans-bilayer movement (flip-flop) of a pyrene-labeled analogue of phosphatidylcholine in liposomes, indicating the existence of continuity between the outer and the inner membrane leaflet. Finally, our planar lipid membranes results have also contributed to a better understanding of the actinoporin's pore assembly mechanism. After the toxin binding and the N-terminal insertion in the lipid membrane, the pore assembly occurs by passing through different transient sub-conductance states. These states, usually 3 or 4, are due to the successive incorporation of N-terminal α-helices and lipid heads to the growing pores until a stable toroidal oligomeric structure

  8. Adaptation of the Endogenous Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi clyA-Encoded Hemolysin for Antigen Export Enhances the Immunogenicity of Anthrax Protective Antigen Domain 4 Expressed by the Attenuated Live-Vector Vaccine Strain CVD 908-htrA

    PubMed Central

    Galen, James E.; Zhao, Licheng; Chinchilla, Magaly; Wang, Jin Yuan; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Green, Jeffrey; Levine, Myron M.

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial live-vector vaccines aim to deliver foreign antigens to the immune system and induce protective immune responses, and surface-expressed or secreted antigens are generally more immunogenic than cytoplasmic constructs. We hypothesize that an optimum expression system will use an endogenous export system to avoid the need for large amounts of heterologous DNA encoding additional proteins. Here we describe the cryptic chromosomally encoded 34-kDa cytolysin A hemolysin of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (ClyA) as a novel export system for the expression of heterologous antigens in the supernatant of attenuated Salmonella serovar Typhi live-vector vaccine strains. We constructed a genetic fusion of ClyA to the reporter green fluorescent protein and showed that in Salmonella serovar Typhi CVD 908-htrA, the fusion protein retains biological activity in both domains and is exported into the supernatant of an exponentially growing live vector in the absence of detectable bacterial lysis. The utility of ClyA for enhancing the immunogenicity of an otherwise problematic antigen was demonstrated by engineering ClyA fused to the domain 4 (D4) moiety of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA). A total of 11 of 15 mice immunized intranasally with Salmonella serovar Typhi exporting the protein fusion manifested fourfold or greater rises in serum anti-PA immunoglobulin G, compared with only 1 of 16 mice immunized with the live vector expressing cytoplasmic D4 (P = 0.0002). In addition, the induction of PA-specific gamma interferon and interleukin 5 responses was observed in splenocytes. This technology offers exceptional versatility for enhancing the immunogenicity of bacterial live-vector vaccines. PMID:15557633

  9. Intranasal Vaccination in Mice with an Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar 908htr A Expressing Cp15 of Cryptosporidium: Impact of Malnutrition with Preservation of Cytokine Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Roche, James K.; Rojo, Ana Lara; Costa, Lourrany B.; Smeltz, Ronald; Manque, Patricio; Woehlbier, Ute; Bartelt, Luther; Galen, James; Buck, Gregory; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite associated with acute and persistent diarrhea that, even in asymptomatic persons, can impair normal growth and potentially cognitive and physical development in young children. The recent availability of the complete gene sequence for C. hominis antigen Cp15 allows examination of innovative vaccine regimens involving intra-nasal antigen priming with live bacterial vectors applicable to human populations. We used a recently described weaned mouse model of cryptosporidiosis, where nourished and malnourished vaccinated mice receive the Cp15 antigen recombinant with cytolysin A on a Salmonella serovar Typhi CVD 908-htrA vector, followed by parenteral exposure to antigen with adjuvant. After challenge with Cryptosporidium oocysts via gavage, parameters of infection and disease (stool shedding of parasites, growth rates) were quantified, and serum/lymphoid tissue harvested to elucidate the Cp15-specific adaptive immune response. In vaccinated nourished mice, the regimen was highly immunogenic, with strong antigen-specific IL-6 and IFN-γ secretion and robust Cp15-specific immunoglobulin titers. In vaccinated malnourished mice, secretion of cytokines, particularly IFN-γ, and antigen-specific humoral immunity were generally undiminished despite protein deprivation and stunted growth. In contrast, after natural (oral) challenge with an identical inoculum of Cryptosporidium oocysts, cytokine and humoral responses to Cp15 were less than one-fourth those in vaccinated mice. Nevertheless, vaccination resulted in only transient reduction in stool shedding of parasites and was not otherwise protective against disease. Overall, immunogenicity for a C. hominis antigen was documented in mice, even in the setting of prolonged malnutrition, using an innovative vaccine regimen involving intra-nasal antigen priming with a live enteric bacterial vector, that has potential applicability to vulnerable human populations irrespective of nutritional

  10. MLST analysis reveals a highly conserved core genome among poultry isolates of Clostridium septicum.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Anthony P; Rehberger, Thomas G

    2009-06-01

    Clostridium septicum is a highly virulent, anaerobic bacterium capable of establishing necrotizing tissue infections and forming heat resistant endospores. Disease is primarily facilitated by secretion of numerous toxic products including a lethal pore-forming cytolysin. Spontaneously occurring clostridial myonecrosis involving C. septicum has recently reemerged as a concern for many poultry producers. However, despite its increasing prevalence, the epidemiology of infection and population structure of C. septicum remains largely unknown. In this study a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach was utilized to examine evolutionary relationships within a diverse collection of C. septicum isolates recovered from poultry flocks experiencing episodes of gangrenous dermatitis. The 109 isolates examined represented 42 turkey flocks and 24 different flocks of broiler chickens as well as C. septicum type strain, ATCC 12464. Isolates were recovered predominantly from gangrenous lesions although isolates from livers, gastrointestinal tracts, spleens and blood were included. The loci analyzed were csa, the major lethal toxin produced by C. septicum, and the housekeeping genes gyrA, groEL, dnaK, recA, tpi, ddl, colA and glpK. These loci were included in part because of their previous use in MLST analysis of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile. Results indicated a high level of conservation present within these housekeeping gene fragments when compared to what has been previously reported for the aforementioned clostridia. Of the 5352 bp of sequence data examined for each isolate, 99.7% (5335/5352) was absolutely conserved among the 109 isolates. Only one of the ten unique sequence types, or allelic profiles, identified among the isolates was recovered from both turkeys and broiler chickens suggesting some host species preference. Phylogenetic analyses identified two unique clusters, or clonal complexes, among these poultry isolates which may have important

  11. Human α-Defensins Inhibit Hemolysis Mediated by Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysins▿

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Robert I.; Jung, Grace; Ruchala, Piotr; Wang, Wei; Micewicz, Ewa D.; Waring, Alan J.; Gillespie, Eugene J.; Bradley, Kenneth A.; Ratner, Adam J.; Rest, Richard F.; Lu, Wuyuan

    2009-01-01

    Many pathogenic gram-positive bacteria release exotoxins that belong to the family of cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Here, we report that human α-defensins HNP-1 to HNP-3 acted in a concentration-dependent manner to protect human red blood cells from the lytic effects of three of these exotoxins: anthrolysin O (ALO), listeriolysin O, and pneumolysin. HD-5 was very effective against listeriolysin O but less effective against the other toxins. Human α-defensins HNP-4 and HD-6 and human β-defensin-1, -2, and -3 lacked protective ability. HNP-1 required intact disulfide bonds to prevent toxin-mediated hemolysis. A fully linearized analog, in which all six cysteines were replaced by aminobutyric acid (Abu) residues, showed greatly reduced binding and protection. A partially unfolded HNP-1 analog, in which only cysteines 9 and 29 were replaced by Abu residues, showed intact ALO binding but was 10-fold less potent in preventing hemolysis. Surface plasmon resonance assays revealed that HNP-1 to HNP-3 bound all three toxins at multiple sites and also that solution-phase HNP molecules could bind immobilized HNP molecules. Defensin concentrations that inhibited hemolysis by ALO and listeriolysin did not prevent these toxins from binding either to red blood cells or to cholesterol. Others have shown that HNP-1 to HNP-3 inhibit lethal toxin of Bacillus anthracis, toxin B of Clostridium difficile, diphtheria toxin, and exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa; however, this is the first time these defensins have been shown to inhibit pore-forming toxins. An “ABCDE mechanism” that can account for the ability of HNP-1 to HNP-3 to inhibit so many different exotoxins is proposed. PMID:19581399

  12. Novel haemolysins of Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar Gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ravi Kant; Singh, B R; Babu, N; Chandra, Mudit

    2005-07-01

    Haemolysins of Salmonella are important due to their probable role in pathogenesis of systemic salmonellosis and use in sub-serovar level typing. The present study was undertaken to determine haemolytic potential of Salmonella Gallinarum strains through phenotypic and genotypic methods. Amplification of haemolysin gene (clyA) and cytolysin gene (slyA) was attempted in order to determine their role in haemolysin production. Study on 94 strains of S. Gallinarum revealed the production of two types of haemolysis viz., beneath the colony haemolysis (BCH) or contact haemolysis and clear zone haemolysis (CZH). Haemolysis was observed on blood agar prepared with blood of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, horse, rabbit, guinea pig, fowl, and human blood group A, B, AB and O. Although, haemolysis was also observed on blood agar prepared with whole blood, clarity of zone was more evident on blood agar made from washed erythrocytes. Clear zone haemolysis was best observed on blood agar prepared with washed erythrocytes of goat and a total of 12% (11 of 94) S. Gallinarum strains under study produced CZH on it. The clyA gene could not be detected in any of the 94 strains under study, while slyA gene could be amplified uniformly irrespective of haemolytic potential (CZH) and haemolytic pattern (BCH) of the strains. The study suggested that the two types of haemolysis (CZH and BCH) observed among S. Gallinarum strains may not be due to either slyA or clyA gene products and thus there may be some other gene responsible for haemolytic trait in Gallinarum serovar. Different haemolytic patterns of strains under study indicated multiplicity of haemolysins in S. Gallinarum.

  13. Identification of the high affinity binding site in the Streptococcus intermedius toxin intermedilysin for its membrane receptor, the human complement regulator CD59.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Timothy R; Ross, Kirsty S; Cowan, Graeme J M; Sivasankar, Baalasubramanian; Harris, Claire L; Mitchell, Timothy J; Morgan, B Paul

    2009-04-01

    The unique species specificity of the bacterial cytolysin intermedilysin is explained by its requirement for the human complement regulator CD59 as the primary receptor. Binding studies using individual domains of intermedilysin mapped the CD59-binding site to domain 4 and swap mutants between human and rabbit (non-intermedilysin-binding) CD59 implicated a short sequence (residues 42-59) in human CD59 in binding intermedilysin. We set out to map more closely the CD59 binding site in intermedilysin. We first looked for regions of homology between domain 4 in intermedilysin and the terminal complement components that bind CD59, C8 and C9. A nine amino acid sequence immediately adjacent the undecapeptide segment in intermedilysin domain 4 matched (5 of 9 identical, 3 of 9 conserved) a sequence in C9. A peptide containing this sequence caused dose-dependent inhibition of intermedilysin-mediated lysis of human erythrocytes and rendered erythrocytes more susceptible to complement lysis. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of intermedilysin binding to immobilized CD59 revealed saturable fast-on, fast-off binding and a calculated affinity of 4.9 nM. Substitution of three residues from the putative binding site caused a 5-fold reduction in lytic potency of intermedilysin and reduced affinity for immobilized CD59 by 2.5-fold. The demonstration that a peptide modeled on the CD59-binding site inhibits intermedilysin-mediated haemolysis leads us to suggest that such peptides might be useful in treating infections caused by intermedilysin-producing bacteria.

  14. Intermedilysin is essential for the invasion of hepatoma HepG2 cells by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Sukeno, Akiko; Nagamune, Hideaki; Whiley, Robert A; Jafar, Syed I; Aduse-Opoku, Joseph; Ohkura, Kazuto; Maeda, Takuya; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kourai, Hiroki

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius causes endogenous infections leading to abscesses. This species produces intermedilysin (ILY), a human-specific cytolysin. Because of the significant correlation between higher ILY production levels by S. intermedius and deep-seated abscesses, we constructed ily knockout mutant UNS38 B3 and complementation strain UNS38 B3R1 in order to investigate the role of ILY in deep-seated infections. Strain UNS38 reduced the viability of human liver cell line HepG2 at infection but not of rat liver cell line BRL3A. Isogenic mutant strain UNS38 B3 was not cytotoxic in either cell line. Quantification of S. intermedius revealed that in infected HepG2 cells UNS38 but not UNS38 B3 increased intracellularly concomitantly with increasing cell damage. This difference between UNS38 and UNS38 B3 was not observed with UNS38 B3R1. Invasion and proliferation in BRL3A cells was not observed. Masking UNS38 or UNS38 B3R1 with ILY antibody drastically decreased adherence and invasion of HepG2. Moreover, coating strain UNS38 B3 with ILY partially restored adherence to HepG2 but without subsequent bacterial growth. At 1 day post-infection, many intact UNS38 were detected in the damaged phagosomes of HepG2 with bacterial proliferation observed in the cytoplasm of dead HepG2 after an additional 2 day incubation. These results indicate that surface-bound ILY on S. intermedius is an important factor for invasion of human cells by this bacterium and that secretion of ILY within host cells is essential for subsequent host cell death. These data strongly implicate ILY as an important factor in the pathogenesis of abscesses in vivo by this streptococcus.

  15. LacR mutations are frequently observed in Streptococcus intermedius and are responsible for increased intermedilysin production and virulence.

    PubMed

    Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Imaki, Hidenori; Masuda, Sachiko; Okamoto, Ayumi; Kim, Hyejin; Waite, Richard D; Whiley, Robert A; Kikuchi, Ken; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Tabata, Atsushi; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2013-09-01

    Streptococcus intermedius secretes a human-specific cytolysin, intermedilysin (ILY), which is considered to be the major virulence factor of this pathogen. We screened for a repressor of ily expression by using random gene disruption in a low-ILY-producing strain (PC574). Three independent high-ILY-producing colonies that had plasmid insertions within a gene that has high homology to lacR were isolated. Validation of these observations was achieved through disruption of lacR in strain PC574 with an erythromycin cassette, which also led to higher hemolytic activity, increased transcription of ily, and higher cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, compared to the parental strain. The direct binding of LacR within the ily promoter region was shown by a biotinylated DNA probe pulldown assay, and the amount of ILY secreted into the culture supernatant by PC574 cells was increased by adding lactose or galactose to the medium as a carbon source. Furthermore, we examined lacR nucleotide sequences and the hemolytic activity of 50 strains isolated from clinical infections and 7 strains isolated from dental plaque. Of the 50 strains isolated from infections, 13 showed high ILY production, 11 of these 13 strains had one or more point mutations and/or an insertion mutation in LacR, and almost all mutations were associated with a marked decline in LacR function. These results strongly suggest that mutation in lacR is required for the overproduction of ILY, which is associated with an increase in pathogenicity of S. intermedius.

  16. Intermedilysin induces EGR-1 expression through calcineurin/NFAT pathway in human cholangiocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Susilowati, Heni; Okamura, Hirohiko; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Shono, Masayuki; Yoshida, Kaya; Murakami, Keiji; Tabata, Atsushi; Nagamune, Hideaki; Haneji, Tatsuji; Miyake, Yoichiro

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} ILY leads to the accumulation of [Ca{sup 2+}]i in the nucleus in HuCCT1 cells. {yields} ILY induced activation of NFAT1 through a calcineurin-dependent pathway. {yields} Calcineuri/NFAT pathway is involved in EGR-1 expression in response to ILY treatment. -- Abstract: Intermedilysin (ILY) is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin produced by Streptococcus intermedius, which is associated with human brain and liver abscesses. Although intrahepatic bile duct cells play a valuable role in the pathogenesis of liver abscess, the molecular mechanism of ILY-treated intrahepatic bile duct cells remains unknown. In this study, we report that ILY induced a nuclear accumulation of intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]i) in human cholangiocellular cells HuCCT1. We also demonstrate that 10 ng/ml ILY induced NFAT1 dephosphorylation and its nuclear translocation in HuCCT1 cells. In contrast to the result that ILY induced NF-{kappa}B translocation in human hepatic HepG2 cells, ILY did not affect NF-{kappa}B localization in HuCCT1 cells. Dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NFAT1 caused by ILY were prevented by [Ca{sup 2+}]i calcium chelator, BAPTA/AM, and calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A and tacrolimus. ILY induced early growth response-1 (EGR-1) expression and it was inhibited by the pre-treatment with cyclosporine A, indicating that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway was involved in EGR-1 expression in response to ILY. ILY-induced calcineurin/NFAT1 activation and sequential EGR-1 expression might be related to the pathogenesis of S. intermedius in human bile duct cells.

  17. Virulence factors genes in enterococci isolated from beavers (Castor fiber).

    PubMed

    Lauková, Andrea; Strompfová, Viola; Kandričáková, Anna; Ščerbová, Jana; Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Miltko, Renata; Belzecki, Grzegorz

    2015-03-01

    Only limited information exists concerning the microbiota in beaver (Castor fiber). This study has been focused on the virulence factors genes detection in enterococci from beavers. In general, animals are not affected by enterococcal infections, but they can be a reservoir of, e.g. pathogenic strains. Moreover, detection of virulence factors genes in enterococci from beavers was never tested before. Free-living beavers (12), male and female (age 4-5 years) were caught in the north-east part of Poland. Sampling of lower gut and faeces was provided according to all ethical rules for animal handling. Samples were treated using a standard microbiological method. Pure bacterial colonies were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) identification system. Virulence factors genes-gelE (gelatinase), agg (aggregation), cylA (cytolysin A), efaAfs (adhesin Enterococcus faecalis), efaAfm (adhesin Enterococcus faecium) and esp (surface protein) were tested by PCR. Moreover, gelatinase and antibiotic phenotypes were tested. Species detected were Enterococcus thailandicus, E. faecium, E. faecalis and Enterococcus durans. In literature, enterococcal species distribution was never reported yet up to now. Strains were mostly sensitive to antibiotics. Vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis EE9Tr1 possess cylA, efaAfs, esp and gelE genes. Strains were aggregation substance genes absent. Adhesin E. faecium (efaAfm) gene was detected in two of three E. faecium strains, but it was present also in E. thailandicus. Esp gene was present in EE9Tr1 and E. durans EDTr92. The most detected were gelE, efaAfm genes; in EF 4Hc1 also gelatinase phenotype was found. Strains with virulence factors genes will be tested for their sensitivity to antimicrobial enterocins.

  18. Characterization of Multi-Drug Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Cephalic Recording Chambers in Research Macaques (Macaca spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, Francois; Trowel, Elise; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Dzink-Fox, Joanne; Gilmore, Michael S.; Fox, James G.

    2017-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance. Multi-locus sequence typing showed that most belonged to two E. faecalis sequence types (ST): ST 4 and ST 55. The genomes of three representative isolates were sequenced to identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistances and other traits. Antimicrobial resistance genes identified included aac(6’)-aph(2”), aph(3’)-III, str, ant(6)-Ia, tetM, tetS, tetL, ermB, bcrABR, cat, and dfrG, and polymorphisms in parC (S80I) and gyrA (S83I) were observed. These isolates also harbored virulence factors including the cytolysin toxin genes in ST 4 isolates, as well as multiple biofilm-associated genes (esp, agg, ace, SrtA, gelE, ebpABC), hyaluronidases (hylA, hylB), and other survival genes (ElrA, tpx). Crystal violet biofilm assays confirmed that ST 4 isolates produced more biofilm than ST 55 isolates. The abundance of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor genes in the ST 4 isolates likely relates to the loss of CRISPR-cas. This macaque colony represents a unique model for studying E. faecalis infection associated with indwelling devices, and provides an opportunity to understand the basis of persistence of this pathogen in a healthcare setting. PMID:28081148

  19. Surface properties of bacterial sulfhydryl-activated cytolytic toxins. Interaction with monomolecular films of phosphatidylcholine and various sterols.

    PubMed

    Alouf, J E; Geoffroy, C; Pattus, F; Verger, R

    1984-05-15

    Sulfhydryl-activated cytolysins are a group of bacterial protein toxins which, in the reduced state, lyse eukaryotic cells by disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane. Cell surface cholesterol is thought to be the target of the toxins. In the present work, the monolayer technique was used to investigate the interaction of four SH-activated toxins (streptolysin 0, alveolysin , perfringolysin 0, pneumolysin ) with various lipid films as a model for studying toxin-induced membrane disruption. A surface pressure increase up to very high values was elicited by reduced toxins (approximately equal to 10 nM) on films of cholesterol, other toxin-binding 3 beta-hydroxy-sterols, thiocholesterol and cholesterol-phosphatidylcholine mixtures suggesting deformation or penetration of the films. The surface-active potency of the toxins was of the same order as that of melittin and snake cardiotoxins at similar concentrations. No pressure increase was observed on films made of pure phosphatidylcholine, lanosterol and other sterols lacking the 3 beta-OH group. Optimal efficiency was at cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine molar ratio of 1 to 1. The critical pressures for toxin interaction with phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol monolayers were 25 mN X m-1 and 45 mN X m-1 respectively. Toxin interaction with phosphatidylcholine [14C]-cholesterol films did not modify monolayer radioactivity, indicating no cholesterol desorption. No pressure increase was elicited by toxins inactivated by SH-group reagents, heating or neutralization with antibody. Toxin effect was dependent temperature and pH. The overall potency of the four toxins tested was streptolysin 0 greater than alveolysin approximately equal to perfringolysin 0 greater than pneumolysin . The monolayer system mimicked in several respects toxin interaction with eukaryotic cells.

  20. Immunopathology of Brucella infection.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Pablo C; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

    2013-04-01

    In spite of the protean nature of the disease, inflammation is a hallmark of brucellosis and affected tissues usually exhibit inflammatory infiltrates. As Brucella lacks exotoxins, exoproteases or cytolysins, pathological findings in brucellosis probably arise from inflammation-driven processes. The cellular and molecular bases of immunopathological phenomena probably involved in Brucella pathogenesis have been unraveled in the last few years. Brucella-infected osteoblasts, either alone or in synergy with infected macrophages, produce cytokines, chemokines and matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs), and similar phenomena are mounted by fibroblast-like synoviocytes. The released cytokines promote the secretion of MMPs and induce osteoclastogenesis. Altogether, these phenomena may contribute to the bone loss and cartilage degradation usually observed in brucellar arthritis and osteomyelitis. Proinflammatory cytokines may be also involved in the pathogenesis of neurobrucellosis. B. abortus and its lipoproteins elicit an inflammatory response in the CNS of mice, leading to astrogliosis, a characteristic feature of neurobrucellosis. Heat-killed bacteria (HKBA) and the L-Omp19 lipoprotein elicit astrocyte apoptosis and proliferation (two features of astrogliosis), and apoptosis depends on TNF-α signaling. Brucella also infects and replicates in human endothelial cells, inducing the production of chemokines and IL-6, and an increased expression of adhesion molecules. The sustained inflammatory process derived from the longlasting infection of the endothelium may be important for the development of endocarditis. Therefore, while Brucella induces a low grade inflammation as compared to other pathogens, its prolonged intracellular persistence in infected tissues supports a long-lasting inflammatory response that mediates different pathways of tissue damage. In this context, approaches to avoid the invasion of host cells or limit the intracellular survival of the bacterium may be

  1. Reconstitution of constitutive secretion using semi-intact cells: regulation by GTP but not calcium

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Regulated exocytosis in many permeabilized cells can be triggered by calcium and nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues. Here we examine the role of these effectors in exocytosis of constitutive vesicles using a system that reconstitutes transport between the trans-Golgi region and the plasma membrane. Transport is assayed by two independent methods: the movement of a transmembrane glycoprotein (vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein [VSV G protein]) to the cell surface; and the release of a soluble marker, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, that have been synthesized and radiolabeled in the trans-Golgi. The plasma membrane of CHO cells was selectively perforated with the bacterial cytolysin streptolysin-O. These perforated cells allow exchange of ions and cytosolic proteins but retain intracellular organelles and transport vesicles. Incubation of the semi-intact cells with ATP and a cytosolic fraction results in transport of VSV G protein and GAG chains to the cell surface. The transport reaction is temperature dependent, requires hydrolyzable ATP, and is inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide. Nonhydrolyzable GTP analogs such as GTP gamma S, which stimulate the fusion of regulated secretory granules, completely abolish constitutive secretion. The rate and extent of constitutive transport between the trans-Golgi and the plasma membrane is independent of free Ca2+ concentrations. This is in marked contrast to fusion of regulated secretory granules with the plasma membrane, and transport between the ER and the cis-Golgi (Beckers, C. J. M., and W. E. Balch. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1245-1256; Baker, D., L. Wuestehube, R. Schekman, and D. Botstein. 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87:355-359). PMID:1986006

  2. Group B Streptococcus Interactions with Human Meningeal Cells and Astrocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Alkuwaity, Khalil; Taylor, Alexander; Heckels, John E.; Doran, Kelly S.; Christodoulides, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of life-threatening neonatal meningitis and survivors often suffer permanent neurological damage. How this organism interacts with the meninges and subsequently with astrocytes that constitute the underlying cortical glia limitans superficialis is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, we demonstrate dose-dependent adherence of GBS over time to human meningioma cells and fetal astrocytes in vitro, which was not influenced by expression of either β-haemolysin/cytolysin (β-h/c) toxin, different capsule serotypes or by absence of capsule (p>0.05). Internalization of GBS by both cell types was, however, a slow and an infrequent event (only 0.02–0.4% of associated bacteria were internalised by 9 h). Expression of β-h/c toxin did not play a role in invasion (p>0.05), whereas capsule expression lead to a reduction (p<0.05) in the numbers of intracellular bacteria recovered. GBS strains induced cytotoxicity as demonstrated by the measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme release by 9 h and by viable staining. Increasing levels of meningioma cell death correlated with bacterial growth and the phenotype of β-h/c toxin production, i.e. from weakly, to normo- to hyper-haemolytic. However, cytotoxicity was significantly greater (p<0.05) towards astrocytes, and infection with initial MOI≥0.003 induced 70–100% LDH release. By comparing wild-type (β-h/c+) and mutant (ΔcylE β-h/c−) strains and β-h/c toxin extracts and by using the surfactant dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine in cytotoxicity inhibition experiments, β-h/c toxin was demonstrated as principally responsible for cell death. Conclusions/Significance This study has described key events in the interactions of GBS with meningeal cells and astrocytes in vitro and a major virulence role for β-h/c toxin. Understanding the mechanisms involved will help to identify potential therapies for improving patient

  3. Super-resolution Stimulated Emission Depletion-Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy Reveals Nanoscale Membrane Reorganization Induced by Pore-Forming Proteins.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Nirod Kumar; P, Ilanila I; Ayappa, K G; Visweswariah, Sandhya S; Basu, Jaydeep Kumar

    2016-09-20

    the affinity for cholesterol in the membrane binding motifs of the LLO subdomains induce cholesterol and lipid reorganization to a greater extent in the distal (upper) leaflet when compared with the proximal (lower) leaflet. The observed length scale-dependent membrane reorganization that occurs due to invasion by LLO could be generalized to other cholesterol-dependent cytolysins and emphasizes the significant advantage of using super-resolution STED nanoscopy to unravel complex lipid-protein interactions in membrane and cellular biophysics.

  4. Old Weapons for New Wars: Bioactive Molecules From Cnidarian Internal Defense Systems.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Trapani M; Giovanna, Parisi M; Maria, Maisano; Angela, Mauceri; Matteo, Cammarata

    2016-01-01

    The renewed interest in the study of genes of immunity in Cnidaria has led to additional information to the scenario of the first stages of immunity evolution revealing the cellular processes involved in symbiosis, in the regulation of homeostasis and in the fight against infections. The recent study with new molecular and functional approach on these organisms have therefore contributed with unexpected information on the knowledge of the stages of capturing activities and defense mechanisms strongly associated with toxin production. Cnidarians are diblastic aquatic animals with radial symmetry; they represent the ancestral state of Metazoa, they are the simplest multicellular organisms that have reached the level of tissue organization.The Cnidaria phylum has evolved using biotoxins as defense or predation mechanisms for ensure survival in hostile and competitive environments such as the seas and oceans. From benthic and pelagic species a large number of toxic compounds that have been determined can have an active role in the development of various antiviral, anticancer and antibacterial functions. Although the immune defense response of these animals is scarcely known, the tissues and the mucus produced by cnidarians are involved in immune defense and contain a large variety of peptides such as sodium and potassium channel neurotoxins, cytolysins, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), acid-sensing ion channel peptide toxins (ASICs) and other toxins, classified following biochemical and pharmacological studies on the basis of functional, molecular and structural parameters. These basal metazoan in fact, are far from "simple" in the range of methods at their disposal to deal with potential prey but also invading microbes and pathogens. They could also take advantage of the multi-functionality of some of their toxins, for example, some bioactive molecules have characteristics of toxicity associated with a potential antimicrobial activity. The interest in cnidarians was not only

  5. Enhanced Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein (PfCSP) by Using Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Expressing PfCSP and a PfCSP-Encoding DNA Vaccine in a Heterologous Prime-Boost Strategy▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Chinchilla, Magaly; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Medina-Moreno, Sandra; Wang, Jin Yuan; Gomez-Duarte, Oscar G.; Stout, Rick; Levine, Myron M.; Galen, James E.

    2007-01-01

    Two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains that express and export a truncated version of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite surface protein (tCSP) fused to Salmonella serovar Typhi cytolysin A (ClyA) were constructed as a first step in the development of a preerythrocytic malaria vaccine. Synthetic codon-optimized genes (t-csp1 and t-csp2), containing immunodominant B- and T-cell epitopes present in native P. falciparum circumsporozoite surface protein (PfCSP), were fused in frame to the carboxyl terminus of the ClyA gene (clyA::t-csp) in genetically stabilized expression plasmids. Expression and export of ClyA-tCSP1 and ClyA-tCSP2 by Salmonella serovar Typhi vaccine strain CVD 908-htrA were demonstrated by immunoblotting of whole-cell lysates and culture supernatants. The immunogenicity of these constructs was evaluated using a “heterologous prime-boost” approach consisting of mucosal priming with Salmonella serovar Typhi expressing ClyA-tCSP1 and ClyA-tCSP2, followed by parenteral boosting with PfCSP DNA vaccines pVR2510 and pVR2571. Mice primed intranasally on days 0 and 28 with CVD 908-htrA(pSEC10tcsp2) and boosted intradermally on day 56 with PfCSP DNA vaccine pVR2571 induced high titers of serum NANP immunoglobulin G (IgG) (predominantly IgG2a); no serological responses to DNA vaccination were observed in the absence of Salmonella serovar Typhi-PfCSP priming. Mice primed with Salmonella serovar Typhi expressing tCSP2 and boosted with PfCSP DNA also developed high frequencies of gamma interferon-secreting cells, which surpassed those produced by PfCSP DNA in the absence of priming. A prime-boost regimen consisting of mucosal delivery of PfCSP exported from a Salmonella-based live-vector vaccine followed by a parenteral PfCSP DNA boosting is a promising strategy for the development of a live-vector-based malaria vaccine. PMID:17502396

  6. Virulence factors of Enterococcus strains isolated from patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Golińska, Edyta; Tomusiak, Anna; Gosiewski, Tomasz; Więcek, Grażyna; Machul, Agnieszka; Mikołajczyk, Diana; Bulanda, Małgorzata; Heczko, Piotr B; Strus, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the features of Enterococcus that contribute to the development and maintenance of the inflammatory process in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to assess the presence of genes that encode virulence factors [surface aggregating protein (asa1), gelatinase (gelE), cytolysin (cylA), extracellular surface protein (esp) and hyaluronidase (hyl)] in the genomic DNA of 28 strains of Enterococcus isolated from the intestinal tissues of children with IBD (n = 16) and of children without IBD (controls; n = 12). Additionally, strains with confirmed presence of the gelE gene were tested by PCR for the presence of quorum sensing genes (fsrA, fsrB, fsrC) that control the gelatinase production. Gelatinase activity was tested on agar plates containing 1.6% gelatin. We also analysed the ability of Enterococcus strains to release and decompose hydrogen peroxide (using Analytical Merckoquant peroxide test strips) and tested their ability to adhere to Caco-2 human gut epithelium cells and form biofilms in vitro. RESULTS: A comparison of the genomes of Enterococcus strains isolated from the inflamed mucosa of patients with IBD with those of the control group showed statistically significant differences in the frequency of the asa1 gene and the gelE gene. Furthermore, the cumulative occurrence of different virulence genes in the genome of a single strain of Enterococcus isolated from the IBD patient group is greater than in a strain from the control group, although no significant difference was found. Statistically significant differences in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and adherence to the Caco-2 epithelial cell line between the strains from the patient group and control group were demonstrated. The results also showed that profuse biofilm production was more frequent among Enterococcus strains isolated from children with IBD than in control strains. CONCLUSION: Enterococcus strains

  7. Involvement of two glycoside hydrolase family 19 members in colony morphotype and virulence in Flavobacterium columnare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Li, Nan; Qin, Ting; Huang, Bei; Nie, Pin

    2016-12-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the pathogenic agent of columnaris disease in aquaculture. Using a recently developed gene deletion strategy, two genes that encode the Glyco_hydro_19 domain (GH19 domain) containing proteins, ghd-1 and ghd-2, were deleted separately and together from the F. columnare G4 wild type strain. Surprisingly, the single-, Δghd-1 and Δghd-2, and double-gene mutants, Δghd-1 Δghd -2, all had rhizoid and non-rhizoid colony morphotypes, which we named Δghd-1, Δghd-2, Δghd-1 Δghd-2, and NΔghd-1, NΔghd-2, and NΔghd-1 Δghd-2. However, chitin utilization was not detected in either these mutants or in the wild type. Instead, skimmed milk degradation was observed for the mutants and the wild type; the non-rhizoid strain NΔghd-2 exhibited higher degradation activity as revealed by the larger transparent circle on the skimmed milk plate. Using zebrafish as the model organism, we found that non-rhizoid mutants had higher LD50 values and were less virulent because zebrafish infected with these survived longer. Transcriptome analysis between the non-rhizoid and rhizoid colony morphotypes of each mutant, i.e., NΔ ghd -1 versus (vs) Δghd-1, NΔghd-2 vs Δghd-2, and NΔghd-1 Δghd-2 vs Δghd-1 Δghd-2, revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes, among which 39 genes were common in three of the pairs compared. Although most of these genes encode hypothetical proteins, a few molecules such as phage tail protein, rhs element Vgr protein, thiol-activated cytolysin, and TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor precursor, expression of which was down-regulated in non-rhizoid mutants but up-regulated in rhizoid mutants, may play a role F. columnare virulence.