Powers, William J.; Zazulia, Allyson R.
SYNOPSIS Investigation of the interplay between the cerebral circulation and brain cellular function is fundamental to understanding both the pathophysiology and treatment of stroke. Currently, PET is the only technique that provides accurate, quantitative in vivo regional measurements of both cerebral circulation and cellular metabolism in human subjects. We review normal human cerebral blood flow and metabolism and human PET studies of ischemic stroke, carotid artery disease, vascular dementia, intracerebral hemorrhage and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and discuss how these studies have added to our understanding of the pathophysiology of human cerebrovascular disease. PMID:20543975
Humphreys, R. P.; Hendrick, E. B.; Hoffman, H. J.
The stroke syndrome in adults encompasses a limited number of lesions occurring over an extended age-span. In children the syndrome includes a wide variety of lesions seen in only one and one-half decades. This general review examines common aspects of the syndrome as it is seen in children. Attention is paid to cerebrovascular occlusive disease, arteriovenous malformations, intracranial aneurysms, spontaneous intracerebral hematomas and cerebrovascular complications of cardiac surgery. Conclusions are based on the authors' experience in treating patients in the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto PMID:4565135
Chu, Heling; Huang, Chuyi; Ding, Hongyan; Dong, Jing; Gao, Zidan; Yang, Xiaobo; Tang, Yuping; Dong, Qiang
Cerebrovascular diseases are conditions caused by problems with brain vasculature, which have a high morbidity and mortality. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the most abundant water channel in the brain and crucial for the formation and resolution of brain edema. Considering brain edema is an important pathophysiological change after stoke, AQP4 is destined to have close relation with cerebrovascular diseases. However, this relation is not limited to brain edema due to other biological effects elicited by AQP4. Till now, multiple studies have investigated roles of AQP4 in cerebrovascular diseases. This review focuses on expression of AQP4 and the effects of AQP4 on brain edema and neural cells injuries in cerebrovascular diseases including cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the current review, we pay more attention to the studies of recent years directly from cerebrovascular diseases animal models or patients, especially those using AQP4 gene knockout mice. This review also elucidates the potential of AQP4as an excellent therapeutic target. PMID:27529222
Walcott, Brian P; Peterson, Randall T
Perturbations in cerebral blood flow and abnormalities in blood vessel structure are the hallmarks of cerebrovascular disease. While there are many genetic and environmental factors that affect these entities through a heterogeneous group of disease processes, the ultimate final pathologic insult in humans is defined as a stroke, or damage to brain parenchyma. In the case of ischemic stroke, blood fails to reach its target destination whereas in hemorrhagic stroke, extravasation of blood occurs outside of the blood vessel lumen, resulting in direct damage to brain parenchyma. As these acute events can be neurologically devastating, if not fatal, development of novel therapeutics are urgently needed. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an attractive model for the study of cerebrovascular disease because of its morphological and physiological similarity to human cerebral vasculature, its ability to be genetically manipulated, and its fecundity allowing for large-scale, phenotype-based screens.
Cannabis is the most commonly abused illicit drug and is often considered innocuous. However, cases of acute onset neurologic dysfunction occurring in relation to cannabis use have been described and corresponding cerebral imaging studies have documented focal ischemic changes and vessel abnormalities. This article reviews all reported cases of presumed cannabis related cerebral ischemic events in the medical literature, as well as pertinent human and animal experimental studies on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects of cannabis. Cannabis use seems to have been causally related to several instances of cerebral ischemia and infarction. Proposed etiologic mechanisms have included cerebral vasospasm, cardioembolization, and systemic hypotension with impaired cerebral autoregulation, but most of the available data points to a vasospastic process. The exact relation of cannabis to cerebrovascular disease remains to be determined.
Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Mendoza, Eder; Torres-Hillera, Martin; Pinto, Neyla; Prada, Janette; Silva, Clara A; Vera, Silvia J; Castillo, Erwin; Valderrama, Vladimir; Prada, Didier G; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Garcia, Ingrid
Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a common cause of cardiopathy in South America leading it eventually to an established stroke; however, the association between T. cruzi infection itself and cerebrovascular disease is still unknown. We did a case-control study at Eastern Colombia and found that T. cruzi infection was more frequent and statistically significant in stroke cases (24.4%) than controls (1.9%), (Chi square: 21.72; OR: 16.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.64-71.4; p<0.00001). After removing the seropositive patients with cardiological abnormalities, the significance still remained by multivariate analysis (p<0.05). This is the first case-control study that demonstrated a significant link between this infection and symptomatic cerebrovascular disease, mainly ischemic, regardless of cardiac abnormalities. Therefore, we recommend that patients with stroke must be screened for T. cruzi infection if they currently live or have lived in places where this parasite is considered endemic.
Colombo, Gianluca; Merico, Daniele; Boncoraglio, Giorgio; De Paoli, Flavio; Ellul, John; Frisoni, Giuseppe; Nagy, Zoltan; van der Lugt, Aad; Vassányi, István; Antoniotti, Marco
The NEUROWEB project supports cerebrovascular researchers' association studies, intended as the search for statistical correlations between a feature (e.g., a genotype) and a phenotype. In this project the phenotype refers to the patients' pathological state, and thus it is formulated on the basis of the clinical data collected during the diagnostic activity. In order to enhance the statistical robustness of the association inquiries, the project involves four European Union clinical institutions. Each institution provides its proprietary repository, storing patients' data. Although all sites comply with common diagnostic guidelines, they also adopt specific protocols, resulting in partially discrepant repository contents. Therefore, in order to effectively exploit NEUROWEB data for association studies, it is necessary to provide a framework for the phenotype formulation, grounded on the clinical repository content which explicitly addresses the inherent integration problem. To that end, we developed an ontological model for cerebrovascular phenotypes, the NEUROWEB Reference Ontology, composed of three layers. The top-layer (Top Phenotypes) is an expert-based cerebrovascular disease taxonomy. The middle-layer deconstructs the Top Phenotypes into more elementary phenotypes (Low Phenotypes) and general-use medical concepts such as anatomical parts and topological concepts. The bottom-layer (Core Data Set, or CDS) comprises the clinical indicators required for cerebrovascular disorder diagnosis. Low Phenotypes are connected to the bottom-layer (CDS) by specifying what combination of CDS values is required for their existence. Finally, CDS elements are mapped to the local repositories of clinical data. The NEUROWEB system exploits the Reference Ontology to query the different repositories and to retrieve patients characterized by a common phenotype. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abate, G; Berenga, A; Caione, F; Capodaglio, M; Cuzzupoli, M; Guido, A; Forestiero, G; Guizzardi, G; Mancini, G; Viscanti, G
One hundred and forty-five elderly patients affected by cerebrovascular diseases were included in the study. Patients were divided into two age-, sex- and clinically matched groups: the first group included 103 patients who were treated for six months with mesoglycan (100 mg/day), whereas the second group, which numbered 42 patients, received standard anti-platelet treatment over the same period. The results of the study confirm the clinical efficacy of mesoglycan compared to standard treatment with antiplatelet drugs in terms of ischemic events and the "quality of life" of cerebrovasculopathic patients.
Gutierrez, Jose; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Cheung, Ken; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B
To assess whether pulse pressure (PP) is associated, independently of mean arterial pressure (MAP), with perivascular spaces (PVS), lacunar lesions presumably ischemic (LPI), and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) seen on brain MRI. Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study had their blood pressure (BP) taken during their baseline enrollment visit and again during a visit for a brain MRI a mean of 7 years later. We assessed small and large PVS, lacunar LPI, and WMHV on MRI. We examined the association of SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP at baseline with subclinical markers of cerebrovascular disease using generalized linear models and adjusting for vascular risk factors. Imaging and BP data were available for 1009 participants (mean age 68 ± 8 years, 60% women, 60% Hispanic). DBP was associated with lacunar LPI and WMHV, whereas SBP was associated with small and large PVS. Using MAP and PP together disclosed that the effect size for PP was greater for large PVS, whereas the effect of MAP was greater for lacunar LPI and WMHV. The effects of DBP were flat or negative at any degree of SBP higher than 120 mmHg for small and large PVS, whereas a positive association was noted for lacunar LPI and WMHV with any DBP increase over any degree of SBP. We report here a segregated association between the pulsatile and steady components of the BP with subclinical markers of cerebrovascular disease. These differential associations may reflect the underlying disease of these biomarkers.
Mehanna, Raja; Jankovic, Joseph
Movement disorders can occur as primary (idiopathic) or genetic disease, as a manifestation of an underlying neurodegenerative disorder, or secondary to a wide range of neurological or systemic diseases. Cerebrovascular diseases represent up to 22% of secondary movement disorders, and involuntary movements develop after 1-4% of strokes. Post-stroke movement disorders can manifest in parkinsonism or a wide range of hyperkinetic movement disorders including chorea, ballism, athetosis, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, stereotypies, and akathisia. Some of these disorders occur immediately after acute stroke, whereas others can develop later, and yet others represent delayed-onset progressive movement disorders. These movement disorders have been encountered in patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes, subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformations, and dural arteriovenous fistula affecting the basal ganglia, their connections, or both.
Rolfs, Arndt; Fazekas, Franz; Grittner, Ulrike; Dichgans, Martin; Martus, Peter; Holzhausen, Martin; Böttcher, Tobias; Heuschmann, Peter U; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Tanislav, Christian; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Putaala, Jukaa; Huber, Roman; Bodechtel, Ulf; Lichy, Christoph; Enzinger, Christian; Schmidt, Reinhold; Hennerici, Michael G; Kaps, Manfred; Kessler, Christof; Lackner, Karl; Paschke, Eduard; Meyer, Wolfgang; Mascher, Hermann; Riess, Olaf; Kolodny, Edwin; Norrving, Bo
Strokes have especially devastating implications if they occur early in life; however, only limited information exists on the characteristics of acute cerebrovascular disease in young adults. Although risk factors and manifestation of atherosclerosis are commonly associated with stroke in the elderly, recent data suggests different causes for stroke in the young. We initiated the prospective, multinational European study Stroke in Young Fabry Patients (sifap) to characterize a cohort of young stroke patients. Overall, 5023 patients aged 18 to 55 years with the diagnosis of ischemic stroke (3396), hemorrhagic stroke (271), transient ischemic attack (1071) were enrolled in 15 European countries and 47 centers between April 2007 and January 2010 undergoing a detailed, standardized, clinical, laboratory, and radiological protocol. Median age in the overall cohort was 46 years. Definite Fabry disease was diagnosed in 0.5% (95% confidence interval, 0.4%-0.8%; n=27) of all patients; and probable Fabry disease in additional 18 patients. Males dominated the study population (2962/59%) whereas females outnumbered men (65.3%) among the youngest patients (18-24 years). About 80.5% of the patients had a first stroke. Silent infarcts on magnetic resonance imaging were seen in 20% of patients with a first-ever stroke, and in 11.4% of patients with transient ischemic attack and no history of a previous cerebrovascular event. The most common causes of ischemic stroke were large artery atherosclerosis (18.6%) and dissection (9.9%). Definite Fabry disease occurs in 0.5% and probable Fabry disease in further 0.4% of young stroke patients. Silent infarcts, white matter intensities, and classical risk factors were highly prevalent, emphasizing the need for new early preventive strategies. Clinical Trial Registration Information- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.Unique identifier: NCT00414583.
Korada, Sai Krishna; Zhao, Di; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Guallar, Eliseo; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Alonso, Alvaro; Sharrett, A. Richey; Post, Wendy S.; Reis, Jared P.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Michos, Erin D.
Background Elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels have been associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and events. We hypothesized that elevated PTH would also be associated with subclinical cerebrovascular disease. We examined the relationship of elevated PTH with white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and subclinical infarcts measured on brain MRI. Methods PTH was measured at baseline (1993–1994) among participants free of prior clinical stroke who underwent a brain MRI at baseline (n=1703) and a second brain MRI 10 years later (n=948). PTH levels ≥65 pg/ml were considered elevated (n=204). Participants who did not return for a follow-up MRI had, at baseline, higher PTH and a greater prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (p<0.05 for all); therefore multiple imputation was used. The cross-sectional and prospective associations of PTH levels with WMH and MRI-defined infarcts (and their progression) were investigated using multivariable regression models. Results At baseline, participants were mean age of 62 years, 60% female and 49% black. Cross-sectionally, after adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors, elevated PTH was associated with higher WMH score [β=0.19, 95%CI 0.04–0.35] and increased odds of prevalent infarcts [OR 1.56,1.02–2.36]. Results were attenuated after adjustment for potential mediators of this association (i.e. hypertension). No prospective associations were found between PTH and incident infarcts or change in estimated WMH volume, although estimates were imprecise. Conclusions Although associated cross-sectionally, we did not confirm any association of elevated PTH with progression of cerebrovascular changes on brain MRIs obtained 10 years apart. The relationship of PTH with subclinical brain disease warrants further study. PMID:26825350
Rocha, M S; Brucki, S M; Ferraz, A C; Piccolo, A C
We report three cases of stroke secondary to neurocysticercosis. The first one is a 36 years old man with bilateral middle cerebral artery occlusions who had presented acute right hemiparesia and aphasia. MRI demonstrated several enhancing subarachnoid cysts surrounding the occluded vessels, a right parietal racemose cyst and a left temporal large infarction area. Angiographic study showed total occlusion of left middle cerebral artery and a subtotal occlusion of right middle cerebral artery. The second one is a 42 years old man with vasculitis of small cortical vessels who presented with headache, seizures and focal neurological deficit. CT scan demonstrated several calcifications and a left temporal infarction area. Cerebral angiographic study was normal. The third case was a woman, 53 years old, with a past history of six stroke events and an actual behavior disturbance and seizures. MRI demonstrated several cortical and subcortical infarction areas and cisternal cysts. Angiographic study showed diffuse arteritis of basilar and carotid arterial system. In all three cases CSF study showed linfomonocitic pleocytosis and positive ELISA for cysticercosis.
Björ, Ove; Jonsson, Håkan; Damber, Lena; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr
A cohort study that examined iron ore mining found negative associations between cumulative working time employed underground and several outcomes, including mortality of cerebrovascular diseases. In this cohort study, and using the same group of miners, we examined whether work in an outdoor environment could explain elevated cerebrovascular disease rates. This study was based on a Swedish iron ore mining cohort consisting of 13,000 workers. Poisson regression models were used to generate smoothed estimates of standardized mortality ratios and adjusted rate ratios, both models by cumulative exposure time in outdoor work. The adjusted rate ratio between employment classified as outdoor work ≥25 years and outdoor work 0-4 years was 1.62 (95 % CI 1.07-2.42). The subgroup underground work ≥15 years deviated most in occurrence of cerebrovascular disease mortality compared with the external reference population: SMR (0.70 (95 % CI 0.56-0.85)). Employment in outdoor environments was associated with elevated rates of cerebrovascular disease mortality. In contrast, work in tempered underground employment was associated with a protecting effect.
Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Rundek, Tatjana; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R
Silent brain infarcts (SBIs) and white matter hyperintensities are subclinical cerebrovascular lesions associated with incident stroke and cognitive decline. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a predictor of stroke in patients with heart failure, but its association with subclinical brain disease in the general population is unknown. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) can detect subclinical cardiac dysfunction even when LVEF is normal. We investigated the relationship of LVEF and GLS with subclinical brain disease in a community-based cohort. LVEF and GLS were assessed by 2-dimensional and speckle-tracking echocardiography in 439 participants free of stroke and cardiac disease from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study. SBIs and white matter hyperintensities were assessed by brain MRI. Mean age of the study population was 69±10 years, 61% were women, LVEF was 63.8±6.4%, GLS was -17.1±3.0%. SBIs were detected in 53 participants (12%), white matter hyperintensity volume was 0.63±0.86%. GLS was significantly lower in participants with SBI versus those without (-15.7±3.5% versus -17.3±2.9%, P<0.01), whereas no difference in LVEF was observed (63.3±8.6% versus 63.8±6.0%, P=0.60). In multivariate analysis, lower GLS was associated with SBI (odds ratio/unit decrease=1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.33; P<0.01), whereas LVEF was not (odds ratio/unit increase=1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.05; P=0.98). Lower GLS was associated with greater white matter hyperintensity volume (adjusted β=0.11, P<0.05), unlike LVEF (adjusted β=-0.04, P=0.42). Lower GLS was independently associated with subclinical brain disease in a community-based cohort without overt cardiac disease. GLS can provide additional information on cerebrovascular risk burden beyond LVEF assessment.
Fan, Z; Li, F; Wang, Z; Huang, Z; Yi, Y; Zhang, Z; Yang, Z; Zhang, H; Ma, Y; Zen, X
The relationship between the mortality of cerebro-vascular diseases and farmer smokers in Shifang County was studied. The results indicated that the mortality of cerebro-vascular diseases in the male groups of cigarette-smokers older than 65 and cigar-smokers older than 55 was significantly higher than that of the nonsmokers (P < 0.05), the RR being 1.68-3.22. Also, the mortality in the female groups of cigarette-smokers older than 55 and cigar-smokers older than 65 was significantly higher than that of the non-smokers (P < 0.05), the RR being 1.99-3.19. The sex-specific mortalities of the other age groups revealed no significant differences in spite of some inequalities in smoking (P < 0.05). Age should be one of the risk factors for the death of cerebro-vascular diseases regardless of the sex. The mortality rose with the increasing accumulated amount of smoking. The relationship was not significant between the mortality of cerebro-vascular diseases and short-term smokers with small dose (P > 0.05). However, when the accumulated amount reached certain degree, i.e. the smoker consumed cigar more than 270 kg or consumed cigarette more than 10,000 packs, the relationship between the behavior of cigar-smoking and cigarette-smoking and the mortality became apparent, the RR being 2.53-3.91 (P < 0.01).
Fujino, Yoshihisa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko
This study prospectively examined the association between perceived noise exposure at work and cerebrovascular diseases among Japanese male workers. A baseline survey was conducted between 1988 and 1990, which involved 110,792 inhabitants (age range: 40-79 yr) from 45 areas throughout Japan. Subsequent causes of death were identified from death certificates. The analysis was restricted to 14,568 men free of a cerebrovascular diseases (age range: 40-59 yr) who were in work at the time of the baseline survey. All subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire at the baseline. This included a question regarding perceived noise exposure at work. The Cox proportional-hazards model was used to estimate the risks of perceived noise exposure for death due to cerebrovascular diseases. The model included age, smoking, alcohol consumption, educational level, perceived mental stress, past medical history, body mass index, hours of walking, hours of exercise, shift work, and job type. During the 190,777 person-years of follow-up, a total of 1,064 deaths were recorded, 98 from cerebrovascular diseases, 27 deaths from subarachnoid haemorrhage, 35 deaths from intracerebral haemorrhage, and 25 deaths from cerebral infarction. Noise exposure did not increase the risk of cerebrovascular diseases, subarachnoid haemorrhage, or cerebral infarction. However, perceived noise exposure increased the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage diseases (hazard ratio (HR)=2.38, 95%CI: 1.20, 4.71, p=0.013). Furthermore, individuals with hypertension were highly susceptible to the effect of perceived noise exposure on the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage, but this association was not observed among the subjects without hypertension. Although the underlying mechanisms are not clear, hypertensive individuals with perceived noise exposure at work should be regarded as a high-risk group for intracerebral hemorrhage.
Willey, Joshua Z; Gardener, Hannah; Moon, Yeseon P; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Wright, Clinton B
Subclinical cerebrovascular disease has been associated with multiple adverse events related to aging, including stroke and dementia. The modifiable risk factors for subclinical cerebrovascular disease beyond hypertension have not been well characterized. Our objective was to examine the association between baseline, and changes over time, in lipid profile components and subclinical cerebrovascular disease on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fasting plasma lipids were collected on participants in the Northern Manhattan Study, a prospective cohort study examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a multiethnic elderly urban-dwelling population. A subsample of the cohort underwent brain MRI between 2003 and 2008 (a median of 6.2 years, range = 0-14, after enrollment), when repeat fasting lipids were obtained. We used lipid profile components at the time of initial enrollment (n = 1,256 with lipids available) as categorical variables, as well as change in clinical categories over the two measures (n = 1,029). The main outcome measures were (1) total white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) using linear regression and (2) silent brain infarcts (SBI) using logistic regression. None of the plasma lipid profile components at the time of enrollment were associated with WMHV. The association between baseline lipids and WMHV was, however, modified by apolipoprotein E (apoE) status (χ(2) with 2 degrees of freedom, p = 0.03), such that among apoE4 carriers those with total cholesterol (TC) ≥200 mg/dl had a trend towards smaller WMHV than those with TC <200 mg/dl (difference in logWMHV -0.19, p = 0.07), while there was no difference among apoE3 carriers. When examining the association between WMHV and change in lipid profile components we noted an association with change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, >50 mg/dl for women, >40 mg/dl for men) and TC. A transition from low-risk HDL-C (>50 mg/dl for women, >40 mg/dl for men) at baseline to high
Willey, Joshua Z.; Gardener, Hannah; Moon, Yeseon P.; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Sacco, Ralph L.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Wright, Clinton B.
Background Subclinical cerebrovascular disease has been associated with multiple adverse events related to aging, including stroke and dementia. The modifiable risk factors for subclinical cerebrovascular disease beyond hypertension have not been well characterized. Our objective was to examine the association between baseline, and changes over time, in lipid profile components and subclinical cerebrovascular disease on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Fasting plasma lipids were collected on participants in the Northern Manhattan Study, a prospective cohort study examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a multi-ethnic elderly urban dwelling population. A subsample of the cohort underwent brain MRI between 2003 and 2008 (a median of 6.2 (range=0–14) years after enrollment, when repeat fasting lipids were obtained. We used lipid profile components at the time of initial enrollment (n=1256 with lipids available) as categorical variables, as well as change in clinical categories over the 2 measures (n=1029). The main outcome measures were (1)total white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) using linear regression, and (2)silent brain infarcts (SBI) using logistic regression. Results None of the plasma lipid profile components at the time of enrollment were associated with WMHV. The association between baseline lipids and WMHV was however modified by apoE status (chi-squared with 2 degrees of freedom, p=0.03), such that among apoE4 carriers those with total cholesterol (TC) ≥200mg/dl had a trend towards smaller WMHV than those with TC<200mg/dl (difference in log WMHV − 0.19, p=0.07) while there was no difference among apoE3 carriers. When examining the association between WMHV and change in lipid profile components we noted an association with change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)(>50 mg/dl for women,>40 mg/dl for men) and TC. A transition from low risk high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)(>50 mg/dl for women,>40 mg
Jing, J.; Wang, Y. C.; Hong, W. X.; Zhang, W. P.
Cerebrovascular Disease (CVD) is also called stroke in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). CVD is a kind of frequent diseases with high incidence, high death rate, high deformity rate and high relapse rate. The pathogenesis of CVD has relation to many factors. In modern medicine, we can make use of various instruments to check many biochemical parameters. However, at present, the early detection of CVD can mostly be done artificially by specialists. In TCM the salted expert can detect the state of a CVD patient by felling his (or her) pulse. It is significant to apply the modern information and engineering techniques to the early discovery of CVD. It is also a challenge to do this in fact. In this paper, the authors presented a detection method of CVD basing on analysis and pattern recognition of Manifestation of the Pulse of TCM using wavelet technology and Neural Networks. Pulse signals from normal health persons and CVD patients were studied comparatively. This research method is flexible to deal with other physiological signals.
Zuckerman, Scott L; Seder, David B; Tsujiura, Crystiana; Cushing, Deborah; Gallup, Holly; Mocco, J; Hanel, Richard A; Ecker, Robert D
Summary Aspirin (ASA) is the mainstay of treatment in cerebrovascular and systemic vascular disease. ASA hypersensitivity can pose a challenge to achieving optimum medical management prior to and after neurointerventional treatment. Desensitization to ASA is well described in the allergy and cardiovascular literature, but there are no similar discussions specific to neurointervention. The purpose of our study was to describe our experience with ASA hypersensitivity management and review the relevant literature. Two cases of patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease requiring neurointervention who were successfully desensitized to their ASA hypersensitivity prior to treatment are described. The subsequent literature is reviewed. Several ASA desensitization protocols exist and have been proven to successfully treat ASA hypersensitivity and allow for ASA therapy to be safely initiated. We describe several previously published protocols. ASA desensitization is a safe and simple way to manage ASA hypersensitivity. We provide comprehensive management guidelines for the neurointerventionalist engaging in ASA desensitization. PMID:24556294
Sayama, I; Fukasawa, H; Yasui, N; Suzuki, A
A 53-year-old, non-hypertensive farmer, who had sudden attack of severe headache, was transferred to our clinic. He presented comatous state and tetraparesis without extraocular movements nor reactive pupils to light. CT scan, 7 hours after the ictus showed intracerebral hematoma in the right temporo-parietal region with ventricular extension. The following bilateral carotid angiograms established the diagnosis of the intracerebral hemorrhage due to cerebrovascular moyamoya disease. In angiograms of the affected side, irregular spotty stains spread from the periphei of the right posterior choroidal artery was delineated. The repeated CT scan after that indicated increment of hematoma. Fifty-three hours from the ictus, the patient died and an autopsy study was performed. After the fixation, the coronal brain section was made, and the careful observation of them elucidated the formation of an organized dissecting aneurysm in the angiographically extravasated vessel. About seven hundreds of serial specimen, 4 micron in thickness, was then investigated adjacent to the aneurysm. The organized dissecting aneurysm seemed to initiate from the branch of it, where marked fraying and undulation of the fibroelastic intima and internal elastic laminae were observed. The concavity toward the true lumen was completely disrupted and communicated to the extravascular space. As a result, the continuous part of it obstructed the lumen of the branch. These findings suggested the newly-developed dissection and it seemed to correspond to the angiographical extravasated points.
Molina Rueda, F; Rivas Montero, F M; Pérez de Heredia Torres, M; Alguacil Diego, I M; Molero Sánchez, A; Miangolarra Page, J C
As a result of neurophysiological injury, stroke patients have mobility limitations, mainly on the side of the body contralateral to the lesioned hemisphere. The purpose of this study is to quantify motor compensation strategies in stroke patients during the activity of drinking water from a glass. Four male patient with cerebrovascular disease and four right-handed, healthy male control subjects. The motion analysis was conducted using the Vicon Motion System(®) and surface electromyography equipment ZeroWire Aurion(®). We analysed elbow, shoulder and trunk joint movements and performed a qualitative analysis of the sequence of muscle activation. Trunk, shoulder and elbow movements measured in the stroke patient along the sagittal plane decreased during the drinking from a glass activity, while the movements in the shoulder in the coronal plane and trunk increased. As for the sequence of muscle activation, anterior, middle and posterior deltoid all contracted in the patient group during the task, while the upper trapezius activation remained throughout the activity. Quantitative analysis of movement provides quantitative information on compensation strategies used by stroke patients, and is therefore, clinically relevant. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked. PMID:25401133
Nakanishi, Koki; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Rundek, Tatjana; Tugcu, Aylin; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R
Although abnormal left ventricular geometric patterns have prognostic value for morbidity and mortality, their possible association with silent cerebrovascular disease has not been extensively evaluated. We examined 665 participants in the CABL study who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were divided into 4 geometric patterns: normal geometry (n=397), concentric remodeling (n=89), eccentric hypertrophy (n=126), and concentric hypertrophy (n=53). Subclinical cerebrovascular disease was defined as silent brain infarcts (SBIs) and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV; expressed as log-transformed percentage of the total cranial volume). Silent brain infarcts were observed in 94 participants (14%). Mean log-WMHV was -0.97±0.93. Concentric hypertrophy carried the greatest risk for both SBI (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.39, P<.001) and upper quartile of log-WMHV (adjusted OR 3.35, P<.001), followed by eccentric hypertrophy (adjusted ORs 2.52 [P=.001 for SBI] and 1.96 [P=.004] for log-WMHV). Concentric remodeling was not associated with subclinical brain disease. In subgroup analyses, concentric and eccentric hypertrophies were significantly associated with SBI and WMHV in both genders and nonobese participants, but differed for SBI by age (all ages for eccentric hypertrophy, only patients ≥70years for concentric hypertrophy) and by race-ethnicity (Hispanics for eccentric hypertrophy, blacks for concentric hypertrophy; no association in whites). Left ventricular hypertrophy, with both eccentric and concentric patterns, was significantly associated with subclinical cerebrovascular disease in a multiethnic stroke-free general population. Left ventricular geometric patterns may carry different risks for silent cerebrovascular disease in different sex, age, race-ethnic, and body size subgroups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kulick, Erin R; Wellenius, Gregory A; Kaufman, Joel D; DeRosa, Janet T; Kinney, Patrick L; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S
Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. We hypothesized that long-term exposure to air pollution would be associated with magnetic resonance imaging markers of subclinical cerebrovascular disease. Participants were 1075 stroke-free individuals aged ≥50 years drawn from the magnetic resonance imaging subcohort of the Northern Manhattan Study who had lived at the same residence for at least 2 years before magnetic resonance imaging. Cross-sectional associations between ambient air pollution and subclinical cerebrovascular disease were analyzed. We found an association between distance to roadway, a proxy for residential exposure to traffic pollution, and white matter hyperintensity volume; however, after adjusting for risk factors, this relationship was no longer present. All other associations between pollutant measures and white matter hyperintensity volume were null. There was no clear association between exposure to air pollutants and subclinical brain infarcts or total cerebral brain volume. We found no evidence that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is independently associated with subclinical cerebrovascular disease in an urban population-based cohort. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Cai, Zhiyou; Zhao, Bin; Deng, Yanqing; Shangguan, Shouqin; Zhou, Faming; Zhou, Wenqing; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Yanfeng; Chen, Guanghui
The Notch signaling pathway is a crucial regulator of numerous fundamental cellular processes. Increasing evidence suggests that Notch signaling is involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, and thus in the progress of cerebrovascular diseases. In addition, Notch signaling in cerebrovascular diseases is associated with apoptosis, angiogenesis and the function of blood-brain barrier. Despite the contradictory results obtained to date as to whether Notch signaling is harmful or beneficial, the regulation of Notch signaling may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:27574001
Kraft, Peter; Drechsler, Christiane; Gunreben, Ignaz; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Stoll, Guido; Heuschmann, Peter Ulrich; Kleinschnitz, Christoph
Background and Purpose In animal models, von Willebrand factor (VWF) is involved in thrombus formation and propagation of ischemic stroke. However, the pathophysiological relevance of this molecule in humans, and its potential use as a biomarker for the risk and severity of ischemic stroke remains unclear. This study had two aims: to identify predictors of altered VWF levels and to examine whether VWF levels differ between acute cerebrovascular events and chronic cerebrovascular disease (CCD). Methods A case–control study was undertaken between 2010 and 2013 at our University clinic. In total, 116 patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transitory ischemic attack (TIA), 117 patients with CCD, and 104 healthy volunteers (HV) were included. Blood was taken at days 0, 1, and 3 in patients with AIS or TIA, and once in CCD patients and HV. VWF serum levels were measured and correlated with demographic and clinical parameters by multivariate linear regression and ANOVA. Results Patients with CCD (158±46%) had significantly higher VWF levels than HV (113±36%, P<0.001), but lower levels than AIS/TIA patients (200±95%, P<0.001). Age, sex, and stroke severity influenced VWF levels (P<0.05). Conclusions VWF levels differed across disease subtypes and patient characteristics. Our study confirms increased VWF levels as a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and, moreover, suggests that it may represent a potential biomarker for stroke severity, warranting further investigation. PMID:24937073
Saito, Satoshi; Ihara, Masafumi
Epidemiological investigations have proposed strict control of vascular risk factors as a strategy to overcome dementia, because of the close interaction between cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease. In light of recent advances in basic, translational, and clinical research in the area, this review focuses on the significance of CVD in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Alzheimer's disease and CVD share several risk factors, and the coexistence of both pathologies is frequently noted. CVD and subsequent cerebral blood flow reduction would increase amyloid β (Aβ) production by modulating β and γ-secretase. Furthermore, CVD impairs Aβ clearance, which is mainly driven by vascular mediated systems, including active transport across the blood-brain barrier, and perivascular lymphatic/paravascular glymphatic drainage systems. Thus, CVD may disturb homeostasis between Aβ production and clearance, thereby aggravating Alzheimer's disease. Recent translational researches in this field aim to facilitate Aβ clearance. Several candidate drugs are being tested in clinical trials. Compared with Aβ pathology, little is known about the relationship between tau pathology and CVD, although some studies have shown that CVD has an influence on tau pathology. The close interrelationship between Alzheimer's disease and CVD suggests the necessity of the maintenance of cerebrovascular integrity, which may herald a new generation of dementia treatment strategies.
Rokey, R.; Rolak, L.A.; Harati, Y.; Kutka, N.; Verani, M.S.
Coronary artery disease is the cause of death in most patients who have transient ischemic attacks or stroke. Evaluation for this condition is not routinely performed in such patients, and no prospective studies have been reported. We prospectively examined 50 consecutive patients with transient ischemic attacks or mild stroke to determine the prevalence and importance of coronary artery disease. All patients were examined by a cardiologist and underwent both exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy and exercise radionuclide ventriculography. Sixteen patients were suspected to have coronary artery disease on the basis of clinical evaluation. In 15 of these the was confirmed by the nuclear scans. The remaining 34 patients had no clinical evidence of heart disease, yet 14 had abnormal cardiac scans. Twenty of 22 patients with abnormal scans who underwent cardiac catheterization had significant coronary artery disease or a cardiomyopathy. The discovery of heart disease altered clinical management in 13 patients. Overall, 29 of 50 patients had significant coronary artery disease, compared with a 7% prevalence of the condition in other patients of similar age at the same institution.
Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu
Long-term studies demonstrating the effect of pioglitazone use on primary prevention of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus are lacking. This study investigated the relationship between pioglitazone use and first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in Taiwan.We conducted a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 2359 type 2 diabetic subjects aged ≥65 years with newly diagnosed ischemic cerebrovascular disease from 2005 to 2011 as the case group and 4592 sex- and age-matched, randomly selected type 2 diabetic subjects aged ≥65 years without ischemic cerebrovascular disease as the control group. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of ischemic cerebrovascular disease associated with pioglitazone use was measured by the multivariable unconditional logistic regression model.After adjustment for confounding factors, the multivariable logistic regression analysis disclosed that the adjusted ORs of first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease associated with cumulative duration of using pioglitazone were 3.34 for <1 year (95% CI 2.59-4.31), 2.53 for 1 to 2 years (95% CI 1.56-4.10), 2.20 for 2 to 3 years (95% CI 1.05-4.64), and 1.09 for ≥3 years (95% CI 0.55-2.15), respectively.Our findings suggest that pioglitazone use does not have a protective effect on primary prevention for ischemic cerebrovascular disease among older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus during the first 3 years of use. Whether using pioglitazone for >3 years would have primary prevention for ischemic cerebrovascular disease needs a long-term research to prove.
Toledo, Jon B; Arnold, Steven E; Raible, Kevin; Brettschneider, Johannes; Xie, Sharon X; Grossman, Murray; Monsell, Sarah E; Kukull, Walter A; Trojanowski, John Q
Cerebrovascular disease and vascular risk factors are associated with Alzheimer's disease, but the evidence for their association with other neurodegenerative disorders is limited. Therefore, we compared the prevalence of cerebrovascular disease, vascular pathology and vascular risk factors in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases and correlate them with dementia severity. Presence of cerebrovascular disease, vascular pathology and vascular risk factors was studied in 5715 cases of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Centre database with a single neurodegenerative disease diagnosis (Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration due to tau, and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 immunoreactive deposits, α-synucleinopathies, hippocampal sclerosis and prion disease) based on a neuropathological examination with or without cerebrovascular disease, defined neuropathologically. In addition, 210 'unremarkable brain' cases without cognitive impairment, and 280 cases with pure cerebrovascular disease were included for comparison. Cases with cerebrovascular disease were older than those without cerebrovascular disease in all the groups except for those with hippocampal sclerosis. After controlling for age and gender as fixed effects and centre as a random effect, we observed that α-synucleinopathies, frontotemporal lobar degeneration due to tau and TAR DNA-binding protein 43, and prion disease showed a lower prevalence of coincident cerebrovascular disease than patients with Alzheimer's disease, and this was more significant in younger subjects. When cerebrovascular disease was also present, patients with Alzheimer's disease and patients with α-synucleinopathy showed relatively lower burdens of their respective lesions than those without cerebrovascular disease in the context of comparable severity of dementia at time of death. Concurrent cerebrovascular disease is a common neuropathological finding in aged subjects with dementia, is more common in Alzheimer
Morris, B; Partap, S; Yeom, K; Gibbs, I C.; Fisher, P G.; King, A A.
Background: Curative therapy for childhood cancer has dramatically improved over past decades. Therapeutic radiation has been instrumental in this success. Unfortunately, irradiation is associated with untoward effects, including stroke and other cerebrovascular disease (CVD). The Children’s Oncology Group (COG) has developed guidelines for screening survivors at risk for persistent or late sequelae of cancer therapy. Objectives: This review summarizes the pathophysiology and relevant manifestations of radiation-induced CVD and outlines the specific patient groups at risk for early-onset stroke. The reader will be alerted to the availability of the COG recommendations for monitoring, and, when applicable, specific screening and treatment recommendations will be highlighted. Methods: A multidisciplinary task force critically reviewed the existing literature and scored the evidence to establish the current COG guidelines for monitoring health of survivors treated with head and neck irradiation. Results: Previous head and neck exposure to therapeutic radiation is associated with latent CVD and increased risk for stroke in some patient groups. Common manifestations of radiation-induced CVD includes steno-occlusive disease, moyamoya, aneurysm, mineralizing microangiopathy, vascular malformations, and strokelike migraines. Conclusion: Risk for stroke is increased in survivors of pediatric CNS tumors, Hodgkin lymphoma, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia who received radiation to the brain and/or neck. As the population of survivors ages, vigilance for stroke and cerebrovascular disease needs to continue based on specific exposures during curative cancer therapy. GLOSSARY ALL = acute lymphoblastic leukemia; CCSS = Childhood Cancer Survivor Study; CI = confidence interval; COG = Children’s Oncology Group; CVD = cerebrovascular disease; NF1 = neurofibromatosis type I; RT = radiation therapy. PMID:19812380
Catalá-López, Ferrán; Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Díaz-Guzmán, Jaime; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard
The aim of the present study was to determine the national burden of cerebrovascular diseases in the adult population of Spain. Cross-sectional, descriptive population-based study. We calculated the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) metric using country-specific data from national statistics and epidemiological studies to obtain representative outcomes for the Spanish population. DALYs were divided into years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were estimated for the year 2008 by applying demographic structure by sex and age-groups, cause-specific mortality, morbidity data and new disability weights proposed in the recent Global Burden of Disease study. In the base case, neither YLLs nor YLDs were discounted or age-weighted. Uncertainty around DALYs was tested using sensitivity analyses. In Spain, cerebrovascular diseases generated 418,052 DALYs, comprising 337,000 (80.6%) YLLs and 81,052 (19.4%) YLDs. This accounts for 1,113 DALYs per 100,000 population (men: 1,197 and women: 1,033) and 3,912 per 100,000 in those over the age of 65 years (men: 4,427 and women: 2,033). Depending on the standard life table and choice of social values used for calculation, total DALYs varied by 15.3% and 59.9% below the main estimate. Estimates provided here represent a comprehensive analysis of the burden of cerebrovascular diseases at a national level. Prevention and control programmes aimed at reducing the disease burden merit further priority in Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ruiz-Sandoval, José L; Chiquete, Erwin; Bañuelos-Becerra, L Jacqueline; Torres-Anguiano, Carolina; González-Padilla, Christian; Arauz, Antonio; León-Jiménez, Carolina; Murillo-Bonilla, Luis M; Villarreal-Careaga, Jorge; Barinagarrementería, Fernando; Cantú-Brito, Carlos
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare form of cerebrovascular disease that is usually not mentioned in multicenter registries on all-type acute stroke. We aimed to describe the experience on hospitalized patients with CVT in a Mexican multicenter registry on acute cerebrovascular disease. CVT patients were selected from the RENAMEVASC registry, which was conducted between 2002 and 2004 in 25 Mexican hospitals. Risk factors, neuroimaging, and 30-day outcome as assessed by the modified Rankin scale (mRS) were analyzed. Among 2000 all-type acute stroke patients, 59 (3%; 95% CI, 2.3-3.8%) had CVT (50 women; female:male ratio, 5:1; median age, 31 years). Puerperium (42%), contraceptive use (18%), and pregnancy (12%) were the main risk factors in women. In 67% of men, CVT was registered as idiopathic, but thrombophilia assessment was suboptimal. Longitudinal superior sinus was the most frequent thrombosis location (78%). Extensive (>5 cm) venous infarction occurred in 36% of patients. Only 81% of patients received anticoagulation since the acute phase, and 3% needed decompressive craniectomy. Mechanical ventilation (13.6%), pneumonia (10.2%) and systemic thromboembolism (8.5%) were the main in-hospital complications. The 30-day case fatality rate was 3% (2 patients; 95% CI, 0.23-12.2%). In a Cox proportional hazards model, only age <40 years was associated with a mRS score of 0 to 2 (functional independence; rate ratio, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.34-8.92). The relative frequency of CVT and the associated in-hospital complications were higher than in other registries. Thrombophilia assessment and acute treatment was suboptimal. Young age is the main determinant of a good short-term outcome. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jellinger, K A
Recent epidemiological and clinico-pathologic data suggest overlaps between Alzheimer disease (AD) and cerebrovascular lesions that may magnify the effect of mild AD pathology and promote progression of cognitive decline or even may precede neuronal damage and dementia. Vascular pathology in the aging brain and in AD includes: 1. cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) with an incidence of 82-98% often associated with ApoE epsilon 2 and causing a) cerebral mass hemorrhages (around 70%, mainly in the frontal and parietal lobes), b) multiple or recurrent microhemorrhages (15%), and c) ischemic (micro-)infarcts or lacunes (around 20%). The frequency of these lesions increases with the severity of CAA and shows no correlation with that of senile amyloid plaques. CAA, significantly more frequent in patients with cerebral hemorrhages or infarcts than in aged controls, is an important risk factor for cerebrovascular lesions in AD. 2. Microvascular changes with decreased density and structural abnormalities causing regional metabolic and blood-brain barrier dysfunctions with ensuing neuronal damage. In large autopsy series of demented aged subjects, around 80% show Alzheimer type pathology, 20-40% with additional, often minor vascular lesions, 7-10% "pure" vascular dementia, and 3-5% "mixed" dementia (combination of AD and vascular encephalopathy). AD cases with additional minor cerebrovascular lesions have significantly more frequent histories of hypertension or infarcts than "pure" AD patients. Vascular lesions in AD include cortical microinfarcts, subcortical lacunes, white matter lesions / leukoencephalopathy, small hemorrhages and corticosubcortical infarcts, while in mixed type dementia multiple larger or hemispheral infarcts are more frequent. Small infarcts in AD patients have no essential impact on global cognitive decline which mainly depends on the severity of Alzheimer pathology, but in early stage of AD they may influence and promote the development of dementia
Lyon, J L; Bishop, C T; Nielsen, N S
Utah mortality rates for cerebrovascular disease (ICD numbers 430--438) are 13% below U.S. rates. About 70% of Utahns are members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, commonly called Mormons of LDS, which proscribes use of tobacco and alcohol. Other studies on this group have found significantly lower occurrence of many cancers and ischemic heart disease. We tested the hypothesis that Utah's lower cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) mortality was contributed by the LDS population. We classified by religion all CBVD deaths (2,521) (except subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral embolism) occurring in the state in 1968--1971. No significant difference was found between LDS and non-LDS, but both groups had mortality rates below U.S. expectation. Although recent studies have reported smoking to be a risk factor for CBVD, we found no consistent difference between the LDS and non-LDS, even in the younger age groups. The results do not support the hypothesis that tobacco is an important etiologic agent in CBVD mortality.
Aho, K.; Harmsen, P.; Hatano, S.; Marquardsen, J.; Smirnov, V. E.; Strasser, T.
In a cooperative study coordinated by WHO, stroke was registered between 1971 and 1974 in 17 centres both in developing and developed countries. A common operating protocol was used to obtain comparable data. Age-adjusted incidence of stroke shows moderate geographical variations, cerebrovascular accidents being common in all the contrasting populations studied in various parts of the world. Data were also obtained on the types of management of stroke patients, their survival rates, and functional prognosis. Control of hypertension, although known to be effective in the prevention of stroke, seemed to be insufficient in most countries. It is concluded that stroke registers may be used as a source of information for the planning and implementation of stroke control programmes in the community. PMID:6966542
Lindenstrøm, E.; Boysen, G.; Nyboe, J.
OBJECTIVE--To estimate the influence of plasma total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides on risk of cerebrovascular disease. DESIGN--The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective observational survey with two cardiovascular examinations at five year intervals. Non-fasting plasma lipids were measured in participants once at each examination, along with other variables. The Cox regression model was used to establish the effect of the factors recorded on cerebrovascular events of mostly, but not exclusively, ischaemic origin. SUBJECTS--19,698 women and men at least 20 years old, randomly selected after age stratification from an area of central Copenhagen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Initial cases of stroke and transient ischaemic attack recorded from hospital records and death certificates from 1976 through 1988. RESULTS--660 non-haemorrhagic and 33 haemorrhagic events were recorded. Total cholesterol was positively associated with risk of non-haemorrhagic events, but only for levels > 8 mmol/l, corresponding to the upper 5% of the distribution in the study population. For lower plasma cholesterol values the relative risk remained nearly constant. Plasma triglyceride concentration was significantly, positively associated with risk of non-haemorrhagic events. The relative risk corresponding to an increase of 1 mmol/l was 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.16). There was a negative, log linear association between high density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of non-haemorrhagic events (0.53 (0.34 to 0.83)). There was no indication that the effects of plasma lipids were different in women and men. CONCLUSIONS--The pattern of the association between plasma cholesterol and risk of ischaemic cerebrovascular disease was not log linear, and the increased risk was confined to the upper 5% of the cholesterol distribution. Further studies should concentrate on the association between plasma cholesterol and verified haemorrhagic stroke. PMID
Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Liu, Rui; Iwata, Shinichi; Tugcu, Aylin; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Rundek, Tatjana; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton B.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.
Objectives To assess the relationship of left atrial (LA) phasic volumes and LA reservoir function with subclinical cerebrovascular disease in a stroke-free community-based cohort. Background An increase in LA size is associated with cardiovascular events including stroke. However, it is not known whether LA phasic volumes and reservoir function are associated with subclinical cerebrovascular disease. Methods LA minimum (LAVmin) and maximum (LAVmax) volumes, and LA reservoir function, measured as total emptying volume (LAEV) and total emptying fraction (LAEF), were assessed by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in 455 stroke-free participants from the community-based Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study. Subclinical cerebrovascular disease was assessed as silent brain infarcts (SBI) and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results SBI prevalence was 15.4%; mean WMHV was 0.66±0.92%. Participants with SBI showed greater LAVmin (17.1±9.3 vs. 12.5±5.6 ml/m2, p<0.01) and LAVmax (26.6±8.8 vs. 23.3±7.0 ml/m2, p<0.01) compared to those without SBI. LAEV (9.5±3.4 vs. 10.8±3.9 ml/m2, p<0.01) and LAEF (38.7±14.7% vs. 47.0±11.9%, p<0.01) were also reduced in participants with SBI. In univariate analyses, greater LA volumes and smaller reservoir function were significantly associated with greater WMHV. In multivariate analyses, LAVmin remained significantly associated with SBI [adjusted odds ratio (OR) per SD increase: 1.37, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.04–1.80, p<0.05] and with WMHV (β=0.12, p<0.01), whereas LAVmax was not independently associated with either. Smaller LAEF was independently associated with SBI (adjusted OR=0.67, 95% CI 0.50–0.90, p<0.01) and WMHV (β=−0.09, p<0.05). Conclusions Greater LA volumes and reduced LA reservoir function are associated with subclinical cerebrovascular disease detected by brain MRI in subjects without history of stroke. LAVmin and LAEF
van der Veen, Pieternella H; Muller, Majon; Vincken, Koen L; Witkamp, Theo D; Mali, Willem P T M; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Geerlings, Mirjam I
We estimated the progression of brain atrophy and cerebrovascular lesions on MRI in a prospective cohort of patients with various manifestations of arterial disease. Within the SMART-MR study, using brain MRI data from baseline and after on average 3.9 years of follow-up, intracranial volume (ICV), total brain, cortical gray matter, ventricular, white matter lesion volumes and visually rated infarcts were obtained from 663 patients (mean age 57 ± 9 years, 81% men). Global and cortical atrophy increased quadratically with age. Men showed more progression of global and cortical atrophy than women (mean difference in change (95% CI): -0.25 (-0.44; -0.06) and -0.94 (-1.35; -0.52)% ICV) and had an increased risk of new brain infarcts (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.1). Compared with coronary artery disease patients, cerebrovascular disease patients showed more progression of cortical and subcortical atrophy and an increased risk of new brain infarcts, and peripheral arterial disease patients showed more progression of cortical atrophy. These results were independent of cerebrovascular lesions and cardiovascular risk factors. In patients with manifest arterial disease, brain atrophy tended to accelerate with older age and men had more progression of brain atrophy and cerebrovascular lesions than women. Additionally, patients with cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial disease showed the most prominent progression of atrophy and lesions.
Kosinski, Przemyslaw D; Croal, Paula L; Leung, Jackie; Williams, Suzan; Odame, Isaac; Hare, Gregory M T; Shroff, Manohar; Kassner, Andrea
Overt ischaemic stroke is one of the most devastating complications in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). The compensatory response to anaemia in SCD includes an increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) by accessing cerebrovascular dilatory reserve. Exhaustion of dilatory reserve secondary to anaemic stress may lead to cerebral ischaemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with SCD and to correlate these with haematological markers of anaemia. Baseline CBF was measured using arterial spin labelling. Blood-oxygen level-dependent MRI in response to a CO2 stimulus was used to acquire CVR. In total, 28 children with SCD (23 not on any disease-modifying treatment, 5 on chronic transfusion) and 22 healthy controls were imaged using MRI. Transfusion patients were imaged at two time points to assess the effect of changes in haematocrit after a transfusion cycle. In children with SCD, CBF was significantly elevated compared to healthy controls, while CVR was significantly reduced. Both measures were significantly correlated with haematocrit. For transfusion patients, CBF decreased and CVR increased following a transfusion cycle. Lastly, a significant correlation was observed between CBF and CVR in both children with SCD and healthy controls. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Richard, Edo; Gouw, Alida A; Scheltens, Philip; van Gool, Willem A
White matter lesions (WMLs) and cerebral infarcts are common findings in Alzheimer disease and may contribute to dementia severity. WMLs and lacunar infarcts may provide a potential target for intervention strategies. This study assessed whether multicomponent vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of WMLs and prevents occurrence of new infarcts. A randomized controlled clinical trial, including 123 subjects, compared vascular care with standard care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions on MRI. Progression of WMLs, lacunes, medial temporal lobe atrophy, and global cortical atrophy were semiquantitatively scored after 2-year follow-up. Sixty-five subjects (36 vascular care, 29 standard care) had a baseline and a follow-up MRI and in 58 subjects, a follow-up scan could not be obtained due to advanced dementia or death. Subjects in the vascular care group had less progression of WMLs as measured with the WML change score (1.4 versus 2.3, P=0.03). There was no difference in the number of new lacunes or change in global cortical atrophy or medial temporal lobe atrophy between the 2 groups. Vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of WMLs. Treatment aimed at vascular risk factors in patients with early Alzheimer disease may be beneficial, possibly in an even earlier stage of the disease.
Nanhoe-Mahabier, Wandana; de Laat, Karlijn F; Visser, Jasper E; Zijlmans, Jan; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Bloem, Bastiaan R
Optimal management of chronic diseases not only requires tackling of the primary disease processes, but also necessitates timely recognition and treatment of comorbid conditions. In this article, we illustrate this two-pronged approach for two common age-related disorders: Parkinson disease (PD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). We first discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms that could provide a link between PD and CVD. Patients with PD have a series of risk factors that could promote development of CVD, but also have several protective factors. We then review the available clinical, radiological and neuropathological evidence to support an association between these two conditions. We conclude by discussing the potential implications for clinical practice, highlighting how comorbid CVD could alter the clinical presentation of PD and reviewing the possibilities for prevention and secondary prophylaxis. Additional research will be needed to fully evaluate the prevalence and clinical relevance of comorbid CVD in PD. Pending further evidence, we recommend that cerebral neuroimaging should be considered if patients with initially uncomplicated PD develop-either acutely or chronically-prominent and/or treatment-resistant gait impairment, postural instability, depression, cognitive decline, or urinary incontinence. Finding comorbid CVD in such patients could have prognostic implications, and could necessitate treatment to arrest further progression of CVD.
Love, Seth; Miners, J Scott
Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have more in common than their association with ageing. They share risk factors and overlap neuropathologically. Most patients with AD have Aβ amyloid angiopathy and degenerative changes affecting capillaries, and many have ischaemic parenchymal abnormalities. Structural vascular disease contributes to the ischaemic abnormalities in some patients with AD. However, the stereotyped progression of hypoperfusion in this disease, affecting first the precuneus and cingulate gyrus, then the frontal and temporal cortex and lastly the occipital cortex, suggests that other factors are more important, particularly in early disease. Whilst demand for oxygen and glucose falls in late disease, functional MRI, near infrared spectroscopy to measure the saturation of haemoglobin by oxygen, and biochemical analysis of myelin proteins with differential susceptibility to reduced oxygenation have all shown that the reduction in blood flow in AD is primarily a problem of inadequate blood supply, not reduced metabolic demand. Increasing evidence points to non-structural vascular dysfunction rather than structural abnormalities of vessel walls as the main cause of cerebral hypoperfusion in AD. Several mediators are probably responsible. One that is emerging as a major contributor is the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (EDN1). Whilst there is clearly an additive component to the clinical and pathological effects of hypoperfusion and AD, experimental and clinical observations suggest that the disease processes also interact mechanistically at a cellular level in a manner that exacerbates both. The elucidation of some of the mechanisms responsible for hypoperfusion in AD and for the interactions between CVD and AD has led to the identification of several novel therapeutic approaches that have the potential to ameliorate ischaemic damage and slow the progression of neurodegenerative disease.
GHIZONI, Janaina Salomon; TAVEIRA, Luís Antônio de Assis; GARLET, Gustavo Pompermaier; GHIZONI, Marcos Flávio; PEREIRA, Jefferson Ricardo; DIONÍSIO, Thiago José; BROZOSKI, Daniel Thomas; SANTOS, Carlos Ferreira; SANT'ANA, Adriana Campos Passanezi
Objective: This study investigated the role of periodontal disease in the development of stroke or cerebral infarction in patients by evaluating the clinical periodontal conditions and the subgingival levels of periodontopathogens. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with ischemic (I-CVA) or hemorrhagic (H-CVA) cerebrovascular episodes (test group) and 60 systemically healthy patients (control group) were evaluated for: probing depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing and plaque index. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were both identified and quantified in subgingival plaque samples by conventional and real-time PCR, respectively. Results: The test group showed a significant increase in each of the following parameters: pocket depth, clinical attachment loss, bleeding on probing, plaque index and number of missing teeth when compared to control values (p<0.05, unpaired t-test). Likewise, the test group had increased numbers of sites that were contaminated with P. gingivalis (60%x10%; p<0.001; chi-squared test) and displayed greater prevalence of periodontal disease, with an odds ratio of 48.06 (95% CI: 5.96-387.72; p<0.001). Notably, a positive correlation between probing depth and the levels of P. gingivalis in ischemic stroke was found (r=0.60; p=0.03; Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test). A. actinomycetemcomitans DNA was not detected in any of the groups by conventional or real-time PCR. Conclusions: Stroke patients had deeper pockets, more severe attachment loss, increased bleeding on probing, increased plaque indexes, and in their pockets harbored increased levels of P. gingivalis. These findings suggest that periodontal disease is a risk factor for the development of cerebral hemorrhage or infarction. Early treatment of periodontitis may counteract the development of cerebrovascular episodes. PMID:22437687
Adams, Gaye T; Snieder, Harold; McKie, Virgil C; Clair, Betsy; Brambilla, Donald; Adams, Robert J; Kutlar, Ferdane; Kutlar, Abdullah
Background The phenotypic heterogeneity of sickle cell disease is likely the result of multiple genetic factors and their interaction with the sickle mutation. High transcranial doppler (TCD) velocities define a subgroup of children with sickle cell disease who are at increased risk for developing ischemic stroke. The genetic factors leading to the development of a high TCD velocity (i.e. cerebrovascular disease) and ultimately to stroke are not well characterized. Methods We have designed a case-control association study to elucidate the role of genetic polymorphisms as risk factors for cerebrovascular disease as measured by a high TCD velocity in children with sickle cell disease. The study will consist of two parts: a candidate gene study and a genomewide screen and will be performed in 230 cases and 400 controls. Cases will include 130 patients (TCD ≥ 200 cm/s) randomized in the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP) study as well as 100 other patients found to have high TCD in STOP II screening. Four hundred sickle cell disease patients with a normal TCD velocity (TCD < 170 cm/s) will be controls. The candidate gene study will involve the analysis of 28 genetic polymorphisms in 20 candidate genes. The polymorphisms include mutations in coagulation factor genes (Factor V, Prothrombin, Fibrinogen, Factor VII, Factor XIII, PAI-1), platelet activation/function (GpIIb/IIIa, GpIb IX-V, GpIa/IIa), vascular reactivity (ACE), endothelial cell function (MTHFR, thrombomodulin, VCAM-1, E-Selectin, L-Selectin, P-Selectin, ICAM-1), inflammation (TNFα), lipid metabolism (Apo A1, Apo E), and cell adhesion (VCAM-1, E-Selectin, L-Selectin, P-Selectin, ICAM-1). We will perform a genomewide screen of validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pooled DNA samples from 230 cases and 400 controls to study the possible association of additional polymorphisms with the high-risk phenotype. High-throughput SNP genotyping will be performed through MALDI
Wright, Clinton B; Dong, Chuanhui; Perez, Enmanuel J; De Rosa, Janet; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Rundek, Tatjana; DeCarli, Charles; Gutierrez, Jose; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L
The effects of white matter hyperintensity volume and subclinical brain infarcts on the risk of incident stroke, its ischemic subtypes, and mortality require further study in diverse samples. Stroke-free participants in the Northern Manhattan Study underwent magnetic resonance imaging (N=1287; mean age 71±9 years, 60% women, 15% non-Hispanic white, 17% non-Hispanic black, 68% Hispanic) and were followed for a median of 8 years (interquartile range: 6-9 years). Cox models estimated proportional hazards of incident stroke of all types, ischemic stroke (and its subtypes), and mortality and stratified by race/ethnicity. In total 72 participants (6%) had incident strokes and 244 died (19%). In fully adjusted models, those with larger white matter hyperintensity volume had greater risk of all stroke types (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9), ischemic stroke (HR: 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8), and cryptogenic stroke (HR: 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.4). White and black but not Hispanic participants had increased stroke risk (P<0.05 for heterogeneity for all and ischemic stroke). Those with subclinical brain infarct had greater risk for all stroke types (HR: 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.3), ischemic stroke (HR: 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.8), lacunar (HR: 4.0; 95% CI, 1.3-12.3), and cryptogenic stroke (HR: 3.6; 95% CI, 1.0-12.7), without significant heterogeneity across race/ethnic groups. Greater white matter hyperintensity volume increased both vascular (HR: 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7) and nonvascular (HR: 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5) mortality among Hispanic and white but not black participants (P=0.040 for heterogeneity). Subclinical brain infarct was associated with increased vascular mortality among Hispanic participants only (HR: 2.9; 95% CI, 1.4-5.8). In this urban US sample, subclinical cerebrovascular lesions increased the risk of clinical stroke and vascular mortality and varied by race/ethnicity and lesion type. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by
Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Liu, Rui; Iwata, Shinichi; Tugcu, Aylin; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Rundek, Tatjana; Decarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of left atrial (LA) phasic volumes and LA reservoir function with subclinical cerebrovascular disease in a stroke-free community-based cohort. An increase in LA size is associated with cardiovascular events including stroke. However, it is not known whether LA phasic volumes and reservoir function are associated with subclinical cerebrovascular disease. The LA minimum (LAV(min)) and maximum (LAV(max)) volumes, and LA reservoir function, measured as total emptying volume (LAEV) and total emptying fraction (LAEF), were assessed by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography in 455 stroke-free participants from the community-based CABL (Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions) study. Subclinical cerebrovascular disease was assessed as silent brain infarcts (SBI) and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) by brain magnetic resonance imaging. Prevalence of SBI was 15.4%; mean WMHV was 0.66 ± 0.92%. Participants with SBI showed greater LAV(min) (17.1 ± 9.3 ml/m(2) vs. 12.5 ± 5.6 ml/m(2), p < 0.01) and LAV(max) (26.6 ± 8.8 ml/m(2) vs. 23.3 ± 7.0 ml/m(2), p < 0.01) compared to those without SBI. The LAEV (9.5 ± 3.4 ml/m(2) vs. 10.8 ± 3.9 ml/m(2), p < 0.01) and LAEF (38.7 ± 14.7% vs. 47.0 ± 11.9%, p < 0.01) were also reduced in participants with SBI. In univariate analyses, greater LA volumes and smaller reservoir function were significantly associated with greater WMHV. In multivariate analyses, LAV(min) remained significantly associated with SBI (adjusted odds ratio per SD increase: 1.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.80, p < 0.05) and with WMHV (β = 0.12, p < 0.01), whereas LAVmax was not independently associated with either. Smaller LAEF was independently associated with SBI (adjusted odds ratio: 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.50 to 0.90, p < 0.01) and WMHV (β = -0.09, p < 0.05). Greater LA volumes and reduced LA reservoir function are associated with subclinical cerebrovascular disease
The early change in cerebrovascular reactivity offers the use of REG for non-invasive bedside monitoring and stroke prevention promising (Bodo et al... cerebrovascular alteration. However, the anatomical background of REG is not clearly understood. Two experimental studies were undertaken on...Doppler ultrasound were significant (p = 0.0001). Full abstract see in publication. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cerebrovascular reactivity, CBF, REG, LDF, carotid
Stephens, W. P.; Ferguson, I. T.
Three cases are described in which extensive livedo reticularis was associated with premature cerebrovascular disease. The patients presented with transient cerebral ischaemic attacks and gradually developed permanent neurological damage with intellectual impairment. The value of detailed neuropsychological testing to identify bilateral cortical abnormalities is demonstrated. CAT scanning may reveal multifocal cerebral infarction. The nature of this condition is not understood. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7100027
Korb, Pearce J; Jones, William
Accurate coding is critical for clinical practice and research. Ongoing changes to diagnostic and billing codes require the clinician to stay abreast of coding updates. Payment for health care services, data sets for health services research, and reporting for medical quality improvement all require accurate administrative coding. This article provides an overview of coding principles for patients with strokes and other cerebrovascular diseases and includes an illustrative case as a review of coding principles in a patient with acute stroke.
Shin, Kyong-Sok; Chung, Yun Kyung; Kwon, Young-Jun; Son, Jun-Seok; Lee, Se-Hoon
This study investigated the relationship between weekly working hours and the occurrence of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases using a case-crossover study design. We investigated average working hours during the 7 days before the onset of illness (hazard period) and average weekly working hours between 8 days and 3 months before the onset of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases (control period) for 1,042 cases from the workers' compensation database for 2009. Among all subjects, the odds ratio by conditional logistic regression for the risk of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases with a 10 hr increase in average weekly working hours was 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.72), a significant association. An increase in average weekly working hours may trigger the onset of cerebro-cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:753-761, 2017. © 2017. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Toledo, Jon B.; Arnold, Steven E.; Raible, Kevin; Brettschneider, Johannes; Xie, Sharon X.; Grossman, Murray; Monsell, Sarah E.; Kukull, Walter A.
Cerebrovascular disease and vascular risk factors are associated with Alzheimer’s disease, but the evidence for their association with other neurodegenerative disorders is limited. Therefore, we compared the prevalence of cerebrovascular disease, vascular pathology and vascular risk factors in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases and correlate them with dementia severity. Presence of cerebrovascular disease, vascular pathology and vascular risk factors was studied in 5715 cases of the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Centre database with a single neurodegenerative disease diagnosis (Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration due to tau, and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 immunoreactive deposits, α-synucleinopathies, hippocampal sclerosis and prion disease) based on a neuropathological examination with or without cerebrovascular disease, defined neuropathologically. In addition, 210 ‘unremarkable brain’ cases without cognitive impairment, and 280 cases with pure cerebrovascular disease were included for comparison. Cases with cerebrovascular disease were older than those without cerebrovascular disease in all the groups except for those with hippocampal sclerosis. After controlling for age and gender as fixed effects and centre as a random effect, we observed that α-synucleinopathies, frontotemporal lobar degeneration due to tau and TAR DNA-binding protein 43, and prion disease showed a lower prevalence of coincident cerebrovascular disease than patients with Alzheimer’s disease, and this was more significant in younger subjects. When cerebrovascular disease was also present, patients with Alzheimer’s disease and patients with α-synucleinopathy showed relatively lower burdens of their respective lesions than those without cerebrovascular disease in the context of comparable severity of dementia at time of death. Concurrent cerebrovascular disease is a common neuropathological finding in aged subjects with dementia, is more common in
Kashcheev, V V; Chekin, S Yu; Maksioutov, M A; Tumanov, K A; Menyaylo, A N; Kochergina, E V; Kashcheeva, P V; Gorsky, A I; Shchukina, N V; Karpenko, S V; Ivanov, V K
The paper presents an analysis of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) in the cohort of Russian workers involved in recovery tasks after the Chernobyl accident. The studied cohort consists of 53,772 recovery operation workers (liquidators) who arrived in the zone of the Chernobyl accident within the first year after this accident (26 April 1986-26 April 1987). The mean external whole body dose in the cohort was 0.161 Gy, while individual doses varied from 0.0001 Gy to 1.42 Gy. During the follow-up period 1986-2012, a total of 23,264 cases of CeVD were diagnosed as a result of annual health examinations. A Poisson regression model was applied for estimation of radiation risks and for an assessment of other risk factors of CeVD. The following factors were considered as risk factors for CeVD: the dose, duration of the liquidators' work in the Chernobyl zone, and the concomitant diseases (hypertension, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, and diabetes). The baseline incidence of CeVD is statistically significantly (p < 0.001) associated with all studied concomitant diseases. The incidence of CeVD has revealed a statistically significant dose response with the lack of a latent period and with the average ERR/Gy = 0.45, 95% CI: (0.28, 0.62), p < 0.001. Radiation risks of CeVD statistically significantly (p = 0.03) varied with the duration of liquidators' stay in the Chernobyl zone; for those who stayed in the Chernobyl zone less than 6 wk, ERR/Gy = 0.64, 95% CI = (0.38; 0.93), p < 0.001. Among studied concomitant diseases, diabetes mellitus statistically significantly (p = 0.002) increases the radiation risk of CeVD: for liquidators with diagnosed diabetes, ERR/Gy = 1.29.
Iribarren, Carlos; Tolstykh, Irina V; Miller, Mary K; Sobel, Erica; Eisner, Mark D
Asthma has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The authors ascertained the association of asthma with CVD and the roles that sex, concurrent allergy, and asthma medications may play in this association. They assembled a cohort of 203,595 Northern California adults with asthma and a parallel asthma-free referent cohort (matched 1:1 on age, sex, and race/ethnicity); both cohorts were followed for incident nonfatal or fatal CVD and all-cause mortality from January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2008. Each cohort was 66% female and 47% white. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, cardiac risk factors, and comorbid allergy, asthma was associated with a 1.40-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35, 1.45) increased hazard of coronary heart disease, a 1.20-fold (95% CI: 1.15, 1.25) hazard of cerebrovascular disease, a 2.14-fold (95% CI: 2.06, 2.22) hazard of heart failure, and a 3.28-fold (95% CI: 3.15, 3.41) hazard of all-cause mortality. Stronger associations were noted among women. Comorbid allergy predicted CVD but did not synergistically increase the CVD risk associated with asthma. Only asthma patients using asthma medications (particularly those on oral corticosteroids alone or in combination) were at enhanced risk of CVD. In conclusion, asthma was prospectively associated with increased risk of major CVD. Modifying effects were noted for sex and asthma medication use but not for comorbid allergy.
Brea, Angel; Laclaustra, Martín; Martorell, Esperanza; Pedragosa, Angels
In Spain, cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is a very common cause of morbidity and hospitalization. They are the second leading cause of mortality in the general population, and the first in women. They also constitute a very high social spending, which is estimated to increase in coming years, due to the aging of our population. Data from the Hospital Morbidity Survey of the National Statistics Institute recorded, in 2011, 116,017 strokes and 14,933 transient ischemic attacks, corresponding, respectively, to an incidence of 252 and 32 events per 100,000 people. In 2002, the cost of hospitalization for each stroke was estimated at €3,047. The amount of total cost health care throughout the life of a stroke patient is calculated at €43,129. Internationally, the direct costs of stroke constitute 3% of national health spending, this being similar amount in different countries around us. Hypertension was the cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) more prevalent in both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, followed by dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Peripheral arterial disease and hypertension were more frequently associated with atherothrombotic events, atrial fibrillation with cardioembolic strokes, and obesity and high blood pressure to lacunar infarcts. In Spain, as showing several studies, we are far from optimal control of CVRF, especially in secondary prevention of stroke. According to the ICTUSCARE study, achieving recommended values was 17.6% in the case of hypertension, 29.8% in LDL-cholesterol, 74.9% of smoking, and 50.2% in diabetes mellitus. In this review, we analyze in detail the epidemiology, prevention and costs originated by CVD.
Last, Briana S; García Rubio, Maria-José; Zhu, Carolyn W; Cosentino, Stephanie; Manly, Jennifer J; DeCarli, Charles; Stern, Yaakov; Brickman, Adam M
Background/Study Context: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of cerebrovascular disease and atrophy are common in older adults and are associated with cognitive and medical burden. However, the extent to which they are related to health care expenditures has not been examined. We studied whether increased Medicare expenditures were associated with brain markers of atrophy and cerebrovascular disease in older adults.
Rössner, S; Kjellin, K G; Mettinger, K L; Sidén, A; Söderström, C E
Serum lipoproteins were determined 8-12 weeks after the onset of ischemic cerebro-vascular disease (ICD) in 61 patients, 38 males and 23 females, before the age of 55. The results were compared with those of a matched control material. The diagnosis was based on clinical findings, CSF spectrophotometry, computer tomography, and angiography. Hyperlipoproteinemia was no common finding in these young and middle-aged patients with ICD. The normal mean total serum cholesterol concentration was the result of a slight increase in VLDL cholesterol and a concomitant HDL cholesterol reduction. In men, the HDL cholesterol concentration was lower than expected for any VLDL-TG concentration. The mean value of the HDL cholesterol concentration in the patients was 18% lower than in the control group. On agarose electrophoresis the lipoprotein variants "late prebeta", "sinking prebeta" and "rapid beta" lipoproteins could be demonstrated in the same frequency as in controls. There was no significant correlation between the degree of atherosclerosis, estimated by angiography, and any serum lipoprotein fraction. Several recent studies have stressed the importance of a low HDL concentration as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. The decreased HDL cholesterol levels found in the present material require further attention to the possible beneficial role of HDL in ICD.
Hudson, Barry I; Moon, Yeseon Park; Kalea, Anastasia Z; Khatri, Minesh; Marquez, Chensy; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Paik, Myunghee C; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Sacco, Ralph L; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell SV
Objective Serum levels of the soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (sRAGE) have been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that sRAGE levels are associated with subclinical cerebrovascular disease in an ethnically diverse population. Methods Clinically stroke-free participants in the multi-ethnic Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) underwent brain MRI to quantify subclinical brain infarcts (SBI) and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) (n=1102). Serum levels of sRAGE were measured by ELISA. Logistic and multiple linear regression were employed to estimate associations of sRAGE with SBI and WMHV, after adjusting for demographics and vascular risk factors. Results Median sRAGE levels were significantly lower in Hispanics (891.9 pg/ml; n=708) and non-Hispanic blacks (757.4 pg/ml; n=197) than in non-Hispanic whites (1120.5 pg/ml; n=170), and these differences remained after adjusting for other risk factors. Interactions were observed by race-ethnicity between sRAGE levels and MRI measurements, including for SBI in Hispanics (p=0.04) and WMHV among blacks (p=0.03). In Hispanics, increasing sRAGE levels were associated with a lower odds of SBI, with those in the upper sRAGE quartile displaying a 50% lower odds of SBI after adjusting for sociodemographic and vascular risk factors (p=0.05). Among blacks, those in the upper quartile of sRAGE had a similarly reduced increased risk of SBI (p=0.06) and greater WMHV (p=0.04). Conclusion Compared to whites, Hispanics and blacks have significantly lower sRAGE levels, and these levels were associated with more subclinical brain disease. Taken together, these findings suggest sRAGE levels may be significantly influence by ethnicity. Further studies of sRAGE and stroke risk, particularly in minorities, are warranted. PMID:21316677
Srinath, Reshmi; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Hill Golden, Sherita; Carson, Kathryn A; Dobs, Adrian
Epidemiological studies in men suggest a relationship between endogenous testosterone and ischemic vascular events. We hypothesized that low testosterone is independently associated with ischemic stroke and ischemic brain changes. In 1558 male participants (mean [SD] age, 63.1 [5.6] years; body mass index, 28.2 [4.3] kg/m(2)) from visit 4 (1996-1998) of the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) without cardiovascular disease, stroke, and previous testosterone therapy, we measured plasma total testosterone by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using morning samples and divided levels into tertiles (median [25th-75th percentile], 377.6 [288.4-480.1] ng/dL). General linear models, for cross-sectional analyses, and proportional hazards regression, for time-to-event analysis, examined the association of testosterone with participant characteristics and incident stroke through 2011. Linear and logistic regression models examined the association of testosterone with percentage white matter hyperintensities and prevalent infarcts in participants (n=257) who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging at visit 5 (2011-2013). Analyses were adjusted for age, race, and ARIC center, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking status, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein. Lower testosterone was significantly associated with higher body mass index, greater waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, lower high-density lipoprotein, and never smoking. After adjustment, no association of testosterone with incident stroke was found (hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals] for tertile 1 or 3 versus 2, 1.47 [0.83-2.61], 1.15 [0.62-2.14]; median follow-up, 14.1 years), nor with percentage white matter hyperintensities, cortical infarcts, or subcortical infarcts. After controlling for atherosclerotic risk factors, there was no association between endogenous testosterone and incident clinical stroke or ischemic
Skoog, I.; Hesse, C.; Aevarsson, O.; Landahl, S.; Wahlstrom, J.; Fredman, P.; Blennow, K.
OBJECTIVES—To study the association of apoE genotypes with dementia and cerebrovascular disorders in a population based sample of 85year old people. METHODS—A representative sample of 85 year old people (303 non-demented, 109 demented) were given a neuropsychiatric and a medical examination and head CT. The apoE isoforms were determined. Dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-III-R. RESULTS—At the age of 85, carriers of the apoE ε4 allele had an increased odds ratio (OR) for dementia (1.9; p<0.01) and its subtypes Alzheimer's disease (1.9; p<0.05) and vascular dementia (2.0; p<0.05). Among those categorised as having vascular dementia, the apoE ε4 allele was associated with mixed Alzheimer's disease-multi-infarct dementia (OR 6.5; p<0.05), but not with pure multi-infarct dementia (OR 1.5; NS). Only carriers of the apoE ε4 allele who also had ischaemic white matter lesions on CT of the head had an increased OR for dementia (OR 6.1; p=0.00003), and its main subtypes Alzheimer's disease (OR 6.8; p=0.002) and vascular dementia (OR 5.6; p=0.0007), whereas carriers of the apoE ε4 allele without white matter lesions had an OR for dementia of 1.0 (OR for Alzheimer's disease 1.8; NS and for vascular dementia 0.6; NS) and non-carriers of the apoE ε4 allele with white matter lesions had an OR for dementia of 2.2; NS (OR for Alzheimer's disease 2.7; NS and for vascular dementia 1.6; NS). The apoE allele variants were not related to mortality or incidence of dementia between the ages of 85 and 88. The ε2 allele was related to a higher prevalence of stroke or transient ischaemic attack at the age of 85 (OR 2.1; p<0.05) and a higher incidence of multi-infarct dementia during the follow up (OR 2.9; p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS—Neither the apoE ε4 allele nor white matter lesions are sufficient risk factors by themselves for dementia at very old ages, whereas possession of both these entities increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia
Huttenlocher, P.R.; Moohr, J.W.; Johns, L.; Brown, F.D.
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been studied by the xenon-133 (/sup 133/Xe) inhalation method in 16 children with suspected sickle cell cerebrovascular disease. Abnormalities consisting of decreases in total, hemispheral, or regional CBF were found in 17 of 26 studies. Eleven studies performed immediately after stroke, transient ischemic attack, or depression of state of alertness showed abnormalities. In addition to confirming regional cerebrovascular insufficiency in children with stroke due to major cerebral artery occlusion, the method detected diffuse decrease in CBF in children with stupor, coma, and seizures who had normal angiographic findings. In contrast, six of seven studies obtained after exchange transfusion or during maintenance on hypertransfusion therapy showed normal findings. The difference between results in patients with acute neurologic disturbances and those receiving transfusion therapy was statistically significant (P less than .005). The data indicate that the /sup 133/Xe method reliably demonstrates cerebrovascular impairment in sickle cell disease. They also suggest that CBF changes in patients with sickle cell disease can be reversed by exchange transfusion and by hypertransfusion therapy. The /sup 133/Xe CBF method may be useful for following up children with sickle cell disease who are at high risk for recurrent stroke.
Del Brutto, O H
Ischaemic cerebrovascular disease is a relatively common but under-recognised complication of neurocysticercosis. It is usually caused by inflammatory occlusion of the arteries at the base of the brain secondary to cysticercotic arachnoiditis. In most cases, the involved vessels are of small diameter and the neurological picture is limited to a lacunar syndrome secondary to a small cerebral infarct. However, large infarcts related to the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery or even the internal carotid artery have also been reported in this setting. CT and CSF examination usually support the cause-and-effect relationship between neurocysticercosis and the cerebral infarct by showing abnormalities compatible with cysticercotic arachnoiditis. An accurate diagnosis of this condition is important since early treatment with steroids is advised to ameliorate the subarachnoid inflammatory reaction which may cause recurrent cerebral infarcts. PMID:1583508
Tugcu, Aylin; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Rundek, Tatjana; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Nakanishi, Koki; Shames, Sofia; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R
Aortic arch plaque (AAP) is a risk factor for ischemic stroke, but its association with subclinical cerebrovascular disease is not established. We investigated the association between AAP and subclinical cerebrovascular disease in an elderly stroke-free community-based cohort. The CABL study (Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions) was designed to investigate cardiovascular predictors of silent cerebrovascular disease in the elderly. AAPs were assessed by suprasternal transthoracic echocardiography in 954 participants. Silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) were assessed by brain magnetic resonance imaging. The association of AAP thickness with silent brain infarcts and WMHV was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Mean age was 71.6±9.3 years; 63% were women. AAP was present in 658 (69%) subjects. Silent brain infarcts were detected in 138 participants (14.5%). In multivariate analysis adjusted for potential confounders, AAP thickness and large AAP (≥4 mm in thickness) were significantly associated with the upper quartile of WMHV (WMHV-Q4; odds ratio =1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.32; P=0.009 and odds ratio =1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-3.09; P=0.036, respectively), but not with silent brain infarcts (odds ratio =1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.23; P=0.265 and odds ratio =1.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-2.77; P=0.251, respectively). Aortic arch atherosclerosis was associated with WMHV in a stroke-free community-based elderly cohort. This association was stronger in subjects with large plaques and independent of cardiovascular risk factors. Aortic arch assessment by transthoracic echocardiography may help identify subjects at higher risk of subclinical cerebrovascular disease, who may benefit from aggressive stroke risk factors treatment. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Zhang, Tong; Li, Li-lin; Bi, Sheng; Mei, Yuan-wu; Xie, Rui-man; Luo, Zu-ming; Wang, De-sheng; Wang, Wei-zhi; Wang, Ning-hua; Jia, Jian-ping; Tan, Lan; Ding, Xin-sheng; Cui, Li-ying; Wang, De-xin; Hu, Xue-qiang; Niu, Zhu
To evaluate the effect of tertiary rehabilitation treatment on acute cerebrovascular diseases. Fifteen tertiary rehabilitation networks were set up throughout the country. 1078 patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases were randomly divided into 2 groups: rehabilitation group and control group, out of which 19 patients died, 157 dropped out, and 7 successive evaluations were completed in 902 patients that. 439 of the remaining 902 patients in the rehabilitation group, 266 males and 173 females, aged 61 +/- 11, 278 cases with cerebral infarction and 161 with cerebral hemorrhage, received routine treatment and early rehabilitation for 28 days in the ward of neurology, and then went home and received community rehabilitation for 6 months or underwent specialized reinforcement training for 2 months and after that went home and received community rehabilitation for 4 months. The 463 patients in the control group, 281 males and 182 females, aged 60 +/- 11, 291 of which with cerebral infarction and 172 with cerebral hemorrhage, received only routine treatment and early rehabilitation for 28 days in the ward of neurology, and then went home to conduct rehabilitation training by themselves or their family members for 6 months. Evaluation was conducted 7 times, with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Fugl-Meyer motor function scale, Barthel index, SF-36 scale, Lowenstein occupational therapy cognitive assessment (LOTCA), Westen aphasia battery, Hamilton depression scale, and modified Ashworth spasm scale, one week after the onset and by the ends of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months after the onset respectively. The scores of clinical neurological impairment, Fugl-Meyer scores, SF-36 scores, incidence of PSD, and modified Ashworth scores (for upper and lower limbs) were lower, and LOTCA scores and Barthel indexes were higher at different time points in the rehabilitation group than in the control group; and the differences were statistically significant since
Leira, Yago; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Juan; Castillo, José
Periodontal disease and cerebrovascular disease are two of the most prevalent processes in elderly people. Various studies have shown an association between them, although some methodological differences exist and this difficult the data interpretation. The aim of this paper is to conduct a critical review of the studies published about this association. Eleven prospective studies and 11 retrospective studies are included in this review. We analyse the different methodological outcomes (study population, periodontal diagnosis, cerebrovascular disease definition, adjusted outcomes and odds ratio/relative risk). Furthermore, we review several pathogenic mechanisms implicated in the progression and the relationship between both processes.
Zhao, De-Li; Wan, Yong; Wang, Guo-Kun; Wang, Hai-Bo; Liang, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Hai-Ting; Gao, Li; Zhang, Jin-Ling
Few data exist comparing the image quality and diagnostic accuracy of subtraction computed tomography (CT) angiography (SCTA) in carotid and cerebrovascular arteries with routine CT angiography (RCTA). In this study, 56 patients underwent 128-row CT angiography of these vessels with review by two radiologists using routine, nonsubtracted, and SCTA protocols. Comparisons were made using a 4-point subjective rating scale in all patients. Eighteen patients were examined with both SCTA and invasive digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The accuracy of SCTA and routine CTA reformations was assessed and compared by both patient-based and vessel-based analyses of intracranial aneurysms and intracranial and extracranial arterial stenotic lesions using DSA results as the reference standard. Diagnostic accuracy in the adjacent skull base portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and reading time for cerebral aneurysms and vessel stenoses were obviously improved with SCTA protocol, but the accuracy in vertebro-basilar arteries was no different. The diagnostic accuracy in general was slightly increased compared with routine CTA. Review of SCTA images is an effective means to remove bone close to vessels as seen on routine CTA and has good image quality and diagnostic accuracy. SCTA is superior to routine CTA in the visualization and diagnostic accuracy of adjacent skull base part of the ICA and decreases reading time for carotid and cerebrovascular arterial imaging. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng
To explore the assessing technique which could objectively reflect the characteristics of Chinese medicine in the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, four balance features of infrared thermal images (ITI) corresponding to the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance of blood circulation of human body were studied. First, the ITI features of the middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history were compared with those of the healthy youth. It was found that the balance state of the youth was significantly better than that of the middle-aged and elderly, P<=0.01 for all the balance features. For the youth, the balance state of females was better than that of the males. But this sexual difference disappeared for the middle-aged and elderly group. Second, a double-blind randomized trial was carried out to study the influences of Shengyi capsule, a Chinese medicine health food with the function of helping to decrease serum lipid, on the balance features. The subjects were middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history. Shengyi capsule was taken by the trial group while Xuezhikang capsule (with lovastatin as the main effective component) by the control group for 108 days. The balance features of ITI showed that Shengyi was significantly better than Xuezhikang in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation (including the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance). The relative efficacy rate was 81.0% for the trial group and 33.3% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.002). Shengyi could effectively decrease the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) but the effect of Xuezhikang in decreasing total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C was better than Shengyi. Though the lipid-lowering effect of Shengyi was not as good as Xuezhikang, ITI reflected the obvious advantage of Shengyi in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation which
Brzecka, Anna; Ejma, Maria
Obesity remains an important risk factor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, it has been observed that increased body fat and body mass index predicted longer survival after the occurrence of a cardiovascular event. This observation has been named the obesity paradox. Initially, the term obesity paradox referred to the observation of the better outcome of cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure and coronary heart disease, in obese patients as compared to underweight and normal-weight patients. Recently, similar, although fewer, observations confirm the occurrence of the obesity paradox in patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases. The underlying reasons for the protective effects of excessive body fat tissue against the consequences of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are poorly understood. The effect of preconditioning may be associated with the obesity paradox. The issue of the correlation between obesity and better survival of patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases still remains largely unexplored. Debates for and against the obesity paradox continue.
Suemitsu, Tatsunori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Miyazaki, Shogo; Horie, Seichi
Recently, work-relatedness of mental health disturbance, cerebrovascular and ischemic heart diseases has been generously recognized in the determination of workers' compensation, in administrative or civil suits in Japan. Companies that operate overseas enterprises need to investigate legislature and court opinions in countries and regions in which they operate. In this study, we studied legislative materials concerning mental health, and cerebrovascular and cardiac diseases by reviewing official documents published on homepages provided by governmental and academic bodies in the United States. Our main findings are as follows: 1. In the United States, the state authorities have wide powers. The areas where federal employment statutes are directly applied are limited to the employment conditions of the federal government or some interstate commerce. However, almost all employers in every state are required to record and report occupational injuries and illnesses, based on which, nationwide statistics are maintained. 2. The occupational injury and illness recording criteria are clearly stated in the 2001 revision of Code of Federal Regulations(CFR). During the process of amendment, various opinions were raised concerning mental illnesses. In the final ruling, employers are required to record mental illnesses when "the employee voluntarily provides the employer with an opinion from appropriate health care providers stating that the employee has a mental illness that is work related" (29CFR1904.5(b)(2)(ix)). 3. No specific criteria were found concerning cerebrovascular and ischemic heart disorders, except for the statement that injury or illness is considered if an event or exposure in the work environment significantly aggravates a pre-existing injury or illness(29CFR1904.5(a)). 4. According to the safety and health statistics(2004), around 3,000 cases(0.3 cases per 10,000 full-time workers)of mental disorders were reported in private industry workplaces. On the
Risk Factors Associated With Cerebrovascular Recurrence in Symptomatic Carotid Disease: A Comparative Study of Carotid Plaque Morphology, Microemboli Assessment and the European Carotid Surgery Trial Risk Model
Altaf, Nishath; Kandiyil, Neghal; Hosseini, Akram; Mehta, Rajnikant; MacSweeney, Shane; Auer, Dorothee
Background The European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST) risk model is a validated tool for predicting cerebrovascular risk in patients with symptomatic carotid disease. Carotid plaque hemorrhage as detected by MRI (MRIPH) and microembolic signals (MES) detected by transcranial Doppler (TCD) are 2 emerging modalities in assessing instability of the carotid plaque. The aim of this study was to assess the strength of association of MES and MRIPH with cerebrovascular recurrence in patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease in comparison with the ECST risk prediction model. Methods and Results One hundred and thirty‐four prospectively recruited patients (mean [SD]: age 72 [9.8] years, 33% female) with symptomatic severe (50% to 99%) carotid stenosis underwent preoperative TCD, MRI of the carotid arteries to assess MES, PH, and the ECST risk model. Patients were followed up until carotid endarterectomy, recurrent cerebral event, death, or study end. Event‐free survival analysis was done using backward conditional Cox regression analysis. Of the 123 patients who had both TCD and MRI, 82 (66.7%) demonstrated PH and 46 (37.4%) had MES. 37 (30.1%) cerebrovascular events (21 transient ischemic attacks, 6 amaurosis fugax, and 10 strokes) were observed. Both carotid PH (HR=8.68; 95% CI 2.66 to 28.40, P<0.001) as well as MES (HR=3.28; 95% CI 1.68 to 6.42, P=0.001) were associated with cerebrovascular event recurrence. Combining MES and MRIPH improved the strength of association (HR=0.74, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.83; P<0.001). The ECST risk model was not associated with recurrence (HR=0.86; 95% CI 0.45 to 1.65; P=0.65). Conclusions The presence of carotid plaque hemorrhage is better associated with recurrent cerebrovascular events in patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis than the presence of microembolic signals; combining MES and MRIPH, further improves the association while the ECST risk score was insignificant. PMID:24895159
Gupta, Ajay; Nair, Sreejit; Schweitzer, Andrew D.; Kishore, Sirish; Johnson, Carl E.; Comunale, Joseph P.; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Sanelli, Pina C.
Cerebrovascular disease remains a significant public health burden with its greatest impact on the elderly population. Advances in neuroimaging techniques allow detailed and sophisticated evaluation of many manifestations of cerebrovascular disease in the brain parenchyma as well as in the intracranial and extracranial vasculature. These tools continue to contribute to our understanding of the multifactorial processes that occur in the age-dependent development of cerebrovascular disease. Structural abnormalities related to vascular disease in the brain and vessels have been well characterized with CT and MRI based techniques. We review some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms in the aging brain and cerebral vasculature and the related structural abnormalities detectable on neuroimaging, including evaluation of age-related white matter changes, atherosclerosis of the cerebral vasculature, and cerebral infarction. In addition, newer neuroimaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion techniques, and assessment of cerebrovascular reserve, are also reviewed, as these techniques can detect physiologic alterations which complement the morphologic changes that cause cerebrovascular disease in the aging brain.Further investigation of these advanced imaging techniques has potential application to the understanding and diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease in the elderly. PMID:23185721
von Weitzel-Mudersbach, Paul; Andersen, Grethe; Hundborg, Heidi H; Johnsen, Søren P
Severity of acute vascular illness may have changed in the last decades due to improvements in primary and secondary prevention. Population-based data on the severity of acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease are sparse. We aimed to examine incidence, characteristics and severity of acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease in a well-defined population. All patients admitted with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or acute ischemic stroke from March 1, 2007, to February 29, 2008, with residence in the Aarhus area, were included. Incidence rates and characteristics of TIA and ischemic stroke were compared. TIA accounted for 30%, TIA and minor stroke combined for 65% of all acute ischemic cerebrovascular events. Age-adjusted incidence rates of TIA and ischemic stroke were 72.2/100,000 and 129.5/100,000 person-years, respectively. TIA patients were younger than stroke patients (66.3 vs. 72.7 years; p < 0.001). Atrial fibrillation, previous myocardial infarction and previous stroke were significantly more frequent in stroke patients; no differences in other baseline characteristics were found. Minor events are the most common in ischemic cerebrovascular disease, and may constitute a larger proportion than previously reported. TIA and stroke patients share many characteristics; however, TIA patients are younger and have fewer manifestations of atherosclerotic diseases, indicating a high potential for secondary prevention. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Glazer, Hilary; Dong, Chuanhui; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; DeCarli, Charles; Stern, Yaakov; Wright, Clinton B
Memory has been examined in subjects with imaging markers of cerebrovascular disease, but learning has been less well studied. We examined the relationship among subclinical cerebrovascular disease, cerebral volumes, and verbal learning in an ethnically and racially diverse community sample. A clinically stroke-free subset of Northern Manhattan Study participants underwent cognitive testing and brain MRI with quantification of white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) and total cerebral volume (TCV) using semiautomated segmentation. We used generalized linear regression and mixed models to examine the association between imaging findings and verbal learning. There were 1,272 participants (61% women, mean age 70 ± 9 years). Participants with greater WMHV and smaller TCV remembered fewer total words on a list-learning task (β = -0.83 per SD change in WMHV, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.22 to -0.45, p < 0.0001; and β = 0.48 per SD change in TCV, 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.90, p = 0.03, respectively). Subclinical brain infarction (SBI) was not associated with total words learned (β = -0.04, 95% CI = -1.08 to 1.00, p = 0.94). Those with greater WMHV had increased odds of a flatter learning slope. After excluding participants with SBI, the association between total words learned and WMHV remained significant. All measurements were adjusted for age, education, race/ethnicity, medical insurance status, and the presence of SBI. White matter hyperintensities, a marker of cerebral small vessel disease, may have an impact on learning slope. This suggests that verbal learning performance can be incorporated into neuropsychological measures for vascular cognitive impairment and that cerebrovascular disease discovered on imaging affects the ability to learn new information. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
Imaizumi, Takahiro; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Fujita, Yoshiro; Nomura, Rie; Watanabe, Kenshi; Maekawa, Michitaka; Yamakawa, Taishi; Katsuno, Takayuki; Maruyama, Shoichi
Hypernatraemia is one of the major electrolyte disorders associated with mortality among critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs). It is unclear whether this applies to patients with cerebrovascular diseases in whom high sodium concentrations may be allowed in order to prevent cerebral oedema. This study aimed to examine the association between ICU-acquired hypernatraemia and the prognosis of patients with cerebrovascular diseases. A retrospective cohort study. The incidence of ICU-acquired hypernatraemia was assessed retrospectively in a single tertiary care facility in Japan. Adult patients (≥18 years old) whose length of stay in ICU was >2 days and those whose serum sodium concentrations were 130-149 mEq/L on admission to ICU were included. 28-day in-hospital mortality risk was assessed by Cox regression analysis. Hypernatraemia was defined as serum sodium concentration ≥150 mEq/L. Using multivariate analysis, we examined whether ICU-acquired hypernatraemia and the main symptom present at ICU admission were associated with time to death among ICU patients. We also evaluated how the maximum and minimum sodium concentrations during ICU stay were associated with mortality, using restricted cubic splines. Of 1756 patients, 121 developed ICU-acquired hypernatraemia. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed an association between ICU-acquired hypernatraemia and 28-day mortality (adjusted HR, 3.07 (95% CI 2.12 to 4.44)). The interaction between ICU-acquired hypernatraemia and cerebrovascular disease was significantly associated with 28-day mortality (HR, 3.03 (95% CI 1.29 to 7.15)). The restricted cubic splines analysis of maximum serum sodium concentration in ICU patients determined a threshold maximum of 147 mEq/L. There was no significant association between minimum sodium concentration and mortality. ICU-acquired hypernatraemia was associated with an increased mortality rate among critically ill patients with cerebrovascular
Oh, Chang Hyun; Chung, Joonho; Hyun, Dongkeun; Kim, Eunyoung
Purpose This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and stroke in Korean male adolescents. Materials and Methods The authors reviewed all medical certificates, medical records, and radiologic images from the examinations of Korean military conscription from January 2008 to May 2011. Results Of the 101156 examinees, 40 had CVD and stroke during adolescence. The overall prevalence and incidence of CVD and stroke was 39.54 cases per 100000 adolescents and 2.08 cases per 100000 adolescents per year, respectively and these were similar to the worldwide data. There were 3 cases of aneurysm, 3 cases of dural arteriovenous fistula, 11 cases of arteriovenous malformation, 4 cases of cavernous hemangioma, 4 cases of cerebrovascular infarction, 16 cases of Moyamoya disease, and 1 case of missing data. The incidence of arteriovenous malformation (0.57 cases per 100000 adolescents per year) was lower than the incidence for the worldwide general population. The incidence of Moyamoya disease was higher than that in any other country (15.82 cases per 100000 adolescents, vs. 0.83 cases per 100000 adolescents per year). Conclusion We observed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, each accounting for approximately half of cases, and high incidence of Moyamoya disease with low incidence of arteriovenous malformation in Korean male adolescents. PMID:22476988
Maekawa, M; Awaya, S; Fukuda, S; Teramoto, A
The efficacy of encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS) using superficial temporal artery was evaluated for the treatment of the occlusive/stenotic cerebrovascular disease. Nine patients with the occlusive/stenotic cerebrovascular disease underwent EDAS in our hospital. The mean follow-up period was 6.6 months. Postoperative angiography showed no collateral formation via EDAS in any of the nine patients. We analyzed the following points: 1) operative procedure, 2) follow up period after surgery, 3) preoperative cerebral blood flow, and 4) age of the patients. Results showed that EDAS as a treatment of occlusive/stenotic cerebrovascular disease was not effective. This study failed to reinforce the suggestion that indirect extracranial/intracranial bypass surgery is effective as the treatment of occlusive/stenotic cerebrovascular disease.
Chen, Shin-Yan; Cherng, Yih-Giun; Lee, Fei-Peng; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Shih-Yu; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Liao, Chien-Chang; Chen, Ta-Liang
Abstract Little was known about the beneficial effects of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) on the outcomes after obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of UPPP on reducing risk of cerebrovascular diseases in patients with OSA. Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 10,339 patients with new OSA between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2009. The incident cerebrovascular disease was identified during the 1-year follow-up period in patients with and without receiving UPPP. The rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cerebrovascular disease associated with receiving UPPP in patients with OSA were calculated in multivariate Poisson regression. The 1-year incidences of cerebrovascular disease for OSA patients with and without UPPP were 1.06% and 5.14%, respectively. Patients with OSA receiving UPPP had lower risk of cerebrovascular disease compared with those without UPPP (RR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.33–0.61). The decreased risk of cerebrovascular disease following UPPP was observed in both sexes and all age groups. In the stratified analysis of medical conditions, the RR of cerebrovascular disease associated with UPPP for patients with 0, 1, ≥ 2 medical conditions were 0.28 (95% CI 0.12–0.68), 0.39 (95% CI 0.21–0.73), and 0.63 (95% CI 0.43–0.93), respectively. Patients with OSA who received UPPP had lower risk of cerebrovascular disease within 1 year after surgery compared with patients not receiving UPPP. Clinical physicians could have more evidence to persuade patients to receive surgical intervention, especially those who have severe OSA symptoms or do not acquire adequate symptom relief under conservative treatments. PMID:26469923
Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M; Shibata, Dean; Best, Lyle G; Verney, Steven P; Longstreth, William T; Lee, Elisa T; Okin, Peter M; Devereux, Richard; O'Leary, Marcia; Ali, Tauqeer; Jensen, Paul N; Muller, Clemma; Nelson, Lonnie A; Rhoades, Everett; Madhyastha, Tara; Grabowski, Thomas J; Beauchamp, Norman; Umans, Jason G; Buchwald, Dedra
The Cerebrovascular Disease and its Consequences in American Indians (CDCAI) Study recruited surviving members of a 20-year, longitudinal, population-based cohort of American Indians focused on cardiovascular disease, its risk factors, and its consequences. The goal of the CDCAI Study is to characterize the burden, risk factors, and manifestations of vascular brain injury identified on cranial MRI. The CDCAI Study investigators enrolled 1,033 participants aged 60 and older from 11 American Indian communities and tribes in the Northern Plains, Southern Plains, and Southwestern United States. In addition to cranial MRI performed according to standardized protocols, participants underwent extensive medical interview, clinical examination, neurocognitive testing, physical function evaluation, electrocardiogram, and provided blood and urine specimens. Participants also self-administered questionnaires covering demographics, quality of life, and medical history. This report describes the design, implementation, and some of the unique challenges of this study and data collection. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M.; Shibata, Dean; Best, Lyle G.; Verney, Steven P.; Longstreth, W.T.; Lee, Elisa T.; Okin, Peter M.; Devereux, Richard; O’Leary, Marcia; Ali, Tauqeer; Jensen, Paul N.; Muller, Clemma; Nelson, Lonnie A.; Rhoades, Everett; Madhyastha, Tara; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Beauchamp, Norman; Umans, Jason G.; Buchwald, Dedra
The Cerebrovascular Disease and Its Consequences in American Indians (CDCAI) Study recruited surviving members of a 20-year, longitudinal, population-based cohort of American Indians focused on cardiovascular disease, its risk factors, and its consequences. The goal of CDCAI Study is to characterize the burden, risk factors, and manifestations of vascular brain injury identified on cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CDCAI Study investigators enrolled 1,033 participants aged 60 years and older from 11 American Indian communities and tribes in the Northern Plains, Southern Plains, and Southwestern U.S. In addition to cranial MRI performed according to standardized protocols, participants underwent extensive medical interview, clinical examination, neurocognitive testing, physical function evaluation, electrocardiogram, and provided blood and urine specimens. Participants also self-administered questionnaires covering demographics, quality of life, and medical history. This report describes the design, implementation, and some of the unique challenges of this study and data collection. PMID:27603047
Kim, Hyeong Su; Choi, Jae Wook; Chang, Soung Hoon; Lee, Kun Sei
The purpose of this study is to present the importance of work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease from the viewpoint of expenses. Using the insurance benefit paid for the 4,300 cases, this study estimated the burden of insurance benefits spent on work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease. The number of cases with work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease per 100,000 insured workers were 3.36 in 1995; they were increased to 13.16 in 2000. By the days of occurrence, the estimated number of cases were 1,336 in 2001 (95% CI: 1,211-1,460 cases) and 1,769 in 2005 (CI: 1,610-1,931 cases). The estimated average insurance benefits paid per person with work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease was 75-19 million won for medical care benefit and 56 million won for other benefits except medical care. By considering the increase in insurance payment and average pay, the predicted insurance benefits for work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease was 107.9 billion won for the 2001 cohort and 192.4 billion won for the 2005 cohort. From an economic perspective, the results will be used as important evidence for the prevention and management of work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease.
Yan, Xu-Jie; Xiao, Shi-Ying
To explore the influencing factors for the maintenance of valid patents of compound traditional Chinese medicines in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Logistic regression analysis was used to detect the influencing factors for the maintenance of valid patents. The maintenance of valid patents of compound traditional Chinese medicines in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases was closely related to many factors, such as their invention, patent rights' transfer, patent claims and patent declaration documents. The maintenance of valid patents of compound traditional Chinese medicines in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases depends on many factors, such as centralization of efficacy of components of patent compound traditional Chinese medicines, increasing number of dependent claims, and supply of new dosage form and detailed experimental data. Therefore, the transfer of patent rights is of great significance to the maintenance of patents.
Wang, Xingce; Bie, Rongfang; Wu, Zhongke; Zhou, Mingquan; Cao, Rongfei; Xie, Lizhi; Zhang, Dong
Background In recent years, cerebrovascular disease has been the leading cause of death and adult disability in the world. This study describes an efficient approach to detect cerebrovascular disease. Objective In order to improve cerebrovascular treatment, prevention, and care, an automatic cerebrovascular disease detection eHealth platform is designed and studied. Methods We designed an automatic eHealth platform for cerebrovascular disease detection with a four-level architecture: object control layer, data transmission layer, service supporting layer, and application service layer. The platform has eight main functions: cerebrovascular database management, preprocessing of cerebral image data, image viewing and adjustment model, image cropping compression and measurement, cerebrovascular segmentation, 3-dimensional cerebrovascular reconstruction, cerebrovascular rendering, cerebrovascular virtual endoscope, and automatic detection. Several key technologies were employed for the implementation of the platform. The anisotropic diffusion model was used to reduce the noise. Statistics segmentation with Gaussian-Markov random field model (G-MRF) and Stochastic Estimation Maximization (SEM) parameter estimation method were used to realize the cerebrovascular segmentation. Ball B-Spline curve was proposed to model the cerebral blood vessels. Compute unified device architecture (CUDA) based on ray-casting volume rendering presented by curvature enhancement and boundary enhancement were used to realize the volume rendering model. We implemented the platform with a network client and mobile phone client to fit different users. Results The implemented platform is running on a common personal computer. Experiments on 32 patients’ brain computed tomography data or brain magnetic resonance imaging data stored in the system verified the feasibility and validity of each model we proposed. The platform is partly used in the cranial nerve surgery of the First Hospital
Wang, Xingce; Bie, Rongfang; Sun, Yunchuan; Wu, Zhongke; Zhou, Mingquan; Cao, Rongfei; Xie, Lizhi; Zhang, Dong
In recent years, cerebrovascular disease has been the leading cause of death and adult disability in the world. This study describes an efficient approach to detect cerebrovascular disease. In order to improve cerebrovascular treatment, prevention, and care, an automatic cerebrovascular disease detection eHealth platform is designed and studied. We designed an automatic eHealth platform for cerebrovascular disease detection with a four-level architecture: object control layer, data transmission layer, service supporting layer, and application service layer. The platform has eight main functions: cerebrovascular database management, preprocessing of cerebral image data, image viewing and adjustment model, image cropping compression and measurement, cerebrovascular segmentation, 3-dimensional cerebrovascular reconstruction, cerebrovascular rendering, cerebrovascular virtual endoscope, and automatic detection. Several key technologies were employed for the implementation of the platform. The anisotropic diffusion model was used to reduce the noise. Statistics segmentation with Gaussian-Markov random field model (G-MRF) and Stochastic Estimation Maximization (SEM) parameter estimation method were used to realize the cerebrovascular segmentation. Ball B-Spline curve was proposed to model the cerebral blood vessels. Compute unified device architecture (CUDA) based on ray-casting volume rendering presented by curvature enhancement and boundary enhancement were used to realize the volume rendering model. We implemented the platform with a network client and mobile phone client to fit different users. The implemented platform is running on a common personal computer. Experiments on 32 patients' brain computed tomography data or brain magnetic resonance imaging data stored in the system verified the feasibility and validity of each model we proposed. The platform is partly used in the cranial nerve surgery of the First Hospital Affiliated to the General Hospital of People
Goveas, Joseph S.; Espeland, Mark A.; Hogan, Patricia; Dotson, Vonetta; Tarima, Sergey; Coker, Laura H.; Ockene, Judith; Brunner, Robert; Woods, Nancy F.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Kotchen, Jane M.; Resnick, Susan
Objective Late-life depressive symptoms (DS) increase the risk of incident mild cognitive impairment and probable dementia in the elderly. Our objectives were to examine the relationship between elevated DS and regional brain volumes including frontal lobe subregions, hippocampus and amygdala, and to determine whether elevated DS were associated with increased subclinical cerebrovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Methods DS were assessed an average of 8 years prior to structural brain MRI in 1372 women. The 8-item Burnam regression algorithm was used to define DS with a cut-point of 0.009. Adjusting for potential confounders, mean differences in total brain, frontal lobe subregions, hippocampus and amygdala volumes and total ischemic lesion volumes in the basal ganglia and the cerebral white and gray matter outside the basal ganglia were compared between women with and without DS. Results Depressed women had lower baseline global cognition and were more likely to have prior hormone therapy history. After full adjustment, DS at baseline were associated with smaller superior and middle frontal gyral volumes. Hippocampal and amygdala volumes, and ischemic lesion volumes were similar in depressed and non-depressed women. Limitations Depression was not assessed based on semi-structured interview, and we were unable to determine the temporal relationships between DS and frontal lobe volume differences due to the availability of only one MRI scan. Conclusions Elevated DS were associated with lower volumes in certain frontal lobe subregions but not in the medial temporal lobe structures. Our findings support the role of frontal lobe structures in late-life DS among women. PMID:21349587
Derriennic, F; Guilloud, M; Ducimetière, P
The relation between death rates from ischaemic heart and cerebro-vascular diseases among Frenchmen aged 45-64, and some dietary constituents was studied. Data concerned population groups defined by the geographic regions and the socioeconomic classes. A specific statistical model of variance analysis was considered. A positive association between the daily sugar intake and the death rates from ischaemic heart diseases were observed. On the other hand, several positive associations between the daily intake of protein, fat, carbohydrate and total calories (without alcohol) and death rates from cerebrovascular diseases were found. The quality of nutritional data, however, implies some prudence in interpreting these results.
Schindler, R J
Patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular disease (AD + CVD) have dementia associated with underlying CVD. Although diagnosis of VaD is challenging, VaD is typically characterized by a stepwise progression of dementia that is closely associated with stroke and focal neurological findings, and a symptom profile that often includes executive dysfunction leading to decreased ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). In contrast, AD + CVD patients typically present with progressive deterioration of cognition/memory that may also be influenced by concurrent cerebrovascular events. Early diagnosis and intervention are desirable to prevent further decline due to subsequent vascular events. Management of CVD can limit deterioration of cognitive symptoms in VaD patients, and treatment benefits with cholinesterase inhibitors may be realized as improvement above baseline levels in dementia symptoms. Results from a combined analysis of two 24-week, placebo-controlled clinical trials show that donepezil-treated VaD patients improve in cognition, global function, and performance of IADL. In contrast, AD + CVD patients may continue to decline despite management of CVD, and treatment benefits should be recognized as initial improvements followed by stabilization or slowed decline of dementia symptoms over time. In post-marketing studies, donepezil-treated AD and AD + CVD patients show similar benefits in cognition, global function, and quality of life. The results of these studies support the use of donepezil in treatment of patients with VaD or AD + CVD.
Brass, L.M.; Rattner, Z.
Every year, nearly half a million people in the United States have a stroke. Cerebrovascular disease is the third leading cause of death in the country, and it costs the economy approximately $25 billion annually. SPECT perfusion imaging is a sensitive indicator of stroke. Abnormal patterns of blood flow are recognized either as areas of hypoactivity (focal or diffused) or hyperactivity (hyperemia or luxury perfusion). Lesions are demonstrated earlier by SPECT than by CT or MRI, and the physiologic information from flow imaging is not available from such anatomic studies. Given the significance of stroke and the early sensitivity of SPECT, why do most neurologists not include SPECT in the evaluation of their patients? The authors feel that the answer is that most neurologists do not view SPECT flow imaging as providing additional information beyond the standard clinical and radiologic work-up. This article therefore concentrates on ways in which SPECT imaging can be useful in stroke, identifying the major concerns of clinicians, and demonstrating how some of these concerns can be addressed by SPECT. The goal is to expand the perspective of the nuclear-medicine physician and encourage investigations on urgent clinical problems in the diagnosis and management of patients with cerebrovascular diseases. Additional information may be obtained from several excellent reviews of SPECT imaging in stroke. 73 refs.
Sun, Zhonghua; Lee, Shen Yuan
The application of 3-D printing has been increasingly used in medicine, with research showing many applications in cardiovascular disease. This systematic review analyzes those studies published about the applications of 3-D printed, patient-specific models in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. A search of PubMed/Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify studies investigating the 3-D printing in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Only studies based on patient's medical images were eligible for review, while reports on in vitro phantom or review articles were excluded. A total of 48 studies met selection criteria for inclusion in the review. A range of patient-specific 3-D printed models of different cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were generated in these studies with most of them being developed using cardiac CT and MRI data, less commonly with 3-D invasive angiographic or echocardiographic images. The review of these studies showed high accuracy of 3-D printed, patient-specific models to represent complex anatomy of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system and depict various abnormalities, especially congenital heart diseases and valvular pathologies. Further, 3-D printing can serve as a useful education tool for both parents and clinicians, and a valuable tool for pre-surgical planning and simulation. This systematic review shows that 3-D printed models based on medical imaging modalities can accurately replicate complex anatomical structures and pathologies of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system. 3-D printing is a useful tool for both education and surgical planning in these diseases.
Gil, Pedro; Ayuso, José Luis Dobato; Marey, José Manuel; Antón, Manuel; Quilo, Carlos Guzmán
There is frequently a degree of variability among different types of dementia specialists in clinical practice in both the clinical diagnosis and the management of patients with Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). This variability may have an adverse effect on the use of medical resources as well as on patients' well-being. The main objective of this study was to describe the current diagnosis and management of patients with Alzheimer's disease and CVD in Spain. Other objectives were to determine whether there were significant differences in the diagnosis and management of these patients depending on physician characteristics and/or patient profile. This was an epidemiological, cross-sectional, multicentre study in which 107 physicians participated and recruited patients with Alzheimer's disease and CVD. During a 1-month period, physicians collected data on diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, adverse events and other characteristics of these patients. This study was performed under naturalistic conditions, and no restrictions were imposed on the physicians. Physicians were mainly neurologists (76%), geriatricians (14%) and psychiatrists (8%) with a median age of 42 years. A total of 720 patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and CVD were recruited. The median age of the patients was 78 years. Almost all patients were diagnosed by neuroimaging (98%) together with medical history (87%). The existence of a previous stroke coincident with cognitive deterioration was used as a diagnostic method in only 27% of patients. Among non-pharmacological treatment measures, diet was the most frequently recommended (61%), followed by cognitive stimulation (50%) and physical exercise (44%). The most commonly used pharmacological treatments were galantamine (59%), donepezil (14%) and rivastigmine (11%). The incidence of adverse events was low (3%), and all were considered non-severe. There were no significant correlations between physician age or physician
Desai, Amish J; Fuller, Cindy J; Jesurum, Jill T; Reisman, Mark
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been linked to ischemic strokes of undetermined cause (cryptogenic strokes). PFO-a remnant of fetal circulation when the foramen ovale does not seal after birth-can permit microemboli to escape the pulmonary filter into the intracranial circulation, causing stroke. Coexistent atrial septal aneurysm, pelvic deep vein thrombosis and inherited clotting factor deficiencies could potentiate stroke risk in patients with PFO. Transcatheter PFO closure, a minimally invasive procedure, is one technique used to prevent recurrent cerebrovascular events. A connection between PFO and migraine headache has been conceptualized from retrospective evidence of reduced migraine frequency and severity after PFO closure; however, prospective randomized trials are needed to verify the efficacy of PFO closure on migraine prevention. In this review we discuss embryologic origins, diagnostic techniques and treatment options for prevention of paradoxical embolism thought to be related to PFO, and the relation of PFO to cryptogenic stroke and migraine.
Catalina-Romero, Carlos; Ruilope, Luis Miguel; Sánchez-Chaparro, Miguel Angel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Cabrera-Sierra, Martha; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Ruiz-Moraga, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva
The role of prior cardiovascular risk (CVR) in the multifactorial process of returning to work after a cerebrovascular event has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyse the association between previous CVR level, cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and return-to-work (RTW) following cerebrovascular disease. This was a prospective observational study. We analysed a cohort of 348 patients who had experienced an episode of cerebrovascular disease-related work absence. These individuals were selected from the ICARIA study (Ibermutuamur CArdiovascular RIsk Assessment). Global CVR was assessed using the SCORE system. We investigated the association between demographics, work-related variables, CVRFs and RTW following a cerebrovascular event. We found that a total of 254 individuals (73.0%; 95% CI: 68.3-77.7) returned to work after cerebrovascular disease. Also, we observed a median loss of 12 working years due to disability. Moreover, adjusting for potential confounders revealed that low CVR level and the absence of the following CVRFs was associated with a higher likelihood of RTW: low vs moderate-to-high CVR level (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.42-4.57), no hypertension before stroke (OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.11-3.41), non-smoker status (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.30-3.93) and no previous diabetes (OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.26-4.79). Low CVR, along with the absence of several CVRFs, can be used to predict RTW rates following cerebrovascular events. Therefore, controlling hypertension, tobacco consumption and diabetes might contribute to the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation and/or secondary/tertiary prevention programs for cerebrovascular disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.
Lahousse, Lies; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan; Brusselle, Guy G
Along with the aging population, the public health burden of cerebrovascular disease is increasing. Cerebral small vessel disease and accumulation of brain pathology associate with cognitive decline and can lead to clinical outcomes, such as stroke and dementia. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common respiratory disease among elderly. The quality of life and prognosis of patients with COPD is greatly determined by the presence of comorbidities including stroke and cognitive impairment. Despite the clinical relevance of cerebral small vessel disease, stroke and (vascular) cognitive impairment in patients with COPD, literature is scarce and underlying mechanisms are unknown. The aim of the present review is therefore to summarize current scientific knowledge, to provide a better understanding of the interplay between COPD and the aging brain and to define remaining knowledge gaps. This narrative review article 1) overviews the epidemiology of cerebral small vessel disease, stroke and cognitive impairment in patients with COPD; 2) discusses potential underlying mechanisms including aging, smoking, systemic inflammation, vasculopathy, hypoxia and genetic susceptibility; and 3) highlights areas requiring further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Iurov, I V
A comparative analysis was done of prevalence, incidence rates, and mortality from cerebrovascular disorders (CVD), including cerebral insults, in Mariupol over the period 1999-2000. Submitted in the paper are CVD epidemiological findings from the Donetsk region, Ukraine. Of much interest to us was studying prevalence, risk factors for CVD development among those workers occupied in labour at large industrial enterprises in Mariupol, with which purpose sampling population studies were made among workers occupied in labour at the Illyich Integrated Iron-and-Steel Works and seaport. During the course of the above studies epidemiological indices were examined together with risk factors for development of cerebrovascular disorders.
Zlokovic, Berislav V
Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) has 3 isoforms: apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4. APOE4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease and is associated with dementia in Down syndrome and poor neurological outcome after traumatic brain injury, cerebral hemorrhage, and other neuropathological disorders. While apoE4 can induce neuropathology by participating in various cellular and molecular pathways, herein I review data supporting the hypothesis that apoE4 has direct toxic effects on the cerebrovascular system that in turn can lead to secondary neuronal dysfunction and degeneration as well as accumulation of neurotoxins in brain such as β-amyloid (Aβ) in Alzheimer disease. I review Aβ-independent cerebrovascular effects of apoE, particularly activation of a proinflammatory cyclophilin A-mediated pathway in brain vascular pericytes by apoE4 that has recently been shown to lead to a loss of cerebrovascular integrity and blood-brain barrier breakdown causing neuronal injury. I also review Aβ-dependent cerebrovascular effects of apoE such as faulty Aβ clearance from brain to circulation by apoE4. Finally, I discuss isoform-specific interactions of apoE with low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 on brain vascular cells (ie, endothelial cells, pericytes), which play an important role in Aβ-independent and Aβ-dependent effects of apoE on cerebral vasculature.
Faerber, E.N.; Griska, L.A.B.; Swartz, J.D.; Capitanio, M.A.; Popky, G.L.
While conventional angiography has been used to demonstrate cerebrovascular occlusive disease in the past, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is capable of showing progressive vascular involvement with ease, simplicity, and extremely low morbidity, making it particularly well suited for children and outpatients either alone or coordinated with computed tomography. The authors discuss the usefulness and advantages of DSA as demonstrated in 7 infants and children with hemiplegia, 4 of whom had sickle-cell disease.
Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Rundek, Tatjana; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton B.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.
Background Silent brain infarcts (SBIs) and white matter hyperintensities are subclinical cerebrovascular lesions associated with incident stroke and cognitive decline. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a predictor of stroke in patients with heart failure, but its association with subclinical brain disease in the general population is unknown. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) can detect subclinical cardiac dysfunction even when LVEF is normal. We investigated the relationship of LVEF and GLS with subclinical brain disease in a community-based cohort. Methods and Results LVEF and GLS were assessed by 2-dimensional and speckle-tracking echocardiography in 439 participants free of stroke and cardiac disease from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study. SBIs and white matter hyperintensities were assessed by brain MRI. Mean age of the study population was 69±10 years, 61% were women, LVEF was 63.8±6.4%, GLS was −17.1±3.0%. SBIs were detected in 53 participants (12%), white matter hyperintensity volume was 0.63±0.86%. GLS was significantly lower in participants with SBI versus those without (−15.7±3.5% versus −17.3±2.9%, P<0.01), whereas no difference in LVEF was observed (63.3±8.6% versus 63.8±6.0%, P=0.60). In multivariate analysis, lower GLS was associated with SBI (odds ratio/unit decrease=1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–1.33; P<0.01), whereas LVEF was not (odds ratio/unit increase=1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.96–1.05; P=0.98). Lower GLS was associated with greater white matter hyperintensity volume (adjusted β=0.11, P<0.05), unlike LVEF (adjusted β=−0.04, P=0.42). Conclusions Lower GLS was independently associated with subclinical brain disease in a community-based cohort without overt cardiac disease. GLS can provide additional information on cerebrovascular risk burden beyond LVEF assessment. PMID:23902759
Sipos, Kornel; Bodo, Michael; Szalay, Piroska; Szucs, Attila
In order to test the hypothesis that anxiety is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, specifically stroke, we simultaneously measured anxiety and cerebral vascular alternation, using a computer-based system, "Cerberus." Sixty nine psychiatric patients (including an alcoholic subgroup) were selected as subjects for measurements conducted in Kecskemet, Hungary. The five-item short form of anxiety test (STAI) was administered twice during the same session. Between each test, brain pulse waves were recorded by rheoencephalogram (REG). A REG peak time above 180 milliseconds was considered a cerebrovascular alteration (modified after Jenkner). Data were sorted into two groups: low anxiety (N=10) and high anxiety (N=10). Significant differences were found between cardiovascular risk factors (p< 0.001), REG peak time (p<0.043), and heart rate (p< 0.045). Six subjects showed cerebrovascular alteration in the high anxiety group, and two in the low anxiety group. For the two anxiety groups, there were no significant differences in body mass index, cardiovascular sympathetic-parasympathetic balance, age and symptoms of transient ischemic attack. The correlation of REG and age was significantly different only for the alcoholic subgroup (Szalay et al, 2007). These data support the hypothesis that a correlation exists between cerebrovascular disorder and anxiety in the studied population.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive chronic disorder and is characterized by β-amyloid plaques and angiopathy, tau pathology, neuronal cell death, and inflammatory responses. The reasons for this disease are not known. This review proposes the hypothesis that a chronic mild longlasting cerebrovascular dysfunction could initiate a cascade of events leading to AD. It is suggested that (vascular) risk factors (e.g. hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, hyperhomocysteinemia) causes either damage of the cerebrovascular system including silent strokes or causes dysregulation of beta-amyloid clearance at the blood-brain barrier resulting in increased brain beta-amyloid. A cascade of subsequent downstream events may lead to disturbed metabolic changes, and neuroinflammation and tau pathology. The role of NGF on the cell death of cholinergic neurons is discussed. Additional risk factors (e.g. acidosis, metals) contribute to plaque development. PMID:21112383
Gan, Yu; Jing, Zheng; Stetler, Ruth Anne; Cao, Guodong
Recent achievements in the understanding of molecular events involved in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) injury have made gene transfer a promising approach for various neurological disorders, including cerebrovascular diseases. However, special obstacles, including the post-mitotic nature of neurons and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), constitute key challenges for gene delivery to the CNS. Despite the various limitations in current gene delivery systems, a spectrum of viral vectors has been successfully used to deliver genes to the CNS. Furthermore, recent advancements in vector engineering have improved the safety and delivery of viral vectors. Numerous viral vector-based clinical trials for neurological disorders have been initiated. This review will summarize the current implementation of viral gene delivery in the context of cerebrovascular diseases including ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In particular, we will discuss the potentially feasible ways in which viral vectors can be manipulated and exploited for use in neural delivery and therapy.
Daskalopoulou, Marina; George, Julie; Walters, Kate; Osborn, David P; Batty, G David; Stogiannis, Dimitris; Rapsomaniki, Eleni; Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar; Denaxas, Spiros; Udumyan, Ruzan; Kivimaki, Mika; Hemingway, Harry
Depression is associated with coronary heart disease and stroke, but associations with a range of pathologically diverse cardiovascular diseases are not well understood. We examine the risk of 12 cardiovascular diseases according to depression status (history or new onset). Cohort study of 1,937,360 adult men and women, free from cardiovascular disease at baseline, using linked UK electronic health records between 1997 and 2010. The exposures were new-onset depression (a new GP diagnosis of depression and/or prescription for antidepressants during a one-year baseline), and history of GP-diagnosed depression before baseline. The primary endpoint was initial presentation of 12 cardiovascular diseases after baseline. We used disease-specific Cox proportional hazards models with multiple imputation adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors (age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, blood pressure, diabetes, cholesterol). Over a median [IQR] 6.9 [2.1-10.5] years of follow-up, 18.9% had a history of depression and 94,432 incident cardiovascular events occurred. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, history of depression was associated with: stable angina (Hazard Ratio = 1.38, 95%CI 1.32-1.45), unstable angina (1.70, 1.60-1.82), myocardial infarction (1.21, 1.16-1.27), unheralded coronary death (1.23, 1.14-1.32), heart failure (1.18, 1.13-1.24), cardiac arrest (1.14, 1.03-1.26), transient ischemic attack (1.31, 1.25-1.38), ischemic stroke (1.26, 1.18-1.34), subarachnoid haemorrhage (1.17, 1.01-1.35), intracerebral haemorrhage (1.30, 1.17-1.45), peripheral arterial disease (1.24, 1.18-1.30), and abdominal aortic aneurysm (1.12,1.01-1.24). New onset depression developed in 2.9% of people, among whom 63,761 cardiovascular events occurred. New onset depression was similarly associated with each of the 12 diseases, with no evidence of stronger associations compared to history of depression. The strength of association between depression and these cardiovascular
Sun, Baijun; Zhang, Liwen; Chen, Xi; Ma, Nannan; Yu, Fei; Guo, Huimin; Huang, Hui; Lee, Yungling Leo; Tang, Naijun; Chen, Jie
Background The relationship between ambient air pollution exposure and mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in human is controversial, and there is little information about how exposures to ambient air pollution contribution to the mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among Chinese. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exposure to ambient-air pollution increases the risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a retrospective cohort study among humans to examine the association between compound-air pollutants [particulate matter <10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and mortality in Shenyang, China, using 12 years of data (1998–2009). Also, stratified analysis by sex, age, education, and income was conducted for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality. The results showed that an increase of 10 µg/m3 in a year average concentration of PM10 corresponds to 55% increase in the risk of a death cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51 to 1.60) and 49% increase in cerebrovascular disease (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.45 to 1.53), respectively. The corresponding figures of adjusted HR (95%CI) for a 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2 was 2.46 (2.31 to 2.63) for cardiovascular mortality and 2.44 (2.27 to 2.62) for cerebrovascular mortality, respectively. The effects of air pollution were more evident in female that in male, and nonsmokers and residents with BMI<18.5 were more vulnerable to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion/Significance Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with the death of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among Chinese populations. PMID:21695220
Hammond, Charles K; Eley, Brian; Wieselthaler, Nicky; Ndondo, Alvin; Wilmshurst, Jo M
An estimated 3.2 million children worldwide have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in prolonged survival, leading to an increase in complications previously recognized in adults. Children with HIV infection have increased risk of cerebrovascular disease from multiple aetiologies including HIV-associated vasculopathy, opportunistic vasculitis, cardioembolism or coagulopathy, all of which may be secondary to the infection. Prevalence of cerebrovascular disease in HIV-infected children is underestimated because of limited neuroimaging in low and middle income countries, silent events without overt motor manifestations, and mislabeling as HIV encephalopathy for non-motor manifestations such as behavioural and cognitive difficulties. No management guidelines for cerebrovascular disease in HIV-infected children exist but common practices target risk factors for stroke in low and middle income countries. Where capacity permits, screening for opportunistic infections, vasculitis, coagulopathy and cardioembolism is important. Optimising virological suppression, correction of anaemia, control of seizures and aspirin prophylaxis are management priorities. Neurosurgical interventions may have a role. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.
Chen, M Y; Ott, D J; Peele, V N; Gelfand, D W
Forty-six patients with cerebrovascular disease underwent videofluoroscopic examination of the oropharynx to assess location and severity of swallowing dysfunction with use of boluses of various consistencies. Low- and high-viscosity barium suspensions, a barium paste, and a paste-coated cookie were used; not all patients were given all materials. Thirty-nine patients had abnormalities of both oral and pharyngeal function. Two patients had oral dysfunction only, and five had pharyngeal abnormalities only. Mild swallowing difficulties occurred in 18 patients (39%), moderate dysfunction in 23 (50%), and severe dysfunction in five (11%). Thirty-one patients had pharyngeal stasis, which was symmetric in 25 patients (81%), right-sided in three, and left-sided in three. Asymmetric stasis did not correlate to the site of cerebrovascular disease. Twenty-four episodes of aspiration occurred, half of them with the low-viscosity barium suspension. Thus, video-fluoroscopy can be used to define the location and severity of oropharyngeal abnormalities, which is critical for feeding recommendations. The abnormalities present, however, were not useful in predicting the type of cerebrovascular disease.
Göthe, F; Enache, D; Wahlund, L O; Winblad, B; Crisby, M; Lökk, J; Aarsland, D
Both cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and depression are common conditions in the elderly, and there is emerging evidence of a bi-directional relationship: 1) depression can cause CVD and stroke, transient ischemic attack; and 2) subcortical CVD are associated with increased risk for depression. The frequency of poststroke depression is highest during the first month after the stroke, but remains high even after several years. Depression is associated with poorer functional prognosis and higher mortality after stroke. There is good evidence that severity of functional impairment, high neuroticism, low social support as well as genetic factors are associated with an increased risk for post-stroke depression. Deep white matter lesions are the most consistent imaging correlate of depression. Potential mechanisms mediating the association between depression and CVD are neuroinflammation and HPA-axis activation, fronto-subcortical circuit lesions, and serotonergic dysfunction. Antidepressants have demonstrated effect on poststroke depression in meta-analyses, and such drugs as well as vitamin B can reduce the incidence of depression in stroke survivors. In addition, serotonergic drugs may strengthen poststroke motor and cognitive recovery, potentially through restorative mechanisms. Psychotherapeutic strategies such as problem-solving therapy seem to be effective. There is emerging evidence that treatment of cardiovascular disease and risk-factors can reduce the risk for late-life depression, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis.
Vorstrup, S.; Lassen, N.A.; Henriksen, L.; Haase, J.; Lindewald, H.; Boysen, G.; Paulson, O.B.
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied by /sup 133/Xenon inhalation tomography in 22 patients with symptoms of ischemic cerebrovascular disease before and after establishment of an extracranial-intracranial bypass shunt. Selection of patients for shunting was based on angiographically demonstrated arterial occlusions and on the finding of focal low flow areas corresponding to the clinical symptoms, that consisted mainly of minor stroke with good remission and with or without subsequent TIAs. It was required that the area of low flow should clearly exceed the CT lesion present in practically all cases. Following surgery, the permanent neurologic deficits remained unchanged, while the TIAs stopped in all but one case. Two patients showed a definite increase of CBF in the low flow area while another two showed a questionable increase. All the other cases, 18 of the 22, showed an unchanged tomographic flow map with no trend towards diminution in extension or severity of the focal hypoperfused area. A persistent low flow in areas with no corresponding CT lesion following alleviation of a possible flow impediment is interpreted to represent an incomplete infarction or diaschisis.
Gurdasani, Deepti; Sjouke, Barbara; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Hovingh, G. Kees; Luben, Robert N.; Wainwright, Nicholas W. J.; Pomilla, Cristina; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Sandhu, Manjinder S.
Objective While the association between circulating levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke is well established, its role in risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD) remains unclear. Here, we examine the association between Lp(a) levels and PAD in a large prospective cohort. To contextualise these findings, we also examined the association between Lp(a) levels and risk of stroke and CAD and studied the role of LDL as an effect modifier of Lp(a) associated cardiovascular risk. Methods and Results Lp(a) levels were measured in apparently healthy participants in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. Cox regression was used to quantify the association between Lp(a) levels and risk of PAD, stroke and CAD outcomes. During 212,981 person-years at risk, a total of 2365 CAD, 284 ischemic stroke and 596 PAD events occurred in 18,720 participants. Lp(a) was associated with PAD and CAD outcomes but not with ischemic stroke (HR per 2.7 fold increase in Lp(a) of 1.37, 95% CI 1.25-1.50, 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22 and 0.91, 95%CI 0.79-1.03 respectively). LDL-C levels did not modify these associations. Conclusion Lp(a) levels were associated with future PAD and CAD events. The association between Lp(a) and cardiovascular disease was not modified by LDL-C levels. PMID:23065826
Sargento-Freitas, Joao; Silva, Fernando; Koehler, Sebastian; Isidoro, Luís; Mendonça, Nuno; Machado, Cristina; Cordeiro, Gustavo; Cunha, Luís
Cardioembolism due to atrial fibrillation assumes a dominant etiologic role in cerebrovascular diseases due to its growing incidence, high embolic risk and particular aspects of clinical events caused. Our objectives are to analyze the frequency of atrial fibrillation in patients with ischemic stroke, study the vital and functional impact of stroke due to different etiologies and evaluate antithrombotic options before and after stroke. We conducted a retrospective study including patients admitted in a central hospital due to ischemic stroke in 2010 (at least one year of follow-up). Etiology of stroke was defined using the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke (TOAST) classification, and functional outcome by modified Rankin scale. We performed a descriptive analysis of different stroke etiologies and antithrombotic medication in patients with atrial fibrillation. We then conducted a cohort study to evaluate the clinical impact of antithrombotic options in secondary prevention after cardioembolic stroke. In our population (n = 631) we found superior frequency of cardioembolism (34.5%) to that reported in the literature. Mortality, morbidity and antithrombotic options are similar to other previous series, confirming the severity of cardioembolic strokes and the underuse of vitamin K antagonists. Oral anticoagulation was effective in secondary prevention independently from post-stroke functional condition. Despite unequivocal recommendations, oral anticoagulation is still underused in stroke prevention. This study confirms the clinical efficacy of vitamin K antagonists in secondary prevention independently from residual functional impairment.
Pönkä, A; Virtanen, M
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether low concentrations of ambient air pollutants are associated with hospital admissions for ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases. METHODS: Associations between daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulates and daily hospital admissions due to ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases were studied in Helsinki, Finland, 1987 through 1989. The regression analyses controlled for weather, day of the week, season, long-term trends, and influenza epidemics. RESULTS: Admissions via emergency rooms due to ischemic cardiac diseases (n = 7005) were significantly associated with the prevailing levels of nitric oxide and ozone, and those due to cerebrovascular diseases (n = 3737) were associated with nitrogen dioxide; these levels were only moderate. Long-term transient myocardial ischemic attacks were related to particulates, and short-term ischemic attacks were related to nitrogen dioxide. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases may be provoked by pollutants in concentrations lower than those given as guidelines in many countries and lower than previously shown. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8806380
Sun, Zhonghua; Lee, Shen-Yuan
Objective: The application of 3-D printing has been increasingly used in medicine, with research showing many applications in cardiovascular disease. This systematic review analyzes those studies published about the applications of 3-D printed, patient-specific models in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Methods: A search of PubMed/Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify studies investigating the 3-D printing in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Only studies based on patient’s medical images were eligible for review, while reports on in vitro phantom or review articles were excluded. Results: A total of 48 studies met selection criteria for inclusion in the review. A range of patient-specific 3-D printed models of different cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were generated in these studies with most of them being developed using cardiac CT and MRI data, less commonly with 3-D invasive angiographic or echocardiographic images. The review of these studies showed high accuracy of 3-D printed, patient-specific models to represent complex anatomy of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system and depict various abnormalities, especially congenital heart diseases and valvular pathologies. Further, 3-D printing can serve as a useful education tool for both parents and clinicians, and a valuable tool for pre-surgical planning and simulation. Conclusion: This systematic review shows that 3-D printed models based on medical imaging modalities can accurately replicate complex anatomical structures and pathologies of the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system. 3-D printing is a useful tool for both education and surgical planning in these diseases. PMID:28430115
Hage, Ziad A; Alaraj, Ali; Arnone, Gregory D; Charbel, Fady T
Imaging techniques available to the physician treating neurovascular disease have substantially grown over the past several decades. New techniques as well as advances in imaging modalities continuously develop and provide an extensive array of modalities to diagnose, characterize, and understand neurovascular pathology. Modern noninvasive neurovascular imaging is generally based on computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, or nuclear imaging and includes CT angiography, CT perfusion, xenon-enhanced CT, single-photon emission CT, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, MR perfusion, functional magnetic resonance imaging with global and regional blood oxygen level dependent imaging, and magnetic resonance angiography with the use of the noninvasive optional vessel analysis software (River Forest, Ill). In addition to a brief overview of the technique, this review article discusses the clinical indications, advantages, and disadvantages of each of those modalities.
The relationship between the dietary inflammatory index and risk of total cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease: Findings from an Australian population-based prospective cohort study of women.
Vissers, Linda E T; Waller, Michael A; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Hebert, James R; Shivappa, Nitin; Schoenaker, Danielle A J M; Mishra, Gita D
Recently, a pro-inflammatory diet based on a dietary inflammatory index (DII) has been related to higher CVD risk in general population, but this has not been investigated among women. We investigated the relationship between DII and risk of total CVD and CVD subgroups (myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, stroke and cerebrovascular disease) in a prospective cohort of 6972 Australian women aged 50-55 years at baseline in 2001. We used clinical and procedure information from inpatient hospital separation registries, information on use of health care services, and from the causes-of-death registry to ascertain CVD outcomes during 11-year follow up. The association between baseline DII score and cardiovascular endpoints was analysed through cox-regression, with correction for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. We identified 335 incident cases of CVD and 191 cases of ischaemic heart disease (including 69 myocardial infarctions) and 59 cases of cerebrovascular disease (including 40 cases of stroke). A statistically significant higher risk of myocardial infarction was observed in analyses using DII scores as a continuous variable with a hazard ratio of 1.46 (95% confidence interval 1.12-1.89), but this was attenuated by further adjustment for other known cardiovascular risk factors. No association was found for total CVD, ischaemic heart diseases, or cerebrovascular disease. There was no statistically significant association between the dietary inflammatory index and risk of total cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease or stroke in this population of mid-aged Australian women. Associations were not different for postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
López-Liria, Remedios; Fernández-Alonso, Melodie; Vega-Ramírez, Francisco A; Salido-Campos, M Ángeles; Padilla-Góngora, David
INTRODUCTION. Bronchopneumonia is a frequent complication in the first days after a cerebrovascular disease and is linked with a higher rate of mortality. It occurs in patients with an altered level of consciousness or tussigenic reflex, and could be prevented with an early dysphagia rehabilitation programme. AIMS. To review the scientific literature on the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with dysphagia after suffering a stroke, published between 2002 and 2012. DEVELOPMENT. A search conducted in the PubMed, Cochrane, PEDro, CINAHL and ENFISPO databases yielded 15 papers that fulfilled eligibility criteria and the initial aims of the study, providing information about 3,212 patients. The different protocols and techniques for re-education in dysphagia are described and include compensatory strategies, orofacial regulation therapy, music therapy, sensory stimulation, lip muscle, tongue, pharynx, larynx and respiratory tract training, Mendelsohn manoeuvre, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and acupuncture. CONCLUSIONS. The studies examined in this research claim that the treatment of dysphagia following a stroke can improve the function of deglutition (coordination, speed, volume), quality of life and people's social relationships. Further work needs to be carried out to establish or define what kind of therapies, techniques, exercises or manoeuvres are the most effective in dysphagia. Generally agreed treatment or rehabilitation protocols also need to be drawn up within units that address stroke in an integrated manner.
Torén, Kjell; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Nilsson, Tohr; Järvholm, Bengt
Objectives A growing number of epidemiological studies are showing that ambient exposure to particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, whether occupational exposure increases this risk is not clear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether occupational exposure to particulate air pollution increases the risk for ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Methods The study population was a cohort of 176 309 occupationally exposed Swedish male construction workers and 71 778 unexposed male construction workers. The definition of exposure to inorganic dust (asbestos, man‐made mineral fibres, dust from cement, concrete and quartz), wood dust, fumes (metal fumes, asphalt fumes and diesel exhaust) and gases and irritants (organic solvents and reactive chemicals) was based on a job‐exposure matrix with focus on exposure in the mid‐1970s. The cohort was followed from 1971 to 2002 with regard to mortality to ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RR) were obtained by the person‐years method and from Poisson regression models adjusting for baseline values of blood pressure, body mass index, age and smoking habits. Results Any occupational particulate air pollution was associated with an increased risk for ischemic heart disease (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19), but there was no increased risk for cerebrovascular disease (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.07). There was an increased risk for ischaemic heart disease and exposure to inorganic dust (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) and exposure to fumes (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.10), especially diesel exhaust (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.24). There was no significantly increased risk for cerebrovascular disease and exposure to inorganic dust, fumes or wood dust. Conclusions Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution, especially diesel exhaust, among construction workers increases the risk for ischaemic heart disease. PMID
Del Brutto, Oscar H; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Sacks, Claudio; Ameriso, Sebastián F; Náder, Juan; Alonso de Leciñana, María; Massaro, Ayrton
The Iberoamerican Cerebrovascular Diseases Society was founded 15 years ago. Being aware of the increased burden of stroke in Latin America, its members have been working to enhance the knowledge on stroke among physicians in the region, to increase public awareness on stroke warning signs, and to motivate public health authorities to implement programs that speed the access of stroke patients to specialized units. Besides organizing annual meetings that have convened an increasing number of attendees, the Society has been actively involved in the elaboration of guidelines for stroke classification and therapy that will be practical for use at a regional level, as well as in the consolidation of links with other stroke societies to increase the diffusion of local stroke issues to the medical community at large. The Society is also involved in the Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke trial as well as in other studies that will increase the knowledge on stroke management and prognosis in the region. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.
Marchant, Natalie L.; Reed, Bruce R.; DeCarli, Charles S.; Madison, Cindee M.; Weiner, Michael W.; Chui, Helena C.; Jagust, William J.
The present study evaluated cerebrovascular disease (CVD), β-amyloid (Aβ), and cognition in clinically normal elderly adults. Fifty-four participants underwent MRI, PIB-PET imaging, and neuropsychological evaluation. High white matter hyperintensity burden and/or presence of infarct defined CVD status (CVD−: N = 27; CVD+: N = 27). PIB-PET ratios of Aβ deposition were extracted using Logan plotting (cerebellar reference). Presence of high levels of Aβ in prespecified regions determined PIB status (PIB−: N = 33; PIB+: N = 21). Executive functioning and episodic memory were measured using composite scales. CVD and Aβ, defined as dichotomous or continuous variables, were unrelated to one another. CVD+ participants showed lower executive functioning (P = 0.001) when compared to CVD− individuals. Neither PIB status nor amount of Aβ affected cognition (Ps ≥ .45), and there was no statistical interaction between CVD and PIB on either cognitive measure. Within this spectrum of normal aging CVD and Aβ aggregation appear to be independent processes with CVD primarily affecting cognition. PMID:22048124
De Montalembert, M; Wang, W
Cerebrovascular accidents were until recently responsible for much mortality and morbidity in children with sickle cell disease; the likelihood of a child with HbSS having a stroke was 11% before age 20 years, with a peak incidence of ischemic stroke between 2 and 5 years of age, and of hemorrhagic strokes between 20 and 29 years of age. Vessels occlusion is likely initiated by intimal proliferation and amplified by inflammation, excessive adhesion of cells to activated endothelium, hypercoagulable state, and vascular tone dysregulation. Silent infarcts may occur and are associated with decreased cognitive functions. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) was more recently demonstrated able to achieve early detection of the children at high risk for clinical strokes. A randomized study demonstrated that a first stroke may be prevented by monthly transfusion in children with abnormal TCD, leading to a recommendation for annual TCD screening of children aged between 2 and 16 years and monthly transfusion for those with abnormal results. In children who have had a first stroke, the risk of recurrence is more than 50% and is greatly reduced by chronic transfusion, although not completely abolished. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is indicated in children with cerebral vasculopathy who have an HLA-identical sibling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This study aims to observe the tumble status for senior patients with cerebrovascular disease, and to analyze the balance and gait condition in order to provide the basis for clinical prevention and nursing care. A total of 48 senior patients with cerebrovascular disease were investigated with the Tinetti balance and gait evaluation, and the relation between tumble occurrence and balance ability was interrogated. The total score of balance evaluation value and gait value for 89.1% of the senior patients with cerebrovascular disease was fewer than 19 points, which indicated a risk of tumble. The majority of patients could not complete the immediate standing balance well, turning stand balance, mild chest-pushed balance and eyes-closed standing balance. The occurrence of immediate standing balance and turning stand balance fewer than three times was less frequent than the occurrence of tumble for one time, which had significant difference (P<0.05). The senior patients with cerebrovascular disease and immediate standing balance and turning stand balance could easily tumble many times, which was crucial for the nursing staff to carry out preventive strategies. Detailed observations of balance and gait function for senior patients were described, which provided a promising basis for designing appropriate nursing measures.
Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu
Abstract Long-term studies demonstrating the effect of pioglitazone use on primary prevention of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus are lacking. This study investigated the relationship between pioglitazone use and first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in Taiwan. We conducted a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 2359 type 2 diabetic subjects aged ≥65 years with newly diagnosed ischemic cerebrovascular disease from 2005 to 2011 as the case group and 4592 sex- and age-matched, randomly selected type 2 diabetic subjects aged ≥65 years without ischemic cerebrovascular disease as the control group. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of ischemic cerebrovascular disease associated with pioglitazone use was measured by the multivariable unconditional logistic regression model. After adjustment for confounding factors, the multivariable logistic regression analysis disclosed that the adjusted ORs of first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease associated with cumulative duration of using pioglitazone were 3.34 for <1 year (95% CI 2.59–4.31), 2.53 for 1 to 2 years (95% CI 1.56–4.10), 2.20 for 2 to 3 years (95% CI 1.05–4.64), and 1.09 for ≥3 years (95% CI 0.55–2.15), respectively. Our findings suggest that pioglitazone use does not have a protective effect on primary prevention for ischemic cerebrovascular disease among older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus during the first 3 years of use. Whether using pioglitazone for >3 years would have primary prevention for ischemic cerebrovascular disease needs a long-term research to prove. PMID:27495077
Graziano, Ana P; Sancilio, Andrea; Bugalter, Mariela; Barbosa, Walter; Rodríguez, Facundo; Montali, César; García Munitis, Pablo
Stroke in childhood is considered rare. It may be ischemic or hemorrhagic. Its presentation is often acute and it is a leading cause of mortality in pediatrics. The aim of our work is to present the general features of stroke of 18 patients under 15 years of age admitted to the Hospital El Cruce, between July 2009 and June 2014, and their clinical outcome a year later. We observed a predominance of male patients and the median age of 5 years. The main clinical features were hemiparesis, seizures, headache and vomiting and sensory impairment. The most frequent type was ischemic and the middle cerebral artery territory was the most commonly involved. Twelve patients had no sequelae. The signs and symptoms were guiding stroke, neuroimaging studies were essential for diagnosis and patients evolved favorably with low number of recurrence and death.
Dalal, P. M.; Shah, P. M.; Aiyar, R. R.; Kikani, B. J.
Cerebral angiographic findings in ischaemic stroke are described and discussed in detail. Though the Indian patients studied had altogether different social customs, living standards, and dietary habits from Western people, the relative incidence of various cerebral vascular lesions did not differ significantly. Irrespective of the poor nutritional status of the patients, thrombosis associated with atherosclerosis was chiefly responsible for a non-embolic cerebral infarction. Atherothrombosis in the young normotensive persons not showing any evidence of arteritis, diabetes mellitus, or hypercholesterolaemia was also identified. The grave risks involved in cerebral angiography in cases of acute stroke are re-emphasized. As to prognosis, the nutritional status, the type and territory of an ictal lesion, and the blood levels of sugar and cholesterol had no significant influence on the immediate survival-after a non-embolic cerebral infarction. However, a significantly greater number of deaths were encountered in the hypertensive patients. Female patients and patients with a large cerebral infarction had a poor prognosis. PMID:5676713
Sobrino García, P; García Pastor, A; García Arratibel, A; Vicente Peracho, G; Rodriguez Cruz, P M; Pérez Sánchez, J R; Díaz Otero, F; Vázquez Alén, P; Villanueva Osorio, J A; Gil Núñez, A
The A-S-C-O classification may be better than other methods for classifying ischaemic stroke by aetiology. Our aims are to describe A-S-C-O phenotype distribution (A: atherosclerosis, S: small vessel disease, C: cardiac source, O: other causes; 1: potential cause, 2: causality uncertain, 3: unlikely to be a direct cause although disease is present) and compare them to the Spanish Society of Neurology's Cerebrovascular Disease Study Group (GEECV/SEN) classification. We will also find the degree of concordance between these classification methods and determine whether using the A-S-C-O classification delivers a smaller percentage of strokes of undetermined cause. We analysed those patients with ischaemic stroke admitted to our stroke unit in 2010 with strokes that were classified according to GEECV/SEN and A-S-C-O criteria. The study included 496 patients. The percentages of strokes caused by atherosclerosis and small vessel disease according to GEECV/SEN criteria were higher than the percentages for potential atherosclerotic stroke (A1) (14.1 vs. 11.9%; P=.16) and potential small vessel stroke (S1) (14.3 vs. 3%; P<.001). Cardioembolic stroke (C1) was more frequent (22.2 vs. 31%; P<.001). No differences between unusual cause of stroke and other potential causes (O1) were observed. Some degree of atherosclerosis was present in 53.5% of patients (A1, A2, or A3); 65.5% showed markers of small vessel disease (S1, S2, or S3), and 74.9% showed signs of cardioembolism (C1, C2, or C3). Fewer patients in the group without scores of 1 or 2 for any of the A-S-C-O phenotypes were identified as having a stroke of undetermined cause (46.6 vs. 29.2%; P<.001). The agreement between the 2 classifications ranged from κ<0.2 (small vessel and S1) to κ>0.8 (unusual causes and O1). Our results show that GEECV/SEN and A-S-C-O classifications are neither fully comparable nor consistent. Using the A-S-C-O classification provided additional information on co-morbidities and delivered a
Brickman, Adam M; Reitz, Christiane; Luchsinger, José A; Manly, Jennifer J; Schupf, Nicole; Muraskin, Jordan; DeCarli, Charles; Brown, Truman R; Mayeux, Richard
The importance of subclinical cerebrovascular disease in the elderly is increasingly recognized, but its determinants have not been fully explicated. Elevated blood pressure (BP) and fluctuation in BP may lead to cerebrovascular disease through ischemic changes and compromised cerebral autoregulation. To determine the association of BP and long-term fluctuation in BP with cerebrovascular disease. A community-based epidemiological study of older adults from northern Manhattan. The Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project. A total of 686 nondemented older adults who had BP measurements during 3 study visits at 24-month intervals and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (corresponding temporally with the third assessment). We derived the mean (SD) of the mean BP for each participant during the 3 intervals and divided the participants into 4 groups defined as below or above the group median (
Bowers, Karen J.; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Roach, E. Steve; Vexler, Zinaida S.; Maria, Bernard L.
Cerebrovascular disease in children manifests in many forms, all of which have devastating and long-lasting effects. Recent advances in diagnostic imaging have revealed that this condition is much more common in the pediatric population than previously believed, affecting as many as 1 in 1500 neonates and 1 in 3000 children. The underlying mechanisms that cause stroke—ischemic stroke, sinovenous thrombosis, and hemorrhagic stroke—are only beginning to be understood; however, progress has been made toward better understanding the mechanisms of disease, particularly in the fields of genetics, inflammation, and thrombus formation. Furthermore, new imaging techniques, and better understanding of how to use imaging in managing stroke, have enabled practitioners to more quickly and accurately identify cerebrovascular disease type in children, which is key to mitigation of negative outcomes. The 2010 Neurobiology of Disease in Children symposium, held in conjunction with the 39th annual meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to (1) describe clinical issues surrounding childhood stroke, including diagnosis and acute care; (2) discuss recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of childhood stroke; (3) review current management of and therapies for childhood stroke, including controversial therapies; and (4) establish research directions for investigators. This article summarizes the speakers’ presentations and includes an edited transcript of question-and-answer sessions. PMID:21778188
Klohs, Jan; Rudin, Markus; Shimshek, Derya R.; Beckmann, Nicolau
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular pathology may interact with neurodegeneration and thus aggravate cognitive decline. As the relationship between these two processes is poorly understood, research has been increasingly focused on understanding the link between cerebrovascular alterations and AD. This has at last been spurred by the engineering of transgenic animals, which display pathological features of AD and develop cerebral amyloid angiopathy to various degrees. Transgenic models are versatile for investigating the role of amyloid deposition and vascular dysfunction, and for evaluating novel therapeutic concepts. In addition, research has benefited from the development of novel imaging techniques, which are capable of characterizing vascular pathology in vivo. They provide vascular structural read-outs and have the ability to assess the functional consequences of vascular dysfunction as well as to visualize and monitor the molecular processes underlying these pathological alterations. This article focusses on recent in vivo small animal imaging studies addressing vascular aspects related to AD. With the technical advances of imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance, nuclear and microscopic imaging, molecular, functional and structural information related to vascular pathology can now be visualized in vivo in small rodents. Imaging vascular and parenchymal amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition as well as Aβ transport pathways have been shown to be useful to characterize their dynamics and to elucidate their role in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and AD. Structural and functional imaging read-outs have been employed to describe the deleterious affects of Aβ on vessel morphology, hemodynamics and vascular integrity. More recent imaging studies have also addressed how inflammatory processes partake in the pathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, imaging can be pivotal in the search for novel therapies targeting the vasculature. PMID:24659966
Hadaegh, Farzad; Mohebi, Reza; Cheraghi, Leila; Tohidi, Maryam; Moghaddam, Nahid Beladi; Bozorogmanesh, Mohammadreza; Sheikholeslami, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun
The purpose of this study was to examine whether metabolic syndrome (MetS), applying different definitions, predicts incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular events (CVAs) independent of its components. Among 2548, aged ≥ 50 years, World Health Organization, International Diabetes Federation, and Joint Interim Statement criteria were used to define MetS. Cox proportional hazards regression was implemented to estimate hazard ratios of incident CVA and CHD. During 9.3 years of follow-up, 72 and 343 cases of CVA and CHD events occurred. The multivariate hazard ratios (95% CI) of incident CVA and CHD were 2.71 (1.57-4.68) and 2.07 (1.63-2.64) for MetS as defined by the Joint Interim Statement, respectively. There was no difference among the 3 definitions of MetS regarding the prediction of the CVA incidence. However, MetS as defined by the Joint Interim Statement predicted CHD better than the International Diabetes Federation definition. After adjustment for components, MetS lost its association with CHD and CVA; in this model, the elevated blood pressure and high fasting plasma glucose (International Diabetes Federation definition) showed significant risk for CVA events; regarding CHD events, the elevated blood pressure, high fasting plasma glucose, and, for World Health Organization definition, obesity and dyslipidemia remained as predictors. All definitions of MetS were associated with CVA and CHD events. After adjusting its components, MetS lost its association with incident CVA and CHD; however, elevated blood pressure for both CVA and CHD events and high fasting plasma glucose for CHD events remained as independent predictors in all definitions.
Schilling, Sabrina; DeStefano, Anita L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Choi, Seung Hoan; Mather, Karen A.; DeCarli, Charles D.; Wen, Wei; Høgh, Peter; Raz, Naftali; Au, Rhoda; Beiser, Alexa; Wolf, Philip A.; Romero, José Rafael; Zhu, Yi-Cheng; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Farrer, Lindsay; Dufouil, Carole; Kuller, Lewis H.; Mazoyer, Bernard; Seshadri, Sudha; Tzourio, Christophe
Objective: We aimed to examine the association of APOE ε genotype with MRI markers of cerebrovascular disease (CVD): white matter hyperintensities, brain infarcts, and cerebral microbleeds. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of 42 cross-sectional or longitudinal studies identified in PubMed from 1966 to June 2012 (n = 29,965). This included unpublished data from 3 population-based studies: 3C-Dijon, Framingham Heart Study, and Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. When necessary, authors were contacted to provide effect estimates for the meta-analysis. Results: APOE ε4 carrier status and APOE ε44 genotype were associated with increasing white matter hyperintensity burden (sample size–weighted z score meta-analysis [meta]-p = 0.0034 and 0.0030) and presence of cerebral microbleeds (meta odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.07, 1.43], p = 0.004, and 1.87 [1.26, 2.78], p = 0.002), especially lobar. APOE ε2 carrier status was associated with increasing white matter hyperintensity load (z score meta-p = 0.00053) and risk of brain infarct (meta OR = 1.41[1.09, 1.81], p = 0.008). Conclusions: APOE ε4 and APOE ε2 were associated with increasing burden in MRI markers for both hemorrhagic and ischemic CVD. While the association of APOE ε4 with an increased burden of CVD could be partly contributing to the relationship between APOE ε4 and AD, APOE ε2 was associated with MRI markers of CVD in the opposite direction compared to AD. PMID:23858411
Gorelick, P B; Caplan, L R; Langenberg, P; Hier, D B; Pessin, M; Patel, D; Taber, J
We compared clinical and arteriographic features in 106 patients with symptomatic unilateral carotid territory occlusive disease to determine the frequency and distribution of occlusive arterial lesions in asymptomatic vessels. Among black patients who were predominantly from Chicago, young, and female, there were fewer transient ischemic attacks and myocardial infarcts, less claudication, and more asymptomatic lesions of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery stem, and the middle cerebral artery stem. Among white patients predominantly from New England, elderly, and male, there was more frequent and severe occlusive asymptomatic disease at extracranial carotid and vertebral artery sites. Knowledge of the distribution of asymptomatic lesions will help guide evaluation and treatment strategies for patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease.
Hinduja, Archana; Limaye, Kaustubh; Ravilla, Rahul; Sasapu, Appalnaidu; Papanikolaou, Xenofon; Wei, Lai; Torbey, Michel; Waheed, Sarah
Objectives Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are at increased risk of arterial thrombosis. Our aim was to determine the risk factors, mechanisms and outcome of strokes in these patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective matched case–control study from our database of MM patients enrolled in Total Therapy (TT) 2, TT3a and TT3b protocols who developed a vascular event (transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhage) from October 1998 to January 2014. Cases were matched for age-matched selected controls. Baseline demographics, risk factors, MM characteristics, laboratory values, and mortality of cases were compared to those of controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified risk factors associated with stroke. Ischemic strokes (IS) were classified with modified Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria. Results Of 1,148 patients, 46 developed a vascular event (ischemic stroke, 33; transient ischemic attack, 11; hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, 2). Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined renal insufficiency (odds Ratio, 3.528; 95% CI, 1.36–9.14; P = 0.0094) and MM Stages I and II (odds Ratio, 2.770, 95% CI, 1.31–5.81; p = 0.0073) were independent predictors of stroke. In our study, strokes attributable to hypercoagulability, atrial fibrillation and small-vessel occlusion were common mechanisms. After a stroke, 78% of patients were discharged to home or a rehabilitation facility and 4% to a long-term nursing facility; in-hospital mortality was 15%. Despite suffering a stroke no significant differences in survival were observed. Conclusion In our cohort of multiple myeloma patients, renal failure and MM Stages I and II had increased risk of stroke. PMID:27902730
Pappa, Theodora; Alevizaki, Maria
Cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases are two leading causes of death and long-term disability in postmenopausal women. The acute fall of estrogen in menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The relative contribution of androgen to this risk is also being recognized. The use of more sensitive assays for estradiol measurement and the study of receptor and carrier protein gene polymorphisms have provided some new information on the clinical relevance of endogenous sex steroids. We provide an update on the role of endogenous sex steroids on cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease in the postmenopausal period. We performed a PubMed search using the terms 'endogenous estrogen', 'androgen', 'cardiovascular disease', 'cerebro-vascular disease', 'stroke', 'carotid artery disease', and 'subclinical atherosclerosis'. The majority of studies show a beneficial effect of endogenous estrogen on the vasculature; however, there are a few studies reporting the contrary. A significant body of literature has reported associations of endogenous estrogen and androgen with early markers of atherosclerosis and metabolic parameters. Data on the relevance of endogenous sex steroids in heart disease and stroke are inconclusive. Most studies support a beneficial role of endogenous estrogens and, probably, an adverse effect of androgens in the vasculature in postmenopausal women. However, the described associations may not always be considered as causal. It is possible that circulating estrogen might represent a marker of general health status or alternatively reflect the sum of endogenous androgens aromatized in the periphery. Elucidating the role of sex steroids in cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease remains an interesting field of future research.
Wang, Dandan; Wang, Jing; Jin, Cheng; Ji, Ruijun; Wang, Anxin; Li, Xin; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Shouling; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Xingquan
Asymptomatic extracranial artery stenosis (ECAS) is a well-known risk factor for stroke events, but it remains unclear whether it has the same role in predicting cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, especially in China. We investigated the potential associations between ECAS, carotid plaque and carotid intima-media thickness and the new occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the study. Out of 5440 study participants, 364 showed an asymptomatic ECAS at baseline, and 185 had come up to the final vascular events (brain infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, coronary heart disease and death due to the vascular diseases). During the follow- up. ECAS, carotid plaque and its instability and increased CIMT have associated with vascular events significantly (P < 0.05). After adjusting relevant vascular risk factors, ECAS still has a strong relationship with the new occurrence of vascular events, especially the brain infarction (HR: 2.101; 95% CI: 1.027–4.298; P = 0.042). We observed a clear relationship between ECAS and the new occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, especially the brain infarction event. Carotid plaque and its instability and increased CIMT have all relevant with the occurrence of vascular events. Our findings provide direct evidence for the importance of ECAS in vascular events occurrence. PMID:27650877
Powers, W.J.; Siegel, B.A.; Davis, H.H.; Mathias, C.J.; Clark, H.B.; Welch, M.J.
We obtained scintigraphic images of the neck from 100 patients with suspected cerebrovascular disease after injecting /sup 111/In-labeled autologous platelets. One or more focuses of increased activity, implying local platelet accumulation, were seen along the course of the cervical carotid arteries in 52 patients. In 64 patients, there was a highly significant correlation between the results of scintigraphy and carotid arteriography (p . 10(6)). There was no significant correlation between the scintigraphic findings and the previous or subsequent occurrence of transient ischemic attack or cerebral infarction in the carotid circulation. These data suggest that factors other than the simple formation of platlet thrombi in the cervical carotid arteries are of primary importance in the pathogenesis of stroke.
Pfeiffer, F E; Homburger, H A; Yanagihara, T
Serum creatine kinase B (CKB) concentrations were measured every 12 hours for five days in 38 patients during acute cerebrovascular diseases and in nine controls. Mean CKB concentration was 6.2 +/- 0.8 ng/mL. The fluctuation of the CKB concentration following ischemic stroke was as notable as the elevation immediately after the ischemic event. The two abnormalities were observed in 13 of 17 patients with acute cerebral infarction, and the extent of abnormalities roughly correlated with the volume of tissue damage. The profiles were normal for patients with transient vascular events. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage demonstrated wide fluctuation along with high CKB concentration. Although transient elevation of the CKB concentration in some patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage was observed after angiography or clinical worsening, the fluctuation in patients with ischemic stroke was not associated with worsening of neurologic conditions or recurrence of ischemic events.
Roldan, Carlos A.; Schevchuck, Oleksandr; Tolstrup, Kirsten; Roldan, Paola C.; Macias, Leonardo; Qualls, Clifford R.; Greene, Ernest R.; Hayek, Reyaad; Charlton, Gerald; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.
Background Lambl’s excrescences (LEx) are detected by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and are characterized as thin, elongated, and hypermobile structures located at the leaflets’ coaptation point of the heart valves. The association of LEx with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is still undefined and yet patients with LEx and suspected CVD receive unproven effective antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy or even undergo valve surgery. Also, the association of LEx with aging and atherogenic, inflammatory, or thrombogenic parameters has not been reported. Methods 77 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (71 women, age 37±12 years) and 26 age-and-sex matched healthy controls (22 women, age 34±11 years) prospectively underwent routine history and physical exam, transcranial Doppler, brain MRI, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), carotid duplex, and clinical and laboratory evaluations of atherogenesis, inflammation, platelet activity, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Subjects without stroke/TIA on enrollment (with and without LEx) had a median follow-up of 57 months. Results On enrollment, 33 (43%) of 77 patients had CVD manifested as acute stroke/TIA (23 patients), cerebromicroembolism by transcranial Doppler (17 patients), or cerebral infarcts by MRI (14 patients). Mitral or aortic valve LEx were equally frequent in healthy controls (46%) as in patients with and without any CVD (39% and 43%), stroke/TIA (35% and 43%), cerebromicroembolism (41% and 42%), or cerebral infarcts (36% and 43%) (all p≥0.72). Also, other mechanisms for CVD other than LEx such as Libman-Sacks vegetations, patent foramen ovale or interatrial septal aneurysm, aortic or carotid atherosclerosis, or thrombogenesis were found in ≥94% of patients with CVD. In addition, 36 subjects with and 44 without LEx had similar low incidence of stroke/TIA [1(1.3%) and 2(2.5%), respectively, p=1.0] during follow-up. Finally, LEx were not associated with aging, atherogenic risk factors
Roldan, Carlos A; Sibbitt, Wilmer L; Qualls, Clifford R; Jung, Rex E; Greene, Ernest R; Gasparovic, Charles M; Hayek, Reyaad A; Charlton, Gerald A; Crookston, Kendall
The aim of this study was to determine whether Libman-Sacks endocarditis is a pathogenic factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A cardioembolic pathogenesis of SLE CVD manifested as: 1) neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), including stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA); 2) neurocognitive dysfunction; and 3) magnetic resonance imaging of focal brain lesions has not been established. A 6-year study of 30 patients with acute NPSLE (27 women, 38 ± 12 years of age), 46 age- and sex-matched SLE controls without NPSLE (42 women, 36 ± 12 years of age), and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (22 women, 34 ± 11 years of age) who underwent clinical and laboratory evaluations, transesophageal echocardiography, carotid duplex ultrasound, transcranial Doppler ultrasound, neurocognitive testing, and brain magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiography. Patients with NPSLE were re-evaluated after 4.5 months of therapy. All patients were followed clinically for a median of 52 months. Libman-Sacks vegetations (87%), cerebromicroembolism (27% with 2.5 times more events per hour), neurocognitive dysfunction (60%), and cerebral infarcts (47%) were more common in NPSLE than in SLE (28%, 20%, 33%, and 0%) and healthy controls (8%, 0%, 4%, and 0%, respectively) (all p ≤ 0.009). Patients with vegetations had 3 times more cerebromicroemboli per hour, lower cerebral blood flow, more strokes/TIA and overall NPSLE events, neurocognitive dysfunction, cerebral infarcts, and brain lesion load than those without (all p ≤ 0.01). Libman-Sacks vegetations were independent risk factors of NPSLE (odds ratio [OR]: 13.4; p < 0.001), neurocognitive dysfunction (OR: 8.0; p = 0.01), brain lesions (OR: 5.6; p = 0.004), and all 3 outcomes combined (OR: 7.5; p < 0.001). Follow-up re-evaluations in 18 of 23 (78%) surviving patients with NPSLE demonstrated improvement of vegetations, microembolism, brain perfusion
Roldan, Carlos A.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Qualls, Clifford R.; Jung, Rex E.; Greene, Ernest R.; Gasparovic, Charles M.; Hayek, Reyaad; Charlton, Gerald A.; Crookston, Kendall
Objective To determine whether Libman-Sacks endocarditis is a pathogenic factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Background A cardioembolic pathogenesis of SLE CVD manifested as 1) neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) including stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA), 2) neurocognitive dysfunction, and 3) MRI focal brain lesions has not been established. Methods A 6-year study of 30 patients with acute NPSLE (27 women, age 38±12 years), 46 age-and-sex matched SLE controls without NPSLE (42 women, age 36±12 years), and 26 age-and-sex matched healthy controls (22 women, age 34±11 years) who underwent clinical and laboratory evaluations, TEE, carotid duplex, transcranial Doppler, neurocognitive testing, and brain MRI/MRA. NPSLE patients were re-evaluated after 4.5 months of therapy. All patients were followed clinically for a median of 52 months. Results Libman-Sacks vegetations (87%), cerebromicroembolism (27% with 2.5 times more events per hour), neurocognitive dysfunction (60%), and cerebral infarcts (47%) were more common in NPSLE than in SLE (28%, 20%, 33%, and 0%) and healthy controls (8%, 0%, 4%, and 0%, respectively) (all p≤0.009). Patients with vegetations had 3 times more cerebromicroemboli per hour, lower cerebral blood flow, more stroke/TIA and overall NPSLE events, neurocognitive dysfunction, cerebral infarcts, and brain lesion load than those without (all p≤0.01). Libman-Sacks vegetations were independent risk factors of NPSLE (OR=13.4, p<0.001), neurocognitive dysfunction (OR=8.0, p=0.01), brain lesions (OR=5.6, p=0.004), and all 3 outcomes combined (OR=7.5, p<0.001). Follow-up re-evaluations in 18 (78%) of 23 surviving NPSLE patients demonstrated improvement of vegetations, microembolism, brain perfusion, neurocognitive dysfunction, and lesion load (all p≤0.04). Finally, patients with vegetations had reduced event free survival time to stroke/TIA, cognitive disability, or death (p=0.007). Conclusion The
Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography for major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular and renal events in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from first year of follow-up of the Gunma-CKD SPECT multicenter study.
Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Sato, Makito; Sano, Hirokazu; Ueda, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Toyoshi; Nakahara, Takehiro; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Tsushima, Yoshito; Kurabayashi, Masahiko
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events. We examined whether stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides reliable prognostic markers for these patients. In this multicenter, prospective cohort trial from the Gunma-CKD SPECT study protocol, patients with CKD [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 min/ml per 1.73 m(2)] undergoing stress (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT for suspected or possible ischemic heart disease were initially followed for 1 year, with the following study endpoints: primary, the occurrence of cardiac deaths (CDs), and secondary, major adverse cardiac, cerebrovascular, and renal events (MACCREs). The summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) were estimated with the standard 17-segment, 5-point scoring model. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction were measured using electrocardiogram-gated SPECT. During the first year of follow-up, 69 of 299 patients experienced MACCREs (CD, n = 7; non-fatal myocardial infarction, n = 3; hospitalization for heart failure, n = 13; cerebrovascular accident, n = 1; need for revascularization, n = 38; and renal failure, i.e., hemodialysis initiation, n = 7). ESV and SSS were associated with CDs (p < 0.05), and eGFR and SDS were associated with MACCREs (p < 0.05), in multivariate logistic analysis. Patients with high ESV and high SSS had a significantly higher CD rate during the first year than the other CKD patient subgroups (p < 0.05). Patients with low eGFR and high SDS had a significantly higher MACCRE rate than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). Myocardial perfusion SPECT can provide reliable prognostic markers for patients with CKD.
Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Firoz, Chelapram Kandy; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Zaidi, Syed Kashif; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Shakil, Shazi; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Tabrez, Shams
Cerebrovascular disease (CD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are two devastating health dilemma that continues to be a potential contributor to disability and mortality in human population all across the world. Scientific data clearly shows several mechanistic similarities between these two co-existing and interlinked conditions. The linkage exacerbates ongoing patho-physiological condition towards more lethal events. In view of the presence of modifiable risk factors in both CD and MetS, their management holds potential therapeutic value. Hence, developing common treatment strategies for these diseases could involve common molecular agents. In this communication, we have summarized some of the common pathological conditions viz. abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and endothelial dysfunction that further deteriorate existing homeostasis in CD and MetS. Based on our article, it is advocated that substantial improvements in novel multi-targeted drug discovery could provide the effective treatment methods in order to avoid the fatal complications related with CD and MetS. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Thulborn, Keith R.
Synopsis Cerebrovascular disease is a heterogeneous disease that may require objective criteria for developing optimal recurrent stroke prevention strategies. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and angiography together with MR perfusion and functional MR imaging provide sufficient parameters to tailor medical and surgical interventions for each patient and to monitor disease compensation or progression. These MR imaging procedures are demonstrated by clinical cases of advanced cerebrovascular pathology in which treatment varied from medical management to surgical intervention. PMID:19026896
Villela, Paolo Blanco; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes de
Cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases are among the main causes of death worldwide. However, there are limited data about the trends of these diseases over the years. To evaluate the temporal trends in mortality rates and proportional mortality from cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases according to sex and age in Brazil between 1980 and 2012. We evaluated the underlying causes of death between 1980 and 2012 in both sexes and by age groups for circulatory diseases (CD), cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD), and hypertensive diseases (HD). We also evaluated death due to all causes (AC), external causes (EC), and ill-defined causes of death (IDCD). Data on deaths and population were obtained from the Department of Information Technology of the Unified Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS/MS). We estimated crude and standardized annual mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants and percentages of proportional mortality rates. With the exception of EC, the mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants of all other diseases increased with age. The proportional mortality of CD, CBVD, and HD increased up to the age range of 60-69 years in men and 70-79 years in women, and reached a plateau in both sexes after that. The standardized rates of CD and CBVD declined in both sexes. However, the HD rates showed the opposite trend and increased mildly during the study period. Despite the decline in standardized mortality rates due to CD and CBVD, there was an increase in deaths due to HD, which could be related to factors associated with the completion of the death certificates, decline in IDCD rates, and increase in the prevalence of hypertension.
Villela, Paolo Blanco; Klein, Carlos Henrique; de Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes
Background Cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases are among the main causes of death worldwide. However, there are limited data about the trends of these diseases over the years. Objective To evaluate the temporal trends in mortality rates and proportional mortality from cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases according to sex and age in Brazil between 1980 and 2012. Methods We evaluated the underlying causes of death between 1980 and 2012 in both sexes and by age groups for circulatory diseases (CD), cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD), and hypertensive diseases (HD). We also evaluated death due to all causes (AC), external causes (EC), and ill-defined causes of death (IDCD). Data on deaths and population were obtained from the Department of Information Technology of the Unified Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS/MS). We estimated crude and standardized annual mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants and percentages of proportional mortality rates. Results With the exception of EC, the mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants of all other diseases increased with age. The proportional mortality of CD, CBVD, and HD increased up to the age range of 60-69 years in men and 70-79 years in women, and reached a plateau in both sexes after that. The standardized rates of CD and CBVD declined in both sexes. However, the HD rates showed the opposite trend and increased mildly during the study period. Conclusion Despite the decline in standardized mortality rates due to CD and CBVD, there was an increase in deaths due to HD, which could be related to factors associated with the completion of the death certificates, decline in IDCD rates, and increase in the prevalence of hypertension. PMID:27355586
Chen, Xu; Wang, Zhijun; Sy, Chrisopher; Liu, Xiaokun; Qian, Jinwu; Zheng, Jia; Dong, Zhiqiang; Cao, Limei; Geng, Xiang; Xu, Shuye; Liu, Xueyuan
To establish an expert diagnosis system for cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) and assess accuracy of the diagnosis system. An expert diagnosis system for CVDs was established and evaluated using actual clinical cases. An expert diagnosis system for CVDs was established and tested in 319 clinical patients. Diagnosis accordance was obtained in 307 patients (the diagnosis accordance rate was 96.2%). Involved were 223, 7, 23, 54 and 12 patients with cerebral thrombosis, cerebral embolism, transient ischemic attack, cerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, respectively; and diagnosis accordance was obtained in 219 (98.2%), 6 (85.7%), 23 (100%), 48 (88.9%) and 11 (91.7%), respectively. Overall, the case analysis results support and demonstrate the diagnostic reasoning accuracy of the expert diagnosis system for CVDs. With the expert diagnosis system, medical experts' diagnosis of CVDs can be effectively mimicked and auxiliary diagnosis of CVDs has been preliminarily realized, laying a foundation for increasing the diagnostic accuracy of clinical diagnoses as it pertains to CVDs.
Kolmos, Mia; Krawcyk, Rikke Steen; Kruuse, Christina
Objectives: Exercise improves endothelial dysfunction, the key manifestation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and is recommended in both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular rehabilitation. Disagreement remains, however, on the role of intensity of exercise. The purpose of this review was to gather current knowledge on the effects of high-intensity training versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise on endothelial function in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients. Methods: A systematic review was performed in PubMed database, Embase and Cochrane libraries and on PEDro using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies were restricted to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients, and healthy subjects as general reference. Interventions comprised of high-intensity training alone, high-intensity training compared to moderate-intensity continuous exercise, or no training, with endothelial function as outcome measure. Endothelial function was measured either physiologically by flow-mediated dilatation and/or by systemic biomarkers. Data were analyzed descriptively due to non-comparability for a meta-analysis to be performed. Results: A total of 20 studies were included in the review. Although there was great heterogenecity in design, population and exercise protocols, all studies found high-intensity training to be safe. High-intensity training was equal to moderate-intensity continuous exercise through improvement in endothelial function in 15 of the 20 selected studies, as measured by flow-mediated dilatation, nitric oxide bioavailability and circulating biomarkers. Only a few studies examined high-intensity training in cerebrovascular patients, none with endothelial function as outcome. Conclusion: High-intensity training is promising as a time-efficient exercise strategy in cardiovascular rehabilitation, but data on endothelial effects in cerebrovascular rehabilitation are warranted. Agreement on a
Murray, Alison D; Staff, Roger T; McNeil, Christopher J; Salarirad, Sima; Ahearn, Trevor S; Mustafa, Nazahah; Whalley, Lawrence J
The cognitive reserve hypothesis explains the disparity between clinical and pathological phenotypes and why, in two individuals with the same extent of neuropathology, one may be demented while the other remains cognitively intact. We examined the balance between brain magnetic resonance imaging measures of the two most common pathologies associated with brain ageing, cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease, and parameters of cerebral reserve in well-characterized participants born in 1936, for whom childhood intelligence is known. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was carried out at 1.5T using fluid attenuation inversion recovery and T(1)-weighted volumetric sequences in 249 participants. Cerebrovascular disease was quantified by measuring brain white matter hyperintensities on fluid attenuation inversion recovery images using Scheltens' scale and Alzheimer's disease was measured from volumetric data using FreeSurfer to extract whole brain volume and hippocampal volumes in turn. The effect of these measures of brain burden on life-long cognitive ageing from the age of 11 to 68 years was compared with the effect of educational attainment and occupational grade using structural equation modelling. Complete brain burden and reserve data were available in 224 participants. We found that educational attainment, but not occupation, has a measurable and positive effect, with a standardized regression weight of +0.23, on late life cognitive ability in people without cognitive impairment aged 68 years, allowing for the influence of childhood intelligence and the two most common subclinical brain pathological burdens in the ageing brain. In addition, we demonstrate that the magnitude of the contribution of education is greater than the negative impact of either neuropathological burden alone, with standardized regression weights of -0.14 for white matter hyperintensities and -0.20 for hippocampal atrophy. This study illustrates how education counteracts the
Su, K P; Hsu, C Y; Hsieh, S C; Shen, W W
Delusions associated with cerebrovascular diseases have been sporadically reported. Although both psychiatrists and neurologists attempted to link delusions with anatomical locations of the brain lesion, comorbid psychiatric and neurological disorders make the interpretation of delusions difficult. The purpose of the present paper is to report the clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in patients with delusional disorder due to diffuse cerebrovascular diseases, and to redefine the concept of 'vascular delusion'. The clinical features and MRI findings were reviewed retrospectively in a series of seven patients with 'delusional disorder due to cerebrovascular disease' as defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSMIV). The average age of onset is 64. No patient had a prior personal or family history of major psychiatric illness. The illness is presented as acute, subacute or stepwise course. Hypertension was present in all patients. Two had diabetes mellitus, and one had atrial fibrillation. Three had clinical evidence of previous cerebrovascular attacks, only one showed minor neurological deficits. Three had diffuse cortical slow wave in electroencephalogram. No patient had significant cognitive impairment but had multiple cortical and subcortical cerebrovascular lesions in MRI, with white-matter lesions (WML) in bilateral frontal areas. Delusional disorder due to diffuse cerebrovascular change is characterized by late-onset, stepwise course, and comorbid medical and neurological diseases. The results of vascular changes in the present study did not establish a cause-effect relationship and should be considered as multifactorial in pathogenesis. The findings suggested the hypothesis of neural circuit theory. Further studies in larger numbers of patients and newer neuroimaging techniques are needed to expand the knowledge learned from these findings.
Manukhina, Eugenia B; Downey, H Fred; Shi, Xiangrong
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of death and disability among older adults. Modifiable vascular risk factors for AD (VRF) include obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea, and metabolic syndrome. Here, interactions between cerebrovascular function and development of AD are reviewed, as are interventions to improve cerebral blood flow and reduce VRF. Atherosclerosis and small vessel cerebral disease impair metabolic regulation of cerebral blood flow and, along with microvascular rarefaction and altered trans-capillary exchange, create conditions favoring AD development. Although currently there are no definitive therapies for treatment or prevention of AD, reduction of VRFs lowers the risk for cognitive decline. There is increasing evidence that brief repeated exposures to moderate hypoxia, i.e. intermittent hypoxic training (IHT), improve cerebral vascular function and reduce VRFs including systemic hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and mental stress. In experimental AD, IHT nearly prevented endothelial dysfunction of both cerebral and extra-cerebral blood vessels, rarefaction of the brain vascular network, and the loss of neurons in the brain cortex. Associated with these vasoprotective effects, IHT improved memory and lessened AD pathology. IHT increases endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO), thereby increasing regional cerebral blood flow and augmenting the vaso- and neuroprotective effects of endothelial NO. On the other hand, in AD excessive production of NO in microglia, astrocytes, and cortical neurons generates neurotoxic peroxynitrite. IHT enhances storage of excessive NO in the form of S-nitrosothiols and dinitrosyl iron complexes. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD, and IHT reduces oxidative stress in a number of experimental pathologies. Beneficial effects of IHT in experimental neuropathologies other than AD, including dyscirculatory encephalopathy, ischemic stroke injury, audiogenic
Scherle, C E; Nasiff, A; Beguería, R A; Pérez-Nellar, J; Colina-Rodríguez, A J
To study the blood levels of a group of lipids and lipoproteins in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease which was not secondary to cardiac embolic disease. We assessed 40 patients of an average age of 64.5 years. Of these, 26 had cerebral infarcts due to disease of the great vessels and 14 had lacunar infarcts. Forty persons with no cerebrovascular disease were used as controls. We excluded patients diagnosed as having renal failure, liver, hematological, neoplastic and acute febrile disorders. Plasma was analyzed for total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoproteins (a), HDL, LDL, VLDL and apoprotein B between 3 weeks and 6 months after the initial stroke. Levels of triglycerides and of lipoprotein (a) were significantly greater in patients than in controls. We found no differences between the levels of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL in the three groups studied. However, apoprotein B was greater in the controls than in the patients. There were no significant differences between the groups with lacunar ictus and those with infarcts secondary to disease of the great vessels.
Agnoli, A; Denaro, A; Ruggieri, S
Chronic cerebro-vascular disorders could be considered in a broad sense as a large body of knowledge in which three main categories of clinical disturbances have to be be considered: 1) Pathological aging that manifest itself with light short term memory impairment associated with a mild parkinsonian symptomatology or pseudobulbar signs. 2) Senile dementia Alzheimer type and multi infarct dementia. 3) Chronic cerebro-vascular disorders as defined by the Ad Hoc Committee (Paris, 1980). At present the therapy of chronic cerebro-vascular disorders is based on two main groups of drugs and can be divided into: 1) A treatment of prevention or secondary prevention which tends to correct or modify the different risk factors. 2) A treatment that seeks to control and modify the neurological and neuropsychological after effects and the disorders of the higher nervous activities which result from the lesion.
Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Fasanelli, Francesca; Lenzo, Giulia; Galli, Matteo; Sieri, Sabina; Pala, Valeria; Masala, Giovanna; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Chiodini, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore
Background A consistent association has been reported between low socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular events (CE), whereas the association between SES and cerebrovascular events (CBVD) is less clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SES (measured using education) and CE/CBVD in a cohort study, as well as to investigate lifestyle and clinical risk factors, to help to clarify the mechanisms by which SES influences CE/CBVD. Material and Methods We searched for diagnoses of CE and CBVD in the clinical records of 47,749 members of the EPICOR cohort (average follow-up time: 11 years). SES was determined by the relative index of inequality (RII). Results A total of 1,156 CE and 468 CBVD were found in the clinical records. An increased risk of CE was observed in the crude Cox model for the third tertile of RII compared to the first tertile (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21–1.61). The increased risk persisted after adjustment for lifestyle risk factors (HR = 1.19; 95%CI 1.02–1.38), clinical risk factors (HR = 1.35; 95%CI 1.17–1.56), and after full adjustment (HR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.01–1.37). Structural equation model showed that lifestyle rather than clinical risk factors are involved in the mechanisms by which education influences CE. No significant association was found between education and CBVD. A strong relationship was observed between education and diabetes at baseline. Conclusion The most important burden of inequality in CE incidence in Italy is due to lifestyle risk factors. PMID:27711245
Brickman, Adam M.; Reitz, Christiane; Luchsinger, José A.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Schupf, Nicole; Muraskin, Jordan; DeCarli, Charles; Brown, Truman R.; Mayeux, Richard
Objective To determine the association of blood pressure (BP) level and longterm fluctuation in BP with cerebrovascular disease. Design Participants received structural MRI and BP measurements in 3, 24 month intervals prior to scanning. We derived the mean and standard deviation (SD) of the mean BP for each participant over the 3 intervals and divided them into four groups defined as above and below the group median (≤ 96.48 mmHg or >96.48mmHg) and further subdivided by the median standard deviation (below SD ≤ 7.21 mmHg or above SD > 7.21 mmHg). This scheme yielded four groups representing the full range of BP and fluctuations in BP. We examined differences in white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume and brain infarctions across these groups. Setting The Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project, a community-based epidemiological study of older adults from northern Manhattan. Participants 686 non-demented older adults who received structural MRI and had BP measurements over three study visits. Results WMH volume increased across the four groups in a linear fashion with the lowest WMH volume in the lowest mean/lowest SD group and the highest in the highest mean/highest SD group (F(3,610)=27.43, p=0.0017). Frequency of infarction also increased monotonically across groups (from 22% to 41%; p-for-trend=0.004). Conclusions Compared to individuals with low BP with low fluctuations in BP, the risk of cerebrovascular disease increases with increasing BP and BP fluctuation. Given that cerebrovascular disease is associated with disability, findings suggest that interventions should focus on longterm fluctuating BP as well as elevated BP. PMID:20457955
Nahab, Fadi; Takesaka, Jennifer; Mailyan, Eugene; Judd, Lilith; Culler, Steven; Webb, Adam; Frankel, Michael; Choi, Dennis; Helmers, Sandra
Background: There are limited data on factors associated with 30-day readmissions and the frequency of avoidable readmissions among patients with stroke and other cerebrovascular disease. Methods: University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) database records were used to identify patients discharged with a diagnosis of stroke or other cerebrovascular disease at a university hospital from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 and readmitted within 30 days to the index hospital. Logistic regression models were used to identify patient and clinical characteristics associated with 30-day readmission. Two neurologists performed chart reviews on readmissions to identify avoidable cases. Results: Of 2706 patients discharged during the study period, 174 patients had 178 readmissions (6.4%) within 30 days. The only factor associated with 30-day readmission was the index length of stay >10 days (vs <5 days; odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% CI [1.4, 3.7]). Of 174 patients readmitted within 30 days (median time to readmission 10 days), 92 (53%) were considered avoidable readmissions including 38 (41%) readmitted for elective procedures within 30 days of discharge, 27 (29%) readmitted after inadequate outpatient care coordination, 15 (16%) readmitted after incomplete initial evaluations, 8 (9%) readmitted due to delayed palliative care consultation, and 4 (4%) readmitted after being discharged with inadequate discharge instructions. Only 5% of the readmitted patients had outpatient follow-up recommended within 1 week. Conclusions: More than half of the 30-day readmissions were considered avoidable. Coordinated timing of elective procedures and earlier outpatient follow-up may prevent the majority of avoidable readmissions among patients with stroke and other cerebrovascular disease. PMID:23983857
Zeng, Mingfei; Pan, Linmei; Qi, Shunmei; Cao, Yuntai; Zhu, Huaxu; Guo, Liwei; Zhou, Jing
Recent studies have focused more on Chinese medicine used for the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. The current review covers researches on the pharmacokinetics of Chinese medicine, providing a convenient reference for researchers to increase efficiency of drug discovery, by compiling and discussing the pharmacokinetics of four classical Chinese medicines for therapy of cerebrovascular disease containing: Panax notoginseng, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Ligusticum Chuanxiong and Gardenia. It also helps to eliminate side effect as far as possible from inappropriate Chinese medicine usage. Current integrative and comprehensive review of Chinese medicine for cerebrovascular disease including 1) the absorption of some constituents is limited such as ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1. It may be affected by gastric juice, first-pass effect, etc. 2) The interactions between Chinese medicine and prescription can occur. Borneol and carbomer would enhance the absorption of R1 and Rg1 in vivo by increasing adjacent cell transport ability. 3) The distribution of active constituents in brain is important for cerebrovascular disease. BBB protects brain from xenobiotic. Intranasal, intra-tympanic administration is a promising alternative to conventional administration to reach brain for ligustrazine. 4) Renal excretion is the uppermost route of these Chinese medicines. But biliary, fecal and urinary excretion are the other major routes. Theoretical and practical aspects are described with pharmacokinetic examples. In the end, this paper also discusses recent development of bio-analysis of Chinese medicine.
Berrocal-Izquierdo, Nuria; Bernardo, Miguel
The state of health of patients with schizophrenia is a field of growing interest that has probably not received sufficient attention in the past. It is currently held that physical health should form a part of the overall therapeutic strategy in these patients since reference is made to certain treatable conditions that may affect the final prognosis. One example is cardiovascular disease and its associated reduction in life expectancy. We carried out a retrospective study in which we described the consultations held between the psychiatric acute care service and the neurology service during a one-year period. We have analyzed the frequency of cerebrovascular complications in our sample and have included a summary of the most relevant published data regarding cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in patients with schizophrenia. We have described the high frequency of CVD in both our series of patients with severe mental illness receiving attention as well as in those from the neurology service (25.7%), and in the subgroup presenting psychotic disorders (25%). There are several studies focusing on the possible causes of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in schizophrenia. However, in regards to CVD specifically, little has been found in the literature and that found shows contradictory results. Given the direct relation between cardiovascular disease and CVD, a consistent relation between CVD and schizophrenia is to be expected.
Karlsson, William K; Sørensen, Caspar G; Kruuse, Christina
Endothelial dysfunction (ED), in particular cerebral ED, may be an essential biomarker for ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. However, there is no consensus on methods to best estimate cerebral ED. In this systematic review, we evaluate the use of l-arginine and N(G) -monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) for assessment of cerebral ED. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was done. We included studies investigating cerebrovascular response to l-arginine or l-NMMA in human subjects with vascular risk factors or ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. Seven studies (315 subjects) were eligible according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies investigated the effect of age (n=2), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=1), cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) (n=1), leukoaraiosis (n=1), and prior ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) (n=2) on cerebral ED. Most studies applied transcranial Doppler to quantify cerebral ED. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) induced by l-arginine was impaired in elderly and subjects with leukoaraiosis, but enhanced in CADASIL patients. Studies including subjects with prior ischaemic stroke or TIA reported both enhanced and impaired EDV to l-arginine. Responses to l-NMMA deviated between subjects with type 2 DM and the elderly. We found only few studies investigating cerebral endothelial responses to l-arginine and l-NMMA in subjects with vascular risk factors or ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. Inconsistencies in results were most likely due to variations in methods and included subject populations. In order to use cerebral ED as a prognostic marker, further studies are required to evaluate the association to cerebrovascular disease.
Piriyawat, Paisith; Smajsová, Miriam; Smith, Melinda A; Pallegar, Sanjay; Al-Wabil, Areej; Garcia, Nelda M; Risser, Jan M; Moyé, Lemuel A; Morgenstern, Lewis B
To provide a scientific rationale for choosing an optimal stroke surveillance method, the authors compared active surveillance with passive surveillance. The methods involved ascertaining cerebrovascular events that occurred in Nueces County, Texas, during calendar year 2000. Active methods utilized screening of hospital and emergency department logs and routine visiting of hospital wards and out-of-hospital sources. Passive means relied on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), discharge codes for case ascertainment. Cases were validated by fellowship-trained stroke neurologists on the basis of published criteria. The results showed that, of the 6,236 events identified through both active and passive surveillance, 802 were validated to be cerebrovascular events. When passive surveillance alone was used, 209 (26.1%) cases were missed, including 73 (9.1%) cases involving hospital admission and 136 (17.0%) out-of-hospital strokes. Through active surveillance alone, 57 (7.1%) cases were missed. The positive predictive value of active surveillance was 12.2%. Among the 2,099 patients admitted to a hospital, passive surveillance using ICD-9 codes missed 73 cases of cerebrovascular disease and mistakenly included 222 noncases. There were 57 admitted hospital cases missed by active surveillance, including 13 not recognized because of human error. This study provided a quantitative means of assessing the utility of active and passive surveillance for cerebrovascular disease. More uniform surveillance methods would allow comparisons across studies and communities.
Spinelli, Mariacarmela; Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro; Peruzzotti-Jametti, Luca; Bacigaluppi, Marco; Comi, Giancarlo; Corea, Francesco
The field of neurovascular ultrasound is growing rapidly with new applications. While ultrasound contrast agents were initially used to overcome poor transcranial bone windows for identification of cerebral arteries, newgeneration microbubbles in combination with innovative contrast-specific ultrasound techniques now enable potential therapeutic procedures. This article will provide a review of recent and emerging developments along with patents in ultrasound technology and contrast-specific therapeutic techniques for cerebrovascular patients.
Ferrándiz, Juan; Abellán, Juan J.; Gómez-Rubio, Virgilio; López-Quílez, Antonio; Sanmartín, Pilar; Abellán, Carlos; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel A.; Melchor, Inmaculada; Vanaclocha, Hermelinda; Zurriaga, Óscar; Ballester, Ferrán; Gil, José M.; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Ocaña, Ricardo
Previously published scientific papers have reported a negative correlation between drinking water hardness and cardiovascular mortality. Some ecologic and case–control studies suggest the protective effect of calcium and magnesium concentration in drinking water. In this article we present an analysis of this protective relationship in 538 municipalities of Comunidad Valenciana (Spain) from 1991–1998. We used the Spanish version of the Rapid Inquiry Facility (RIF) developed under the European Environment and Health Information System (EUROHEIS) research project. The strategy of analysis used in our study conforms to the exploratory nature of the RIF that is used as a tool to obtain quick and flexible insight into epidemiologic surveillance problems. This article describes the use of the RIF to explore possible associations between disease indicators and environmental factors. We used exposure analysis to assess the effect of both protective factors—calcium and magnesium—on mortality from cerebrovascular (ICD-9 430–438) and ischemic heart (ICD-9 410–414) diseases. This study provides statistical evidence of the relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and hardness of drinking water. This relationship is stronger in cerebrovascular disease than in ischemic heart disease, is more pronounced for women than for men, and is more apparent with magnesium than with calcium concentration levels. Nevertheless, the protective nature of these two factors is not clearly established. Our results suggest the possibility of protectiveness but cannot be claimed as conclusive. The weak effects of these covariates make it difficult to separate them from the influence of socioeconomic and environmental factors. We have also performed disease mapping of standardized mortality ratios to detect clusters of municipalities with high risk. Further standardization by levels of calcium and magnesium in drinking water shows changes in the maps when we remove the
Ferrandiz, Juan; Abellan, Juan J; Gomez-Rubio, Virgilio; Lopez-Quilez, Antonio; Sanmartin, Pilar; Abellan, Carlos; Martinez-Beneito, Miguel A; Melchor, Inmaculada; Vanaclocha, Hermelinda; Zurriaga, Oscar; Ballester, Ferran; Gil, Jose M; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Ocana, Ricardo
Previously published scientific papers have reported a negative correlation between drinking water hardness and cardiovascular mortality. Some ecologic and case-control studies suggest the protective effect of calcium and magnesium concentration in drinking water. In this article we present an analysis of this protective relationship in 538 municipalities of Comunidad Valenciana (Spain) from 1991-1998. We used the Spanish version of the Rapid Inquiry Facility (RIF) developed under the European Environment and Health Information System (EUROHEIS) research project. The strategy of analysis used in our study conforms to the exploratory nature of the RIF that is used as a tool to obtain quick and flexible insight into epidemiologic surveillance problems. This article describes the use of the RIF to explore possible associations between disease indicators and environmental factors. We used exposure analysis to assess the effect of both protective factors--calcium and magnesium--on mortality from cerebrovascular (ICD-9 430-438) and ischemic heart (ICD-9 410-414) diseases. This study provides statistical evidence of the relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and hardness of drinking water. This relationship is stronger in cerebrovascular disease than in ischemic heart disease, is more pronounced for women than for men, and is more apparent with magnesium than with calcium concentration levels. Nevertheless, the protective nature of these two factors is not clearly established. Our results suggest the possibility of protectiveness but cannot be claimed as conclusive. The weak effects of these covariates make it difficult to separate them from the influence of socioeconomic and environmental factors. We have also performed disease mapping of standardized mortality ratios to detect clusters of municipalities with high risk. Further standardization by levels of calcium and magnesium in drinking water shows changes in the maps when we remove the effect of
Lu, Z Kevin; Li, Minghui; Yuan, Jing; Wu, Jun
The aim of this study is to assess whether diabetes mellitus is associated with overall dementia and its subtypes (Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia) among the elderly and to identify the role of cerebrovascular disease in the association between diabetes and dementia. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, 5160 community-dwelling and institutionalized Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or over without health maintenance organization enrollment from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey in 2010 were included. The International Classification of Diseases-9 codes were used to identify the outcome and independent variables from the Medicare claims. The key predictor was diabetes mellitus and the outcomes were overall dementia and its subtypes. Logistic regression was employed to assess the association between dementia and diabetes after adjusting for age, gender, race, education, income, smoking status, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. After adjusting for potential confounders, diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with overall dementia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-1.77), vascular dementia (OR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02-1.64), and Alzheimer's disease (OR = 1.51, 95% CI, 1.10-2.09). The OR decreased to 1.26 (95% CI, 1.01-1.58) for overall dementia, controlling for cerebrovascular disease. The associations between diabetes mellitus and vascular dementia (OR = 1.13, 95% CI, 0.89-1.44) and Alzheimer's disease (OR = 1.39, 95% CI, 1.00-1.92) were no longer statistically significant once cerebrovascular disease was controlled. The association between diabetes mellitus and dementia is only partially mediated through cerebrovascular disease, suggesting that diabetes mellitus is associated independently with overall dementia among the elderly, but not with vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cruse, Belinda; Cysique, Lucette A; Markus, Romesh; Brew, Bruce J
The widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected individuals mostly in developed countries has dramatically improved their prognosis. In such advantaged regions of the world, therefore, many patients are now transitioning from middle into older age, with altered patterns of disease. While previously a rare complication of HIV infection, cerebrovascular disease (particularly that associated with atherosclerosis) is becoming relatively more important in this treated group of individuals. This review summarises the evidence regarding the shifting epidemiology of cerebrovascular diseases affecting HIV-infected individuals. While outlining the association between HIV infection and AIDS and cerebrovascular disease, as well as opportunistic diseases and HIV-associated vasculopathies, the current evidence supporting an increase in atherosclerotic disease in treated HIV-infected individuals is emphasised and a management approach to ischaemic stroke in HIV-infected individuals is presented. Evidence supporting the important role of HAART and HIV infection itself in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease is discussed, together with preventative approaches to this increasingly important disease process as the population ages. Finally, a discussion regarding the significant association between cerebrovascular disease and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder is presented, together with possible mechanisms behind this relationship.
Chen, C; Homma, A; Mok, V C T; Krishnamoorthy, E; Alladi, S; Meguro, K; Abe, K; Dominguez, J; Marasigan, S; Kandiah, N; Kim, S Y; Lee, D Y; De Silva, H A; Yang, Y-H; Pai, M-C; Senanarong, V; Dash, A
There is growing awareness of the coexistence of Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease (AD+CVD), however, due to lack of well-defined criteria and treatment guidelines AD+CVD may be underdiagnosed in Asia. Sixteen dementia specialists from nine Asia Pacific countries completed a survey in September 2014 and met in November 2014 to review the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of AD+CVD in Asia. A consensus was reached by discussion, with evidence provided by published studies when available. AD accounts for up to 60% and AD+CVD accounts for 10-20% of all dementia cases in Asia. The reasons for underdiagnosis of AD+CVD include lack of awareness as a result of a lack of diagnostic criteria, misdiagnosis as vascular dementia or AD, lack of diagnostic facilities, resource constraints and cost of investigations. There is variability in the tools used to diagnose AD+CVD in clinical practice. Diagnosis of AD+CVD should be performed in a stepwise manner of clinical evaluation followed by neuroimaging. Dementia patients should be assessed for cognition, behavioural and psychological symptoms, functional staging and instrumental activities of daily living. Neuroimaging should be performed using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The treatment goals are to stabilize or slow progression as well as to reduce behavioural and psychological symptoms, improve quality of life and reduce disease burden. First-line therapy is usually an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor such as donepezil. AD+CVD is likely to be under-recognised in Asia. Further research is needed to establish the true prevalence of this treatable and potentially preventable disease. © 2016 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Gusev, E I; Skvortsova, V I; Chukanova, E I
One hundred and eighty-seven patients with different stages of cerebrovascular insufficiency (CI) have been examined. A diagnosis of CI was based on the results of neurological and neuropsychological study, ultrasonic dopplerography, rheo- and encephalography, electrocardiography, brain MRI and eyegrounds examination. Neurological scales were used for neurological status assessment and further data processing. The study aimed at evaluation of tolerability and clinical efficacy of the medication and complications in CI course. Semax treatment resulted in significant clinical improvement, stabilization of the disease progress and reduced a risk of stroke and transitory ischemic attacks in the disease course. The drug is featured by minor percent of side-effects and is well tolerated by patients, including those of older age groups.
Guo, Hao; Li, Lei; Hou, Jin-Cai; Liu, Jian-Xun
Remaining organic and functional damage of ischemia cardio-cerebrovascular disease is always a main trouble puzzling the clinicians. After the discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), researchers realize that postnatal angiogenesis is an important biological process, which play a key role to repair the ischemia tissue and improve the function. So a new concept which names therapeutic angiogenesis supply a new treament way for the ischemia cardio-cerebrovascular disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated rich experience on treating the ischemia disease, studies found that many Chinese medicine prescriptions and effective ingredients can increase the therapeutic angiogenesis, howerer the mechanisms were not the same, they mainly manifest in regular the secretion of angiogenic factors, increase the proliferation and differentiation etc. In this paper, we review recent studies, summary the Chinese medicine prescriptions and effective ingredients which can increase the therapeutic angiogenesis, and analyze the differernt pathway. We view to provide reference for the later researchers.
Chiu, Hsienhsueh Elley; Hong, Yu-Chiang; Chang, Ku-Chou; Shih, Chun-Chuan; Hung, Jen-Wen; Liu, Chia-Wei; Tan, Teng-Yeow; Huang, Chih-Cheng
Abstract Background This study searches the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) used in a previous project, aiming for reconstructing possible cerebrovascular disease-related groups (DRG),and estimating the costs between cerebrovascular disease and related diseases. Methods and Materials We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study in stroke inpatients, we examined the overall costs in 3 municipalities in Taiwan, by evaluating the possible costs of the expecting diagnosis related group (DRG) by using the international classification of diseases version-9 (ICD-9) system, and the overall analysis of the re-admission population that received traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment and those who did not. Results The trend demonstrated that the non-participant costs were consistent with the ICD-9 categories (430 to 437) because similarities existed between years 2006 to 2007. Among the TCM patients, a wide variation and additional costs were found compared to non-TCM patients during these 2 years. The average re-admission duration was significantly shorter for TCM patients, especially those initially diagnosed with ICD 434 during the first admission. In addition, TCM patients demonstrated more severe general symptoms, which incurred high conventional treatment costs, and could result in re-admission for numerous reasons. However, in Disease 7 of ICD-9 category, representing the circulatory system was most prevalent in non-TCM inpatients, which was the leading cause of re-admission. Conclusion We concluded that favorable circulatory system outcomes were in adjuvant TCM treatment inpatients, there were less re-admission for circulatory system events and a two-third reduction of re-admission within ICD-9 code 430 to 437, compared to non-TCM ones. However, there were shorter re-admission duration other than circulatory system events by means of unfavorable baseline condition. PMID:24475108
Chiu, Hsienhsueh Elley; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Hong, Yu-Chiang; Chang, Ku-Chou; Shih, Chun-Chuan; Hung, Jen-Wen; Liu, Chia-Wei; Tan, Teng-Yeow; Huang, Chih-Cheng
This study searches the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) used in a previous project, aiming for reconstructing possible cerebrovascular disease-related groups (DRG),and estimating the costs between cerebrovascular disease and related diseases. We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study in stroke inpatients, we examined the overall costs in 3 municipalities in Taiwan, by evaluating the possible costs of the expecting diagnosis related group (DRG) by using the international classification of diseases version-9 (ICD-9) system, and the overall analysis of the re-admission population that received traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment and those who did not. The trend demonstrated that the non-participant costs were consistent with the ICD-9 categories (430 to 437) because similarities existed between years 2006 to 2007. Among the TCM patients, a wide variation and additional costs were found compared to non-TCM patients during these 2 years. The average re-admission duration was significantly shorter for TCM patients, especially those initially diagnosed with ICD 434 during the first admission. In addition, TCM patients demonstrated more severe general symptoms, which incurred high conventional treatment costs, and could result in re-admission for numerous reasons. However, in Disease 7 of ICD-9 category, representing the circulatory system was most prevalent in non-TCM inpatients, which was the leading cause of re-admission. We concluded that favorable circulatory system outcomes were in adjuvant TCM treatment inpatients, there were less re-admission for circulatory system events and a two-third reduction of re-admission within ICD-9 code 430 to 437, compared to non-TCM ones. However, there were shorter re-admission duration other than circulatory system events by means of unfavorable baseline condition.
Donahue, Manus J; Strother, Megan K; Hendrikse, Jeroen
Changes in cerebral hemodynamics underlie a broad spectrum of ischemic cerebrovascular disorders. An ability to accurately and quantitatively measure hemodynamic (cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume) and related metabolic (cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen) parameters is important for understanding healthy brain function and comparative dysfunction in ischemia. Although positron emission tomography, single-photon emission tomography, and gadolinium-MRI approaches are common, more recently MRI approaches that do not require exogenous contrast have been introduced with variable sensitivity for hemodynamic parameters. The ability to obtain hemodynamic measurements with these new approaches is particularly appealing in clinical and research scenarios in which follow-up and longitudinal studies are necessary. The purpose of this review is to outline current state-of-the-art MRI methods for measuring cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen and provide practical tips to avoid imaging pitfalls. MRI studies of cerebrovascular disease performed without exogenous contrast are synopsized in the context of clinical relevance and methodological strengths and limitations.
Cuenco, Karen T.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; McKee, Ann C.; Guo, Jianping; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Green, Robert C.; George-Hyslop, Peter H. St.; Chui, Helena; DeCarli, Charles; Farrer, Lindsay A.
Background Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2 distinct regions of the gene for the sortilin-related receptor (SORL1) (bounded by consecutively numbered SNPs 8−10 and 22−25) were shown to be associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) in multiple ethnically diverse samples. Objective To test the hypothesis that SORL1 is associated with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of atrophy and/or vascular disease. Design, Setting, and Patients We evaluated the association of 30 SNPs spanning SORL1 with MRI measures of general cerebral atrophy, hippocampal atrophy, white matter hyperintensities, and overall cerebrovascular disease in 44 African American and 182 white sibships from the MIRAGE Study. We performed single-and 3-SNP haplotype association analyses using family-based tests. Haplotypes found to be significantly associated with at least 1 MRI trait were tested for association with 6 pathological traits in a separate sample of 69 white patients with autopsy-confirmed AD. Results In white patients, white matter hyperintensities were associated with multiple markers in the region encompassing SNPs 6 to 10, whereas cerebral and hippocampal atrophy were associated with markers from the region including SNPs 21 to 26. Examination of specific 3-SNP haplotypes from these 2 regions in the autopsy-confirmed cases of AD revealed association of white matter disease with SNPs 8 to 10 and association of hippocampal atrophy with SNPs 22 to 26. The haplotype CGC at SNPs 8 to 10 was associated with fewer white matter changes in the clinical (P<.001) and autopsy (P=.02) samples. Conclusions Variants of SORL1 previously associated with AD are also associated with MRI and neuropathological measures of neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular disease. These findings not only support the hypothesis that multiple areas in SORL1 are of functional importance but also raise the possibility that multiple SORL1 variants influence amyloid precursor protein or endothelial
T Cuenco, Karen; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Baldwin, Clinton T; McKee, Ann C; Guo, Jianping; Cupples, L Adrienne; Green, Robert C; St George-Hyslop, Peter H; Chui, Helena; DeCarli, Charles; Farrer, Lindsay A
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2 distinct regions of the gene for the sortilin-related receptor (SORL1) (bounded by consecutively numbered SNPs 8-10 and 22-25) were shown to be associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) in multiple ethnically diverse samples. To test the hypothesis that SORL1 is associated with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of atrophy and/or vascular disease. We evaluated the association of 30 SNPs spanning SORL1 with MRI measures of general cerebral atrophy, hippocampal atrophy, white matter hyperintensities, and overall cerebrovascular disease in 44 African American and 182 white sibships from the MIRAGE Study. We performed single- and 3-SNP haplotype association analyses using family-based tests. Haplotypes found to be significantly associated with at least 1 MRI trait were tested for association with 6 pathological traits in a separate sample of 69 white patients with autopsy-confirmed AD. In white patients, white matter hyperintensities were associated with multiple markers in the region encompassing SNPs 6 to 10, whereas cerebral and hippocampal atrophy were associated with markers from the region including SNPs 21 to 26. Examination of specific 3-SNP haplotypes from these 2 regions in the autopsy-confirmed cases of AD revealed association of white matter disease with SNPs 8 to 10 and association of hippocampal atrophy with SNPs 22 to 26. The haplotype CGC at SNPs 8 to 10 was associated with fewer white matter changes in the clinical (P<.001) and autopsy (P=.02) samples. Variants of SORL1 previously associated with AD are also associated with MRI and neuropathological measures of neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular disease. These findings not only support the hypothesis that multiple areas in SORL1 are of functional importance but also raise the possibility that multiple SORL1 variants influence amyloid precursor protein or endothelial lipoprotein processing or both in different regions of the brain.
Jussen, Daniel; Zdunczyk, Anna; Schmidt, Sein; Rösler, Judith; Buchert, Ralph; Julkunen, Petro; Karhu, Jari; Brandt, Stephan; Picht, Thomas; Vajkoczy, Peter
To explore plasticity in patients scheduled for extra-intracranial bypass surgery due to unilateral symptomatic occlusive cerebrovascular disease via navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation. In this observational study, patients were allocated to different substudies and examined before and 3 months after operation. (1) Corticospinal excitability was determined via identification of the resting motor threshold. (2) Intracortical inhibition and facilitation were tested by paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. (3) Area of cortical representation of the first dorsal interosseous muscle was identified. (1) Resting motor thresholds were higher in the affected hemispheres with impaired cerebrovascular reserve capacity compared to the unaffected hemispheres (45.7% ± 2.2% compared to 39.2% ± 1.4%, n = 39, p < 0.05). Reduced excitability normalized 3 months after revascularization (51% ± 2.6% → 45% ± 1.9%, n = 21, p < 0.05). (2) In paired pulse paradigms, there was a motor disinhibition in the operated hemispheres. (3) There was a reduction of the cortical representation areas of the first dorsal interosseous muscle (2.3 ± 0.5 cm(2) → 0.9 ± 0.6 cm(2), n = 9, p < 0.05) after operation. Our data demonstrate a reversibly impaired motor cortical function in the chronically ischemic brain. In carefully selected patients, cerebral revascularization leads to improved motor output indicated by a lower resting motor threshold, intracortical disinhibition, and more focused motor cortical representation. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Wong, Caine W.; Quaranta, Vito; Glenner, George G.
A synthetic peptide (Asp-Ala-Glu-Phe-Arg-His-Asp-Ser-Gly-Tyr), homologous to the amino terminus of a protein purified from cerebrovascular amyloid (β protein), induced antibodies in BALB/c mice that were used immunohistochemically to stain not only amyloid-laden cerebral vessels but neuritic plaques as well. These findings suggest that the amyloid in neuritic plaques shares antigenic determinants with β protein of cerebral vessels. Since the amino acid compositions of plaque amyloid and cerebrovascular amyloid are similar, it is likely that plaque amyloid also consists of β protein. This possibility suggests a model for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease involving β protein.
Heikkilä, K; Koskinen, O A; Agarwal, A; Tikkinen, K A O; Mäki, M; Kaukinen, K
Clinical experience suggests that atherosclerotic disease is common in individuals with coeliac disease, but epidemiological studies have had contradicting findings. To summarise the currently available evidence, we systematically reviewed and analysed observational studies of the association of coeliac disease or dermatitis herpetiformis with coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke. We searched for studies comparing CHD or stroke outcomes with individuals with and without coeliac disease or dermatitis herpetiformis. Three investigators independently searched electronic databases, identified relevant studies and extracted data. Study-specific results were combined in random-effects meta-analyses, and heterogeneity was quantified using the I(2) statistic and meta-regression. Twenty-one studies were included in our systematic review and 18 in the meta-analyses. For CHD, the pooled hazard ratio for incident disease was 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 1.19) and the overall standardised mortality ratio was 1.21 (0.99, 1.49). For stroke and brain haemorrhage, the corresponding estimates were 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.21) and 1.43 (0.97, 2.10), respectively. There was moderate to considerable heterogeneity among the study-specific estimates. In addition, many estimates were based on small numbers of outcomes and they had limitations in terms of adjustment for potential confounders. Our meta-analyses lend some support to an association between coeliac disease and CHD or cerebrovascular disease, but the evidence base was heterogeneous and had limitations. Our systematic review highlighted a need in this area for adequately powered prospective studies with appropriate adjustment for potentially confounding factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zuckerman, Scott L; Seder, David B; Tsujiura, Crystiana; Cushing, Deborah; Gallup, Holly; Mocco, J; Hanel, Richard A; Ecker, Robert D
Aspirin (ASA) is the mainstay of treatment in cerebrovascular and systemic vascular disease. ASA hypersensitivity can pose a challenge to achieving optimum medical management prior to and after neurointerventional treatment. Desensitization to ASA is well described in the allergy and cardiovascular literature, but there are no similar discussions specific to neurointervention. The purpose of our study was to describe our experience with ASA hypersensitivity management and review the relevant literature. Two cases of patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease requiring neurointervention who were successfully desensitized to their ASA hypersensitivity prior to treatment are described. The subsequent literature is reviewed. Several ASA desensitization protocols exist and have been proven to successfully treat ASA hypersensitivity and allow for ASA therapy to be safely initiated. We describe several previously published protocols. ASA desensitization is a safe and simple way to manage ASA hypersensitivity. We provide comprehensive management guidelines for the neurointerventionalist engaging in ASA desensitization.
Schokker, S A M; Van Oostwaard, M F; Melman, E M; Van Kessel, J P; Baharoglu, M I; Roos, Y B W E M; Vogt, L; De Winter, R J; Mol, B W; Ganzevoort, W
Strong associations have been established in nationwide registry studies between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and later vascular morbidities and mortality. The aim of this case-control study is to examine the interdependent relationships of different predictive factors for vascular disease and HDP, because they are not clearly elucidated due to lack of detail in registries. We assembled three different case groups of women who had cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, or hypertensive kidney disease before the age of 55. The control group consisted of age-matched women who underwent hysterectomy for benign reasons. We assessed the occurrence of HDP in previous pregnancies. The strength of the association with vascular morbidities was tested with multivariable logistic regression in comparison with classic vascular risk factors. In all case groups, previous HDP occurred more frequent than in the control group. In logistic regression analysis, previous HDP were the strongest predictor in the cerebrovascular group (OR 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-11.0). In the cardiovascular group and the kidney failure group a similar association was found, however, this was not statistically significant (OR 4.4 (95% CI 0.82-4) and 2.9 (95% CI 0.61-14), respectively). Previous hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a strong predictor for later vascular morbidity. This is partially mediated through the presence of classic vascular risk factors, but our data suggest it is also an independent predictor. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Liyong; Xing, Tao; Geng, Fenyang; Du, Lixin; Wang, Jiyue
Along with the recent development of intraluminal interventional techniques and correlated imaging methods, one-stop hybrid operation has become a new focus in clinical settings. The aim of this study is to discuss the clinical significance of the one-stop hybrid endarterectomy surgery in the treatment of complex ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. In this study, clinical data from 10 patients with complex ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (including multi-vessel severe stenosis of the internal extracranial carotid artery, single vessel series stenosis of the internal extracranial carotid artery, in-stent restenosis, complete occlusion of the common carotid or the internal carotid artery) admitted to Beijing Xuanwu Hospital and Liaocheng Brain Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. All enrolled subjects underwent three types of hybrid operations. The clinical efficacy of this surgery was subsequently assessed in this clinical trial. The results indicated that no related surgical complications were noted during the perioperative period. Intraoperative and postoperative imaging revealed no signs of vascular stenosis, the blood supply recovered, and clinical symptoms were alleviated. The follow-up lasted for 6 to 12 months. Imaging re-examination showed no evidence of re-stenosis and good blood circulation was present in the recanalized blood vessels. Favorable treatment efficacy was achieved. The intracranial blood supply was significantly improved postoperatively. In conclusion, one-stop hybrid operation plays an important role in treating complex stenosis cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:25197423
Omama, Shinichi; Yoshida, Yuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ogawa, Akira; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Tanno, Kozo; Ohsawa, Masaki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Sakata, Kiyomi
Little information is available regarding the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases after tsunamis. This study was performed to determine the influence of the tsunami damage caused by the Great East Japan earthquake on occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases. Subjects from the coastline and inland areas of Iwate Prefecture who developed cerebrovascular diseases before and after the disaster were included in the analysis. Standardized incidence ratios of 2011 against the previous 3 years were calculated in two 4-week periods before and four 4-week periods after the disaster, according to stroke subtype, sex, age group, and flood damage. The standard incidence ratio for cerebrovascular diseases was 1.20 (1.00-1.40) in the first 4-week period after the disaster and was not significant in other periods. The standard incidence ratios in the first 4-week period for cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage were 1.22 (0.98-1.46), 1.15 (0.76-1.55), and 1.20 (0.52-1.88), respectively. These values were 1.51 (1.19-1.88) for men, 1.35 (1.06-1.64) for subjects aged ≥ 75 years, and 1.35 (1.06-1.64) for the high flooding areas. The standard incidence ratio of cerebral infarction in the first 4-week period for men aged ≥ 75 years in the high flooding areas was 2.34 (1.34-3.34). In the areas highly flooded by the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan earthquake, the occurrence of cerebral infarction among elderly men more than doubled in the first 4 weeks after the disaster.
Di Tullio, Marco R; Jin, Zhezhen; Russo, Cesare; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Rundek, Tatjana; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton B; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between patent foramen ovale (PFO), ischemic stroke, and subclinical cerebrovascular disease in the general population. PFO is found more frequently in stroke patients than in stroke-free controls. However, the PFO-related stroke risk in the general population is not well established, and the relationship between PFO and silent brain infarcts (SBI) is not known. PFO presence was assessed by transthoracic echocardiography with saline contrast injection in 1,100 stroke-free individuals over age 39 of a community-based sample followed for a mean of 11 years. In addition, 360 participants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for SBI detection. We evaluated the risk of stroke associated with PFO after adjusting for established stroke risk factors and examined the odds of having SBI among those with and without PFO. PFO was present in 164 participants (14.9%). Over a mean follow-up of 11.0 ± 4.5 years, 111 ischemic strokes occurred (10.1%), 15 (9.2%) in the PFO+ and 96 (10.3%) in the PFO- groups. The 12.5-year cumulative risk of stroke was 10.1% (standard error: 2.5%) in the PFO+ and 10.4% (standard error: 1.1%) in the PFO- group (p = 0.46). The adjusted hazard ratio for PFO and stroke was 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64 to 1.91). In the MRI subcohort, PFO was not associated with SBI (adjusted odds ratio: 1.15, 95% CI: 0.50 to 2.62). In this community-based cohort, PFO was not associated with an increased risk of clinical stroke or subclinical cerebrovascular disease. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fancellu, Laura; Borsini, Walter; Romani, Ilaria; Pirisi, Angelo; Deiana, Giovanni Andrea; Sechi, Elia; Doneddu, Pietro Emiliano; Rassu, Anna Laura; Demurtas, Rita; Scarabotto, Anna; Cassini, Pamela; Arbustini, Eloisa; Sechi, GianPietro
The etiologic determinants of stroke in young adults remain a diagnostic challenge in up to one-fourth of cases. Increasing evidences led to consider Fabry's disease (FD) as a possible cause to check up. We aimed at evaluating the prevalence of unrecognized FD in a cohort of patients with juvenile stroke in northern Sardinia. For this study, we enrolled 178 patients consecutively admitted to our Neurological Ward for ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, intracerebral haemorrhage, neuroradiological evidence of silent infarcts, or white matter lesions possibly related to cerebral vasculopathy at brain MRI, and cerebral venous thrombosis. The qualifying events have to occur between 18 and 55 years of age. We identified two patients with an α-galactosidase A gene variant, with a prevalence of 0.9 %. According to recent diagnostic criteria, one patient, included for the occurrence of multiple white matter lesions at brain MRI, had a diagnosis of definite FD, the other, included for ischemic stroke, had a diagnosis of uncertain FD. Our study places in a middle position among studies that found a prevalence of FD up to 4 % and others that did not find any FD patients. Our findings confirm that FD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with juvenile stroke, particularly those with a personal or familial history positive for cerebrovascular events, or evidence of combined cardiologic and/or renal impairment. All types of cerebrovascular disorders should be screened for FD, including patients with white matter lesions possibly related to cerebral vasculopathy at brain MRI.
Objectives: The Alzheimer's Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT) was designed to evaluate the conventional NSAID naproxen sodium and the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib for primary prevention of Alzheimer's dementia (AD). On 17 December 2004, after the Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib (APC) trial reported increased cardiovascular risks with celecoxib, the ADAPT Steering Committee suspended treatment and enrollment. This paper reports on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in ADAPT. Design: ADAPT is a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel chemoprevention trial with 1–46 mo of follow-up. Setting: The trial was conducted at six field sites in the United States: Baltimore, Maryland; Boston, Massachusetts; Rochester, New York; Seattle, Washington; Sun City, Arizona; and Tampa, Florida. Participants: The 2,528 participants were aged 70 y and older with a family history of AD. Interventions: Study treatments were celecoxib (200 mg b.i.d.), naproxen sodium (220 mg b.i.d.), and placebo. Outcome measures: Outcome measures were deaths, along with nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, congestive heart failure (CHF), transient ischemic attack (TIA), and antihypertensive treatment recorded from structured interviews at scheduled intervals. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to analyze these events individually and in several composites. Results: Counts (with 3-y incidence) of participants who experienced cardiovascular or cerebrovascular death, MI, stroke, CHF, or TIA in the celecoxib-, naproxen-, and placebo-treated groups were 28/717 (5.54%), 40/713 (8.25%), and 37/1070 (5.68%), respectively. This yielded a hazard ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) for celecoxib of 1.10 (0.67–1.79) and for naproxen of 1.63 (1.04–2.55). Antihypertensive treatment was initiated in 160/440 (47.43%), 147/427 (45.00%), and 164/644 (34.08%). This yielded hazard ratios (CIs) of 1.56 for celecoxib (1.26–1.94) and 1.40 for naproxen (1.12–1
Xu, Xin; Hilal, Saima; Collinson, Simon L; Chong, Eddie Jun Yi; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian
The present study sought to examine the association between the burden of cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) as assessed by multimodal magnetic resonance imaging and neurocognitive function. Cognitively impaired patients and controls were tested on an extensive neuropsychological battery and underwent multimodal brain magnetic resonance imaging. CeVD markers determined from magnetic resonance imaging included the presence of multiple lacunes, multiple cerebral microbleeds, and moderate or severe white matter hyperintensities as markers for small-vessel disease and cortical stroke and intracranial stenosis as markers for large-vessel disease. A weighted CeVD burden score was constructed, and its association with global and domain-specific cognitive performance was investigated. A total of 305 cases and 94 controls were included in the analysis. A graded association of CeVD burden with neurocognitive function was found. Moreover, a clear threshold of CeVD burden was associated with severe impairment. White matter hyperintensities was associated with global neurocognitive deficits, whereas microbleeds were associated with domain-specific impairments. The weighted CeVD burden score comprising markers of both small- and large-vessel diseases were associated with deficits in both global and domain-specific neurocognitive function. Additional studies are needed to validate the use of this CeVD burden score for the prediction of dementia. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Hartmann, A.; Tsuda, Y.
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 90 patients with CBF decreased due to vascular diseases was studied by using the xenon 133 inhalation technique and a 32-detector setup. Whereas 30 patients received their standard basic therapy only and were regarded as controls, 30 others received 3 x 2 mg/day of an ergot alkaloid (co-dergocrine mesylate), and 30 others received 3 x 400 mg pentoxifylline (slow-release formulation)/day orally. Therapy was performed for eight weeks and CBF measured before start of treatment, after a four-week treatment period, and at the end of the study. CBF did not change significantly in the control group; both the pentoxifylline and the ergot alkaloid group presented with a significant increase in the CBF. This positive effect was significantly more pronounced in the pentoxifylline group and affected more ischemic than other brain tissues. In addition, symptoms like sleep disturbances, vertigo, and tinnitus improved significantly during the pentoxifylline observation period.
Proietti, Marco; Mairesse, Georges H; Goethals, Peter; Scavee, Christophe; Vijgen, Johan; Blankoff, Ivan; Vandekerckhove, Yves; Lip, Gregory Yh
Background Cerebrovascular disease confers a major healthcare burden worldwide and is a major cause of death and disability. Several well-established risk factors, such as atrial fibrillation (AF), are associated with cerebrovascular disease and antithrombotic therapy reduces risk. Design This study was a subgroup analysis from the Belgian Heart Rhythm Week, a nationwide AF awareness programme. Methods We studied subjects screened between 2012 and 2014 with available data on clinical risk factors and antithrombotic treatment. Results Of the 38,034 subjects eligible for this analysis, 1513 (4.0%) reported a positive clinical history for cerebrovascular disease. Logistic regression analysis found that age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, history of vascular disease, history of heart failure and history of AF (all p < 0.001) were independently associated with cerebrovascular disease. Among subjects with history of cerebrovascular disease and AF, 1.7% were taking oral anticoagulant drugs only, while both oral anticoagulant drugs and aspirin were used in 61.5% of subjects, aspirin in 4.3% of patients and no antithrombotic therapy in 32.5% of subjects. Among those subjects without AF, the corresponding figures were 0.8, 9.5, 2.0 and 87.6%, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of cerebrovascular disease in this contemporary population screening project was higher than that reported in the general population and was associated with the major known stroke risk factors. Sub-optimal antithrombotic therapy management was evident, with a low use of oral anticoagulant drugs among patients with AF and a low use of aspirin among subjects without AF.
Schneider, Andrea L C; Selvin, Elizabeth; Sharrett, A Richey; Griswold, Michael; Coresh, Josef; Jack, Clifford R; Knopman, David; Mosley, Thomas; Gottesman, Rebecca F
To examine the associations of prediabetes, diabetes, and diabetes severity (as assessed by HbA1c and diabetes duration) with brain volumes and vascular pathology on brain MRI and to assess whether the associations of diabetes with brain volumes are mediated by brain vascular pathology. Cross-sectional study of 1,713 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study (mean age 75 years, 60% female, 27% black, 30% prediabetes, and 35% diabetes) who underwent 3T brain MRI scans in 2011-2013. Participants were categorized by diabetes-HbA1c status as without diabetes (<5.7% [reference]), with prediabetes (5.7 to <6.5%), and with diabetes ([defined as prior diagnosis or HbA1c ≥6.5%] <7.0% vs. ≥7.0%), with further stratification by diabetes duration (<10 vs. ≥10 years). In adjusted analyses, compared with participants without diabetes and HbA1c <5.7%, participants with prediabetes and those with diabetes and HbA1c <7.0% did not have significantly different brain volumes or vascular pathology (all P > 0.05), but those with diabetes and HbA1c ≥7.0% had smaller total brain volume (β -0.20 SDs, 95% CI -0.31, -0.09), smaller regional brain volumes (including frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes; deep gray matter; Alzheimer disease signature region; and hippocampus [all P < 0.05]), and increased burden of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) (P = 0.016). Among participants with diabetes, those with HbA1c ≥7.0% had smaller total and regional brain volumes and an increased burden of WMH (all P < 0.05) compared with those with HbA1c <7.0%. Similarly, participants with longer duration of diabetes (≥10 years) had smaller brain volumes and higher burden of lacunes (all P < 0.05) than those with a diabetes duration <10 years. We found no evidence for mediation by WMH in associations of diabetes with smaller brain volumes by structural equation models (all P > 0.05). More-severe diabetes (defined by higher HbA1c and longer disease
Background Diseases of the circulatory system (CVD) are the most common causes of death in developed countries. However, the prevalence of CVD varies between countries; for example, the mortality rate in Russia is about four times higher than in Western Europe. In a recent retrospective cohort study it was unexpectedly found that CVD mortality is lower among "Aussiedler" (ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union) compared to the German population. Methods This is a case-control study, nested into a recent cohort study of migrants from the former Soviet Union. Relatives of cases and controls themselves were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire. To estimate relative risks via the odds ratio (OR), a conditional logistic regression procedure was performed. Results Commonly known risk factors for CVD were identified as relevant to Aussiedler. The best multivariate model for CVD includes five risk factors: consumption of alcohol, smoking, diabetes, cholesterol and consumption of sweets. For alcohol consumption and smoking, OR = 3.68 (95% CI, 1.58-8.58) and OR = 3.07 (95% CI, 1.42-6.62), respectively. For diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol values, OR = 3.29 (95% CI, 1.50-7.39) and OR = 2.32 (95% CI, 1.11-4.88), respectively. The almost complete abdication of sweets is associated with a protective effect, OR = 0.34 (95% CI, 0.18-0.64). The prevalence of risk factors is somewhat different to that of the autochthon German population and partly explains the differences in CVD mortality between both groups. Conclusions The reported lower prevalences of known risk factors of CVD such as alcohol consumption, high cholesterol, diabetes and smoking (in women) could contribute to a lower risk of CVD. PMID:22413759
Kuhrs, Ema; Winkler, Volker; Becher, Heiko
Diseases of the circulatory system (CVD) are the most common causes of death in developed countries. However, the prevalence of CVD varies between countries; for example, the mortality rate in Russia is about four times higher than in Western Europe. In a recent retrospective cohort study it was unexpectedly found that CVD mortality is lower among "Aussiedler" (ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union) compared to the German population. This is a case-control study, nested into a recent cohort study of migrants from the former Soviet Union. Relatives of cases and controls themselves were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire. To estimate relative risks via the odds ratio (OR), a conditional logistic regression procedure was performed. Commonly known risk factors for CVD were identified as relevant to Aussiedler. The best multivariate model for CVD includes five risk factors: consumption of alcohol, smoking, diabetes, cholesterol and consumption of sweets. For alcohol consumption and smoking, OR = 3.68 (95% CI, 1.58-8.58) and OR = 3.07 (95% CI, 1.42-6.62), respectively. For diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol values, OR = 3.29 (95% CI, 1.50-7.39) and OR = 2.32 (95% CI, 1.11-4.88), respectively. The almost complete abdication of sweets is associated with a protective effect, OR = 0.34 (95% CI, 0.18-0.64). The prevalence of risk factors is somewhat different to that of the autochthon German population and partly explains the differences in CVD mortality between both groups. The reported lower prevalences of known risk factors of CVD such as alcohol consumption, high cholesterol, diabetes and smoking (in women) could contribute to a lower risk of CVD.
Chen, P P; Lou, P A; Zhang, P; Qiao, C; Li, T; Dong, Z M
Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and trend of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease mortality among Xuzhou residents from 2011 to 2015. Methods: The mortality data of the ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease were obtained from the registration disease surveillance system covering the residents of the city from 2011 to 2015. Ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease were identified according to the international classification of diseases (ICD-10), Ischemic heart diseases include I20 to I25 (angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, certain current complications following acute myocardial infarction, other acute ischemic heart diseases chronic ischemic heart disease); cerebrovascular diseases include I60 to I69 (subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, other non-traumatic hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, stroke not specified as hemorrhage or infarction, other cerebrovascular diseases, sequelae of cerebrovascular disease). Results: (1)From 2011 to 2015, the chronic ischemia Cardio-Cerebrovascular disease mortality of residents in Xuzhou was 261.2 per one hundred thousand (129 950/49 748 321), 269.9 per one hundred thousand(69 562/25 775 930)for male residents, 252.0 per one hundred thousand(60 388/23 972 391)for female residents, the mortality rate in men was significantly higher than that in women (P<0.05). The chronic ischemic Cardio-Cerebrovascular disease mortality rate of urban residents was 243.8 per one hundred thousand(17 049/6 993 787), which was lower than the rate of rural residents (264.0 per one hundred thousand(112 901/42 754 534), P<0.05). (2)From 2011 to 2015, the mortality rate of ischemic heart disease in Xuzhou city remained unchanged: 117.1 per one hundred thousand(11 416/9 747 768), 126.8 per one hundred thousand(12 177/9 600 745), 112.0 per one hundred thousand(11 184/9 986 877), 115.2 per one hundred thousand(11 697/10 151 842), 117.1 per one hundred thousand(12 019
Friedler, Brett; Crapser, Joshua; McCullough, Louise
The deleterious effects of chronic social isolation (SI) have been recognized for several decades. Isolation is a major source of psychosocial stress and is associated with an increased prevalence of vascular and neurological diseases. In addition, isolation exacerbates morbidity and mortality following acute injuries such as stroke or myocardial infarction. In contrast, affiliative social interactions can improve organismal function and health. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Recently, results from large epidemiological trials and pre-clinical studies have revealed several potential mediators of the detrimental effects of isolation. At least three major biological systems have been implicated: the neuroendocrine (HPA) axis, the immune system, and the autonomic nervous system. This review summarizes studies examining the relationship between isolation and mortality and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying SI. Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and neurological diseases including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease are given special emphasis in the context of SI. Sex differences are highlighted and studies are separated into clinical and basic science for clarity.
Friedler, Brett; Crapser, Joshua; McCullough, Louise
The deleterious effects of chronic social isolation (SI) have been recognized for several decades. Isolation is a major source of psychosocial stress and is associated with an increased prevalence of vascular and neurological diseases. In addition, isolation exacerbates morbidity and mortality following acute injuries such as stroke or myocardial infarction. In contrast, affiliative social interactions can improve organismal function and health. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Recently, results from large epidemiological trials and pre-clinical studies have revealed several potential mediators of the detrimental effects of isolation. At least three major biological systems have been implicated; the neuroendocrine (HPA) axis, the immune system, and the autonomic nervous system. This review summarizes studies examining the relationship between isolation and mortality and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying SI. Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and neurological diseases including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke and Alzheimer’s disease are given special emphasis in the context of SI. Sex differences are highlighted and studies are separated into clinical and basic science for clarity. PMID:25537401
Brown, Scott C; Wang, Kefeng; Dong, Chuanhui; Farrell, Mary Beth; Heller, Gary V; Gornik, Heather L; Hutchisson, Marge; Needleman, Laurence; Benenati, James F; Jaff, Michael R; Meier, George H; Perese, Susana; Bendick, Phillip; Hamburg, Naomi M; Lohr, Joann M; LaPerna, Lucy; Leers, Steven A; Lilly, Michael P; Tegeler, Charles; Katanick, Sandra L; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Rundek, Tatjana
Accreditation of cerebrovascular ultrasound laboratories by the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC) and equivalent organizations is supported by the Joint Commission certification of stroke centers. Limited information exists on the accreditation status and geographic distribution of cerebrovascular testing facilities in the United States. Our study objectives were to identify the proportion of IAC-accredited outpatient cerebrovascular testing facilities used by Medicare beneficiaries, describe their geographic distribution, and identify variations in cerebrovascular testing procedure types and volumes by accreditation status. As part of the VALUE (Vascular Accreditation, Location, and Utilization Evaluation) Study, we examined the proportion of IAC-accredited facilities that conducted cerebrovascular testing in a 5% Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services random Outpatient Limited Data Set in 2011 and investigated their geographic distribution using geocoding. Among 7327 outpatient facilities billing Medicare for cerebrovascular testing, only 22% (1640) were IAC accredited. The proportion of IAC-accredited cerebrovascular testing facilities varied by region (χ(2) = 177.1; P < .0001), with 29%, 15%, 13%, and 10% located in the Northeast, South, Midwest, and West, respectively. However, of the total number of cerebrovascular outpatient procedures conducted in 2011 (38,555), 40% (15,410) were conducted in IAC-accredited facilities. Most cerebrovascular testing procedures were carotid duplex, with 40% of them conducted in IAC-accredited facilities. The proportion of facilities conducting outpatient cerebrovascular testing accredited by the IAC is low and varies by region. The growing number of certified stroke centers should be accompanied by more accredited outpatient vascular testing facilities, which could potentially improve the quality of stroke care.
Ebrahimi, Ali P.
Background: Blood vessel mechanics has traditionally been of interest to researchers and clinicians. Changes in mechanical properties of arteries have been associated with various diseases. Objective: To provide a comprehensive review directed towards understanding the basic biomechanical properties of cerebral arteries under normal and diseased conditions. Methods: Literature review supplemented by personal knowledge. Results: The mechanical properties of vascular tissue may depend on several factors including macromolecular volume fraction, molecular orientation, and volume or number of cells such as smooth muscle cells. Mechanical properties of a blood vessel have been characterized using different methods such as in vitro tensile testing, non-invasive ultrasound examination, and mathematical models. Experiments are complicated by the variation in properties and content of materials that make up the vessel wall and more challenging as the size of the vessel of interest decreases. Therapeutic interventions aiming to alter the mechanical response are either pharmaceutical: including calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), and β-blockers; or, mechanical interventions such as angioplasty, stent placement, mechanical thrombectomy, or embolization procedures. Conclusion: It is apparent from the literature that macromolecular and cellular mechanics of blood vessels are not fully understood. Therefore, further studies are necessary to better understand contribution of these mechanisms to the overall mechanics of the vascular tissue. PMID:22518247
Lange-Asschenfeldt, Christian; Kojda, Georg
Exercise training promotes extensive cardiovascular changes and adaptive mechanisms in both the peripheral and cerebral vasculature, such as improved organ blood flow, induction of antioxidant pathways, and enhanced angiogenesis and vascular regeneration. Clinical studies have demonstrated a reduction of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease among exercising individuals. However, evidence from recent large clinical trials also suggests a substantial reduction of dementia risk - particularly regarding Alzheimer's disease (AD) - with regular exercise. Enhanced neurogenesis and improved synaptic plasticity have been implicated in this beneficial effect. However, recent research has revealed that vascular and specifically endothelial dysfunction is essentially involved in the disease process and profoundly aggravates underlying neurodegeneration. Moreover, vascular risk factors (VRFs) are probably determinants of incidence and course of AD. In this review, we emphasize the interconnection between AD and VRFs and the impact of cerebrovascular and endothelial dysfunction on AD pathophysiology. Furthermore, we describe the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects of exercise on the vasculature such as activation of the vascular nitric oxide (NO)/endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) pathway, upregulation of antioxidant enzymes, and angiogenesis. Finally, recent prospective clinical studies dealing with the effect of exercise on the risk of incident AD are briefly reviewed. We conclude that, next to upholding neuronal plasticity, regular exercise may counteract AD pathophysiology by building a vascular reserve.
Slivka, A; Levy, D E; Lapinski, R H
Intravenous heparin is frequently used to treat thromboembolic disease, but the consequences of stopping heparin have not been studied systematically. To determine whether discontinuing heparin poses a clinical risk, we examined the charts of 378 patients treated with heparin for transient ischaemic attack (TIA), reversible ischaemic neurological deficit, or ischaemic stroke from October 1979 to June 1985. Clinical deterioration, or a new TIA or stroke was more likely (p = 0.01) during the 24 hours after heparin was stopped in patients not already on aspirin or warfarin (10/143, 7%) than in patients receiving aspirin or warfarin before heparin withdrawal (3/215, 1%). Stopping heparin in patients not receiving aspirin or warfarin appears to expose them to an increased risk for TIA, stroke, or clinical deterioration. PMID:2614427
Sun, Hao; Sun, Ting; Ma, Bing; Yang, Bo-wen; Zhang, Yao; Huang, Dong-hui; Shi, Jing-pu
Measurement of the biomarker copeptin may help identify disease severity and risk of mortality for a various diseases. This study sought to determine the relationship between copeptin and all-cause mortality of patients with cardio-cerebrovascular disease. Database of Medline and Web of Science were searched for studies with data involving the baseline copeptin levels and subsequent all-cause mortality outcomes. The pooled HRs of all-cause mortality were calculated and presented with 95%CIs. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were conducted to explore the possible sources of heterogeneity. Data from 14,395 participants were derived from 28 prospective studies. Higher copeptin significantly increased the risk of all-cause mortality (per unit copeptin: HR=1.020, 95%CI=1.004-1.036; log unit copeptin: HR=2.884, 95%CI=1.844-4.512; categorical copeptin: HR=3.371, 95%CI=2.077-5.472). Subgroup analysis indicated that the risk of all-cause death was higher in cerebrovascular patients (per unit copeptin: HR=2.537, 95%CI=0.956-6.731; log unit copeptin: HR=3.419, 95%CI=2.391-4.888) than cardiovascular patients (per unit copeptin: HR=1.011, 95%CI=1.002-1.020; log unit copeptin: HR=2.009, 95%CI=1.119-3.608). Copeptin is associated with all-cause mortality of patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Our study suggests that copeptin seems to be a promising novel biomarker for prediction of mortality in cardio-cerebrovascular patients, especially for cerebrovascular patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ribeiro, Joana Jesus; Sousa, Mário; Teotónio, Rute; Bento, Conceição; Sales, Francisco
Two elderly men, with previous history of cerebrovascular disease, were admitted to the emergency department due to focal motor status epilepticus with persistent myoclonic jerks of one side of the body. In both cases, the clinical picture evolved into a unilateral and isolated arrhythmic myoclonus of the abdominal muscles with preserved consciousness. These involuntary movements resolved with antiepileptic drugs. Although cerebrovascular disease is one of the most common causes of epilepsia partialis continua, reported cases in the literature with predominant abdominal involvement have a different aetiology. The neuroimaging and electroencephalographic findings showed a wide spectrum of different localizations and aetiologies associated with this particular type of epileptic seizure. Indeed, the pathophysiology of focal motor seizures involving the abdominal muscles is still a matter of discussion. In our second case, we present a patient with epilepsia partialis continua of the abdominal wall with an occipital focus, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported. [Published with video sequences].
Katan, Mira; Moon, Yeseon; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Spanaus, Kathartina; DeRosa, Janet; Gutierrez, Jose; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton; Sacco, Ralph; Elkind, Mitchell
Chronic infections and cardiac dysfunction are risk factors for stroke. We hypothesized that blood biomarkers of infection (procalcitonin) and cardiac dysfunction (midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide [MR-proANP]), previously associated with small vessel stroke and cardioembolic stroke are also associated with subclinical cerebrovascular damage, including silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensity volume. The NOMAS (Northern Manhattan Study) was designed to assess risk factors for incident vascular disease in a multiethnic cohort. A subsample underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and had blood samples available for biomarker measurement (n=1178). We used logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association of these biomarkers with silent brain infarcts after adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and medical risk factors. We used linear regression to assess associations with log-white matter hyperintensity volume. Mean age was 70±9 years; 60% were women, 66% Hispanic, 17% black, and 15% were white. After adjusting for risk factors, subjects with procalcitonin or MR-proANP in the top quartile, compared with the lowest quartile were more likely to have silent brain infarcts (adjusted odds ratio for procalcitonin, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.7 and for MR-proANP, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.7-6.3) and increased white matter hyperintensity volume (adjusted mean change in log-white matter hyperintensity volume for procalcitonin, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.13-0.44 and for MR-proANP, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.004-0.36). Higher concentrations of procalcitonin, a marker of infection, and MR-proANP, a marker of cardiac dysfunction, are independently associated with subclinical cerebrovascular damage. If further studies demonstrate an incremental value for risk stratification, biomarker-guided primary prevention studies may lead to new approaches to prevent cerebrovascular disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Spies, Petra E; Verbeek, Marcel M; Sjogren, Magnus J C; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Claassen, Jurgen A H R
Preclinical and post-mortem studies suggest that Alzheimer disease (AD) causes cerebrovascular dysfunction, and therefore may enhance susceptibility to cerebrovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to investigate this association in a memory clinic population. The AD biomarkers CSF amyloid β42, amyloid β40 and APOE-ε4 status have all been linked to increased CVD risk in AD, and therefore the first aim of this study was to analyze the association between these biomarkers and CVD. In 92 memory clinic patients the cross-sectional association between AD biomarkersand the severity of CVD was investigated with linear regression analysis. Additionally, we studied whether AD biomarkers modified the relation between vascular risk factors and CVD. CVD was assessed on MRI through a visual rating scale.Analyses were adjusted for age. The second aim of this study was to investigate the association between clinical AD and CVD, where 'clinical AD' was defined as follows: impairment in episodic memory, hippocampal atrophy and an aberrant concentration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. 47 of the 92 patients had AD. No association between CSF amyloid β42, amyloid β40 or APOE-ε4 status and CVD severity was found, nor did these AD biomarkers modify the relation between vascular risk factors and CVD. Clinical AD was not associated with CVD severity (p=0.83). Patients with more vascular risk factors had more CVD, but this relationship was not convincingly modified by AD (p=0.06). In this memory clinic population, CVD in patients with AD was related to vascular risk factors and age, comparable to patients without AD. Therefore, in our study, the preclinical and post-mortem evidence that AD would predispose to CVD could not be translated clinically. Further work, including replication of this work in a different and larger sample, is warranted.
[The group study of diagnostic efficacy of cerebro-vascular disease by I-123 IMP SPECT images obtained with ring type SPECT scanner--the ROC analysis on the diagnosis of perfusion defect and redistribution].
Machida, K; Matsumoto, T; Honda, N; Mamiya, T; Takahashi, T; Takishima, T; Kamano, T; Tamaki, S; Iinuma, T A; Tateno, Y
We performed two image reading experiments in order to investigate the diagnostic capability of I-123 IMP SPECT obtained by the ring type SPECT scanner in cerebro-vascular disease. Fourteen physicians diagnosed SPECT images of 55 cases with reference to clinical neurological informations, first without brain XCT images and second with XCT images. Each physician detected perfusion defects and redistributions of I-123 IMP and assigned a confidence level of abnormality for these SPECT findings by means of five rating method. From results obtained by ROC analysis, we concluded as follows: (1) Generally, I-123 IMP SPECT is a stable diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of cerebro-vascular disease and the image reading of XCT had no effects on the diagnosis of SPECT on the whole of physician, (2) However, there were unnegligible differences among individuals in the detectability of findings and the effect of XCT image reading, (3) Detectability of redistribution of I-123 IMP was lower than that of perfusion defect and inter-observer variation in the diagnostic performance for redistribution was larger than that of perfusion defect. The results suggest that it is necessary to standardize diagnostic criteria among physicians for redistribution of I-123 IMP.
Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian; Schmidt, Reinhold; Grittner, Ulrike; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Hennerici, Michael G; Huber, Roman; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J; Kaps, Manfred; Kessler, Christof; Martus, Peter; Putaala, Jukka; Ropele, Stefan; Tanislav, Christian; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Thijs, Vincent; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Norrving, Bo; Rolfs, Arndt
Fabry disease (FD) may cause stroke and is reportedly associated with typical brain findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In a large group of young patients with an acute cerebrovascular event, we wanted to test whether brain MRI findings can serve to suggest the presence of FD. The Stroke in Young Fabry Patients (SIFAP 1) study prospectively collected clinical, laboratory, and radiological data of 5023 patients (18-55 years) with an acute cerebrovascular event. Their MRI was interpreted centrally and blinded to all other information. Biochemical findings and genetic testing served to diagnose FD in 45 (0.9%) patients. We compared the imaging findings between FD and non-FD patients in patients with at least a T2-weighted MRI of good quality. A total of 3203 (63.8%) patients had the required MRI data set. Among those were 34 patients with a diagnosis of FD (1.1%), which was definite in 21 and probable in 13 cases. The median age of patients with FD was slightly lower (45 versus 46 years) and women prevailed (70.6% versus 40.7%; P<0.001). Presence or extent of white matter hyperintensities, infarct localization, vertebrobasilar artery dilatation, T1-signal hyperintensity of the pulvinar thalami, or any other MRI finding did not distinguish patients with FD from non-FD cerebrovascular event patients. Pulvinar hyperintensity was not present in a single patient with FD but seen in 6 non-FD patients. Brain MRI findings cannot serve to suspect FD in young patients presenting with an acute cerebrovascular event. This deserves consideration in the search for possible causes of young patients with stroke. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Tyndall, Amanda V; Davenport, Margie H; Wilson, Ben J; Burek, Grazyna M; Arsenault-Lapierre, Genevieve; Haley, Eryka; Eskes, Gail A; Friedenreich, Christine M; Hill, Michael D; Hogan, David B; Longman, R Stewart; Anderson, Todd J; Leigh, Richard; Smith, Eric E; Poulin, Marc J
Aging and physical inactivity are associated with declines in some cognitive domains and cerebrovascular function, as well as an elevated risk of cerebrovascular disease and other morbidities. With the increase in the number of sedentary older Canadians, promoting healthy brain aging is becoming an increasingly important population health issue. Emerging research suggests that higher levels of physical fitness at any age are associated with better cognitive functioning and this may be mediated, at least in part, by improvements in cerebrovascular reserve. We are currently conducting a study to determine: if a structured 6-month aerobic exercise program is associated with improvements or maintenance of both cerebrovascular function and cognitive abilities in older individuals; and, the extent to which any changes seen persist 6 months after the completion of the structured exercise program. Two hundred and fifty men and women aged 55-80 years are being enrolled into an 18-month combined quasi-experimental and prospective cohort study. Participants are eligible for enrollment into the study if they are inactive (i.e., not participating in regular physical activity), non-smokers, have a body mass index <35.0 kg/m(2), are free of significant cognitive impairment (defined as a Montreal Cognitive Assessment score of 24 or more), and do not have clinically significant cardiovascular, cerebrovascular disease, or chronic obstructive pulmonary airway disease. Repeated measurements are done during three sequential six-month phases: 1) pre-intervention; 2) aerobic exercise intervention; and 3) post-intervention. These outcomes include: cardiorespiratory fitness, resting cerebral blood flow, cerebrovascular reserve, and cognitive function. This is the first study to our knowledge that will examine contemporaneously the effect of an exercise intervention on both cerebrovascular reserve and cognition in an older population. This study will further our understanding of whether
Background The contribution of cerebrovascular function to cognitive performance is gaining increased attention. Transcranial doppler (TCD) is portable, reliable, inexpensive and extremely well tolerated by young and clinical samples. It enables measurement of blood flow velocity in major cerebral arteries at rest and during cognitive tasks. Methods We systematically reviewed evidence for associations between cognitive performance and cerebrovascular function in children (0-18 years), as measured using TCD. A total of 2778 articles were retrieved from PsychInfo, Pubmed, and EMBASE searches and 25 relevant articles were identified. Results Most studies investigated clinical groups, where decreased blood flow velocities in infants were associated with poor neurological functioning, and increased blood flow velocities in children with Sickle cell disease were typically associated with cognitive impairment and lower intelligence. Studies were also identified assessing autistic behaviour, mental retardation and sleep disordered breathing. In healthy children, the majority of studies reported cognitive processing produced lateralised changes in blood flow velocities however these physiological responses did not appear to correlate with behavioural cognitive performance. Conclusion Poor cognitive performance appears to be associated with decreased blood flow velocities in premature infants, and increased velocities in Sickle cell disease children using TCD methods. However knowledge in healthy samples is relatively limited. The technique is well tolerated by children, is portable and inexpensive. It therefore stands to make a valuable contribution to knowledge regarding the underlying functional biology of cognitive performance in childhood. PMID:24602446
Fornaro, Michele; Solmi, Marco; Veronese, Nicola; De Berardis, Domenico; Buonaguro, Elisabetta Filomena; Tomasetti, Carmine; Perna, Giampaolo; Preti, Antonio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni
Cardio-vascular diseases (CVDs) and CVD-related disorders (including cerebrovascular diseases; CBVDs) are a major public health concern as they represent the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developed countries. Patients with CVDs and CBVDs co-morbid with mood disorders, especially bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), suffer reduced quality-of-life and significant disability adjusted for years of life and mortality. The relationship between CVDs/CBVDs and mood disorders is likely to be bidirectional. Evidence for shared genetic risk of pathways involved in stress reaction, serotonin or dopamine signalling, circadian rhythms, and energy balance was reported in genome-wide association studies. There is some evidence of a neuroprotective effect of various antidepressants, which may be boosted by physical exercise, especially by aerobic ones. Patients with CVDs/CBVDs should be routinely attentively evaluated for the presence of mood disorders, with tools aimed at detecting both symptoms of depression and of hypomania/mania. Behavioural lifestyle interventions targeting nutrition and exercise, coping strategies, and attitudes towards health should be routinely provided to patients with mood disorders, to prevent the risk of CVDs/CBVDs. A narrative review of the evidence is herein provided, focusing on pharmacological and physical therapy interventions.
Jones, Jeffrey M; Jones, Joni L
In the United States, more individuals suffer disability from stroke than from any other disease, and as many as 11 of the 43 presidents have been affected. In this article, the authors review the cases of the United States presidents who have had strokes, some of which have occurred while the president was in office, having a direct effect on the country.
Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pala, Andrea Norcini; Finco, Gabriele; Musu, Mario; Moro, Maria Francesca
Introduction : Depression and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis often occur in comorbidity showing neuropsychological impairment and poor response to antidepressant treatment. Objective is to evaluate if new antidepressant vortioxetine may be a potential treatment option. Mechanism of Action : Vortioxetine has 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D antagonists, 5-HT1B partial agonist and a 5-HT1A agonist and serotonin transporter inhibitor property. Efficacy and safety in Major Depressive Disorders and in cognitive impairment : The majority of trials (one of them in older people) showed efficacy for vortioxetine against placebo and no differences against other active treatments. The Adverse Effects ranged from 15.8% more to 10.8% less than placebo. In the elderly, only nausea was found higher than placebo. Effects on arterial blood pressure and cardiac parameters including the ECG-QT segment were similar to placebo. Elderly depressive patients on vortioxetine showed improvement versus placebo and other active comparators in Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores. The inclusion criteria admitted cases with middle cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion : The mechanism of action, the efficacy on depression and safety profile and early data on cognitive impairment make Vortioxetine a strong candidate for use in depression associated with cerebrovascular disease. This information must be supported by future randomized controlled trials. PMID:25893002
Bangen, Katherine J; Nation, Daniel A; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Weissberger, Gali H; Hansen, Lawrence A; Galasko, Douglas R; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W
We examined the relationships of antemortem vascular risk factors to postmortem cerebrovascular and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathologies. Eighty-four AD patients underwent an assessment of vascular risk (blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, transient ischemic attack [TIA], or stroke) and later underwent brain autopsy. Given our aim to examine mild cerebrovascular changes (CVCs), individuals were excluded if autopsy revealed large stroke. The most common forms of CVC were circle of Willis atherosclerosis followed by arteriosclerosis, lacunes, and microinfarcts. Excluding the history of TIA/clinical stroke, individual vascular risk factors were not associated with CVC. However, the presence of multiple vascular risk factors was associated with CVC. Furthermore, the presence of CVC was associated with lower Braak and Braak stage. These findings highlight the importance of aggregate risk in the vascular contribution to dementia. Interventions designed to maintain cerebrovascular health may represent important opportunities for preventing or delaying dementia, even when AD is the dominant pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Meguro, Kenichi; Tanaka, Naofumi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Nakamura, Kei; Satoh, Masayuki
The concept and diagnosis for mixed dementia is not simple, since it is difficult to identify the type and regions of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) responsible for causing dementia. An investigation is needed to confirm the presence of mixed dementia, those who met the criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and those for vascular dementia (VaD). According to the community-based stroke, dementia, and bed-confinement prevention in Kurihara, northern Japan (Kurihara Project), the prevalence of dementia and dementing diseases was surveyed in 2008-2010. Five hundred and ninety people finally agreed to participate (47.0%), and 73 (12.4%) people were diagnosed with dementia according to the DSM-IV. Using MRI, intensive evaluations on CVDs were performed for the 49 dementia patients associated with CVDs (mixed dementia, VaD, and AD with CVD). For the mixed dementia group, all had left subcortical strategic CVDs. These included the caudate head and thalamus. For the VaD group, all patients had at least cortical CVDs or subcortical strategic CVDs. The AD with CVD group had non-strategic CVDs in cortical, subcortical, or other areas in 5 or 6 patients each. Two extreme concepts regarding CVD and dementia are possible. One is that there is no concept for mixed dementia or VaD. An alternative is that the vascular factor should be considered as primary. Our data showed an importance of cortical and subcortical "strategic" areas, the latter included thalamus and caudate head.
Gong, Yanping; Cheng, Xiaoling; Li, Chunlin; Li, Jian; Jin, Mengmeng; Sun, Banruo; Tian, Hui
This single-centre cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the metabolic and gonadal risk factors of vascular diseases in elderly males. After screening, 337 subjects aged 60-90 were found to be qualified. Odds ratios (ORs) in cross-table analyses and exp(B) in logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the vascular risk of dependent factors. R(2) of logistic regression equation was used to estimate the goodness-of-fit of vascular diseases logistic regression models. Hypertension increased the risk of cardiovascular disease (CAVD) in elderly men approximately 3-fold. The number of metabolic diseases also correlated with incremental risks of CAVD; presence of one abnormality approximately increases the risk approximately 62%. Cerebrovascular disease (CEVD) development was closely associated with both metabolic syndrome and sex hormone levels; their explanation effects of single action and combined action were 13.2%, 12.55% and 28.5%. C-peptide might be the underlying mechanism of the metabolic syndrome's effect on CEVD. C-peptide = 2.43 U/L and FE(2) = 0.66 were the tangent points in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Metabolic diseases and sex hormones play different roles in the development of CAVD and CEVD, the methods for vascular protection in elderly men should be promoted differently according to the their risks of CAVD and CEVD.
Maruthappu, Mahiben; Shalhoub, Joseph; Tariq, Zoon; Williams, Callum; Atun, Rifat; Davies, Alun H; Zeltner, Thomas
The global economic downturn has been associated with unemployment rises, reduced health spending, and worsened population health. This has raised the question of how economic variations affect health outcomes. We sought to determine the effect of changes in unemployment and government healthcare expenditure on cerebrovascular mortality globally. Data were obtained from the World Bank and World Health Organization. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the effect of changes in unemployment and government healthcare expenditure on cerebrovascular mortality. Country-specific differences in infrastructure and demographics were controlled for. One- to five-year lag analyses and robustness checks were conducted. Across 99 countries worldwide, between 1981 and 2009, every 1% increase in unemployment was associated with a significant increase in cerebrovascular mortality (coefficient 187, CI: 86.6-288, P = 0.0003). Every 1% rise in government healthcare expenditure, across both genders, was associated with significant decreases in cerebrovascular deaths (coefficient 869, CI: 383-1354, P = 0.0005). The association between unemployment and cerebrovascular mortality remained statistically significant for at least five years subsequent to the 1% unemployment rise, while the association between government healthcare expenditure and cerebrovascular mortality remained significant for two years. These relationships were both shown to be independent of changes in gross domestic product per capita, inflation, interest rates, urbanization, nutrition, education, and out-of-pocket spending. Rises in unemployment and reductions in government healthcare expenditure are associated with significant increases in cerebrovascular mortality globally. Clinicians may also need to consider unemployment as a possible risk factor for cerebrovascular disease mortality. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.
Introduction The pathophysiology of sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is not entirely clear. One of the possible underlying mechanisms is the alteration of the cerebral microvascular function induced by the systemic inflammation. The aim of the present work was to test whether cerebral vasomotor-reactivity is impaired in patients with SAE. Methods Patients fulfilling the criteria of clinical sepsis and showing disturbance of consciousness of any severity were included (n = 14). Non-septic persons whithout previous diseases affecting cerebral vasoreactivity served as controls (n = 20). Transcranial Doppler blood flow velocities were measured at rest and at 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes after intravenous administration of 15 mg/kgBW acetazolamide. The time course of the acetazolamide effect on cerebral blood flow velocity (cerebrovascular reactivity, CVR) and the maximal vasodilatory effect of acetazolemide (cerebrovascular reserve capacity, CRC) were compared among the groups. Results Absolute blood flow velocities after adminsitration of the vasodilator drug were higher among control subjects than in SAE. Assessment of the time-course of the vasomotor reaction showed that patients with SAE reacted slower to the vasodilatory stimulus than control persons. When assessing the maximal vasodilatory ability of the cerebral arterioles to acetazolamide during vasomotor testing, we found that patients with SAE reacted to a lesser extent to the drug than did control subjects (CRC controls:46.2 ± 15.9%, CRC SAE: 31,5 ± 15.8%, P < 0.01). Conclusions We conclude that cerebrovascular reactivity is impaired in patients with SAE. The clinical significance of this pathophysiological finding has to be assessed in further studies. PMID:20356365
Wang, Hui; Sun, Wei; Ji, Yue; Shi, Jing; Xuan, Qinkao; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xiao, Junjie; Kong, Xiangqing
Although the mortality of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has been steadily declined in the European Union (EU), CVD remains among the major causes of death in EU. As risk factors such asobesity and diabetes mellitus are increasing, the trends of European CVD mortality remains unknown. To understand the variation in CVD mortality of different EU countries, we studied the trends in CVD mortality in EU countries over the last three decades between males and females. Age- and sex-specific mortality rates between 1980 and 2011 were calculated by data from the WHO mortality database. Joinpoint software was used to calculate annual percentage changes and to characterize trends in mortality rates over time. Our study showed that between 1980 and 2011, CVD mortality significantly decreased in both men and women across all age groups. The specific mortality trends varied largely between EU countries. The plateau trend was observed in little regions at different age groups, however, the EU as a whole displayed declined trend CVD mortality. During the last three decades, CVD mortality decreased substantially in the entire population of EU. However, despite this overall decline in CVD mortality, several areas were identified as having no change in their CVD mortality rates at different period. The whole EU needs to establish strict prevention measures toreduce the incidence of CVD risk factors. PMID:25550927
Yezhuvath, Uma S.; Uh, Jinsoo; Cheng, Yamei; Martin-Cook, Kristin; Weiner, Myron; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; van Osch, Matthias; Lu, Hanzhang
Epidemiologic evidence and postmortem studies of cerebral amyloid angiopathy suggest that vascular dysfunction may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). However, alterations in vascular function under in vivo conditions are poorly understood. In this study, we assessed cerebrovascular-reactivity (CVR) in AD patients and age-matched controls using CO2-inhalation while simultaneously acquiring Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) MR images. Compared to controls, AD patients had widespread reduction in CVR in the rostral brain including prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and insular cortex (p<0.01). The deficits could not be explained by cardiovascular risk factors. The spatial distribution of the CVR deficits differed drastically from the regions of cerebral blood flow (CBF) deficits, which were found in temporal and parietal cortices. Individuals with greater CVR deficit tended to have a greater volume of leukoaraiosis as seen on FLAIR MRI (p=0.004). Our data suggest that early AD subjects have evidence of significant forebrain vascular contractility deficits. The localization, while differing from CBF findings, appears to be spatially similar to PIB amyloid imaging findings. PMID:20359779
Klein, Rebecca; Menon, Bijoy K; Rabi, Doreen; Stell, William; Hill, Michael D
Background An acute medical condition following a previous stroke among those who operate trains, airplanes, and commercial vehicles can result in serious accidents. There are guidelines in place to assist physicians and employers in assessing the risks of returning to work after stroke but the extent and comprehensiveness across nations and among safety-critical occupations are not widely known. Methods Medical guidelines currently in place to regulate safety critical occupations including railway engineers, pilots and commercial vehicle drivers were systematically reviewed. Electronic and hand literature searches as well as review of grey literature for Canada, the USA, the UK, and Australia were conducted. Results There is no consistent set of guidelines that address the risk of a second catastrophic event after an initial cerebrovascular event in those employed in safety critical occupations in the four countries assessed. Some broad principles existed between the different countries and occupations but there was major variation in the approach to cerebrovascular disease and its impact on those working in safety-critical occupations. Conclusions A synthesis of current knowledge would assist in establishing risks of a catastrophic event in those who have already suffered from cerebrovascular illness. This will allow the creation of medical guidelines which could be applied to any safety critical occupation in any nation.
Baron, Jean-Claude; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Fujioka, Masayuki; Endres, Matthias
As a sequel of brain ischemia, selective neuronal loss (SNL)—as opposed to pannecrosis (i.e. infarction)—is attracting growing interest, particularly because it is now detectable in vivo. In acute stroke, SNL may affect the salvaged penumbra and hamper functional recovery following reperfusion. Rodent occlusion models can generate SNL predominantly in the striatum or cortex, showing that it can affect behavior for weeks despite normal magnetic resonance imaging. In humans, SNL in the salvaged penumbra has been documented in vivo mainly using positron emission tomography and 11C-flumazenil, a neuronal tracer validated against immunohistochemistry in rodent stroke models. Cortical SNL has also been documented using this approach in chronic carotid disease in association with misery perfusion and behavioral deficits, suggesting that it can result from chronic or unstable hemodynamic compromise. Given these consequences, SNL may constitute a novel therapeutic target. Selective neuronal loss may also develop at sites remote from infarcts, representing secondary ‘exofocal' phenomena akin to degeneration, potentially related to poststroke behavioral or mood impairments again amenable to therapy. Further work should aim to better characterize the time course, behavioral consequences—including the impact on neurological recovery and contribution to vascular cognitive impairment—association with possible causal processes such as microglial activation, and preventability of SNL. PMID:24192635
Cayuela, A; Cayuela, L; Rodríguez-Domínguez, S; González, A; Moniche, F
In recent decades, mortality rates for cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) have decreased significantly in many countries. This study analyses recent tendencies in CVD mortality rates in Andalusia (1980-2014) to identify any changes in previously observed sex and age trends. CVD mortality and population data were obtained from Spain's National Statistics Institute database. We calculated age-specific and age-standardised mortality rates using the direct method (European standard population). Joinpoint regression analysis was used to estimate the annual percentage change in rates and identify significant changes in mortality trends. We also estimated rate ratios between Andalusia and Spain. Standardised rates for both males and females showed 3 periods in joinpoint regression analysis: an initial period of significant decline (1980-1997), a period of rate stabilisation (1997-2003), and another period of significant decline (2003-2014). Between 1997 and 2003, age-standardised rates stabilised in Andalusia but continued to decrease in Spain as a whole. This increased in the gap between CVD mortality rates in Andalusia and Spain for both sexes and most age groups. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Andrianova, I V; Ionova, V G; Demina, E G; Shabalina, A A; Karabasova, Ia A; Liutova, L I; Povorinskaia, T E; Orekhov, A N
A new form of garlic preparation--long-acting tablets of garlic powder allicor has been studied in patients with cerebral atherosclerosis (CA) complicated by chronic cerebrovascular pathology. A double blind placebo-controlled trial examined allicor effects on hemostasis and fibrinolysis in cross-over groups at two stages. At the first stage patients of group 1 (n = 15) received allicor in a dose 600 mg/day; patients of group 2 (n = 14) were given placebo. At the second stage group 1 received place and group 2 allicor in the same regimen. Before the treatment allicor effects on platelet aggregation and fibrinolysis were studied in vitro (20 patients). Allicor significantly inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo, reduced blood fibrinogen, normalized initially low fibrinolytic activity and fibrinolysis index. Due to the above properties allicor can be used for prevention and treatment of CA complicated by chronic cerebrovascular pathology.
Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Cesario, Alfredo; Marazzi, Giuseppe; Milazzo, Daniele; Volterrani, Maurizio; Bennati, Luca; Bonassi, Stefano; Pasqualetti, Patrizio
To explore temporal trends, geographic distribution, and socioeconomic determinants of scientific production in the field of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease (CCD) rehabilitation. Citations from 1967 to 2008 were downloaded from the PubMed database. Core of the search strategy was the key word cardiovascular diseases in the Medical Subject Headings major field with the subheading rehabilitation. Journal Citation Reports was used to assign an impact factor (IF). Demographic and economic data were retrieved from the International Monetary Fund. All articles retrieved were included in the bibliometric analysis. The search strategy was validated on a random sample of the articles retrieved. The search quality reflected the level of error of the PubMed database. Publications retrieved were 10,379 and have grown 8.6 times in 40 years, faster than the all-diseases rehabilitation field (7.8 times), with a particularly steep growth for cerebrovascular diseases in the last 15 years (5 times). However, in the last decade, the articles' quality (IF) decreased. From 1994 to 2008, 3466 citations were retrieved; 44.4% came from the European Union and 30.3% from the United States. The highest mean IF was reported for France (4.127). The United Kingdom and some relatively small northern European Union countries had the best ratio of IF (sum) to resident population or to gross domestic product. The most frequently used key word was stroke, and 3 journals (Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clinical Rehabilitation, and Stroke) published one quarter of the articles. The overall scientific production in the field of CCD rehabilitation showed a steep growth in the last decade, especially because of cerebrovascular research. In the same period, a decrease in the overall IF was observed. The European Union and the United States contributed 3 of every 4 articles in the field, although some Asian countries showed promising performance. Copyright © 2013 American
Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Iinuma, Shin; Honma, Masaru; Iizuka, Hajime
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which may be associated with metabolic syndrome accompanied by cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. We investigated the relation between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases in Japanese psoriasis vulgaris patients. Ninety-seven psoriasis vulgaris patients and 79 healthy controls were assessed for serum CRP levels by immunoturbidimetry. The data were analyzed in terms of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores, and comorbidity of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Serum CRP levels in psoriasis vulgaris patients were significantly higher than those of healthy controls. There was no significant difference between male and female CRP levels in either psoriasis or healthy controls. No correlation was detected between PASI scores and serum CRP levels, either. Psoriasis with cardio- and cerebrovascular disease showed significantly higher CRP levels compared with those without the diseases. Furthermore, psoriasis with metabolic syndrome showed significantly higher serum CRP levels than those without the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, serum CRP level is increased in psoriasis, and may be a useful marker for the prediction of the future risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease.
Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Walters, Arthur S; Sica, Domenic
Untreated sleep disorders may contribute to secondary causes of uncontrolled hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and stroke. Restless legs syndrome, or Willis-Ekbom Disease (RLS/WED), is a common sensorimotor disorder with a circadian rhythmicity defined by an uncontrollable urge to move the legs that worsens during periods of inactivity or at rest in the evening, often resulting in sleep disruptions. Sleep disorders such as insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are established risk factors for increased risk of hypertension and vascular diseases. This literature review outlines the lessons learned from studies demonstrating insomnia and OSA as risk factors for hypertension and vascular diseases to support the epidemiologic and physiologic evidence suggesting a similar increase in hypertension and vascular disease risk due to RLS. Understanding the relationships between RLS and hypertension, CVD, and stroke has important implications for reducing the risks associated with these diseases.
Zea-Sevilla, María Ascensión; Fernández-Blázquez, Miguel Angel; Calero, Miguel; Bermejo-Velasco, Pedro; Rábano, Alberto
The absence of a consensus system for full neuropathological evaluation limits clinicopathological studies and comparability between laboratories. Combined staging for Alzheimer's type and cerebral vascular pathology may allow a better classification of cases for clinical and cognitive correlation. Cognitive and postmortem neuropathological data were obtained from 70 brains donated to the Tissue Bank of the Centro de Investigación de Enfermedades Neurológicas (CIEN) Foundation according to recently developed staging schemes for Alzheimer's type and vascular pathology. Subjects belonged to a cohort of institutionalized patients with moderate or severe dementia and a mean follow-up period of 7 years. Cases were classified into three groups: Alzheimer's predominant (64.1%), vascular predominant (6.3%) and mixed pathology (29.6%). Significant differences were observed in Severe Mini-Mental State Examination and verbal fluency between the vascular predominant and the other groups of patients. The combination of scales measuring cerebral vascular and Alzheimer's type pathology allowed a classification of patients that reveals differences between groups in premortem cognitive features. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Balestrino, Maurizio; Sarocchi, Matteo; Adriano, Enrico; Spallarossa, Paolo
Creatine is of paramount importance for maintaining and managing cellular ATP stores in both physiological and pathological states. Besides these "ergogenic" actions, it has a number of additional "pleiotropic" effects, e.g., antioxidant activity, neurotransmitter-like behavior, prevention of opening of mitochondrial permeability pore and others. Creatine supplementation has been proposed for a number of conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases. However, it is likely that creatine's largest therapeutic potential is in those diseases caused by energy shortage or by increased energy demand; for example, ischemic stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases. Surprisingly, despite a large preclinical body of evidence, little or no clinical research has been carried out in these fields. However, recent work showed that high-dose creatine supplementation causes an 8-9 % increase in cerebral creatine content, and that this is capable of improving, in humans, neuropsychological performances that are hampered by hypoxia. In addition, animal work suggests that creatine supplementation may be protective in stroke by increasing not only the neuronal but also the endothelial creatine content. Creatine should be administered before brain ischemia occurs, and thus should be given for prevention purposes to patients at high risk of stroke. In myocardial ischemia, phosphocreatine has been used clinically with positive results, e.g., showing prevention of arrhythmia and improvement in cardiac parameters. Nevertheless, large clinical trials are needed to confirm these results in the context of modern reperfusion interventions. So far, the most compelling evidence for creatine and/or phosphocreatine use in cardiology is as an addition to cardioplegic solutions, where positive effects have been repeatedly reported.
Swartz, Richard H; Stuss, Donald T; Gao, Fuqiang; Black, Sandra E
Brain atrophy, cortical infarction, and subcortical ischemic vasculopathy have all been associated with cognitive dysfunction. The interrelationships between these pathologies and their independent contributions to cognitive function remain unclear. Despite the high frequency of Alzheimer disease (AD) in those with clinically diagnosed vascular dementia, and the frequent findings of vascular disease in those with clinically diagnosed AD, many studies of brain-behavior relationships in dementia consider these populations separately. The present study sought to identify the correlates of independent domains of cognitive impairment in an unselected sample across a large range of severity and overlap of AD and VaD. Two hundred five individuals from the Sunnybrook Dementia Study recruited from a university Memory clinic had detailed neuropsychological testing and MRI quantification using a multi-step postprocessing algorithm. A factor analysis of the cognitive protocol yielded a 3-factor solution, provisionally labeled: (1) short-term memory and language, (2) attention and working memory, and (3) mental flexibility. A factor analysis of brain measures identified 3 independent factors with measures of (1) brain atrophy, (2) subcortical vascular disease, and (3) strategic infarcts (anterior-medial thalamus and cortical infarcts). After accounting for the effects of age and education, measures of brain atrophy were the strongest correlates of all cognitive domains. Small vessel disease was independently associated with general severity, impaired short-term memory/language, and reduced mental flexibility, but not with poor working memory, presumably through disruption of frontal-subcortical connections. In contrast, strategic infarcts to anterior-medial thalamus and cortical gray matter were associated with poor short-term and working memory, but not with impairments in mental flexibility or global severity measures. These data support the hypothesis that the thalamico
Hernández Medrano, I; Guillán, M; Masjuan, J; Alonso Cánovas, A; Gogorcena, M A
The minimum basic dataset is the largest available hospital care administrative database that is used in clinical studies and hospital management in association with diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). In 2011, the quality of the national MBDS in hospital discharges was audited, in order to assess its reliability. This paper presents a sub-analysis of the results from that analysis which are referred to cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Using all discharge reports from the Spanish MBDS in 2009, a representative sample was obtained by stratified sampling and 11 209 records were evaluated. Outcome indicators were obtained to measure any differences observed between the national MBDS being evaluated and the hospital's original MBDS. Analysis of codes for CVD as a primary diagnosis was performed for ICD-9-CM diagnostic categories 430 through 438. We evaluated error rates in the selection and classification of main diagnoses, as well as in DRG assignment. There were 397 discharges of cases of CVD which included 21 different DRGs. Diagnostic coding showed a concordance rate of 81.87%; the selection error rate was 2.26% and the classification error rate was 15.87%. The error rate in the DRG was 16.12% and associated with the greatest impact on the mortality risk level. While the errors we observed must be taken into account, data suggest that the quality of the MBDS for CVD is sufficient to ensure delivery of valid information. The hospital discharge registry serves as a valuable tool for use in studies of this disease. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Dobson, Scott R; Holden, Kenton R; Nietert, Paul J; Cure, Joel K; Laver, Joseph H; Disco, Deborah; Abboud, Miguel R
We conducted a retrospective study to determine whether the presence of moyamoya collaterals influenced the risk of recurrence of cerebrovascular events (CVEs: stroke or transient ischemic attack) in patients with sickle cell disease placed on chronic transfusions after a stroke. Forty-three patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia (HbSS) and 1 with HbSO(Arab) (16 females, 28 males) who had suffered strokes while under the age of 18 were studied. All patients had been on transfusions aimed at maintaining the sickle hemoglobin (HbS) level below 30%. They were followed for a mean of 6.6 years (2.2 to 20.4 years). The presence of collaterals was diagnosed based on either magnetic resonance angiography or conventional angiography. Eighteen (41%) of the 44 patients suffered recurrent CVEs. Nineteen (43%) (6 females, 13 males) patients had moyamoya collaterals. Eleven (58%) of these 19 experienced 21 total recurrent CVEs, including 4 strokes in 4 patients (21%). In comparison, 7 (28%) of 25 patients without moyamoya collaterals experienced 9 recurrent CVEs (P <.05) with only 1 recurrent stroke (4%). Moyamoya patients were also more likely to have 2 recurrent CVEs (42% vs 8%, P <.05) as well as poorer neuropsychological testing results. A proportional hazards regression analysis indicated that patients with moyamoya were more than twice as likely to incur a subsequent CVE (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.85, 6.75). We conclude that up to 41% of patients with sickle cell disease experience recurrent CVEs after an initial stroke despite chronic transfusions and that the risk of recurrence is significantly higher for those who have moyamoya collaterals.
Peuralinna, Terhi; Tanskanen, Maarit; Mäkelä, Mira; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Paetau, Anders; Kalimo, Hannu; Sulkava, Raimo; Hardy, John; Lai, Shiao-Lin; Arepalli, Sampath; Hernandez, Dena; Traynor, Bryan J.; Singleton, Andrew; Tienari, Pentti J.; Myllykangas, Liisa
Cortical and cerebrovascular amyloid-beta (A-beta) deposition is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but also occurs in elderly people not affected by dementia. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 is a major genetic modulator of A-beta deposition and AD risk. Variants of the amyloid-beta protein precursor (A-betaPP) gene have been reported to contribute to AD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). We analyzed the role of APOE and A-beta PP variants in cortical and cerebrovascular A-beta deposition, and neuropathologically verified AD (based on modified NIA-RI criteria) in a population-based autopsy sample of Finns aged ≥85 years (Vantaa85 + Study; n = 282). Our updated analysis of APOE showed strong associations of the epsilon4 allele with cortical (p = 4.91×10−17) and cerebrovascular (p = 9.87×10−11) A-beta deposition as well as with NIA-RI AD (p = 1.62×10−8). We also analyzed 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the A-betaPP locus. In single SNP or haplotype analyses there were no statistically significant A-betaPP locus associations with cortical or cerebrovascular A-beta deposition or with NIA-RI AD. We sequenced the promoter of the A-betaPP gene in 40 subjects with very high A-beta deposition, but none of these subjects had any of the previously reported or novel AD-associated mutations. These results suggest that cortical and cerebrovascular A-beta depositions are useful quantitative traits for genetic studies, as highlighted by the strong associations with the APOE epsilon4 variant. Promoter mutations or common allelic variation in the A-betaPP gene do not have a major contribution to cortical or cerebrovascular A-beta deposition, or very late-onset AD in this Finnish population based study. PMID:21654062
To investigate the impact of emission reduction and traffic restrictions measures before and after the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing on public health, which had cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Air quality and the hospitalizations of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases from Beijing Emergency Medical Center were collected from July to September during 2006 2010 in this paper. Using time series method of nonparametric generalized additive model (GAM) by controlling the long-term trend, "week effect", the influence of meteorological factors, to establish the relationship between the concentrations of PM2.5 and hospitalizations including gender and years stratification. There is significantly associations between PM2.5 and different cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease with a lag of 0 2d. From July to September during 2006 to 2010, the relative risks (RR) of different groups are least in 2008 and are largest in 2009. Increases of 0.0%, 0.18% and 0.07% in 2008, 3.43%-2.10% and 2.97% in 2009 for total, male and female cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases hospitalizations were associated with increase of 10μg/m3 in PM2.5. In addition, it is very important for reducing the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in Beijing by taking the related measures during the Olympic Game in 2008.
Liu, Bo; Li, Qi; Wang, Jisheng; Xiang, Hu; Ge, Hong; Wang, Hui; Xie, Peng
Cerebral blood flow velocity(CBFV) is an important parameter for study of cerebral hemodynamics. However, a simple and highly similar mathematical model has not yet been established for analyzing CBFV. To alleviate this issue, through TCD examination in 100 geriatric patients with suspected cerebrovascular disease (46 males and 54 females), we established a representative eighth-order Fourier function Vx(t) that simulates the CBFV. The measured TCD waveforms were compared to those derived from Vx(t), an illustrative Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was employed to determine the validity. The results showed that the TCD waves could been reconstructed for patients with different CBFVs by implementing their variable heart rates and the formulated maximum/minimum of Vx(t). Comparisons between derived and measured TCD waveforms suggest that the two waveforms are very similar. The results confirm that CBFV can be well-modeled through an eighth-order Fourier function. This function Vx(t) can be used extensively for a prospective study of cerebral hemodynamics in geriatric patients with suspected cerebrovascular disease.
Kim, Hyeongsu; Rim, Hwayoung; Chang, Sounghoon; Lee, Kunsei
The purpose of this study was to identify factors that could be used as standardized criteria for evaluating occupational diseases in initial assessments or requests for examination. Using 100 administrative litigation cases on the work-relatedness of cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) by the Seoul Branch of the Korea Labor Welfare Corporation (KLWC) from 1997 to 2002, we estimated the relationship between the investigated variables and designation of the work-relatedness of the CVD. As for the age, the odds ratio of the acceptance rate of a case as work-related in subjects over 60 yr of age was 0.08 (95% CI, 0.01-0.75), which was compared to subjects under 30 yr of age. Regarding working hours, the odds ratio of the acceptance rate of a case as work-related in CVDs in those over 56 hr was 9.50 (95% CI, 1.92-47.10) when compared to those less than 56 hr. As for the benefit type, the odds ratio of the acceptance rate of a case as work-related in medical benefits was 5.74 (95% CI, 1.29-25.54), compared to survivor benefits. As for the criteria for defining situations as work overload, the odds ratio of the acceptance rate of a case as work-related in injured workers was 12.06 (95% CI, 3.12-46.62), compared to that in non-injured workers. Our findings show that the criteria for defining situations of work overload played an important role in assessing the work-relatedness of CVDs in administrative litigation, and it is necessary to make the scientific evidence on judgement of work-relatedness on overwork. PMID:18437006
Simonetto, Cristoforo; Schöllnberger, Helmut; Azizova, Tamara V.; Grigoryeva, Evgenia S.; Pikulina, Maria V.; Eidemüller, Markus
A detailed analysis of cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) for the cohort of workers at Mayak Production Association (PA) is presented. This cohort is especially suitable for the analysis of radiation induced circulatory diseases, due to the detailed medical surveillance and information on several risk factors. The risk after external, typically protracted, gamma exposure is analysed, accounting for potential additional internal alpha exposure. Three different endpoints have been investigated: incidence and mortality from all cerebrovascular diseases and incidence of stroke. Particular emphasis was given to the form of the dose-response relationship and the time dependence of the radiation induced risk. Young attained age was observed to be an important, aggravating modifier of radiation risk for incidence of CeVD and stroke. For incidence of CeVD, our analysis supports a dose response sub-linear for low doses. Finally, the excess relative risk per dose was confirmed to be significantly higher for incidence of CeVD compared to CeVD mortality and incidence of stroke. Arguments are presented for this difference to be based on a true biological effect. PMID:25933038
Donahue, Manus J; Achten, Eric; Cogswell, Petrice M; De Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Derdeyn, Colin P; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Fan, Audrey P; Ghaznawi, Rashid; Heit, Jeremy J; Ikram, M Arfan; Jezzard, Peter; Jordan, Lori C; Jouvent, Eric; Knutsson, Linda; Leigh, Richard; Liebeskind, David S; Lin, Weili; Okell, Thomas W; Qureshi, Adnan I; Stagg, Charlotte J; van Osch, Matthias Jp; van Zijl, Peter Cm; Watchmaker, Jennifer M; Wintermark, Max; Wu, Ona; Zaharchuk, Greg; Zhou, Jinyuan; Hendrikse, Jeroen
Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability in most developed countries. This work summarizes state-of-the-art, and possible future, diagnostic and evaluation approaches in multiple stages of CVD, including (i) visualization of sub-clinical disease processes, (ii) acute stroke theranostics, and (iii) characterization of post-stroke recovery mechanisms. Underlying pathophysiology as it relates to large vessel steno-occlusive disease and the impact of this macrovascular disease on tissue-level viability, hemodynamics (cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and mean transit time), and metabolism (cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption and pH) are also discussed in the context of emerging neuroimaging protocols with sensitivity to these factors. The overall purpose is to highlight advancements in stroke care and diagnostics and to provide a general overview of emerging research topics that have potential for reducing morbidity in multiple areas of CVD.
Ongali, Brice; Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Tong, Xing-Kang; Aboulkassim, Tahar; Imboden, Hans; Hamel, Edith
The co-administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin II (AngII) receptor blockers (ARB) that bind angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1R) may protect from Alzheimer's disease (AD) better than each treatment taken alone. We tested the curative potential of the non brain-penetrant ACEi enalapril (3 mg/kg/day) administered for 3 months either alone or in combination with the brain penetrant ARB losartan (10 mg/kg/day) in aged (∼15 months) transgenic mice overexpressing a mutated form of the human amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP, thereafter APP mice). We studied cerebrovascular function, protein levels of oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutases SOD1, SOD2 and the NADPH oxidase subunit p67phox), amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology, astrogliosis, cholinergic innervation, AT1R and angiotensin IV receptor (AT4R) levels, together with cognitive performance. Both treatments normalized cerebrovascular reactivity and p67phox protein levels, but they did not reduce the cerebrovascular levels of SOD1. Combined treatment normalized cerebrovascular SOD2 levels, significantly attenuated astrogliosis, but did not reduce the increased levels of cerebrovascular AT1R. Yet, combined therapy enhanced thioflavin-S labeled Aβ plaque burden, a tendency not significant when Aβ1 - 42 plaque load was considered. None of the treatments rescued cognitive deficits, cortical AT4R or cholinergic innervation. We conclude that both treatments normalized cerebrovascular function by inhibiting the AngII-induced oxidative stress cascade, and that the positive effects of the combined therapy on astrogliosis were likely due to the ability of losartan to enter brain parenchyma. However, enalapril did not potentiate, and may even dampen, the reported cognitive benefits of losartan, raising caution when selecting the most appropriate antihypertensive therapy in AD patients.
Wright, Clinton B; Shah, Nirav H; Mendez, Armando J; DeRosa, Janet T; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; DeCarli, Charles; Rundek, Tatjana; Silverberg, Shonni; Dong, Chuanhui; Wolf, Myles
Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates phosphate homeostasis and is linked with mortality, cardiovascular events, and stroke. However, the role of FGF23 as a risk factor for subclinical cerebrovascular damage is unclear. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression to evaluate associations between FGF23, continuously and by quartiles, with white matter hyperintensity volume, expressed as percent intracranial volume (%ICV), and subclinical brain infarction (SBI) in a community-based stroke-free sample. There were 1170 stroke-free Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) participants with FGF23 levels and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging data on white matter hyperintensity volume and SBI. Participants with FGF23 levels in the top quartile (range=85-1425 RU/mL) had greater white matter hyperintensity volume (β=0.19 %ICV; 95% CI, 0.04-0.33 %ICV; P=0.01) compared with those in the lowest quartile (range=15-49 RU/mL), adjusted for demographics, vascular risk factors, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. These findings remained significant in those without evidence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)). Elevated FGF23 was not associated with SBI overall after adjusting for demographic factors and estimated glomerular filtration rate, but sex modified the effect of FGF23 on odds of SBI (P for interaction=0.03). FGF23 was associated with significantly greater odds of SBI only in men (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7; P=0.03) after full adjustment. These cross-sectional community-based data from a diverse urban sample show an association between elevated FGF23 and small vessel disease and magnetic resonance imaging-defined brain infarction in men, independent of chronic kidney disease. Data on elevated FGF23 and subclinical cerebrovascular damage progression are needed. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Stoeter, P; Ortega-Suhrkamp, E; Voigt, K
Although cerebral angiography should be approached with caution in the diagnosis of inflammatory cerebro-vascular disease there are some characteristic angiographic findings which may be helpful for classification and differential diagnosis. The proximal cerebral arteries are favourably affected by basal meningitis and thrombangiitis obliterans with resulting stenoses and occlusions. Whereas those inflammations originating from neighbouring skull structures mostly involve the intracavernous parts of the carotid artery, the tuberculous and mycotic arteritis prefer the supraclinoid carotid siphon. Peripheral vascular changes are found in luetic endangiitis, necrotizing and toxic angiitis and in collagenoses. Simultaneous involvement of the temporal arteries is of great diagnostic importance demonstrating the systemic character of the inflammatory process; in Horton's arteritis it can be a pathognomonic finding. Infectious endocarditis, some mycoses and malaria may lead to embolic occlusion of cerebral vessels. Mycotic aneurysms mostly have a broad base or a fusiform shape and do not prefer the localizations of congenital aneurysms. Angiographically, abscesses, tuberculomas and viral encephalitis may result in circumscribed hypervascularized areas. The characteristic angiographic findings are exemplified and discussed on the basis of 8 cases of inflammatory cerebro-vascular disease (tuberculosis, pneumococcal and unspecific bacterial meningitis, syphilis, mycosis, Takayasu-syndrome, panarteritis nodosa, temporal arteritis).
Matsumoto, K; Ohta, T; Iwatsuka, T; Hashimoto, S; Fukutomi, K
The relation of variables obtained from a baseline examination to death from ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebro-vascular disease (CVD) and sudden death (SUD) was analyzed in a case-control study. From questionnaire survey of approximately 180,000 subjects who underwent baseline health examinations in 1971-1986 at Aichi prefectural center of health care, 148 deaths were selected for this study. The number of cases on IHD, CVD and SUD was 36, 60, and 52, respectively. Mean age of cases was 54.8 years old and the mean follow up interval between baseline examination and death was 3.7 years. Four controls matched according to year of baseline examination, age and sex were chosen arbitrarily for each case, and odds ratios for the three diseases were estimated. In some of the matched sets, odds ratios at a follow up examination were compared with that at the first examination. The results were as follows: 1) Variables showing positive relationships to death from each of the three diseases were hypertension, high fasting blood sugar, abnormality of cardio-thoracic ratio, ST-T abnormality in ECG, left ventricular hypertrophy in ECG. The odds ratio for ST-T abnormality in ECG was significant for all three causes of death. 2) High total cholesterol showed a significant positive relation only to death from IHD. As to death from CVD and SUD, albuminuria and sclerotic changes in fundus oculi were positively and significantly related. Risk factors differed for deaths from the three diseases. 3) In death from IHD and CVD, odds ratio at the second examination was apt to be higher than that at baseline examination. In death from SUD, however, odds ratios at the first and the second examination showed no significant difference.
Buletsa, B A; Fatula, M I; Fabri, Z I
A total of 417 patients with cerebral circulatory disorders were examined in two biogeochemical regions of the UkrainianCarpathian Mountains. The first one is a region with iodine insufficiency; the second one is a region where the people use table salt in excess. It has been established that iodine insufficiency and excessive iodine concentration in the body of man are risk factors of the development of cerebrovascular disease. Besides, in persons with abnormal iodine metabolism, cerebrovascular diseases run a graver course than in those with normal content in the body of these trace elements.
Yonekura, Y.; Tanada, S.; Senda, M.; Saji, H.; Torizuka, K.
N-isopropyl-p-(I-123)iodoamphetamine (IMP) has been introduced for the assessment of regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF) by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Although some preliminary studies in animals have revealed a good correlation between the distribution of IMP and RCBF, it has not been validated in diseased states in humans. The purpose of this study is to compare the regional distribution of IMP measured by SPECT WITH RCBF and oxygen metabolism measured by positron emission tomography (PET). Twenty patients with cerebrovascular disease were studied. Following the intravenous IMP (3 mCi), SPECT was performed using a rotating gamma camera. PET study was carried out by continuous inhalation of 0-15 labeled gases to measure RCBF, oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and oxygen utilization (CMR02). PET study and X-ray CT scan were performed on the same day, and SPECT with IMP was studied within a few days. In chronic cerebrovascular disease, the distribution of IMP was well correlated with RCBF. However, in two cases with cerebral infarction in the subacute stage, the discrepancy between IMP distribution and RCBF were observed. In these cases, relatively increased RCBF was demonstrated in the infarcted area where CMR02 was markedly depressed, and the distribution of IMP was more similar to that of CMR02. These results suggest that although SPECT with IMP is a valuable diagnostic tool for the assessment of cerebrovascular disease, IMP distribution may not be determined only by RCBF.
Gebel, James M
The beneficial effects of antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention in patients with prior cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events, including stroke, transient ischemic attack, and myocardial infarction, have been demonstrated repeatedly over the past decade. It is increasingly apparent that pathophysiologic differences between patients with different types of prior vascular events have an important effect on treatment outcomes. Several large, important trials of antiplatelet therapies, including MATCH, CHARISMA, ESPRIT, and TRITON-TIMI 38, underscore the heterogeneity of the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet agents in patients with recent cerebrovascular disease, compared with patients with recent acute coronary syndromes. Trial data therefore support an individualized approach to antithrombotic therapy for secondary vascular-event prevention that is appropriate for any probable future vascular events and actively reduces the impact of modifiable risk factors common to all vascular events. The potential for benefit in reducing recurrent vascular events must be weighed against the increased risk of bleeding and of patient non-responsiveness to treatment. A number of other factors also need to be considered, including drug interactions, patient compliance, and adverse-effect profiles. Overall, there is now a substantial body of clinical trial evidence that supports the need to carefully individualize antiplatelet therapy and other risk-reducing strategies on the basis of each patient's pathology and specific needs.
Neuropsychological assessments of cognitive dysfunction in cerebrovascular illness commonly target basic cognitive functions involving aspects of memory, attention, language, praxis, and number processing. Here, I highlight the clinical importance of often-neglected social cognition functions. These functions recruit a widely distributed neural network, making them vulnerable in most cerebrovascular diseases. Sociocognitive deficits underlie most of the problematic social conduct observed in patients and are associated with more negative clinical outcomes (compared to nonsocial cognitive deficits). In clinical settings, social cognition deficits are normally gleaned from collateral information from caregivers or from indirect inferences made from patients' performance on standard nonsocial cognitive tests. Information from these sources is however inadequate. I discuss key social cognition functions, focusing initially on deficits in emotion perception and theory of mind, two areas that have gained sizeable attention in neuroscientific research, and then extend the discussion into relatively new, less covered but crucial functions involving empathic behaviour, social awareness, social judgements, and social decision making. These functions are frequently impaired following neurological change. At present, a wide range of psychometrically robust social cognition tests is available, and this review also makes the case for their inclusion in neuropsychological assessments. PMID:28729755
Gao, Yong-Zhe; Zhang, Jun-Jian; Liu, Hui; Wu, Guang-Yao; Xiong, Li; Shu, Min
Hemodynamic disturbance in cerebral blood flow (CBF) is common in both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD).The aim of this study is to investigate the different patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) change and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in these two types of dementia. Mean flow velocity (MFV) of middle cerebral artery and rCBF were measured by Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) and arterial spin-labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance, separately. CVR was evaluated by MFV or rCBF change in response to 5% CO2 inhalation. The ASL results showed that, rCBF was significantly lower in both the bilateral frontal and temporal lobes in AD group and lower in left frontal and temporal white matter in patients with VaD. CVR calculated by rCBF was impaired more severely in bilateral frontal cortices in AD. Conversely, TCD tests failed to demonstrate significant difference in MFV and CVR between the two groups. It is concluded that the different patterns detected by ASL in resting rCBF change and cerebrovascular reactivity in response to carbogen inhalation may serve as a potential marker to distinguish AD and VaD.
van Seeters, Tom; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Biessels, Geert Jan; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Mali, Willem P T M; Kappelle, L Jaap; van der Graaf, Yolanda
We investigated circle of Willis (CoW) completeness in relation to the risk of future ischemic stroke in patients without prior cerebrovascular disease. We included 976 patients with atherosclerotic disease, but no previous TIA/stroke, from the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease (SMART) study. All patients underwent MR angiography of the CoW. Cox regression was used to determine whether anterior CoW completeness (anterior communicating artery or A1 segments) and posterior CoW completeness (posterior communicating arteries or P1 segments) were related to future stroke, and whether CoW completeness influenced the relation between internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis/occlusion and future stroke. Thirty patients (3.1 %) had ischemic stroke after 9.2 ± 3.0 years of follow-up. Twenty-four patients (80 %) had anterior circulation stroke. An incomplete anterior CoW was related to future anterior circulation stroke (HR 2.8 (95 % CI 1.3-6.3); p = 0.01), whereas a one-sided and two-sided incomplete posterior CoW were not (HR 2.2 (95 % CI 0.7-7.1; p = 0.19) and 1.9 (95 % CI 0.6-5.9; p = 0.29), respectively). In stratified analyses, patients with an incomplete anterior CoW had the highest risk of future anterior circulation stroke when they also had a one-sided (HR 7.0 (95 % CI 1.3-38.2; p = 0.02)) or two-sided incomplete posterior CoW (HR 5.4 (95 % CI 1.0-27.8; p = 0.04). CoW completeness did not change the relation between asymptomatic ICA stenosis/occlusion and future ischemic stroke (p = 0.68). An incomplete anterior CoW combined with an incomplete posterior CoW is related to future anterior circulation stroke. CoW completeness has no large effect on the relation between asymptomatic ICA stenosis/occlusion and future stroke.
Barone, Frank C; Gustafson, Deborah; Crystal, Howard A; Moreno, Herman; Adamski, Mateusz G; Arai, Ken; Baird, Alison E; Balucani, Clotilde; Brickman, Adam M; Cechetto, David; Gorelick, Philip; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kiliaan, Amanda; Launer, Lenore; Schneider, Julie; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Whitmer, Rachel; Wright, Clinton; Zhang, Zheng Gang
As the human population continues to age, an increasing number of people will exhibit significant deficits in cognitive function and dementia. It is now recognized that cerebrovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases all play major roles in the evolution of cognitive impairment and dementia. Thus with our more recent recognition of these relationships and our need to understand and more positively impact on this world health problem, "The Leo and Anne Albert Charitable Trust" (Gene Pranzo, Trustee with significant support from Susan Brogan, Meeting Planner) provided generous support for this inaugural international workshop that was held from April 13-16, 2015 at the beautiful Ritz Carlton Golf Resort in North Naples, Florida. Researchers from SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY organized the event by selecting the present group of translationally inclined preclinical, clinical and population scientists focused on cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk and its progression to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia. Participants at the workshop addressed important issues related to aging, cognition and dementia by: (1) sharing new data, information and perspectives that intersect vascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, (2) discussing gaps in translating population risk, clinical and preclinical information to the progression of cognitive loss, and (3) debating new approaches and methods to fill these gaps that can translate into future therapeutic interventions. Participants agreed on topics for group discussion prior to the meeting and focused on specific translational goals that included promoting better understanding of dementia mechanisms, the identification of potential therapeutic targets for intervention, and discussed/debated the potential utility of diagnostic/prognostic markers. Below summarizes the new data-presentations, concepts, novel directions and specific discussion topics addressed by this international
Perry, Luke D; Robertson, Fergus; Ganesan, Vijeya
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (OMIM 210720) is a rare autosomal recessive condition frequently associated with early-onset cerebrovascular disease. Presymptomatic detection and intervention could prevent the adverse consequences associated with this. We reviewed published cases of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II to ascertain prevalence and characteristics of cerebrovascular disease and use these data to propose an evidence-based approach to cerebrovascular screening. Of 147 cases identified, 47 had cerebrovascular disease (32%), including occlusive arteriopathy (including moyamoya) and cerebral aneurysmal disease. Occlusive disease occurred in younger individuals, and progression can be both rapid and clinically silent. A reasonable screening approach would be magnetic resonance imaging and angiography of the cervical and intracranial circulation at diagnosis, repeated at yearly intervals until 10 years, and every 2 years thereafter, unless clinical concerns occur earlier. At present it would appear that this needs to be life-long. Families and professionals should be alerted to the potential significance of neurologic symptoms and measures should be taken to maintain good vascular health in affected individuals.
Lan, X; Dang, S N; Zhao, Y L; Yan, H; Yan, H
To evaluate the effect of the combined supplementation of folic acid, vitamin B12 and B6 on the risk of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. The literatures of randomized control trials about the relationship between the combined supplementation of folic acid, vitamin B12 and B6 and risk of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases from 1980 to 2014 were retrieved, and the eligible studies were screened for a Meta-analysis. The study indicators were the incidences of cardiovascular disease events, myocardial infarction and stroke. The cffect indicators were relative risk(RR)and 95% confidence interval(CI). Jadad score was used for the quality evaluation of the trials used in the study. The literatures of 11 randomized control trials, involving 26 395 patients, were used in the Meta-analysis. The combined supplementation of B vitamins had no effect on the incidence of cardiovascular disease events(RR=1.00, 95% CI: 0.94-1.07)based on 8 studies. The combined supplementation of B vitamins had no effect on the incidence of myocardial infarction(RR= 1.03, 95% CI: 0.94-1.13)based on 9 studies. The combined supplementation of B vitamins could reduce the incidence of stroke by 14%(RR=0.86, 95%CI: 0.78-0.95)based on 9 studies. Compared with the control group, Taking folic acid combined with vitamin B12 and B6 could reduce the level of homocysteine by 2.53 μmol/L(95%CI:-3.93--1.12). Subgroup analysis indicated that the follow-up time, the dosage of folic acid and vitamin B12 and B6, the history of diseases had no confounding effect on the incidence of cardio-cerebrovascular disease events. But the subgroup analysis for stroke showed that with the extension of follow-up time, the supplementation of B vitamins could reduce the risk of stroke. The effect of folic acid and B12 in small dosage seemed more significant in the prevention of stroke, while the preventive effect of B6 increased with increasing dosage. The preventive effect of combined supplementation of B vitamins was more
Ambrosio, L A; Marchese, G; Filippo, A; Romano, E; Musacchio, R
Mesoglycan is a preparation of natural glycosaminoglycans, containing mainly heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate. A clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and the tolerability of once-daily mesoglycan in 30 patients with clinical evidence of cerebrovascular insufficiency. Clinical effectiveness was assessed using psychometric and neurological scales: Sandoz Clinical Assessment for Geriatric Patients (SCAG); Parkside Behaviour Rating Scale Modified; Geriatric Depression Scale; and Anxiety Evaluation. Mesoglycan was given as a single oral once-daily dose of 100 mg for a period of 6 months. This treatment was shown to have positive effects on the cognitive and behavioural parameters evaluated. The effects on SCAG were already evident after 3 months' treatment and a significant improvement was observed after 6 months in those patients with a moderate to severe disease. During the treatment period only one patient suffered an adverse reaction attributed to the drug investigated.
Di Napoli, Mario; Shah, Imtiaz M.
The incidence of cerebrovascular disease is highest in the elderly population. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of brain response to cerebral ischemia in old age are currently poorly understood. Ischemic changes in the commonly used young animal stroke models do not reflect the molecular changes associated with the aged brain. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are important pathogenic processes occurring during the acute phase of cerebral ischemia. Free radical generation is also implicated in the aging process, and the combination of these effects in elderly stroke patients could explain the higher risk of morbidity and mortality. A better understanding of stroke pathophysiology in the elderly patient would assist in the development of new therapeutic strategies for this vulnerable age group. With the increasing use of reperfusion therapies, inflammatory pathways and oxidative stress remain attractive therapeutic targets for the development of adjuvant neuroprotective agents. This paper will discuss these molecular aspects of acute stroke and senescence from a bench-to-bedside research perspective. PMID:22132330
Li, Weili; Cheng, Ruilian
To investigate the fall efficiency and its influence factors of the hospitalized geriatric patients with cerebrovascular diseases. The Modified Fall Efficacy Scale (MFES), Morse Fall Risk Assessment Scales (MFS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Tinetti Gait Analysis (TGA) were adopted and the combined ways of questionnaires and observation were utilized to investigate the 113 hospitalized geriatric patients with cerebrovascular diseases. The fall efficiency of the geriatric patients with cerebrovascular diseases were 7.85±2.57 scores. The two projects "walking up and down stairs" and "taking public transport means" have got the lowest scores; The two projects "stretching out the hand to the box or the drawer for taking something" and "sitting up and down to the chair" have got the highest scores. It was found that there were three factors which had significant influences on the fall efficiency, they were myodynamia of the right upper extremity, Berg balance functions and gait. For the sake of helping the geriatric patients with cerebrovascular diseases to establish the self-confidence of preventing the falls, the medical workers need to take further psychological counseling for the patients and befittingly and specifically to improve the fall efficiency of patients so as to effectively prevent the occurring of the fall on the basis of improving the balance ability and gait of patients.
Di Tullio, Marco R.; Jin, Zhezhen; Russo, Cesare; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Rundek, Tatjana; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; DeCarli, Charles; Wright, Clinton B.; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L.
Objectives To evaluate the relationship between patent foramen ovale (PFO), ischemic stroke and subclinical cerebrovascular disease in the general population. Background PFO is more frequently found in stroke patients than in stroke-free controls. However, the PFO-related stroke risk in the general population is not well established, and the relationship between PFO and silent brain infarcts (SBI) is not known. Methods PFO presence was assessed by transthoracic echocardiography with saline contrast injection in 1,100 stroke-free individuals over age 39 of a community-based sample followed for a mean of 11 years. In addition, 360 participants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for SBI detection. We evaluated the risk of stroke associated with PFO after adjusting for established stroke risk factors, and examined the odds of having SBI among those with and without PFO. Results A PFO was present in 164 participants (14.9%). Over a mean follow up of 11.0 ± 4.5 years, 111 ischemic strokes occurred (10.1%), 15 (9.2%) in the PFO + and 96 (10.3%) in the PFO− groups. The 12.5 year cumulative risk of stroke was 10.1% (standard error 2.5%) in the PFO+ and 10.4% (standard error 1.1%) in the PFO− group (p=0.46). The adjusted hazard ratio for PFO and stroke was 1.10 (95% confidence interval 0.64–1.91). In the MRI subcohort, PFO was not associated with SBI (adjusted odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.50–2.62). Conclusions In this community-based cohort, PFO was not associated with an increased risk of clinical stroke or subclinical cerebrovascular disease. PMID:23644084
Lessa, I; Silva, M R
Social inequalities and the excess (%) in mortality by cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) unregistered in the official death statistics were studied in Salvador, Brazil, 1988. In an ecological spacial (aggregate) desing, all death mentioning CVD as basic and as associated cause of death were reviewed and distributed, according to their addresses by 66 geographical zones. The mortality rates by CVD (basic+associated) ranged from 22.94 to 376.62/10,000 adults. The mortality fraction not included in the official statistics was 29.1% for Salvador with means between 16.12 and 33.72% in the group of zones of very low to those in the high mortality levels. Seven out of 16 zones included in the 4th quantil showed exceptionally high mortality rates (above those of Salvador + 1.64 x standard deviation corrected by the zones population). The authors discuss possible explanations for the social differences in the mortality profile.
Tomimoto, H; Akiguchi, I; Wakita, H; Kinoshita, A; Ikemoto, A; Nakamura, S; Kimura, J
We examined the immunohistochemical localization of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, lymphotoxin and interferon-gamma in 22 autopsy brains of patients with either cerebrovascular disease (CVD) or other neurological diseases as well as 2 non-neurological control brains. These cytokines were coexpressed mostly in the microglia/macrophages and in a few astroglia in the brains with acute cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage. In cases with cerebral infarction, they were observed as early as 33 h after the onset of the illness and persisted for up to 40 days after the onset. In one patient with cerebral hemorrhage who survived for 4 h, the cytokine-immunoreactive glial cells were confined to the margins of the hematoma. In contrast, the cytokine-immunoreactive glia were distributed diffusely in one patient with cerebral hemorrhage who died 12 days after the onset of the illness. Labeling for these cytokines was weak in the glial cells of control brains and those with neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy, in so far as there were no concomitant acute CVD foci. The present results indicate that proinflammatory cytokines are up-regulated in the brains of patients with acute stroke, and suggest an early inflammatory response in human CVD.
Sato, Naoyuki; Shimamura, Munehisa; Morishita, Ryuichi
Gene therapy provides a potential strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular disease such as peripheral arterial disease, myocardial infarction, restenosis after angioplasty, and vascular bypass graft occlusion. Currently, more than 20 clinical studies of gene therapy for cardiovascular disease are in progress. Although cerebrovascular gene therapy has not proceeded to clinical trials, in contrast to cardiovascular gene therapy, there have been several trials in experimental models. Three major potential targets for cerebrovascular gene therapy are vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), ischemic cerebrovascular disease, and restenosis after angioplasty, for which current therapy is often inadequate. In experimental SAH models, strategies using genes encoding a vasodilating protein or decoy oligodeoxynucleotides have been reported to be effective against vasospasm after SAH. In experimental ischemic cerebrovascular disease, gene therapy using growth factors, such as Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), or Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), has been reported to be effective for neuroprotection and angiogenesis. Nevertheless, cerebrovascular gene therapy for clinical human treatment still has some problems, such as transfection efficiency and the safety of vectors. Development of an effective and safe delivery system for a target gene will make human cerebrovascular gene therapy possible.
Background Aging and physical inactivity are associated with declines in some cognitive domains and cerebrovascular function, as well as an elevated risk of cerebrovascular disease and other morbidities. With the increase in the number of sedentary older Canadians, promoting healthy brain aging is becoming an increasingly important population health issue. Emerging research suggests that higher levels of physical fitness at any age are associated with better cognitive functioning and this may be mediated, at least in part, by improvements in cerebrovascular reserve. We are currently conducting a study to determine: if a structured 6-month aerobic exercise program is associated with improvements or maintenance of both cerebrovascular function and cognitive abilities in older individuals; and, the extent to which any changes seen persist 6 months after the completion of the structured exercise program. Methods/design Two hundred and fifty men and women aged 55–80 years are being enrolled into an 18-month combined quasi-experimental and prospective cohort study. Participants are eligible for enrollment into the study if they are inactive (i.e., not participating in regular physical activity), non-smokers, have a body mass index <35.0 kg/m2, are free of significant cognitive impairment (defined as a Montreal Cognitive Assessment score of 24 or more), and do not have clinically significant cardiovascular, cerebrovascular disease, or chronic obstructive pulmonary airway disease. Repeated measurements are done during three sequential six-month phases: 1) pre-intervention; 2) aerobic exercise intervention; and 3) post-intervention. These outcomes include: cardiorespiratory fitness, resting cerebral blood flow, cerebrovascular reserve, and cognitive function. Discussion This is the first study to our knowledge that will examine contemporaneously the effect of an exercise intervention on both cerebrovascular reserve and cognition in an older population. This study
Nishijima, T; Torres-Aleman, I; Soya, H
Aging impairs cerebrovascular plasticity and subsequently leads cerebral hypoperfusion, which synergistically accelerates aging-associated cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases associated with impaired neuronal plasticity. On the other hand, over two decades of researches have successfully demonstrated that exercise, or higher level of physical activity, is a powerful and nonpharmacological approach to improve brain function. Most of the studies have focused on the neuronal aspects and found that exercise triggers improvements in neuronal plasticity, such as neurogenesis; however, exercise can improve cerebrovascular plasticity as well. In this chapter, to understand these beneficial effects of exercise on the cerebral vasculature, we first discuss the issue of changes in cerebral blood flow and its regulation during acute bouts of exercise. Then, how regular exercise improves cerebrovascular plasticity will be discussed. In addition, to shed light on the importance of understanding interactions between the neuron and cerebral vasculature, we describe neuronal activity-driven uptake of circulating IGF-I into the brain. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aizer, Ayal A; Du, Rose; Wen, Patrick Y; Arvold, Nils D
Radiotherapy is often used in the management of primary brain tumors, but late cerebrovascular risks remain incompletely characterized. We examined the relationship between radiotherapy and the risk of death from cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in this population. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program to identify 19,565 patients of any age diagnosed with a primary brain tumor between 1983-2002. Multivariable competing risks analysis and an interaction model were used to determine whether receipt of radiotherapy was associated with an increased risk of CVD-specific death, adjusting for tumor proximity to central arterial circulations of the brain. The median follow up in surviving patients was 12.75 years. Baseline characteristics were similar in patients who did and did not receive radiotherapy. Ten-year CVD-specific mortality in patients with tumors near central arterial circulations who did and did not receive radiotherapy were 0.64 % (95 % CI 0.42-0.93 %) versus 0.16 % (95 % CI 0.055-0.40 %), p = 0.01. After adjustment for demographic, tumor-related, and treatment-related covariates, patients with tumors near central arterial circulations were significantly more likely to experience CVD-specific mortality after radiotherapy (HR 2.81; 95 % CI 1.25-6.31; p = 0.01); no association was observed among patients with more distant tumors (HR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.50-1.16; p = 0.21). The interaction model showed that tumor location was a key predictor of the risk of radiotherapy-associated, CVD-specific mortality (p-interaction = 0.004). Patients receiving radiotherapy for tumors near but not distant from the central vasculature of the brain are at increased risk for death secondary to CVD, which should be considered when counseling patients.
Anazodo, Udunna C.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Suskin, Neville; Ssali, Tracy; Wang, Danny J. J.; St. Lawrence, Keith S.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) poses a risk to the cerebrovascular function of older adults and has been linked to impaired cognitive abilities. Using magnetic resonance perfusion imaging, we investigated changes in resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia in 34 CAD patients and 21 age-matched controls. Gray matter volume (GMV) images were acquired and used as a confounding variable to separate changes in structure from function. Compared to healthy controls, CAD patients demonstrated reduced CBF in the superior frontal, anterior cingulate (AC), insular, pre- and post-central gyri, middle temporal, and superior temporal regions. Subsequent analysis of these regions demonstrated decreased CVR in the AC, insula, post-central and superior frontal regions. Except in the superior frontal and precentral regions, regional reductions in CBF and CVR were identified in brain areas where no detectable reductions in GMV were observed, demonstrating that these vascular changes were independent of brain atrophy. Because aerobic fitness training can improve brain function, potential changes in regional CBF were investigated in the CAD patients after completion of a 6-months exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program. Increased CBF was observed in the bilateral AC, as well as recovery of CBF in the dorsal aspect of the right AC, where the magnitude of increased CBF was roughly equal to the reduction in CBF at baseline compared to controls. These exercise-related improvements in CBF in the AC is intriguing given the role of this area in cognitive processing and regulation of cardiovascular autonomic control. PMID:26779011
Bhargava, Seema; Ali, Arif; Kankra, Mamta; Das, Sabari; Manocha, Anjali; Gupta, Flora; Srivastava, Lalit Mohan
Data from studies examining lipid peroxidation as a mechanism involved with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced vascular remodeling in patients with occlusive vascular disease have been contradictory. It has not yet been studied in Indians within the context of atherogenesis. Therefore, we measured the levels of homocysteine (Hcy), malondialdehyde (MDA) as a measure of lipid peroxides (LPOs), and total antioxidant status (TAS) in the serum of 167 patients with occlusive vascular disease [coronary artery disease (CAD) = 43; cerebrovascular disease (CVD) = 82; peripheral vascular disease (PVD) = 42]. Each of these groups was further divided into groups of individuals with or without HHcy. In the case of CAD and CVD, patients with HHcy had significantly higher LPOs than those without HHcy (p = 0.009, 0.001, respectively). TAS was significantly lower in CVD patients with HHcy than in those without (p = 0.014). In patients with CAD or CVD, Hcy directly correlated with LPOs (p = 0.002, 0.001, respectively). Lipid peroxidation is a significant mechanism in HHcy-induced vascular remodeling in CAD and CVD, but not in PVD, probably because it is not relevant in thrombosis (38 of 42 patients of PVD had deep-vein thrombosis). To explain the significantly lower TAS in CVD, we hypothesized that CVD patients present very early with grave symptoms, whereas CAD and PVD occur over a longer period of time. Therefore, when CVD presents, TAS is still overwhelmed by HHcy-induced oxidative stress. Hence, adjuvant therapy with antioxidants would benefit patients with CVD.
Identifying core nursing sensitive outcomes associated with the most frequently used North American Nursing Diagnosis Association-International nursing diagnoses for patients with cerebrovascular disease in Korea.
Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin; Whyte, James; Kim, Youngae; Park, Sang Youn
The purpose of this study was to identify the core nursing sensitive outcomes according to the most frequently used five North American Nursing Diagnosis Association-International for patients with cerebrovascular disease using the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC). A cross-sectional survey design was used. First, nursing problems were identified through 78 charts review, and then linkages between each of nursing problems and nursing sensitive outcomes were established and validated by an expert group for questionnaires. Second, 80 nurses working in the neurosurgical intensive care unit and neurosurgery departments of five Korean hospitals were asked to evaluate how important each outcome is and how often each outcome used to evaluate patient outcomes using 5-point Likert scale. Although there were some differences in the core outcomes identified for each of the nursing problem, consciousness, cognitive orientation, neurologic status and communication were considered the most critical nursing sensitive outcomes for patients suffering cerebrovascular disease. Core nursing sensitive outcomes of patients suffering cerebrovascular disease using NOC were identified to measure the effectiveness of nursing care. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Omama, Shinichi; Yoshida, Yuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ogawa, Akira; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Tanno, Kozo; Ohsawa, Masaki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Sakata, Kiyomi
Several studies have reported on increases in the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases after huge earthquakes. An increase in the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases was observed after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011. To assess whether tsunami damage or the earthquake was responsible for this trend, we assessed the relative impact of earthquake magnitude and flood damage on cerebrovascular disease. A total of 12 coastal municipalities facing the epicenter were divided into 4 flood severity groups according to the percentage of people living in the flooded areas (<20, 20-40, 40-60, and ≥60%) and 3 groups according to the Japanese Meteorological Agency seismic intensity of the main shock (<4.5, 4.5-5.0 and ≥5.0). The standard incidence ratios (SIRs) of cerebrovascular diseases in the first 4 weeks after the disaster compared with the same periods in 2008-2010 were calculated for each flood severity group and each earthquake severity group. Odds ratios (ORs) of disease incidence and the adjusted ORs for seismic intensity (using the Mantel-Haenszel method) between the higher (≥40%) and the lower flooded area (<40%) were compared with the same periods in 2008-2010. Likewise, ORs and adjusted ORs for flood severity in the high seismic intensity area (≥4.9) were compared with those in the low seismic intensity area (<4.9). SIRs increased with the increased flood severity: 0.94 (0.59-1.30) at <20%, 1.02 (0.70-1.34) at 20-40%, 1.26 (0.66-1.86) at 40-60% and 1.98 (1.25-2.72) at ≥60%. However, SIRs did not increase with increased seismic intensity: 0.95 (0.60-1.29) at <4.5, 1.52 (1.07-1.98) at 4.5-5.0 and 1.17 (0.80-1.54) at ≥5.0. ORs and adjusted ORs for seismic intensity in the high flood area compared with the low flood area were significant: 1.68 (1.07-2.65) and 1.78 (1.08-2.96), respectively. However, ORs and adjusted ORs for flood severity in the high seismic intensity area compared with the low intensity area were
Kim, Julia; Schweizer, Tom A.; Fischer, Corinne E.; Munoz, David G.
Background: The pathophysiology behind psychosis in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains unknown. Recently, vascular risk factors have been recognized as important modifiers of the clinical presentation of AD. Objective: The purpose of our study is to investigate the mechanism through which vascular risk factors mediate psychosis and whether or not it involves cerebrovascular lesions. Methods: Data was provided by the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Centre. The Uniform Data Set was used to collect information on subject-reported history of vascular risk factors, clinician-reported state of cognitive performance, and presence of psychosis based on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q). The Neuropathology Data Set was used to evaluate the presence of vascular lesions and the severity of AD pathology. Subjects with high probability of AD based on the NIA/AA Reagan criteria were included in the analysis. Results: We identified 1,459 patients with high probability of AD and corresponding NPI-Q scores. We confirmed the association between hypertension and diabetes on psychosis, specifically in delusions and the co-occurrence of delusions and hallucinations. Furthermore, the presence of white matter rarefaction based on pathological evaluation was associated with hallucinations. A history of vascular risk factors was positively associated with vascular lesions. However, vascular lesions in the presence of vascular risk factors did not increase the likelihood of psychosis. Furthermore, vascular lesions were not associated with greater cognitive or functional impairments in this group with severe AD pathology. Conclusion: Vascular risk factors and vascular lesions are independently associated with psychosis in patients with severe AD. However, vascular lesions are not the mechanism through which vascular risk factors mediate psychosis. PMID:27662301
Pittella, José Eymard H; Duarte, Juliana Elias
To describe the prevalence and the types of cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) in autopsied elderly individuals. Consecutive clinical charts and neuropathological reports of 242 patients aged 61 years or older were reviewed. The patients died in Hospital das Clínicas, Federal University of Minas Gerais, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 1976 to 1997. The prevalent diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) found in decreasing order were: CVDs (71.9%), infections (12.4%), neoplasms (7.1%), head trauma (3.7%), nutritional diseases (2.5%) and degenerative diseases (1.7%). The most common CVDs were cerebral atherosclerosis (61.2%), hypertensive cerebrovascular disease (25.6%) and cerebral infarct (14.9%). There was an increase in prevalence and severity of atherosclerosis and an increase in prevalence of hypertensive cerebrovascular disease with advancing age. A significant association between hypertensive cerebrovascular disease and atherosclerosis was found. The CVDs patients had clinical stroke and this was the direct cause of death in 42,7% and 17,3% of the cases, respectively. The CVDs were the most prevalent group of diseases of the CNS in elderly patients. Atherosclerosis and hypertensive cerebrovascular disease were the most common CVDs, and its prevalence increased with advancing age. Hypertensive cerebrovascular disease was significantly associated with atherosclerosis.
Thrift, Amanda G; Howard, George; Cadilhac, Dominique A; Howard, Virginia J; Rothwell, Peter M; Thayabaranathan, Tharshanah; Feigin, Valery L; Norrving, Bo; Donnan, Geoffrey A
Background Current information on mortality attributed to stroke among different countries is important for policy development and monitoring prevention strategies. Unfortunately, mortality data reported to the World Health Organization by different countries are inconsistent. Aims and/or hypothesis To update the repository of the most recent country-specific data on mortality from stroke for countries that provide data using a broad code for "cerebrovascular disease." Methods Data on mortality from stroke were obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. We searched for countries that provided data, since 1999, on a combined category of "cerebrovascular disease" (code 1609) that incorporated International Classification of Diseases (10th edition) codes I60-I69. Using population denominators provided by the World Health Organization for the same year when available, or alternatively estimates obtained from the United Nations, we calculated crude mortality from "cerebrovascular disease" and mortality adjusted to the World Health Organization world population. We used the most recent year reported to the World Health Organization, as well as comparing changes over time. Results Since 1999, seven countries have provided these mortality data. Among these countries, crude mortality was greatest in the Russian Federation (in 2011), Ukraine (2012), and Belarus (2011) and was greater in women than men in these countries. Crude mortality was positively correlated with the proportion of the population aged ≥65 years but not with time. Age-adjusted mortality was greatest in the Russian Federation and Turkmenistan, and greater in men than women. Over time, mortality declined, with the greatest decline per annum evident in Kazakhstan (8.7%) and the Russian Federation (7.0%). Conclusions Among countries that provided data to the World Health Organization using a broad category of "cerebrovascular disease," there was a decline in mortality in two of the
Cayuela-Domínguez, A; Rodríguez-Domínguez, S; Iglesias-Bonilla, P; Mir-Rivera, P; Martínez-Fernández, E
In previous publications we analysed the tendency of mortality from cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) in Andalusia over the period 1975-1992, and we observed a marked decrease in the mortality rates in both sexes. AIMS. To describe the evolution of mortality from CVD in Andalusia throughout the period 1975-1999. Deaths from CVD over the period 1975 1999 were obtained from the Instituto Andaluz de Estadística. We employed the direct method of standardisation of rates (world standard population). The rates were subjected to logarithmic transformations and the regression lines were adjusted. A considerable decrease was found in the rates: 3.9% in males and 4.0% in females. The drop in truncated rates (35 64 years old) was greater in women ( 5.9%) than in men ( 4.3%). Our work shows a marked and continuous decrease in mortality from CVD in Andalusia (1975-1999). In accordance with the process of aging of the population, the magnitude of CVD measured in terms of deaths, invalidity and health costs still represents a great challenge for preventative and health care policies.
Evans-Meza, Ronald; Pérez-Fallas, José; Bonilla-Carrión, Roger
To analyze the trend in mortality from cerebrovascular diseases in Costa Rica and its impact on overall mortality from 1920 to 2009. Crude rates by triennium and quinquennium were obtained. We also obtanied age standardized rates in the age group 35-74 years during the period 1970-2009. Finally we got the death percentage from stroke in relation to overall mortality. The trend for the period 1920-1969 was to the upside (r=0.82, r(2)=0.67, betha 0.30; P≤0.00) whereas for the period 1970 occurred otherwise (r=0.42, r(2)=0.18, betha -0064; P=0.01). Adjusted for the group 35-74 years between 1970-2009 rates decreased by 58.03% was statistically significant trend for both sexes; men r2=0.94, betha: -0.73; women: r2=0.97, betha: 0.95. The maximum percentage of mortality from stroke in relation to the overall mortality was 7.22 in the period 1985-1989 reached down to 5.92% in 2005-2009. In the Latin American context, stroke mortality rates in Costa Rica are low but still represent a serious public health problem by the high mortality, morbidity and disability that they cause, despite a downward trend. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Harada, K; Uozumi, T; Kurisu, K; Sumida, M; Nakahara, A; Migita, K
Five cases of cerebro-vascular diseases with carotid-basilar anastomosis were evaluated. Case 1: a 73-year-old female was diagnosed as having subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery-posterior communicating artery bifurcation and demonstrated that a left proatlantal intersegmental artery. Case 2: a 38-year-old female showed intraventricle hemorrhage due to arteriovenous malformation and showed left primitive hypoglossal artery. Case 3: 73-year-old female was diagnosed as having subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured basilar top aneurysm and demonstrated that a right primitive hypoglossal artery. Case 4: a 29-year-old male with unruptured aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery-posterior communicating artery bifurcation, and right trigeminal artery was detected incidentally by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Furthermore, right proatlantal intersegmental artery was detected by conventional angiography. Case 5: a 76-year-old male was diagnosed as having subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. MRA showed the aneurysm and a primitive trigeminal artery. No clinical symptom related with carotid-basilar anastomosis was detected. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was useful for diagnosis of asymptomatic carotid-basilar anastomosis. Especially, axial view of MRA by time of flight method detected two cases of a primitive trigeminal artery. And coronal view of MRA by phase contrast method is useful for diagnosis of primitive proatlantal intersegmental artery. More asymptomatic persistent carotid-basilar anastomosis may be detected by MRA.
Introduction of multislice CT (MSCT) has revolutionizing the diagnosis of cerebro-vascular disease. Newly developed 32-slice MSCT enabled us to acquire isotropic volumetric data of whole brain with the resolution of 0.5-mm. CT perfusion is one of the promising application for the diagnosis of early-staged cerebral ischemia. However, it can be hazardous in terms of ionic radiation because of multiplied exposure to the same level. A new quantum denoising filter was developed in order to solve this problem. It is possible to reduce more than 80% of dose using the filter in combination with lower kv/lower mA technique. This filter can also aids to improve the detection of early CT signs, which is important for the diagnosis of cerebral ischemia. Detection of the penumbra can be made by revealing the absence of early CT sign and low perfusion area in CT perfusion. Isotropic volumetric data provided by MSCA can also be an ideal source data for the high-quality 3D-CT angiography. Improved temporal resolution of MSCT in obtaining volumetric data made it possible separated visualization of arteries and veins on single 3D-CTA image. The technique to visualize brain surface using isotropic data and volume rendering algorithm was also reported.
Millán, Eduardo; Olascoaga Arrate, Adela; Garai, Idoia
The service level agreement establishes the quality requirements for those services contracted by the Basque Government Health Department from Osakidetza-Servicio Vasco de Salud. Acute cerebrovascular disease (ACVD) is one of the care processes with quality specifications. To outline the procedure adopted to evaluate ACVD care and the results obtained in four hospitals in Vizcaya between 2003 and 2007. In 2003, a work group consisting of clinicians, hospital and quality assurance managers, and experts from the Regional Health Board chose a series of indicators which would be measured by an external auditor. This group reviews the results annually and sets objectives for the following financial year. The improvement in almost all the indicators has been significant, and those with high ratings from the beginning have maintained their level. The percentage of patients who had a CAT scan in the first six hours after arriving at hospital increased from 57% to 85%, and the administration of anticoagulants within 12 hours increased from 70% of cases to 90%. The fibrinolysis rate was 3.8% in two hospitals. The percentage of patients who began rehabilitation whilst admitted was less than 3%. After operating for five years, the procedure adopted, which involves collaboration between clinical, management and planning staff, has been shown to be viable and effective in improving the quality of ACVD care.
Kholmogorov, N A; Shprakh, V V; Miriutova, N F
Treatment of patients at the early stages of cerebrovascular diseases with the use of sodium chloride baths resulted in the improvement of morphological and functional characteristics of brain vessels. Combination of sodium chloride baths with impulse currents and magnetic fields caused regression of neurologic and neuropsychotic disturbances in 80% of the patients. Beneficial therapeutic effects persisted especially long when the patients received the above treatment during 21-24 days.
Rodríguez, T; Malvezzi, M; Chatenoud, L; Bosetti, C; Levi, F; Negri, E
Objective To describe trends in mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) over the period 1970 to 2000 in the Americas. Methods Age standardised mortality rates were derived from the World Health Organization database and grouped according to the International classification of diseases, ninth revision. Joinpoint analysis was used to identify changes in trends. Results In the USA and Canada, CHD mortality rates declined by about 60% in both sexes. In Latin America, falls in CHD mortality were observed for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. In 2000, mortality rates among men were highest in Venezuela (137.3/100 000) and lowest (apart from Ecuador) in Argentina (63.5/100 000). For women, the rates were highest in Cuba (79.4/100 000) and lowest in Argentina (26.5/100 000). For CVA mortality, a decline by about 60% was observed in the USA and Canada for both sexes. The falls were smaller (about −25% to −40% among men and −20% to −50% among women) in Puerto Rico, Argentina, Chile, and Costa Rica and only minor in Ecuador, Mexico, and Venezuela. Around 2000, CVA mortality in Latin America was highest in Brazil (85.5/100 000 among men and 61.7/100 000 among women) and lowest in Puerto Rico (29.3/100 000 among men and 24.1/100 000 among women). Conclusions Recent falls in CHD and CVA were less favourable in Latin America than in the USA and Canada. This may reflect unfavourable changes in nutrition (including obesity), physical activity, and smoking in most Latin American countries, together with less effective control of hypertension and management of the diseases. PMID:16537758
Guo, Yu-Jiao; Wang, De-Wang; Meng, Ling; Wang, Yong-Qing
Several reports describing anaphylactic shock following treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese herbal injections were described. Our analysis of these reports showed that anaphylactic shock caused by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases is common but also sometimes fatal. Therefore, we proposed the following four suggestions for improving the clinical safety of delivering Chinese herbal injections and reducing the occurrence of allergic shock. First, patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are at high risk, so they should only be given TCM injections after a doctor's diagnosis and approval. Second, people in allergic groups can suffer anaphylactic shock, so vigilance is important in the treatment of all age groups, although even more caution should be exercised when treating children or elderly people. In fact, TCM injections may not be appropriate for those age groups, so that they should be carefully considered before treatment. Third, no significant gender differences have been noted in patients with anaphylactic shock, so all patients should be carefully monitored, irrespective of gender. Fourth, the timeframe in which different drugs cause anaphylactic shock varies; thus, patients should be observed as long as possible.
Guo, Yu-Jiao; Wang, De-Wang; Meng, Ling; Wang, Yong-Qing
Several reports describing anaphylactic shock following treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese herbal injections were described. Our analysis of these reports showed that anaphylactic shock caused by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases is common but also sometimes fatal. Therefore, we proposed the following four suggestions for improving the clinical safety of delivering Chinese herbal injections and reducing the occurrence of allergic shock. First, patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are at high risk, so they should only be given TCM injections after a doctor's diagnosis and approval. Second, people in allergic groups can suffer anaphylactic shock, so vigilance is important in the treatment of all age groups, although even more caution should be exercised when treating children or elderly people. In fact, TCM injections may not be appropriate for those age groups, so that they should be carefully considered before treatment. Third, no significant gender differences have been noted in patients with anaphylactic shock, so all patients should be carefully monitored, irrespective of gender. Fourth, the timeframe in which different drugs cause anaphylactic shock varies; thus, patients should be observed as long as possible. PMID:26000291
Liu, Yin; Liu, Jun; Liu, Huanghui; Liao, Yunjie; Cao, Lu; Ye, Bin; Wang, Wei
The aim of this study was to investigate focal iron deposition level in the brain in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and its correlation with cerebral small vessel disease imaging markers. Seventy-four patients with first-ever transient ischemic attack (median age: 69 years; 30 males and 44 females) and 77 patients with positive ischemic stroke history (median age: 72 years; 43 males and 34 females) were studied retrospectively. On phase image of susceptibility-weighted imaging and regions of interest were manually drawn at the bilateral head of the caudate nucleus, lenticular nucleus (LN), thalamus (TH), frontal white matter, and occipital white matter. The correlation between iron deposition level and the clinical and imaging variables was also investigated. Iron deposition level at LN was significantly higher in patients with previous stroke history. It linearly correlated with the presence and number of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) but not with white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarct. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that deep structure CMBs were the most relevant in terms of iron deposition at LN. Iron deposition at LN may increase in cases of more severe ischemia in aged patients with transient ischemic attack, and it may be an imaging marker for CMB of ischemic origin.
Liu, Yin; Liu, Jun; Liu, Huanghui; Liao, Yunjie; Cao, Lu; Ye, Bin; Wang, Wei
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate focal iron deposition level in the brain in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and its correlation with cerebral small vessel disease imaging markers. Patients and methods Seventy-four patients with first-ever transient ischemic attack (median age: 69 years; 30 males and 44 females) and 77 patients with positive ischemic stroke history (median age: 72 years; 43 males and 34 females) were studied retrospectively. On phase image of susceptibility-weighted imaging and regions of interest were manually drawn at the bilateral head of the caudate nucleus, lenticular nucleus (LN), thalamus (TH), frontal white matter, and occipital white matter. The correlation between iron deposition level and the clinical and imaging variables was also investigated. Results Iron deposition level at LN was significantly higher in patients with previous stroke history. It linearly correlated with the presence and number of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) but not with white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarct. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that deep structure CMBs were the most relevant in terms of iron deposition at LN. Conclusion Iron deposition at LN may increase in cases of more severe ischemia in aged patients with transient ischemic attack, and it may be an imaging marker for CMB of ischemic origin. PMID:27574434
Smith, Eric E; Saposnik, Gustavo; Biessels, Geert Jan; Doubal, Fergus N; Fornage, Myriam; Gorelick, Philip B; Greenberg, Steven M; Higashida, Randall T; Kasner, Scott E; Seshadri, Sudha
Two decades of epidemiological research shows that silent cerebrovascular disease is common and is associated with future risk for stroke and dementia. It is the most common incidental finding on brain scans. To summarize evidence on the diagnosis and management of silent cerebrovascular disease to prevent stroke, the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association convened a writing committee to evaluate existing evidence, to discuss clinical considerations, and to offer suggestions for future research on stroke prevention in patients with 3 cardinal manifestations of silent cerebrovascular disease: silent brain infarcts, magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, and cerebral microbleeds. The writing committee found strong evidence that silent cerebrovascular disease is a common problem of aging and that silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities are associated with future symptomatic stroke risk independently of other vascular risk factors. In patients with cerebral microbleeds, there was evidence of a modestly increased risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients treated with thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke but little prospective evidence on the risk of symptomatic hemorrhage in patients on anticoagulation. There were no randomized controlled trials targeted specifically to participants with silent cerebrovascular disease to prevent stroke. Primary stroke prevention is indicated in patients with silent brain infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, or microbleeds. Adoption of standard terms and definitions for silent cerebrovascular disease, as provided by prior American Heart Association/American Stroke Association statements and by a consensus group, may facilitate diagnosis and communication of findings from radiologists to clinicians.
Su, C L; Chang, S F; Hung, T P
Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is predominantly a disease of the elderly, and its morbidity effects increase with advancing age. In Taiwan, the increasing proportion of the elderly, as a result of medical progress and improved health care in the past 30 years, is largely responsible for the apparent increase in the number of CVD deaths. From 1963 to 1981, CVD was the leading cause of death. The crude mortality rate (CMR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) of CVD by sex were derived from vital statistical data from 1959 to 1989 in Taiwan. The age-adjusted mortality rate (AAMR) using the standard world population of WHO and the cumulative mortality rate (CUMR) from birth to less than 80 years of age were calculated. Before 1983, the total number of CVD deaths had increased steadily for 30 years. In 1989, the CMR was 76.6/100,000 in men and 67.7/100,000 in women. The highest AAMR was 158.5/100,000 in 1973 for men and 130.2/100,000 in 1972 for women, and the lowest AAMR was 91.3/100,000 in 1989 for men and 81.1/100,000 in 1972 for women. The highest CUMR was 26.3% in 1968 for men and 20.8% in 1972 for women, and the lowest CUMR was 14.5% in 1989 for men and 13.6% in 1989 for women. The AAMR and CUMR for both sexes reached a maximum in 1972 and began to decline thereafter. The declines in AAMR and CUMR were averaging 2%/yr for both sexes after 1972 and were averaging 5%/yr for men and 4%/yr for women after 1983. This declining trend in CVD deaths in Taiwan began later and has been slower than similar trends in Japan and the U.S.
Levi, Fabio; Chatenoud, Liliane; Bertuccio, Paola; Lucchini, Francesca; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo
To update trends in mortality from coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) over the period 1981-2004 in Europe, the USA, Latin America, Japan and other selected areas of the world. Age-standardized mortality rates were derived from the World Health Organization database. Joinpoint analysis was used to identify significant changes in trends. In the European Union (27 countries), CHD mortality in men declined from 139/100,000 in 1985-1989 to 93/100,000 in 2000-2004 (-33%). In women, the fall was from 61/100,000 to 44/100,000 (-27%). In this area, a decline by over 30% was also registered in CVD mortality for both sexes. In the Russian Federation and other countries of the former Soviet Union, CHD rates in 2000-2004 were exceedingly high, around 380/100,000 men and 170/100,000 women in Russia, 430 for men and 240 for women in Ukraine, 420 and 200 in Belarus. For CVD, a similar situation was registered, with mortality rates of 226/100,000 for men and 159/100,000 for women in 2004 in the Russian Federation, and more than 24% increase since the late 1980s for men and 15% for women. CHD and CVD mortality continued to decline in most Latin American countries, Australia and other areas considered, including Asia (even if with marked differences). Although mortality from CHD and CVD continues to decline in several areas of the world including most countries of Europe and of the America providing data and Australia, unfavourable trends were still observed in the Russian Federation and other countries of the former Soviet Union, whose recent rates remain exceedingly high.
Accurate definition and better understanding of the mechanisms of stroke are crucial as this will guide the effective care and therapy. In this paper, we review the previous basic and clinical researches on the causes or mechanisms of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (ICVD) and interpret the correlation between embolism and hypoperfusion based on vascular stenosis and arterial intimal lesions. It was suggested that if there is no embolus (dynamic or in situ emboli), there might be no cerebral infarction. Three kinds of different clinical outcomes of TIA were theoretically interpreted based on its mechanisms. We suppose that there is a correlation between embolism and hypoperfusion, and which mechanisms (hypoperfusion or hypoperfusion induced microemboli) playing the dominant role in each type of ICVD depends on the unique background of arterial intimal lesions (the vulnerability of vessels). That is to say, the vulnerability of vessels is involved in the role of embolism and hypoperfusion in the mechanisms of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. This inference might enrich and provide better understandings for the underlying etiologies of ischemic cerebrovascular events. PMID:27314040
Zuo, Feng-Tong; Liu, Hui; Wu, Hui-Jun; Su, Na; Liu, Jie-Qiong; Dong, Ai-Qin
Abstract Background: There are limited data on the effect of dual antiplatelet treatment with clopidogrel plus aspirin in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and intracranial and extracranial arteriostenosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of aspirin plus clopidogrel in the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease with intracranial and extracranial arteriostenosis. Methods: Patients with clinically evident acute cerebral infarction or transient ischemic attack combined with intracranial and extracranial arteriostenosis (greater than 50%) who were unsuitable or reluctance to perform stent implantation were enrolled in this study. We randomly assigned these patients to receive clopidogrel (75 or 50 mg) plus aspirin (100 mg) or aspirin (100 mg) once daily through 90 days, and followed them for 90 days. We examined the main endpoints including the recurrence of stroke, death from cardiovascular causes, and bleeding events. Results: In all, 200 patients were recruited and followed for 90 days. Ischemic stroke occurred in 6 patients (9.1%) treated with 50 mg clopidogrel and aspirin, 6 patients (9.1%) receiving 75 mg clopidogrel and aspirin, whereas 19 patients (27.9%) in the aspirin group (aspirin alone vs copidogrel 50 mg plus aspirin; 95% confidence intervals 1.704–23.779, P < 0.05; aspirin alone vs copidogrel 75 mg plus aspirin; 95% confidence intervals 1.190–13.240, P < 0.05). There were more hemorrhagic events among recipients (3 patients [2.3%]) in the copidogrel plus aspirin group than aspirin recipients (0 patient [0%]), including 1 subcutaneous hemorrhage in the group of 50 mg clopidogrel and aspirin, doubling the number of nasal and gum bleeding in the group of 75 mg clopidogrel and aspirin (P > 0.05). No intracranial hemorrhage and gastro-intestinal hemorrhage occurred in these 3 groups. Conclusion: Accordingly, 50 mg clopidogrel plus aspirin, and 75 mg clopidogrel plus aspirin
Nanduri, Sunanda; Tayal, Ashis H; Hegde, Gajanan G; Shang, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind
Our objective was to identify demographic, clinical, and operational variables associated with discrepancy between point-of-care (POC) and central laboratory international normalized ratio (INR) results in emergency department (ED) patients with acute cerebrovascular disease. We conducted a retrospective, observational cohort study of a series of 637 patients with acute cerebrovascular disease over 30 months who underwent simultaneous POC, using the i-STAT POC analyzer (Abbott, Princeton, NJ), and central laboratory INR testing at ED presentation. Point-of-care INR results greater than ± 0.25 INR units from the central laboratory INR value were considered discrepant. We analyzed potential predictors of POC INR discrepancy from demographic, clinical, and operational variables using multivariable logistic regression. We evaluated the change in POC INR discrepancy incidence over the study interval using analysis of variance methodology. The final diagnoses of the 637 subjects were acute ischemic stroke (n=427), transient ischemic attack (n=105), and intracranial hemorrhage (n=105). Discrepant POC INR results occurred in 21.5% (137/637) of subjects. The mean bias between POC and central laboratory INR was 0.24 ± 0.69 (range, 0-11.3). Significant covariates of POC INR discrepancy were oral anticoagulant use (odds ratio, 3.03; confidence interval, 1.37-6.68) and increasing activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (odds ratio, 1.07; confidence interval, 1.02-1.12). We observed a significant reduction trend in the incidence of POC-central laboratory discrepancy over the study period, decreasing on average at 0.42% per month (F=5.59, P=.025). In this retrospective study, oral anticoagulant use and increasing aPTT were significantly associated with POC INR discrepancy in ED patients with acute cerebrovascular disease. Point-of-care INR discrepancy incidence decreased over the study interval. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dong, Jing; Ma, Xin; Qie, Jingyuan; Ji, Xunming
To evaluate the correlations between aortic complex plaque (ACP) and the recurrence of cryptogenic ischemic cerebrovascular disease (CICVD), and to investigate the clinical significance of ACP in CICVD. Methods CICVD patients (aged 17 to 84 years) admitted into the Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, from July 2011 to December 2013, were consecutively recruited, and divided into ACP and non-ACP groups according to head and neck computerized tomographic (CT) angiography. Recurrences of cerebral ischemic events (CIEs) were compared between these groups after follow-up. Results A total of 117 patients were enrolled (ACP group: 69, non-ACP group: 48) and followed up for a mean of 9.86 months (range: 3-33). The average age of the ACP group was 62.88 years, with 59.4% older than 60 years; the average age of the non-ACP group was 50.29 years, with 37.5% older than 60 years. At the 6-month follow-up, the recurrence rate of CIEs in the ACP group was significantly higher than that of the non-ACP group (17.0% [7/47] and 0% [0/36], respectively; χ2 = 4.283, P = 0.046). The cumulative recurrence risk for CIEs of the ACP group was significantly higher than for the non-ACP group (P = 0.004). Multivariate Cox survival analysis showed that ACP presence was an independent risk factor for CIE recurrence for CICVD patients (relative risk [RR] = 7.803, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.827~33.319, P = 0.006). Conclusions ACP increased the recurrence risk of CIE in CICVD, and elderly CICVD patients should receive greater attention regarding the significance of ACP in recurrent CICVD. PMID:27114844
Plaza-Martínez, Angel; Hernández-Cádiz, Maria J.; Soliveres-Ripoll, Juan; Solaz-Roldán, Cristina; Morales-Suarez-Varela, María M.
Introduction To assess the possible role and the interaction of cerebrovascular disease and vascular stenosis on the necessity of shunt insertion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Material and methods Eighty consecutive patients undergoing CEA under regional anaesthesia were prospectively enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether they were shunted or not. The measured end-points were co-morbidities degree of contralateral and carotid stenosis and other intra- and postoperative outstanding parameters. ANOVA, Student's t and χ2 tests were used (p<0.05). Variables differing significantly between groups and potential confounders were used in backward stepwise logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (RR, 95% CI) of shunt. In addition Wald's test (p<0.05) with and without adjustments for potential confounders was used with various different multivariate analysis models. Results Contralateral stenosis and cerebral vascular accidents (CVA) were more frequently observed in shunted patients. The RR for patients with contralateral stenosis ≥ 50% was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.5) and for patients with previous CVA was 1.2 (95% CI 1.0-1.4). For contralateral stenosis and CVA together the RR increased to 7.7 (95% CI 1.0-14.4). A model based on contralateral stenosis and CVA was found to be statistically significant (p=0.003) for shunt (RR=1.1, 95% CI 1.0-2.1). Relative excess risk due to interaction of both factors was 6.2. Conclusions The findings suggest that patients with contralateral stenosis ≥ 50% and previous CVA have a higher risk of requiring shunt use during CEA than patients with these risk factors separately. PMID:22661995
Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.
Hypertension and hypertension associated cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases are on a rise. At-least 970 million people in the world and Seventy percent of the American adults are affected by high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. Even though blood pressure monitoring systems are readily available, the number of people being affected has been increasing. Most of the blood pressure monitoring systems require cumbersome approaches. Even the noninvasive techniques have not lowered the number of people affected nor did at-least increase the user base of these systems. Uncontrolled or untreated hypertension may lead to various cerebrovascular disorders including stroke, hypertensive crisis, lacunar infarcts intracerebral damage, microaneurysm, and cardiovascular disorders including heart failure, myocardial infraction, and ischemic heart disease. Hypertension is rated as the one of the most important causes of premature death in spite of the technical advances in biomedical technology. This paper briefs a review of the widely adopted blood pressure monitoring methods, research techniques, and finally, proposes a concept of implementing nanosensors and wireless communication for real time non-invasive blood pressure monitoring.
Davis, Brendan W; Stuart, Michael J; Jayapratap, Pravitha; Hall, Bruce I
Structured multidisciplinary care is an increasingly popular tool in the management of many complex disease processes; however, there is little published data regarding the effects of such a process on management of intracranial aneurysms and neurosurgical case loads. There is some resistance in the neurosurgical community to routine involvement of interventional neuroradiologists in the care of patients with intracranial aneurysms due to concerns regarding maintenance of neurosurgical case loads and training capabilities. At our tertiary Australian hospital, we have implemented a weekly multidisciplinary cerebrovascular meeting (MDCVM) facilitating routine discussion of these cases between neurosurgeons and interventional neuroradiologists. This study identified management modalities for ruptured and unruptured cerebral aneurysms diagnosed at our centre for a 2-year period before and after the implementation of MDCVM culminating in a 4-year retrospective cohort study. The pre- and post-MDCVM cohorts were well matched for demographics with 162 and 224 patients, respectively. There is no significant difference in percentage or absolute numbers of endovascular or surgical cases in the pre-MDCVM (103; 73.0% versus 38; 27.0%, respectively) or post-MDCVM cohorts (105; 79.5% versus 27; 20.5%, respectively), reflecting a maintained surgical case load after the implementation of MDCVM (P = 0.21). There were no significant differences in any confounding variables including age, sex, aneurysm size/location, Fisher or World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade. Implementation of MDCVM did not impact on active management case loads with consistent numbers and percentages for both endovascular and microsurgical management. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
González Sánchez, Juan A; Vélez Acevedo, Ivonne; Rodríguez Guilloty, Nicole M
Data characterizing stroke patients among Hispanic population are scant. The aim of this study was to describe this population and to assess baseline knowledge of stroke type, risk factors, and family history, among others. A retrospective chart review of 253 stroke patients admitted to the University of Puerto Rico Hospital during the fiscal year July 2002 to June 2003 was done. A standardized data collection form was used to obtain the following information from patient records: patient age, gender, stroke type, time of symptom onset, patient risk factors, family risk factors, and patient outcome. We enrolled 253 patients, 120 (47%) males and 133 (53%) females. Patient age distribution was as follows: 18 (7%) were < 44 years, 79 (31%) were bwtween 45-64 years, 156 (62%) were > 65 years. Stroke type distribution was: ischemic 174 (69%), hemorrhagic 49 (19%), and transformation from ischemic to hemorrhagic 13 (5%). Ischemic stroke subtypes distribution was: large-artery occlusion 113 (65%), small-artery occlusion 60 (34%), cardio-embolism 1 (0.6%), 17 (7%) information was not recorded. Time of symptom onset: 153 (60%) > 3 hours, 14 (6%) < 3 hours, and 86 (34%) was unknown. Family history of risk factors was present in 103 (41%), not present 29 (11%) and 121 (49%) was unknown. Most common patient risk factors were: hypertension 212 (84%), > 65 years 156 (62%), male gender 120 (47%), diabetes mellitus 105 (42%), previous history of stroke 91 (36%), hyper-cholesterolemia 44 (17%), history of smoking 51 (20%), alcoholism 43 (17%). The data obtained from this Hispanic population is similar to that reported in the literature for the general population. The prevalence of ischemic strokes out numbered by far the occurrence of hemorrhagic strokes in the study group. Both men and women demonstrated an increasing tendency of stroke incidence with increasing age. Among death outcome, a difference was evident in the > 65 age group, showing an increase in women fatality compared
Patel, S S
Increased risk of cerebrovascular accident in diabetes cannot be fully explained by traditional risk factors. Epidemiological studies show that postprandial hyperglycemia is strongly associated with cerebrovascular events and cerebrovascular-associated mortality. Postprandial hyperglycemia contributes to vascular damage by several mechanisms such as endothelial dysfunction, arthrosclerosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and hypercoagulability. Hyperglycemia has deleterious effects on the vascular endothelium and leads to the development of cerebrovascular disease. Thus, an important strategy to reduce cerebrovascular risk in patients with diabetes is to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and α-glucosidase inhibitors predominantly reduce postprandial plasma glucose levels. Among all of these, α-glucosidase inhibitors reduces postprandial hyperglycemia by delaying carbohydrate absorption from the intestine and this mechanism provides glycemic control without exacerbating coexisting cerebrovascular risk factors. Good glycemic control is proven to reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications, but equivalent evidence for cerebrovascular risk reduction is lacking. This review examines the evidences that postprandial hyperglycemia plays a major role in vascular damage, along with the complex interplay between hyperglycemia and coexisting risk factors. Furthermore, the mechanism by which α-glucosidase inhibitors may prevent this vascular damage as well as risk of hypoglycemia with α-glucosidase inhibitors are examined. Thus, this review suggests that α-glucosidase inhibitors are useful in reducing the risk of cerebrovascular events in patients with diabetes.
Baños-González, Manuel; Cantú-Brito, Carlos; Chiquete, Erwin; Arauz, Antonio; Ruiz-Sandoval, José Luís; Villarreal-Careaga, Jorge; Barinagarrementeria, Fernando; Lozano, José Juan
To analyze the association between the admission systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 30-day outcome in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease. The REgistro NAcional Mexicano de Enfermedad VAScular Cerebral (RENAMEVASC) is a hospital-based multicenter registry performed between November 2002 and October 2004. A total of 2000 patients with clinical syndromes of acute cerebrovascular disease confirmed by neuroimaging were registered. The modified Rankin scale was used for outcome stratification. We analyzed 1721 patients who had registered their SBP: 78 (4.5%) had transient ischemic attack, 894 (51.9%) brain infarction, 534 (30.9%) intracerebral hemorrhage, 165 (9.6%) subarachnoid hemorrhage and 50 (2.9%) cerebral venous thrombosis. Among 1036 (60.2%) patients with the antecedent of hypertension, only 32.4% had regular treatment. The 30-day case fatality rate presented a J pattern with respect to SBP, so that the risk of death was highest in <100 mmHg (37.5%), decreased between 100 and 139, and reached gradually a new zenith in ?220 mmHg (35.3%). The best functional outcome corresponded to patients who had SBP between 100 mmHg and 159 mmHg. In a Cox proportional hazards model, SBP <100 mmHg or ?220 mmHg was an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality (RR: 1.52, IC 95%: 1.07 - 2.15), as well as the antecedent of hypertension (RR: 1.33, IC 95%: 1.06 - 1.65) and age >65 years (RR: 2.16, IC 95%: 1.74 - 2.67). Both hypotension and significant arterial hypertension at hospital admission are associated with an adverse outcome after acute cerebrovascular disease. Nevertheless, a good functional outcome can be attained in a wide range of SBP.
Arismendi-Morillo, G J; Fernández-Abreu, M; Añez-Moreno, R E
The purpose of this study was to analyze both the clinical and tomographic aspects of the hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease (HCd), associated with hypertensive crisis in adults under 50 years of age. Forty six patients, who were not under anticoagulant therapy, were not using illegal drugs, who had not a cerebral tumor disease, and who had neither arteriovenous malformations nor past traumatic episodes, were studied. Seventy eight percent of the patients had preexisted arterial hypertension, 30% of them had at least a previous emergency for a hypertensive crisis. Mortality for intracerebral hematoma (ICH) and for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was 21% and 23% respectively. In 68% of the cases, ICH was located in the deep structures of the brain. Asymmetric ventricular system, compression or the absence of mesencephalic cisterna were significantly associated (p > 0.01; p > 0.001 respectively) with higher mortality. There was not a significant difference between the deceased and the survivors in relation with their systolic and diastolic arterial pressure on admission to the emergency unit. A significant positive relation was found between the severity of the injury (percentage of patients with an Scale Coma Glasgow < or = 8 points) and the mortality percentage for the type of HCd (r = 0.81 for ICH; p < 0.001, r = 0.98 for SAH; p < 0.001). Age and a low Scale Coma Glasgow score on the admission, represent unfavorable prognostic factors. Due to the different criteria used to evaluate the tomographic characteristics of intracerebral hematomas, comparisons of the present results with other findings can be difficult.
Carpiniello, Bernardo; Pinna, Federica; Tuveri, Raffaella
Delusional infestation is an aspecific psychiatric condition manifested either as a primary psychotic disorder or a secondary disorder induced by a wide range of very different medical conditions. Both primary and secondary delusional infestations seem to respond to typical and atypical antipsychotics. The latter are considered the first-line treatment although the use of second-generation antipsychotics featuring a higher metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal tolerability is preferable in secondary cases, which often occur in patients with multiple, severe medical conditions. We report a case of a 72-year-old patient affected by delusional infestation associated with severe renal failure, metabolic syndrome, hypertensive cardiopathy, and chronic cerebrovascular disease. PMID:22174718
Carpiniello, Bernardo; Pinna, Federica; Tuveri, Raffaella
Delusional infestation is an aspecific psychiatric condition manifested either as a primary psychotic disorder or a secondary disorder induced by a wide range of very different medical conditions. Both primary and secondary delusional infestations seem to respond to typical and atypical antipsychotics. The latter are considered the first-line treatment although the use of second-generation antipsychotics featuring a higher metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal tolerability is preferable in secondary cases, which often occur in patients with multiple, severe medical conditions. We report a case of a 72-year-old patient affected by delusional infestation associated with severe renal failure, metabolic syndrome, hypertensive cardiopathy, and chronic cerebrovascular disease.
Zhou, Quan; Dong, Yang; Chen, WenLi; Lin, Xueying; Xing, Da; Huang, Li
Cerebrovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death, and approximately 50% of survivors have a residual neurologic deficit and greater than 25% require chronic care. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) describes how far cerebral perfusion can increase from a baseline value after stimulation. High blood pressure is the most important independent risk factor for stroke and other vascular diseases. The incidence of stroke in the hypertensive is six times higher than in the patient with normal blood pressure. CVRC in the hypertensive was even lower than in control patients. MR perfusion weighted imaging (MR PWI) with the well-established acetazolamide (ACZ) stimulation test has been used for assessing brain function. The aim of this work is to assess the cerebrovascular reserve capacity by MR PWI with "ACZ" tolerance test in spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) and to identify its value in evaluating the CVRC. Experimental animal including 3 groups: Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) (12-week-old) as control group, SHR (12-week-old and 20-week-old) as experimental group. MR PWI was performed respectively before and after acetazolamide administrated orally in 3 groups on a clinical 1.5 Tesla GE Signa MR fx/i whole-body MR system. The ROI was chosen in the bilateral frontal lobe to measure the value of rCBV, rCBF and MTT. The results showed that before ACZ-test, there was statistic differences between the WKY and SHR(12-week-old), and between SHR(12-week-old) and SHR(20-week-old) in the values of rCBV and rCBF (P>0.05), and after ACZ-test, there were statistic differences between WKY and SHR (20-week-old), and between SHR(12-week-old) and SHR(20-week-old) in the rCBV value (P<0.05). It is concluded that the method of MRI PWI combined with the "ACZ stress test" can provide more qualitative and half-quantitative information on the cerebral perfusion to evaluate the CVRC in SHR.
Takeuchi, Nobuyuki; Takezako, Nobuhiro; Shimonishi, Yuko; Usuda, Shigeru
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of high-intensity pulse irradiation with linear polarized near-infrared rays (HI-LPNR) and stretching on hypertonia in cerebrovascular disease patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 cerebrovascular disease patients with hypertonia of the ankle joint plantar flexor muscle. The subjects were randomly allocated to groups undergoing treatment with HI-LPNR irradiation (HI-LPNR group), stretching (stretching group), HI-LPNR irradiation followed by stretching (combination group), and control group (10 subjects each). In all groups, the passive range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion and passive resistive joint torque of ankle dorsiflexion were measured before and after the specified intervention. [Results] The changes in passive range of motion, significant increase in the stretching and combination groups compared with that in the control group. The changes in passive resistive joint torque, significant decrease in HI-LPNR, stretching, and combination groups compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] HI-LPNR irradiation and stretching has effect of decrease muscle tone. However, combination of HI-LPNR irradiation and stretching has no multiplier effect.
Williams, Ismee A.; Tarullo, Amanda R.; Grieve, Philip G.; Wilpers, Abigail; Vignola, Emilia F.; Myers, Michael M.; Fifer, William P.
Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate early markers of risk for neurobehavioral compromise in congenital heart disease (CHD) survivors. Methods Fetuses < 24 wks gestational age (GA) were enrolled in this prospective pilot study for serial Doppler assessment of the middle cerebral and umbilical artery. The cerebral-to-placental resistance ratio (CPR) and MCA pulsatility index (PI) z-scores for GA were calculated. After birth, subjects underwent high-density (128-lead) electroencephalogram (EEG) and beta frequency (12–24Hz) band EEG power, a measure of local neural synchrony, was analyzed. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 18-months with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (BSID). Results 13 subjects were enrolled: 4 with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), 4 with transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and 5 with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Compared with subjects with normal CPR, those with CPR<1(N=7) had lower mean BSID cognitive scores (91.4±4.8 vs. 99.2±3.8, p=.008). Fetal MCA PI z-score also correlated with BSID cognitive score (r=.589, p=0.044) as did neonatal EEG left frontal polar (r=.58, p=.037) and left frontal (r=.77,p=.002) beta power. Furthermore, fetal Doppler measures were associated with EEG power: fetuses with CPR<1 had lower left frontal polar (t=2.36, p=.038) and left frontal (t=2.85, p=.016) beta power as newborns compared with fetuses with normal CPR, and fetal MCA PI z-score correlated with neonatal EEG left frontal polar (r=.596, p=.04) and left frontal (r=.598, p=.04) beta power. Conclusions In CHD fetuses with HLHS, TGA, and TOF, abnormal cerebrovascular resistance predicted decreased neonatal EEG left frontal beta power and lower 18-mo cognitive development scores. PMID:22351034
Heiss, W.D.; Herholz, K.; Podreka, I.; Neubauer, I.; Pietrzyk, U. )
Positron emission tomography (PET) of (18F)fluoromethane (FM) and single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) of (99mTc)hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) were performed under identical conditions within 2 h in 22 patients suffering from cerebrovascular disease (8 ischemic infarction, 2 intracerebral hemorrhages, 7 transient ischemic attacks, and 5 multi-infarct syndrome). While gross pathological changes could be seen in the images of either procedure, focal abnormalities corresponding to transient ischemic deficits or to lesions in multi-infarct syndrome and areas of functional deactivation were sometimes missed on SPECT images. Overall, HMPAO SPECT images showed less contrast between high and low activity regions than the FM PET images, and differences between lesions and contralateral regions were less pronounced (6.4 vs 13.3% difference). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was calculated from FM PET studies in 14 large territorial regions and the pathological lesion, and the regional values relative to mean flow were compared to the relative HMPAO uptake in an identical set of regions defined on the SPECT images. Among individual patients, the Spearman rank-correlation coefficient between relative rCBF and HMPAO uptake varied between 0.48 and 0.89, with a mean of 0.70. While an underestimation of high flow with SPECT--which was demonstrated in a curvilinear relationship between all relative regional PET and SPECT values--could be corrected by linearization taking into account HMPAO efflux from the brain before metabolic trapping, correspondence of SPECT data with PET rCBF values was not improved since this procedure also increased the variance in high flow areas. In the cerebellum, however, a high HMPAO uptake in SPECT always overestimated CBF in relation to forebrain values; this finding might be due to high capillary density in the cerebellum.
Ikeda, M; Kasahara, M; Koizumi, A; Watanabe, T
One thousand seventy-two 24-hr diet duplicate samples were collected from inhabitants of 49 regions in various parts of Japan during the winters of 1977-1981. An additional 238 samples were collected in an adjacent summer. The samples were analyzed for sodium (Na) and potassium (K) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and for chloride (Cl) with a chloride counter. The winter-summer differences in Na, Cl, and Na/K were essentially negligible. When the regional means of Na, K, Cl, and Na/K were compared with the 1969-1978 standardized mortality ratios of each region, positive and significant correlations were observed between winter Na and the standardized mortality ratios for cerebrovascular disease (P less than 0.01), cerebral infarction (P less than 0.01), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (P less than 0.05) in both males and females. The correlation (P less than 0.01) with the cerebrovascular disease standardized mortality ratio was further confirmed by the values for 1978-1982. In the case of the Na/K ratio, the correlation with the standardized mortality ratio for each of the three diseases was significant for men (P less than 0.01 or 0.05, depending on the disease) but not for women (P greater than 0.05). Both Na and Na/K showed significant associations with the ischemic heart disease standardized mortality ratio in men (P less than 0.05) but not in women (P greater than 0.05). In contrast, no positive association was found between Na, K, Cl, or Na/K and standardized mortality ratios for diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, tuberculosis, or liver cancer (P greater than 0.05). Current blood pressure did not appear to correlate with any of the Na, K, Cl, or Na/K measurements. The validity of the present observation is discussed.
Zheng, Shan; Wang, Minzhen; Wang, Shigong; Tao, Yan; Shang, Kezheng
Panel studies show a consistent association between increase in the cardiovascular hospitalizations with air pollutants in economically developed regions, but little evidence in less developed inland areas. In this study, a time-series analysis was used to examine the specific effects of major air pollutants [particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter (PM(10)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), and nitrogen dioxides (NO(2))] on daily hospital admissions for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in Lanzhou, a heavily polluted city in China. We examined the effects of air pollutants for stratified groups by age and gender, and conducted the modifying effect of seasons on air pollutants to test the possible interaction. The significant associations were found between PM(10), SO(2) and NO(2) and cardiac disease admissions, SO(2) and NO(2) were found to be associated with the cerebrovascular disease admissions. The elderly was associated more strongly with gaseous pollutants than younger. The modifying effect of seasons on air pollutants also existed. The significant effect of gaseous pollutants (SO(2) and NO(2)) was found on daily hospital admissions even after adjustment for other pollutants except for SO(2) on cardiac diseases. In a word, this study provides the evidence for the detrimental short-term health effects of urban gaseous pollutants on cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in Lanzhou.
Zheng, Shan; Wang, Minzhen; Wang, Shigong; Tao, Yan; Shang, Kezheng
Panel studies show a consistent association between increase in the cardiovascular hospitalizations with air pollutants in economically developed regions, but little evidence in less developed inland areas. In this study, a time-series analysis was used to examine the specific effects of major air pollutants [particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxides (NO2)] on daily hospital admissions for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in Lanzhou, a heavily polluted city in China. We examined the effects of air pollutants for stratified groups by age and gender, and conducted the modifying effect of seasons on air pollutants to test the possible interaction. The significant associations were found between PM10, SO2 and NO2 and cardiac disease admissions, SO2 and NO2 were found to be associated with the cerebrovascular disease admissions. The elderly was associated more strongly with gaseous pollutants than younger. The modifying effect of seasons on air pollutants also existed. The significant effect of gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NO2) was found on daily hospital admissions even after adjustment for other pollutants except for SO2 on cardiac diseases. In a word, this study provides the evidence for the detrimental short-term health effects of urban gaseous pollutants on cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in Lanzhou. PMID:23358231
Takahashi, Hiroto; Xia, Peng; Cui, Jiankun; Talantova, Maria; Bodhinathan, Karthik; Li, Wenjun; Holland, Emily A.; Tong, Gary; Piña-Crespo, Juan; Zhang, Dongxian; Nakanishi, Nobuki; Larrick, James W.; McKercher, Scott R.; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Wang, Yuqiang; Lipton, Stuart A.
Stroke and vascular dementia are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Neuroprotective therapies have been proposed but none have proven clinically tolerated and effective. While overstimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) is thought to contribute to cerebrovascular insults, the importance of NMDARs in physiological function has made this target, at least in the view of many in ‘Big Pharma,’ ‘undruggable’ for this indication. Here, we describe novel NitroMemantine drugs, comprising an adamantane moiety that binds in the NMDAR-associated ion channel that is used to target a nitro group to redox-mediated regulatory sites on the receptor. The NitroMemantines are both well tolerated and effective against cerebral infarction in rodent models via a dual allosteric mechanism of open-channel block and NO/redox modulation of the receptor. Targeted S-nitrosylation of NMDARs by NitroMemantine is potentiated by hypoxia and thereby directed at ischemic neurons. Allosteric approaches to tune NMDAR activity may hold therapeutic potential for cerebrovascular disorders. PMID:26477507
Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Chinatsu; Fujikawa, Akira; Hachiya, Junichi
We assessed the feasibility of MR digital subtraction angiography (DSA) using parallel imaging and keyhole data sampling in the diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) in 11 patients. Their diseases included arterial trunk stenosis/occlusion ( n=4), aneurysm ( n=3), arteriovenous malformation ( n=2), venous angioma ( n=1), and sinus thrombosis ( n=1). The technique depicted not only anatomical features, comparably to MR angiography ( n=10/11), but also hemodynamics such as collateral flow at a temporal resolution of 1.68 s/frame. When compared with conventional angiograms ( n=7), details were missed in four patients (incomplete demonstration of aneurysmal neck in two and poor separation of AVM components in two). Although inferior to conventional angiography, this technique can provide both anatomical and hemodynamic information of CVDs.
Sim, John J; Shi, Jiaxiao; Al-Moomen, Rushdy; Behayaa, Hind; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Jacobsen, Steven J
Plasma renin activity (PRA) may be a surrogate for vascular damage. The authors hypothesize that PRA is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CED). A cross-sectional study (January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2009) was performed on hypertensive individuals 18 years and older using multivariable logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF), and CED based on PRA quartiles controlling for age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus (DM), and medication use. Among 7887 individuals (60% women; 34% whites, 23% blacks, and 19% Hispanics; and 29% with DM), the adjusted ORs (95% CI) for IHD were 0.94 (0.80-1.10), 1.09 (0.92-1.29), and 1.18 (1.00-1.39); for CHF were 1.23 (0.99-1.53), 1.27 (1.01-1.61), and 1.41 (1.13-1.77); and for CED were 0.95 (0.78-1.17), 0.77 (0.61-0.97), and 0.97 (0.78-1.20) for the second, third, and fourth quartiles compared with the first quartile. Higher PRA was associated with greater likelihood for prevalent IHD and CHF but not CED in this large ethnically diverse population of hypertensive individuals.
Papadopoulos, Panayiota; Tong, Xin-Kang; Imboden, Hans; Hamel, Edith
Alterations of the renin-angiotensin system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. We tested the efficacy of losartan (10 mg/kg/day for three months), a selective angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, in alleviating cerebrovascular and cognitive deficits in double-transgenic mice (six months at endpoint) that overexpress a mutated form of the human amyloid precursor protein (APPSwe,Ind) and a constitutively active form of the transforming growth factor-β1, thereafter named A/T mice. Losartan rescued cerebrovascular reactivity, particularly the dilatory responses, but failed to attenuate astroglial activation and to normalize the neurovascular uncoupling response to sensory stimulation. The cognitive deficits of A/T mice were not restored by losartan nor were the increased brain levels of soluble and insoluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 peptides normalized. Our results are the first to demonstrate the capacity of losartan to improve cerebrovascular reactivity in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model of combined Aβ-induced vascular oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-β1-mediated vascular fibrosis. These data suggest that losartan may be promising for restoring cerebrovascular function in patients with vascular diseases at risk for vascular dementia or Alzheimer's disease. However, a combined therapy may be warranted for rescuing both vascular and cognitive deficits in a multifaceted pathology like Alzheimer's disease.
Roe, Annie J; Zhang, Shucha; Bhadelia, Rafeeque A; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rogers, Gail T; Rosenberg, Irwin H; Smith, Caren E; Zeisel, Steven H; Scott, Tammy M
Background: There is a potential role of choline in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease through its involvement in lipid and one-carbon metabolism.Objective: We evaluated the associations of plasma choline and choline-related compounds with cardiometabolic risk factors, history of cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular pathology.Design: A cross-sectional subset of the Nutrition, Aging, and Memory in Elders cohort who had undergone MRI of the brain (n = 296; mean ± SD age: 73 ± 8.1 y) was assessed. Plasma concentrations of free choline, betaine, and phosphatidylcholine were measured with the use of liquid-chromatography-stable-isotope dilution-multiple-reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry. A volumetric analysis of MRI was used to determine the cerebrovascular pathology (white-matter hyperintensities and small- and large-vessel infarcts). Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to examine relations of plasma measures with cardiometabolic risk factors, history of cardiovascular disease, and radiologic evidence of cerebrovascular pathology.Results: Higher concentrations of plasma choline were associated with an unfavorable cardiometabolic risk-factor profile [lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, higher total homocysteine, and higher body mass index (BMI)] and greater odds of large-vessel cerebral vascular disease or history of cardiovascular disease but lower odds of small-vessel cerebral vascular disease. Conversely, higher concentrations of plasma betaine were associated with a favorable cardiometabolic risk-factor profile [lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides] and lower odds of diabetes. Higher concentrations of plasma phosphatidylcholine were associated with characteristics of both a favorable cardiometabolic risk-factor profile (higher HDL cholesterol, lower BMI, lower C-reactive protein, lower waist circumference, and lower odds of hypertension and diabetes) and an unfavorable profile
Oshima, Hideki; Katayama, Yoichi
Carotid angiography employing a percutaneous technique, which was devised by Shimizu in 1937, was popularized among neurosurgeons in Japan soon after World War II. This opened up an opportunity for them to encounter and investigate moyamoya disease, since this disease is more common among Asians. They began to publish their findings on what is currently called moyamoya disease in the Japanese literature during the late 1950s and early 1960s. It was only in the late 1960s, however, that their studies were published in the English literature. The early history of the discovery of this disease is therefore not widely known. In 1957, Takeuchi and Shimizu reported a case of an unknown disease characterized by hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries. In 1964, Moriyasu and his colleagues published a report of four child cases with occlusion of the internal carotid artery. They also published in the same year a report of five adult cases with occlusion of the internal carotid arteries for an unknown reason, placing special emphasis on an abnormal vascular network located at the base of the brain, which is presently termed moyamoya vessels. In 1968 and 1969, Kudo, Nishimoto, and Takeuchi, as well as Suzuki and Takaku, published their studies in the English literature, which contributed greatly to the recognition of moyamoya disease throughout the world. Takeuchi and Shimizu, and Moriyasu also deserve credit as the researchers who reported the crucial features of moyamoya disease for the first time.
Suzuki, T; Saitoh, E; Tani, M; Nabeta, R; Daikuya, S; Hirose, H; Wakayama, I; Fujiwara, T
We experienced H-reflex may be evoked with supramaximal stimulation in patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). In this study, we investigated the relationship between the characteristic appearances of H-reflex and F-wave with increased stimulus intensity and neurological signs. We examined the H-reflex and F-wave of the affected arm with increased stimulus intensity during muscle relaxation in 31 patients (17 males and 14 females) with hemiparesis caused by CVD. Mean patient age was 56.0 (range 30-82) years. 30 healthy subjects, mean age of 56.2 (range 28-80) were investigated using the same method as controlled group. H-reflex and F-wave with increased stimulus intensity after the median nerve stimulation at the wrist were recorded from the opponence pollicis muscle on the affected side in patients with CVD or right arm in the healthy subjects. Appearance patterns of the H-reflex and F-wave with increased stimulus intensity was separated into four types. Type 1: F-wave appeared with increased stimulus intensity, but there was no H-reflex. Type 2: H-reflex and F-wave both appeared with increased stimulus intensity, but the F-wave followed disappearance of the H-reflex with increased stimulus intensity. Type 3: H-reflex and F-wave both appeared with increased stimulus intensity, but the F-wave appeared during the H-reflex with increased stimulus intensity. Type 4: Only the H-reflex appeared with increased stimulus intensity, but there was no F-wave. Neurological findings including muscle tone and tendon reflex were also evaluated. Findings on muscle tone and tendon reflex were classified into increased (markedly, moderately and slightly), normal and decreased. Results were analyzed as follows; 1) The characteristic appearances of H-reflex and F-wave in the healthy subjects and 2) The relationship between characteristic appearances of waves with increased stimulus intensity and neurological signs in patients with CVD. 1) Pattern of the H-reflex and F-wave with
Crystal, Howard A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.; Leurgans, Sue; Levine, Steven R.
Cortical atrophy and brain vascular disease are both associated with dementia, but there are only limited pathological data on the association of brain vascular disease with cortical atrophy. We studied pathological material from the Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP, N = 445). Cortical and hippocampal atrophy, and atherosclerosis at the circle of Willis (large vessel disease, LVD) and arteriolosclerosis (small vessel disease, SVD) were rated by neuropathologists unaware of this study’s hypothesis. Quantitative measures of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, specifically neuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and amyloid–beta (Aβ) burden, were also obtained. Chronic micro and macroscopic infarcts were noted. In ordinal logistic regression models that included age at death, sex, apoE genotype, statin-use, Aβ and NFT, more severe LVD was significantly associated with more severe cortical and hippocampal atrophy. The odds ratio for the association of the most severe LVD (compared to the least) with cortical atrophy was 2.7 (CI: 1.5–4.7) p = 0.001; for hippocampal atrophy the odds ratio was 2.8 (CI: 1.5–5.2), p = 0.001. The association of SVD with atrophy did not follow a consistent pattern. Neither macroscopic infarcts nor microscopic infarcts were associated with cortical or hippocampal atrophy (p’s > 0.15). Tangle density was associated with cortical (p = 0.014) and hippocampal atrophy (p < 0.001). In contrast, amyloid burden was associated with less cortical (p = 0.02) or hippocampal (p = 0.002) atrophy. In this large autopsy study LVD was associated with cortical and hippocampal atrophy. The relationship between SVD and atrophy requires further study. PMID:24597507
A prospective study of acute cerebrovascular disease in the community: the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project--1981-86. 2. Incidence, case fatality rates and overall outcome at one year of cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage.
Bamford, J; Sandercock, P; Dennis, M; Burn, J; Warlow, C
The age and sex specific incidence rates for cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral haemorrhage and subarachnoid haemorrhage in a population of approximately 105,000 are presented. Over four years 675 patients with a first-ever stroke were registered with the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project. The pathological diagnosis was confirmed by computerised tomography (CT) scan, necropsy or lumbar puncture (cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage only) in 78% of cases and a further 17% were diagnosed according to the Guy's Hospital Stroke Diagnostic Score. The proportion of all first-ever strokes by pathological type was: cerebral infarction 81% (95% confidence interval 78-84), primary intracerebral haemorrhage 10% (8-12), subarachnoid haemorrhage 5% (3-7) and uncertain type 5% (3-7). These proportions are similar to other community-based studies. The overall 30 day case fatality rate was 19% (16-22), that for cerebral infarction being 10% (7-13), primary intracerebral haemorrhage 50% (38-62) and subarachnoid haemorrhage 46% (29-63). One year post stroke 23% (19-27) with cerebral infarction were dead and 65% (60-70) of survivors were functionally independent. The figures for primary intracerebral haemorrhage were 62% (43-81) dead and 68% (50-86) of survivors functionally independent and for subarachnoid haemorrhage were 48% (24-72) dead and 76% (56-96) of survivors functionally independent. There are important differences between these rates and those from other sources possibly due to more complete case ascertainment in our study. Nevertheless, the generally more optimistic early prognosis in our study, particularly for cases of cerebral infarction, has important implications for the planning of clinical trials and for the expected impact that any treatment might have on the general population. PMID:2303826
Background Obesity is associated with increased risk for stroke. The breath-holding index (BHI) is a measure of vasomotor reactivity of the brain which can be measured with the transcranial Doppler (TCD). We aim to evaluate obesity as an independent factor for altered cerebrovascular reactivity. Methods Cerebrovascular hemodynamics (mean flow velocities MFV, pulsatility index, PI, resistance index, RI, and BHI) was determined in 85 non-obese (Body Mass Index, BMI ≤27 kg/m2) and 85 obese subjects (BMI ≥35 kg/m2) without diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Anthropometric and metabolic variables, and scores to detect risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were analyzed for their association with the cerebrovascular reactivity. Results The BHI was significantly lower in subjects with obesity according to BMI and in subjects with abdominal obesity, but the PI and RI were not different between groups. There was a linear association between the BMI, the HOMA-IR, the Matsuda index, the waist circumference, and the neck circumference, with the cerebrovascular reactivity. After adjusting for insulin resistance, neck circumference, and abdominal circumference, obesity according to BMI was negatively correlated with the cerebrovascular reactivity. Conclusions We found a diminished vasomotor reactivity in individuals with obesity which was not explained by the presence of insulin resistance. PMID:24383894
Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Shahana, Nahid; Wangchuk, Lungten Z; Specogna, Adrian V; Al Mamun, Mohammad; Khan, Mudassir Azeez; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Zaman, M Mostafa; Rumana, Nahid
Similar to most populations, South Asian countries are also witnessing the dramatic transitions in health during the last few decades with the major causes of adverse health shifting from a predominance of nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases to chronic diseases such as cardio and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). We summarized the available information of the burden of CVD and risk factors in the South Asian populations. The prevalence of conventional cardiovascular has been increasing among all South Asian populations. Extensive urbanization, shift in dietary pattern and sedentary daily life style is contributing towards the worsening of the CVD risk factor scenario. The burdens of the chronic cardiovascular risk factors are much prevalent in the South Asian populations. These are also rising alarmingly which ought to influence the already existed heavy CVD burden. Similar to the rest of the world, management for the conventional cardiovascular risk factors is very important for the prevention of CVD in South Asia. Copyright © 2013 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
López-Liria, Remedios; Ferre-Salmerón, Rocío; Arrebola-López, Clara; Granados-Valverde, Rocío; Gobernado-Cabero, Miguel Ángel; Padilla-Góngora, David
Introduccion. El estudio de la eficacia en los tratamientos de rehabilitacion aplicados a pacientes con secuelas tras una enfermedad cerebrovascular (ECV) resulta decisivo en la actualidad para planificar su abordaje desde la sanidad publica y mejorar las directrices de evaluacion y tratamiento existentes. Objetivo. Describir las caracteristicas que presentan los pacientes que han sufrido ECV atendidos por las unidades moviles de rehabilitacion-fisioterapia (UMRF) y como influyen estos tratamientos sobre su recuperacion funcional. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo prospectivo en 124 pacientes derivados a las UMRF de la provincia de Almeria entre 2008 y 2011. Se analizaron variables (pre y postratamiento) como las caracteristicas y antecedentes personales, indice de Barthel, escala de espasticidad de Ashworth modificada, dolor (hombro) y escala neurologica canadiense. Resultados. La muestra final estuvo compuesta por 106 participantes (edad media: 73,72 años). El proceso discapacitante fue isquemico en un 77,4%, y la hipertension, el factor de riesgo mas prevalente (81%). La media del indice de Barthel inicial fue de 31,04, y la media del indice final, de 57,62 (t = –11,75; p < 0,001). La escala canadiense mostro una evolucion favorable en el nivel de conciencia, orientacion y lenguaje (p < 0,001). El 56,2% de los pacientes recibio alta por mejoria, sin precisar rehabilitacion ambulatoria adicional. Conclusiones. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan una importante mejora funcional en los pacientes tratados en las UMRF. La rehabilitacion domiciliaria se plantea como una herramienta necesaria para las personas con mayor vulnerabilidad clinica y sin acceso a los cuidados ambulatorios, que logra los beneficios de tratamientos que son efectivos.
Oshima, Marie; Torii, Ryo; Tokuda, Shigefumi; Yamada, Shigeki; Koizumi, Akio
To develop a targeted drug delivery system for cerebrovascular disorders such as stroke, it is important to obtain detailed information on flow rates and hemodynamics of the human cerebrovascular system for individual patients. A patient-specific integrated numerical simulation system has been developed by the authors such that vascular geometry is constructed from medical images such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) data, and computational conditions are modeled mathematically to represent the realistic in vivo environments. In general, the three-dimensional numerical simulation using a patient-specific model is conducted only for a localized diseased region with atherosclerosis or an aneurysm. Although the analysis region is only a part of the circulatory system, the simulation should include the effects from the entire circulatory system. Since the peripheral network determines the flow distributions in the cerebrovascular system, the paper reviews the recent simulation methods to take into account the network by coupling the image-based three-dimensional simulation with a one- and zero-dimensional simulations as an outflow boundary condition The paper shows the mathematical modeling of the multi-scale outflow boundary condition and its applications to patient- specific models of the arterial circle of Willis. The results are compared to those using the conventional, free-stream boundary condition. As a result, the multi-scale outflow boundary condition shows a significant difference in flow rate of each artery and in flow distribution in the arterial circle of Willis.
Keage, Hannah A.D.; Churches, Owen F.; Kohler, Mark; Pomeroy, Danielle; Luppino, Rocco; Bartolo, Michelle L.; Elliott, Scott
Background/Aim The contribution of cerebrovascular dysfunction to the manifestation of dementia and cognitive decline in late life is gaining increased attention. We aimed to systematically review evidence for associations between dementia or aging and cerebrovascular function as measured using transcranial Doppler (TCD) examination. Methods A total of 1,172 articles were retrieved from PsychInfo and PubMed searches, and 34 relevant articles were identified using a variety of TCD methods. Results The pulsatility index (vessel resistance), spontaneous emboli and cerebrovascular reactivity to hyper-/hypocapnia appeared good discriminators of dementia. Aging was associated with a slowing in blood flow velocity. Conclusion TCD ultrasonography is inexpensive, portable and well tolerated by aged and demented subjects. The technique stands to make a valuable contribution to the knowledge regarding the underlying functional biology of age-related cognitive change and dementia. PMID:22822408
Background High LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and glucose levels are risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in middle-aged diabetic individuals; however, the risk among the elderly, especially the very elderly, is not well known. The aim of this study was to identify factors that predict IHD and cerebrovascular attack (CVA) in the elderly and to investigate their differences by age. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study (Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study) with 5.5 years of follow-up. A total of 4,014 patients with type 2 diabetes and without previous IHD or CVA (1,936 women; age 67.4 ± 9.5 years, median 70 years; <65 years old, n = 1,261; 65 to 74 years old, n = 1,731; and ≥ 75 years old, n = 1,016) were recruited on a consecutive outpatient basis from 40 hospitals throughout Japan. Lipids, glucose, and other factors related to IHD or CVA risk, such as blood pressure (BP), were investigated using the multivariate Cox hazard model. Results One hundred fifty-three cases of IHD and 104 CVAs (7.8 and 5.7/1,000 people per year, respectively) occurred over 5.5 years. Lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and female gender were correlated with IHD in patients ≥75 years old (hazard ratio (HR):0.629, P < 0.01 and 1.132, P < 0.05, respectively). In contrast, systolic BP (SBP), HbA1C, LDL-C and non-HDL-C were correlated with IHD in subjects <65 years old (P < 0.05), and the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was correlated with IHD in all subjects. HDL-C was correlated with CVA in patients ≥75 years old (HR: 0.536, P < 0.01). Kaplan-Meier estimator curves showed that IHD occurred more frequently in patients <65 years old in the highest quartile of the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. In patients ≥75 years old, IHD and CVA were both the most frequent among those with the lowest HDL-C levels. Conclusions IHD and CVA in late elderly diabetic patients were predicted by HDL-C. LDL-C, HbA1C, SBP and non-HDL-C are risk factors for
Park, Jae-Hyun; Seo, Sang Won; Kim, Changsoo; Kim, Sook Hui; Kim, Geon Ha; Kim, Sung Tae; Jeon, Seun; Lee, Jong Min; Oh, Seung Jun; Kim, Jae Seung; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung-Han; Shin, Ji Soo; Kim, Chi Hun; Noh, Young; Cho, Hanna; Yoon, Cindy W; Kim, Hee Jin; Ye, Byoung Seok; Ewers, Michael; Weiner, Michael W; Lee, Jae-Hong; Werring, David J; Na, Duk L
Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and amyloid burden are the most frequent pathologies in subjects with cognitive impairment. However, the relationship between CVD, amyloid burden, and cognition are largely unknown. We aimed to evaluate whether CVD (lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, and microbleeds) and amyloid burden (Pittsburgh compound B [PiB] retention ratio) contribute to cognitive impairment independently or interactively. We recruited 136 patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment who underwent magnetic resonance imaging, PiB-positron emission tomography, and neuropsychological testing. The number of lacunes was associated with memory, frontal dysfunctions, and disease severity. The volume of white matter hyperintensities and the PiB retention ratio were associated only with memory dysfunction. There was no direct correlation between CVD markers and PiB retention ratio except that the number of lacunes was negatively correlated with the PiB retention ratio. In addition, there were no interactive effects of CVD and PiB retention ratio on cognition. Our findings suggest that CVD and amyloid burden contribute independently and not interactively to specific patterns of cognitive dysfunction in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.
Zhang, F; Slungaard, A; Vercellotti, G M; Iadecola, C
Recent evidence indicates that elevated plasma levels of homocysteine are a risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. However, little is known about cerebrovascular effects of homocysteine. Homocysteine could impair cerebrovascular function by metal-catalyzed production of activated oxygen species. We studied whether homocysteine, in the presence of Cu2+, alters reactivity of cerebral circulation and, if so, whether this effect depends on O-2 generation. In halothane-anesthetized rats the parietal cortex was exposed and superfused with Ringer solution. Cerebrocortical blood flow (CBF) was monitored by a laser-Doppler probe. With Ringer solution superfusion, CBF increased with hypercapnia (+134 +/- 7%; PCO2 = 50-60 mmHg) and topical application of 10 microM ACh (+35 +/- 3%), the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, 500 microM; +66 +/- 6%), or 1 mM papaverine (+100 +/- 6%; n = 5). Superfusion with 40 microM Cu2+ alone did not perturb resting CBF or responses to hypercapnia, ACh, SNAP, or papaverine (P > 0.05, n = 5). However, superfusion of homocysteine-Cu2+ reduced resting CBF (-28 +/- 4%) and attenuated (P < 0.05) responses to hypercapnia (-31 +/- 9%), ACh (-73 +/- 6%), or SNAP (-48 +/- 4%), but not papaverine. The effect was observed only at 1 mM homocysteine. Cerebrovascular effects of homocysteine-Cu2+ were prevented by coadministration of superoxide dismutase (SOD; 1,000 U/ml; n = 5). SOD alone did not affect resting CBF or CBF reactivity (n = 5). The observation that homocysteine-Cu2+ attenuates the response to hypercapnia, ACh, and SNAP, but not the NO-independent vasodilator papaverine, suggests that homocysteine-Cu2+ selectively impairs NO-related cerebrovascular responses. The fact that SOD prevents such impairment indicates that the effect of homocysteine is O-2 dependent. The data support the conclusion that O-2, generated by the reaction of homocysteine with Cu2+, inhibits NO-related cerebrovascular responses by scavenging NO
Prasad, Kameshwar; Vibha, Deepti; Meenakshi
Stroke is a non-communicable disease of increasing socioeconomic importance in ageing populations. According to the World Health Organization, stroke was the second most common cause of worldwide mortality. In South Asian countries demographic changes, urbanization and increased exposure to major stroke risk factors will fuel the stroke burden in the future. The prevalence of stroke in India is 44–843/100,000 (from community-based studies), 500–2000/100,000 in Bangladesh, 218/100,000 in Pakistan and 1000/100,000 in Sri Lanka and community-based prevalence studies in these countries are still lacking. There are no data on stroke prevalence from Nepal. Incidence studies are still less and an Indian study reported an incidence of 145/100,000. Incidence studies from other South Asian countries are lacking. This review attempts to give an overview of the evidence so far on the burden of stroke in this part of the globe. PMID:24175076
Crowson, Cynthia S.; Makol, Ashima; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Saitta, Antonino; Salvarani, Carlo; Matteson, Eric L.; Warrington, Kenneth J.
Objective To investigate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and cerebrovascular events in a community-based incidence cohort of patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) compared to the general population. Methods A population-based inception cohort of patients with incident GCA between January 1, 1950 and December 31, 2009 in Olmsted County, Minnesota and a cohort of non-GCA subjects from the same population were assembled and followed until December 31, 2013. Confirmed VTE and cerebrovascular events were identified through direct medical record review. Results The study population included 244 patients with GCA with a mean ± SD age at diagnosis of 76.2 ± 8.2 years (79% women) and an average length of follow-up of 10.2 ± 6.8 years. Compared to non-GCA subjects of similar age and sex, patients diagnosed with GCA had a higher incidence (%) of amaurosis fugax (cumulative incidence ± SE: 2.1 ± 0.9 versus 0, respectively; p = 0.014) but similar rates of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and VTE. Among patients with GCA, neither baseline characteristics nor laboratory parameters at diagnosis reliably predicted risk of VTE or cerebrovascular events. Conclusion In this population-based study, the incidence of VTE, stroke and TIA was similar in patients with GCA compared to non-GCA subjects. PMID:26901431
Vitamin D deficiency has potential adverse effects on neurocognitive health and subcortical function. However, no studies have examined the association between vitamin D status, dementia, and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicators of cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Cross-sectional inves...
Shibuya, Seiji; Murahashi, Makoto; Inoue, Masahiko; Jimi, Takahiro; Wakayama, Yoshihiro
The double contrast pharyngogram by use of computed radiography (DCP-CR) has been found to be useful in detection of asymptomatic swallowing dysfunction. Following the DCP-CR examination, we investigated the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in 143 patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) for 3 years and the effects of ACE inhibitors on the prevention of pneumonia. Aspiration pneumonia occurred in 29 out of 143 patients, and more frequently in the elderly chronic CVD patients with multiple brain lesions. Aspiration pneumonia was confirmed in 26 out of 85 patients (30.6%) with abnormal barium adhesion to the pharyngeal wall on the double contrast pharyngogram image by DCP-CR; whereas pneumonia occurred in 3 out of 58 patients (5.2%) with normal findings of DCP-CR pharyngogram. Among chronic CVD patients with abnormal findings of DCP-CR pharyngogram, the incidence of aspiration pneumonia was significantly lower in the patients treated with ACE inhibitors than in those treated with other antihypertensive agents or without antihypertensive agents (chi 2 value = 7.163, p < 0.05). Accordingly, ACE inhibitors may prevent the aspiration pneumonia and reduce the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in the chronic CVD patients with abnormal DCP-CR pharyngogram images.
Kaufmann, Tim A S; Wong, Kai C; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich
Understanding circulatory autoregulation is essential for improving physiological control of rotary blood pumps and support conditions during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Cerebral autoregulation (CAR), arguably the most critical, is the body's intrinsic ability to maintain sufficient cerebral blood flow (CBF) despite changes in aortic perfusion pressure. It is therefore imperative to include this mechanism into computational fluid dynamics (CFD), particle image velocimetry (PIV), or mock circulation loop (MCL) studies. Without such inclusions, potential losses of CBF are overestimated. In this study, a mathematical model to mimic CAR is implemented in a MCL- and PIV-validated CFD model. A three-dimensional model of the human vascular system was created from magnetic resonance imaging records. Numerical flow simulations were performed for physiological conditions and CPB. The inlet flow was varied between 4.5 and 6 L/min. Arterial outlets were modeled using vessel-specific, flow-dependent cerebrovascular resistances (CVRs), resulting in a variation of the pressure drop between 0 and 80mmHg. CBF is highly dependent on the level of CAR during CPB. By varying the CVR parameters up to the beginning of plateau phase, it can be regulated between 0 and 80% of physiological CBF. So while implementing autoregulation, CBF remains unchanged during a simulated native cardiac output of 5L/min or CPB support of 6L/min. Neglecting CAR, constant backflow from the brain occurs for some cannula positions. Using flow-dependent CVR, CBF returns to its baseline at a rate of recovery of 0.25s. Results demonstrate that modeling of CAR by flow-dependent CVR delivers feasible results. The presented method can be used to optimize physiological control of assist devices dependent upon different levels of CAR representing different patients.
Lee, Jennifer K.; Brady, Ken M.; Chung, Shang-En; Jennings, Jacky M.; Whitaker, Emmett E.; Aganga, Devon; Easley, Ronald B.; Heitmiller, Kerry; Jamrogowicz, Jessica L.; Larson, Abby C.; Lee, Jeong-Hoo; Jordan, Lori C.; Hogue, Charles W.; Lehmann, Christoph U.; Bembea, Mela M.; Hunt, Elizabeth A.; Koehler, Raymond C.; Shaffner, Donald H.
Aim Improved survival after cardiac arrest has placed greater emphasis on neurologic resuscitation. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the relationship between cerebrovascular autoregulation and neurologic outcomes after pediatric cardiac arrest. Methods Children resuscitated from cardiac arrest had autoregulation monitoring during the first 72 hours after return of circulation with an index derived from near-infrared spectroscopy in a pilot study. The range of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) with optimal vasoreactivity (MAPOPT) was identified. The area under the curve (AUC) of the time spent with MAP below MAPOPT and MAP deviation below MAPOPT was calculated. Neurologic outcome measures included placement of a new tracheostomy or gastrostomy, death from a primary neurologic etiology (brain death or withdrawal of support for neurologic futility), and change in the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score (ΔPCPC). Results Thirty-six children were monitored. Among children who did not require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), children who received a tracheostomy/gastrostomy had greater AUC during the second 24 hours after resuscitation than those who did not (P=0.04; n=19). Children without ECMO who died from a neurologic etiology had greater AUC during the first 48 hours than did those who lived or died from cardiovascular failure (P=0.04; n=19). AUC below MAPOPT was not associated with ΔPCPC when children with or without ECMO were analyzed separately. Conclusions Deviation from the blood pressure with optimal autoregulatory vasoreactivity may predict poor neurologic outcomes after pediatric cardiac arrest. This experimental autoregulation monitoring technique may help individualize blood pressure management goals after resuscitation. PMID:25046743
Nonaka, K.; Imaizumi, Y.
It has been suggested that maternal nutrition, and fetal and infant growth have an important effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life. We investigated the population-based distribution of deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (ICD9 codes 430, 431, or 434) in Japan in 1986-1994 as a function of birth month, by examining death-certificate records. For a total of 853 981 people born in the years 1900-1959, the distribution of the number of deaths according to the month of birth was compared with the distribution expected from the monthly numbers of all births for each sex and for the corresponding birth decade. For those born between 1920 and 1949, there were significant discrepancies between the actual numbers of deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage (ICD9 430) and the numbers expected, and these differences were related to the month of birth. Those born in summer, June-September, consistently had an elevated risk of death, particularly men, where the excess risk was 8%-23%. This tendency was also observed, less distinctly but significantly, for deaths from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICD9 431), but was not observed for those dying from occlusion of the cerebral arteries (ICD9 434). The observation that the risk of dying from subarachnoid hemorrhage was more than 10% higher among those born in the summer implies that at least one in ten deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage has its origin at a perinatal stage. Although variations in hypertension in later life, which could possibly be ''programmed'' during the intra-uterine stages, could be an explanation for this observation, the disease-specific nature of the observation suggests the involvement of aneurysm formation, which is a predominant cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Goltz, L; Bodechtel, U; Siepmann, T
Whereas statins and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) are considered gold standard for secondary prevention following myocardial infarction or atherotrombotic stroke, there are inconsistent data on the use of these drugs for primary prevention in patients with increased cardiovascular risk. Some meta-analyses indicated that the use of statins and ASA for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease can reduce the risk of cardiovascular events such as ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction. However, the effects of primary prevention with statins and ASA on mortality varied in the data included in these meta-analyses. Therefore the guidelines of the German College of General Practitioners and Family Physicians recommend primary prevention with statins and ASA only in those patients who have a 10-year risk of cardiovascular events which exceeds 20 %. Divergently, primary prevention with ASA is not recommended by the European Society of Cardiology. Observational studies suggested that treatment success of primary prevention with statins and ASA depends on various factors such as adherence to medication and prescription behavior of physicians. This review summarizes the current literature on primary prevention of cardiovascular events with ASA and statins.
Guimarães de Andrade, O; Partezani Rodrigues, R A
This study tries to identify the roles family members have in the care of an elderly person experiencing the effects of cerebral-vascular disease in the home and the main strategies to employ in the treatment of such a patient. The theoretical methodological procedure was based on a psychological project, a historical drawing about a theme, in which five subjects who were caretakers drew two achromatic pictures narrating corresponding stories individually in their homes. This form of expression allowed the project designers to have an interpretation of the daily situations involved in the care of these patients. In the first analysis phase, we drew the conclusion that caretakers construct their own particular knowledge system regarding the care of the elderly patient in their home. We verified that this construction started with a network relating common, daily elements which are interwoven in the treatment process occurring within a specific social milieu which as a result generates strategies that rely heavily on common sense knowledge in the manner of carrying out this social function.
Xing, Fengmei; Dong, Yan; Tao, Jie; Gao, Xinying; Zhou, Jianhui; Chen, Shuohua; Ji, Chunpeng; Yao, Tao; Wu, Shouling
To explore the impact of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) on new-onset cardio-cerebral vascular diseases (CVD). This cohort study involved 101 510 participants who were employees of the Kailuan Group-a state-run coal mining company, in 2006 and 2007. Among them, 6 780 subjects were diagnosed with IDH, 35 448 subjects were diagnosed with high-normal blood pressure and 19 460 subjects were diagnosed with normal tension. However, none of them had the history of either cardio-cerebral vascular disease or malignant cancer. Cardio-cerebral vascular events including cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, acute myocardial infarction were recorded every 6 months during the follow-up (47.1 ± 4.8) period. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the risk factors of first-ever CVD events. 1) There were 675 CVD events occurred during the follow-up period. The incidence rates of CVD events (1.7% vs. 0.9%), cerebral infarction (1.0% vs. 0.6%) and cerebral hemorrhage (0.4% vs. 0.1%) were significantly higher in IDH group than that in the normal tension group (all P < 0.05). 2) After adjustment for other established CVD risk factors, the hazards ratios became 1.67 (95% CI: 1.28-2.17) for total CVD events and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.12-2.27) for cerebral infarction and 2.67 (95% CI: 1.54-4.65) for cerebral hemorrhage in the IDH group. 3). In stratified analysis on age, after adjustment for other established CVD risk factors, the hazards ratio was 2.22 (95% CI: 1.41-3.50) for cerebral infarction in lower 60 years old group, while the it was 7.27 (95% CI: 2.58-20.42) for cerebral hemorrhage in groups older than 60 years of age. IDH was the independent risk factor for the total cardio-cerebral vascular events, on both cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage. The predicted values of IDH for different CVD events were diverse on different age groups.
Muñoz-Torrero, Juan Francisco Sánchez; Escudero, Domingo; Suárez, Carmen; Sanclemente, Carmen; Pascual, Ma Teresa; Zamorano, José; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Monreal, Manuel
Among patients receiving clopidogrel for coronary artery disease, concomitant therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been associated with an increased risk for recurrent coronary events. Factores de Riesgo y ENfermedad Arterial (FRENA) is an ongoing, multicenter, observational registry of consecutive outpatients with coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral artery disease. We retrospectively examined the influence of concomitant use of PPIs on outcome in patients receiving clopidogrel. As of March 2009, 1222 patients were using clopidogrel: 595 had coronary artery disease, 329 cerebrovascular disease, and 298 had peripheral artery disease. Of these, 519 (42%) were concomitantly using PPIs. Over a mean follow-up of 15 months, 131 patients (11%) had 139 subsequent ischemic events: myocardial infarction 44, ischemic stroke 40, and critical limb ischemia 55. Seventeen of them (13%) died within 15 days of the subsequent event. PPI users had a higher incidence of myocardial infarction (rate ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.8), ischemic stroke (rate ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.03-3.7), and a nonsignificantly higher rate of critical limb ischemia (rate ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.95-2.8) than nonusers. On multivariate analysis, concomitant use of clopidogrel and PPIs was independently associated with an increased risk for subsequent ischemic events both in the whole series of patients (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7) and in those with cerebrovascular disease or peripheral artery disease (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.01-2.4). In patients with established arterial disease, concomitant use of PPIs and clopidogrel was associated with a nearly doubling of the incidence of subsequent myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. This higher incidence persisted after multivariate adjustment.
Gluszkiewicz, Marcin; Członkowska, Anna
Introduction Time to treatment is the key factor in stroke care. Although the initial medical assessment is usually made by a non-neurologist or a paramedic, it should ensure correct identification of all acute cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of the physician-made prehospital diagnosis of acute CVA in patients referred directly to the neurological emergency department (ED), and to identify conditions mimicking CVAs. Material and methods This observational study included consecutive patients referred to our neurological ED by emergency physicians with a suspicion of CVA (acute stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) or a syndrome-based diagnosis) during 12 months. Referrals were considered correct if the prehospital diagnosis of CVA proved to be stroke or TIA. Results The prehospital diagnosis of CVA was correct in 360 of 570 cases. Its positive predictive value ranged from 100% for the syndrome-based diagnosis, through 70% for stroke, to 34% for TIA. Misdiagnoses were less frequent among ambulance physicians compared to primary care and outpatient physicians (33% vs. 52%, p < 0.001). The most frequent mimics were vertigo (19%), electrolyte and metabolic disturbances (12%), seizures (11%), cardiovascular disorders (10%), blood hypertension (8%) and brain tumors (5%). Additionally, 6% of all admitted CVA cases were referred with prehospital diagnoses other than CVA. Conclusions Emergency physicians appear to be sensitive in diagnosing CVAs but their overall accuracy does not seem high. They tend to overuse the diagnosis of TIA. Constant education and adoption of stroke screening scales may be beneficial for emergency care systems based both on physicians and on paramedics. PMID:26170845
Morisawa, Hanako; Kawamata, Takakazu; Kawashima, Akitsugu; Hayashi, Masataka; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Yoneyama, Taku; Okada, Yoshikazu
Moyamoya disease (MMD) and atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease (ACVD) differ in angiographic appearance and probably hemodynamics. Pediatric MMD (PMMD) usually presents with cerebral ischemia, while intracranial hemorrhage is more common in adult MMD (AMMD), suggesting differences in cerebral hemodynamics. We analyzed the cortical flow velocity and direction of recipient arteries using micro-Doppler ultrasonography to evaluate the cortical circulation before and after anastomosis in MMD and ACVD. Twenty-eight patients with adult MMD (AMMD), 7 with pediatric MMD (PMMD), 16 with ACVD, and 12 control patients were studied. A micro-Doppler probe was applied on the cortical recipient artery (A4 or M4) before and after anastomosis. Systolic maximum flow velocity (V max) and blood flow direction were investigated at proximal and distal parts of anastomosed sites in recipient arteries. Pre- and postoperative regional cerebral blood flow was measured by cold xenon-computed tomography (Xe-CT). Before anastomosis, retrograde cortical flow was significantly more common in PMMD patients, and V max in cortical artery was significantly lower in AMMD patients. Bypass surgery changed the direction of blood flow from the anastomosis site to proximal and distal sites of the recipient artery in most patients, but pre-anastomosis flow direction was preserved more frequently in PMMD patients. The rate of V max increase after anastomosis was significantly higher in AMMD than in PMMD (11.6 ± 9.8 vs. 3.9 ± 1.8; P = 0.01). Micro-Doppler ultrasonography identified differences in cortical circulation among AMMD, PMMD, and ACVD. In AMMD, significantly low velocity in the cortical artery was observed before anastomosis, and bypass surgery reversed the flow and significantly increased flow velocity. The data of PMMD showed unique hemodynamics of the cortical artery before anastomosis, characterized by a higher frequency of retrograde flow and preserved velocity. The V max
Molinari, Filippo; Rimini, Daniele; Liboni, William; Acharya, U Rajendra; Franzini, Marianno; Pandolfi, Sergio; Ricevuti, Giovanni; Vaiano, Francesco; Valdenassi, Luigi; Simonetti, Vincenzo
Ozone major autohemotherapy is effective in reducing the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but its effects on brain are still not clear. In this work, we have monitored the changes in the cerebrovascular pattern of MS patients and normal subjects during major ozone autohemotherapy by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as functional and vascular technique. NIRS signals are analyzed using a combination of time, time-frequency analysis and nonlinear analysis of intrinsic mode function signals obtained from empirical mode decomposition technique. Our results show that there is an improvement in the cerebrovascular pattern of all subjects indicated by increasing the entropy of the NIRS signals. Hence, we can conclude that the ozone therapy increases the brain metabolism and helps to recover from the lower activity levels which is predominant in MS patients.
Gavurová, Beáta; Kováč, Viliam; Vagašová, Tatiana
Non-communicable diseases represent one of the greatest challenges for health policymakers. The main objective of this study is to analyse the development of standardised mortality rates for cerebrovascular disease, which is one of the most common causes of deaths, in relation to income inequality in individual regions of the Slovak Republic. Direct standardisation was applied using data from the Slovak mortality database, covering the time period from 1996 to 2013. The standardised mortality rate declined by 4.23% in the Slovak Republic. However, since 1996, the rate has been higher by almost 33% in men than in women. Standardised mortality rates were lower in the northern part of the Slovak Republic than in the southern part. The regression models demonstrated an impact of the observed income-related dimensions on these rates. The income quintile ratio and Gini coefficient appeared to be the most influencing variables. The results of the analysis highlight valuable baseline information for creating new support programmes aimed at eliminating health inequalities in relation to health and social policy.
Schmidt, Wolf; Endres, Matthias; Dimeo, Fernando; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J
The burden of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is huge and therapeutic options are limited. Physical activity is effective in preventing coronary heart and peripheral artery disease both experimentally and clinically. It is likely that the protective effects of exercise can be extended to both CVD and cognitive impairment. The pleiotropic protective and preventive mechanisms induced by physical activity include increased perfusion as well as mechanisms of collateral recruitment and neovascularization mediated by arterio- and angiogenesis. Physical activity increases the bioavailability of nitric oxide, bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells and growth factors, all of which promote neovascularization. Additionally, shear stress is discussed as a potential mechanism for vessel growth. Moreover, physical activity plays a role in endothelial function and cerebral autoregulation in small- and large-artery CVD. The vascular niche hypothesis highlights the complex interactions of neuro- and angiogenesis for regenerative and repair mechanisms in the human brain. Experimental and clinical studies demonstrate the positive impact of prior physical activity on stroke lesion size and on outcome after stroke. Clinical trials are necessary to further address the impact of physical activity on primary and secondary stroke prevention, outcome and cognitive function.
Hicks, M E; Kreipke, D L; Becker, G J; Edwards, M K; Holden, R W; Jackson, V P; Bendick, P J; Kuehn, D S
Three hundred sixty-one patients underwent intraarterial digital subtraction angiography for definite or probable occlusive vascular disease of the carotid arteries. Examinations were performed with 65-cm-long, 4-F aortic catheters. A transbrachial approach was used. Images were good or excellent in nearly all cases. No postprocedural neurologic deficits or hematomas occurred. Permanent pulse deficit occurred in two patients, and temporary deficit occurred in three patients, an improvement over the frequency found in previous transbrachial series using 6-8-F catheters. While these results establish the efficacy of this technique, they also indicate a possible greater relative safety in men than in women.
Nishigaki, H; Adachi, I; Komori, T; Tatsu, Y; Hisada, Y; Sueyoshi, K; Narabayashi, I
99mTc-HM-PAO cerebral SPECT and whole body scintigraphy (WBS) were performed in 5 patients without cerebro-vascular disease (CVD) (Group 1), 31 patients with CVD but not hemiparesis (Group 2) and 18 patients with CVD and hemiparesis (Group 3). Four ROIs were drawn manually around the whole body (WB), brain (Br), right and left thigh (Th). We calculated some ratios: the total counts in the brain over the total counts in the whole body (Br/WB), the total counts in the thigh over the total counts in the whole body (Th/WB) and the mean counts in the thigh over the mean counts in the brain (Th/Br). The Br/WB was 6.9 +/- 1.8%, rt-Th/WB was 4.9 +/- 2.1%, lt-Th/WB was 5.1 +/- 1.3% and Th/Br was 0.46 +/- 0.17 in group 1. Whole body scintigraphies in group 1 revealed clear and similar images between right and left thigh. The Br/WB was 6.7 +/- 1.4%, Th/WB of paretic side was 4.6 +/- 1.0%, Th/WB of non-paretic side was 5.8 +/- 1.2% and Th/Br was 0.47 +/- 0.18 in group 3. The Th/WB in non paretic side was significantly higher than that in paretic side (p < 0.01). The thigh images in group 3 revealed clearly different between paretic and non-paretic thigh. In conclusion we could acquire the clear thigh images with 99mTc-HM-PAO. It was possible that we evaluated not only cerebral perfusion but also muscle atrophy and/or perfusion in patients with CVD using 99mTC-HM-PAO.
Gayda, Mathieu; Gremeaux, Vincent; Bherer, Louis; Juneau, Martin; Drigny, Joffrey; Dupuy, Olivier; Lapierre, Gabriel; Labelle, Véronique; Fortier, Annik; Nigam, Anil
Chronic exercise has been shown to prevent or slow age-related decline in cognitive functions in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic individuals. We sought to assess cognitive function in a stable coronary heart disease (CHD) sample and its relationship to cerebral oxygenation-perfusion, cardiac hemodynamic responses, and [Formula: see text] peak compared to age-matched and young healthy control subjects. Twenty-two young healthy controls (YHC), 20 age-matched old healthy controls (OHC) and 25 patients with stable CHD were recruited. Cognitive function assessment included short term-working memory, perceptual abilities, processing speed, cognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory. Maximal cardiopulmonary function (gas exchange analysis), cardiac hemodynamic (impedance cardiography) and left frontal cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (near-infra red spectroscopy) were measured during and after a maximal incremental ergocycle test. Compared to OHC and CHD, YHC had higher [Formula: see text] peak, maximal cardiac index (CI max), cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (ΔO2 Hb, ΔtHb: exercise and recovery) and cognitive function (for all items) (P<0.05). Compared to OHC, CHD patients had lower [Formula: see text] peak, CI max, cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (during recovery) and short term-working memory, processing speed, cognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory (P<0.05). [Formula: see text] peak and CI max were related to exercise cerebral oxygenation-perfusion and cognitive function (P<0.005). Cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (exercise) was related to cognitive function (P<0.005). Stable CHD patients have a worse cognitive function, a similar cerebral oxygenation/perfusion during exercise but reduced one during recovery vs. their aged-matched healthy counterparts. In the all sample, cognitive functions correlated with [Formula: see text] peak, CI max and cerebral oxygenation-perfusion.
Li, Xin-Gang; Ma, Ning; Wang, Bo; Li, Xiao-Qing; Mei, Sheng-Hui; Zhao, Kun; Wang, Yong-Jun; Li, Wei; Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Sun, Shu-Sen; Miao, Zhong-Rong
The primary mechanism of clopidogrel resistance is still unclear. We aimed to investigate whether the methylation status of the P2Y12 promoter has effects on platelet function and clinical ischemic events. Patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease were enrolled into our study. Venous blood samples were drawn for thrombelastograpy (TEG) and active metabolite assay. Patients were divided into a case- or control-group based on the occurrence of ischemic events during a one year follow-up. Two TEG parameters between the case and control groups were statistically significant [ADP inhibition rate (ADP%): P = 0.018; ADP-induced platelet-fibrin clot strength (MAADP): P = 0.030]. The concentrations of clopidogrel active metabolite had no significant difference (P = 0.281). Sixteen CpG dinucleotides on P2Y12 promoter were tested. Three CpG sites (CpG11 and CpG12 + 13) showed lower methylation status, which correlated with a strong association with increased risk of clinical events. Changes of MAADP and ADP% were also associated with methylation levels of CpG 11 and CpG 12 + 13. Hypomethylation of the P2Y12 promoter is associated with a higher platelet reactivity and increased risk of ischemic events in our patients. Methylation analysis of peripheral blood samples might be a novel molecular marker to help early identification of patients at high risk for clinical ischemic events. PMID:27686864
Takeuchi, Nobuyuki; Takezako, Nobuhiro; Shimonishi, Yuko; Usuda, Shigeru
[Purpose] This study evaluated effects of a high-intensity linear polarized near-infrared ray irradiation for mitigation of muscle hypertonia. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 patients with cerebrovascular disease. [Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The intervention group received irradiation of the triceps surae. Passive range of motion and passive resistive joint torque of ankle dorsiflexion were measured before and after the intervention in knee extended and flexed positions. [Results] In the knee extended position, the mean changes in passive range of motion were 2.70° and −0.50° in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and the mean changes in passive resistive joint torque were −1.42 and −0.26 N·m in the intervention and control groups, respectively. In the knee flexed position, the mean changes in passive range of motion were 3.70° and 0.70° in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and the mean changes in passive resistive joint torque were −2.38 and −0.31 N·m in the intervention and control groups, respectively. In both knee positions, the mean changes in the two indices were greater in the intervention group than in the control group. [Conclusion] High-intensity linear polarized near-infrared ray irradiation increases passive range of motion and decreases passive resistive joint torque. PMID:26834360
Pagliano, F M; Galbiati, G C
The efficacy and safety of two different regimens of dihydroergocristine, in the treatment of patients with chronic cerebro-vascular disease, were compared in this double-blind study. Forty out-patients, 11 males and 29 females, aged 55-80 years were randomly assigned to treatment with 6 or 20 mg dihydroergocristine, daily, for 3 months. The Sandoz Clinical Assessment for Geriatrics (SCAG) scale was used to assess the efficacy of treatment. Both doses induced a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.01) in total SCAG scores after both 45 and 90 days of treatment. The higher dose produced a significantly greater improvement in total SCAG scores than did the lower dose after both 45 and 90 days. There were no statistically or clinically significant changes in any of the laboratory parameters after either treatment; neither were there any statistically significant changes in blood-pressure or pulse-rate except in the case of standing systolic pressure which decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in the 20 mg group. The only adverse event reported was a case of mild gastric pain at the end of treatment with 20 mg dihydroergocristine.
Bazilevich, S N; Odinak, M M; Dyskin, D E; Krasakov, I V; Fokin, V A; P'ianov, I V; Dekan, V S; Okol'zin, A V; Pozdniakov, A V; Stanzhevskiĭ, A A
The results of the dynamic study of patients with epileptic seizures in chronic and acute cerebral vascular pathology are presented. Various methods of structural and functional neurovisualization--magnetic resonance tomography using perfusion- and diffusion-weighted imaging, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography were used. Based on the results obtained in the study, the authors discuss etiopathogenetic variants of the development of these seizures and new possible approaches to the complex treatment besides the administration of antiepileptic medications.
Gungor, Levent; Terzi, Murat; Onar, Musa Kazim
Aphasia causes significant disability and handicap among stroke survivors. Language therapy is recommended for aphasic patients, but not always available. Piracetam, an old drug with novel properties, has been shown to have mild beneficial effects on post-stroke aphasia. In the current study, we investigated the effects of 6 months treatment with…
Gungor, Levent; Terzi, Murat; Onar, Musa Kazim
Aphasia causes significant disability and handicap among stroke survivors. Language therapy is recommended for aphasic patients, but not always available. Piracetam, an old drug with novel properties, has been shown to have mild beneficial effects on post-stroke aphasia. In the current study, we investigated the effects of 6 months treatment with…
Güngör, Levent; Terzi, Murat; Onar, Musa Kazim
Aphasia causes significant disability and handicap among stroke survivors. Language therapy is recommended for aphasic patients, but not always available. Piracetam, an old drug with novel properties, has been shown to have mild beneficial effects on post-stroke aphasia. In the current study, we investigated the effects of 6 months treatment with piracetam on aphasia following stroke. Thirty patients with first-ever ischemic strokes and related aphasia were enrolled in the study. The scores for the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Barthel Index (BI), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and Gülhane Aphasia Test were recorded. The patients were scheduled randomly to receive either 4.8 g piracetam daily or placebo treatment for 6 months. At the end of 24 weeks, clinical assessments and aphasia tests were repeated. The level of improvement in the clinical parameters and aphasia scores was compared between the two groups. All patients had large lesions and severe aphasia. No significant difference was observed between the piracetam and placebo groups regarding the improvements in the NIHSS, BI and mRS scores at the end of the treatment. The improvements observed in spontaneous speech, reading fluency, auditory comprehension, reading comprehension, repetition, and naming were not significantly different in the piracetam and placebo groups, the difference reached significance only for auditory comprehension in favor of piracetam at the end of the treatment. Piracetam is well-tolerated in patients with post-stroke aphasia. Piracetam taken orally in a daily dose of 4.8 g for 6 months has no clear beneficial effect on post-stroke language disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Derle, Eda; Öcal, Ruhsen; Kibaroğlu, Seda; Çelikkol, Ceyda; Bayraktar, Nilüfer; Verdi, Hasibe; Ataç, Belgin F; Can, Ufuk
Aspirin resistance occurs in 5-45% of high-risk patients, with various mechanisms proposed for its development. This study aimed to determine the relationships among aspirin resistance, aspirin dosage, type of aspirin and glycoprotein IIIa P1A1/A2 polymorphism in patients with vascular risk factors. Two hundred and eight (75 symptomatic, 133 asymptomatic) patients with vascular risk factors who were using aspirin for primary or secondary prevention were prospectively included. The symptomatic group was further classified into two groups according to aspirin use at the time of stroke. Aspirin resistance was measured by the PFA-100 system (collagen/epinephrine cartridge) and glycoprotein IIIa P1A1/A2 polymorphism was determined by PCR. The overall prevalence of aspirin resistance was 32.2%. The mean age of patients with aspirin resistance was significantly higher than that in those who did not have resistance (P = 0.009). The prevalence of aspirin resistance was similar for the symptomatic and asymptomatic under aspirin therapy groups. The resistance rate was found to be highest with 100 mg enteric-coated preparation use (39.3%). Increasing the aspirin dosage and/or shifting to uncoated preparations caused a change in aspirin sensitivity of 36-60%. Repeated measurements showed development of aspirin resistance in 14% of patients who were sensitive to aspirin in previous measurements. Glycoprotein IIIaP1A1/A2 polymorphism, aspirin resistance and development of atherothrombotic stroke were not significantly related. The effect of aspirin can change by time, dosage and type of preparation used. There are no relationships among glycoprotein IIIa P1A1/A2 polymorphism, aspirin resistance and development of atherothrombotic stroke.
De Reuck, Jacques; Auger, Florent; Durieux, Nicolas; Deramecourt, Vincent; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Pasquier, Florence; Leys, Didier; Bordet, Regis
Introduction: Mixed dementia (MixD) refers to a combination of definite Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular encephalopathy. The existence of a "pure" type of vascular dementia (VaD) is controversial. There is a need to find magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics allowing the distinction between VaD and MixD. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI compares the frequency or severity and the topography of the small cerebrovascular lesions in brains of patients with VaD and with MixD. Material and methods: Based on neuropathological criteria, 14 brains were classified as VaD, 24 as MixD and 11 as controls. Three coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere and a horizontal section of a cerebellar hemisphere underwent T2 and T2* 7.0-tesla MRI examination. The mean values and topographic distribution of white matter changes (WMCs), lacunar infarcts (LIs), cortical microbleeds (CoMBs) and cortical microinfarcts (CoMIs) were determined and compared between the different groups. Results: Compared to the controls, both VaD and MixD brains had significantly more severe WMCs and increased numbers of CoMBs and CoMIs. Lacunar infarcts predominated only in the VaD cases. On mutual comparison of VaD and MixD brains, CoMBs and CoMIs predominated in the frontal lobe and the cerebellum of VaD, while were mainly present in the occipital lobe of MixD. White matter changes predominated in the temporal lobe of MixD cases. Lacunar infarcts were significantly increased in the corona radiata and putamen of VaD patients. Conclusions: The present post-mortem MRI study shows clear differences in the distribution and the types of cerebrovascular lesions on high-field MRI, confirming that VaD and MixD are different diseases. .
Tomassoni, Daniele; Amenta, Francesco; Amantini, Consuelo; Farfariello, Valerio; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Nwankwo, Innocent E.; Marini, Carlotta; Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow
Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant defense mechanisms, potentially leading to tissue damage. Oxidative stress has a key role in the development of cerebrovascular and/or neurodegenerative diseases. This phenomenon is mainly mediated by an enhanced superoxide production by the vascular endothelium with its consequent dysfunction. Thioctic, also known as alpha-lipoic acid (1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid), is a naturally occurring antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals in the fatty and watery regions of cells. Both the reduced and oxidized forms of the compound possess antioxidant ability. Thioctic acid has two optical isomers designated as (+)- and (−)-thioctic acid. Naturally occurring thioctic acid is the (+)-thioctic acid form, but the synthetic compound largely used in the market for stability reasons is a mixture of (+)- and (−)-thioctic acid. The present study was designed to compare the antioxidant activity of the two enantiomers versus the racemic form of thioctic acid on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in a rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and free oxygen radical species (ROS) production was assessed by flow cytometry. Antioxidant activity of the two enantiomers and the racemic form of thioctic acid was also evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) used as an in vivo model of increased oxidative stress. A 3-h exposure of PC12 cells to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) significantly decreased cell viability and increased levels of intracellular ROS production. Pre-treatment with racemic thioctic acid or (+)-enantiomer significantly inhibited H2O2-induced decrease in cell viability from the concentration of 50 μmol/L and 20 μmol/L, respectively. Racemic thioctic acid and (+)-salt decreased levels of intracellular ROS, which were unaffected by (−)-thioctic acid. In the brain of SHR
Effects of music therapy on autonomic nervous system activity, incidence of heart failure events, and plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels in elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease and dementia.
Okada, Kaoru; Kurita, Akira; Takase, Bonpei; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kodani, Eitaro; Kusama, Yoshiki; Atarashi, Hirotsugu; Mizuno, Kyoichi
Music therapy (MT) has been used in geriatric nursing hospitals, but there has been no extensive research into whether it actually has beneficial effects on elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and dementia. We investigated the effects of MT on the autonomic nervous system and plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels in elderly patients with CVD and dementia, since these are related to aging and chronic geriatric disease. We also investigated the effects of MT on congestive heart failure (CHF) events.Eighty-seven patients with pre-existing CVD were enrolled in the study. We assigned patients into an MT group (n = 55) and non-MT group (n = 32). The MT group received MT at least once per week for 45 minutes over 10 times. Cardiac autonomic activity was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV). We measured plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels in both the MT group and non-MT group. We compared the incidence of CHF events between these two groups. In the MT group, rMSSD, pNN50, and HF were significantly increased by MT, whereas LF/HF was slightly decreased. In the non-MT group, there were no significant changes in any HRV parameters. Among cytokines, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the MT group was significantly lower than those in the non-MT group. Plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were significantly lower in the MT group than in the non-MT group. CHF events were less frequent in the MT group than in the non-MT group (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that MT enhanced parasympathetic activities and decreased CHF by reducing plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels.
Melaragno Filho, R
A critical review on the importance of hemorheology for establishing clinical management of acute cerebrovascular insufficiency is presented. With this purpose a revision is made on cerebral blood flow, acute cerebrovascular insufficiency, and clinical hemorheology. Data support an evaluation on main drugs presently used in the management of stroke, and on general principles adopted for medical treatment and prevention of stroke.
Shan, J; Li, H Y; Liu, G F; Yang, X; Dong, W; Jian, W Y; Deng, F R; Guo, X B
To study the association of air pollution with health service demand of the elderly and middle-age patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and to provide a scientific basis for development of environmental protection policy and health service policy of the Chinese government. This study included survey data on self-evaluated health, outpatient service demand and inpatient service demand of the patients with hypertension, heart disease and stroke in 62 cities of 17 provinces from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) in 2011 and 2013, and combined it with the data on the annual concentrations of inhalable particulate matter (PM(10)), sulfur dioxide(SO(2)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) of those provinces and cities. Conditional Logistic regression was carried out to assess the possible effects of air pollutants on self-evaluated health and health service utilization. The results showed that turning points existed in the effects of concentrations of NO(2) and SO(2) on the health service demand of the patients with hypertension, heart disease and stroke. The inpatient service demand of the hypertension patients increased with NO(2) concentration when it was lower than 35.1 μg/m(3) and decreased with NO(2) concentration for higher value. Self-evaluated health of the patients with heart disease and stroke decreased with SO(2) concentration when it was lower than 63.8 μg/m(3) and increased with SO(2) concentration for higher value. In addition, no evidence was found for the association between PM(10) and health service demand. Air pollution may have effects on health service demand of the patients with hypertension,cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and different air pollutants at high or low concentration may have different health effects.
Origasa, Hideki; Goto, Shinya; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Ikeda, Yasuo
A previous history of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and the presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) are known risk factors for the onset of arterial thromboembolic events such as MI and ischemic stroke. To clarify the rate of incidence of such events for these high-risk patients in Japan, a nation-wide cohort study was conducted that was named the 'Japan Thrombosis Registry of Atrial Fibrillation, Coronary and Cerebrovascular Events' (ie, J-TRACE) [UMIN Registered ID C000000189]. In the J-TRACE registry, a total of 8,093 Japanese patients with either a history of stroke and/or MI or patients with non-valvular AF were registered. This registry was developed by specialists in cardiology and neurology, physicians working at general hospitals, as well as general practice physicians, from whole regions of Japan, possibly reflecting the real-world medical practice. Recruited patients will be followed up for 2-3 years. Medical history, accompanying risk factors, demographic characteristics, and information regarding the use of medications were collected for these patients at baseline. Cardiovascular ischemic events and serious adverse experiences, including cerebral bleedings, which occur during the follow-up period will be recorded over a maximum of 3 years. The J-TRACE offers an opportunity to provide fundamental information regarding the incidence of cardiovascular ischemic events by a stratum of the risk factor profile and current medical treatment for Japanese patients at high risk for thromboembolic diseases.
Pulling, T. Michael; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Marks, Michael P.; Steinberg, Gary K.; Zaharchuk, Greg
Background and Purpose Severe ischemic changes are a rare but devastating complication following direct superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA MCA) bypass in Moyamoya patients. This study was undertaken to determine whether pre-operative MR imaging and/or cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) assessment using reference standard stable xenon enhanced computed tomography (xeCT) could predict such complications. Materials and Methods Among all adult patients receiving direct bypass at our institution between 2005 and 2010 who received a clinically interpretable xeCT examination, we identified index cases (patients with >15 ml post-operative infarcts) and control cases (patients without post-operative infarcts and without transient or permanent ischemic symptoms). Differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann Whitney test. Univariate and multivariate generalized linear model regression were employed to test predictors of post-operative infarct. Results Six index cases were identified and compared with 25 controls. Infarct size in the index cases was 95±55 ml. Four of six index cases (67%), but no control patients, had pre-operative acute infarcts. Baseline CBF was similar, but CVR was significantly lower in the index cases compared with control cases. For example, in the anterior circulation, median CVR was 0.4% (range: −38.0% to 16.6%) in index vs. 26.3% (range: −8.2% to 60.5%) in control patients (p=0.003). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of a small pre-operative infarct (regardless of location) and impaired CVR were independent, significant predictors of severe post-operative ischemic injury. Conclusion Acute infarcts and impaired CVR on pre operative imaging are independent risk factors for severe ischemic complications following STA MCA bypass in Moyamoya disease. PMID:26564435
Hromadnikova, Ilona; Kotlabova, Katerina; Hympanova, Lucie; Krofta, Ladislav
Aims To demonstrate that pregnancy-related complications are associated with alterations in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular microRNA expression. Gene expression of 32 microRNAs (miR-1-3p, miR-16-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-20b-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-23a-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-26a-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-33a-5p, miR-92a-3p, miR-100-5p, miR-103a-3p, miR-122-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-126-3p, miR-130b-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-145-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-155-5p, miR-181a-5p, miR-195-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-208a-3p, miR-210-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-342-3p, miR-499a-5p, and miR-574-3p) was assessed in placental tissues, compared between groups (35 gestational hypertension, 80 preeclampsia, 35 intrauterine growth restriction and 20 normal pregnancies) and correlated with the severity of the disease with respect to clinical signs, delivery date, and Doppler ultrasound parameters. Initially, selection and validation of endogenous controls for microRNA expression studies in placental tissues affected by pregnancy-related complications have been carried out. Results The expression profile of microRNAs was different between pregnancy-related complications and controls. The up-regulation of miR-499a-5p was a common phenomenon shared between gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. Preeclamptic pregnancies delivering after 34 weeks of gestation and IUGR with abnormal values of flow rate in the umbilical artery demonstrated up-regulation of miR-1-3b. Preeclampsia and IUGR requiring termination of gestation before 34 weeks of gestation were associated with down-regulation of miR-26a-5p, miR-103a-3p and miR-145-5p. On the other hand, some of microRNAs (miR-16-5p, miR-100-5p, miR-122-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-126-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-195-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-221-3p, miR-342-3p, and miR-574-3p) were only down-regulated or showed a trend to down-regulation just in intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies requiring the delivery before 34 weeks of gestation. Conclusion
Agyare, Edward K.; Curran, Geoffry L.; Ramakrishnan, Muthu; Yu, Caroline C.; Poduslo, Joseph F.; Kandimalla, Karunya K.
Purpose To design a smart nano-vehicle (SNV) capable of permeating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to target cerebrovascular amyloid formed in both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Methods SNV consists of a chitosan polymeric core prepared through ionic gelation with tripolyphosphate. A polyamine modified F(ab') portion of IgG4.1, an anti-amyloid antibody, was coated as a biosensor on the SNV surface. A similar polymeric core coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) served as a control nano-vehicle (CNV). The BBB uptake of 125I-SNVs and 125I-CNVs was evaluated in mice. The uptake and transcytosis of SNVs and CNVs across bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells (BBMECs) was evaluated using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Results Plasma clearance of 125I-SNVs was nine times higher than that of the 125I-CNVs. However, the uptake of 125I-SNVs in various brain regions was about 8 to 11 times higher than that of 125I-CNVs. The uptake of FITC-BSA loaded SNVs in BBMECs was twice the uptake of FITC-BSA loaded CNVs. Confocal micrographs demonstrated the uptake and transcytosis of Alexa Fluor 647 labeled SNVs, but not CNVs, across the BBMEC monolayer. Conclusions SNVs are capable of carrying a payload of model protein across the BBB to target cerebral amyloid. PMID:18712585
Scheen, A J; Lancellotti, P
Patients with predliebetes (dysglycaemia) or diabetes present accelerated atherosclerosis that predisposes them to multiple cardiovascular complications. We summarize here the joint recommendations recently published by the European Society of Cardiology and the European Society for the Study of Diabetes. The management of main risk factors, aiming to optimize primary or secondary prevention, has been developed in a first article. This second article Is focusing on the management of cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral arteriopathic complications. The importance of an individualized patient-centered strategy is emphasIzed, including the management of microanglopathies and, ideally within a multidisciplinary approach.
Lapi, Francesco; Piccinni, Carlo; Simonetti, Monica; Levi, Miriam; Lora Aprile, Pierangelo; Cricelli, Iacopo; Cricelli, Claudio; Fanelli, Andrea
Recent studies show that the risk of cardiovascular adverse events for certain traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is similar to that of rofecoxib. While these results are focused on ischemic cardiomyopathy, there is little evidence concerning the risk of ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack and hemorrhagic stroke. Additionally, there is no information on nimesulide and ketoprofen, the most frequently prescribed NSAIDs in Italy, along with diclofenac. This study aims to determine whether the use of NSAIDs is associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular events in Italy. We performed a case-control analysis nested in a cohort of patients with osteoarthritis between 2002 and 2011 who were newly treated with NSAIDs. The patients were followed until December 31, 2012. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of cerebrovascular events (index date) associated with current (until 30 days before the index date), recent (31-365 days) and past (>365 days) use of NSAIDs. Within a cohort of 29,722 patients, 1566 cases (1546 matched with controls) were identified (incidence rate = 11.0/1000 person-years). The overall rate of cerebrovascular event was not elevated with current NSAIDs overall when compared with past use. Among individual NSAIDs, diclofenac and ketoprofen were the molecules significantly associated with an increased rate of cerebrovascular events (OR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.04-2.24; OR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.02-2.58, respectively). The most frequent event was hemorrhagic stroke following the use of ketoprofen (OR = 2.09; 95% CI 1.05-4.15). Diclofenac and ketoprofen seemed to increase the risk of cerebrovascular events. These findings might influence the choice of NSAIDs according to patient characteristics.
Self and environmental exposures to drinking, smoking, gambling or video game addiction are associated with adult hypertension, heart and cerebrovascular diseases, allergy, self-rated health and happiness: Japanese General Social Survey, 2010.
It was aimed to study the relationships between addiction behaviors and human health and well-being in East Asians in a national and population-based setting. Data were retrieved from Japanese General Social Survey, 2010. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, addiction behaviors and self-reported health conditions and well-being in Japanese adults was obtained by household interview. Analysis included chi-square test, logistic and multi-nominal regression modeling. Of 5003 Japanese adults (aged 20-89) included in the study cohort, 13.8%, 14.7%, 4.8% and 5.5% were addicted to drinking, smoking, gambling and video games, respectively while 10.6%, 13.8%, 4.3% and 11.4% were exposed to co-residing family member's drinking, smoking, gambling and video game addiction behaviors, respectively. People who reported addiction to drinking had poor self-rated health, hypertension and food allergy. People who reported addiction to smoking had fair to poor self-rated health, unhappiness, cerebrovascular disease and itchy skin. People who reported addiction to gambling had fair to poor self-rated health and unhappiness. People who reported addiction to video games had poor self-rated health and heart disease. People who were exposed to addiction to drinking, smoking, gambling and video games from co-residing family member(s) also reported hay fever, poor self-rated health and unhappiness. Self and environmental exposures to drinking, smoking, gambling or video game addiction are associated with adult hypertension, heart and cerebrovascular diseases, allergy, self-rated health and happiness. Future public health programs continuing to minimize self and environmental exposures to addiction behaviors tackling health concerns would still be encouraged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Frisoni, G; Scheltens, P; Galluzzi, S; Nobili, F; Fox, N; Robert, P; Soininen, H; Wahlund, L; Waldemar, G; Salmon, E
Neuroimaging is a mainstay in the differential diagnosis of patients with cognitive impairment. The often equivocal clinical pictures, the prognostic uncertainty of the earliest stages of mild cognitive impairment, and the subtle brain changes mean that neuroimaging techniques are of potentially great incremental diagnostic value. A number of methods, ranging from very simple subjective visual ratings to highly sophisticated computerised tools, have been developed, which allow rating of structural and functional brain changes. The choice of the method is not obvious, and current guidelines provide no indications on which tools should be preferred. In this paper, we give indications for tools with demonstrated accuracy for detecting regional atrophy, cerebrovascular disease, and regional brain function, and discuss these according to increasing technological complexity, ranging from those with high feasibility that can be used at the patient's bedside to highly technological ones that require trained personnel and specific hardware and software. PMID:14570828
Symptom profiles of subsyndromal depression in disease clusters of diabetes, excess weight, and progressive cerebrovascular conditions: a promising new type of finding from a reliable innovation to estimate exhaustively specified multiple indicators–multiple causes (MIMIC) models
Francoeur, Richard B
Addressing subsyndromal depression in cerebrovascular conditions, diabetes, and obesity reduces morbidity and risk of major depression. However, depression may be masked because self-reported symptoms may not reveal dysphoric (sad) mood. In this study, the first wave (2,812 elders) from the New Haven Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (EPESE) was used. These population-weighted data combined a stratified, systematic, clustered random sample from independent residences and a census of senior housing. Physical conditions included progressive cerebrovascular disease (CVD; hypertension, silent CVD, stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment [VCI]) and co-occurring excess weight and/or diabetes. These conditions and interactions (clusters) simultaneously predicted 20 depression items and a latent trait of depression in participants with subsyndromal (including subthreshold) depression (11≤ Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score ≤27). The option for maximum likelihood estimation with standard errors that are robust to non-normality and non-independence in complex random samples (MLR) in Mplus and an innovation created by the author were used for estimating unbiased effects from latent trait models with exhaustive specification. Symptom profiles reveal masked depression in 1) older males, related to the metabolic syndrome (hypertension–overweight–diabetes; silent CVD–overweight; and silent CVD–diabetes) and 2) older females or the full sample, related to several diabetes and/or overweight clusters that involve stroke or VCI. Several other disease clusters are equivocal regarding masked depression; a couple do emphasize dysphoric mood. Replicating findings could identify subgroups for cost-effective screening of subsyndromal depression. PMID:28003768
Zenone, Thierry; Puget, Marie
The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of cerebrovascular accidents at time of diagnosis in patients with giant cell arteritis. Retrospective data were collected from 98 patients at a single hospital with giant cell arteritis (according to the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria) diagnosed between October 1999 and January 2012. Cerebrovascular accident was found at initial presentation in 6 patients (6.1 %, 95 % CIs 2.3-12.9). Most of them had other symptoms of giant cell arteritis when the disease began. Signs reflecting the involvement of vertebro-basilar territory were present in 3 cases. No other case of cerebrovascular accident was described during the follow-up of patient; particularly no case of cerebrovascular accident occurred once corticosteroid therapy for the treatment of giant cell arteritis had been initiated. No differences in the epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory features at the time of diagnosis between patients who had cerebrovascular accidents and the rest of the giant cell arteritis patients were observed. Prognosis was good in our survey. However, there was no case of bilateral vertebral artery occlusion, a condition associated with poor prognosis. The present study confirms that cerebrovascular accidents may be the initial manifestation of giant cell arteritis, an argument in favor of a direct effect of the vasculitis in the development of cerebrovascular accidents rather than a complication of the corticosteroid therapy. The diagnosis of giant cell arteritis should always be considered in an elderly patient with stroke and an unexplained elevation of inflammatory biomarkers.
Choi, Hongyoon; Yoo, Min Young; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo
Basal/acetazolamide stress (99m)Tc-HMPAO single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been widely used for evaluation of hemodynamics; however, qualitative and subjective visual assessment of cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) has been performed in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to generate parametric CVR images and evaluate its feasibility of quantification. Basal/acetazolamide stress (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT data from 17 patients who underwent bypass surgery or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty were used. Spatial normalization was performed and parametric CVR images were generated using relative CVR (rCVR) of each voxel proportional to CVR of the whole brain. Binary parametric maps to show area of relatively reduced CVR were generated also using threshold of rCVR < 90 %. We calculated rCVR of internal carotid artery (ICA) using the parametric CVR images and probabilistic maps for ICA territory. Pre- and postprocedural parametric CVR images were obtained and quantitative rCVRs were compared. The rCVRs were evaluated according to visual grades for regional decreased CVR. Postprocedural rCVR obtained from parametric CVR images increased significantly from preprocedural rCVR. The rCVR was significantly correlated with visual grades of reduced CVR for each side of ICA territories. We generated parametric CVR images for basal/acetazolamide stress (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT. As a quantitative measurement, rCVR obtained from the parametric image was feasibly assessed hemodynamic abnormalities with preserved anatomical information.
Reider, Nadia; Cohen, Jeffrey; Stuve, Olaf; Trojano, Maria; Cutter, Gary; Reingold, Stephen; Sorensen, Per Soelberg
Background: Findings regarding the prevalence of vascular comorbidities in multiple sclerosis (MS) are conflicting. Objective: The objective of this review is to estimate the incidence and prevalence of vascular comorbidities and predisposing comorbidities in persons with MS and to assess the quality of the included studies. Methods: The PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS and Web of Knowledge databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles were searched. One reviewer abstracted data using a standardized data collection form, while the second reviewer verified the abstraction. Included studies were assessed qualitatively. Quantitatively, we assessed studies using the I2 statistic, and conducted meta-analyses for population-based studies only. Results: The prevalence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia exceeded 10% in the MS population and increased with age. While the prevalence of ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, and stroke were less than 5% overall, the prevalence of these conditions exceeded expectations when compared to the general population. Cardiac valvular disease, however, affected the MS population less often than expected. Problems with study quality were common. Conclusion: Despite the relatively high prevalence of some vascular comorbidities in the MS population, important gaps exist in our understanding of their epidemiology. Most of our knowledge is based on studies conducted in a small number of regions. PMID:25533300
Yankey, Barbara A; Rothenberg, Richard; Strasser, Sheryl; Ramsey-White, Kim; Okosun, Ike S
Background Reports associate marijuana use with cardiovascular emergencies. Studies relating marijuana use to cardiovascular mortality are scarce. Recent advance towards marijuana use legalization emphasizes the importance of understanding relationships between marijuana use and cardiovascular deaths; the primary ranked mortality. Recreational marijuana is primarily smoked; we hypothesize that like cigarette smoking, marijuana use will be associated with increased cardiovascular mortalities. Design The design of this study was based on a mortality follow-up. Method We linked participants aged 20 years and above, who responded to questions on marijuana use during the 2005 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to data from the 2011 public-use linked mortality file of the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Only participants eligible for mortality follow-up were included. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to estimate hazard ratios for hypertension, heart disease, and cerebrovascular mortality due to marijuana use. We controlled for cigarette smoking and other relevant variables. Results Of the 1213 eligible participants 72.5% were presumed to be alive. The total follow-up time was 19,569 person-years. Adjusted hazard ratios for death from hypertension among marijuana users compared to non-marijuana users was 3.42 (95% confidence interval: 1.20-9.79) and for each year of marijuana use was 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.07). Conclusion From our results, marijuana use may increase the risk for hypertension mortality. Increased duration of marijuana use is associated with increased risk of death from hypertension. Recreational marijuana use potentially has cardiovascular adverse effects which needs further investigation.
Iribarren, Carlos; Rahmaoui, Abdelkader; Long, Aidan A; Szefler, Stanley J; Bradley, Mary S; Carrigan, Gillis; Eisner, Mark D; Chen, Hubert; Omachi, Theodore A; Farkouh, Michael E; Rothman, Kenneth J
EXCELS, a postmarketing observational cohort study, was a commitment to the US Food and Drug Administration to assess the long-term safety of omalizumab in an observational setting, focusing predominantly on malignancies. The aim of this study was to examine a potential association between omalizumab and cardiovascular (CV)/cerebrovascular (CBV) events in EXCELS. Patients (≥12 years of age) with moderate to severe allergic asthma and who were being treated with omalizumab (n = 5007) or not (n = 2829) at baseline were followed up for ≤5 years. Analyses included overall CV/CBV events, but focused on the subset of arterial thromboembolic events (ATEs), comprising CV death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, and unstable angina. A prespecified analysis of the end point of ATE was conducted to control for available potential confounders. A blinded independent expert panel adjudicated all events. At baseline, the 2 cohorts had similar demographic characteristics, but severe asthma was more common in the omalizumab versus the non-omalizumab group (50% vs 23%). Omalizumab-treated patients had a higher rate of CV/CBV serious adverse events (13.4 per 1,000 person years [PYs]) than did non-omalizumab-treated patients (8.1 per 1,000 PYs). The ATE rates per 1,000 PYs were 6.66 (101 patients/15,160 PYs) in the omalizumab cohort and 4.64 (46 patients/9,904 PYs) in the non-omalizumab cohort. After control for available confounding factors, the hazard ratio was 1.32 (95% CI, 0.91-1.91). This observational study demonstrated a higher incidence rate of CV/CBV events in the omalizumab versus the non-omalizumab cohort. Differences in asthma severity between cohorts likely contributed to this imbalance, but some increase in risk cannot be excluded. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gavett, Brandon E; John, Samantha E; Gurnani, Ashita S; Bussell, Cara A; Saurman, Jessica L
Dementia severity can be modeled as the construct δ, representing the "cognitive correlates of functional status." We recently validated a model for estimating δ in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set; however, the association of δ with neuropathology remains untested. We used data from 727 decedents evaluated at Alzheimer's Disease (AD) Centers nationwide. Participants spoke English, had no genetic abnormalities, and were pathologically diagnosed with AD as a primary or contributing etiology. Clinical data from participants' last visit prior to death were used to estimate dementia severity (δ). A structural equation model using age, education, race, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype (number of ɛ2 and ɛ4 alleles) as predictors and latent AD pathology and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) pathology as mediators fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.031; CFI = 0.957). AD pathology mediated the effects of age and APOE genotype on dementia severity. An older age at death and more ɛ2 alleles were associated with less AD pathology and, in turn, with less severe dementia. In contrast, more ɛ4 alleles were associated with more pathology and more severe dementia. Although age and race contributed to differences in CVD pathology, CVD pathology was not related to dementia severity in this sample of decedents with pathologically-confirmed AD. Using δ as an estimate of dementia severity fits well within a structural model in which AD pathology directly affects dementia severity and mediates the relationship between age and APOE genotype on dementia severity.
Lin, Ro-Ting; Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Christiani, David C; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cheng, Yawen; Verguet, Stéphane; Jong, Simcha
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) related to overwork are common in Asia, as is death from overwork, known as karoshi. Japan was the first country in the world to introduce criteria for recognizing overwork-related CVDs in 1961. Taiwan followed Japan in putting in place new policies and then updating these in 2010. We aimed to investigate the effect of introducing the new criteria for recognizing overwork-related CVDs in both countries. We defined the baseline period as the 5 years before launch of the new criteria, then collected data to 5 years after the new criteria. We applied a Poisson regression model to analyze the longitudinal change in rates of overwork-related CVDs before and after, adjusting for indicators of working conditions. Implementation of the new criteria was associated with a 2.58-fold increase in the rate of overwork-related CVDs (p-value < 0.05). However, the examined policy framework in Taiwan still appears to miss a substantial number of cases compared to that are captured by a similar policy framework used to capture overwork-related CVD rates in Japan by a factor of 0.42 (p-value < 0.05). Accordingly, we make a case for enhancements of Taiwan's system for reporting and recognizing overwork-related diseases and deaths.
TITLE: Cerebrovascular injury in blast loading PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kenneth L. Monson, PhD...SUBTITLE Cerebrovascular injury in blast loading 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0295 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...and pH control. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Blast brain injury; cerebrovascular injury and dysfunction; shock tube 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17
Driver, Ian D; Andoh, Jamila; Blockley, Nicholas P; Francis, Susan T; Gowland, Penny A; Paus, Tomáš
Current functional MRI (fMRI) approaches assess underlying neuronal activity through monitoring the related local variations in cerebral blood oxygenation, blood volume and blood flow. This vascular response is likely to vary across brain regions and across individuals, depending on the composition of the local vascular bed and on the vascular capacity to dilate. The most widely used technique uses the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal, which arises from a complex combination of all of these factors. The model of handedness provides a case where one brain region (dominant motor cortex) is known to have a stronger BOLD response over another (non-dominant motor cortex) during hand motor task performance. We predict that this is accompanied by a higher vascular reactivity in the dominant motor cortex, when compared with the non-dominant motor cortex. Precise measurement of end-tidal CO2 and a novel sinusoidal CO2 respiratory challenge were combined with the high sensitivity and finer spatial resolution available for fMRI at 7 T to measure BOLD cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in eight healthy male participants. BOLD CVR was compared between the left (dominant) and right (non-dominant) primary motor cortices of right-handed adults. Hemispheric asymmetry in vascular reactivity was predicted and observed in the primary motor cortex (left CVR = 0.60 ± 0.15%/mm Hg; right CVR = 0.47 ± 0.08%/mm Hg; left CVR > right CVR, P = 0.04), the first reported evidence of such a vascular difference. These findings demonstrate a cerebral vascular asymmetry between the left and right primary motor cortex. The origin of this asymmetry largely arises from the contribution of large draining veins. This work has implications for future motor laterality studies that use BOLD, and it is also suggestive of a vascular plasticity in the human primary motor cortex.
Tocci, Giuliano; Cicero, Arrigo F; Salvetti, Massimo; Musumeci, Maria Beatrice; Ferrucci, Andrea; Borghi, Claudio; Volpe, Massimo
The aim of this survey was to evaluate attitudes and preferences for the clinical management of hypertension and hypertension-related cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) in Italy. A predefined 16-item survey questionnaire was anonymously administered to a large community sample of general practitioners (GPs), trained by specialized physicians (SPs), who have been included in an educational program between January and November 2015. A total of 591 physicians, among whom 48 (8%) training SPs and 543 (92%) trained GPs, provided 12,258 valid answers to the survey questionnaire. Left ventricular hypertrophy was considered the most frequent marker of hypertension-related organ damage, whereas atrial fibrillation and carotid atherosclerosis were considered relatively not frequent (10-20%). The most appropriate blood pressure (BP) targets to be achieved in hypertensive patients with CVD were <140/90 mmHg for SPs and <135/85 mmHg for GPs. To achieve these goals, ACE inhibitors were considered the most effective strategies by GPs, whereas SPs expressed a preference for ARBs, both in monotherapies and in combination therapies with beta-blockers. This survey demonstrates that Italian physicians considered left ventricular hypertrophy frequently associated to CVD and that drugs inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system the most appropriate therapy to manage hypertension and hypertension-related CVD.
Kawashima, M; Noguchi, T; Takase, Y; Ootsuka, T; Kido, N; Matsushima, T
An ivy sign is considered to represent diffuse leptomeningeal collaterals found on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images of patients with Moyamoya disease. We evaluated the correlation between unilateral ivy proliferation in a hemisphere and cerebrovascular hemodynamic status to learn the clinical significance of the ivy sign. A total of 35 patients with Moyamoya disease were included. Correlation between ivy dominance on FLAIR images and hemodynamic status with use of iodine 123 N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ((123)I-IMP) single-photon emission CT (SPECT) was evaluated. Distributional differences of ivy signs between both hemispheres were observed in 22 (64.7%) of 34 patients with a positive ivy sign, all of whom showed decreased vascular reserve/reactivity in the ivy-dominant hemisphere (IDH). The proportion of the stage II (misery perfusion) area to IDH was higher than that in the ivy less-dominant hemisphere (ILDH) in the quantitative analysis. The mean vascular reserve was lower in IDH than ILDH. There were 15 of 22 patients who had bypass surgery on IDH because of transient ischemic attack from ischemia of IDH. Patients with symmetric ivy distributions showed a variety of hemodynamic status. MR angiography (MRA) stage of IDH (2.95 +/- 0.39) was higher compared with ILDH (2.60 +/- 0.50; P < .05). Regional arteriocapillary circulation time ratio in IDH was longer compared with ILDH (P < .05). Ivy proliferation decreased in 10 (55.6%) of 18 patients who underwent bypass surgery during the follow-up period. Unilateral hemispheric ivy proliferation correlated highly with the existence of an ipsilateral decreased vascular reserve associated with the development of leptomeningeal collaterals in patients with Moyamoya disease.
Czosnyka, Marek; Aries, Marcel J. H.; Cardim, Danilo; Kim, Dong-Joo; Haubrich, Christina; Hutchinson, Peter J.
characteristic [ROC] curve [AUROC] for wPRx was 0.73 versus 0.66 for PRx, p = 0.003). The mean difference between the patients’ CPP and their CPPopt was related to outcome for both calculation methods. There was a good relationship between the 2 CPPopts (r = 0.814, p < 0.001). CPPopt_wPRx was more stable than CPPopt_PRx (within patient standard deviation 7.05 ± 3.78 versus 8.45 ± 2.90; p < 0.001). Key limitations include that this study is a retrospective analysis and only compared wPRx with PRx in the cohort of patients with TBI. Prior prospective validation is required to better assess clinical utility of this approach. Conclusions wPRx offers several advantages to the traditional PRx: it is more stable in time, it yields a more consistent CPPopt recommendation, and, importantly, it has a stronger relationship with patient outcome. The clinical utility of wPRx should be explored in prospective studies of critically injured neurological patients. PMID:28742798
Detweiler, Mark B; Warf, Carlena
An increasing amount of literature suggests the positive effects of nature in healthcare. The extended life expectancy in the US and the consequent need for long-term care indicates a future need for restorative therapy innovations to reduce the expense associated with long-term care. Moving carefully selected stroke patients' sessions to the peaceful setting of a dementia wander garden, with its designed paths and natural stimuli, may be beneficial. Natural settings have been shown to improve attention and reduce stress--both important therapy objectives in many post-stroke rehabilitation programs. In this case study, using the dementia wander garden for restorative therapy of a non-dementia patient was a novel idea for the restorative therapy group, which does not have a horticultural therapy program. The dementia wander garden stage of the post-stroke rehabilitation helped the patient through a period of treatment resistance. The garden provided both an introduction to the patient's goal of outdoor rehabilitation and a less threatening environment than the long-term care facility hallways. In part because the patient was less self-conscious about manifesting his post-stroke neurological deficits, falling, and being viewed as handicapped when in the dementia wander garden setting, he was able to resume his treatment plan and finish his restorative therapy. In many physical and mental rehabilitation plans, finding a treatment modality that will motivate an individual to participate is a principal goal. Use of a dementia wander garden may help some patients achieve this goal in post-stroke restorative therapy.
Wang, Xingce; Liu, Enhui; Wu, Zhongke; Zhai, Feifei; Zhu, Yi-Cheng; Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Mingquan
Cerebrovascular disease is the most common cause of death worldwide, with millions of deaths annually. Interest is increasing toward understanding the geometric factors that influence cerebrovascular diseases, such as stroke. Cerebrovascular shape analyses are essential for the diagnosis and pathological identification of these conditions. The current study aimed to provide a stable and consistent methodology for quantitative Circle of Willis (CoW) analysis and to identify geometric changes in this structure. An entire pipeline was designed with emphasis on automating each step. The stochastic segmentation was improved and volumetric data were obtained. The L1 medial axis method was applied to vessel volumetric data, which yielded a discrete skeleton dataset. A B-spline curve was used to fit the skeleton, and geometric values were proposed for a one-dimensional skeleton and radius. The calculations used to derive these values were illustrated in detail. In one example(No. 47 in the open dataset) all values for different branches of CoW were calculated. The anterior communicating artery(ACo) was the shortest vessel, with a length of 2.6mm. The range of the curvature of all vessels was (0.3, 0.9) ± (0.1, 1.4). The range of the torsion was (-12.4,0.8) ± (0, 48.7). The mean radius value range was (3.1, 1.5) ± (0.1, 0.7) mm, and the mean angle value range was (2.2, 2.9) ± (0, 0.2) mm. In addition to the torsion variance values in a few vessels, the variance values of all vessel characteristics remained near 1. The distribution of the radii of symmetrical posterior cerebral artery(PCA) and angle values of the symmetrical posterior communicating arteries(PCo) demonstrated a certain correlation between the corresponding values of symmetrical vessels on the CoW. The data verified the stability of our methodology. Our method was appropriate for the analysis of large medical image datasets derived from the automated pipeline for populations. This method was applicable to
Cooper, Leroy L.; Woodard, Todd; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; van Buchem, Mark A.; Torjesen, Alyssa A.; Inker, Lesley A.; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.; Mitchell, Gary F.
Aortic stiffness is associated with cognitive decline. Here, we examined the association between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and cognitive function and investigated whether cerebrovascular remodeling and parenchymal small vessel disease damage mediate the relation. Analyses were based on 1820 (60% women) participants in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility – Reykjavik Study. Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for vascular and demographic confounders showed that higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was related to lower memory score (standardized β: −0.071±0.023; P=0.002). Cerebrovascular resistance and white matter hyperintensities were each associated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and memory (P<0.05). Together, cerebrovascular resistance and white matter hyperintensities (total indirect effect: −0.029; 95% CI: −0.043, −0.017) attenuated the direct relation between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and memory (direct effect: −0.042; 95% CI: −0.087, 0.003; P=0.07) and explained approximately 41% of the observed effect. Our results suggest that in older adults, associations between aortic stiffness and memory are mediated by pathways that include cerebral microvascular remodeling and microvascular parenchymal damage. PMID:26573713
Hughson, Richard Lee; Shoemaker, Joel Kevin; Blaber, Andrew Philip; Arbeille, Philippe; Greaves, Danielle Kathleen
Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Control on Return from ISS (CCISS) will study the effects of long-duration spaceflight on crew members' heart functions and their blood vessels that supply the brain. Learning more about the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems could lead to specific countermeasures that might better protect future space travelers. This experiment is collaborative with the Canadian Space Agency.
Ruisanchez, Éva; Leszl-Ishiguro, Miriam; Sándor, Péter; Pacher, Pál
The cerebral blood flow is tightly regulated by myogenic, endothelial, metabolic, and neural mechanisms under physiological conditions, and a large body of recent evidence indicates that inflammatory pathways have a major influence on the cerebral blood perfusion in certain central nervous system disorders, like hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and vascular dementia. All major cell types involved in cerebrovascular control pathways (i.e., smooth muscle, endothelium, neurons, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, and leukocytes) are capable of synthesizing endocannabinoids and/or express some or several of their target proteins [i.e., the cannabinoid 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) receptors and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel]. Therefore, the endocannabinoid system may importantly modulate the regulation of cerebral circulation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions in a very complex manner. Experimental data accumulated since the late 1990s indicate that the direct effect of cannabinoids on cerebral vessels is vasodilation mediated, at least in part, by CB1 receptors. Cannabinoid-induced cerebrovascular relaxation involves both a direct inhibition of smooth muscle contractility and a release of vasodilator mediator(s) from the endothelium. However, under stress conditions (e.g., in conscious restrained animals or during hypoxia and hypercapnia), cannabinoid receptor activation was shown to induce a reduction of the cerebral blood flow, probably via inhibition of the electrical and/or metabolic activity of neurons. Finally, in certain cerebrovascular pathologies (e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage, as well as traumatic and ischemic brain injury), activation of CB2 (and probably yet unidentified non-CB1/non-CB2) receptors appear to improve the blood perfusion of the brain via attenuating vascular inflammation. PMID:26825517
Benyó, Zoltán; Ruisanchez, Éva; Leszl-Ishiguro, Miriam; Sándor, Péter; Pacher, Pál
The cerebral blood flow is tightly regulated by myogenic, endothelial, metabolic, and neural mechanisms under physiological conditions, and a large body of recent evidence indicates that inflammatory pathways have a major influence on the cerebral blood perfusion in certain central nervous system disorders, like hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and vascular dementia. All major cell types involved in cerebrovascular control pathways (i.e., smooth muscle, endothelium, neurons, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, and leukocytes) are capable of synthesizing endocannabinoids and/or express some or several of their target proteins [i.e., the cannabinoid 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) receptors and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel]. Therefore, the endocannabinoid system may importantly modulate the regulation of cerebral circulation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions in a very complex manner. Experimental data accumulated since the late 1990s indicate that the direct effect of cannabinoids on cerebral vessels is vasodilation mediated, at least in part, by CB1 receptors. Cannabinoid-induced cerebrovascular relaxation involves both a direct inhibition of smooth muscle contractility and a release of vasodilator mediator(s) from the endothelium. However, under stress conditions (e.g., in conscious restrained animals or during hypoxia and hypercapnia), cannabinoid receptor activation was shown to induce a reduction of the cerebral blood flow, probably via inhibition of the electrical and/or metabolic activity of neurons. Finally, in certain cerebrovascular pathologies (e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage, as well as traumatic and ischemic brain injury), activation of CB2 (and probably yet unidentified non-CB1/non-CB2) receptors appear to improve the blood perfusion of the brain via attenuating vascular inflammation.
Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gasparini, Sara; Beghi, Ettore; Sueri, Chiara; Russo, Emilio; Leo, Antonio; Labate, Angelo; Gambardella, Antonio; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Striano, Pasquale; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Pisani, Laura Rosa; Aguglia, Umberto
Seizures may occur in close temporal association with a stroke or after a variable interval. Moreover, epilepsy is often encountered in patients with leukoaraiosis. Although early post-stroke seizures have been studied extensively, less attention has been paid to post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) and to epilepsy associated with leukoaraiosis (EAL). The aim of this paper is to review data concerning pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment of PSE and EAL. We performed an extensive literature search to identify experimental and clinical articles on PSE and EAL. We also conducted a systematic review of risk factors for PSE and EAL among eligible studies. PSE is caused by enhanced neuronal excitability within and near the scar. The role played by white matter changes in EAL remains to be elucidated. Meta-analysis showed that cortical involvement (odds ratio [OR] 3.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.34-5.90, p < 0.001), cerebral hemorrhage (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.57-3.70, p < 0.001), and early seizures (OR 4.43, 95% CI 2.36-8.32, p < 0.001) are associated with an increased risk of PSE. As regards EAL, no prospective, population-based studies evaluated the role of different variables on seizure risk. Studies about the management of PSE are limited. PSE is generally well controlled by drugs. Data about risk factors, prognosis, and treatment of EAL are lacking. Pathophysiology and risk factors are well defined for PSE but need to be elucidated for EAL. Management of PSE and EAL relies on the clinician's judgment and should be tailored on an individual basis. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.
Kuga, Nahoko; Hirata, Tadashi; Sakai, Ikuko; Tanikawa, Yoshihisa; Chiou, Huei Yu; Kitanishi, Takuma; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji
The brain obtains energy by keeping the cerebral blood flow constant against unexpected changes in systemic blood pressure. Although this homeostatic mechanism is widely known as cerebrovascular autoregulation, it is not understood how widely and how robustly it works in the brain. Using a needle-like objective lens designed for deep-tissue imaging, we quantified the degree of autoregulation in the mouse hippocampus with single-capillary resolution. On average, hippocampal blood flow exhibited autoregulation over a comparatively broad range of arterial blood pressure and did not significantly respond to pressure changes induced by the pharmacological activation of autonomic nervous system receptors, whereas peripheral tissues showed linear blood flow changes. At the level of individual capillaries, however, about 40% of hippocampal capillaries did not undergo rapid autoregulation. This heterogeneity suggests the presence of a local baroreflex system to implement cerebral autoregulation. PMID:19074968
Qureshi, Adnan I
Imaging of head and neck vasculature continues to improve with the application of new technology. To judge the value of new technologies reported in the literature, it is imperative to develop objective standards optimized against bias and favoring statistical power and clinical relevance. A review of the existing literature identified the following items as lending scientific value to a report on imaging technology: prospective design, comparison with an accepted modality, unbiased patient selection, standardized image acquisition, blinded interpretation, and measurement of reliability. These were incorporated into a new grading scheme. Two physicians tested the new scheme and an established scheme to grade reports published in the medical literature. Inter-observer reliability for both methods was calculated using the kappa coefficient. A total of 22 reports evaluating imaging modalities for cervical internal carotid artery stenosis were identified from a literature search and graded by both schemes. Agreement between the two physicians in grading the level of scientific evidence using the new scheme was excellent (kappa coefficient: 0.93, p<0.0001). Agreement using the established scheme was less rigorous (kappa coefficient: 0.39, p<0.0001). The weighted kappa coefficients were 0.95 and 0.38 for the new and established schemes, respectively. Overall agreement was higher for the newer scheme (95% versus 64%). The new grading scheme can be used reliably to categorize the strength of scientific knowledge provided by individual studies of vascular imaging. The new method could assist clinicians and researchers in determining appropriate clinical applications of newly reported technical advances.
Topographic distribution of brain iron deposition and small cerebrovascular lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a post-mortem 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging study with neuropathological correlates.
De Reuck, Jacques; Devos, David; Moreau, Caroline; Auger, Florent; Durieux, Nicolas; Deramecourt, Vincent; Pasquier, Florence; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Leys, Didier; Bordet, Regis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in 15% of the cases. A neuropathological continuity between ALS and FTLD-TDP is suspected. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study compares the topographic distribution of iron (Fe) deposition and the incidence of small cerebrovascular lesions in ALS and in FTLD brains. Seventy-eight post-mortem brains underwent 7.0-tesla MRI. The patients consisted of 12 with ALS, 38 with FTLD, and 28 controls. Three ALS brains had minor FTLD features. Three coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere were submitted to T2 and T2* MRI sequences. The amount of Fe deposition in the deep brain structures and the number of small cerebrovascular lesions was determined in ALS and the subtypes of FTLD compared to control brains, with neuropathological correlates. A significant increase of Fe deposition was observed in the claustrum, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus, and subthalamic nucleus of the FTLD-FUS and FTLD-TDP groups, while in the ALS one, the Fe increase was only observed in the caudate and the subthalamic nuclei. White matter changes were only significantly more severe in the FTLD compared to those in ALS and in controls brains. Cortical micro-bleeds were increased in the frontal and temporal lobes of FTLD as well as of ALS brains compared to controls. Cortical micro-infarcts were, on the other hand, more frequent in the control compared to the ALS and FTLD groups. The present study supports the assumption of a neuropathological continuity between ALS and FTLD and illustrates the favourable vascular risk profile in these diseases.
Militana, Adam R; Donahue, Manus J; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S; Gregory, Andrew J; Strother, Megan K; Morgan, Victoria L
The goal of this pilot study is to use complementary MRI strategies to quantify and relate cerebrovascular reactivity, resting cerebral blood flow and functional connectivity alterations in the first week following sports concussion in college varsity athletes. Seven college athletes (3F/4M, age = 19.7 ± 1.2 years) were imaged 3-6 days following a diagnosed sports related concussion and compared to eleven healthy controls with no history of concussion (5M/6F, 18-23 years, 7 athletes). Cerebrovascular reactivity and functional connectivity were measured using functional MRI during a hypercapnia challenge and via resting-state regional partial correlations, respectively. Resting cerebral blood flow was quantified using arterial spin labeling MRI methods. Group comparisons were made within and between 18 regions of interest. Cerebrovascular reactivity was increased after concussion when averaged across all regions of interest (p = 0.04), and within some default-mode network regions, the anterior cingulate and the right thalamus (p < 0.05) independently. The FC was increased in the concussed athletes within the default-mode network including the left and right hippocampus, precuneus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (p < 0.01), with measures being linearly related to cerebrovascular reactivity in the hippocampus in the concussed athletes. Significant resting cerebral blood flow changes were not detected between the two groups. This study provides evidence for increased cerebrovascular reactivity and functional connectivity in the medial regions of the default-mode network within days of a single sports related concussion in college athletes. Our findings emphasize the utility of complementary cerebrovascular measures in the interpretation of alterations in functional connectivity following concussion.
Clinical Significance of Cerebrovascular Biomarkers and White Matter Tract Integrity in Alzheimer Disease: Clinical correlations With Neurobehavioral Data in Cross-Sectional and After 18 Months Follow-ups.
Wu, Ming-Kung; Lu, Yan-Ting; Huang, Chi-Wei; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Nai-Ching; Lui, Chun-Chung; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lee, Chen-Chang; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Sz-Fan; Chang, Chiung-Chih
Cerebrovascular risk factors and white matter (WM) damage lead to worse cognitive performance in Alzheimer dementia (AD). This study investigated WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging in patients with mild to moderate AD and investigated specific fiber tract involvement with respect to predefined cerebrovascular risk factors and neurobehavioral data prediction cross-sectionally and after 18 months. To identify the primary pathoanatomic relationships of risk biomarkers to fiber tract integrity, we predefined 11 major association tracts and calculated tract specific fractional anisotropy (FA) values. Eighty-five patients with AD underwent neurobehavioral assessments including the minimental state examination (MMSE) and 12-item neuropsychiatric inventory twice with a 1.5-year interval to represent major outcome factors. In the cross-sectional data, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels correlated variably with WM FA values. After entering the biomarkers and WM FA into a regression model to predict neurobehavioral outcomes, only fiber tract FA or homocysteine level predicted the MMSE score, and fiber tract FA or age predicted the neuropsychiatric inventory total scores and subdomains of apathy, disinhibition, and aberrant motor behavior. In the follow-up neurobehavioral data, the mean global FA value predicted the MMSE and aberrant motor behavior subdomain, while age predicted the anxiety and elation subdomains. Cerebrovascular risk biomarkers may modify WM microstructural organization, while the association with fiber integrity showed greater clinical significance to the prediction of neurobehavioral outcomes both cross-sectionally and longitudinally.
Hirsch, Sven; Reichold, Johannes; Schneider, Matthias; Székely, Gábor; Weber, Bruno
The cerebrovascular system continuously delivers oxygen and energy substrates to the brain, which is one of the organs with the highest basal energy requirement in mammals. Discontinuities in the delivery lead to fatal consequences for the brain tissue. A detailed understanding of the structure of the cerebrovascular system is important for a multitude of (patho-)physiological cerebral processes and many noninvasive functional imaging methods rely on a signal that originates from the vasculature. Furthermore, neurodegenerative diseases often involve the cerebrovascular system and could contribute to neuronal loss. In this review, we focus on the cortical vascular system. In the first part, we present the current knowledge of the vascular anatomy. This is followed by a theory of topology and its application to vascular biology. We then discuss possible interactions between cerebral blood flow and vascular topology, before summarizing the existing body of the literature on quantitative cerebrovascular topology. PMID:22472613
Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis
Erskine, Nathaniel; Tran, Hoang; Levin, Leonard; Ulbricht, Christine; Fingeroth, Joyce; Kiefe, Catarina; Singh, Sonal
Background Patients who develop herpes zoster or herpes zoster ophthalmicus may be at risk for cerebrovascular and cardiac complications. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events. Methods/Results Systematic searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS (Embase) and Google Scholar were performed in December 2016. Eligible studies were cohort, case-control, and self-controlled case-series examining the association between herpes zoster or subtypes of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Data on the occurrence of the examined events were abstracted. Odds ratios and their accompanying confidence intervals were estimated using random and fixed effects models with statistical heterogeneity estimated with the I2 statistic. Twelve studies examining 7.9 million patients up to 28 years after the onset of herpes zoster met our pre-defined eligibility criteria. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses showed that herpes zoster, type unspecified, and herpes zoster ophthalmicus were associated with a significantly increased risk of cerebrovascular events, without any evidence of statistical heterogeneity. Our meta-analysis also found a significantly increased risk of cardiac events associated with herpes zoster, type unspecified. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the accumulating body of evidence that herpes zoster and herpes zoster ophthalmicus are significantly associated with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. PMID:28749981
Erskine, Nathaniel; Tran, Hoang; Levin, Leonard; Ulbricht, Christine; Fingeroth, Joyce; Kiefe, Catarina; Goldberg, Robert J; Singh, Sonal
Patients who develop herpes zoster or herpes zoster ophthalmicus may be at risk for cerebrovascular and cardiac complications. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events. Systematic searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS (Embase) and Google Scholar were performed in December 2016. Eligible studies were cohort, case-control, and self-controlled case-series examining the association between herpes zoster or subtypes of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Data on the occurrence of the examined events were abstracted. Odds ratios and their accompanying confidence intervals were estimated using random and fixed effects models with statistical heterogeneity estimated with the I2 statistic. Twelve studies examining 7.9 million patients up to 28 years after the onset of herpes zoster met our pre-defined eligibility criteria. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses showed that herpes zoster, type unspecified, and herpes zoster ophthalmicus were associated with a significantly increased risk of cerebrovascular events, without any evidence of statistical heterogeneity. Our meta-analysis also found a significantly increased risk of cardiac events associated with herpes zoster, type unspecified. Our results are consistent with the accumulating body of evidence that herpes zoster and herpes zoster ophthalmicus are significantly associated with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events.
Cerebrovascular Events During Pregnancy and Puerperium Resulting from Preexisting Moyamoya Disease: Determining the Risk of Ischemic Events Based on Hemodynamic Status Assessment Using Brain Perfusion Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography.
Lee, Si Un; Chung, Young Seob; Oh, Chang Wan; Kwon, O-Ki; Bang, Jae Seung; Hwang, Gyojun; Kim, Tackeun; Ahn, Seong Yeol
The purposes of this study were to review the cerebrovascular events (CVE) during pregnancy and puerperium in adults with moyamoya disease (MMD) and to evaluate its risk factors. We reviewed electronic medical records on 141 pregnancies in 71 women diagnosed with MMD and this study included only 27 pregnancies (23 patients) diagnosed with MMD before pregnancy. Basal and acetazolamide-stress brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was conducted for 40 hemispheres in 21 pregnancies within 1 year of the gestational period, ranging from 22 months before delivery to 12 months after delivery for evaluation of the hemodynamic status of the patients to devise the MMD treatment strategy. Twelve pregnancies (44.4%) showed CVE during pregnancy or puerperium in the group diagnosed with MMD before pregnancy. All the 12 CVE were ischemic, without any hemorrhagic events. A decreased cerebral vascular reserve capacity (CVRC) on stress SPECT was observed in 25 (62.5%) of the 40 hemispheres, and 18 of these 25 hemispheres showed TIA. In contrast, only 2 of 15 hemispheres which revealed normal CVRC on stress SPECT showed TIA. Overall, a decreased CVRC on stress SPECT imaging was statistically associated with development of CVE (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the clinical type of MMD was also regarded as predictive factor for CVE in this study. Especially, ischemic type MMD revealed a statistical association with the development of CVE (P = 0.014, odds ratio = 16.50). Assessment of cerebral hemodynamic status with stress SPECT may predict CVE during pregnancy and puerperium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pan, Wen-Chi; Eliot, Melissa N.; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A.; Sorond, Farzaneh A.; Wellenius, Gregory A.
Background and Purpose Some prior studies have linked ambient temperature with risk of cerebrovascular events. If causal, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this putative association remain unknown. Temperature-related changes in cerebral vascular function may play a role, but this hypothesis has not been previously evaluated. Methods We evaluated the association between ambient temperature and cerebral vascular function among 432 participants ≥65 years old from the MOBILIZE Boston Study with data on cerebrovascular blood flow, cerebrovascular resistance, and cerebrovascular reactivity in the middle cerebral artery. We used linear regression models to assess the association of mean ambient temperature in the previous 1 to 28 days with cerebrovascular hemodynamics adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results A 10°C increase in the 21-day moving average of ambient temperature was associated with a 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2%, 17.3%) lower blood flow velocity, a 9.0% (95% CI, 0.7%, 18.0%) higher cerebrovascular resistance, and a 15.3% (95%CI, 2.7%, 26.4%) lower cerebral vasoreactivity. Further adjustment for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) did not materially alter the results. However, we found statistically significant interactions between ambient temperature and PM2.5 such that the association between temperature and blood flow velocity was attenuated at higher levels of PM2.5. Conclusions In this elderly population, we found that ambient temperature was negatively associated with cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebrovascular vasoreactivity and positively associated with cerebrovascular resistance. Changes in vascular function may partly underlie the observed associations between ambient temperature and risk of cerebrovascular events. PMID:26258469
Carvalho, Janessa O; Tommet, Doug; Crane, Paul K; Thomas, Michael L; Claxton, Amy; Habeck, Christian; Manly, Jennifer J; Romero, Heather R
To evaluate the effects of vascular conditions and education quality on cognition over time in White and African American (AA) older adults. We investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal racial differences in executive functioning (EF) and memory composites among Whites (n = 461) and AAs (n = 118) enrolled in a cohort study. We examined whether cerebrovascular risk factors and Shipley Vocabulary scores (a proxy for education quality) accounted for racial differences. On average, AAs had lower quality of education and more cerebrovascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. AAs had lower mean EF and memory at baseline, but there were no group differences in rates of decline. Cross-sectional racial differences in EF and memory persisted after controlling for vascular disease, but disappeared when controlling for Shipley Vocabulary. Quality of education appears to be more important than cerebrovascular risk factors in explaining cross-sectional differences in memory and EF performance between White and AA older adults. Further investigation is needed regarding the relative contribution of education quality and cerebrovascular risk factors to cognitive decline among ethnically/racially diverse older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Carvalho, Janessa O.; Tommet, Doug; Crane, Paul K.; Thomas, Michael L.; Claxton, Amy; Habeck, Christian; Manly, Jennifer J.
Objectives. To evaluate the effects of vascular conditions and education quality on cognition over time in White and African American (AA) older adults. Method. We investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal racial differences in executive functioning (EF) and memory composites among Whites (n = 461) and AAs (n = 118) enrolled in a cohort study. We examined whether cerebrovascular risk factors and Shipley Vocabulary scores (a proxy for education quality) accounted for racial differences. Results. On average, AAs had lower quality of education and more cerebrovascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. AAs had lower mean EF and memory at baseline, but there were no group differences in rates of decline. Cross-sectional racial differences in EF and memory persisted after controlling for vascular disease, but disappeared when controlling for Shipley Vocabulary. Discussion. Quality of education appears to be more important than cerebrovascular risk factors in explaining cross-sectional differences in memory and EF performance between White and AA older adults. Further investigation is needed regarding the relative contribution of education quality and cerebrovascular risk factors to cognitive decline among ethnically/racially diverse older adults. PMID:25098527
Knoefel, Janice; Bhaskar, Kiran
The prevalence of dementia is increasing in our aging population at an alarming rate. Because of the heterogeneity of clinical presentation and complexity of disease neuropathology, dementia classifications remain controversial. Recently, the National Plan to address Alzheimer’s Disease prioritized Alzheimer’s disease-related dementias to include: Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, and mixed dementias. While each of these dementing conditions has their unique pathologic signature, one common etiology shared among all these conditions is cerebrovascular dysfunction at some point during the disease process. The goal of this comprehensive review is to summarize the current findings in the field and address the important contributions of cerebrovascular, physiologic, and cellular alterations to cognitive impairment in these human dementias. Specifically, evidence will be presented in support of small-vessel disease as an underlying neuropathologic hallmark of various dementias, while controversial findings will also be highlighted. Finally, the molecular mechanisms shared among all dementia types including hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial bioenergetics, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and blood–brain barrier permeability responsible for disease etiology and progression will be discussed. PMID:26174330
Cooper, Leroy L.; Mitchell, Gary F.
Background Aortic stiffness is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and cognitive decline. This mini-review focuses on relations of aortic stiffness with microvascular dysfunction and discusses the contribution of abnormal pulsatile hemodynamics to cerebrovascular damage and cognitive decline. We also provide a rationale for considering aortic stiffness as a putative and important contributor to memory impairment in older individuals. Summary Aging is associated with stiffening of the aorta but not the muscular arteries, which reduces wave reflection and increases the transmission of pulsatility into the periphery. Aortic stiffening thereby impairs a protective mechanism that shields the peripheral microcirculation from excessive pulsatility within downstream target organs. Beyond midlife, aortic stiffness increases rapidly and exposes the cerebral microcirculation to abnormal pulsatile mechanical forces that are associated with microvascular damage and remodeling in the brain. Aortic stiffening and high-flow pulsatility are associated with alterations in the microvasculature of the brain; however, a mechanistic link between aortic stiffness and memory has not been established. We showed that in a community-based sample of older individuals, cerebrovascular resistance and white matter hyperintensities - markers of cerebrovascular remodeling and damage - mediated the relation between higher aortic stiffness and lower performance on memory function tests. These data suggest that microvascular and white matter damage associated with excessive aortic stiffness contribute to impaired memory function with advancing age. Key Messages Increasing evidence suggests that vascular etiologies - including aortic stiffness and microvascular damage - contribute to memory impairment and the pathogenesis of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Interventions that reduce aortic stiffness may delay memory decline among older individuals. PMID:27752478
Rudenko, A Iu; Bashkirova, L M
The central goal of the investigation was to study Solcoseryl (SolcoSwitzerland) therapeutic efficacy for patients suffering from early or chronic cerebrovascular diseases complicated with different forms of paroxysms. 29 patients were examined. (14 of them were with vegetovascular dystonia, 7 with discirculatory encephalopathy of degree of 1 and 8 with discirculatory encephalopathy of degree of II). The authors revealed Solcoseryl to be positive in decreasing incidence and duration of vegetovascular fits, complaints, pathologic symptoms.
Beyond Volume: Hospital-Based Healthcare Technology for Better Outcomes in Cerebrovascular Surgical Patients Diagnosed With Ischemic Stroke: A Population-Based Nationwide Cohort Study From 2002 to 2013.
Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Jang, Sung-In
We examined whether the level of hospital-based healthcare technology was related to the 30-day postoperative mortality rates, after adjusting for hospital volume, of ischemic stroke patients who underwent a cerebrovascular surgical procedure. Using the National Health Insurance Service-Cohort Sample Database, we reviewed records from 2002 to 2013 for data on patients with ischemic stroke who underwent cerebrovascular surgical procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard models to test our hypothesis. A total of 798 subjects were included in our study. After adjusting for hospital volume of cerebrovascular surgical procedures as well as all for other potential confounders, the hazard ratio (HR) of 30-day mortality in low healthcare technology hospitals as compared to high healthcare technology hospitals was 2.583 (P < 0.001). We also found that, although the HR of 30-day mortality in low healthcare technology hospitals with high volume as compared to high healthcare technology hospitals with high volume was the highest (10.014, P < 0.0001), cerebrovascular surgical procedure patients treated in low healthcare technology hospitals had the highest 30-day mortality rate, irrespective of hospital volume. Although results of our study provide scientific evidence for a hospital volume/30-day mortality rate relationship in ischemic stroke patients who underwent cerebrovascular surgical procedures, our results also suggest that the level of hospital-based healthcare technology is associated with mortality rates independent of hospital volume. Given these results, further research into what components of hospital-based healthcare technology significantly impact mortality is warranted.
Felsky, Daniel; De Jager, Philip L; Schneider, Julie A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Fleischman, Debra A; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Honer, William G; Pouget, Jennie G; Mizrahi, Romina; Pollock, Bruce G; Kennedy, James L; Bennett, David A; Voineskos, Aristotle N
The translocator protein, a microglial-expressed marker of neuroinflammation, has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, which is characterized by alterations in vascular and inflammatory states. ATSPOvariant, rs6971, determines binding affinity of exogenous radioligandsin vivo; however, the effect of these altered binding characteristics on inflammatory and cerebrovascular biomarkers has not been assessed. In 2345 living subjects (Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, n = 1330) and postmortem brain samples (Religious Orders Study and Memory and Aging Project, n = 1015), we analyzed effects of rs6971 on white matter hyperintensisites, cerebral infarcts, circulating inflammatory biomarkers, amyloid angiopathy, and microglial activation. We found that rs6971 does not alter translocator protein in a way that impacts cerebrovascular and inflammatory states known to be affected in dementia. © The Author(s) 2016.
Czabanka, Marcus; Acker, Gueliz; Jussen, Daniel; Finger, Tobias; Pena-Tapia, Pablo; Schubert, Gerrit A; Scharf, Johann; Martus, Peter; Schmiedek, Peter; Vajkoczy, Peter
Moyamoya disease and atherosclerotic cerebrovascular occlusive disease lead to hemodynamic impairment of cerebral blood flow. One major differentiation between both disease entities lies in the collateralization pathways. The clinical implications of the collateralization pathways for the development of hemodynamic ischemia remain unknown. The aim was to characterize collateralization and ischemia patterns in patients with chronic hemodynamic compromise. Hemodynamic compromise was verified using acetazolamide-stimulated xenon-CT or SPECT in 54 patients [30 moyamoya and 24 atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease (ACVD)]. All patients received MRI to differentiate hemodynamic ischemia into anterior/posterior cortical border zone infarction (CBI), inferior border zone infarction (IBI) or territorial infarction (TI). Digital subtraction angiography was applied to evaluate collateralization. Collateralization was compared and correlated with the localization of ischemia and number of vascular territories with impaired cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC). MM patients showed collateralization significantly more often via pericallosal anastomosis and the posterior communicating artery (flow in the anterior-posterior direction; MM: 95%/95% vs. ACVD: 23%/12%, p < 0.05). ACVD patients demonstrated collateralization via the anterior and posterior communicating arteries (flow in the posterior-anterior direction, MM: 6%/5% vs. ACVD: 62%/88%, p < 0.05). Patterns of infarction were comparable (aCBI: MM: 36% vs. ACVD: 35%; pCBI: MM: 10% vs. ACVD: 20%; IBI: MM: 35% vs. ACVD: 41%; TI: MM: 13% vs. ACVD: 18%). The number and localization of vascular territories with impaired CVRC were comparable. Despite significant differences in collateralization, the infarct patterns and severity of CVRC impairment do not differ between MMV and ACVD patients. Cerebral collateralization does not allow reaching conclusions about the localization of cerebral ischemia or severity of impaired
Grool, Anne M; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Mali, Willem P T M; Geerlings, Mirjam I
Depression and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent in later life and frequently co-occur. Structural changes in critical brain regions may underlie both conditions. The authors examined associations of infarcts, white-matter lesions (WML) and atrophy at different locations with depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning. Within the Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease-Memory, Depression and Aging (SMART-Medea) study, cross-sectional analyses were performed in 585 non-demented patients aged ≥50 years with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease. Volumetric measures of WML and atrophy were obtained with 1.5 T MRI; infarcts were rated visually. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (score ≥6). z Scores of executive functioning, memory and processing speed were calculated. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education, intelligence, vascular disease, physical functioning and co-occurring brain changes. Depressive symptoms were present in 102 (17%) patients and were associated with poorer memory (B=-0.26, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.06). Large subcortical infarcts and lacunar infarcts in deep white-matter tracts were both associated with depressive symptoms (RR=2.66, 95% CI 1.28 to 5.54; RR=2.02, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.59) and poorer executive functioning and memory. Periventricular WML volume was associated with poorer executive functioning; cortical infarcts in the left hemisphere and media flow region, ventricular volume and cortical atrophy were associated with a slower processing speed. In this sample of non-demented older persons, subcortical infarcts contributed to an increased risk of depressive symptoms as well as cognitive impairment. This depended on location in projecting white-matter tracts, and not on infarct size.
Leening, Maarten J G; Ferket, Bart S; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Kavousi, Maryam; Deckers, Jaap W; Nieboer, Daan; Heeringa, Jan; Portegies, Marileen L P; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, M Arfan; Hunink, M G Myriam; Franco, Oscar H; Stricker, Bruno H; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W
To evaluate differences in first manifestations of cardiovascular disease between men and women in a competing risks framework. Prospective population based cohort study. People living in the community in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. 8419 participants (60.9% women) aged ≥ 55 and free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. First diagnosis of coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction, revascularisation, and coronary death), cerebrovascular disease (stroke, transient ischaemic attack, and carotid revascularisation), heart failure, or other cardiovascular death; or death from non-cardiovascular causes. Data were used to calculate lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease and its first incident manifestations adjusted for competing non-cardiovascular death. During follow-up of up to 20.1 years, 2888 participants developed cardiovascular disease (826 coronary heart disease, 1198 cerebrovascular disease, 762 heart failure, and 102 other cardiovascular death). At age 55, overall lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease were 67.1% (95% confidence interval 64.7% to 69.5%) for men and 66.4% (64.2% to 68.7%) for women. Lifetime risks of first incident manifestations of cardiovascular disease in men were 27.2% (24.1% to 30.3%) for coronary heart disease, 22.8% (20.4% to 25.1%) for cerebrovascular disease, 14.9% (13.3% to 16.6%) for heart failure, and 2.3% (1.6% to 2.9%) for other deaths from cardiovascular disease. For women the figures were 16.9% (13.5% to 20.4%), 29.8% (27.7% to 31.9%), 17.5% (15.9% to 19.2%), and 2.1% (1.6% to 2.7%), respectively. Differences in the number of events that developed over the lifespan in women compared with men (per 1000) were -7 for any cardiovascular disease, -102 for coronary heart disease, 70 for cerebrovascular disease, 26 for heart failure, and -1 for other cardiovascular death; all outcomes manifested at a higher age in women. Patterns were similar when analyses were restricted to hard atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
Liapis, Christos D; Paraskevas, Kosmas I
Carotid plaque surface morphology appears to play a controversial role in the occurrence of cerebrovascular symptoms, that is, amaurosis fugax, transient ischemic attacks, and episodes of stroke. A number of researchers favor a strong association between the morphologic abnormalities of the carotid plaque surface and the development of cerebrovascular symptoms. The supporters of this theory have demonstrated that surface contour irregularities not only are important potential sources of flow abnormalities but also contribute significantly to the development of ischemic neurologic symptoms through plaque fragmentation, microthrombi formation, and atheroembolism. However, opposers of this theory also exist. The main arguments for and against this theory, as well as the possible underlying pathomechanism linking the morphology of the carotid plaque surface with the development of cerebrovascular symptoms, are outlined. Detection of carotid surface abnormalities with the aid of angiography or color-flow duplex ultrasonography should play a major role in the early identification of patients at increased risk, this way aiding prompt correction of these usually clinically silent but potentially hazardous lesions.
Modeling the Relationships Among Late-Life Body Mass Index, Cerebrovascular Disease, and Alzheimer's Disease Neuropathology in an Autopsy Sample of 1,421 Subjects from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Data Set.
Alosco, Michael L; Duskin, Jonathan; Besser, Lilah M; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E; Gunstad, John; Kowall, Neil W; McKee, Ann C; Stern, Robert A; Tripodis, Yorghos
The relationship between late-life body mass index (BMI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is poorly understood due to the lack of research in samples with autopsy-confirmed AD neuropathology (ADNP). The role of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in the interplay between late-life BMI and ADNP is unclear. We conducted a retrospective longitudinal investigation and used joint modeling of linear mixed effects to investigate causal relationships among repeated antemortem BMI measurements, CVD (quantified neuropathologically), and ADNP in an autopsy sample of subjects across the AD clinical continuum. The sample included 1,421 subjects from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set and Neuropathology Data Set with diagnoses of normal cognition (NC; n = 234), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 201), or AD dementia (n = 986). ADNP was defined as moderate to frequent neuritic plaques and Braak stageIII-VI. Ischemic Injury Scale (IIS) operationalized CVD. Joint modeling examined relationships among BMI, IIS, and ADNP in the overall sample and stratified by initial visit Clinical Dementia Rating score. Subject-specific random intercept for BMI was the predictor for ADNP due to minimal BMI change (p = 0.3028). Analyses controlling for demographic variables and APOE ɛ4 showed lower late-life BMI predicted increased odds of ADNP in the overall sample (p < 0.001), and in subjects with CDR of 0 (p = 0.0021) and 0.5 (p = 0.0012), but not ≥1.0 (p = 0.2012). Although higher IIS predicted greater odds of ADNP (p < 0.0001), BMI did not predict IIS (p = 0.2814). The current findings confirm lower late-life BMI confers increased odds for ADNP. Lower late-life BMI may be a preclinical indicator of underlying ADNP.
Sabaté, S; Mases, A; Guilera, N; Canet, J; Castillo, J; Orrego, C; Sabaté, A; Fita, G; Parramón, F; Paniagua, P; Rodríguez, A; Sabaté, M
Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) represent the most common cause of serious perioperative morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to identify risk factors for MACCE in a broad surgical population with intermediate-to-high surgery-specific risk and to build and validate a model to predict the risk of MACCE. A prospective, multicentre study of patients undergoing surgical procedures under general or regional anaesthesia in 23 hospitals. The main outcome was the occurrence of at least one perioperative MACCE, defined as any of the following complications from admittance to discharge: cardiac death, cerebrovascular death, non-fatal cardiac arrest, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, new cardiac arrhythmia, angina, or stroke. The MACCE predictive index was based on β-coefficients and validated in an external data set. Of 3387 patients recruited, 146 (4.3%) developed at least one MACCE. The regression model identified seven independent risk factors for MACCE: history of coronary artery disease, history of chronic congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, history of cerebrovascular disease, preoperative abnormal ECG, intraoperative hypotension, and blood transfusion. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 75.9% (95% confidence interval, 71.2-80.6%). The risk score based on seven objective and easily assessed factors can accurately predict MACCE occurrence after non-cardiac surgery in a population at intermediate-to-high surgery-specific risk.
Fenton, Stephen J; Bollo, Robert J
Blunt cerebrovascular injury in children is an uncommon occurrence that if missed and left untreated can result in devastating long-term neurologic consequences. Diagnosis can be readily obtained by a computed tomographic angiogram of the head and neck. If confirmed, treatment with antithrombotic therapy dramatically reduces the risk of a cerebrovascular accident. The difficulty lies in determining which child should be screened for such an injury. Several institutions have come up with criteria for screening. In this article, we review the nuances of the cerebrovascular system and its resulting injury. We present recent literature on the subject in an attempt to add clarity to this challenging situation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Montagne, Axel; Gauberti, Maxime; Macrez, Richard; Jullienne, Amandine; Briens, Aurélien; Raynaud, Jean-Sébastien; Louin, Gaelle; Buisson, Alain; Haelewyn, Benoit; Docagne, Fabian; Defer, Gilles; Vivien, Denis; Maubert, Eric
Since endothelial cells can be targeted by large contrast-carrying particles, molecular imaging of cerebrovascular cell activation is highly promising to evaluate the underlying inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cerebrovascular cell activation can reveal CNS disorders in the absence of visible lesions and symptoms. To this aim, we optimized contrast carrying particles targeting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MRI protocols through both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although, pre-contrast MRI images failed to reveal the ongoing pathology, contrast-enhanced MRI revealed hypoperfusion-triggered CNS injury in vascular dementia, unmasked amyloid-induced cerebrovascular activation in Alzheimer's disease and allowed monitoring of disease activity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Moreover, contrast-enhanced MRI revealed the cerebrovascular cell activation associated with known risk factors of CNS disorders such as peripheral inflammation, ethanol consumption, hyperglycemia and aging. By providing a dramatically higher sensitivity than previously reported methods and molecular contrast agents, the technology described in the present study opens new avenues of investigation in the field of neuroinflammation.
Lin, Huimin; Chew, Samuel T H
An 85-year-old female with chronic kidney disease and newly acquired seizures on oral phenytoin received intravenous ertapenem 500 mg once daily for a urinary tract infection and bacteraemia involving extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. After three ertapenem doses, she developed seizures which self-aborted. Corrected phenytoin level was sub-therapeutic initially, but became therapeutic following a phenytoin dose increase. On Day 14 of ertapenem, the patient suffered another episode of seizure. Ertapenem was stopped. On Day 15, she developed status epilepticus lasting 2 days, requiring intravenous lorazepam, sodium valproate and phenytoin. The last episode of seizure occurred 3 days after discontinuation of ertapenem, with a dramatic recovery of her Glasgow Coma Scale and resolution of delirium. At the time of writing, she has remained seizure free for over 2 years. A retrospective audit of the emergency department notes revealed that she had a course of ertapenem in another institution prior, which also led to two seizure episodes-once 8 days after starting ertapenem, another 3 days after stopping ertapenem. Despite using a renal-adjusted ertapenem dose, each dip in her creatinine clearance level was associated with seizures, preceded by delirium each time. Naranjo assessment score was 6, suggesting a probable relationship between the seizures and ertapenem.
Lotufo, P A; Benseñor, I J
The role of smoking as risk factor for stroke is controversial. An ecological design study was performed to test the association between stroke mortality and smoking in Brazil. Lung cancer mortality was used as a surrogate for smoking habit. The mortality rate for stroke (ICD-9:430-438) and lung cancer (ICD-9: 162) were determined in the following metropolitan areas: Belém, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Curitiba and Porto Alegre for males and females between 30 years-old and 69 years-old. ANOVA test was used to compare both age-adjusted mortality rates. A negative association by ANOVA was determined between age-adjusted rates and age-specific rates, except among males with 40-49 years-old. These results may be on account of three causes: the different smoking role as a risk factor in the distinct stroke subtypes analyzed; the competitive risk between coronary heart disease and stroke; and the high prevalence of arterial hypertension in the Brazilian metropolitan areas.
Garkowski, Adam; Zajkowska, Joanna; Zajkowska, Agata; Kułakowska, Alina; Zajkowska, Olga; Kubas, Bożena; Jurgilewicz, Dorota; Hładuński, Marcin; Łebkowska, Urszula
Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a disease caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, involving the nervous system. It usually manifests as lymphocytic meningoradiculitis, but in rare cases, it can also lead to cerebrovascular complications. We aimed to perform a systematic review of all reported cases of LNB complicated by central nervous system vasculitis and stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We conducted a systematic review of literature between May 1987 and December 2016 with patients who presented with cerebrovascular course of LNB. This study included 88 patients with a median age of 46 years. The median interval from onset of symptoms suggesting Lyme disease to first symptoms of cerebrovascular manifestations of LNB was 3.5 months. The most common cerebrovascular manifestation of LNB was ischemic stroke (76.1%), followed by TIA (11.4%). The posterior circulation was affected alone in 37.8% of patients, the anterior circulation in 24.4% of patients, and in 37.8% of cases, posterior and anterior circulations were affected simultaneously. The most common affected vessels were middle cerebral artery-in 19 cases, basilar artery-in 17 cases, and anterior cerebral artery-in 16 cases. A good response to antibiotic treatment was achieved in the vast number of patients (75.3%). The overall mortality rate was 4.7%. Cerebral vasculitis and stroke due to LNB should be considered, especially in patients who live in or have come from areas with high prevalence of tick-borne diseases, as well as in those without cardiovascular risk factors, but with stroke-like symptoms of unknown cause.
TAKAGI, Yasushi; MIYAMOTO, Susumu
Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular occlusive disease characterized by progressive stenosis or by occlusion at the terminal portion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries. The unusual vascular network (moyamoya vessels) at the base of the brain with this disease as collateral channels is developed in this disease. Social independence because of cognitive impairment has recently been recognized as an important unsolved social issue with adult moyamoya disease. The patients with cognitive impairment have difficulty in proving their status because the standard neuroradiological and neuropsychological methods to define cognitive impairment with moyamoya disease are not determined. These patients with cognitive impairment should be supported by social welfare as psychologically handicapped persons. Thus Cognitive Dysfunction Survey of the Japanese Patients with Moyamoya Disease (COSMO-JAPAN study) is planned. In this study, we want to establish a standard finding of the cognitive impairment in patients with moyamoya disease. PMID:25739435
Takagi, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Susumu
Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular occlusive disease characterized by progressive stenosis or by occlusion at the terminal portion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries. The unusual vascular network (moyamoya vessels) at the base of the brain with this disease as collateral channels is developed in this disease. Social independence because of cognitive impairment has recently been recognized as an important unsolved social issue with adult moyamoya disease. The patients with cognitive impairment have difficulty in proving their status because the standard neuroradiological and neuropsychological methods to define cognitive impairment with moyamoya disease are not determined. These patients with cognitive impairment should be supported by social welfare as psychologically handicapped persons. Thus Cognitive Dysfunction Survey of the Japanese Patients with Moyamoya Disease (COSMO-JAPAN study) is planned. In this study, we want to establish a standard finding of the cognitive impairment in patients with moyamoya disease.
Bosco, Paolo; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria; Anello, Guido; Spada, Rosario; Romano, Antonino; Fajardo, Adrian; Caraci, Filippo; Ferri, Raffaele; Guéant, Jean-Louis
Association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism (MTHFR 677 C>T ), a determinant of homocysteine plasma level (t-Hcys), with ischaemc cerebrovascular disease (iCVD) seems to be neutral in North Europe and North America. The association of 2756 A>G of methionine synthase (MTR), 66 A>G of methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and 776 C>G of transcobalamin ( TCN2 ) needs to be evaluated further. It was the objective of this study to evaluate the association of these polymorphisms, t-Hcys, vitamin B12 and folate levels with iCVD, in an Italian population from Sicily. We investigated the association of these polymorphisms, t-Hcys, vitamin B12 and folate with iCVD in 252 subjects, including 131 cases and 121 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. t-Hcys was higher in the iCVD group than in controls [15.3 (11.5 - 17.9) vs. 11.6 (9.4 - 14.5) microM; P = 0.0007] and also in subjects with TCN2 776CG genotype, compared to homozygous genotypes [13.5 (9.9 +/- 16.9) vs. 11.7 (9.6 +/- 14.4) microM; P = 0.0327]. The folate level in cases and controls was consistent with an adequate dietary intake [12.7 (9.0 - 15.3) vs. 12.5 (9.6 - 16.9) nM; P = 0.7203]. In multivariate analysis, t-Hcys was a significant independent predictor of iCVD with an odds ratio of 1.14 (95 % C.I.: 1.06 - 1.24; P = 0.0006). No association was found between MTHFR, MTR, MTRR and TCN2 polymorphisms and iCVD risk. We have found an influence of t-Hcys and a neutral effect of MTHFR, MTR, MTRR and TCN2 on iCVD risk in Sicily. The neutral influence of these polymorphisms may be explained by adequate status in folate and vitamin B12. Other factors underlying the increased t-Hcys need further investigations.
Buterbaugh, John; Wynstra, Charles; Provencio, Natalie; Combs, Daniel; Gilbert, Michael; Parthasarathy, Sairam
Study Objectives: Regional brain alterations may be involved in the pathogenesis and adverse consequences of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The objectives for the current study were to (1) determine cerebrovascular reactivity in the motor areas that control upper airway musculature in patients with OSA, and (2) determine whether young patients with OSA have decreased cerebrovascular reactivity in response to breath holding. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Academic center. Participants: Twelve subjects with OSA (age 24–42 y; apnea-hypopnea index 17; interquartile range [IQR] 9, 69 per hour) and control subjects (n = 10; age 29–44 y; AHI 2; IQR 1, 3 per hour). Measurements and Results: Subjects underwent blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) while awake, swallowing, and breath holding. In subjects with OSA, during swallowing, there was less activity in the brainstem than in controls (P = 0.03) that remained reduced after adjusting for cortical motor strip activity (P = 0.036). In OSA subjects, brain regions of increased cerebrovascular reactivity (38; IQR 17, 96 cm3) was smaller than that in controls (199; IQR 5, 423 cm3; P = 0.01). In OSA subjects, brain regions of decreased cerebrovascular reactivity during breath hold was greater (P = 0.01), and the ratio of increased-to-decreased brain regions was lower than that of controls (P = 0.006). Adjustment for cerebral volumes, body mass index, and white matter lesions did not change these results substantively. Conclusions: In patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), diminished change in brainstem activity during swallowing and reduced cerebrovascular reactivity may contribute to the etiopathogenesis and adverse cerebrovascular consequences, respectively. We speculate that decreased cerebral auto-regulation may be causative of gray matter loss in OSA. Citation: Buterbaugh J, Wynstra C, Provencio N, Combs D, Gilbert M, Parthasarathy S. Cerebrovascular reactivity in
Shumann, M U; Mirzai, S; Samii, M; Vorkapic, P
A patient with the coincidental occurrence of a right internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and asymptomatic ipsilateral infraclinoidal ICA aneurysm is presented. CBF measurements including testing of the cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CRC) demonstrated a compromise of cerebral blood flow (CBF) within the anterior circulation of the affected side. We treated the patient in one operation by aneurysm clipping and subsequent carotid endarterectomy (CEA). 10 months later she presented with an occlusion of the contralateral ICA. CBF measurements showed sufficient resting flow and CRC on both sides. One year later repeat measurements disclosed a lowered resting CBF and diminished CRC on the affected side. Extracranial/Intracranial (EC/IC) artery bypass improved both symptoms and CBF/CRC values. The authors propose to treat symptomatic ICA stenosis and concurrent silent ipsilateral intracranial aneurysms at once if the patient is eligible for aneurysm surgery. CBF measurements should be performed before surgery. In a medically compromised patient carotid endarterectomy alone appears to be justifiable. In cases of symptomatic aneurysm and concurrent ICA stenosis a CEA can be added to aneurysm clipping to improve the hemodynamic situation for a better postoperative management. Xenon/CT investigations are suitable to provide important cerebral blood flow information. Together with angiography and clinical judgment it allows to identify patients with hemodynamic insufficiency. These are suitable candidates for an operative procedure to augment cerebral blood flow and to improve symptoms.
Background Although the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of estrogen on cerebrovascular function are well known, the age-dependent deleterious effects of estrogen are largely unstudied. It was hypothesized that age and sex interact in modulating cerebrovascular reactivity to vasopressin (VP) by altering the role of prostanoids in vascular function. Methods Female (F) Sprague–Dawley rats approximating key stages of “hormonal aging” in humans were studied: premenopausal (mature multigravid, MA, cyclic, 5–6 months) and postmenopausal (reproductively senescent, RS, acyclic, 10–12 months). Age-matched male (M) rats were also studied. Reactivity to VP (10−12–10−7 M) was measured in pressurized middle cerebral artery segments in the absence or presence of selective inhibitors of COX-1 (SC560, SC, 1 μM) or COX-2 (NS398, NS, 10 μM). VP-stimulated release of PGI2 and TXA2 were measured using radioimmunoassay of 6-keto-PGF1α and TXB2 (stable metabolites, pg/mg dry wt/45 min). Results In M, there were no changes in VP-induced vasoconstriction with age. Further, there were no significant differences in basal or in low- or high-VP-stimulated PGI2 or TXA2 production in younger or older M. In contrast, there were marked differences in cerebrovascular reactivity and prostanoid release with advancing age in F. Older RS F exhibited reduced maximal constrictor responses to VP, which can be attributed to enhanced COX-1 derived dilator prostanoids. VP-induced vasoconstriction in younger MA F utilized both COX-1 and COX-2 derived constrictor prostanoids. Further, VP-stimulated PGI2 and TXA2 production was enhanced by endogenous estrogen and decreased with advancing age in F, but not in M rats. Conclusions This is the first study to examine the effects of age and sex on the mechanisms underlying cerebrovascular reactivity to VP. Interestingly, VP-mediated constriction was reduced by age in F, but was unchanged in M rats. Additionally, it was observed
Miller, S.; Richmond, I.; Borgos, J.; Mitra, K.
Alterations to cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been implicated in diverse neurological conditions, including mild traumatic brain injury, microgravity induced intracranial pressure (ICP) increases, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-measured regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) provides an estimate of oxygenation of the interrogated cerebral volume that is useful in identifying trends and changes in oxygen supply to cerebral tissue and has been used to monitor cerebrovascular function during surgery and ventilation. In this study, CO2-inhalation-based hypercapnic breathing challenges were used as a tool to simulate CBF dysregulation, and NIRS was used to monitor the CBF autoregulatory response. A breathing circuit for the selective administration of CO2-compressed air mixtures was designed and used to assess CBF regulatory responses to hypercapnia in 26 healthy young adults using non-invasive methods and real-time sensors. After a 5 or 10 minute baseline period, 1 to 3 hypercapnic challenges of 5 or 10 minutes duration were delivered to each subject while rSO2, partial pressure of end tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and vital signs were continuously monitored. Change in rSO2 measurements from pre- to intrachallenge (ΔrSO2) detected periods of hypercapnic challenges. Subjects were grouped into three exercise factor levels (hr/wk), 1: 0, 2:>0 and <10, and 3:>10. Exercise factor level 3 subjects showed significantly greater ΔrSO2 responses to CO2 challenges than level 2 and 1 subjects. No significant difference in ΔPETCO2 existed between these factor levels. Establishing baseline values of rSO2 in clinical practice may be useful in early detection of CBF changes.
Moore, Justin M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Gupta, Raghav; Adeeb, Nimer; Patel, Apar S; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Thomas, Ajith J
The management of cerebrovascular disease has advanced considerably in 2015. Five randomized control trials have firmly established the role of endovascular thrombectomy for ischemic strokes due to large vessel occlusion. The randomized trial of intraarterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke (MR CLEAN) (Berkhemer et al. NEJM 2015;372:11-20) was the first of a series on the topic. There was a total of 5 randomized controlled trials published showing benefit in terms of functional outcomes at 90days for mechanical thrombectomy including the Endovascular Therapy for Ischemic stroke with perfusion-imaging selection (EXTEND IA) (Campbell et al. NEJM 2015;372:1009-18), the Randomized assessment of rapid endovascular treatment of ischemic stroke (ESCAPE) (Goyal et al. NEJM 2015;372:1019-30) trials, the stent-retriever thrombectomy after IV t-PA is t-PA alone in stroke (SWIFT-PRIME) (Saver et al. NEJM 2015;372:2285-95), and the thrombectomy within 8h after symptom onset in Ischemic stroke (REVASCAT) trial (Jovin et al. NEJM 2015; 372:2296-306). Six-year results from randomized controlled Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT) found no significant difference in functional outcomes in patients ruptured aneurysms treated surgically clippings versus endovascular treatment (Spetzler et al. JNS 2015;123:609-17. The 10-year results of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm trial (ISAT) reported similar mortality rates and good functional outcomes between clipped and coiled patients (Molyneux et al. Lancet 2015;385:691-7). We also discuss the impact of genome wide sequencing studies in familial aneurysms, the largest publication on stent assisted coiling and flow diverter for aneurysms and noteworthy papers relevant to Moyamoya and cavernous malformations (Yang et al. Neurosurgery 2015;77:241-7). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Di Pasquale, G.; Andreoli, A.; Pinelli, G.; Grazi, P.; Manini, G.; Tognetti, F.; Testa, C.
A prospective cardiologic evaluation was performed in 83 consecutive patients with transient cerebral ischemia or mild stroke and without symptoms or electrocardiographic signs of ischemic heart disease. Patients were studied with an electrocardiographic exercise test; a positive test was followed by exercise Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy. Results were compared to those obtained in a group of 83 age and sex-matched healthy subjects submitted to the same study protocol. Asymptomatic coronary artery disease was detected in 28% of cerebrovascular patients with adequate electrocardiographic exercise test. A scintigraphic perfusion defect of variable extension was found in 19 of them. In the control group the electrocardiographic exercise test was positive in only 6% (p less than 0.01). Our results support the concept that: asymptomatic ischemic heart disease is often associated with cerebrovascular disease; therefore cerebral ischemic attacks may be a marker of coronary artery disease, an active investigation of the heart should be considered in cerebrovascular patients in order to plan optimal, comprehensive management.
Saenko, Ia A; Kovalenko, A V; Likhoshapko, E A; Man'kovskiĭ, B N
To investigate cerebrovascular reactivity in patients with diabetes mellitus complicated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. We examined 34 patients with diabetes mellitus (9 men and 25 women). Functional tests (hypercapnic, cold, orthostatic and others) and indices of cerebral hemodynamics were used for the evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity. There was a decrease in the rate of cerebral blood flow and the deterioration of cerebrovascular reserves in the middle cerebral artery of patients with diabetes mellitus with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and without it in comparison with the appropriate indices of healthy people. At the same time, no differences were found between diabetic patients with - and without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. The abnormalities of the cerebrovascular reactivity can play an important role in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular disease in this group of patients.
Vasilj, Ivan; Cavaljuga, Semra; Lucić, Tomo; Kvesić, Ferdo
Cerebro-vascular insult is defined as sudden focal neurological deficit, caused by a cerebro-vascular disease lasting more then 24 hours. In this paper result of a retrospective epidemiological study of cerebro-vascular insult hospitalized and died patients from West Hercegovina Canton, was given. The study was done in Clinical hospital Mostar, for the period from 1998 to 2002. The source of the data was this hospital medical documentation. This hospital serves a total of 88,257 population of West Hercegovina Canton. A total of 393 insult cases were analyzed, out of which were 189 or 48.1% of male and 204 or 51.9% female patients. Hospital lethality found for that period was 37.4% (147 patients died out of 393 treated). Out of a total number of exited patients 37.1% (70 out of 189) were male and 37.7% (77 out of 204) were female patients. The highest lethality among both sexes was above the age of 65 years of life (37.4%), while the least was among patients between 30 to 49 years of life (25.0%).
Hulette, Christine M; Ervin, John F; Edmonds, Yvette; Antoine, Samantha; Stewart, Nicolas; Szymanski, Mari H; Hayden, Kathleen M; Pieper, Carl F; Burke, James R; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A
We previously found that vascular smooth muscle actin (SMA) is reduced in the brains of patients with late stage Alzheimer disease (AD) compared with brains of nondemented, neuropathologically normal subjects. To assess the pathogenetic significance and disease specificity of this finding, we studied 3 additional patient groups: nondemented subjects without significant AD type pathology ("Normal"; n = 20), nondemented subjects with frequent senile plaques at autopsy ("Preclinical AD"; n = 20), and subjects with frontotemporal dementia ("FTD"; n = 10). The groups were matched for sex and age with those previously reported; SMA immunohistochemistry and image analysis were performed as previously described. Surprisingly, SMA expression in arachnoid, cerebral cortex, and white matter arterioles was greater in the Preclinical AD group than in the Normal and FTD groups. The plaques were not associated with amyloid angiopathy or other vascular disease in this group. Smooth muscle actin expression in the brains of the Normal group was intermediate between the Preclinical AD and FTD groups. All 3 groups exhibited much greater SMA expression than in our previous report. The presence of frequent plaques and increased arteriolar SMA expression in the brains of nondemented subjects suggest that increased SMA expression might represent a physiological response to neurodegeneration that could prevent or delay overt expression dementia in AD.
Hulette, Christine M.; Ervin, John F.; Edmonds, Yvette; Antoine, Samantha; Stewart, Nicolas; Szymanski, Mari H.; Hayden, Kathleen M; Pieper, Carl F.; Burke, James R.; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.
We previously found that vascular smooth muscle actin (SMA) is reduced in the brains of patients with late stage Alzheimer disease (AD) compared to brains of non-demented, neuropathologically normal subjects. To assess the pathogenetic significance and disease specificity of this finding, we studied 3 additional patient groups: non-demented subjects without significant AD type pathology (“Normal”, n = 20); non-demented subjects with frequent senile plaques at autopsy (“Preclinical AD”, n = 20); and subjects with frontotemporal dementia, (“FTD”, n = 10). The groups were matched for gender and age with those previously reported; SMA immunohistochemistry and image analysis were performed as previously described. Surprisingly, SMA expression in arachnoid, cerebral cortex and white matter arterioles was greater in the Preclinical AD group than in the Normal and FTD groups. The plaques were not associated with amyloid angiopathy or other vascular disease in this group. SMA expression in the brains of the Normal group was intermediate between the Preclinical AD and FTD groups. All 3 groups exhibited much greater SMA expression than in our previous report. The presence of frequent plaques and increased arteriolar SMA expression in the brains of non-demented subjects suggest that increased SMA expression might represent a physiologic response to neurodegeneration that could prevent or delay overt expression dementia in AD. PMID:19287310
Nicolaides, Andrew N; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Griffin, Maura; Sabetai, Michael; Thomas, Dafydd J; Tegos, Thomas; Geroulakos, George; Labropoulos, Nicos; Doré, Caroline J; Morris, Tim P; Naylor, Ross; Abbott, Anne L
The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. This was a prospective, multicenter, cohort study of patients undergoing medical intervention for vascular disease. Hazard ratios for ICA stenosis, clinical features, and plaque texture features associated with ipsilateral cerebrovascular or retinal ischemic (CORI) events were calculated using proportional hazards models. A total of 1121 patients with 50% to 99% asymptomatic ICA stenosis in relation to the bulb (European Carotid Surgery Trial [ECST] method) were followed-up for 6 to 96 months (mean, 48). A total of 130 ipsilateral CORI events occurred. Severity of stenosis, age, systolic blood pressure, increased serum creatinine, smoking history of more than 10 pack-years, history of contralateral transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or stroke, low grayscale median (GSM), increased plaque area, plaque types 1, 2, and 3, and the presence of discrete white areas (DWAs) without acoustic shadowing were associated with increased risk. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed for predicted risk versus observed CORI events as a measure of model validity. The areas under the ROC curves for a model of stenosis alone, a model of stenosis combined with clinical features and a model of stenosis combined with clinical, and plaque features were 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.64), 0.66 (0.62-0.72), and 0.82 (0.78-0.86), respectively. In the last model, stenosis, history of contralateral TIAs or stroke, GSM, plaque area, and DWAs were independent predictors of ipsilateral CORI events. Combinations of these could stratify patients into different levels of risk for ipsilateral CORI and stroke, with predicted risk close to observed risk. Of the 923 patients with ≥ 70% stenosis, the predicted cumulative
Liebeskind, David S
Crowdsourcing, an unorthodox approach in medicine, creates an unusual paradigm to study precision cerebrovascular health, eliminating the relative isolation and non-standardized nature of current imaging data infrastructure, while shifting emphasis to the astounding capacity of big data in the cloud. This perspective envisions the use of imaging data of the brain and vessels to orient and seed A Million Brains Initiative™ that may leapfrog incremental advances in stroke and rapidly provide useful data to the sizable population around the globe prone to the devastating effects of stroke and vascular substrates of dementia. Despite such variability in the type of data available and other limitations, the data hierarchy logically starts with imaging and can be enriched with almost endless types and amounts of other clinical and biological data. Crowdsourcing allows an individual to contribute to aggregated data on a population, while preserving their right to specific information about their own brain health. The cloud now offers endless storage, computing prowess, and neuroimaging applications for postprocessing that is searchable and scalable. Collective expertise is a windfall of the crowd in the cloud and particularly valuable in an area such as cerebrovascular health. The rise of precision medicine, rapidly evolving technological capabilities of cloud computing and the global imperative to limit the public health impact of cerebrovascular disease converge in the imaging of A Million Brains Initiative™. Crowdsourcing secure data on brain health may provide ultimate generalizability, enable focused analyses, facilitate clinical practice, and accelerate research efforts.
Liebeskind, David S.
Crowdsourcing, an unorthodox approach in medicine, creates an unusual paradigm to study precision cerebrovascular health, eliminating the relative isolation and non-standardized nature of current imaging data infrastructure, while shifting emphasis to the astounding capacity of big data in the cloud. This perspective envisions the use of imaging data of the brain and vessels to orient and seed A Million Brains Initiative™ that may leapfrog incremental advances in stroke and rapidly provide useful data to the sizable population around the globe prone to the devastating effects of stroke and vascular substrates of dementia. Despite such variability in the type of data available and other limitations, the data hierarchy logically starts with imaging and can be enriched with almost endless types and amounts of other clinical and biological data. Crowdsourcing allows an individual to contribute to aggregated data on